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Sample records for age-sex matched controls

  1. Aqueous acupuncture for postoperative pain--a matched controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Lu, S N; Lai, C T; Jean, J Y; Hsiao, C L; Hsu, P T

    1991-09-01

    The analgesic effects of acupuncture are well-documented. Aqueous acupuncture, or point injection, is a conveniently modified modern acupuncture method. This matched controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of aqueous acupuncture in postoperative pain control. A total of 12 patients were selected as age-, sex- and operative-style-matched controls. In treating group, 2 to 5 ml of 20% glucose solution was injected into Ho-Ku (LI 4) and Yang-Ling-Chuan (GB 34) when patients had regained conciousness from operation anesthesia. The pain intensity were recorded as score system included verbal, sleep disturbance and use of narcotics. In comparisons with the control group, the intensity of postoperative pain, and the amounts and frequency of narcotics used were significantly lower in the study group, especially for the first 12 postoperative hours. Aqueous acupuncture is a convenient and effective procedure in postoperative pain control.

  2. The effect of age, sex and clinical features on the volume of Corpus Callosum in pre-schoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Alessia; Saviozzi, Irene; Brambilla, Paolo; Muratori, Filippo; Retico, Alessandra; Calderoni, Sara

    2017-01-23

    A growing body of literature has identified volume alterations of the corpus callosum (CC) in subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, to date very few investigations have been conducted on pre-school-age ASD children. This study aims to compare the volume of CC and its sub-regions between pre-schoolers with ASD and controls (CON) and to examine their relationship to demographic and clinical variables (sex, age, non-verbal IQ -NVIQ-, expressive non-echolalic language, emotional and behavioural problems, and autism severity). The volume of CC of 40 pre-schoolers with ASD (20 males and 20 females; mean age: 49 ± 12 months; mean NVIQ: 73 ± 22) and 40 sex-, age-, and NVIQ-matched CON subjects (20 M and 20 F; mean age: 49 ± 14 months; mean NVIQ: 73 ± 23) were quantified applying the FreeSurfer automated parcellation software on Magnetic Resonance images. No significant volumetric differences in CC total volume and in its sub-regions between ASD and CON were found using total brain volume as a covariate. Analogously, absence of CC volumetric differences was evident when boys and girls with ASD were compared with their matched controls. The CC total volume of younger ASD male subjects was found significantly larger with respect to matched CON, which is consistent with the atypical growth trajectory widely reported in these young children. The CC total volume was negatively correlated with autism severity, whereas no association between CC volume and other clinical variables was detected. If replicated, the indirect relationship between CC volume and autism severity suggests the involvement of CC in core ASD symptoms.

  3. Longitudinal Differences in Aerobic Capacity between Children with Sickle Cell Anemia and Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Liem, Robert I.; Lu, Zengqi; Saville, Ben; Acra, Sari; Shankar, Sadhna; Buchowski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare longitudinal trajectories of maximal aerobic capacity in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and matched healthy controls, and explore whether these trajectories were associated with selected physiologic variables. Procedures Children with SCA (n=33) and healthy controls (n=30) matched at baseline for race, sex, Tanner stage, height, and weight completed three consecutive annual fitness assessments (VO2peak). Data were compared between the groups at each time point and within groups over time. Change in VO2peak between the two groups over time was assessed using a linear mixed model with age, sex, fat-free mass (FFM), Tanner stage, and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration as covariates. Results At baseline, children with SCA had significantly lower Hgb concentration (8.9 vs. 13.7 g/dL, p<0.001) and relative VO2peak (24.2 vs. 27.9 ml/kg/min, p=0.006) than healthy controls. Over time, children with SCA had smaller increases than healthy controls in VO2peak (−0.1 and +4.9 ml/kg/min, p<0.001), Tanner stage at year 2 (15% and 66% Tanner 4, p<0.001), and FFM (+4.0 and +6.8 kg, p=0.02). Changes in Hgb concentration did not differ between groups (+0.03 and +0.09 g/dL, p=1.0). After adjusting for age, sex, Tanner stage, FFM, and Hgb concentration the differences in change in VO2peak over time remained significant (p<0.001). Conclusion Children with SCA demonstrate lower relative VO2peak compared to healthy children and the difference increases over time. The difference in VO2peak trajectories between the two groups during puberty remains significant after adjusting for age, sex, FFM, Tanner stage, and Hgb concentration. PMID:25556359

  4. Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Children with Diabetes: Proposed Treatment Recommendations Based on Glycemic Control, Body Mass Index, Age, Sex, and Generally Accepted Cut Points.

    PubMed

    Schwab, K Otfried; Doerfer, Jürgen; Hungele, Andreas; Scheuing, Nicole; Krebs, Andreas; Dost, Axel; Rohrer, Tilman R; Hofer, Sabine; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-12-01

    Percentile-based non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed by glycemic control, weight, age, and sex of children with type 1 diabetes (n = 26,358). Ten percent of all children and 25% of overweight adolescent girls require both immediate lipid-lowering medication and lifestyle changes to achieve non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels <120 mg/dL and cardiovascular risk reduction.

  5. Relationship between time in the operating room and incident pressure ulcers: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Rachel M; Spear, Marcia E; Lee, Sheree I; Krauser Lupear, Buffy E; Benoit, Richard A; Valerio, Rainy; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship between time in the operating room (OR) and hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs), controlling for temporality. The research team identified 931 HAPUs among surgical patients and matched them to 4 controls by hospital length of stay at the time the pressure ulcer (PU) was documented. A regression model estimated the relationship between OR time and HAPU after controlling for matching, age, sex, admission and current Braden score, weight, year, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score. OR time in the 24 hours prior to PU documentation was associated with PUs. Only 5% of HAPUs occurred within 24 hours of extended (>4 hours) surgery and 58% occurred after hospital day 5. Extended surgery is confirmed as a risk factor for PU development. Most PUs do not appear in the immediate postoperative period, and prevention efforts should focus on postoperative patient care, when most HAPUs develop.

  6. A matched filter hypothesis for cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Chrysikou, Evangelia G; Weber, Matthew J; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2014-09-01

    The prefrontal cortex exerts top-down influences on several aspects of higher-order cognition by functioning as a filtering mechanism that biases bottom-up sensory information toward a response that is optimal in context. However, research also indicates that not all aspects of complex cognition benefit from prefrontal regulation. Here we review and synthesize this research with an emphasis on the domains of learning and creative cognition, and outline how the appropriate level of cognitive control in a given situation can vary depending on the organism's goals and the characteristics of the given task. We offer a matched filter hypothesis for cognitive control, which proposes that the optimal level of cognitive control is task-dependent, with high levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are explicit, rule-based, verbal or abstract, and can be accomplished given the capacity limits of working memory and with low levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are implicit, reward-based, non-verbal or intuitive, and which can be accomplished irrespective of working memory limitations. Our approach promotes a view of cognitive control as a tool adapted to a subset of common challenges, rather than an all-purpose optimization system suited to every problem the organism might encounter.

  7. A Matched Filter Hypothesis for Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex exerts top-down influences on several aspects of higher-order cognition by functioning as a filtering mechanism that biases bottom-up sensory information toward a response that is optimal in context. However, research also indicates that not all aspects of complex cognition benefit from prefrontal regulation. Here we review and synthesize this research with an emphasis on the domains of learning and creative cognition, and outline how the appropriate level of cognitive control in a given situation can vary depending on the organism's goals and the characteristics of the given task. We offer a Matched Filter Hypothesis for cognitive control, which proposes that the optimal level of cognitive control is task-dependent, with high levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are explicit, rule-based, verbal or abstract, and can be accomplished given the capacity limits of working memory and with low levels of cognitive control best suited to tasks that are implicit, reward-based, non-verbal or intuitive, and which can be accomplished irrespective of working memory limitations. Our approach promotes a view of cognitive control as a tool adapted to a subset of common challenges, rather than an all-purpose optimization system suited to every problem the organism might encounter. PMID:24200920

  8. Superficial white matter: effects of age, sex, and hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Owen R; Clark, Kristi A; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18-74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies.

  9. Superficial White Matter: Effects of Age, Sex, and Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen R.; Clark, Kristi A.; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Woods, Roger P.; Mazziotta, John C.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18–74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies. PMID:23461767

  10. Risk Factors for Scleral Buckle Removal: A Matched, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Covert, Douglas J.; Wirostko, William J.; Han, Dennis P.; Lindgren, Kevin E.; Hammersley, Jill A.; Connor, Thomas B.; Kim, Judy E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To identify preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative risk factors for scleral buckle (SB) removal. Methods A retrospective, consecutive, matched, case-control study. Cases included all patients undergoing SB removal between 1988 and 2007 at a single academic center. Case patients were matched against 4 randomly selected control patients who underwent SB implantation during the same year as the case patients. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for each factor investigated. Results Forty cases of SB removal and 148 matched control cases were identified. Three cases of SB removal were omitted from analysis because of incomplete records. Factors associated with SB removal for any reason, according to univariate analysis, included concurrent globe-penetrating injury at the time of SB placement (OR, 24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9–200), concurrent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (OR, 17.3; CI, 4.9–61), diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR, 7.3; CI, 1.8–30), prior long-term topical ocular therapy (OR, 4.3; CI, 1.7–11), and subsequent ocular procedures (OR, 3.4; CI, 1.5–7.5). Factors independently associated with SB removal according to multivariate analysis included concurrent globe-penetrating injury (OR, 27.3; CI, 1.7–426), concurrent PPV (OR, 11.3; CI, 2.9–45), DM (OR, 8.9; CI, 1.3–58), and subsequent ocular procedures (OR, 3.9; CI, 1.4–11). Factors that did not alter SB removal risk included patient age; sex; and type, size, or location of buckling elements used. Conclusions Awareness of these risk factors may be valuable for the surgical planning of retinal detachment repair in patients at higher risk for subsequent SB removal and for risk stratification subsequent to SB implantation. PMID:19277232

  11. Improving statistical analysis of matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Conway, Aaron; Rolley, John X; Fulbrook, Paul; Page, Karen; Thompson, David R

    2013-06-01

    Matched case-control research designs can be useful because matching can increase power due to reduced variability between subjects. However, inappropriate statistical analysis of matched data could result in a change in the strength of association between the dependent and independent variables or a change in the significance of the findings. We sought to ascertain whether matched case-control studies published in the nursing literature utilized appropriate statistical analyses. Of 41 articles identified that met the inclusion criteria, 31 (76%) used an inappropriate statistical test for comparing data derived from case subjects and their matched controls. In response to this finding, we developed an algorithm to support decision-making regarding statistical tests for matched case-control studies.

  12. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested Under 18... the form/collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons Arrested 18 Years of Age and Over; Age, Sex,...

  13. Age Norms: The Influence of Age, Sex, and Occupational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepelin, Harold; And Others

    Although informal age norms which influence the timing of major role transitions have been well documented, recent research questions the pervasiveness of this influence. In order to assess the effects of age, sex, and occupational level on perceptions of informal age norms, white-collar and blue-collar men and women (N=462) at two age levels,…

  14. Mental and Physical Health Outcomes in Parents of Children with Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Enns, Jessica; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Stone, James; Doupe, Malcolm; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric burn injuries are common, and the stress of caring for them can affect caregivers' health. This study's objective was to examine the rates of common mental and physical disorders of parents of burn-injured children (cases) compared with matched controls (controls). This is a population-based study linking the Regional Pediatric burn registry with administrative health information. Pediatric burn cases were matched 1:5 with control children from the general population based on age, sex, and geographical location then parents identified. One thousand and twenty-six parental cases and 4858 controls were identified. International Classification of Disease codes were used to identify diagnoses of common mental and physical disorders. Using rates of disease 2 years before and 2 years after the date of burn, the changes in the relative rates of health outcomes were compared between the cases and the controls. The cases had higher rates of postinjury mental and physical illness compared with the matches. However, it was found that controls also had increased rates postindex date and additionally cases had increased rates of preinjury illnesses. There was no difference in the relative rates of illnesses between the groups from pre- to post-index date. The higher rate of illness in cases postinjury could be explained by preinjury illness, and similar rate increases in the control cohort. Evaluation of the effect of a child's burn injury on parents should take into context the preexisting health of the parent. Socioeconomic factors associated with increased risk of burns may also be associated with adverse health outcomes.

  15. Nested case-control studies: should one break the matching?

    PubMed

    Borgan, Ørnulf; Keogh, Ruth

    2015-10-01

    In a nested case-control study, controls are selected for each case from the individuals who are at risk at the time at which the case occurs. We say that the controls are matched on study time. To adjust for possible confounding, it is common to match on other variables as well. The standard analysis of nested case-control data is based on a partial likelihood which compares the covariates of each case to those of its matched controls. It has been suggested that one may break the matching of nested case-control data and analyse them as case-cohort data using an inverse probability weighted (IPW) pseudo likelihood. Further, when some covariates are available for all individuals in the cohort, multiple imputation (MI) makes it possible to use all available data in the cohort. In the paper we review the standard method and the IPW and MI approaches, and compare their performance using simulations that cover a range of scenarios, including one and two endpoints.

  16. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants.

  17. Pooled exposure assessment for matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Umbach, David M; Weinberg, Clarice R

    2011-09-01

    Exposure assessment using biologic specimens is important for epidemiology but may become impracticable if assays are expensive, specimen volumes are marginally adequate, or analyte levels fall below the limit of detection. Pooled exposure assessment can provide an effective remedy for these problems in unmatched case-control studies. We extend pooled exposure strategies to handle specimens collected in a matched case-control study. We show that if a logistic model applies to individuals, then a logistic model also applies to an analysis using pooled exposures. Consequently, the individual-level odds ratio can be estimated while conserving both cost and specimen. We discuss appropriate pooling strategies for a single exposure, with adjustment for multiple, possibly continuous, covariates (confounders) and assessment of effect modification by a categorical variable. We assess the performance of the approach via simulations and conclude that pooled strategies can markedly improve efficiency for matched as well as unmatched case-control studies.

  18. Matching trajectory optimization and nonlinear tracking control for HALE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangjong; Jang, Jieun; Ryu, Hyeok; Lee, Kyun Ho

    2014-11-01

    This paper concerns optimal trajectory generation and nonlinear tracking control for stratospheric airship platform of VIA-200. To compensate for the mismatch between the point-mass model of optimal trajectory and the 6-DOF model of the nonlinear tracking problem, a new matching trajectory optimization approach is proposed. The proposed idea reduces the dissimilarity of both problems and reduces the uncertainties in the nonlinear equations of motion for stratospheric airship. In addition, its refined optimal trajectories yield better results under jet stream conditions during flight. The resultant optimal trajectories of VIA-200 are full three-dimensional ascent flight trajectories reflecting the realistic constraints of flight conditions and airship performance with and without a jet stream. Finally, 6-DOF nonlinear equations of motion are derived, including a moving wind field, and the vectorial backstepping approach is applied. The desirable tracking performance is demonstrated that application of the proposed matching optimization method enables the smooth linkage of trajectory optimization to tracking control problems.

  19. Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in Croatia: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a necessary, but not sufficient, cause of tuberculosis. A number of studies have addressed the issue of risk factors for tuberculosis development. Croatia is a European country with an incidence rate of 14/100 000 which is slowly decreasing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and biological risk factors for tuberculosis in Croatia in comparison to other high-income, low-incidence European countries. Methods A total of 300 tuberculosis patients were matched for age, sex and county of residence to 300 controls randomly selected from general practitioners’ registers. They were interviewed and their medical records were evaluated for variables broadly described as potential risk factors. Results In multiple logistic regression, the following factors were significant: parents born in a particular neighbouring county (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (OR = 3.90, 95% CI 2.01-7.58), the lowest level of education (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.39-8.50), poor household equipment (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 1.51-14.76), unemployment (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.18-6.16), contact with tuberculosis (OR = 2.19, 95% CI 1.27-3.77), former (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.19-4.33) and current smoking habits (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.36), diabetes (OR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.05-5.38), a malignant disease (OR = 5.79, 95% CI 1.49-22.42), being underweight in the previous year (OR = 13.57, 95% CI 1.21-152.38). Conclusion In our study, the identified risk groups for tuberculosis reflect a complex interaction between socioeconomic conditions, lifestyle and non-communicable diseases. Interventions focused on poverty will undoubtedly be useful, but not sufficient. Tuberculosis control would benefit from a combination of broad public health activities aimed at the prevention and control of risky lifestyles and non-communicable diseases, interventions outside the health sector, and efforts to constantly

  20. Can Opium Use Contribute to a Higher Risk of Colorectal Cancers? A Matched Case-control Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    NAGHIBZADEH-TAHAMI, Ahmad; YAZDI FEYZABADI, Vahid; KHANJANI, Narges; ASHRAFI-ASGARABAD, Ahad; ALIZAEH, Hosniyeh; BORHANINEJAD, Vahid Reza; MORADI-JOO, Mohammad; ZEINALI, Masoud; ZAHEDI, Mohammad Javad; AGHAEE-AFSHAR, Mahmoud; HAGHDOOST, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) including colon, rectum and anal cancers are the third most prevalent cancers in the world. There are strong evidence showing the risk of the cigarette smoking, alcohol use, low physical activity and some types of diets in CRCs; however, few studies explored the relationship between opium use and CRCs. This study aimed to investigate the association between opioid use and the incidence of CRCs. Methods: In a population-based matched case-control study in Kerman, Iran, 175 patients with colorectal cancers and 350 healthy controls (matched for age, sex, and place of residence) were interviewed from Sep 2014 to Nov 2014. Opium and its derivatives, cigarette, alcohol, and diet use were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The use of opioids was associated with an increased risk of CRCs (adjusted odds ratio= 4. 5, 95% CI: 2. 4–8. 7). In addition, a dose-response relationship was observed between the cumulative use of opioids and the incidence of CRCs (with low use OR=3. 7; 95% CI: 1. 5–8. 6 and high use OR= 8. 0; 95% CI: 2. 9–21. 7). This dose-response relationship was also strong in patients with colon cancers, with OR= 3. 9 (95% CI: 1. 5–9. 9) and 9. 4 (95% CI: 3. 3–27. 0) for the low and high uses of opioids, respectively. Conclusion: Opioid use can lead to an increased risk of CRCs. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive policies to control the use of opioids. PMID:27957439

  1. Combined effects of neuroticism and extraversion: findings from a matched case control study of suicide in rural China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Le; Heisel, Marnin J; Duberstein, Paul R; Zhang, Jie

    2012-07-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are potentially important markers of personality vulnerability to suicide. Whereas previous studies have examined these traits independently, we examined their combined effects. Data were collected from family members and/or friends of individuals 18 years or older who died by suicide (n = 64) in rural China and from age-, sex-, and geographically matched controls (n = 64). Personality was assessed with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Individuals with a personality style characterized by high neuroticism and low extraversion were at 3.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-6.55) times greater risk for suicide than were individuals without this personality style; in contrast, a style characterized by low neuroticism and high extraversion conferred decreased suicide risk (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 1.44-6.55). We conclude that it may be clinically inadequate to conceptualize neuroticism, by itself, as a risk marker for suicide. However, when the negative affect characteristic of neuroticism is combined with the joylessness, pessimism, and hopelessness characteristic of low extraversion, risk for suicide is elevated.

  2. Nutritional ecology of wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) in a peat swamp habitat: Effects of age, sex, and season.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Erin R; Alavi, Shauhin E; Utami-Atmoko, Sri Suci; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Bransford, Timothy D; Erb, Wendy M; Zulfa, Astri; Sulistyo, Fransiska; Farida, Wartika Rosa; Rothman, Jessica M

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal variation in food abundance has strong effects on wildlife feeding and nutrition. This variation is exemplified by the peatland forests of Central Kalimantan, which are characterized by unpredictable fruiting fluctuations, relatively low levels of fruit availability, and low fruit periods (<3% of trees fruiting) that can last nearly a year. Challenged by these environments, large, arboreal frugivores like orangutans must periodically rely on non-preferred, lower-quality foods to meet their nutritional needs. We examined variation in nutrient intake among age-sex classes and seasons over a 7-year period at the Tuanan Orangutan Research Station in Central Kalimantan. We conducted 2,316 full-day focal follows on 62 habituated orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii). We found differences in total energy and macronutrient intake across age-sex classes, controlling for metabolic body mass. Intake of both total energy and macronutrients varied with fruit availability, and preference of dietary items increased with their nutritional quality. Foraging-related variables, such as day journey length, travel time, and feeding time, also varied among age-sex classes and with fruit availability. Our results add to the growing body of literature suggesting that great variation in foraging strategies exists among species, populations, and age-sex classes and in response to periods of resource scarcity.

  3. Match explosionproof motors with variable-frequency controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Petro, D.; Basso, D.

    1995-10-01

    The correct application of variable-frequency drive controllers to AC induction motors can be difficult, even for relatively simple applications. When using a variable-frequency controller (inverter), the non-pure sine-wave power output cases additional motor heating, primarily because of harmonics and below-base-speed operation. Add to that a hazardous environment requiring an explosion proof (XP) motor and the selection of a suitable, as well as efficient, motor and variable-frequency controller combination, and selection becomes even more complicated. Hazardous locations are found in a wide range of chemical process industries (CPI) plants, including chemical, petrochemical textile, rubber-making,, agriculture, food-processing, and metalworking facilities. Because standard constant-speed XP motors are not designed of use with variable-frequency controllers in these potentially explosive applications, it is necessary to understand how drive controllers affect motor performance. The multitude of motors and controllers--which can be purchased separately--and the numerous hazardous-application restrictions make it difficult to select the right XP motor/controller combination. The paper discusses how variable frequency affects motors, hazardous environments as found in UL 674 and UL 1836, matching XP motors with variable-frequency controllers, preventing motor overheating, motor and controller packaging, and non-thermostat applications in the CPI.

  4. Small gain stability theory for matched basis function repetitive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunde; Longman, Richard W.; Nagashima, Masaki

    2014-02-01

    Many spacecraft suffer from jitter produced by periodic vibration sources such as momentum wheels, reaction wheels, or control moment gyros. Vibration isolation mounts are needed for fine pointing equipment. Active control methods directly addressing frequencies of interest have the potential to completely cancel the influence of these disturbances. Typical repetitive control methods initially address all frequencies of a given period. Matched basis function repetitive control individually addresses each frequency, finding error components at these frequencies using the projection algorithm, and can converge to zero error, using only frequency response knowledge at addressed frequencies. This results in linear control laws but with periodic coefficients. Frequency domain raising produces a time invariant pole/zero model of the control law. A small gain stability theory is developed, that exhibits very strong stability robustness properties to model error. For convergence to zero tracking error it needs only knowledge of the phase response at addressed frequencies, and it must be known within an accuracy of ±90°. Controllers are then designed by pole-zero placement, bypassing the complexity of original periodic coefficient equations. Compared to the usual repetitive control approaches, the approach here eliminates the need for a robustifying zero phase low pass filter, eliminates the need for interpolation in data, and handles multiple unrelated frequencies easily and naturally.

  5. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  6. Real time control of a fast RF impedance matching system

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.H.; Senko, T.; LaRue, P.; Wilson, J.R.; Arnold, W.; Martin, S.; Pivit, E.

    1996-12-31

    A real time control system has been developed to maintain an RF impedance match in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). This system is designed to adjust output parameters with a cycle period of approximately 100 {mu}seconds using commercially available VME based components and a UNIX workstation host. Advanced Ferrite Technologies (AFT) has developed the hybrid tuning system (HTS) which has the capability of tracking a mismatch on the time scale of milliseconds (2.5 MW, 60 MHz) by varying the magnetic field bias of ferrite loaded transmission lines. The control algorithm uses a combination of neural network and fuzzy logic techniques. Initial results of a test facility using a low power prototype are presented. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs.

  8. Age, sex and personality in early cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Muro I Rodríguez, A

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies analysing personality and cannabis use in adult samples suggest that cannabis users show significant higher levels of impulsivity, sensation seeking and schizotypy. However, there are few studies exploring this relationship in adolescence using psychobiological models of personality. Given the relevance of identifying individual differences that lead adolescents to early cannabis use to prevent future health problems, the present study aimed to explore the relationship between age, sex, personality and early cannabis use using a psychobiological model of personality in a sample of 415 students (51.8% boys) from 12 to 18 years. Chi(2) tests showed significant higher prevalence of cannabis use in boys and in the group aged 15-18 years. Multiple analysis of variance showed significant higher scores in psychoticism, sensation seeking and in all its subscales in cannabis users group, while an interaction with age was found for extraversion and neuroticism: cannabis users scored higher than non-users in the youngest group (12-14 years) but lower in the oldest group in both dimensions. Finally, regression analysis showed that narrower traits of sensation seeking (experience seeking and disinhibition) were the most associated to early cannabis use. Results are discussed in terms of early cannabis users' personality profiles and in terms of the self-medication theory.

  9. Association between obesity and femoral neck strength according to age, sex, and fat distribution.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Lee, S H; Kim, B J; Koh, J M

    2017-03-29

    Indicators of total and abdominal obesity were negatively associated with femoral neck strength indices. There are age-, sex-, and fat distribution-specific differences in the magnitude of these associations. These suggested that indicators of obesity with different magnitude according to age, sex, and fat distribution associated with poor bone health.

  10. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    PubMed

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  11. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Heval; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs.…

  12. A concordance index for matched case-control studies with applications in cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Brentnall, Adam R; Cuzick, Jack; Field, John; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-02-10

    In unmatched case-control studies, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) may be used to measure how well a variable discriminates between cases and controls. The AUC is sometimes used in matched case-control studies by ignoring matching, but it lacks interpretation because it is not based on an estimate of the ROC for the population of interest. We introduce an alternative measure of discrimination that is the concordance of risk factors conditional on the matching factors. Parametric and non-parametric estimators are given for different matching scenarios, and applied to real data from breast and lung cancer case-control studies. Diagnostic plots to verify the constancy of discrimination over matching factors are demonstrated. The proposed simple measure is easy to use, interpret, more efficient than unmatched AUC statistics and may be applied to compare the conditional discrimination performance of risk factors.

  13. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between nonpregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentrations were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva.

  14. Control of adolescents' arbitrary matching-to-sample by positive and negative stimulus relations.

    PubMed Central

    Stromer, R; Osborne, J G

    1982-01-01

    In Experiment 1, four developmentally delayed adolescents were taught an A-B matching-to-sample task with nonidentical stimuli: given Sample A1, select Comparison B1; given A2, select B2. During nonreinforced test trials, appropriate matching occurred when B stimuli appeared as samples and A stimuli as comparisons, i.e., the sample and comparison functions were symmetrical (B-A matching). During A-B or B-A matching test trials in which familiar samples and correct comparisons were presented along with novel comparisons, the subjects selected the correct comparisons. In tests with familiar samples and both incorrect and novel comparisons, subjects selected the novel comparisons, demonstrating control by both positive ("matching") and negative ("nonmatching") stimulus relations in A-B and B-A arrays. In Experiment 2, 12 developmentally delayed subjects were taught a two-stage arbitrary-matching task (e.g., A-B, C-B matching). Test sessions showed sample-comparison symmetry (e.g., B-A, B-C matching) and derived sample-comparison relations (e.g., A-C, C-A matching) for 11 subjects. These subjects also demonstrated control by positive and negative stimulus relations in the derived relations. PMID:6178786

  15. Influence of age, sex, and balance on mature skipping by children in grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the contributions of age, sex, and balance on maturity of skipping by children in Grades K-8. The subjects were 379 boys and 337 girls (ages 4-14 years) enrolled in a medium-size school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed on skipping as well as static and dynamic balance. To assess the independent statistical contributions of age, sex, static balance, and dynamic balance within each grade, data were subjected to multiple regression analysis. Development of mature form in skipping was related to balance in two isolated but unaccountable instances.

  16. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  17. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  18. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  19. Projections of the Population of the United States, by Age, Sex, and Race: 1983 to 2080.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Gregory

    1984-01-01

    Based on assumptions about fertility, mortality, and net immigration trends, statistical tables depict the future U.S. population by age, sex, and race. Figures are based on the July 1, 1982, population estimates and race definitions and are projected using the cohort-component method with alternative assumptions for future fertility, mortality,…

  20. A frequency response model matching method for PID controller design for processes with dead-time.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Md Nishat; Pan, Somnath

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a PID controller design method for the integrating processes based on frequency response matching is presented. Two approaches are proposed for the controller design. In the first approach, a double feedback loop configuration is considered where the inner loop is designed with a stabilizing gain. In the outer loop, the parameters of the PID controller are obtained by frequency response matching between the closed-loop system with the PID controller and a reference model with desired specifications. In the second approach, the design is directly carried out considering a desired load-disturbance rejection model of the system. In both the approaches, two low frequency points are considered for matching the frequency response, which yield linear algebraic equations, solution of which gives the controller parameters. Several examples are taken from the literature to demonstrate the effectiveness and to compare with some well known design methods.

  1. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Daniel J; Berthiaume, Luc R; Fick, Gordon H; Laupland, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Background Case-control studies are a common and efficient means of studying rare diseases or illnesses with long latency periods. Matching of cases and controls is frequently employed to control the effects of known potential confounding variables. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of published, peer-reviewed matched case-control studies that used statistical methods appropriate for matched data. Using a comprehensive set of search criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis. Results Among these 37 articles, only 16 studies were analyzed with proper statistical techniques (43%). Studies that were properly analyzed were more likely to have included case patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease compared to those that did not use proper statistics (10/16 or 63%, versus 5/21 or 24%, P = 0.02). They were also more likely to have matched multiple controls for each case (14/16 or 88%, versus 13/21 or 62%, P = 0.08). In addition, studies with properly analyzed data were more likely to have been published in a journal with an impact factor listed in the top 100 according to the Journal Citation Reports index (12/16 or 69%, versus 1/21 or 5%, P ≤ 0.0001). Conclusion The findings of this study raise concern that the majority of matched case-control studies report results that are derived from improper statistical analyses. This may lead to errors in estimating the relationship between a disease and exposure, as well as the incorrect adaptation of emerging medical literature. PMID:22570570

  2. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Price, Sara A.; Freeman, Hani D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel foraging puzzles. We included both female (N = 24) and male (N = 12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14–47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females’ estrous state—a potential influence on cognitive reasoning—by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally tumescent (associated with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female’s estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees’ success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees’ personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically, male chimpanzees that were rated highly on the factors Methodical, Openness (to experience), and Dominance spent longer interacting with the puzzles. There was also a positive relationship between the latency of females to begin interacting with the two tasks and their rating on the factor Reactivity/Undependability. No other significant correlations were found, but we report tentative evidence for increased problem-solving success by the females when they had detumescent estrous swellings. PMID:24322874

  3. Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes and risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese adults: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang-fang; Liu, Yuan-ting; Lin, Xiao-ling; Fan, Yu-Ying; Zhang, Xing-lan; Xu, Chun-hua; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-14

    Many studies have suggested that folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients may play a role in certain cancer risks, but few studies have assessed their associations with the risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we investigated the association between four folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients (folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine) and NPC risk in Chinese adults. A total of 600 patients newly diagnosed (within 3 months) with NPC were individually matched with 600 hospital-based controls by age, sex and household type (urban v. rural). Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes were measured using a validated seventy-eight-item FFQ. A higher dietary folate or vitamin B6 intake was associated with a lower NPC risk after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted OR of NPC for quartiles 2-4 (v. 1) were 0·66 (95% CI 0·48, 0·91), 0·52 (95% CI 0·37, 0·74) and 0·34 (95% CI 0·23, 0·50) (P(trend)<0·001) for folate and 0·72 (95% CI 0·52, 1·00), 0·55 (95% CI 0·39, 0·78) and 0·44 (95% CI 0·30, 0·63) (P(trend)<0·001) for vitamin B6. No significant association with NPC risk was observed for dietary vitamin B12 or methionine intake. The risk for NPC with dietary folate intake was more evident in the participants who were not exposed to toxic substances than in those who were exposed (P(interaction)=0·014). This study suggests that dietary folate and vitamin B6 may be protective for NPC in a high-risk population.

  4. Religion and Action Control: Faith-Specific Modulation of the Simon Effect but Not Stop-Signal Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that religion has a specific impact on attentional processes. Here we show that religion also affects action control. Experiment 1 compared Dutch Calvinists and Dutch atheists, matched for age, sex, intelligence, education, and cultural and socio-economic background, and Experiment 2 compared Italian Catholics with…

  5. Outcomes of hematopoietic SCT recipients with rhinovirus infection: a matched, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Abandeh, F I; Lustberg, M; Devine, S; Elder, P; Andritsos, L; Martin, S I

    2013-11-01

    The impact of rhinovirus in hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) recipients is not well defined. A retrospective, matched, case-control study of HSCT recipients with rhinovirus was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Controls were matched for timing relative to transplant, malignancy, and stem cell source. There were 47 cases and 94 controls. The cases and controls did not differ with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, donor source, malignancy, conditioning regimen, immunosuppression, antimicrobial prophylaxis or significant comorbidities. There were no differences in need for intensive care unit care, 100 day mortality, hospice discharge, relapse of disease, GVHD or development of disease or infection due to CMV or EBV. Other infectious complications after rhinovirus diagnosis were also equal. However, there was an increased number of recurrent hospitalizations from any cause among the cases (46.8% vs 24.5%, P=0.007). Recurrent hospitalizations due to any infection were also more common in cases (34% vs 14.9%, P=0.015). For patients who were diagnosed with rhinovirus pre-transplant (n=13), there was no difference in outcome compared with matched controls. HSCT recipients with rhinovirus have an increased risk of hospital readmission. However, there was no difference in outcome compared with matched controls. Transplantation in patients with active rhinovirus infection appears to be safe.

  6. An alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing NMR probes.

    PubMed

    Koczor, Bálint; Sedyó, Inez; Rohonczy, János

    2015-10-01

    Tuning and matching of NMR probes is necessary for many fields of NMR application including temperature dependent NMR, thermoporometry and cryoporometry, or when significantly different types of samples are measured in automation using sample changers. Mismatch of the probe is an especially critical issue in the case of high magnetic fields, polar or ionic solvents, or extreme thermal conditions. Careful tuning is particularly important for quantitative NMR measurements. Manual tuning and matching of the NMR probe is not possible in the case of automated or remotely controlled measurements. Spectrometer manufacturers offer modern probes equipped with automatic tuning/matching mechanics, like Bruker ATM™, suitable for these experiments. The disadvantages of probes with built-in ATM™ are the significantly higher price, and the non-detachable and non-portable construction. Computer controlled tuning and matching is highly desirrable in solid state NMR since no industrial solution has been developed yet for MAS NMR probes. We present an alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing Bruker probes. Building costs are significantly lower, since only commercially available components and ICs are used.

  7. An alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing NMR probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koczor, Bálint; Sedyó, Inez; Rohonczy, János

    2015-10-01

    Tuning and matching of NMR probes is necessary for many fields of NMR application including temperature dependent NMR, thermoporometry and cryoporometry, or when significantly different types of samples are measured in automation using sample changers. Mismatch of the probe is an especially critical issue in the case of high magnetic fields, polar or ionic solvents, or extreme thermal conditions. Careful tuning is particularly important for quantitative NMR measurements. Manual tuning and matching of the NMR probe is not possible in the case of automated or remotely controlled measurements. Spectrometer manufacturers offer modern probes equipped with automatic tuning/matching mechanics, like Bruker ATM™, suitable for these experiments. The disadvantages of probes with built-in ATM™ are the significantly higher price, and the non-detachable and non-portable construction. Computer controlled tuning and matching is highly desirrable in solid state NMR since no industrial solution has been developed yet for MAS NMR probes. We present an alternative solution for computer controlled tuning and matching of existing Bruker probes. Building costs are significantly lower, since only commercially available components and ICs are used.

  8. Influence of age, sex and rearing systems on Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) expression pattern in gut, lung and lymphoid tissues of indigenous ducks.

    PubMed

    Kolluri, Gautham; Ramamurthy, N; Churchil, R R; Dhinakar Raj, G; Kannaki, T R

    2014-02-01

    Abstract 1. The objective of the experiment was to determine the influence of age, sex and rearing system on Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene expression in gut, lung and lymphoid tissues and physiological responses to stress in male and female indigenous ducks of Tamil Nadu, India. 2. A total of 36 ducks (12 males and 24 females) were obtained from local farmers and tissue samples of gut tissues (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum), lymphoid organs (spleen and bursa) and lungs were collected in RNAlater solution followed by RNA extraction. 3. After normalisation to β-actin (endogenous control) qPCR analysis identified a significant effect of age, sex and rearing system on TLR7 expression in the ducks. 4. A significant up-regulation of TLR7 expression was observed in lungs, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caecum of sexually mature (45 wk) compared with that of immature ducks (16 wk). Among sexes, male ducks had significantly higher TLR7 expression than female ducks. 5. Age and sex interactions were significant in lungs, duodenum, jejunum and caecum. Ducks reared in an extensive housing system showed significantly higher TLR7 expression in bursa, lungs, duodenum, ileum and caecum compared to intensively reared ducks. There were no effects of age, sex and rearing systems on TLR7 expression in the spleen. 6. The heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and serum corticosterone were higher in ducks reared on an intensive system compared with ducks from an extensive rearing system.

  9. Impact of multiple matched controls on design sensitivity in observational studies.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Paul R

    2013-03-01

    In an observational study, one treated subject may be matched for observed covariates to either one or several untreated controls. The common motivation for using several controls rather than one is to increase the power of a test of no effect under the doubtful assumption that matching for observed covariates suffices to remove bias from nonrandom treatment assignment. Does the choice between one or several matched controls affect the sensitivity of conclusions to violations of this doubtful assumption? With continuous responses, it is known that reducing the heterogeneity of matched pair differences reduces sensitivity to unmeasured biases, but increasing the sample size has a highly circumscribed effect on sensitivity to bias. Is the use of several controls rather than one analogous to a reduction in heterogeneity or to an increase in sample size? The issue is examined for Huber's m-statistics, including the t-test, the examination having three components: an example, asymptotic calculations using design sensitivity, and a simulation. Use of multiple controls with continuous responses yields a nontrivial reduction in sensitivity to unmeasured biases. An example looks at lead and cadmium in the blood of smokers from the 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A by-product of the discussion is a new result giving the design sensitivity for the permutation distribution of m-statistics.

  10. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Breurec, Sébastien; Vanel, Noémie; Bata, Petulla; Chartier, Loïc; Farra, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Franck, Thierry; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Onambélé, Manuella; Rafaï, Clotaire; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Tondeur, Laura; Tricou, Vianney; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent’s written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases. Results A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%. Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus

  11. Varieties of Stimulus Control in Matching-to-Sample: A Kernel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Garruto, Michelle; Watanabe, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Conditional discrimination or matching-to-sample procedures have been used to study a wide range of complex psychological phenomena with infrahuman and human subjects. In most studies, the percentage of trials in which a subject selects the comparison stimulus that is related to the sample stimulus is used to index the control exerted by the…

  12. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  13. Error Control with Perfectly Matched Layer or Damping Layer Treatments for Computational Aeroacoustics with Jet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, John W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show by means of numerical experiments that the error introduced in a numerical domain because of a Perfectly Matched Layer or Damping Layer boundary treatment can be controlled. These experimental demonstrations are for acoustic propagation with the Linearized Euler Equations with both uniform and steady jet flows. The propagating signal is driven by a time harmonic pressure source. Combinations of Perfectly Matched and Damping Layers are used with different damping profiles. These layer and profile combinations allow the relative error introduced by a layer to be kept as small as desired, in principle. Tradeoffs between error and cost are explored.

  14. The relation of femoral osteon geometry to age, sex, height and weight.

    PubMed

    Britz, Hayley M; Thomas, C David L; Clement, John G; Cooper, David M L

    2009-07-01

    As computational modeling becomes an increasingly common tool for probing the regulation of bone remodeling, the need for experimental data to refine and validate such models also grows. For example, van Oers et al. (R.F. van Oers, R. Ruimerman, B. van Rietbergen, P.A. Hilbers, R. Huiskes, Relating osteon diameter to strain. Bone 2008;43: 476-482.) recently described a mechanism by which osteon size may be regulated (inversely) by strain. Empirical data supporting this relation, particularly in humans, are sparse. Therefore, we sought to determine if there is a link between body weight (the only measure related to loading available for a cadaveric population) and osteon geometry in human bone. We hypothesized that after controlling for age, sex and height, weight would be inversely related to femoral osteon size (area, On.Ar; diameter, On.Dm). Secondarily we sought to describe the relation between osteon circularity (On.Cr) and these parameters. Osteons (n=12,690) were mapped within microradiographs of femoral mid-diaphyseal specimens (n=88; 45 male, 43 female; 17-97 yrs). Univariate analysis of covariance was conducted (n=87; 1 outlier) with sex as a fixed factor and height, weight and log-transformed age as covariates. Weight was negatively related to On.Ar and On.Dm (p=0.006 and p=0.004, respectively). Age was significantly related to osteon and, it was also significantly related to circularity (all p<0.001). This relation was negative for On.Ar and On.Dm and positive for On.Cr (increasing circularity with age). On.Ar and On.Dm were found to be significantly different between the sexes (p=0.021 and p=0.019, respectively), with females having smaller osteons. No relation between sex and On.Cr was detected (p=0.449). Height was not significantly related to any of the geometric parameters. Partial eta-squared values revealed that age accounted for the largest proportion (On.Ar: 28%, On.Dm: 18%, On.Cr: 30%), weight accounted for the second largest (On.Ar: 9%, On

  15. High-accuracy stereo matching based on adaptive ground control points.

    PubMed

    Chenbo Shi; Guijin Wang; Xuanwu Yin; Xiaokang Pei; Bei He; Xinggang Lin

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel high-accuracy stereo matching scheme based on adaptive ground control points (AdaptGCP). Different from traditional fixed GCP-based methods, we consider color dissimilarity, spatial relation, and the pixel-matching reliability to select GCP adaptively in each local support window. To minimize the global energy, we propose a practical solution, named as alternating updating scheme of disparity and confidence map, which can effectively eliminate the redundant and interfering information of unreliable pixels. The disparity values of those unreliable pixels are reassigned with the information provided by local plane model, which is fitted with GCPs. Then, the confidence map is updated according to the disparity reassignment and the left-right consistency. Finally, the disparity map is refined by multistep filers. Quantitative evaluations demonstrate the effectiveness of our AdaptGCP scheme for regularizing the ill-posed matching problem. The top ranks on Middlebury benchmark with different error thresholds show that our algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art performance among the latest stereo matching algorithms. This paper provides a new insight toward high-accuracy stereo matching.

  16. Developmental Level and Psychopathology: Comparing Children with Developmental Delays to Chronological and Mental Age Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, Barbara; Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at heightened risk for developing clinically significant behavioral and emotional difficulties as compared to children with typical development (TD). However, nearly all studies comparing psychopathology in youth with DD employ TD control groups of the same chronological age (CA). It is unclear, then, whether the heightened symptomology found in age-matched children with DD is beyond what would be expected given their developmental level. The present study assessed rates of behavior problems and mental disorder in 35 children with DD at age 9 years. These were compared with rates from 35 children with TD matched for CA at age 9 and also earlier rates for these same children at age 6, when matched for mental age (MA). Children with DD had significantly more behavior problems in 7 of the 17 scales of the CBCL when compared to TD children matched for CA, and 6 of 17 scales when compared to the MA-matched group. Rates of meeting DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric disorder were significantly higher in the DD group than both the CA- and MA-matched TD groups for three and four, respectively, of the seven diagnoses examined. Descriptively, the mean ratings for all variables assessed were higher for the DD group than both TD comparison groups, with the exception of the Anxious/Depressed scale of the CBCL. These findings validate the heightened risk for clinically significant behavior problems and mental disorders in youth with DD above and beyond their developmental functioning. PMID:25498740

  17. Comparisons of six different intrafield control paradigms in an advanced mix-and-match environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Joseph C.

    1997-07-01

    The introduction of DUV step-and-scan exposure tools into a mix-and-match manufacturing environment with traditional i- line step-and-repeat systems has presented many unique challenges to lithographic process engineers. One of these challenges has been the development and selection of reliable methods for controlling intrafield patten overlay registration. We examined a spectrum of overlay control methods and compared the benefits and costs of each. We analyzed six different intrafield overly control approaches including: (1) traditional static tuning to a fixed archive wafer; (2) dedicated stepper routing; (3) static LEMSYS matching; (4) static cluster sorting; (5) global feedforward control, and; (6) combined cluster sorting with feed-forward control. In traditional static tuning, each stepper is calibrated to an arbitrary fixed reference and wafers are allowed to flow freely within the entire stepper population. Dedicated stepper routing imposes a restriction that wafers must return to the same stepper during critical layer processing. With static LEMSYS matching each stepper is calibrated to an ideal reference that is generated to minimize higher order intrafield errors. Static cluster sorting uses LEMSYS data to divide steppers into clusters then critical layer exposures for a given wafer are kept within a local cluster. Feedforward control attempts to aggressively adapt magnification offsets based upon the known lens signatures of steppers used to print previous layers. Our comparisons were based upon data from 12 actual exposure systems. The result showed that significant gains in overlay control can be achieved with incremental costs in dollars and complexity. Cost-benefits analysis showed that the more aggressive control techniques, involving feed- forward control, were best suited to large fabs operating near the physical limits of their steppers.

  18. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills

    PubMed Central

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called “super recognisers” (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the “Glasgow Face Matching Test”, and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the “Models Face Matching Test”. Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies. PMID:26829321

  19. Evaluation of a disease management program for COPD using propensity matched control group

    PubMed Central

    George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tow Keang; Abisheganaden, John; Ng, Alan Wei Keong; Lim, Fong Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease management programs (DMPs) have proliferated recently as a means of improving the quality and efficiency of care for patients with chronic illness. These programs include education about disease, optimization of evidence-based medications, information and support from case managers, and institution of self-management principles. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Singapore and worldwide. DMP aims to reduce mortality, hospitalizations, and average length of stay in such patients. This study assesses the outcomes of the DMP, comparing the propensity score matched DMP patients with controls. Methods DMP patients were compared with the controls, who were COPD patients fulfilling the DMP’s inclusion criteria but not included in the program. Control patients were identified from Operations Data Store (ODS) database. The outcomes of interest were average length of stay, number of days admitted to hospital per 100 person days, readmission, and mortality rates per person year. The risk of death and readmission was estimated using Cox, and competing risk regression respectively. Propensity score was estimated to identify the predictors of DMP enrolment. DMP patients and controls were matched on their propensity score. Results There were 170 matched DMP patients and control patients having 287 and 207 hospitalizations respectively. Program patient had lower mortality than the controls (0.12 vs. 0.27 per person year); cumulative 1-year survival was 91% among program patient and 76% among the control patients. Readmission, and hospital days per 100 person-days was higher for the program patients (0.36 vs. 0.17 per person year), and (2.19 vs. 1.88 per person year) respectively. Conclusions Participation in “DMP” was associated with lower all-cause mortality when compared to the controls. This survival gain in the program patients was paradoxically associated with an increase in readmission rate and

  20. Subwavelength nonlinear phase control and anomalous phase matching in plasmonic metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Euclides; Shalem, Guy; Prior, Yehiam

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces, and in particular those containing plasmonic-based metallic elements, constitute an attractive set of materials with a potential for replacing standard bulky optical elements. In recent years, increasing attention has been focused on their nonlinear optical properties, particularly in the context of second and third harmonic generation and beam steering by phase gratings. Here, we harness the full phase control enabled by subwavelength plasmonic elements to demonstrate a unique metasurface phase matching that is required for efficient nonlinear processes. We discuss the difference between scattering by a grating and by subwavelength phase-gradient elements. We show that for such interfaces an anomalous phase-matching condition prevails, which is the nonlinear analogue of the generalized Snell's law. The subwavelength phase control of optical nonlinearities paves the way for the design of ultrathin, flat nonlinear optical elements. We demonstrate nonlinear metasurface lenses, which act both as generators and as manipulators of the frequency-converted signal. PMID:26797164

  1. Sequential tests for gene-environment interactions in matched case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Tweel, Ingeborg van der; Schipper, Maria

    2004-12-30

    The sample size necessary to detect a significant gene x environment interaction in an observational study can be large. For reasons of cost-effectiveness and efficient use of available biological samples we investigated the properties of sequential designs in matched case-control studies to test for both non-hierarchical and hierarchical interactions. We derived the test statistics Z and V and their characteristics when applied in a two-sided triangular test. Results of simulations show good agreement with theoretical values for V and the type I error. Power values were larger than their theoretical values for very large sample sizes. Median gain in efficiency was about 27 per cent. For a 'rare' phenotype gain in efficiency was larger when the alternative hypothesis was true than under the null hypothesis. Sequential designs lead to substantial efficiency gains in tests for interaction in matched case-control studies.

  2. Output feedback model matching in linear impulsive systems with control feedthrough: a structural approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zattoni, Elena

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of structural model matching by output feedback in linear impulsive systems with control feedthrough. Namely, given a linear impulsive plant, possibly featuring an algebraic link from the control input to the output, and given a linear impulsive model, the problem consists in finding a linear impulsive regulator that achieves exact matching between the respective forced responses of the linear impulsive plant and of the linear impulsive model, for all the admissible input functions and all the admissible sequences of jump times, by means of a dynamic feedback of the plant output. The problem solvability is characterized by a necessary and sufficient condition. The regulator synthesis is outlined through the proof of sufficiency, which is constructive.

  3. Subwavelength nonlinear phase control and anomalous phase matching in plasmonic metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Euclides; Shalem, Guy; Prior, Yehiam

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces, and in particular those containing plasmonic-based metallic elements, constitute an attractive set of materials with a potential for replacing standard bulky optical elements. In recent years, increasing attention has been focused on their nonlinear optical properties, particularly in the context of second and third harmonic generation and beam steering by phase gratings. Here, we harness the full phase control enabled by subwavelength plasmonic elements to demonstrate a unique metasurface phase matching that is required for efficient nonlinear processes. We discuss the difference between scattering by a grating and by subwavelength phase-gradient elements. We show that for such interfaces an anomalous phase-matching condition prevails, which is the nonlinear analogue of the generalized Snell's law. The subwavelength phase control of optical nonlinearities paves the way for the design of ultrathin, flat nonlinear optical elements. We demonstrate nonlinear metasurface lenses, which act both as generators and as manipulators of the frequency-converted signal.

  4. Handling missing data in matched case-control studies using multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Shaun R; Keogh, Ruth H

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of matched case-control studies is often complicated by missing data on covariates. Analysis can be restricted to individuals with complete data, but this is inefficient and may be biased. Multiple imputation (MI) is an efficient and flexible alternative. We describe two MI approaches. The first uses a model for the data on an individual and includes matching variables; the second uses a model for the data on a whole matched set and avoids the need to model the matching variables. Within each approach, we consider three methods: full-conditional specification (FCS), joint model MI using a normal model, and joint model MI using a latent normal model. We show that FCS MI is asymptotically equivalent to joint model MI using a restricted general location model that is compatible with the conditional logistic regression analysis model. The normal and latent normal imputation models are not compatible with this analysis model. All methods allow for multiple partially-observed covariates, non-monotone missingness, and multiple controls per case. They can be easily applied in standard statistical software and valid variance estimates obtained using Rubin's Rules. We compare the methods in a simulation study. The approach of including the matching variables is most efficient. Within each approach, the FCS MI method generally yields the least-biased odds ratio estimates, but normal or latent normal joint model MI is sometimes more efficient. All methods have good confidence interval coverage. Data on colorectal cancer and fibre intake from the EPIC-Norfolk study are used to illustrate the methods, in particular showing how efficiency is gained relative to just using individuals with complete data.

  5. Spatial patterns of age-sex structures in Costa Rica: a study in demographic modernization.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H W; Fesenmaier, D R

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between economic development and demographic factors in Costa Rica is examined. "Specifically, the paper illustrates the evolution of spatial patterns in age-sex structures over three points in time for a single case study area." The authors suggest that there is order in the evolving patterns and that this order may be explained by the economic modernization process. Data are from the 1950, 1963, and 1973 censuses. Although some spatial order is indicated, the patterns are confused primarily by an increase in fertility that apparently occurred between 1950 and 1963.

  6. The active disturbance rejection control approach to stabilisation of coupled heat and ODE system subject to boundary control matched disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bao-Zhu; Liu, Jun-Jun; AL-Fhaid, A. S.; Younas, Arshad Mahmood M.; Asiri, Asim

    2015-08-01

    We consider stabilisation for a linear ordinary differential equation system with input dynamics governed by a heat equation, subject to boundary control matched disturbance. The active disturbance rejection control approach is applied to estimate, in real time, the disturbance with both constant high gain and time-varying high gain. The disturbance is cancelled in the feedback loop. The closed-loop systems with constant high gain and time-varying high gain are shown, respectively, to be practically stable and asymptotically stable.

  7. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  8. Risk Factors for Primary Pulmonary TB in Almaty Region, Kazakhstan: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    ZHUSSUPOV, Baurzhan; HERMOSILLA, Sabrina; TERLIKBAYEVA, Assel; AIFAH, Angela; MA, Xin; ZHUMADILOV, Zhaxybay; ABILDAYEV, Tleukhan; DARISHEVA, Meruyert; BERIKKHANOVA, Kulzhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between incident pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and social and behavioral characteristics in Almaty Oblast, Kazakhstan from 2012 to 2013. Methods: We used a matched case-control design to estimate the role of factors for acquiring pulmonary TB. Totally 324 individuals were recruited from Sep 2012 to Mar 2013. Participants included 110 TB index cases with newly detected pulmonary TB. Each case was matched with one household and one community control. A total of 107 household and 107 community controls were included to the study. Adjusted odds ratios measuring associations between TB and risk factors were calculated by using a conditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: TB cases were more likely to be younger, recent smokers and have diabetes, when compared to household controls. Between TB cases and community controls, TB was significantly associated with age, non-married family status, living in a rented home, recent smoker, and having diabetes. Comparing TB cases with community controls, we found that foreign birth was marginally associated with incident TB case status. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the role of modifiable risk factors for TB in Kazakhstan; highlighting the importance of developing interventions addressing social determinants and proximate risk factors for high TB burden regions. PMID:27252913

  9. Illusory correlations and control across the psychosis continuum: the contribution of hypersalient evidence-hypothesis matches.

    PubMed

    Balzan, Ryan P; Delfabbro, Paul H; Galletly, Cherrie A; Woodward, Todd S

    2013-04-01

    It has recently been proposed that individuals with delusions may be hypersalient to evidence-hypothesis matches, which may contribute to the formation and the maintenance of delusions. However, empirical support for the construct is limited. Using cognitive tasks designed to elicit the illusory correlation bias (i.e., perception of a correlation in which none actually exists) and the illusion of control bias (i.e., overestimation of one's personal influence over an outcome), the current article investigates the possibility that individuals with delusions are hypersalient to evidence-hypothesis matches. It was hypothesized that this hypersalience may increase a person's propensity to rely on such illusory correlations and estimates of control. A total of 75 participants (25 participants diagnosed with schizophrenia with a history of delusions, 25 nonclinical participants with delusion proneness, and 25 controls without delusion proneness) completed computerized versions of the "fertilizer" illusory correlation task developed by Kao and Wasserman (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 19:1363-1386; 1993) and the "light-onset" illusion of control task created by Alloy and Abramson (J Exp Psychol Gen 108:441-485; 1979). The results across both tasks showed that the participants with schizophrenia were more susceptible than the nonclinical groups to illusory correlations (i.e., higher estimates of covariation between unrelated events) and illusions of control (i.e., higher estimates of control and perceived connection between the responses and the outcome). These results suggest that delusional ideation is linked to a hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches. The theoretical implications of this cognitive mechanism on the formation and the maintenance of delusions are discussed.

  10. New power sharing control for inverter-dominated microgrid based on impedance match concept.

    PubMed

    Gu, Herong; Wang, Deyu; Shen, Hong; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Power flow control is one of the most important issues for operating the inverter-dominated autonomous microgrid. A technical challenge is how to achieve the accurate active/reactive power sharing of inverters. P-F and Q-V droop control schemes have been widely used for power sharing in the past decades. But they suffer from the poor power sharing in the presence of unequal line impedance. In order to solve the problem, a comprehensive analysis of the power droop control is presented, and a new droop control based on the impedance match concept is proposed in this paper. In addition, the design guidelines of control coefficients and virtual impedance are provided. Finally, the performance evaluation is carried out, and the evaluation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. New Power Sharing Control for Inverter-Dominated Microgrid Based on Impedance Match Concept

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Herong; Wang, Deyu; Shen, Hong; Zhao, Wei; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Power flow control is one of the most important issues for operating the inverter-dominated autonomous microgrid. A technical challenge is how to achieve the accurate active/reactive power sharing of inverters. P-F and Q-V droop control schemes have been widely used for power sharing in the past decades. But they suffer from the poor power sharing in the presence of unequal line impedance. In order to solve the problem, a comprehensive analysis of the power droop control is presented, and a new droop control based on the impedance match concept is proposed in this paper. In addition, the design guidelines of control coefficients and virtual impedance are provided. Finally, the performance evaluation is carried out, and the evaluation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24453910

  12. Emotional and physiologic responses to laboratory challenges: patients with temporomandibular disorders versus matched control subjects.

    PubMed

    Curran, S L; Carlson, C R; Okeson, J P

    1996-01-01

    This study explored psychologic and physiologic factors differentiating patients with temporomandibular disorders (n = 23) from sex-, age-, and weight-matched asymptomatic control subjects. Each subject completed several standard psychologic questionnaires and then underwent two laboratory stressors (mental arithmetic and pressure-pain stimulation). Results indicated that patients with temporomandibular disorders had greater resting respiration rates and reported greater anxiety, sadness, and guilt relative to control subjects. In response to the math stressor, patients with temporomandibular disorders reacted with greater anger than did control subjects. There were no differences between patients with temporomandibular disorders and control subjects on pain measures or any other measured variable for the pressure-pain stimulation trial. In addition, there were no differences in electromyography levels between patients with temporomandibular disorders and control subjects. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the etiology and treatment of this common and debilitating set of disorders.

  13. Frequency-domain Model Matching PID Controller Design for Aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nan; Huang, Jinquan; Lu, Feng

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear model of aero-engine was linearized at multiple operation points by using frequency response method. The validation results indicate high accuracy of static and dynamic characteristics of the linear models. The improved PID tuning method of frequency-domain model matching was proposed with the system stability condition considered. The proposed method was applied to the design of PID controller of the high pressure rotor speed control in the flight envelope, and the control effects were evaluated by the nonlinear model. Simulation results show that the system had quick dynamic response with zero overshoot and zero steadystate error. Furthermore, a PID-fuzzy switching control scheme for aero-engine was designed, and the fuzzy switching system stability was proved. Simulations were studied to validate the applicability of the multiple PIDs fuzzy switching controller for aero-engine with wide range dynamics.

  14. Intraoperative cholangiography. A review of indications and analysis of age-sex groups.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, S B; Lerner, H J; Leifer, E D; Lindheim, S R

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed of patients who had biliary tract stone formation as the primary diagnosis for hospitalization and indication for surgery. Five hundred and eighty-nine consecutive charts were reviewed of patients admitted between 1975 and 1979. Intraoperative cholangiography was performed in 166 patients of whom 22 had common duct exploration. Choledochotomy in this series was performed in 63 cases without utilizing pre-exploratory cholangiography. A normal intraoperative cholangiogram was found to be 100% accurate; however, an abnormal cholangiogram was associated with a 16% false positive rate of exploration of the common duct. The incidence of unsuspected common duct stones detected only by intraoperative cholangiography was 2.3%. Age-sex analysis confirms a 10-year mean age difference between men and women within the population of this study (p less than 0.001). This age-sex difference is maintained in patients without common duct pathology as well as in patients with sterile bile. However, the mean age difference between male and female patients with either demonstrable common duct obstruction by stones or infected bile as determined by routine intraoperative culture is not statistically significant. A review of the role of intraoperative cholangiography, and the experience at Northeastern Hospital is discussed. PMID:6639173

  15. [Sleep habits of medical students, physicians and nurses regarding age, sex, shift work and caffein consumption].

    PubMed

    Pecotić, Renata; Valić, Maja; Kardum, Goran; Sevo, Vana; Dogas, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of nurses, medical students, and physicians and to explore whether they are influenced by age, sex, shift work, and caffeine consumption. The questionnaire was derived from the MEDSleep Survey. A total of 453 respondents were surveyed: second-year medical students (130); physicians at the postgraduate study program (68); specialists (162); nurses (93). Results of our study indicate that hours of sleep needed for feeling rested depends on age and gender. Younger respondents and women in the study need longer sleep to feel rested (7.5 hours and more) than older ones and males who need less than 7.5 hours of sleep. Among medical professionals a need for sleep differs related to work demands and work schedule. Nurses need more sleep than physicians (chi2 = 38.57, p < 0.001). Female nurses need more sleep for feeling rested than female physicians (chi2 = 18.18, p < 0.001), and sleep longer during the weeknights (chi2 = 33.78, p < 0.001) and weekends (chi2 = 28.06, p < 0.001). The respondents that consume caffeine have more trouble staying awake while listening to lectures or learning (chi2 = 9.37, p = 0.009), and while driving a car (chi2 = 14.56, p = 0.001). The results indicate that sleep habits are related to age, sex and caffeine consumption.

  16. Hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and biochemical values for mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    PubMed

    Dolka, B; Włodarczyk, R; Zbikowski, A; Dolka, I; Szeleszczuk, P; Kluciński, W

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the correct morphological and biochemical parameters in mute swans is an important indicator of their health status, body condition, adaptation to habitat and useful diagnostic tools in veterinary practice and ecological research. The aim of the study was to obtain hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and serum biochemistry values in wild-living mute swans. We found the significant differences in the erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in relation to age of mute swans. There were no differences in hematological values between males and females. The leukogram and H/L ratio did not vary by age and sex in swans. Among of biochemical parameters the slightly increased AST, ALP, CK, K, urea, decreased CHOL and TG values were recorded. As far as we know, this is the first study in which the morphometric parameters of blood cells in mute swans were presented. We found extremely low concentration of lead in blood (at subthreshold level). No blood parasites were found in blood smears. The analysis of body mass and biometric parameters revealed a significant differences dependent on age and sex. No differences in the scaled mass index were found. Our results represent a normal hematologic and blood chemistry values and age-sex related changes, as reference values for the mute swan.

  17. Comparison of Brachial Artery Vasoreactivity in Elite Power Athletes and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Michael A.; Blalock, Paul; Credeur, Daniel P.; Parish, Tracie R.

    2013-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes typically have larger arteries contributing to greater skeletal muscle blood flow, oxygen and nutrient delivery and improved physical performance. Few studies have examined structural and functional properties of arteries in power athletes. Purpose To compare the size and vasoreactivity of the brachial artery of elite power athletes to age-matched controls. It was hypothesized brachial artery diameters of athletes would be larger, have less vasodilation in response to cuff occlusion, but more constriction after a cold pressor test than age-matched controls. Methods Eight elite power athletes (age = 23±2 years) and ten controls (age = 22±1 yrs) were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was used to assess brachial artery diameters at rest and following 5 minutes of forearm occlusion (Brachial Artery Flow Mediated Dilation = BAFMD) and a cold pressor test (CPT). Basic fitness measures included a handgrip test and 3-minute step test. Results Brachial arteries of athletes were larger (Athletes 5.39±1.51 vs. Controls: 3.73±0.71 mm, p<0.05), had greater vasodilatory (BAFMD%: Athletes: 8.21±1.78 vs. Controls: 5.69±1.56%) and constrictor (CPT %: Athletes: -2.95±1.07 vs. Controls: −1.20±0.48%) responses, compared to controls. Vascular operating range (VOR = Peak dilation+Peak Constriction) was also greater in athletes (VOR: Athletes: 0.55±0.15 vs. Controls: 0.25±0.18 mm, p<0.05). Athletes had superior handgrip strength (Athletes: 55.92±17.06 vs. Controls: 36.77±17.06 kg, p<0.05) but similar heart rate responses at peak (Athletes: 123±16 vs. Controls: 130±25 bpm, p>0.05) and 1 minute recovery (Athletes: 88±21 vs. Controls: 98±26 bpm, p>0.05) following the step test. Conclusion Elite power athletes have larger brachial arteries, and greater vasoreactivity (greater vasodilatory and constrictor responses) than age-matched controls, contributing to a significantly greater VOR. These data extend the existence of an

  18. Coherent phase-matched VUV generation by field-controlled bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chini, Michael; Wang, Xiaowei; Cheng, Yan; Wang, He; Wu, Yi; Cunningham, Eric; Li, Peng-Cheng; Heslar, John; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.; Chang, Zenghu

    2014-06-01

    The generation of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulses at ultrahigh repetition rates (>1 MHz) promises to revolutionize ultrafast spectroscopy. Such vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-ray sources could potentially be driven directly by plasmonic enhancement of laser pulses from a femtosecond oscillator, but recent experiments suggest that the VUV signal is actually dominated by incoherent atomic line emission. Here, we demonstrate a new regime of phase-matched below-threshold harmonic generation, for which the generation and phase matching is enabled only near resonance structures of the atomic target. The coherent VUV line emission exhibits low divergence and quadratic growth with increasing target density up to nearly 1,000 torr mm and can be controlled by the sub-cycle field of a few-cycle driving laser with an intensity of only ~1 × 1013 W cm-2, which is achievable directly from few-cycle femtosecond oscillators with nanojoule energy.

  19. Identifying microwave magnetic resonance in chiral elements for creation of controlled matched absorbing metastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraftmakher, G. A.; Butylkin, V. S.; Kazantsev, Yu. N.; Mal'tsev, V. P.; Temirov, Yu. Sh.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested a method for identifying and separating magnetic and electric microwave resonance responses of conductive chiral and bianisotropic elements by reflection of electromagnetic waves in the standing and traveling-wave modes. It has been observed experimentally (in waveguide) and confirmed numerically (in free space) that magnetic resonance, which is excited by microwave magnetic field h, and electric resonances, excited by electric field E, show drastically different resonance curves of reflection. These distinctions allow to identifying the magnetic resonance response and using magnetically excited elements for broadband matching of absorbers instead of traditional quarter-wavelength layer. We have fabricated and investigated matched absorbing metastructures which are controlled by voltage as well by light of remote laser pointer.

  20. A proteomic study of protein variation between osteopenic and age-matched control bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Christopher D; Dangott, Lawrence J; Rahm, Mark D; Hitt, Kirby D; Stewart, Donald S; Wayne Sampson, H

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this study was to identify changes in protein expression within the bone tissue environment between osteopenic and control bone tissue of human femoral neck patients with osteoarthritis. Femoral necks were compared from osteopenic patients and age-matched controls. A new method of bone protein extraction was developed to provide a swift, clear view of the bone proteome. Relative changes in protein expression between control and osteopenic samples were quantified using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technology after affinity chromatographic depletion of albumin and IgG. The proteins that were determined to be differentially expressed were identified using standard liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and database searching techniques. In order to rule out blood contamination, blood from age-matched osteoporotic, osteopenic and controls were analyzed in a similar manner. Image analysis of the DIGE gels indicated that 145 spots in the osteopenic bone samples changed at least ± 1.5-fold from the control samples (P < 0.05). Three of the proteins were identified by LC/MS/MS. Of the proteins that increased in the osteopenic femurs, two were especially significant: carbonic anhydrase I and phosphoglycerate kinase 1. Apolipoprotein A-I was the most prominent protein that significantly decreased in the osteopenic femurs. The blood samples revealed no significant differences between groups for any of these proteins. In conclusion, carbonic anhydrase I, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and apolipoprotein A-I appeared to be the most significant variations of proteins in patients with osteopenia and osteoarthritis.

  1. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, J.; Le, Q. H.; Duong, B. H.; Sun, P.; Pham, H. T.; Ta, V. T.; Kotsopoulos, J.; Narod, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK), Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations. PMID:28070424

  2. Oxytocin Levels are Lower in Premenopausal Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Compared to Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kujath, Amber S.; Quinn, Lauretta; Elliott, Mary E.; Varady, Krista A.; LeCaire, Tamara J.; Carter, C. Sue; Danielson, Kirstie K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OT), a hormone most commonly associated with parturition and lactation, may have additional roles in diabetes complications. We determined OT levels in premenopausal women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) compared to nondiabetic controls; and examined associations of OT with health behaviors, clinical factors, biomarkers, kidney function, and bone health. Lower OT was hypothesized for T1DM. Methods Cross-sectional study of premenopausal women with T1DM (n=88) from the Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study, a population-based cohort of incident T1DM cases, and matched nondiabetic controls (n=74). Results Women with T1DM had lower OT levels than controls adjusting for caffeine and alcohol use (p=0.03). Health behaviors associated with OT differed between women with and without T1DM: OT was negatively associated with hormonal contraceptive use (quantified as lifetime contraceptive estrogen exposure) in women with T1DM (p=0.003) while positively related to hormonal contraceptive use (quantified as never/former/current) in controls (p<0.001). OT had a positive association with adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio and leptin) in women with T1DM and a negative relationship with adiposity (weight gain) in controls. In T1DM only, OT was positively associated with caffeine intake (p=0.01) and negatively associated with alcohol use (p=0.01). OT was not related to glycemic control, kidney function, or bone health in T1DM. Conclusions OT levels are lower in women with T1DM than matched controls. OT also has opposing associations with hormonal contraceptives and adiposity in women with and without T1DM. Research is needed to determine if the altered OT milieu in T1DM is associated with other health outcomes. PMID:25044726

  3. Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Stone, James; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Jessica; Doupe, Malcolm; Brownell, Marni; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists examining long-term mental and physical health outcomes in adult survivors of pediatric burns. The authors examine the postinjury lifetime prevalence of common mental and physical disorders in a large pediatric burn cohort and compare the results with matched controls. Seven hundred and forty five survivors of childhood burns identified in the Burn Registry (<18 years old and total BSA >1% between April 1, 1988 and March 31, 2010) were matched 1:5 to the general population based on age at time of injury (index date), sex, and geographic residence. Postinjury rate ratio (RR) was used to compare burn cases and control cohorts for common mental and physical illnesses through physician billings, and hospital claims. RR was adjusted for sex, rural residence, and income. Compared with matched controls, postburn cases had significantly higher RR of all mental disorders, which remained significant (P < .05) after adjustment (major depression RR = 1.5 [confidence limit {CL}: 1.2-1.8], anxiety disorder RR = 1.5 [CL: 1.3-1.8), substance abuse RR = 2.3 [CL: 1.7-3.2], suicide attempt RR = 4.3 [CL: 1.6-12.1], or any mental disorder RR = 1.5 [CL: 1.3-1.8]). The relative rate of some physical illnesses was also significantly increased in burn survivors: arthritis RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.4), fractures RR = 1.4 (CL: 1.2-1.6), total respiratory morbidity RR = 1.1 (CL: 1.02-1.3), and any physical illness RR = 1.2 (CL: 1.1-1.3). Adult survivors of childhood burn injury have significantly increased rates of postburn mental and physical illnesses. Screening and appropriate management of these illnesses is essential when caring for this population.

  4. Tests on a mock-up of the feedback controlled matching options of the ITER ICRH system

    SciTech Connect

    Grine, D.; Vervier, M.; Messiaen, A.; Dumortier, P.

    2009-11-26

    Automatic control of the matching of the ITER ICRH antenna array on a reference load is presently developed and tested for optimization on a low-powered scaled (1:5) mock-up. Resilience to fast load variations is obtained either by 4 Conjugate-T (CT) or 4 quadrature hybrid circuits, the latter being the reference option. The main results are (i) for the CT option: successful implementation of the simultaneous feedback control of 11 actuators for the matching of the 4 CT and for the control of the array toroidal phasing; (ii) for the hybrid option: the matching and the array current control via feedback control of the decouplers and double stub tuners. This system is being progressively implemented and the simultaneous control of matching and antenna current has already been successfully tested on half of the array for heating and current drive phasings.

  5. Comparison of the care of children with Down's syndrome with the care of matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A prospective study of the care of 134-children with Down's syndrome and 134 age- and sex-matched control children during 1981 has shown that the former group had significantly greater contact with the general practitioner, mostly owing to respiratory problems which were treated significantly more often with antibiotics. Referrals to specialist care were more common in the Down's children but the interface between general practice and paediatric care was not great. The study emphasizes the need for general practitioners to plan the care of Down's children and normal children with respect both to acute illness and the monitoring of chronic childhood illness. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:6239032

  6. Psychophysiology of duration estimation in experienced mindfulness meditators and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Otten, Simone; Schötz, Eva; Wittmann, Marc; Kohls, Niko; Schmidt, Stefan; Meissner, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that bodily signals and interoception are strongly related to our sense of time. Mindfulness meditators train to be aware of their body states and therefore could be more accurate at interval timing. In this study, n = 22 experienced mindfulness meditators and n = 22 matched controls performed both, an acoustic and a visual duration reproduction task of 8, 14, and 20 s intervals, while heart rate and skin conductance were continuously assessed. In addition, participants accomplished a heart beat perception task and two selective attention tasks. Results revealed no differences between meditators and controls with respect to performance in duration reproduction or attentional capacities. Additionally no group difference in heart beat perception scores was found. Across all subjects, correlational analyses revealed several associations between performance in the duration reproduction tasks and psychophysiological changes, the latter being also related to heart beat perception scores. Furthermore, former findings of linearly increasing cardiac periods and decreasing skin conductance levels during the auditory duration estimation task (Meissner and Wittmann, 2011) could be replicated, and these changes could also be observed during a visual duration reproduction task. In contrast to our earlier findings, the heart beat perception test was not related with timing performance. Overall, although experienced meditators did not differ from matched controls with respect to duration reproduction and interoceptive awareness, this study adds significantly to the emerging view that time perception is related to autonomic regulation and awareness of body states.

  7. Psychophysiology of duration estimation in experienced mindfulness meditators and matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Simone; Schötz, Eva; Wittmann, Marc; Kohls, Niko; Schmidt, Stefan; Meissner, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that bodily signals and interoception are strongly related to our sense of time. Mindfulness meditators train to be aware of their body states and therefore could be more accurate at interval timing. In this study, n = 22 experienced mindfulness meditators and n = 22 matched controls performed both, an acoustic and a visual duration reproduction task of 8, 14, and 20 s intervals, while heart rate and skin conductance were continuously assessed. In addition, participants accomplished a heart beat perception task and two selective attention tasks. Results revealed no differences between meditators and controls with respect to performance in duration reproduction or attentional capacities. Additionally no group difference in heart beat perception scores was found. Across all subjects, correlational analyses revealed several associations between performance in the duration reproduction tasks and psychophysiological changes, the latter being also related to heart beat perception scores. Furthermore, former findings of linearly increasing cardiac periods and decreasing skin conductance levels during the auditory duration estimation task (Meissner and Wittmann, 2011) could be replicated, and these changes could also be observed during a visual duration reproduction task. In contrast to our earlier findings, the heart beat perception test was not related with timing performance. Overall, although experienced meditators did not differ from matched controls with respect to duration reproduction and interoceptive awareness, this study adds significantly to the emerging view that time perception is related to autonomic regulation and awareness of body states. PMID:26347684

  8. Risk Factors for Farmers' Suicides in Central Rural India: Matched Case–control Psychological Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhise, Manik Changoji; Behere, Prakash Balkrushna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite more than two decades since recognition of suicides by farmers in India, systematic studies comparing various risk factors are lacking. This is major hurdle for the formulation of strategies for farmers' suicide prevention. Objective: To identify socioeconomic and psychological risk factors and their relative contribution in suicides by farmers. Materials and Methods: A matched case–control psychological autopsy was done on 98 farmers' suicide victims and 98 controls in Central India. Results: Economic problems, psychiatric illness, and stressful life events were found to be important contributors to farmers' suicides. Important economic risk factors were procurement of debt, especially from multiple sources and for nonagricultural reasons and leasing out farms. Psychiatric illness was present significantly in higher proportion among cases than controls. Crop failure, interpersonal problems, medical illness, and marriage of female family member were significant stressful life events. Conclusions: There are socioeconomic and psychological risk factors for suicide by farmers which can be targets of prevention policy. PMID:28031593

  9. Influence of age, sex and calendar year on lifetime accumulated red bone marrow dose from diagnostic radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Meiboom, Merle Friederike; Weitmann, Kerstin; Terschüren, Claudia; von Boetticher, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to evaluate the relevance of different factors influencing lifetime accumulated red bone marrow dose, such as calendar year, age and sex. The lifetime dose was estimated for controls interviewed in person (N = 2811, 37.5% women) of the population-based representative Northern Germany Leukemia and Lymphoma Study. Data were assessed in standardized computer-assisted personal interviews. The calculation of doses is based on a comprehensive quantification model including calendar year, sex, kind of examination, and technical development. In multivariate regression models the annual red bone marrow dose was analyzed depending on age, sex and calendar year to consider simultaneously temporal changes in radiologic practice and individual risk factors. While the number of examinations continuously rises over time, the dose shows two peaks around 1950 and after 1980. Men are exposed to higher doses than woman. Until 1970 traditional examinations like conventional and mass screening examinations caused the main dose. They were then replaced by technically advanced examinations mainly computed tomography and cardiac catheter. The distribution of the red bone marrow dose over lifetime depends highly on the technical standards and radiation protection survey. To a lesser extent it is influenced by age and sex of the subjects. Thus epidemiological studies concerning the assessment of radiation exposure should consider the calendar year in which the examination was conducted.

  10. The role of age-sex interaction in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Amicizia, Daniela; Domnich, Alexander; Arata, Lucia; Zoli, Daniela; Zotti, Carla Maria; Cacello, Elena; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella

    2017-02-01

    Post-herpetic neuralgia is the most frequent complication of herpes zoster and affects up to 30% of patients. Increased age is a well-recognized risk factor, while the role of gender is highly uncertain. Little research has been performed into a possible combined effect of age and sex in post-herpetic neuralgia. The objective of the study was to study the role of age and sex and their combined effect in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia. This retrospective study enrolled adult subjects with at least one episode of herpes zoster in the previous 10 y. A questionnaire on the patient's socio-demographic, anamnestic and clinical characteristics was administered by general practitioners. Multivariable logistic regression was used to detect relationships between post-herpetic neuralgia and age, sex and their interaction. Fifty-nine of 272 patients reported post-herpetic neuralgia: a prevalence of 21.7%. Subjects with post-herpetic neuralgia (mean age 70.9 years) were significantly older (P = .001) than those without (64.2 years), the standardised mean difference being 0.5; no significant between-sex association was revealed (P = .96). A fully adjusted multivariable logistic analysis, however, revealed a highly significant (P = .007) age-sex interaction, with an odds ratio of 0.92; this also showed that older males were more likely to report post-herpetic neuralgia than younger males, while no obvious age-associated pattern was observed among females. We discerned a significant age-by-sex interaction in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia, which suggests that the effect of age on the development of this condition may differ between men and women.

  11. The prevalence of multimorbidity in a geographically defined American population: patterns by age, sex, and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Walter A.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Bobo, William V.; Rutten, Lila J.; Roger, Véronique L.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Therneau, Terry M.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Sauver, Jennifer L. St.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of multimorbidity involving 20 selected chronic conditions in a geographically defined US population, emphasizing age, sex, and ethnic differences. Patients and Methods Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) records-linkage system, we identified all residents of Olmsted County, MN on April 1, 2010, and we electronically extracted the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) codes associated with all healthcare visits made between April 1, 2005 and March 31, 2010 (5-year capture frame). Using these ICD-9 codes, we defined the 20 common chronic conditions recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. We counted only persons who received at least two codes for a given condition separated by more than 30 days, and calculated the age-, sex-, and ethnicity-specific prevalence of multimorbidity. Results Of the 138,858 study subjects, 52.4% were women, 38.9% had one or more conditions, 22.6% had two or more, and 4.9% had 5 or more conditions. The prevalence of multimorbidity (2 or more conditions) increased steeply with older age and reached 77.3% at ages 65 years and older. However, the absolute number of people affected by multimorbidity was higher in those younger than 65 years. Although the prevalence of multimorbidity was similar in men and women overall, the most common dyads and triads of conditions varied by sex. Compared to Whites, the prevalence of multimorbidity was slightly higher in Blacks and slightly lower in Asians. Conclusion Multimorbidity is common in the general population; it increases steeply with older age, has different patterns in men and women, and varies by ethnicity. PMID:25220409

  12. The role of age-sex interaction in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Cacello, Elena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Post-herpetic neuralgia is the most frequent complication of herpes zoster and affects up to 30% of patients. Increased age is a well-recognized risk factor, while the role of gender is highly uncertain. Little research has been performed into a possible combined effect of age and sex in post-herpetic neuralgia. The objective of the study was to study the role of age and sex and their combined effect in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia. This retrospective study enrolled adult subjects with at least one episode of herpes zoster in the previous 10 y. A questionnaire on the patient's socio-demographic, anamnestic and clinical characteristics was administered by general practitioners. Multivariable logistic regression was used to detect relationships between post-herpetic neuralgia and age, sex and their interaction. Fifty-nine of 272 patients reported post-herpetic neuralgia: a prevalence of 21.7%. Subjects with post-herpetic neuralgia (mean age 70.9 years) were significantly older (P = .001) than those without (64.2 years), the standardised mean difference being 0.5; no significant between-sex association was revealed (P = .96). A fully adjusted multivariable logistic analysis, however, revealed a highly significant (P = .007) age-sex interaction, with an odds ratio of 0.92; this also showed that older males were more likely to report post-herpetic neuralgia than younger males, while no obvious age-associated pattern was observed among females. We discerned a significant age-by-sex interaction in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia, which suggests that the effect of age on the development of this condition may differ between men and women. PMID:28215122

  13. [Personality differences between alcohol abusers and matched controls: Relation to frontal symptoms and subtypes of addicts].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo José; Ruiz Sánchez de León, José María; Olivar Arroyo, Alvaro; Rojo Mota, Gloria; Llanero Luque, Marcos; Puerta García, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Epidemiological studies usually show a link between personality disorders and addictions. Dimensional models of personality, such as that of Cloninger, are able to diagnose and discriminate between transient dysfunctional behavior styles and relatively more stable traits. Certain brain areas have been proposed, as trait locations, based on their activation. This paper explores differences in personality traits among a sample of alcohol abusers (N= 95) and a control group of non-clinical population (N= 95), matched in sociodemographic variables, using the TCI-R-67 and the FrSBe-Sp. It is hypothesized that such differences are associated with frontal symptomatology. The existence of different subgroups of addicts based on certain combinations of traits is also analyzed. Results showed significant differences in two temperament traits (Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance) and a characterial trait (Self-Direction). We also found a correlation with a large effect size between these traits and frontal symptomatology. Cluster analysis classified the participants into several subtypes with different combinations of traits that matched diverse frontal symptomatology. Possible neurobiological explanations of these differences and their importance in the clinical practice are discussed.

  14. Understanding the Sexual Satisfaction of Women With Provoked Vestibulodynia and Their Partners: Comparison With Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    O Rosen, Natalie; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-11-28

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD)-a recurrent, localized vulvar pain-interferes with couples' sexual relationships as evidenced by lower sexual satisfaction compared to controls. Little is known about what components of sexual satisfaction contribute to this lower satisfaction. Using the Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction (IEMSS), we compared the sexual exchanges (sexual rewards and costs, relative sexual rewards and costs, balance of sexual rewards and costs, balance of relative sexual rewards and costs, equality of sexual rewards and costs) and sexual satisfaction of 50 women with PVD and their male partners to 50 matched-control couples. We also compared women with PVD and their partners on these same components. Participants completed standardized measures of sexual exchanges and sexual satisfaction. Women with PVD and their partners reported lower relative sexual rewards, a less favorable balance of relative sexual rewards to costs, and lower sexual satisfaction than controls, although differences were larger for women. Women with PVD also reported lower levels of sexual rewards, higher levels of sexual costs, a less favorable balance of sexual rewards to costs, and lower equality of sexual costs, than control women. Findings identify IEMSS exchange components that may contribute to overall lower satisfaction in couples affected by PVD.

  15. Greater memory impairment in dementing females than males relative to sex-matched healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann

    2016-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls.

  16. Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gengo, F M; Fagan, S C; Krol, G; Bernhard, H

    1987-01-01

    Six biopsy proven cirrhotics and five age-matched controls (mean 55.3 vs 52.4 years) were randomly given single 60 mg p.o. and 30 mg s.l. doses of nimodipine. Serum concentrations and blood pressure were measured regularly over the subsequent 24 h period. The clearance of nimodipine was reduced in the patients with cirrhosis. Apparent oral clearance of nimodipine in the cirrhotic group was significantly lower than that observed in the normal group (187 +/- 163 l h-1 vs 469.6 +/- 198.4 l h-1, P less than 0.01). There were no significant changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the normal subjects. There were, however, significant reductions in MAP following oral nimodipine in the cirrhotics. These reductions were significantly related to nimodipine concentrations in individual patients (P less than 0.05). PMID:3814462

  17. Physical assessment of 30 chronic cannabis users and 30 matched controls.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, E K

    1976-01-01

    Ganja is used extensively in the working-class population of Jamaica, particularly in certain agricultural and fishing communities. Ganja, smoking is illegal but can be accepted as part of the culture in these areas. Sixty male subjects were chosen for assessment, 30 chronic smokers and 30 controls from comparable social, economic, and cultural backgrounds, and were matched for height and age. A chronic smoker had somked a minimum of three spliffs per day for a minimum of 10 years. The subjects were admitted to the hospital for 1 week for psychologic and physical assessment. The physical assessment included a detailed medical history and examination, heart and lung radiography, electrocardiograms, respiratory, liver, and renal function tests, hematology, treponemal serology, and chromosomal studies. No significant physical abnormalities were found, except in two smokers, and there was no reason to suspect that these disabilities were related to ganja. No significant differences between the two groups were demonstrated in the wide range of tests administered.

  18. Point source modeling of matched case-control data with multiple disease subtypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart

    2012-12-10

    In this paper, we propose nonlinear distance-odds models investigating elevated odds around point sources of exposure, under a matched case-control design where there are subtypes within cases. We consider models analogous to the polychotomous logit models and adjacent-category logit models for categorical outcomes and extend them to the nonlinear distance-odds context. We consider multiple point sources as well as covariate adjustments. We evaluate maximum likelihood, profile likelihood, iteratively reweighted least squares, and a hierarchical Bayesian approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques under these distance-odds models. We compare these methods using an extensive simulation study and show that with multiple parameters and a nonlinear model, Bayesian methods have advantages in terms of estimation stability, precision, and interpretation. We illustrate the methods by analyzing Medicaid claims data corresponding to the pediatric asthma population in Detroit, Michigan, from 2004 to 2006.

  19. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks. PMID:27188308

  20. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  1. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  2. Randomized trial comparing mindfulness training for smokers to a matched control

    PubMed Central

    Davis, James M.; Manley, Alison R.; Goldberg, Simon B.; Smith, Stevens S.; Jorenby, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking continues to take an enormous toll on society, and although most smokers would like to quit, most are unsuccessful using existing therapies. These findings call on researchers to develop and test therapies that provide higher rates of long-term smoking abstinence. We report results of a randomized controlled trial comparing a novel smoking cessation treatment using mindfulness training to a matched control based on the American Lung Association's Freedom From Smoking program. Data were collected on 175 low socioeconomic status smokers in 2011-2012 in a medium sized Midwestern city. A significant difference was not found in the primary outcome; intent-to-treat biochemically confirmed 6-month smoking abstinence rates were Mindfulness = 25.0%, Control= 17.9% (p = 0.35). Differences favoring the mindfulness condition were found on measures of urges and changes in mindfulness, perceived stress, and experiential avoidance. While no significant differences were found in quit rates, the mindfulness intervention resulted in positive outcomes. PMID:24957302

  3. Performance evaluation of real-simulated image matching techniques in the acquisition of ground control for ERS-1 image geocoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidon, B.

    Recently, a large-area digital ERS-1 image mosaic was generated of a mountainous region of British Columbia, Canada. Ground control for the geocoding of each of the 53 constituent scenes was derived by matching real and simulated image chips, the latter generated from digital elevation models (DEMs) and a knowledge of the ERS-1 imaging configuration. This paper presents an analysis of automated and manual matching performance based on a study of the aggregate data set of 1270 control points (CPs). The CP selection methodology is described as well as the relationship between matching accuracy and the level of goodness-of-match as quantified by the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. A statistical approach is proposed for the selection of an optimum correlation threshold for operational geocoding scenarios.

  4. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking.

  5. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  6. No Difference in Cross-Modal Attention or Sensory Discrimination Thresholds in Autism and Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Haigh, Sarah M; Heeger, David J; Heller, Laurie; Gupta, Akshat; Dinstein, Ilan; Minshew, Nancy J; Behrmann, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Autism has been associated with abnormalities in sensory and attentional processing. Here, we assessed these processes independently in the visual and auditory domains using a visual contrast-discrimination task and an auditory modulation-depth discrimination task. To evaluate changes in sensory function by attention, we measured behavioral performance (discrimination accuracy) when subjects were cued to attend and respond to the same stimulus (frequent valid cue) or cued to attend to one stimulus and respond to the non-cued stimulus (infrequent invalid cue). The stimuli were presented at threshold to ensure equal difficulty across participants and groups. Results from fifteen high-functioning adult individuals with autism and fifteen matched controls revealed no significant differences in visual or auditory discrimination thresholds across groups. Furthermore, attention robustly modulated performance accuracy (performance was better for valid than invalid cues) in both sensory modalities and to an equivalent extent in both groups. In conclusion, when using this well-controlled method, we found no evidence of atypical sensory function or atypical attentional modulation in a group of high functioning individuals with clear autism symptomatology. PMID:26940029

  7. Risk factors for sporadic Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in east China: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yan, W X; Dai, Y; Zhou, Y J; Liu, H; Duan, S G; Han, H H; Chen, Y

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY To determine risk factors for sporadic Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis, we conducted a population-based case-control study in sentinel hospital surveillance areas of Shanghai and Jiangsu province, China. Seventy-one patients with diarrhoea and confirmed V. parahaemolyticus infections were enrolled, and they were matched with 142 controls for gender, age and residential area. From the multivariable analysis, V. parahaemolyticus infections were associated with antibiotics taken during the 4 weeks prior to illness [odds ratio (OR) 7·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1–54·4)], frequent eating out (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·0–10·4), and shellfish consumption (OR 3·4, 95% CI 1·0–11·1), with population-attributable fractions of 0·09, 0·24, and 0·14, respectively. Protective factors included keeping the aquatic products refrigerated (OR 0·4, 95% CI 0·2–1·0) and pork consumption (OR 0·2, 95% CI 0·1–0·9) [corrected] .

  8. Eating disorders and biochemical composition of saliva: a retrospective matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Norring, Claes; Unell, Lennart; Johansson, Anders

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the biochemical composition of saliva from patients with eating disorders (EDs) with saliva from control subjects with no ED. All patients who initiated outpatient treatment in an ED clinic during a 12-month period were invited to participate. Of the 65 patients who started treatment during the period, 54 (50 female patients/four male patients; mean age: 21.5 yr) agreed to participate. The controls were 54 sex- and age-matched patients from a dental health clinic. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent dental clinical examinations, including laboratory analyses of saliva. The proportion of subjects with unstimulated salivary hyposalivation was lower in the ED group and not correlated with intake of xerogenic drugs. Significant differences in the biochemical composition of saliva were found almost exclusively in the unstimulated state, with albumin, inorganic phosphate, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), chloride, magnesium, and total protein all being significantly higher in the ED group. Conditional logistic regression showed that higher ASAT and total protein concentrations were relatively good predictors of ED, with sensitivity and specificity of 65% and 67%, respectively. In conclusion, elevated salivary concentrations of ASAT and total protein may serve as indicators of ED as well as of disease severity. Future studies are needed to corroborate these initial findings.

  9. Blood Pressure Profile and Hypertensive Organ Damage in COPD Patients and Matched Controls. The RETAPOC Study

    PubMed Central

    Golpe, Rafael; Mateos-Colino, Alfonso; Pena-Seijo, Marta; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Martín-Vázquez, Francisco J.; Pose-Reino, Antonio; Domínguez-Pin, Nuria; Garnacho-Gayarre, Nuria; Pérez-de-Llano, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that there is a pathogenic link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, increased sympathetic tone has been described in several respiratory diseases. Our objective was to determine whether hypertension mediated by sympathetic overactivity is a mechanism that explains the association between COPD and cardiovascular diseases. Methods Prospective nested case-control observational study; 67 COPD patients were matched 1:1 by sex and age to controls with smoking history. 24 hour-blood pressure monitoring, urinary catecholamines and their metabolites measurement, echocardiography, carotid ultrasound examination, nocturnal oximetry and retinography were performed. Findings classic cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities were similarly distributed between cases and controls. No significant differences for blood pressure variables (difference for mean systolic blood pressure: -0·13 mmHg; 95% CI: -4·48,4·20; p = 0·94; similar results for all blood presssure variables) or catecholamines values were found between both groups. There was a tendency for lower left ventricle ejection fraction in the COPD cases, that approached statistical significance (64·8 ± 7·4 vs 67·1 ± 6·2, p = 0·05). There were no differences in the retinal arteriovenous ratio, the carotid intima-media thickness, or the number of carotid plaques, between cases and controls. Fibrinogen values were higher in the COPD group (378·4 ± 69·6 vs 352·2 ± 45·6 mg/dL, p = 0·01) and mean nocturnal oxygen saturation values were lower for COPD patients (89·0 ± 4·07 vs 92·3 ± 2·2%, p < 0·0001). Interpretation Hypertension induced by sympathetic overactivity does not seem to be a mechanism that could explain the association between COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27362479

  10. Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths: a matched case–control study in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Butu, Yuli; Simpson, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background Similar to global trends, neonatal mortality has fallen only slightly in Indonesia over the period 1990–2010, with a high proportion of deaths in the first week of life. Objective This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with neonatal deaths of low and normal birthweight infants that were amenable to health service intervention at a community level in a relatively poor province of Indonesia. Design A matched case–control study of neonatal deaths reported from selected community health centres (puskesmas) was conducted over 10 months in 2013. Cases were singleton births, born by vaginal delivery, at home or in a health facility, matched with two controls satisfying the same criteria. Potential variables related to maternal and neonatal risk factors were collected from puskesmas medical records and through home visit interviews. A conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios using the clogit procedure in Stata 11. Results Combining all significant variables related to maternal, neonatal, and delivery factors into a single multivariate model, six factors were found to be significantly associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. The factors identified were as follows: neonatal complications during birth; mother noting a health problem during the first 28 days; maternal lack of knowledge of danger signs for neonates; low Apgar score; delivery at home; and history of complications during pregnancy. Three risk factors (neonatal complication at delivery; neonatal health problem noted by mother; and low Apgar score) were significantly associated with early neonatal death at age 0–7 days. For normal birthweight neonates, three factors (complications during delivery; lack of early initiation of breastfeeding; and lack of maternal knowledge of neonatal danger signs) were found to be associated with a higher risk of neonatal death. Conclusion The study identified a number of factors amenable to health service

  11. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) in Dairy Cattle: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Machado, G; Egocheaga, R M F; Hein, H E; Miranda, I C S; Neto, W S; Almeida, L L; Canal, C W; Stein, M C; Corbellini, L G

    2016-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most important diseases of cattle in terms of economic costs and welfare. The aims were to estimate herd prevalence and to investigate the factors associated with antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) in dairy herds through a matched case-control study. To estimate herd prevalence, BTM samples were randomly selected (n = 314) from a population (N = 1604). The true prevalence of BVDV was 24.3% (CI 95% = 20.1-29.3%). For the case-control study, BVDV antibody-positive herds (high antibody titres) were classified as cases (n = 21) and matched (n = 63) by milk production with herds presenting low antibody titres (ratio of 1 : 3). Three multivariable models were built: 1) full model, holding all 21 variables, and two models divided according to empirical knowledge and similarity among variables; 2) animal factor model; and 3) biosecurity model. The full model (model 1) identified: age as a culling criteria (OR = 0.10; CI 95% = 0.02-0.39; P < 0.01); farms that provided milk to other industries previously (OR = 4.13; CI 95% = 1.17-14.49; P = 0.02); and isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.14; CI 95% = 0.01-0.26; P = 0.02). The biosecurity model revealed a significant association with the use of natural mating (OR = 9.03; CI 95% = 2.14-38.03; P < 0.01); isolation paddocks for ill animals (OR = 0.06; CI 95% = 0.05-0.83; P = 0.03); years providing milk for the same industry (OR = 0.94; CI 95% = 0.91-0.97; P = 0.02); and direct contact over fences among cattle of neighbouring farms (OR = 5.78; CI 95% = 1.41-23.67; P = 0.04). We recommend the application of grouping predictors as a good choice for model building because it could lead to a better understanding of disease-exposure associations.

  12. Driving safety after brain damage: follow-up of twenty-two patients with matched controls.

    PubMed

    Katz, R T; Golden, R S; Butter, J; Tepper, D; Rothke, S; Holmes, J; Sahgal, V

    1990-02-01

    Driving after brain damage is a vital issue, considering the large number of patients who suffer from cerebrovascular and traumatic encephalopathy. The ability to operate a motor vehicle is an integral part of independence for most adults and so should be preserved whenever possible. The physician may estimate a patient's ability to drive safely based on his own examination, the evaluation of a neuropsychologist, and a comprehensive driving evaluation--testing, driving simulation, behind-the-wheel observation--with a driving specialist. This study sought to evaluate the ability of brain-damaged individuals to operate a motor vehicle safely at follow-up. These patients had been evaluated (by a physician, a neuropsychologist, and a driving specialist) and were judged able to operate a motor vehicle safely after their cognitive insult. Twenty-two brain-damaged patients who were evaluated at our institution were successfully followed up to five years (mean interval of 2.67 years). Patients were interviewed by telephone. Their driving safely was compared with a control group consisting of a close friend or spouse of each patient. Statistical analysis revealed no difference between patient and control groups in the type of driving, the incidence of speeding tickets, near accidents, and accidents, and the cost of vehicle damage when accidents occurred. The patient group was further divided into those who had, and those who had not experienced driving difficulties so that initial neuropsychologic testing could be compared. No significant differences were noted in any aspect of the neuropsychologic test battery. We conclude that selected brain-damaged patients who have passed a comprehensive driving assessment as outlined were as fit to drive as were their normal matched controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. A multicenter, matched case-control study of risk factors for equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Alford, P; Geller, S; Richrdson, B; Slater, M; Honnas, C; Foreman, J; Robinson, J; Messer, M; Roberts, M; Goble, D; Hood, D; Chaffin, M

    2001-05-01

    Risk factors for equine laminitis were examined in a prospective case-control study of the 258 cases seen at six collaborating veterinary teaching hospitals over a 32-month period. Case-control pairs were matched on institution, clinician, and season of diagnosis. The 90% of case-control pairs (78 acute, 155 chronic) that had complete data for age, gender, and breed were used in separate conditional logistic-regression models for acute and chronic laminitis. There was an increase in risk for horses with acute laminitis from 5 to 7 years of age (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.3-16) and from 13 to 31 years of age (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.3-12) (both compared to <5 years); risk was increased for chronic laminitis from 10 to 14 years (OR 3, 95% CI 1.4-6.8) and from 15 to 38 years (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-6.1) (both compared to <6 years). Mares - but not stallions - were more likely than geldings to develop acute laminitis (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2) and chronic laminitis (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.6). In the small acute-laminitis data set, the breed variable was collapsed into three categories: Thoroughbred (THB, reference), the Quarter Horse (QH), and other (non-QH-THB). The non-QH-THB group was at increased risk of acute laminitis (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-11.8). For the seven breed-group categories used in the chronic-laminitis model, however, all non-THB breed groups appeared significantly at risk as compared to the THB, with odds ratios ranging from 3.3 (95% CI 1.3-8.30) for the QH to 9.1 (95% CI 2.1-39.3) for ponies.

  14. Training understanding of reversible sentences: a study comparing language-impaired children with age-matched and grammar-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems with language comprehension, and little is known about how to remediate these. We focused here on errors in interpreting sentences such as "the ball is above the cup", where the spatial configuration depends on word order. We asked whether comprehension of such short reversible sentences could be improved by computerized training, and whether learning by children with SLI resembled that of younger, typically-developing children. Methods. We trained 28 children with SLI aged 6-11 years, 28 typically-developing children aged from 4 to 7 years who were matched to the SLI group for raw scores on a test of receptive grammar, and 20 typically-developing children who were matched to the SLI group on chronological age. A further 20 children with SLI were given pre- and post-test assessments, but did not undergo training. Those in the trained groups were given training on four days using a computer game adopting an errorless learning procedure, during which they had to select pictures to correspond to spoken sentences such as "the cup is above the drum" or "the bird is below the hat". Half the trained children heard sentences using above/below and the other half heard sentences using before/after (with a spatial interpretation). A total of 96 sentences was presented over four sessions. Half the sentences were unique, whereas the remainder consisted of 12 repetitions of each of four sentences that became increasingly familiar as training proceeded. Results. Age-matched control children performed near ceiling (≥ 90% correct) in the first session and were excluded from the analysis. Around half the trained SLI children also performed this well. Training effects were examined in 15 SLI and 16 grammar-matched children who scored less than 90% correct on the initial training session. Overall, children's scores improved with training. Memory span was a significant predictor of improvement, even

  15. CIRCULATING CONCENTRATIONS OF THYROID HORMONE IN BELUGA WHALES (DELPHINAPTERUS LEUCAS): INFLUENCE OF AGE, SEX, AND SEASON.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Allender, Matthew C; Giovanelli, Richard P; Summers, Sandra D; Spoon, Tracey R; St Leger, Judy A; Goertz, Caroline E C; Dunn, J Lawrence; Romano, Tracy A; Hobbs, Roderick C; Tuttle, Allison D

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid hormones play a critical physiologic role in regulating protein synthesis, growth, and metabolism. To date, because no published compilation of baseline values for thyroid hormones in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) exists, assessment of thyroid hormone concentrations in this species has been underused in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to document the concentrations of total thyroxine (tT4) and total triiodothyronine (tT3) in healthy aquarium-maintained and free-ranging beluga whales and to determine the influence of age, sex, and season on the thyroid hormone concentrations. Archived serum samples were collected from healthy aquarium-maintained (n=43) and free-ranging (n=39) belugas, and serum tT4 and tT3 were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassay. The mean tT4 concentration in aquarium-maintained belugas was 5.67±1.43 μg/dl and the mean tT3 concentration was 70.72±2.37 ng/dl. Sex comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained males had significantly greater tT4 and tT3 (9.70±4.48 μg/dl and 92.65±30.55 ng/dl, respectively) than females (7.18±2.82 μg/dl and 77.95±20.37 ng/dl) (P=0.004 and P=0.013). Age comparisons showed that aquarium-maintained whales aged 1-5 yr had the highest concentrations of tT4 and tT3 (8.17±0.17 μg/dl and 105.46±1.98 ng/dl, respectively) (P=0.002 and P<0.001). tT4 concentrations differed significantly between seasons, with concentrations in winter (4.59±1.09 μg/dl) being significantly decreased compared with spring (P=0.009), summer (P<0.0001), and fall (P<0.0001) concentrations. There was a significant difference in tT4 and tT3 concentrations between aquarium-maintained whales (5.67±1.43 μg/dl and 70.72±15.57 ng/dl, respectively) and free-ranging whales (11.71±3.36 μg/dl and 103.38±26.45 ng/dl) (P<0.0001 and P<0.001). Clinicians should consider biologic and environmental influences (age, sex, and season) for a more accurate interpretation of thyroid hormone concentrations in belugas

  16. Clinically derived early postoperative pain trajectories differ by age, sex, and type of surgery.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Patrick J; Le-Wendling, Linda T; Patel, Ameet; Zou, Baiming; Fillingim, Roger B

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of age, sex, and type of surgery on postoperative pain trajectories derived in a clinical setting from pain assessments in the first 24 hours after surgery. This study is a retrospective cohort study using a large electronic medical records system to collect and analyze surgical case data. The sample population included adult patients undergoing nonambulatory nonobstetric surgery in a single institution over a 1-year period. Analyses of postoperative pain trajectories were performed using a linear mixed-effects model. Pain score observations (91,708) from 7293 patients were included in the statistical analysis. On average, the pain score decreased about 0.042 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.044 to -0.040) points on the numerical rating scale (NRS) per hour after surgery for the first 24 postoperative hours. The pain score reported by male patients was approximately 0.27 (95% CI: -0.380 to -0.168) NRS points lower than that reported by females. Pain scores significantly decreased over time in all age groups, with a slightly more rapid decrease for younger patients. Pain trajectories differed by anatomic location of surgery, ranging from -0.054 (95% CI: -0.062 to -0.046) NRS units per hour for integumentary and nervous surgery to -0.104 (95% CI: -0.110 to -0.098) NRS units per hour for digestive surgery, and a positive trajectory (0.02 [95% CI: 0.016 to 0.024] NRS units per hour) for musculoskeletal surgery. Our data support the important role of time after surgery in considering the influence of biopsychosocial and clinical factors on acute postoperative pain.

  17. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.

  18. Effects of age, sex, and persistent organic pollutants on DNA methylation in children.

    PubMed

    Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Bradman, Asa; Yan, Liying; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2014-04-01

    Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may be a molecular mechanism through which environmental exposures affect health. Methylation of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) is a well-established measure of DNA methylation often used in epidemiologic studies. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of host factors on LINE-1 and Alu methylation in children. We characterized the relationship of age, sex, and prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with DNA methylation in a birth cohort of Mexican-American children participating in the CHAMACOS study. We measured Alu and LINE-1 methylation by pyrosequencing bisulfite-treated DNA isolated from whole blood samples collected from newborns and nine-year old children (n = 358). POPs were measured in maternal serum during late pregnancy. Levels of DNA methylation were lower in nine-year olds compared to newborns and were higher in boys compared to girls. Higher prenatal DDT/E exposure was associated with lower Alu methylation at birth, particularly after adjusting for cell type composition (P = 0.02 for o,p' -DDT). Associations of POPs with LINE-1 methylation were only identified after examining the co-exposure of DDT/E with PBDEs simultaneously. Our data suggest that repeat element methylation can be an informative marker of epigenetic differences by age and sex and that prenatal exposure to POPs may be linked to hypomethylation in fetal blood. Accounting for co-exposure to different types of chemicals and adjusting for blood cell types may increase sensitivity of epigenetic analyses for epidemiological studies.

  19. Corneal Expression of SLURP-1 by Age, Sex, Genetic Strain, and Ocular Surface Health

    PubMed Central

    Swamynathan, Sudha; Delp, Emili E.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; Loughner, Chelsea L.; Raju, Leela; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although secreted Ly6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor–related protein-1 (Slurp1) transcript is highly abundant in the mouse cornea, corresponding protein expression remains uncharacterized. Also, SLURP1 was undetected in previous tear proteomics studies, resulting in ambiguity about its baseline levels. Here, we examine mouse corneal Slurp1 expression in different sexes, age groups, strains, and health conditions, and quantify SLURP1 in human tears from healthy or inflamed ocular surfaces. Methods Expression of Slurp1 in embryonic day-13 (E13), E16, postnatal day-1 (PN1), PN10, PN20, and PN70 Balb/C, FVBN, C57Bl/6, and DBA/2J mouse corneas, Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneas with corneal epithelial–specific ablation of Klf4, migrating cells in wild-type corneal epithelial wound edge, and in corneas exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) poly(I:C), zymosan-A, or Pam3Csk4 was examined by QPCR, immunoblots, and immunofluorescent staining. Human SLURP1 levels were quantified by ELISA in tears from 34 men and women aged 18 to 80 years. Results Expression of Slurp1, comparable in different strains and sexes, was low in E13, E16, PN1, and PN10 mouse corneas, and increased rapidly after eyelid opening in a Klf4-dependent manner. We found Slurp1 was downregulated in corneas exposed to PAMPs, and in migrating cells at the wound edge. Human SLURP1 expression, comparable in different sexes and age groups, was significantly decreased in tears from inflamed ocular surfaces (0.34%) than those from healthy individuals (0.77%). Conclusions These data describe the influence of age, sex, genetic background, and ocular surface health on mouse corneal expression of Slurp1, establish the baseline for human tear SLURP1 expression, and identify SLURP1 as a useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic target for inflammatory ocular surface disorders. PMID:26670825

  20. Aerobic capacity in wild satin bowerbirds: repeatability and effects of age, sex and condition.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark A; Savard, Jean-Francois; Siani, Jennifer; Coleman, Seth W; Keagy, Jason; Borgia, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Individual variation in aerobic capacity has been extensively studied, especially with respect to condition, maturity or pathogen infection, and to gain insights into mechanistic foundations of performance. However, its relationship to mate competition is less well understood, particularly for animals in natural habitats. We examined aerobic capacity [maximum rate of O2 consumption (VO2,max) in forced exercise] in wild satin bowerbirds, an Australian passerine with a non-resource based mating system and strong intermale sexual competition. We tested for repeatability of mass and VO2,max, differences among age and sex classes, and effects of several condition indices. In adult males, we examined interactions between aerobic performance and bower ownership (required for male mating success). There was significant repeatability of mass and VO2,max within and between years, but between-year repeatability was lower than within-year repeatability. VO2,max varied with an overall scaling to mass(0.791), but most variance in VO2,max was not explained by mass. Indicators of condition (tarsus and wing length asymmetry, the ratio of tarsus length to mass) were not correlated to VO2,max. Ectoparasite counts were weakly correlated to VO2,max across all age-sex classes but not within any class. Adult males, the cohort with the most intense levels of mating competition, had higher VO2,max than juvenile birds or adult females. However, there was no difference between the VO2,max of bower-owning males and that of males not known to hold bowers. Thus one major factor determining male reproductive success was not correlated to aerobic performance.

  1. Preliminary Experience Using Full-Spectrum Endoscopy for Colorectal Cancer Screening: Matched Case Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Sayo; Imai, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Masao; Igarashi, Kimihiro; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Takizawa, Kohei; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Noboru; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. High-quality colonoscopy is needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality of colorectal cancer. Full-spectrum endoscopy (FUSE) has recently shown potential in improving adenoma detection during colonoscopy. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and utility of FUSE colonoscopy. Methods. From April 2015 to February 2016, 130 patients underwent FUSE colonoscopy for screening at a tertiary cancer center. Cecal intubation rate (CIR), procedure time, polyp/adenoma detection rate (PDR/ADR), and mean number of adenomas per colonoscopy (APC) were compared in matched-control patients (n = 260) who underwent standard colonoscopy (SC). Accordingly, endoscopists subjectively evaluated the utility of FUSE colonoscopy. Results. The CIR of FUSE colonoscopy was 94.6%. Cecal intubation time (8.8 min versus 5.1 min, P < 0.001) and total procedure time (21.6 min versus 17.3 min, P < 0.001) in the FUSE group were significantly longer than those in the SC group. PDR (68.3 versus 71.2%, P = 0.567), ADR (63.4% versus 58.5%, P = 0.355), and APC (1.4 versus 1.4, P = 0.917) were not significantly different between the two groups. The wide view of FUSE colonoscopy was superior to that of SC based on the questionnaires. Conclusions. FUSE colonoscopy did not demonstrate superiority to SC in a clinical setting. PMID:27994617

  2. Dissociative Symptoms and Reported Trauma Among Patients with Spirit Possession and Matched Healthy Controls in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nijenhuis, Ellert; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gernaat, Hajo B. P. E.; de Jong, Joop T.

    2010-01-01

    Spirit possession is a common, worldwide phenomenon with dissociative features. Studies in Europe and the United States have revealed associations among psychoform and somatoform dissociation and (reported) potential traumatic events. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among spirit possession, dissociative symptoms and reported potentially traumatizing events in Uganda. One hundred nineteen persons with spirit possession, diagnosed by traditional healers, were compared to a matched control group of 71 nonpossessed persons. Assessments included demographic items and measures of dissociation and potentially traumatizing events. Compared to the nonpossessed group, the possessed group reported more severe psychoform dissociation and somatoform dissociation and more potentially traumatizing events. The associations between these events and both types of dissociation were significant. Yet, consistent with the cultural perception of dissociative symptoms, the participants subjectively did not associate dissociative symptoms with potentially traumatizing events. In conclusion, spirit possession deserves more interest as a possible idiom of distress and a culture-specific expression of dissociation related to potential traumatizing events. PMID:20401630

  3. Dissociative symptoms and reported trauma among patients with spirit possession and matched healthy controls in Uganda.

    PubMed

    van Duijl, Marjolein; Nijenhuis, Ellert; Komproe, Ivan H; Gernaat, Hajo B P E; de Jong, Joop T

    2010-06-01

    Spirit possession is a common, worldwide phenomenon with dissociative features. Studies in Europe and the United States have revealed associations among psychoform and somatoform dissociation and (reported) potential traumatic events. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among spirit possession, dissociative symptoms and reported potentially traumatizing events in Uganda. One hundred nineteen persons with spirit possession, diagnosed by traditional healers, were compared to a matched control group of 71 nonpossessed persons. Assessments included demographic items and measures of dissociation and potentially traumatizing events. Compared to the nonpossessed group, the possessed group reported more severe psychoform dissociation and somatoform dissociation and more potentially traumatizing events. The associations between these events and both types of dissociation were significant. Yet, consistent with the cultural perception of dissociative symptoms, the participants subjectively did not associate dissociative symptoms with potentially traumatizing events. In conclusion, spirit possession deserves more interest as a possible idiom of distress and a culture-specific expression of dissociation related to potential traumatizing events.

  4. On the matching equations of energy shaping controllers for mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crasta, N.; Ortega, Romeo; Pillai, Harish K.

    2015-09-01

    Total energy shaping is a controller design methodology that achieves (asymptotic) stabilisation of mechanical systems endowing the closed-loop system with a Lagrangian or Hamiltonian structure with a desired energy function. The success of the method relies on the possibility of solving two partial differential equations (PDEs) which identify the kinetic and potential energy functions that can be assigned to the closed loop. Particularly troublesome is the PDE associated to the kinetic energy (KE) which is quasi-linear and non-homogeneous, and the solution that defines the desired inertia matrix must be positive definite. This task is simplified by the inclusion of gyroscopic forces in the target dynamics, which translates into the presence of a free skew-symmetric matrix in the KE matching equation that reduces the number of PDEs to be solved. Recently, it has been claimed that considering a more general form for the target dynamic forces that relax the skew-symmetry condition further reduces the number of KE PDEs. The purpose of this paper is to prove that this claim is wrong.

  5. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of kicking by children in grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, S A; Loovis, E M

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of kicking by children in Grades K-8. The subjects were 379 boys and 337 girls (ages 4 to 14) enrolled in a medium-sized school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed on kicking development and static and dynamic balance. All subjects completed a survey on their participation in school or community-sponsored soccer. To assess the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and sport participation within each grade, data were subjected to multiple regression analysis. Development of mature form was significantly related to sex (Grade 6: boys outperformed girls), static and dynamic balance (Grade 7), and age (Grade 6).

  6. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of throwing by children in grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, S A; Loovis, E M

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of throwing by children in Grades K-8. The subjects were 381 boys and 338 girls (ages 4-14) enrolled in a medium-sized school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed in throwing development and static and dynamic balance. In addition, all subjects completed a survey relative to their participation in school- or community-sponsored sports. To determine the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and sport participation within each grade, data were subjected to multiple regression analysis, which indicated that mature throwing development was influenced by sport participation and sex. Boys performed better at all grades.

  7. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of sidearm striking by children grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of sidearm-striking by children in Grades K through 8. Each of 380 boys and 337 girls (ages 4-14 years), enrolled in a medium-size school system in southeastern Maine, was individually assessed on side-arm-striking and on static and dynamic balance. All subjects completed a survey relative to their participation in school or community-sponsored sports. To assess the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and sport participation within each grade, data were subjected to multiple-regression analysis. Development of mature striking was associated with sex; boys performed better at all grades except in Grade 5 where the percentage of girls showing a mature sidearm-striking pattern approximated that of boys.

  8. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of catching by children grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of catching by children in Grades K to 8. The subjects were 380 boys and 337 girls (ages 4 to 14) enrolled in a medium-sized school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed on catching and static and dynamic balance. In addition, all subjects completed a survey relative to their participation in school or community-sponsored sports. To assess the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and participation in sports within each grade, data were subjected to multiple-regression analysis. Mature catching development was influenced by sex; boys performed better at all grades except in Grade 8 all girls and boys showed mature catching patterns.

  9. The effect of age, sex, and physical activity on entheseal morphology in a contemporary Italian skeletal collection.

    PubMed

    Milella, Marco; Giovanna Belcastro, Maria; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Mariotti, Valentina

    2012-07-01

    Entheseal changes are traditionally included in a large array of skeletal features commonly referred to as "skeletal markers of activity." However, medical studies and recent anthropological analyses of identified skeletal series suggest a complex combination of physiological and biomechanical factors underlying the variability of such "markers." The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between age, sex, physical activity, and entheseal variability. To this end, 23 postcranial entheses are examined in a large (N = 484) Italian contemporary skeletal series using standardized scoring methods. The sample comprises subjects of known age, sex and, mostly, occupation. Results show a strong relationship between age and entheseal changes. Differences between sexes are also highlighted, while the effects of physical activity appear moderate. Altogether, our study indicates that entheseal morphology primarily reflects the age of an individual, while correlation with lifetime activity remains ambiguous.

  10. Effects of age, sex, and genotype on high-sensitivity metabolomic profiles in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jessica M; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Li, Shuzhao; Sidik, Alfire; Jones, Dean P; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have used whole-genome sequencing and gene expression profiling to identify genes associated with age, in the hope of understanding the underlying mechanisms of senescence. But there is a substantial gap from variation in gene sequences and expression levels to variation in age or life expectancy. In an attempt to bridge this gap, here we describe the effects of age, sex, genotype, and their interactions on high-sensitivity metabolomic profiles in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Among the 6800 features analyzed, we found that over one-quarter of all metabolites were significantly associated with age, sex, genotype, or their interactions, and multivariate analysis shows that individual metabolomic profiles are highly predictive of these traits. Using a metabolomic equivalent of gene set enrichment analysis, we identified numerous metabolic pathways that were enriched among metabolites associated with age, sex, and genotype, including pathways involving sugar and glycerophospholipid metabolism, neurotransmitters, amino acids, and the carnitine shuttle. Our results suggest that high-sensitivity metabolomic studies have excellent potential not only to reveal mechanisms that lead to senescence, but also to help us understand differences in patterns of aging among genotypes and between males and females. PMID:24636523

  11. Effects of age, sex, and genotype on high-sensitivity metabolomic profiles in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jessica M; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Li, Shuzhao; Sidik, Alfire; Jones, Dean P; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have used whole-genome sequencing and gene expression profiling to identify genes associated with age, in the hope of understanding the underlying mechanisms of senescence. But there is a substantial gap from variation in gene sequences and expression levels to variation in age or life expectancy. In an attempt to bridge this gap, here we describe the effects of age, sex, genotype, and their interactions on high-sensitivity metabolomic profiles in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Among the 6800 features analyzed, we found that over one-quarter of all metabolites were significantly associated with age, sex, genotype, or their interactions, and multivariate analysis shows that individual metabolomic profiles are highly predictive of these traits. Using a metabolomic equivalent of gene set enrichment analysis, we identified numerous metabolic pathways that were enriched among metabolites associated with age, sex, and genotype, including pathways involving sugar and glycerophospholipid metabolism, neurotransmitters, amino acids, and the carnitine shuttle. Our results suggest that high-sensitivity metabolomic studies have excellent potential not only to reveal mechanisms that lead to senescence, but also to help us understand differences in patterns of aging among genotypes and between males and females.

  12. Impact of age, sex and route of administration on adverse events after opioid treatment in the emergency department: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Daoust, Raoul; Paquet, Jean; Lavigne, Gilles; Piette, Éric; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of opioids for acute pain relief in the emergency department (ED) is well recognized, but treatment with opioids is associated with adverse events ranging from minor discomforts to life-threatening events. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of age, sex and route of administration on the incidence of adverse events due to opioid administration in the ED. METHODS: Real-time archived data were analyzed retrospectively in a tertiary care urban hospital. All consecutive patients (≥16 years of age) who were assigned to an ED bed and received an opioid between March 2008 and December 2012 were included. Adverse events were defined as: nausea/vomiting (minor); systolic blood pressure (SBP) <90 mmHg, oxygen saturation (Sat) <92% and respiration rate <10 breaths/min (major) within 2 h of the first opioid doses. RESULTS: In the study period, 31,742 patients were treated with opioids. The mean (± SD) age was 55.8±20.5 years, and 53% were female. The overall incidence of adverse events was 12.0% (95% CI 11.6% to 12.4%): 5.9% (95% CI 5.6% to 6.2%) experienced nausea/vomiting, 2.4% (95% CI 2.2% to 2.6%) SBP <90 mmHg, 4.7% (95% CI 4.5% to 4.9%) Sat that dropped to <92% and 0.09% respiration rate <10 breaths/min. After controlling for confounding factors, these adverse events were associated with: female sex (more nausea/vomiting, more SBP <90 mmHg, less Sat <92%); age ≥65 years (less nausea/vomiting, more SBP <90 mmHg, more Sat <92%); and route of administration (intravenous > subcutaneous > oral). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of adverse events associated with opioid administration in the ED is generally low and is associated with age, sex and route of administration. PMID:25664538

  13. Risk factors for tube shunt exposure: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Koval, Michael S; El Sayyad, Fouad F; Bell, Nicholas P; Chuang, Alice Z; Lee, David A; Hypes, Stephen M; Grover, Davinder S; Baker, Laura A; Huddleston, Stephen M; Budenz, Donald L; Feldman, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate potential risk factors for developing tube shunt exposure in glaucoma patients. Patients and Methods. Forty-one cases from 41 patients that had tube shunt exposure from 1996 to 2005 were identified from the Robert Cizik Eye Clinic and Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Each case was matched with 2 controls of the same gender and with tube shunts implanted within 6 months of the index case. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine risk factors. Results. The study cohort includes a total of 121 eyes from 121 patients. The mean age was 63.6 ± 19.7 years, ranging from 1 to 96 years. The average time to exposure was 19.29 ± 23.75 months (range 0.36-85.74 months). Risk factors associated with tube exposure were Hispanic ethnicity (P = 0.0115; OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3-9.7), neovascular glaucoma (P = 0.0064; OR = 28.5; 95% CI, 2.6-316.9), previous trabeculectomy (P = 0.0070; OR = 5.3; 95% CI, 1.6-17.7), and combined surgery (P = 0.0381; OR = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.1-12.7). Conclusions. Hispanic ethnicity, neovascular glaucoma, previous trabeculectomy, and combined surgery were identified as potential risk factors for tube shunt exposure. These potential risk factors should be considered when determining the indication for performing tube shunt implantation and the frequency of long-term followup.

  14. Early Neuropsychological Tests as Correlates of Productivity 1 Year after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Won Hyung A.; Cullen, Nora K.; Bayley, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relative strength of five neuropsychological tests in correlating with productivity 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Six moderate-to-severe TBI patients who returned to work at 1-year post-injury were matched with six controls who were unemployed after 1 year based on age, severity of injury, and Functional…

  15. Perceptions and Congruence of Symptoms and Communication among Second-Generation Cambodian Youth and Parents: A Matched-Control Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Tamara C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perception of communication and report of symptoms among second-generation Cambodian children and their parents using a matched-control design of clinic and community children. Children reported significantly higher symptoms than parents in both samples. Clinic parents reported more symptoms than …

  16. ABCB1 genotypes and haplotypes in patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients

    PubMed Central

    Frankfort, Suzanne V; Doodeman, Valerie D; Bakker, Remco; Tulner, Linda R; van Campen, Jos PCM; Smits, Paul HM; Beijnen, Jos H

    2006-01-01

    Amyloid β is an in vitro substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux pump at the blood brain barrier (BBB). The Multi Drug Resistance (ABCB1) gene, encoding for P-gp, is highly polymorphic and this may result in a changed function of P-gp and may possibly interfere with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. This study investigates to what extent ABCB1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs; C1236T in exon 12, G2677T/A in exon 21 and C3435T in exon 26) and inferred haplotypes exist in an elderly population and if these SNPs and haplotypes differ between patients with dementia and age-matched non-demented control patients. ABCB1 genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies were neither significantly different between patients with dementia and age-matched controls, nor between subgroups of different types of dementia nor age-matched controls. This study shows ABCB1 genotype frequencies to be comparable with described younger populations. To our knowledge this is the first study on ABCB1 genotypes in dementia. ABCB1 genotypes are presently not useful as a biomarker for dementia, as they were not significantly different between demented patients and age-matched control subjects. PMID:16999857

  17. Regression Artifacts in Nonequivalent Control Group Designs: An Empirical Investigation of Bias in ANCOVA and Matching Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermillion, James E.

    The presence of artifactual bias in analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and in matching nonequivalent control group (NECG) designs was empirically investigated. The data set was obtained from a study of the effects of a television program on children from three day care centers in Mexico in which the subjects had been randomly selected within centers.…

  18. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  19. Indirect Estimates of Jaw Muscle Tension in Children with Suspected Hypertonia, Children with Suspected Hypotonia, and Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaghan, Kathryn P.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared indirect estimates of jaw-muscle tension in children with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities with age- and gender-matched controls. Method: Jaw movement and muscle activation were measured in children (ages 3 years, 11 months, to 10 years) with suspected muscle-tone abnormalities (Down syndrome or…

  20. Year 1 Evaluation of the KIPP DIAMOND Academy: Analysis of TCAP Scores for Matched Program-Control Group Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron; Gallagher, Brenda McSparrin

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, 49 fifth-graders enrolled the KIPP D.I.A.M.O.N.D. Academy in the 2002-03 school year were individually matched to control student from five feeder schools on the basis of ethnicity, free-reduced lunch status, and fourth-grade achievement on the Reading and Mathematics subtests of the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment…

  1. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Simmi; Lal, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Aim: Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Results: Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did

  2. Effects of sports drinks on the maintenance of physical performance during 3 tennis matches: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tennis tournaments often involve playing several consecutive matches interspersed with short periods of recovery. Objective The objective of this study was firstly to assess the impact of several successive tennis matches on the physical performance of competitive players and secondly to evaluate the potential of sports drinks to minimize the fatigue induced by repeated matches. Methods This was a crossover, randomized controlled study. Eight male regionally-ranked tennis players participated in this study. Players underwent a series of physical tests to assess their strength, speed, power and endurance following the completion of three tennis matches each of two hours duration played over three consecutive half-days (1.5 day period for each condition). In the first condition the players consumed a sports drink before, during and after each match; in the second, they drank an identical volume of placebo water. The results obtained were compared with the third ‘rest’ condition in which the subjects did not play any tennis. Main outcomes measured were maximal isometric strength and fatigability of knee and elbow extensors, 20-m sprint speed, jumping height, specific repeated sprint ability test and hand grip strength. Results The physical test results for the lower limbs showed no significant differences between the three conditions. Conversely, on the upper limbs the EMG data showed greater fatigue of the triceps brachii in the placebo condition compared to the rest condition, while the ingestion of sports drinks attenuated this fatigue. Conclusions This study has demonstrated for the first time that, when tennis players are adequately hydrated and ingest balanced meals between matches, then no large drop in physical performance is observed even during consecutive competitive matches. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01353872. PMID:25302057

  3. Intertrial Sources of Stimulus Control and Delayed Matching-to-Sample Performance in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dean C.; Johnston, Mark D.; Saunders, Kathryn J.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments compared delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) accuracy under 2 procedures in adults with mental retardation. In the trial-unique procedure, every trial in a session contained different stimuli. Thus, comparison stimuli that were correct on one trial were never incorrect on other trials in that session (or vice versa). In the 2-sample…

  4. Cervical spinal cord dimensions and clinical outcomes in adults with klippel-feil syndrome: a comparison with matched controls.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woojin; Lee, Dong-Ho; Auerbach, Joshua D; Sehn, Jennifer K; Nabb, Colin E; Riew, K Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Retrospective case-control study. Objectives To confirm the fact that spinal cord dimensions are smaller in adults with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) than in pediatric patients with KFS and to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of neurologic complications in patients with KFS with matched controls. Methods We performed an independent 1:2 case-control retrospective radiographic and chart review of a consecutive series of adults with KFS who underwent surgical intervention. The control group consisted of consecutive non-KFS surgical patients. Patients were matched in 1:2 case-control manner. Their charts were reviewed and the clinical characteristics were compared. Axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure the anteroposterior and mediolateral axial spinal cord and spinal canal at the operative levels and measurements were compared. Results A total of 22 patients with KFS and 44 controls were identified. The KFS group had a tendency of more myeloradiculopathy, and the control group had a tendency toward more radiculopathy. Both tendencies, however, were not significantly different. MRIs of 10 patients from the KFS group and 22 controls were available. There was no difference in the area of both spinal cord and canal at the operative levels. Conclusion Contrary to the finding in previous reports on pediatric patients, there were no differences between KFS and well-matched control groups in terms of age of onset, presentation, revision rate, complication rate, surgical outcome, and cross-sectional spinal cord and canal dimensions at the operative level.

  5. Missing exposure data in stereotype regression model: application to matched case-control study with disease subclassification.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jaeil; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Gruber, Stephen B; Sinha, Samiran

    2011-06-01

    With advances in modern medicine and clinical diagnosis, case-control data with characterization of finer subtypes of cases are often available. In matched case-control studies, missingness in exposure values often leads to deletion of entire stratum, and thus entails a significant loss in information. When subtypes of cases are treated as categorical outcomes, the data are further stratified and deletion of observations becomes even more expensive in terms of precision of the category-specific odds-ratio parameters, especially using the multinomial logit model. The stereotype regression model for categorical responses lies intermediate between the proportional odds and the multinomial or baseline category logit model. The use of this class of models has been limited as the structure of the model implies certain inferential challenges with nonidentifiability and nonlinearity in the parameters. We illustrate how to handle missing data in matched case-control studies with finer disease subclassification within the cases under a stereotype regression model. We present both Monte Carlo based full Bayesian approach and expectation/conditional maximization algorithm for the estimation of model parameters in the presence of a completely general missingness mechanism. We illustrate our methods by using data from an ongoing matched case-control study of colorectal cancer. Simulation results are presented under various missing data mechanisms and departures from modeling assumptions.

  6. Oncologic Outcomes after Immediate Breast Reconstruction Following Total Mastectomy in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jai Min; Paik, Hyun-June; Park, Sungmin; Yi, Ha Woo; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Se Kyung; Yu, Jonghan; Bae, Soo Youn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The use of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) following total mastectomy (TM) has increased markedly in patients with breast cancer. As the indications for IBR have been broadened and more breast-conserving surgery-eligible patients are undergoing IBR, comparing the oncologic safety between TM only and IBR following TM becomes more difficult. This study aimed to analyze the oncologic outcomes between TM only and IBR following TM via a matched case-control methodology. Methods A retrospective review was conducted to identify all patients who underwent TM between 2008 and 2014. We excluded patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, including palliative chemotherapy, and had a follow-up duration <12 months, inflammatory breast cancer, or incomplete data. We divided the remaining patients into two groups: those who underwent TM only (control group) and those who underwent IBR following TM (study group). The groups were propensity score-matched. Matched variables included age, pathologic stage, estrogen or progesterone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status, and year of operation. Results After matching, 878 patients were enrolled in the control group and 580 patients in the study group. The median follow-up duration was 43.4 months (range, 11–100 months) for the control group and 41.3 months (range, 12–100 months) for the study group (p=1.000). The mean age was 47.3±8.46 years for the control group and 43.9±7.14 years for the study group (p>0.050). Matching was considered successful for the matching variables and other factors, such as family history, histology, multiplicity, and lymphovascular invasion. There were no significant differences in overall survival (log-rank p=0.454), disease-free survival (log-rank p=0.186), local recurrence-free survival (log-rank p=0.114), or distant metastasis-free survival rates (logrank p=0.537) between the two groups. Conclusion Our results suggest that IBR following TM is a feasible

  7. Quasi-phase matching and quantum control of high harmonic generation in waveguides using counterpropagating beams

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Xiaoshi; Lytle, Amy L.; Cohen, Oren; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2010-11-09

    All-optical quasi-phase matching (QPM) uses a train of counterpropagating pulses to enhance high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a hollow waveguide. A pump pulse enters one end of the waveguide, and causes HHG in the waveguide. The counterpropagation pulses enter the other end of the waveguide and interact with the pump pulses to cause QPM within the waveguide, enhancing the HHG.

  8. Correction factor for the analysis of the hip fracture incidence--differences between age, sex, region, and calendar year.

    PubMed

    Icks, Andrea; Haastert, Burkhard; Glaeske, Gerd; Stumpf, Ulla; Windolf, Joachim; Hoffmann, Falk

    2012-06-01

    Several studies evaluated hip fracture incidences and its predictors and trends using hospital discharge registries. However, this source does not provide patient-related data, therefore the hospital changes or re-hospitalisations cannot be identified as "double counting". If double counting differs with age, sex, region, and time, the estimates may be biased. Aim of our study was to evaluate the magnitude of multiple counting and, in particular, its variation with age, sex, region, and calendar year. We used data of a German-wide health insurance (1.6 million members). Between 1998 and 2009, we assessed all hip fractures (ICD 9: 820, ICD 10: S.72.0-2) in individuals aged 50 years or older and calculated the probability to be a patient's "first" fracture in each calendar year. Using multiple logistic regressions, we estimated the influence of age, sex, region, and calendar year. The probabilities of a "first fracture" per patient and year varied between 86.7 % (95 % confidence interval 83.9-89.2 %, year 2003) and 93.9 % (90.9-96.2 %, year 1998). Age (odds ratio per 5 years 0.89; 95 % CI 0.86-0.92), region (East vs. West Germany: 0.65; 0.52-0.81), and calendar year (per year 0.97; 0.95-0.99) were significantly associated in the multiple regression. The probability to have multiple counting of hip fracture events varied significantly with age, region, and calendar year. It should be discussed that analyses which do not account for this may provide invalid estimates and conclusions when differences between age groups and regions or trends are analyzed.

  9. Cognitive sex differences are not magnified as a function of age, sex hormones, or puberty development during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Herlitz, Agneta; Reuterskiöld, Lena; Lovén, Johanna; Thilers, Petra P; Rehnman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Are cognitive sex differences magnified by individual differences in age, sex hormones, or puberty development? Cross-sectional samples of 12- to 14-year-old boys (n = 85) and girls (n = 102) completed tasks assessing episodic memory, face recognition, verbal fluency, and mental rotations. Blood estradiol, free testosterone, and self-rated puberty scores were obtained. Sex differences were found on all cognitive measures. However, the magnitude was not larger for older children, hormones and cognitive performance were not associated, and early maturers did not perform better than late maturers. Thus, cognitive sex differences were not associated with age, levels of sex hormones, or puberty development.

  10. Effect of telephone health coaching (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs: cohort study with matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Tunkel, Sarah; Blunt, Ian; Bardsley, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To test the effect of a telephone health coaching service (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs. Design Analysis of person level administrative data. Difference-in-difference analysis was done relative to matched controls. Setting Community based intervention operating in a large English city with industry. Participants 2698 patients recruited from local general practices before 2009 with heart failure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and a history of inpatient or outpatient hospital use. These individuals were matched on a 1:1 basis to control patients from similar areas of England with respect to demographics, diagnoses of health conditions, previous hospital use, and a predictive risk score. Intervention Telephone health coaching involved a personalised care plan and a series of outbound calls usually scheduled monthly. Median length of time enrolled on the service was 25.5 months. Control participants received usual healthcare in their areas, which did not include telephone health coaching. Main outcome measures Number of emergency hospital admissions per head over 12 months after enrolment. Secondary metrics calculated over 12 months were: hospital bed days, elective hospital admissions, outpatient attendances, and secondary care costs. Results In relation to diagnoses of health conditions and other baseline variables, matched controls and intervention patients were similar before the date of enrolment. After this point, emergency admissions increased more quickly among intervention participants than matched controls (difference 0.05 admissions per head, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 0.09, P=0.046). Outpatient attendances also increased more quickly in the intervention group (difference 0.37 attendances per head, 0.16 to 0.58, P<0.001), as did secondary care costs (difference £175 per head, £22 to £328, P=0.025). Checks showed that we were unlikely to have missed reductions in

  11. Adding Boolean-Quality Control to Best-Match Searching via an Improved User Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    its actual relevance. The same cannot be said of a best-match system. For example, with the query “ Monarch ” AND “ butterfly ” , a Boolean system will...this to giving the roughly-analogous query “ Monarch butterfly ” to a probabilistic system. Not only is the system likely to retrieve documents that...discuss either queens and kings, or butterflies in general, without mentioning Monarch 5/31/00, 2:03 PM 4 butterflies ; but— much worse— it stands a good

  12. Male, but not Female, Alcohol-Dependent African Americans Discount Delayed Gains More Steeply than Propensity-Score Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Grucza, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol dependence is known to be associated with steep discounting of delayed rewards, but its relation to the discounting of delayed losses and probabilistic rewards is unclear. Moreover, patterns of alcohol consumption vary considerably between communities, but previous research has not examined the relation between discounting and alcohol dependence in low-income African Americans. Objectives The goal of the present study was to determine whether low-income, alcohol-dependent African Americans differ from controls in the degree to which they discount delayed rewards, delayed losses, or probabilistic rewards. Methods African American participants, both cases and controls, were recruited from the same low-income neighborhoods, and propensity-score matching was used to further control for demographic differences. Participants performed three tasks that assessed their discounting of hypothetical monetary outcomes: delayed rewards, delayed losses, and probabilistic rewards. Results Alcohol-dependent cases discounted delayed gains, but not delayed losses or probabilistic gains, more steeply than their matched controls. The difference in discounting of delayed gains was localized to the male cases, whose discounting was steeper than either the male controls or the female cases; no gender difference was observed between male and female controls. Conclusions The present results extend findings regarding discounting by substance abusers to a previously unstudied group, low-income African Americans, and suggest that in this group at least, alcohol dependence, particularly in males, may be more a reflection of choosing immediate rewards than of ignoring their delayed negative consequences. PMID:26387518

  13. Pitch Characteristics Before Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Pitchers Compared With Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Prodromo, John; Patel, Nimit; Kumar, Neil; Denehy, Kevin; Tabb, Loni Philip; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) is commonly performed in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers, but little is known about the preoperative pitch type and velocity characteristics of pitchers who go on to undergo UCLR. Hypothesis: Pitchers who required UCLR have thrown a greater percentage of fastballs and have greater pitch velocities compared with age-matched controls in the season before injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: MLB pitchers active during the 2002 to 2015 seasons were included. The UCLR group consisted of MLB pitchers who received UCLR between 2003 and 2015, utilizing the season before surgery (2002-2014) for analysis. The control group comprised age-matched controls of the same season. Players who pitched less than 20 innings in the season before surgery were excluded. Pitch types were recorded as percentage of total pitches thrown. Pitch velocities were recorded for each pitch type. Pitch type and pitch velocities during preoperative seasons for UCLR pitchers were compared with age-matched controls using univariate and multivariate models. Results: A total of 114 cases that went on to UCLR and 3780 controls were included in the study. Pitchers who went on to UCLR appear to have greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities; there were no significant differences in pitch selection between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In the season before surgery, MLB pitchers who underwent UCLR demonstrated greater fastball, slider, curveball, changeup, and split-fingered fastball velocities, with no significant difference in pitch type. PMID:27350954

  14. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: Results from a nationally representative United States sample

    PubMed Central

    Taillieu, Tamara L.; Afifi, Tracie O.; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n = 34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. PMID:25466426

  15. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    PubMed

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time.

  16. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  17. A statistical human rib cage geometry model accounting for variations by age, sex, stature and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hoff, Carrie N; Hu, Jingwen

    2014-07-18

    In this study, we developed a statistical rib cage geometry model accounting for variations by age, sex, stature and body mass index (BMI). Thorax CT scans were obtained from 89 subjects approximately evenly distributed among 8 age groups and both sexes. Threshold-based CT image segmentation was performed to extract the rib geometries, and a total of 464 landmarks on the left side of each subject׳s ribcage were collected to describe the size and shape of the rib cage as well as the cross-sectional geometry of each rib. Principal component analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted to predict rib cage geometry as a function of age, sex, stature, and BMI, all of which showed strong effects on rib cage geometry. Except for BMI, all parameters also showed significant effects on rib cross-sectional area using a linear mixed model. This statistical rib cage geometry model can serve as a geometric basis for developing a parametric human thorax finite element model for quantifying effects from different human attributes on thoracic injury risks.

  18. Predictors of health practices within age-sex groups: National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences, 1979.

    PubMed Central

    Rakowski, W

    1988-01-01

    Health promotion-disease prevention programs share with health behavior research the common objective of identifying population subgroups toward whom services can be targeted. For this report, six age-sex groups were examined to determine similarities and differences in the predictors of eight health practice indices. Data were from the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences. Results showed very little similarity of predictors across the three age cohorts (20-34, 35-49, 50-64), between men and women, and among the six age-sex groups. No predictor achieved significance consistently for several health practices in any of the six groups, although years of education made the best showing. The lack of overlap among predictors helps to explain why health promotion messages and recruitment strategies may not appeal to as diverse an audience as initially intended. Possible explanations for the absence of similar predictors include differences in the nature of the various practices themselves, absence of data on intentions behind a person's behavior, and the "over-determined" character of an individual person's behavior. PMID:3136496

  19. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    PubMed

    Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Schmutz, Joel A

    2009-06-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  20. Refractive index and solubility control of para-cymene solutions for index-matched fluid-structure interaction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, Charles; Fu, Christopher D.; Weichselbaum, Noah A.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2015-12-01

    To deploy optical diagnostics such as particle image velocimetry or planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in complex geometries, it is beneficial to use index-matched facilities. A binary mixture of para-cymene and cinnamaldehyde provides a viable option for matching the refractive index of acrylic, a common material for scaled models and test sections. This fluid is particularly appropriate for large-scale facilities and when a low-density and low-viscosity fluid is sought, such as in fluid-structure interaction studies. This binary solution has relatively low kinematic viscosity and density; its use enables the experimentalist to select operating temperature and to increase fluorescence signal in PLIF experiments. Measurements of spectral and temperature dependence of refractive index, density, and kinematic viscosity are reported. The effect of the binary mixture on solubility control of Rhodamine 6G is also characterized.

  1. Associations Between Physical Fitness Indices and Working Memory in Breast Cancer Survivors and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle E.; Raine, Lauren B.; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate recovery, and physical activity on working memory in breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls. Method: Using a case-control design, 32 women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis and completed primary treatment within the past 36-months (11 radiation only; 21 chemotherapy) and 30 age-matched women with no previous cancer diagnosis completed a n-back continuous performance task commonly used as an assessment of working memory. In addition, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery were measured during a submaximal graded exercise test and physical activity was measured using 7-days of accelerometer monitoring. Results: Breast cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy had poorer heart rate recovery (p = .010) and engaged in less physical activity than women who had received radiation only (p = .004) or non-cancer controls (p = .029). Cancer treatment (radiation; chemotherapy) predicted differences in reaction times on the 1-back working memory task (p = .029). However, more rapid heart rate recovery predicted shorter reaction times on the 1-back task in the age-matched control group (p = .002). All participants with greater cardiorespiratory fitness displayed greater accuracy independent of disease status on the 1-back task (p = .017). No significant group differences in reaction times were observed for 2-back target trials between breast cancer survivors and controls. However, greater total physical activity predicted shorter reaction times in breast cancer survivors (radiation, chemotherapy) on the 2-back task (p = .014). In addition, all participants who exhibited more rapid heart rate recovery demonstrated better greater accuracy regardless of disease status (p = .013). Conclusion: These findings support differences in physical activty participation, heart rate recovery, and 1- and 2-back working memory reaction

  2. Risk factors for deaths during the 2009 heat wave in Adelaide, Australia: a matched case-control study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Nitschke, Monika; Krackowizer, Antoinette; Dear, Keith; Pisaniello, Dino; Weinstein, Philip; Tucker, Graeme; Shakib, Sepehr; Bi, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The extreme heat wave in Australia in 2009 resulted in significantly increased number of daily deaths. The circumstances that lead to deaths during extreme heat have not been explored before in Australia. This study aims to identify the individual and community risk factors for deaths during this extreme heat wave in Adelaide. A matched case-control study was conducted. Cases were those who died in the Adelaide metropolitan area during the heat wave period. For each case, two community controls were randomly selected, matched by age and gender. Face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted to collect data of demographic information, living environment, social support, health status and behavioural changes during the heat wave. Descriptive analysis, as well as simple and multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed. In total, 82 deaths and 164 matched community controls were included in the analysis, with a median age of 77.5 (range 26.6-100.7). The multiple logistic regression model indicated that, compared with controls, the risk of death during the heat wave was significantly increased for people living alone (AOR = 42.31, 95 % CI 2.3, 792.8) or having existing chronic heart disease (AOR = 22.4, 95 % CI 1.7, 303.0). In addition, having air conditioning in bedrooms (AOR = 0.004, 95 % CI 0.00006, 0.28) and participating in social activities more than once a week (AOR = 0.011, 95 % CI 0.0004, 0.29) indicated significant protective effects. We have identified factors that could significantly impact on the likelihood of deaths during heat waves. Our findings could assist in the development of future intervention programs and policies to reduce mortality associated with a warmer climate.

  3. Incident acute pseudogout and prior bisphosphonate use: Matched case–control study in the UK-Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Edward; Muller, Sara; Paskins, Zoe; Hider, Samantha L.; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milisa; Mallen, Christian D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Oral bisphosphonates are the most commonly used drugs to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Acute pseudogout is anecdotally reported to occur following bisphosphonate initiation but empirical data are lacking. We investigated whether treatment with oral bisphosphonates is a risk factor for incident acute pseudogout. A matched case–control study was undertaken using data from the UK-Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Adults who consulted for incident acute pseudogout between 1987 and 2012 were each matched for gender, age at pseudogout diagnosis, and general practice to up to 4 control subjects without pseudogout. The exposure of interest was a prescription for an oral bisphosphonate issued within the 60-day period prior to the date of incident acute pseudogout. Associations between incident acute pseudogout and prior bisphosphonate prescription were examined using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for hyperparathyroidism, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hemochromatosis, hypophosphatasia, and prescriptions for diuretics and oral corticosteroids. Two thousand eleven acute pseudogout cases were compared with 8013 matched controls without acute pseudogout (mean age [standard deviation] 72 years [14]; 52% male). One hundred twenty-three cases (6.1%) had received an oral bisphosphonate prescription in the 60-day exposure period compared with 305 controls (3.8%) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.69). This association was stronger in females (adjusted IRR 1.49; 95% CI 1.15–1.94) and was nonsignificant in males (0.83; 0.48–1.44). Incident acute pseudogout was associated with prescription of an oral bisphosphonate in the preceding 60 days. Prescribers should be aware of acute pseudogout as a possible side effect of bisphosphonate treatment. Further research is needed to explore the risks conferred by different bisphosphonates and the mechanism underlying this association. PMID:28328803

  4. Risk factors for and impact of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection: matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Henig, O; Weber, G; Hoshen, M B; Paul, M; German, L; Neuberger, A; Gluzman, I; Berlin, A; Shapira, C; Balicer, R D

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify risk factors for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and its association with mortality. A population-based matched case-control study using the computerized database of Clalit Health Services (CHS) in the period between 2007 and 2012 was conducted. Hospitalized patients with CRAB colonization or infection were compared to hospitalized patients without evidence of A. baumannii, matched by age, ward of hospitalization, season, Charlson score, and length of hospitalization. Risk factors for CRAB isolation were searched for using multivariate analysis. Association of CRAB and other risk factors with mortality were assessed in the cohort. A total of 1190 patients with CRAB were matched to 1190 patients without CRAB. Low socioeconomic status was independently associated with CRAB isolation and CRAB bacteremia [odds ratio 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-5]. Other risk factors were invasive procedures and bacteremia with other pathogens prior to CRAB isolation, and various comorbidities. Among all patients, CRAB isolation was independently associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 2.33, 95% CI 2.08-2.6). Socioeconomic status is associated with health outcomes. Our population-based study revealed an almost doubled risk for CRAB in patients at lower socioeconomic status and an association with healthcare exposure. CRAB was associated with mortality and might become a risk indicator for complex morbidity and mortality.

  5. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD.

  6. Modeling of threonine requirement in fast-growing chickens, depending on age, sex, protein deposition, and dietary threonine efficiency.

    PubMed

    Samadi; Liebert, F

    2006-11-01

    In addition to dose-response studies, modeling of N utilization, depending on intake of the first limiting amino acid in the diet, is one of the tools for assessing amino acid requirements in growing animals. Based on a verified nonlinear N-utilization model and following the principles of the diet dilution technique, N-balance experiments were conducted to estimate the Thr requirement of fast-growing chickens (genotype Cobb), depending on age, sex, CP deposition. and efficiency of dietary Thr utilization. Different predictions were made for the feed intake to conclude the optimal Thr concentration in the feed. The results are based on N-balance experiments with a total of 144 male and 144 female growing chickens within 4 age periods (I: 10 to 25 d; II: 30 to 45 d; III: 50 to 65 d; IV: 70 to 85 d), using diets with graded protein supply (6.6, 13, 19.6, 25.1, 31.8, and 37.6% CP in DM) from high-protein soybean meal with a constant amino acid ratio and Thr as the first limiting amino acid (3.87 g of Thr/100 g of CP; dietary Lys:Thr = 1:0.54). The observed optimal Thr concentration (% of feed) was influenced by age, sex, level of CP deposition, dietary efficiency of Thr utilization, and predicted feed intake. For male chickens, assuming an average CP deposition (60% of the potential) and average efficiency of Thr utilization, 0.78% (10 to 25 d), 0.73% (30 to 45 d), 0.65% (50 to 65 d), and 0.55% (70 to 85 d) total dietary Thr were observed as optimal total Thr concentration in the diet (corresponding to 60, 135, 160, and 180 g of daily feed intake, respectively). Data are discussed in context with the main factors of influence like age, sex, level of daily CP deposition, efficiency of dietary Thr utilization, and predicted feed intake.

  7. Estimation and testing of the relative risk of disease in case-control studies with a set of k matched controls per case with known prevalence of disease.

    PubMed

    Moser, Barry Kurt; Halabi, Susan

    2012-01-13

    The analysis of case-control studies with matched controls per case is well documented in the medical literature. Of primary interest is the estimation of the relative risk of disease. Matched case-control studies fall into two scenarios: the probability of exposure is constant within each of the case and control groups, or the probability of exposure varies within each group. Numerous estimation procedures have been developed for both scenarios. Often these procedures are developed under the rare disease assumption, where the relative risk of disease is approximated by the odds ratio. In this paper, without making the rare disease assumption, we develop consistent estimators of the relative risk of disease for both scenarios. Exact derivations of the relative risk of disease are provided. Estimators, confidence intervals, and test statistics for the relative risk of disease are developed. We then make the following observations based on extensive simulations. First, our estimators are as close or closer to the relative risk of disease than other estimators. Second, our estimators produce mean square errors for the relative risk of disease that are as good as or better than these other estimators. Third, our confidence intervals provide accurate coverage probabilities. Therefore, these new estimators, confidence intervals, and test statistics can be used to either estimate or test the relative risk of disease in matched case-control studies.

  8. Shimmed matching pulses: Simultaneous control of rf and static gradients for inhomogeneity correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, John M.; Demas, Vasiliki; Martin, Rachel W.; Bouchard, Louis-S.; Pines, Alexander

    2009-12-01

    Portable NMR systems generally suffer from poor field homogeneity and are therefore used more commonly for imaging and relaxation measurements rather than for spectroscopy. In recent years, various approaches have been proposed to increase the sample volume that is usable for spectroscopy. These include approaches based on manual shimming and those based on clever combinations of modulated radio frequency and gradient fields. However, this volume remains small and, therefore, of limited utility. We present improved pulses designed to correct for inhomogeneous dispersion across wide ranges of frequency offsets without eliminating chemical shift or spatial encoding. This method, based on the adiabatic double passage, combines the relatively larger corrections available from spatially matched rf gradients [C. Meriles et al., J. Magn. Reson. 164, 177 (2003)]. with the adjustable corrections available from time-modulated static field gradients [D. Topgaard et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 17576 (2004)]. We explain the origins of these corrections with a theoretical model that simplifies and expedites the design of the pulse waveforms. We also present a generalized method for evaluating and comparing pulses designed for inhomogeneity correction. Experiments validate this method and support simulations that offer new possibilities for significantly enhanced performance in portable environments.

  9. Matched case-control analysis comparing oncologic outcomes between preoperative and postoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Chul; Park, In Ja; Kim, Chan Wook; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang Sik

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate patterns of recurrence and oncologic outcomes after recurrence between preoperative and postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods Records of patients with stage II or III locally advanced rectal cancer seen between January 2000 and December 2010 were analyzed. The outcomes for patients undergoing preoperative CRT followed by radical resection (n = 466) were compared with outcomes of patients matched for sex, age, and stage who had surgery and then postoperative CRT (n = 466). Recurrence rates and sites, treatment of recurrence, and oncologic outcomes after recurrence were investigated. The rate of sphincter preservation and permanent stoma formation were also evaluated. Results Recurrence occurred in 124 and 140 patients in the pre- and postoperative CRT groups, respectively. The local and systemic recurrence rates were 3.6% and 20.8%, respectively, in the preoperative CRT group and 3.0% and 25.3%, respectively, in the postoperative CRT group (P = 0.245). Time to recurrence was longer in the postoperative CRT group (19 months vs. 24.2 months, P = 0.029). The overall rates of sphincter preservation (sphincter preservation operation and postoperative permanent stoma formation) did not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.381). The 5-year overall survival rate after recurrence did not differ between the two groups (25.6% vs. 18.6%, P = 0.051). Conclusion Preoperative and postoperative CRT are both safe and suitable treatment methods for rectal cancer, so the choice can be tailored to the patient's situation. PMID:28382292

  10. Coupling analysis of a matched piezoelectric sensor and actuator pair for vibration control of a smart beam.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sup; Gardonio, Paolo; Elliott, Stephen J

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of the in-plane and out-of-plane coupling of a matched piezoelectric sensor/actuator pair bonded on a beam. Both the sensor and actuator are triangularly shaped polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) transducers and are intended to provide a compact sensor/actuator system for beam vibration control. The measured sensor-actuator frequency response function has shown an unpredicted increase in magnitude with frequency, which was found, to be due to in-plane vibration coupling. An analytical model has been developed to decompose the sensor-actuator response function into an in-plane contribution and an out-of-plane contribution. This in-plane coupling can limit the feedback control gains when a direct velocity feedback control is applied. A method called the j omega s compensation method is proposed to identify the effect of the in-plane vibration coupling at low frequencies. Even after this compensation, however, there was unexpected strong out-of-plane coupling at even modes, which may have been caused by a lack of accuracy in the shaping of the PVDF sensor and actuator. Numerical simulations have confirmed the sensitivity of the matched sensor/actuator pair with shaping errors.

  11. The role of control groups in mutagenicity studies: matching biological and statistical relevance.

    PubMed

    Hauschke, Dieter; Hothorn, Torsten; Schäfer, Juliane

    2003-06-01

    The statistical test of the conventional hypothesis of "no treatment effect" is commonly used in the evaluation of mutagenicity experiments. Failing to reject the hypothesis often leads to the conclusion in favour of safety. The major drawback of this indirect approach is that what is controlled by a prespecified level alpha is the probability of erroneously concluding hazard (producer risk). However, the primary concern of safety assessment is the control of the consumer risk, i.e. limiting the probability of erroneously concluding that a product is safe. In order to restrict this risk, safety has to be formulated as the alternative, and hazard, i.e. the opposite, has to be formulated as the hypothesis. The direct safety approach is examined for the case when the corresponding threshold value is expressed either as a fraction of the population mean for the negative control, or as a fraction of the difference between the positive and negative controls.

  12. Influence of age, sex and breeding status on mercury accumulation patterns in the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans.

    PubMed

    Tavares, S; Xavier, J C; Phillips, R A; Pereira, M E; Pardal, M A

    2013-10-01

    Although mercury bio-amplifies through the food chain and accumulates in top predators, mercury concentrations in tissues of the wandering albatross are greater than in any other vertebrate, including closely related species. In order to explore the alternative explanations for this pattern, we measured total mercury concentrations in feathers, plasma and blood cells of wandering albatrosses of known age, sex and breeding status sampled at South Georgia. Mercury concentrations were low in feathers and blood components of chicks, and higher in the feathers of young pre-breeders than in feathers or blood of older pre-breeders and breeding adults. There was no effect of sex on mercury concentrations in the feathers of pre-breeders or breeding adults, whereas levels were significantly higher in blood cells of breeding females than males. The high feather mercury concentrations of young pre-breeders compared with older birds suggest an increase in moult frequency as birds approach maturity.

  13. [Somatic parameters in patients with urinary calculi and their relationship to age, sex and kind of calculus].

    PubMed

    Schneider, H J; Janitzky, H; Schüler, G

    1979-05-01

    In the present investigation in 515 carriers of nephroliths (311 males and 204 females) age, sex, type of constitution, body weight, physical load and blood pressure are set in relation to the various kinds of calculi. Here it was revealed that males more frequently fall ill with nephrolithiasis than females, that there exist certain age peaks, the pycnic typ of constitution preferredly appears in female carriers of calculi and the athletic type in male ones, the majority of all examined patients had in comparison to the normal an increased body weight, and a very large proportion of persons with only insignificant physical load is found among the carriers of calculi. The result of the relations of blood pressure was that only half of all patients with urolithiasis examined had a normotonic blood pressure.

  14. Prevalence of peptic ulcer in dyspeptic patients and the influence of age, sex, and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Chao; Tuo, Bi-Guang; Wu, Wei-Min; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Kui

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of peptic ulcer in dyspeptic patients in China to analyze the influence of age, sex, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The results showed that the prevalence of gastric and duodenal ulcer increased with age. In patients under 60 years old, the prevalence of duodenal and gastric ulcers in females was markedly lower than that in males, especially the prevalence of duodenal ulcer. The prevalence of duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer in H. pylori-infected patients was markedly higher than in patients without H. pylori infection. In the patients under 60 years old, sex differences were still seen in both H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. The prevalence of gastric and duodenal ulcers was markedly increased with age in both H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, male sex, and H. pylori infection were three independent risk factors for gastric and duodenal ulcers.

  15. ASSET (Age/Sex Standardised Estimates of Treatment): A Research Model to Improve the Governance of Prescribing Funds in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Favato, Giampiero; Mariani, Paolo; Mills, Roger W.; Capone, Alessandro; Pelagatti, Matteo; Pieri, Vasco; Marcobelli, Alberico; Trotta, Maria G.; Zucchi, Alberto; Catapano, Alberico L.

    2007-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to make the first step in the modelling of pharmaceutical demand in Italy, by deriving a weighted capitation model to account for demographic differences among general practices. The experimental model was called ASSET (Age/Sex Standardised Estimates of Treatment). Methods and Major Findings Individual prescription costs and demographic data referred to 3,175,691 Italian subjects and were collected directly from three Regional Health Authorities over the 12-month period between October 2004 and September 2005. The mean annual prescription cost per individual was similar for males (196.13 euro) and females (195.12 euro). After 65 years of age, the mean prescribing costs for males were significantly higher than females. On average, costs for a 75-year-old subject would be 12 times the costs for a 25–34 year-old subject if male, 8 times if female. Subjects over 65 years of age (22% of total population) accounted for 56% of total prescribing costs. The weightings explained approximately 90% of the evolution of total prescribing costs, in spite of the pricing and reimbursement turbulences affecting Italy in the 2000–2005 period. The ASSET weightings were able to explain only about 25% of the variation in prescribing costs among individuals. Conclusions If mainly idiosyncratic prescribing by general practitioners causes the unexplained variations, the introduction of capitation-based budgets would gradually move practices with high prescribing costs towards the national average. It is also possible, though, that the unexplained individual variation in prescribing costs is the result of differences in the clinical characteristics or socio-economic conditions of practice populations. If this is the case, capitation-based budgets may lead to unfair distribution of resources. The ASSET age/sex weightings should be used as a guide, not as the ultimate determinant, for an equitable allocation of prescribing resources to

  16. The sleep of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on and off methylphenidate: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Galland, Barbara C; Tripp, E Gail; Taylor, Barry J

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of regular use of methylphenidate medication in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on sleep timing, duration and sleep architecture. Twenty-seven children aged 6-12 years meeting diagnostic criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV ADHD and 27 control children matched for age (+/-3 months) and gender. Two nights of standard polysomnographic (PSG) recordings were conducted. ADHD children were allocated randomly to an on- or 48 h off-methylphenidate protocol for first or second recordings. Control children's recordings were matched for night, but no medication was used. Mixed modelling was employed in the analyses so that the full data set was used to determine the degree of medication effects. Methylphenidate in ADHD children prolonged sleep onset by an average of 29 min [confidence interval (CI) 11.6, 46.7], reduced sleep efficiency by 6.5% (CI 2.6, 10.3) and shortened sleep by 1.2 h (CI 0.65, 1.9). Arousal indices were preserved. Relative amounts of stages 1, 2 and slow wave sleep were unchanged by medication. Rapid eye movement sleep was reduced (-2.4%) on the medication night, an effect that became non-significant when control data were incorporated in the analyses. PSG data from ADHD children off-medication were similar to control data. Our findings suggest that methylphenidate reduces sleep quantity but does not alter sleep architecture in children diagnosed with ADHD. An adequate amount of sleep is integral to good daytime functioning, thus the sleep side effects of methylphenidate may affect adversely the daytime symptoms the drug is targeted to control.

  17. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: a propensity score-matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Gu, Yeqing; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Han, Peipei; Dong, Renwei; Wang, Xiuyang; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Liu, Fangfang; Yang, Huijun; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Guo, Qi; Wu, Yuntang; Song, Kun; Huang, Guowei; Wang, Guolin; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-10-06

    Previous studies indicated that dietary patterns were associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), but little is known in Chinese. We design this case-control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and MS in Chinese adults. In this study, 1492 participants with MS were matched with 1492 controls using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and MS was defined in accordance with the criteria of the American Heart Association scientific statement of 2009. Higher scores for the high-protein/cholesterol pattern were associated with higher prevalence of MS. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile, the odds ratio (OR) for the extreme quartile was 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10-1.68) and the P for trend <0.01 after adjusted for the other two dietary pattern scores. We also found a moderate consumption of the balanced pattern was associated with the lowest prevalence of MS. The ORs across quartiles of the balanced pattern were 1 (reference), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.68-1.02), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.56-0.85), and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68-1.04) after adjustment. Our study demonstrates that there is a strong association between a diet rich in animal offal, animal blood, meat, and sausage and a higher prevalence of MS.

  18. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: a propensity score-matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Gu, Yeqing; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Han, Peipei; Dong, Renwei; Wang, Xiuyang; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Liu, Fangfang; Yang, Huijun; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Guo, Qi; Wu, Yuntang; Song, Kun; Huang, Guowei; Wang, Guolin; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that dietary patterns were associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), but little is known in Chinese. We design this case-control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and MS in Chinese adults. In this study, 1492 participants with MS were matched with 1492 controls using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and MS was defined in accordance with the criteria of the American Heart Association scientific statement of 2009. Higher scores for the high-protein/cholesterol pattern were associated with higher prevalence of MS. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile, the odds ratio (OR) for the extreme quartile was 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.10–1.68) and the P for trend <0.01 after adjusted for the other two dietary pattern scores. We also found a moderate consumption of the balanced pattern was associated with the lowest prevalence of MS. The ORs across quartiles of the balanced pattern were 1 (reference), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.68–1.02), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.56–0.85), and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68–1.04) after adjustment. Our study demonstrates that there is a strong association between a diet rich in animal offal, animal blood, meat, and sausage and a higher prevalence of MS. PMID:27708414

  19. [The matched case-control study of the risk factors associated with edema-proteinuria hypertension syndrome (EPHS)].

    PubMed

    Guo, Z C

    1992-12-01

    This paper conducted a matched case-control study to determine the possible risk factors associated with EPHS. 208 cases and 208 matched controls were selected from two affiliated hospitals of Tianjin Medical College between 1 Dec. 1986 and 30 Oct. 1987. The conditional logistic regression analysis showed that basic diastolic blood pressure, the history of hypertension TH Time Hurry) +CH (Competition and Hostility) scores and quetelet index were the major risk factors. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence of OR for these factors were 1.08 (1.04-1.12), 3.58 (1.88-6.83), 1.05 (1.03-1.09), 1.17 (1.05-1.31), respectively. Compared with Type B behavior, OR for Type A behavior is 3.06 (2.24-4.19). OR for women with history of hypertension of her father is 2.5 (1.49-4.20). The lower the average family income, education level, the higher the risk of EPHS. Basic systolic blood Pressure and body weight were positively related to EPHS. Did not find relationship between fetal sex, maternal age, parity, age of menarche, rest period during pregnancy and EPHS.

  20. Workload-Matched Adaptive Automation Support of Air Traffic Controller Information Processing Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Wright, Melanie C.; Clamann, Michael P.

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive automation (AA) has been explored as a solution to the problems associated with human-automation interaction in supervisory control environments. However, research has focused on the performance effects of dynamic control allocations of early stage sensory and information acquisition functions. The present research compares the effects of AA to the entire range of information processing stages of human operators, such as air traffic controllers. The results provide evidence that the effectiveness of AA is dependent on the stage of task performance (human-machine system information processing) that is flexibly automated. The results suggest that humans are better able to adapt to AA when applied to lower-level sensory and psychomotor functions, such as information acquisition and action implementation, as compared to AA applied to cognitive (analysis and decision-making) tasks. The results also provide support for the use of AA, as compared to completely manual control. These results are discussed in terms of implications for AA design for aviation.

  1. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Ordinance may be cited as the ``Gun Lake Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance.'' Section 2 The purpose of this... the State of Michigan. Chapter 2 Definitions For purposes of this Ordinance the following definitions apply: (a) ``Alcohol'' means that substance known as ethyl alcohol, hydrated oxide of ethyl, or...

  2. Design and Construction of Generalizable RNA-Protein Hybrid Controllers by Level-Matched Genetic Signal Amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yen-Hsiang; McKeague, Maureen; Hsu, Tammy M; Smolke, Christina D

    2016-12-21

    For synthetic biology applications, protein-based transcriptional genetic controllers are limited in terms of orthogonality, modularity, and portability. Although ribozyme-based switches can address these issues, their current two-stage architectures and limited dynamic range hinder their broader incorporation into systems-level genetic controllers. Here, we address these challenges by implementing an RNA-protein hybrid controller with a three-stage architecture that introduces a transcription-based amplifier between an RNA sensor and a protein actuator. To facilitate the construction of these more complex circuits, we use a model-guided strategy to efficiently match the activities of stages. The presence of the amplifier enabled the three-stage controller to have up to 200-fold higher gene expression than its two-stage counterpart and made it possible to implement higher-order controllers, such as multilayer Boolean logic and feedback systems. The modularity inherent in the three-stage architecture along with the sensing flexibility of RNA devices presents a generalizable framework for designing and building sophisticated genetic control systems.

  3. Diagnoses indicating pain and analgesic drug prescription in patients with dementia: a comparison to age- and sex-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence of undertreatment of pain in patients with dementia is inconsistent. This may largely be due to methodological differences and shortcomings of studies. In a large cohort of patients with incident dementia and age- and sex-matched controls we examined (1) how often they receive diagnoses indicating pain, (2) how often they receive analgesics and (3) in which agents and formulations. Methods Using health insurance claims data we identified 1,848 patients with a first diagnosis of dementia aged ≥ 65 years and 7,385 age- and sex-matched controls. We analysed differences in diagnoses indicating pain and analgesic drugs prescribed between these two groups within the incidence year. We further fitted logistic regression models and stepwise adjusted for several covariates to study the relation between dementia and analgesics. Results On average, patients were 78.7 years old (48% female). The proportions receiving at least one diagnosis indicating pain were similar between the dementia and control group (74.4% vs. 72.5%; p = 0.11). The proportion who received analgesics was higher in patients with dementia in the crude analysis (47.5% vs. 44.7%; OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.24), but was significantly lower when adjusted for socio-demographic variables, care dependency, comorbidities and diagnoses indicating pain (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68-0.88). Analgesics in liquid form such as metamizole and tramadol were more often used in dementia. Conclusions Our findings show a comparable documentation of diagnoses indicating pain in persons with incident dementia compared to those without. However, there still seems to be an undertreatment of pain in patients with dementia. Irrespective of dementia, analgesics seem to be more often prescribed to sicker patients and to control pain in the context of mobility. PMID:24520876

  4. Stable Schizophrenia Patients Learn Equally Well as Age-Matched Controls and Better than Elderly Controls in Two Sensorimotor Rotary Pursuit Tasks

    PubMed Central

    De Picker, Livia J.; Cornelis, Claudia; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Fransen, Erik; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sensorimotor performance and learning in stable schizophrenia patients, healthy age- and sex-matched controls and elderly controls on two variations of the rotary pursuit: circle pursuit (true motor learning) and figure pursuit (motor and sequence learning). Method: In the circle pursuit, a target circle, rotating with increasing speed along a predictable circular path on the computer screen, must be followed by a cursor controlled by a pen on a writing tablet. In the eight-trial figure pursuit, subjects learn to draw a complex figure by pursuing the target circle that moves along an invisible trajectory between and around several goals. Tasks were administered thrice (day 1, day 2, day 7) to 30 patients with stable schizophrenia (S), 30 healthy age- and sex-matched controls (C), and 30 elderly participants (>65 years; E) and recorded with a digitizing tablet and pressure-sensitive pen. The outcome measure accuracy (% of time that cursor is within the target) was used to assess performance. Results: We observed significant group differences in accuracy, both in circle and figure pursuit tasks (E < S < C, p < 0.01). Strong learning effects were found in each group. Learning curves were similar in circle pursuit but differed between groups in figure pursuit. When corrected for group differences in starting level, the learning gains over the three sessions of schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls were equal and both were larger than those of the elderly controls. Conclusion: Despite the reduced sensorimotor performance that was found in the schizophrenia patients, their sensorimotor learning seems to be preserved. The relevance of this finding for the evaluation of procedural learning in schizophrenia is discussed. The better performance and learning rate of the patients compared to the elderly controls was unexpected and deserves further study. PMID:25505425

  5. Is It Time to Phase Out the Austin Moore Hemiarthroplasty? A Propensity Score Matched Case Control Comparison versus Cemented Hemiarthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui-Ping; Lau, Tak-Wing; Leung, Anderson; Wong, Tak-Man; Pun, Terence

    2016-01-01

    We compared the Austin Moore hemiarthroplasty versus cemented hemiarthroplasties using a propensity score matched cased control study. For a consecutive cohort of 450 patients with displaced intracapsular neck of femur fractures, 128 matched cases in each group were selected based on age, gender, walking status, nursing home residency, delays in surgery, ASA score, and the Charlson comorbidity score. At a mean follow-up of 16.3 months, we evaluated their outcomes. Significantly more patients with AMA experienced thigh pain (RR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.67–7.33,  p = 0.000), overall complications (RR = 4.47, 95% CI: 1.77–11.3, p = 0.000), and implant loosening (RR = 8.42, 95% CI: 2.63–26.95, p = 0.000). There were no definite cement related deaths in this series. There was no significant difference in mortality, walking status, and the number of revisions between the groups. We support the routine use of cemented hemiarthroplasty instead of the Austin Moore for treating elderlies with displaced intracapsular neck of femur fractures. PMID:27042669

  6. Preserved Learning during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test in Patients with Schizophrenia, Age-Matched Controls, and Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Claudia; De Picker, Livia J.; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dumont, Glenn; Timmers, Maarten; Janssens, Luc; Sabbe, Bernard G. C.; Morrens, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Speed of processing, one of the main cognitive deficits in schizophrenia is most frequently measured with a digit–symbol-coding test. Performance on this test is additionally affected by writing speed and the rate at which symbol–digit relationships are learned, two factors that may be impaired in schizophrenia. This study aims to investigate the effects of sensorimotor speed, short-term learning, and long-term learning on task performance in schizophrenia. In addition, the study aims to explore differences in learning effects between patients with schizophrenia and elderly individuals. Methods: Patients with schizophrenia (N = 30) were compared with age-matched healthy controls (N = 30) and healthy elderly volunteers (N = 30) during the Symbol–Digit Substitution Test (SDST). The task was administered on a digitizing tablet, allowing precise measurements of the time taken to write each digit (writing time) and the time to decode symbols into their corresponding digits (matching time). The SDST was administered on three separate days (day 1, day 2, day 7). Symbol–digit repetitions during the task represented short-term learning and repeating the task on different days represented long-term learning. Results: The repetition of the same symbol–digit combinations within one test and the repetition of the test over days resulted in significant decreases in matching time. Interestingly, these short-term and long-term learning effects were about equal among the three groups. Individual participants showed a large variation in the rate of short-term learning. In general, patients with schizophrenia had the longest matching time whereas the elderly had the longest writing time. Writing time remained the same over repeated testing. Conclusion: The rate of learning and sensorimotor speed was found to have a substantial influence on the SDST score. However, a large individual variation in learning rate should be taken into account in the

  7. Interface control by chemical and dimensional matching in an oxide heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Marita; Hadermann, Joke; Dyer, Matthew S.; Turner, Stuart; Alaria, Jonathan; Manning, Troy D.; Abakumov, Artem M.; Claridge, John B.; Rosseinsky, Matthew J.

    2016-04-01

    Interfaces between different materials underpin both new scientific phenomena, such as the emergent behaviour at oxide interfaces, and key technologies, such as that of the transistor. Control of the interfaces between materials with the same crystal structures but different chemical compositions is possible in many materials classes, but less progress has been made for oxide materials with different crystal structures. We show that dynamical self-organization during growth can create a coherent interface between the perovskite and fluorite oxide structures, which are based on different structural motifs, if an appropriate choice of cations is made to enable this restructuring. The integration of calculation with experimental observation reveals that the interface differs from both the bulk components and identifies the chemical bonding requirements to connect distinct oxide structures.

  8. Muscular contraction mode differently affects autonomic control during heart rate matched exercise.

    PubMed

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Martin; Gonschorek, Ray; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. The aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN) and isometric contractions (ISO) at a similar, low heart rate (HR) level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs) performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively), rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV) indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a non-linear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  9. Health Behaviors and Associated Sociodemographic Factors in Cervical Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-Cancer Controls

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, Se Ik; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    We explored the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors and examined associations between sociodemographic factors and each health behavior. We studied 448 cervical cancer survivors ≥2 years after their initial diagnosis who had completed treatment. The total sample consisted of these survivors, and 4,480 cancer-free controls who were grouped into 5-year age cohorts and matched to the survivors in terms of both education and monthly household income. The prevalence of current smoking, current alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors (2.68, 23.88, 62.02, and 32.81%, respectively) did not differ significantly from those of matched non-cancer controls. Age (younger), marital status (married), and education (≥college) were associated with lower probabilities of current alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88–0.95; OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23–0.78; OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25–0.97, respectively). A monthly household income ≥$2,000, being employed, and self–rated health status (less healthy) were associated with physical inactivity (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.99; OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.36–3.42; OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23–3.05, respectively). Both age and number of years since diagnosis were associated with obesity (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01–1.08; OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.20–0.72, respectively). The health behaviors of cervical cancer survivors did not differ from those of matched cancer-free controls. As health behaviors are modifiable, identification of cervical cancer survivors who are at risk of an unhealthy lifestyle would allow individual- and population-based intervention programs to more effectively use their limited resources. PMID:27529704

  10. Age, sex, and pubertal phase influence mentalizing about emotions and actions in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group.

  11. Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Comparable Hip Bone Geometry to Age-Matched Control Women.

    PubMed

    McBreairty, Laura E; Zello, Gordon A; Gordon, Julianne J; Serrao, Shani B; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2016-12-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BMD and measures of hip geometry were determined in women with PCOS (n = 60) and healthy controls (n = 60) aged 18-35 years. Clinical biochemical measures were also determined in women with PCOS. Measures of hip geometry, including cross-sectional area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, subperiosteal width (SPW), and section modulus, were similar between groups following correction for body mass index (BMI) (all p > 0.05) with intertrochanter SPW significantly lower in women with PCOS (p < 0.05). BMI-corrected whole body BMD as well as the lumbar spine and regions of proximal femur were also comparable between groups. In women with PCOS, BMI-corrected correlations were found between insulin and femoral shaft SPW (r = 0.322, p < 0.05), glucose and femoral neck (r = 0.301, p < 0.05), and trochanter BMD (0.348, p < 0.05), as well as between testosterone and femoral neck BMD (0.376, p < 0.05) and narrow neck cross-sectional area (0.306, p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that women with PCOS may have compromised intertrochanter SPW while oligomenorrhea appears to have no detrimental effect on bone density or geometry in women with PCOS.

  12. Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in silicon nitride ring resonators controlled by static electric field.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rafael E P; de Matos, Christiano J S

    2013-12-30

    Actively-controlled second harmonic generation in a silicon nitride ring resonator is proposed and simulated. The ring was designed to resonate at both pump and second harmonic wavelengths and quasi-phase-matched frequency conversion is induced by a periodic static electric field generated by voltage applied to electrodes arranged along the ring. Nonlinear propagation simulations were undertaken and an efficiency of -21.67 dB was calculated for 60 mW of pump power at 1550 nm and for a 30V applied voltage, which compares favorably with demonstrated all-optical second harmonic generation in integrated microresonators. Transient effects were also evaluated. The proposed design can be exploited for the construction of electro-optical devices based on nonlinear effects in CMOS compatible circuits.

  13. Athletes' age, sex, and years of education moderate the acute neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dougan, Brooke K; Horswill, Mark S; Geffen, Gina M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine which pre-existing athlete characteristics, if any, are associated with greater deficits in functioning following sports-related concussion, after controlling for factors previously shown to moderate this effect (e.g., time since injury). Ninety-one independent samples of concussion were included in a fixed+systematic effects meta-analysis (n = 3,801 concussed athletes; 5,631 controls). Moderating variables were assessed using analogue-to-ANOVA and meta-regression analyses. Post-injury assessments first conducted 1-10 days following sports-related concussion revealed significant neuropsychological dysfunction, postural instability and post-concussion symptom reporting (d = -0.54, -1.10, and -1.14, respectively). During this interval, females (d = -0.87), adolescent athletes competing in high school competitions (d = -0.60), and those with 10 years of education (d = -1.32) demonstrated larger post-concussion neuropsychological deficits than males (d = -0.42), adults (d = -0.25), athletes competing at other levels of competition (d = -0.43 to -0.41), or those with 16 years of education (d = -0.15), respectively. However, these sub-groups' differential impairment/recovery beyond 10 days could not be reliably quantified from available literature. Pre-existing athlete characteristics, particularly age, sex and education, were demonstrated to be significant modifiers of neuropsychological outcomes within 10 days of a sports-related concussion. Implications for return-to-play decision-making and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Associations between Dietary Allium Vegetables and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Hospital-Based Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pourzand, Ali; Tajaddini, Aynaz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Samadi, Nasser; Ostadrahimi, Ali-Reza; Sanaat, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The protective effect of Allium vegetables against carcinogenesis has been reported in experimental studies particularly focusing on the gut. Therefore, we conducted a hospital-based matched case-control study to explore the association between dietary Allium consumption and risk of breast cancer among Iranian women in northwest Iran. Methods A validated, quantitative, food frequency questionnaire was completed in 285 women (aged 25–65 years old) newly diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed breast cancer (grade II, III or clinical stage II, III) in Tabriz, northwest Iran, and the completed questionnaires were included in an age- and regional-matched hospital based-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Results Multivariate analysis showed that there was a negative association between the consumption of raw onion and risk of breast cancer after adjustment for covariates (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40–1.00); however, this association was insignificant. On the other hand, there was a positive association between consumption of cooked onion and risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for covariates (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.02–2.32). However, reduced risk of breast cancer was associated with higher consumption of garlic and leek with adjusted ORs of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.20–0.83) and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15–0.51), respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that high consumption of certain Allium vegetables, in particular garlic and leek, may reduce the risk of breast cancer, while high consumption of cooked onion may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:27721879

  15. The Association between GABA-Modulators and Clostridium difficile Infection – A Matched Retrospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ström, Jonathan; Tham, Johan; Månsson, Fredrik; Ahl, Jonas; Savidge, Tor C.; Dann, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Recently, metabolomics studies have suggested that the neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) may modulate C. difficile infection (CDI) pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the association between GABA-modulating pharmaceuticals and CDI development. Methods In July-December 2013, we performed a matched, retrospective case-control study in Skåne county, Sweden, to assess the association between the use of GABA-modulators (defined as regular use of at least one of the following: zolpidem, zopiclone, benzodiazepines, gabapentin, pregabalin or baclofen) and CDI. Multivariate regression models, adjusted for known risk factors for CDI, were fitted to assess the associations and a propensity score-adjusted analysis was performed. Results The study included 292 cases and 292 matched controls. In a multivariate regression model only recent antibiotic use (clindamycin, cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones) and nursing home residency was significantly associated with CDI. The regular use of any GABA-modulator was not associated with CDI (OR = 1.07, 95%CI 0.69–1.66, p = 0.76). The association between regular use of the selective GABA-agonist zolpidem and CDI trended towards significance (OR = 2.31, 95%CI 0.91–5.86, p = 0.078). These associations remained when only cases treated with antibiotics were included. Corresponding findings for zolpidem was observed in a propensity-score adjusted analysis (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 0.91–6.97, p = 0.075). Severe initial CDI was significantly associated with CDI recurrence (OR = 3.77, 95% CU 1.20–11.86, p = 0.023). Conclusion This study did not identify a general association between GABA-modulators and CDI. A trend towards a significant association between zolpidem and CDI was observed, an association that should be re-assessed in a study appropriately powered for this particular hypothesis. PMID:28060888

  16. Type A personality, hostility, time urgency and unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations between type A behaviour pattern (TABP) and injuries are inconsistent. These inconsistencies may be due to different effects of various components of TABP, namely time urgency/impatience, hostility and competitive drive. It is important to examine the relationship between the global TABP, its two components, and unintentional injuries, among undergraduates in China. Methods On the basis of a previous cross-sectional study, we conducted a matched case–control study. 253 cases and an equal number of age-, gender-, and major-matched controls were included. The questionnaire solicited socio-demographic information, the experience of injuries, the scale of TABP, and other potential confounding factors. Besides the correlation between the global TABP and injuries, the influences of the two components of TABP on injuries were also evaluated. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the crude odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted ORs of injury events. Results A dose–response relationship was apparent among students who rated themselves higher on the TABP scale (P-value for trend, 0.002), with a crude OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 0.93–9.19) for injuries comparing those with TABP to those with type B behaviour pattern (TBBP). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, TABP remained statistically significant, and the adjusted OR was 5.52 (95% CI: 1.43–21.27); from a comparison of students with TABP to those with TBBP. A dose–response relationship was also apparent between the hostility component and nonfatal injuries, both in crude analysis and after adjusting for other confounders. The relationship between time-hurry and injuries was not statistically significant, based on univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions Both the global TABP and the hostility component were associated with a dose response increase in the risk of non-fatal unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates. Further studies need to be conducted to

  17. Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus Is a Risk Factor for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A 1:2 Matched Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wen-Ze; Tian, Yun-Hong; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Cao, Ka-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes has been identified as an adverse prognostic variable which associated with an increased mortality in various cancers, including colorectal, lung, and breast cancers. However, previous studies provided inconsistent results on the association between diabetes and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between diabetes mellitus and the survival of NPC patients. Methods This study was designed as a 1:2 matched case–control study. Cases were patients who met the criteria for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM) below. Controls, matched 1:2, were patients who were normoglycemic (NDM). The survival rates were assessed by Kaplan–Meier analysis, and the survival curves were compared using a log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results Both locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the NDM group were higher than that in the DM group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.033). Additionally, subset analyses revealed that the differences in OS, LRRFS, and DFS were all significant between the two groups in the N0-N1 subset (p = 0.007, p =.000 and p = 0.002). The LRRFS was higher in the NDM group in the III-IV, T3-T4 and N0-N1 subsets (p = 0.004, p = 0.002 and p =.000). In T3-T4 subset, the NDM group experienced higher DFS than the DM group (p = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, T stage and N stage were found to be independent predictors for OS, DMFS and DFS; chemotherapy was a significant prognostic factor for DMFS and DFS, age for OS, and diabetes for LRRFS and DFS. Conclusions Type 2 diabetic mellitus is associated with poorer prognosis among patients with NPC. PMID:27760202

  18. Profitability and Market Value of Orphan Drug Companies: A Retrospective, Propensity-Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Dyfrig A.; Poletti-Hughes, Jannine

    2016-01-01

    Background Concerns about the high cost of orphan drugs has led to questions being asked about the generosity of the incentives for development, and associated company profits. Methods We conducted a retrospective, propensity score matched study of publicly-listed orphan companies. Cases were defined as holders of orphan drug market authorisation in Europe or the USA between 2000–12. Control companies were selected based on their propensity for being orphan drug market authorisation holders. We applied system General Method of Moments to test whether companies with orphan drug market authorization are valued higher, as measured by the Tobin’s Q and market to book value ratios, and are more profitable based on return on assets, than non-orphan drug companies. Results 86 companies with orphan drug approvals in European (4), USA (61) or both (21) markets were matched with 258 controls. Following adjustment, orphan drug market authorization holders have a 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.6% to 18.7%) higher return on assets than non-orphan drug companies; Tobin’s Q was higher by 9.9% (1.0% to 19.7%); market to book value by 15.7% (3.1% to 30.0%) and operating profit by 516% (CI 19.8% to 1011%). For each additional orphan drug sold, return on assets increased by 11.1% (0.6% to 21.3%), Tobin’s Q by 2.7% (0.2% to 5.2%), and market to book value ratio by 5.8% (0.7% to 10.9%). Conclusions Publicly listed pharmaceutical companies that are orphan drug market authorization holders are associated with higher market value and greater profits than companies not producing treatments for rare diseases. PMID:27768685

  19. Bus Stops and Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Collisions in Lima, Peru: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Quistberg, D. Alex; Koepsell, Thomas D.; Johnston, Brian D.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Miranda, J. Jaime; Ebel, Beth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between bus stop characteristics and pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions. Design Matched case-control study where the units of study were pedestrian crossing. Setting Random sample of 11 police commissaries in Lima, Peru. Data collection occurred from February, 2011 to September, 2011. Participants 97 intersection cases representing 1,134 collisions and 40 mid-block cases representing 469 collisions that occurred between October, 2010 and January, 2011 and their matched controls. Main Exposures Presence of a bus stop and specific bus stop characteristics. Main Outcome Occurrence of a pedestrian-motor vehicle collision. Results Intersections with bus stops were three times more likely to have a pedestrian-vehicle collision (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.53-7.03), relative to intersections without bus stops. Both formal and informal bus stops were associated with a higher odds of a collision at intersections (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.76-22.0 and OR 2.98, 1.37-6.49). At mid-block sites, bus stops on a bus-dedicated transit lane were also associated with collision risk (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.02-5.42). All bus stops were located prior to the intersection, contrary to practices in most high income countries. Conclusions In urban Lima, the presence of a bus stop was associated with a three-fold increase in risk of a pedestrian collision. The highly competitive environment among bus companies may provide an economic incentive for risky practices such as dropping off passengers in the middle of traffic and jockeying for position with other buses. Bus stop placement should be considered to improve pedestrian safety. PMID:24357516

  20. Radiolucent lines in low-contact-stress mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty: a blinded and matched case control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low-contact-stress (LCS) mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ; previously: DePuy, Warsawa, USA) provides excellent functional results and wear rates in long-term follow-up analyses. Radiological analysis shows radiolucent lines (RLL) appearing immediately or two years after primary implantation, indicative of poor seat. Investigations proved RLL to be more frequent in uncemented TKA, resulting in a consensus to cement the tibial plateau, but their association with clinical findings and patients discomfort and knee pain is still unknown. Methods 553 patients with 566 low-contact-stress (LCS) total knee prostheses were screened for continuous moderate knee pain. We compared tibial stress shielding classified by Ewald in patients suffering from pain with a matched, pain-free control group on blinded X-rays. We hypothesized a positive correlation between pain and radiolucency and higher frequency of such radiolucent lines in the most medial and most lateral zones of the tibial plateau. Results Twenty-eight patients suffered from knee pain in total. Radiolucencies were detected in 27 of these cases and in six out of 28 matched controls without knee pain. We could demonstrate a significant correlation of knee pain and radiolucencies, which appeared significantly more frequently in the outermost zones of the tibial plateau. Conclusion Our findings suggest that radiolucent lines, representing poor implant seat, about the tibial plateau are associated with knee pain in LCS patients. Radiolucencies are observed more often in noncemented LCS, and cementing the tibial plateau might improve implant seat and reduce both radiolucent lines and associated knee pain. PMID:21714916

  1. Conformational diversity of flexible ligand in metal-organic frameworks controlled by size-matching mixed ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Xiu-Ni; Qin, Lan; Yan, Xiao-Zhi; Yu, Lei; Xie, Yi-Xin; Han, Lei

    2015-12-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of N-auxiliary flexible exo-bidentate ligand 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) and carboxylates ligands naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H{sub 2}ndc) or 4,4′-(hydroxymethylene)dibenzoic acid (H{sub 2}hmdb), in the presence of cadmium(II) salts have given rise to two novel metal-organic frameworks based on flexible ligands (FL-MOFs), namely, [Cd{sub 2}(2,6-ndc){sub 2}(bpp)(DMF)]·2DMF (1) and [Cd{sub 3}(hmdb){sub 3}(bpp)]·2DMF·2EtOH (2) (DMF=N,N-Dimethylformamide). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that compound 1 exhibits a three-dimensional self-penetrating 6-connected framework based on dinuclear cluster second building unit. Compound 2 displays an infinite three-dimensional ‘Lucky Clover’ shape (2,10)-connected network based on the trinuclear cluster and V-shaped organic linkers. The flexible bpp ligand displays different conformations in 1 and 2, which are successfully controlled by size-matching mixed ligands during the self-assembly process. - Graphical abstract: Compound 1 exhibits a 3D self-penetrating 6-connected framework based on dinuclear cluster, and 2 displays an infinite 3D ‘Lucky Clover’ shape (2,10)-connected network based on the trinuclear cluster. The flexible 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane ligand displays different conformations in 1 and 2, which successfully controlled by size-matching mixed ligands during the self-assembly process.

  2. Relationship of ACL Injury and Posterior Tibial Slope With Patient Age, Sex, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Waiwaiole, Alana; Gurbani, Ajay; Motamedi, Kambiz; Seeger, Leanne; Sim, Myung Shin; Nwajuaku, Patricia; Hame, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Posterior tibial slope (PTS) has been proposed as a potential risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury; however, studies that have examined this relationship have provided inconclusive and sometimes contradictory results. Further characterization of this relationship may enable the medical community to identify individuals at greater risk for ACL injury and possibly characterize an anatomic target during surgical reconstruction. Purpose: The primary goal was to investigate the relationship between PTS and ACL injury. The secondary goal was to determine whether there are any patient factors, such as age, race, or sex, that correlate with ACL injury and PTS. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Medical records of 221 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee between January 2003 and December 2009 were reviewed. Patients were separated into 2 groups: a study group of those subjects who had undergone surgery for ACL injury (n = 107) and a control group of patients diagnosed with patellofemoral syndrome (n = 114). Demographic data were collected, and MRI images from both groups were analyzed using imaging software to obtain medial and lateral tibial slope measurements. Data were then analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparison and a multivariable regression model to determine which, if any, patient factors were related to probability of having an ACL injury. Results: ANOVA comparison demonstrated that the study group had significantly greater values for lateral PTS (6° ± 4°; P < .001) and medial PTS (7° ± 4°; P = .002) compared with controls (5° ± 3° and 5° ± 4°, respectively). After stepwise elimination of nonsignificant variables, the final multivariable logistic regression model determined that age (odds ratio [OR], 0.94; P < .001) and lateral PTS (OR, 1.12; P = .002) had statistically significant relationships with ACL injury. Medial PTS, race, and sex were not

  3. Effects of age, sex, and treatment on weight-loss dynamics in overweight people.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Atienza, David; Rincón, Emiliano; Calderón, Francisco J

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate how sex, age, and the kind of treatment followed affect weight loss in overweight men and women, as well as to develop an explanation for the evolution of weight-loss dynamics. The study consisted of 119 overweight participants (18-50 years old, body mass index >25 and <29.9 kg·m(-2)), who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment programs, namely, strength training (n = 30), endurance training (n = 30), a combination of strength training and endurance training (n = 30), and a careful treatment including diet and physical recommendations (n = 29). Each of the training groups exercised 3 times per week for 24 weeks, and their daily diet was restricted to a specific protocol during the testing period and controlled carefully. Body weight changes in the participants were evaluated every 15 days. Based on this study, we developed and validated different sets of equations to accurately capture the weight-loss dynamics. There were no significant differences in terms of global body weight changes from the statistical viewpoint, either regarding the carried out treatment or the individuals' ages. However, significant differences in weight-loss tendency were found depending on participant sex. We concluded that the effectiveness of different possible treatments for weight loss varies by sex and, based on our experimental observations, a quadratic function provides the most accurate model for capturing specific weight-loss dynamics. This trial is registered at Clinical Trials Gov.: number NCT01116856.

  4. Interactive effects of age, sex, and strain on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of soybean meal and an animal by-product blend in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if age, sex, and strain of broilers affects the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of soybean meal (SBM) and an animal by-product blend (ABB). Chicks from two broiler strains, a commercially available and another in the test phase, were obta...

  5. A Progress Report: The Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and Sensory-Motor Development According to Age, Sex and Social Class Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcio, Frank; And Others

    This paper describes the purposes and procedures of a longitudinal study designed to: (1) relate mother-infant interaction patterns to infant age, sex, and social class; (2) relate mother-infant interaction patterns to infant sensory-motor development; and (3) to examine the relationship between infant sensory-motor development and infant sex and…

  6. The Influence of Age, Sex, Social Class and Religion on Television Viewing Time and Programme Preferences among 11-15 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Gibson, Harry M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that was conducted to investigate the influence of age, sex, social class, and religion on total television viewing time and program preferences among a large sample of Scottish secondary school students. Four main program types are examined, i.e., soap, sport, light entertainment, and current awareness. (50 references) (LRW)

  7. Gestational age, sex and maternal parity correlate with bone turnover in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hany; Moustafa, Mohamed F; Amer, Hanna A; Hassanein, Sahar; Keeves, Christine; Patel, Kantilal

    2005-05-01

    Factors affecting bone turnover in premature infants are not entirely clear but certainly are different from those influencing bones of adults and children. To identify fetal and maternal factors that might influence bone turnover, we prospectively studied 50 infants (30 preterm and 20 full-term) born at Ain Shams University Obstetric Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Maternal parity and medical history and infant's weight, gestational age, gender and anthropometrical measurements were recorded. Cord blood samples were collected and serum type I collagen C-terminal propeptide (PICP) was assessed as a marker for fetal bone formation. First morning urine samples were collected and pyridinoline cross-links of collagen (Pyd) were measured as an index for bone resorption. Serum PICP was higher in premature infants when compared with full-term infants (73.30 +/- 15.1 versus 64.3 +/- 14.7, p = 0.022) and was higher in male premature infants when compared with females (81.64 +/- 9.06 versus 66.0 +/- 15.7, p = 0.018). In a multiple regression model using PICP as the dependent variable and controlling for different infant and maternal conditions, PICP significantly correlated with infant gender (r = 8.26 +/- 4.1, p = 0.05) maternal parity (r = -2.106 +/- 0.99, p = 0.041) and diabetes (r = 22.488 +/- 8.73, p = 0.041). Urine Pyd tended to increase in premature infants (612 +/- 308 versus 434 +/- 146, p = 0.057) and correlated significantly with gestational age (r = -63.93 +/- 19.55, p = 0.002). Therefore, bone formation (PICP) is influenced by fetal age and gender, as well as maternal parity and diabetes. Bone resorption (Pyd) is mostly dependent on gestational age only. Further in-depth studies are needed to enrich management of this vulnerable population.

  8. Odour-Mediated Orientation of Beetles Is Influenced by Age, Sex and Morph

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sarah E. J.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Belmain, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight) form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless), more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies. PMID:23145074

  9. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    Though the pathobiology of schizophrenia can be examined in multiple levels, the organic notion of brain disease suggests that neurological features will be present. One straightforward, inexpensive method of investigating brain dysfunction in schizophrenia is thought the bedside assessment of neurological abnormalities with a standard neurological examination. Neurological abnormalities are traditionally classified as "hard signs" (impairments in basic motor, sensory, and reflex behaviors, which do not appear to be affected in schizophrenia) and "soft signs", which refer to more complex phenomena such as abnormalities in motor control, integrative sensory function, sensorimotor integration, and cerebral laterality. Additionally, neurological soft signs (NSS) are minor motor and sensory abnormalities that are considered to be normal in the course of early development but abnormal when elicited in later life or persist beyond childhood. Soft signs also, have no definitive localizing significance but are indicative of subtle brain dysfunction. Most authors believe that they are a reflection not only of deficient integration between the sensory and motor systems, but also of dysfunctional neuronal circuits linking subcortical brain structures such as the basal ganglia, the brain stem, and the limbic system. Throughout the last four decades, studies have consistently shown that NSS are more frequently present in patients with schizophrenia than in normal subjects and non-psychotic psychiatric patients. However, the functional relevance of NSS remains unclear and their specificity has often been challenged, even though there is indication for a relative specificity with regard to diagnosis, or symptomatology. Many studies have considered soft signs as categorical variables thus hampering the evaluation of fluctuation with symptomatology and/or treatment, whereas other studies included insufficient number of assessed signs, or lacked a comprehensive assessment of

  10. The Role of Serotype Interactions and Seasonality in Dengue Model Selection and Control: Insights from a Pattern Matching Approach

    PubMed Central

    ten Bosch, Quirine A.; Hassan, Muhammad R. A.; Chadee, Dave D.; Michael, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of dengue fever is characterized by highly seasonal, multi-annual fluctuations, and the irregular circulation of its four serotypes. It is believed that this behaviour arises from the interplay between environmental drivers and serotype interactions. The exact mechanism, however, is uncertain. Constraining mathematical models to patterns characteristic to dengue epidemiology offers a means for detecting such mechanisms. Here, we used a pattern-oriented modelling (POM) strategy to fit and assess a range of dengue models, driven by combinations of temporary cross protective-immunity, cross-enhancement, and seasonal forcing, on their ability to capture the main characteristics of dengue dynamics. We show that all proposed models reproduce the observed dengue patterns across some part of the parameter space. Which model best supports the dengue dynamics is determined by the level of seasonal forcing. Further, when tertiary and quaternary infections are allowed, the inclusion of temporary cross-immunity alone is strongly supported, but the addition of cross-enhancement markedly reduces the parameter range at which dengue dynamics are produced, irrespective of the strength of seasonal forcing. The implication of these structural uncertainties on predicted vulnerability to control is also discussed. With ever expanding spread of dengue, greater understanding of dengue dynamics and control efforts (e.g. a near-future vaccine introduction) has become critically important. This study highlights the capacity of multi-level pattern-matching modelling approaches to offer an analytic tool for deeper insights into dengue epidemiology and control. PMID:27159023

  11. Live birth rates after combined adjuvant therapy in IVF-ICSI cycles: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Motteram, C; Vollenhoven, B; Hope, N; Osianlis, T; Rombauts, L J

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of combined co-treatment with aspirin, doxycycline, prednisolone, with or without oestradiol patches, was investigated on live birth (LBR) rates after fresh and frozen embryo transfers (FET) in IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Cases (n = 485) and controls (n = 485) were extensively matched in a one-to-one ratio on nine physical and clinical parameters: maternal age, body mass index, smoking status, stimulation cycle number, cumulative dose of FSH, stimulation protocol, insemination method, day of embryo transfer and number of embryos transferred. No significant differences were found in fresh cycles between cases and controls for the pregnancy outcomes analysed, but fewer surplus embryos were available for freezing in the combined adjuvant group. In FET cycles, LBR was lower in the treatment group (OR: 0.49, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.95). The lower LBR in FET cycles seemed to be clustered in patients receiving combined adjuvant treatment without luteal oestradiol (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.80). No difference was found in LBR between cases and controls when stratified according to the number of previous cycles (<3 or ≥3). There is no benefit of this combined adjuvant strategy in fresh IVF cycles, and possible harm when used in frozen cycles.

  12. The Application of Meta-analysis within a Matched-pair Randomized Control Trial: An Illustration Testing the Effects of Communities That Care on Delinquent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Use of meta-analytic strategies to test intervention effects is an important complement to traditional design-based analyses of intervention effects in randomized control trials. In the present paper, we suggest that meta-analyses within the context of matched-pair designs can provide useful insight into intervention effects. We illustrate the advantages to this analytic strategy by examining the effectiveness of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on 8th-grade delinquent behavior in a randomized matched-pair trial. We estimate the intervention effect within each of the matched-pair communities, aggregate the effect sizes across matched pairs to derive an overall intervention effect, and test for heterogeneity in the effect of CTC on delinquency across matched pairs of communities. The meta-analysis finds that CTC reduces delinquent behavior and that the effect of CTC on delinquent behavior varies significantly across communities. The use of meta-analysis in randomized matched-pair studies can provide a useful accompaniment to other analytic approaches because it opens the possibility of identifying factors associated with differential effects across units or matched pairs in the context of a randomized control trial. PMID:23111547

  13. The application of meta-analysis within a matched-pair randomized control trial: an illustration testing the effects of communities that care on delinquent behavior.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D

    2013-02-01

    Use of meta-analytic strategies to test intervention effects is an important complement to traditional design-based analyses of intervention effects in randomized control trials. In the present paper, we suggest that meta-analyses within the context of matched-pair designs can provide useful insight into intervention effects. We illustrate the advantages to this analytic strategy by examining the effectiveness of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on 8th-grade delinquent behavior in a randomized matched-pair trial. We estimate the intervention effect within each of the matched-pair communities, aggregate the effect sizes across matched pairs to derive an overall intervention effect, and test for heterogeneity in the effect of CTC on delinquency across matched pairs of communities. The meta-analysis finds that CTC reduces delinquent behavior and that the effect of CTC on delinquent behavior varies significantly across communities. The use of meta-analysis in randomized matched-pair studies can provide a useful accompaniment to other analytic approaches because it opens the possibility of identifying factors associated with differential effects across units or matched pairs in the context of a randomized control trial.

  14. A matched case-control study of toxoplasmosis after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: still a devastating complication.

    PubMed

    Conrad, A; Le Maréchal, M; Dupont, D; Ducastelle-Leprêtre, S; Balsat, M; Labussière-Wallet, H; Barraco, F; Nicolini, F-E; Thomas, X; Gilis, L; Chidiac, C; Ferry, T; Wallet, F; Rabodonirina, M; Salles, G; Michallet, M; Ader, F

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis (TXP) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). Little is known about the risk factors and there is no consensus on prophylactic measures. To investigate the risk factors, we conducted a single-centre, retrospective matched case-control study among adults who underwent AHSCT from January 2006 to March 2015 in our hospital. TXP cases were identified from the prospectively maintained hospital's database. The 1:2 control population consisted of the two patients who received an AHSCT immediately before and after each case with similar donor relationship (related, unrelated) but who did not develop TXP. Risk factors were identified by conditional logistic regression. Clinical features and outcome of TXP were examined. Twenty-three (3.9%) cases of TXP (20 diseases, three infections) were identified among 588 AHSCT recipients. Twenty (87%) cases had a positive pre-transplant Toxoplasma gondii serology. In comparison with 46 matched control patients, risk factors were the absence of effective anti-Toxoplasma prophylaxis (odds ratio (OR) 11.95; 95% CI 3.04-46.88; p <0.001), high-grade (III-IV) acute graft-versus-host-disease (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.04-9.23; p 0.042) and receipt of the tumour necrosis factor-α blocker etanercept (OR 12.02; 95% CI 1.33-108.6; p 0.027). Mortality attributable to TXP was 43.5% (n = 10). Non-relapse mortality rates during the study period of cases and controls were 69.6% (n = 16) and 17.4% (n = 8), respectively. Lung involvement was the dominant clinical feature (n = 14). Two cases were associated with graft failure, one preceded by haemophagocytic syndrome. Given TXP-related morbidity and attributable mortality, anti-Toxoplasma prophylaxis is essential for optimized management of seropositive AHSCT recipients.

  15. Cigarette smoking and subarachnoid haemorrhage: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Fogelholm, R; Murros, K

    1987-01-01

    Smoking habits were analysed in 114 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage, less than 70 years old, obtained from an epidemiological study. One control, matched for age, sex, and domicile, was selected for each patient. Current cigarette smokers were significantly more prevalent among cases than controls, and the relative risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage compared with non-smokers was 2.7 in men and 3.0 in women. The so called metastatic emphysema theory with increased elastolytic activity in the serum of smokers is proposed as biochemical basis for the increased risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage. PMID:3819759

  16. Nativity differences in allostatic load by age, sex, and Hispanic background from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Christian R; Strizich, Garrett; Seeman, Teresa E; Isasi, Carmen R; Gallo, Linda C; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Cai, Jianwen; Penedo, Frank J; Arguelles, Willian; Sanders, Anne E; Lipton, Richard B; Kaplan, Robert C

    2016-12-01

    Allostatic load (AL), an index of biological "wear and tear" on the body from cumulative exposure to stress, has been little studied in US Hispanics/Latinos. We investigated AL accumulation patterns by age, sex, and nativity in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We studied 15,830 Hispanic/Latinos of Mexican, Cuban, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Central and South American descent aged 18-74 years, 77% of whom were foreign-born. Consistent with the conceptualization of AL, we developed an index based upon 16 physiological markers that spanned the cardiometabolic, parasympathetic, and inflammatory systems. We computed mean adjusted AL scores using log-linear models across age-groups (18-44, 45-54, 55-74 years), by sex and nativity status. Among foreign-born individuals, differences in AL by duration of residence in the US (<10, ≥10 years) and age at migration (<24, ≥24 years) were also examined. In persons younger than 55 years old, after controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral factors, AL was highest among US-born individuals, intermediate in foreign-born Hispanics/Latinos with longer duration in the US (≥10 years), and lowest among those with shorter duration in the US (<10 years) (P <0.0001 for increasing trend). Similarly, AL increased among the foreign-born with earlier age at immigration. These trends were less pronounced among individuals ≥55 years of age. Similar patterns were observed across all Hispanic/Latino heritage groups (P for interaction=0.5). Our findings support both a "healthy immigrant" pattern and a loss of health advantage over time among US Hispanics/Latinos of diverse heritages.

  17. Joint loads resulting in ACL rupture: Effects of age, sex, and body mass on injury load and mode of failure in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Blaker, Carina L; Little, Christopher B; Clarke, Elizabeth C

    2016-09-07

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common knee injury with a known but poorly understood association with secondary joint injuries and post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA). Female sex and age are known risk factors for ACL injury but these variables are rarely explored in mouse models of injury. This study aimed to further characterize a non-surgical ACL injury model to determine its clinical relevance across a wider range of mouse specifications. Cadaveric and anesthetized C57BL/6 mice (9-52 weeks of age) underwent joint loading to investigate the effects of age, sex, and body mass on ACL injury mechanisms. The ACL injury load (whole joint load required to rupture the ACL) was measured from force-displacement data, and mode of failure was assessed using micro-dissection and histology. ACL injury load was found to increase with body mass and age (p < 0.001) but age was not significant when controlling for mass. Sex had no effect. In contrast, the mode of ACL failure varied with both age and sex groups. Avulsion fractures (complete or mixed with mid-substance tears) were common in all age groups but the proportion of mixed and mid-substance failures increased with age. Females were more likely than males to have a major avulsion relative to a mid-substance tear (p < 0.01). This data compliments studies in human cadaveric knees, and provides a basis for determining the severity of joint injury relative to a major ACL tear in mice, and for selecting joint loading conditions in future experiments using this model. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  18. Association between Oral Health Status and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Sudanese Adults: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hasaan G.; Idris, Shaza B.; Ahmed, Mutaz F.; Bøe, Olav E.; Mustafa, Kamal; Ibrahim, Salah O.; Åstrøm, Anne N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and subjective oral health indicators of type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) with age and gender matched non-diabetic controls. A second aim was to identify clinical and subjective oral health indicators that discriminate between well-controlled and poorly controlled T2DM patients as well as between patients with long and short duration of the disease. Methods A total of 457 individuals participated in the study (154 T2DM cases and 303 non-diabetic controls). The T2DM group was sub-divided according to metabolic control [(well-controlled: glycosylated haemoglobin test ≤8%), (poorly controlled: glycosylated haemoglobin test > 8%)] and according to duration of T2DM [(long duration: >10 years), (short duration: ≤10 years)]. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire including socio-demographics, lifestyle and oral health related quality of life factors. The clinical examination comprised full mouth probing depths, plaque index, tooth mobility index, furcation involvement and coronal and root surface caries. Results The T2DM patients presented with more probing depths ≥4mm, furcation involvement, tooth mobility, missing teeth, and oral impacts on daily performance (OIDP). The corresponding adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were 4.07 (1.74–9.49), 2.96 (1.36–6.45), 5.90 (2.26–15.39), 0.23 (0.08–0.63) and 3.46 (1.61–7.42), respectively. Moreover, the odds ratio was 2.60 (1.21–5.55) for the poorly controlled T2DM patients to have high levels of mobility index and 2.94 (1.24–6.94) for those with long duration of T2DM to have high decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT) values. Conclusion This study revealed that chronic periodontitis, tooth mobility, furcation involvement and OIDP were more prevalent among T2DM patients compared to their non-diabetic controls. PMID:24349205

  19. Factors Associated with Injuries among Commercial Motorcyclists: Evidence from a Matched Case Control Study in Kampala City, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.; Atuyambe, Lynn M.; Kobusingye, Olive K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally and the most affected are young people aged 15–29. By 2030 road traffic deaths will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. Motorcyclists are among the most vulnerable road users and in Uganda they contribute 41% of all road traffic injuries. This paper establishes factors associated with the injuries of commercial motorcycle riders also known as boda-boda riders in Kampala, Uganda’s capital city. Methods The study was matched case-control with a case being a boda-boda rider that was seen at one of the 5 major city hospitals with a road traffic injury while a control was a boda-boda rider that was at the parking stage where the case operated from before the injury. The sample size was 289 riders per arm and data collection took 7 months. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on background and exposing factors. Being matched case-control data conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis. Results Factors independently associated with injury among motorcyclists were younger age group, being a current alcohol drinker (OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.19–4.45), lower engine capacity (<100cc)(OR = 5.03, 95%CI: 2.91–8.70), riding experience of less than 3 years, not changing a motorcycle in past 1 year (OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.19–3.52), riding for a longer time in a day (OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.58–14.18) and sharing a motorcycle (OR = 8.25, 95%CI:2.62–25.9). Other factors associated with injury were low level of knowledge of traffic rules, being stopped by police for checks on condition of motorcycle/license/insurance, working till late. Recommendations More road safety sensitization is required among riders to raise awareness against sharing motorcycles, working for a longer time and alcohol consumption. Police enforcement of drink-driving laws should include riders of commercial motorcycles. Investigate the validity of motorcycle riding

  20. Fatal injuries in the slums of Nairobi and their risk factors: results from a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ziraba, Abdhalah Kasiira; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Zulu, Eliya Msiyaphazi

    2011-06-01

    Injuries contribute significantly to the rising morbidity and mortality attributable to non-communicable diseases in the developing world. Unfortunately, active injury surveillance is lacking in many developing countries, including Kenya. This study aims to describe and identify causes of and risk factors for fatal injuries in two slums in Nairobi city using a demographic surveillance system framework. The causes of death are determined using verbal autopsies. We used a nested case-control study design with all deaths from injuries between 2003 and 2005 as cases. Two controls were randomly selected from the non-injury deaths over the same period and individually matched to each case on age and sex. We used conditional logistic regression modeling to identity individual- and community-level factors associated with fatal injuries. Intentional injuries accounted for about 51% and unintentional injuries accounted for 49% of all injuries. Homicides accounted for 91% of intentional injuries and 47% of all injury-related deaths. Firearms (23%) and road traffic crashes (22%) were the leading single causes of deaths due to injuries. About 15% of injuries were due to substance intoxication, particularly alcohol, which in this community comes from illicit brews and is at times contaminated with methanol. Results suggest that in the pervasively unsafe and insecure environment that characterizes the urban slums, ethnicity, residence, and area level factors contribute significantly to the risk of injury-related mortality.

  1. Application of an RF Biased Langmuir Probe to Etch Reactor Chamber Matching, Fault Detection and Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, Douglas; Booth, Jean-Paul; Benjamin, Neil; Thorgrimsson, Chris; Brooks, Mitchell; Nagai, Mikio; Albarede, Luc; Kim, Jung

    2008-10-01

    Semiconductor device manufacturing typically occurs in an environment of both increasing equipment costs and per unit sale price shrinkage. Profitability in such a conflicted economic environment depends critically on yield, throughput and cost-of-ownership. This has resulted in increasing interest in improved fault detection, process diagnosis, and advanced process control. Achieving advances in these areas requires an integrated understanding of the basic physical principles driving the processes of interest and the realities of commercial manufacturing. Following this trend, this work examines the usefulness of an RF-biased planar Langmuir probe^1. This method delivers precise real-time (10 Hz) measurements of ion flux and tail weighted electron temperature. However, it is also mechanically non-intrusive, reliable and insensitive to contamination and deposition on the probe. Since the measured parameters are closely related to physical processes occurring at the wafer-plasma interface, significant improvements in process control, chamber matching and fault detection are achieved. Examples illustrating the improvements possible will be given. ^1J.P. Booth, N. St. J. Braithwaite, A. Goodyear and P. Barroy, Rev.Sci.Inst., Vol.71, No.7, July 2000, pgs. 2722-2727.

  2. Generation of light with controllable spatial patterns via the sum frequency in quasi-phase matching crystals

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Jiang, Yun-Kun; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2014-01-01

    Light beams with extraordinary spatial structures, such as the Airy beam (AB), the Bessel-Gaussian beam (BGB) and the Laguerre-Gaussian beam (LGB), are widely studied and applied in many optical scenarios. We report on preparation of light beams with controllable spatial structures through sum frequency generation (SFG) using two Gaussian pump beams in a quasi-phase matching (QPM) crystal. The spatial structures, including multi-ring-like BGB, donut-like LGB, and super-Gaussian-like beams, can be controlled periodically via crystal phase mismatching by tuning the pump frequency or crystal temperature. This phenomenon has not been reported or discussed previously. Additionally, we present numerical simulations of the phenomenon, which agree very well with the experimental observations. Our findings give further insight into the SFG process in QPM crystals, provide a new way to generate light with unusual spatial structures, and may find applications in the fields of laser optics, all-optical switching, and optical manipulation and trapping. PMID:25007780

  3. Timing and severity of immunizing diseases in rabbits is controlled by seasonal matching of host and pathogen dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Konstans; Brook, Barry W.; Lacy, Robert C.; Mutze, Greg J.; Peacock, David E.; Sinclair, Ron G.; Schwensow, Nina; Cassey, Phillip; O'Hara, Robert B.; Fordham, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases can exert a strong influence on the dynamics of host populations, but it remains unclear why such disease-mediated control only occurs under particular environmental conditions. We used 16 years of detailed field data on invasive European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Australia, linked to individual-based stochastic models and Bayesian approximations, to test whether (i) mortality associated with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is driven primarily by seasonal matches/mismatches between demographic rates and epidemiological dynamics and (ii) delayed infection (arising from insusceptibility and maternal antibodies in juveniles) are important factors in determining disease severity and local population persistence of rabbits. We found that both the timing of reproduction and exposure to viruses drove recurrent seasonal epidemics of RHD. Protection conferred by insusceptibility and maternal antibodies controlled seasonal disease outbreaks by delaying infection; this could have also allowed escape from disease. The persistence of local populations was a stochastic outcome of recovery rates from both RHD and myxomatosis. If susceptibility to RHD is delayed, myxomatosis will have a pronounced effect on population extirpation when the two viruses coexist. This has important implications for wildlife management, because it is likely that such seasonal interplay and disease dynamics has a strong effect on long-term population viability for many species. PMID:25566883

  4. Prematurely delivered rats show improved motor coordination during sensory-evoked motor responses compared to age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-05-10

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat.

  5. Delay and Probability Discounting of Sexual and Monetary Outcomes in Individuals with Cocaine Use Disorders and Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew W.; Johnson, Patrick S.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Sweeney, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorders are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, partly due to higher rates of unprotected sex. Recent research suggests delay discounting of condom use is a factor in sexual HIV risk. Delay discounting is a behavioral economic concept describing how delaying an event reduces that event’s value or impact on behavior. Probability discounting is a related concept describing how the uncertainty of an event decreases its impact on behavior. Individuals with cocaine use disorders (n = 23) and matched non-cocaine-using controls (n = 24) were compared in decision-making tasks involving hypothetical outcomes: delay discounting of condom-protected sex (Sexual Delay Discounting Task), delay discounting of money, the effect of sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk on likelihood of condom use (Sexual Probability Discounting Task), and probability discounting of money. The Cocaine group discounted delayed condom-protected sex (i.e., were more likely to have unprotected sex vs. wait for a condom) significantly more than controls in two of four Sexual Delay Discounting Task partner conditions. The Cocaine group also discounted delayed money (i.e., preferred smaller immediate amounts over larger delayed amounts) significantly more than controls. In the Sexual Probability Discounting Task, both groups showed sensitivity to STI risk, however the groups did not differ. The Cocaine group did not consistently discount probabilistic money more or less than controls. Steeper discounting of delayed, but not probabilistic, sexual outcomes may contribute to greater rates of sexual HIV risk among individuals with cocaine use disorders. Probability discounting of sexual outcomes may contribute to risk of unprotected sex in both groups. Correlations showed sexual and monetary results were unrelated, for both delay and probability discounting. The results highlight the importance of studying specific behavioral processes (e.g., delay and probability

  6. Child Maltreatment as a Risk Factor for Opioid Dependence: Comparison of Family Characteristics and Type and Severity of Child Maltreatment with a Matched Control Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Elizabeth; Degenhardt, Louisa; Mattick, Richard P.; Nelson, Elliot C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors for child maltreatment among opioid-dependent persons compared to a community sample of similar social disadvantage. Method: The study employed a case-control design. Cases had a history of opioid pharmacotherapy. Controls were frequency matched to cases with regard to age, sex…

  7. Predictors of postconcussion syndrome after sports-related concussion in young athletes: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Clinton D; Zuckerman, Scott L; Lee, Young M; King, Lauren; Beaird, Susan; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a major public health problem. Approximately 90% of SRCs in high school athletes are transient; symptoms recover to baseline within 1 week. However, a small percentage of patients remain symptomatic several months after injury, with a condition known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The authors aimed to identify risk factors for PCS development in a cohort of exclusively young athletes (9-18 years of age) who sustained SRCs while playing a sport. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective case-control study by using the Vanderbilt Sports Concussion Clinic database. They identified 40 patients with PCS and matched them by age at injury and sex to SRC control patients (1 PCS to 2 control). PCS patients were those experiencing persistent symptoms at 3 months after an SRC. Control patients were those with documented resolution of symptoms within 3 weeks of an SRC. Data were collected in 4 categories: 1) demographic variables; 2) key medical, psychiatric, and family history; 3) acute-phase postinjury symptoms (at 0-24 hours); and 4) subacute-phase postinjury features (at 0-3 weeks). The chi-square Fisher exact test was used to assess categorical variables, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate continuous variables. Forward stepwise regression models (Pin = 0.05, Pout = 0.10) were used to identify variables associated with PCS. RESULTS PCS patients were more likely than control patients to have a concussion history (p = 0.010), premorbid mood disorders (p = 0.002), other psychiatric illness (p = 0.039), or significant life stressors (p = 0.036). Other factors that increased the likelihood of PCS development were a family history of mood disorders, other psychiatric illness, and migraine. Development of PCS was not predicted by race, insurance status, body mass index, sport, helmet use, medication use, and type of symptom endorsement. A final logistic regression analysis of candidate variables showed PCS to be

  8. Disrupted Stimulus Control but Not Reward Sensitivity in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matching Law Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Phil; Hawthorn, Rose; Bolger, Sam; Meredith, Katie; Bishop, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The matching law suggests that behavior is emitted in proportion to the level of reinforcement available. The current study investigated this effect in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and focused on the effects of magnitude of reinforcement (Study 1), and rate of reinforcement (Studies 2 and 3), on matching performance. Studies 1…

  9. Hematologic and serum biochemical profile of the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris): variation with age, sex, and season.

    PubMed

    Yochem, Pamela K; Stewart, Brent S; Mazet, Jonna A K; Boyce, Walter M

    2008-10-01

    The foraging success, and thus the survival and reproductive success, of deep-diving pinnipeds such as the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris, depends on the ability to withstand repetitive breath-hold dives. Health parameters can be incorporated as potential explanatory variables for differences observed in diving and migratory performance of individual seals. Furthermore, biomedical samples from apparently healthy individuals can provide valuable baseline data for evaluating effects of natural or anthropogenic threats to individuals and populations. We evaluated 42 blood parameters in 134 northern elephant seals during the breeding and molting seasons (1992-1999) to test for age, sex, and seasonal differences and to develop reference ranges. Adult males sampled during the breeding season differed from all other adult groups for a suite of parameters often associated with inflammation, infection, or other stressors: lower hematocrit, higher white blood cell count, higher band neutrophils, higher neutrophil count, lower albumin, and lower serum iron. Adult females during the breeding season differed from all other adult categories for two parameters (lower platelet counts, lower alanine aminotransferase activity). Molting males had higher blood urea nitrogen than all other classes; creatinine did not differ between breeding and molting adult males, but was higher in males than in females in both seasons. We found significant differences among age classes for 24 of 42 parameters measured, including higher levels of triglycerides, total protein, calcium, and iron in pups than we found in juveniles or adults. Unlike other mammals which undergo substantial decreases in energy expenditure during prolonged fasting (e.g., hibernation), northern elephant seals defend territories, give birth and suckle large offspring, mate, and molt during their bi-annual fasts. Nonetheless, many studies have described physiologic homeostasis during fasting in elephant seals

  10. Associations Between Anxiety Disorder Diagnoses and Body Mass Index Differ by Age, Sex and Race: A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    DeJesus, Ramona S.; Breitkopf, Carmen R.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Rutten, Lila J. Finney; Jacobson, Robert M.; Jacobson, Debra J.; Fan, Chun; St. Sauver, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few large studies have examined correlations between anxiety and body mass index (BMI) by gender or racial groups using clinical data. Objective: This study aimed to determine associations between diagnosed anxiety disorders and BMI, and evaluate whether observed associations varied by demographic characteristics. Method: Data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) data linkage system were analyzed to examine associations between anxiety disorders and BMI among adults ages 18-85 residing in Olmsted County, MN in 2009 (n=103,557). Height and weight data were available for 75,958 people (73%). The international classification of underweight, overweight, and obesity by BMI was used. Results: Population consisted of 56% females, 92.8% White individuals, with median age of 46 years. When adjusted for age, sex, and race, we observed a U-shaped association between anxiety and BMI group. Underweight and obese individuals were more likely to have an anxiety diagnosis compared to normal weight individuals. Stratification by sex yielded a U-shaped association between anxiety and BMI only in women. Stratification by race showed a U-shaped association between anxiety and BMI only in the White population. Anxiety was significantly associated only with obesity in the Black population. Anxiety was not associated with a BMI category in Asian or Hispanic groups. Among elderly group, there is inverse correlation between anxiety and obesity. Conclusion: Our results suggest that anxiety may have heterogeneous associations with BMI in the population. Further research on potential mechanisms contributing to these findings will help direct efforts in anxiety and obesity management across diverse population groups. PMID:27857777

  11. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  12. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

    PubMed Central

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. PMID:25285410

  13. Age, sex, body anthropometry, and ACL size predict the structural properties of the human anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Javad; Mansouri, Hossein; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Slauterbeck, James R; Hardy, Daniel M; Beynnon, Bruce D

    2011-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury continues to be at the forefront of sports injury concerns because of its impact on quality of life and joint health prognosis. One strategy is to reduce the occurrence of this injury by identifying at-risk subjects based on key putative risk factors. The purpose of our study was to develop models that predict the structural properties of a subject's ACL based on the combination of known risk factors. We hypothesized that the structural properties of the ACL can be predicted using a multi-linear regression model based on significant covariates that are associated with increased risk of injury, including age, sex, body size, and ACL size. We also hypothesized that ACL size is a significant contributor to the model. The developed models had predictive capabilities for the structural properties of the ACL: load at failure (R2 = 0.914), elongation at failure (R2 = 0.872), energy at failure (R2 = 0.913), and linear stiffness (R2 = 0.756). Furthermore, sex, age, body mass, BMI, and height were contributors (p < 0.05) to all predicted structural properties. ACL minimal area was a contributor to elongation, energy at failure, and linear stiffness (p < 0.05), but not to load at failure. ACL volume was also a contributor to elongation and energy at failure (p < 0.05), but not to linear stiffness and load at failure models. ACL length was not a significant contributor to any structural property. The clinical significance of this research is its potential, after continued development and refinement of the model, for application to prognostic studies that are designed to identify individuals at increased risk for injury to the ligament.

  14. EFFECTS: documentation and verification for a BEIR III cancer risk model based on age, sex, and population dynamics for BIOTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, W.J.; Gallegos, A.F.

    1985-09-01

    The computer simulation code EFFECTS is coupled with the radionuclide uptake and environmental transport strategies of the BIOTRAN code to predict cancer risks and deaths in a dynamic human population. Total mortalities due to all causes are incorporated with projected radiation-induced cancer mortalities caused by all previous chronic or acute radiation exposures of the population as a function of age and sex. Superpositioning radiation-induced cancer mortalities on current total mortalities in each age group allows a realistic and dynamic estimate of cancer risks for complex radiation exposure scenarios. EFFECTS was developed on the CDC 7600 and can be executed on the Cray computer system at Los Alamos National Laboratory. EFFECTS can simulate the upper boundary of cancer risk estimates where population exposures occur over many years and where organ burdens are integrated over the lifetime of the individual. This report gives new insight on age-specific cancer risks. As part of the code verification, the simulated impacts to a small population from natural background uranium and an accidental release of airborne plutonium are compared. For the long-term continuous exposure to natural background uranium, the impact to the population is very small (2 x 10/sup -6/ to 7 x 10/sup -6/ deaths/10,000 people) with young adults receiving the largest bone doses and risks. For the long-term intakes following a simulated accidental air release of plutonium, young teenagers receive the highest bone doses while young adults receive the largest risk. Simulating these two scenarios, using BIOTRAN/HUMTRN/EFFECTS, illustrates sufficient resolution to predict the age/sex-specific response from human populations from contaminants in our environment. 23 refs., 43 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Semiparametric methods for evaluating the covariate-specific predictiveness of continuous markers in matched case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y.; Pepe, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary To assess the value of a continuous marker in predicting the risk of a disease, a graphical tool called the predictiveness curve has been proposed. It characterizes the marker’s predictiveness, or capacity to risk stratify the population by displaying the distribution of risk endowed by the marker. Methods for making inference about the curve and for comparing curves in a general population have been developed. However, knowledge about a marker’s performance in the general population only is not enough. Since a marker’s effect on the risk model and its distribution can both differ across subpopulations, its predictiveness may vary when applied to different subpopulations. Moreover, information about the predictiveness of a marker conditional on baseline covariates is valuable for individual decision making about having the marker measured or not. Therefore, to fully realize the usefulness of a risk prediction marker, it is important to study its performance conditional on covariates. In this article, we propose semiparametric methods for estimating covariate-specific predictiveness curves for a continuous marker. Unmatched and matched case-control study designs are accommodated. We illustrate application of the methodology by evaluating serum creatinine as a predictor of risk of renal artery stenosis. PMID:21562626

  16. Promoting Active Transport in Older Adolescents Before They Obtain Their Driving Licence: A Matched Control Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Dorien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Dyck, Delfien; Vandelanotte, Corneel; de Geus, Bas; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2016-01-01

    Background Active transport has great potential to increase physical activity in older adolescents (17–18 years). Therefore, a theory- and evidence-based intervention was developed aiming to promote active transport among older adolescents. The intervention aimed to influence psychosocial factors of active transport since this is the first step in order to achieve a change in behaviour. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the intervention on the following psychosocial factors: intention to use active transport after obtaining a driving licence, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, subjective norm, self-efficacy, habit and awareness towards active transport. Methods A matched control three-arm study was conducted and consisted of a pre-test post-test design with intervention and control schools in Flanders (northern part of Belgium). A lesson promoting active transport was implemented as the last lesson in the course ‘Driving Licence at School’ in intervention schools (intervention group 1). Individuals in intervention group 2 received this active transport lesson and, in addition, they were asked to become a member of a Facebook group on active transport. Individuals in the control group only attended the regular course ‘Driving Licence at School’. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographics and psychosocial variables at baseline, post (after one week) and follow-up (after eight weeks). To assess intervention effects, multilevel linear mixed models analyses were performed. Results A sample of 441 older adolescents (56.8% female; 17.4 (0.7) years) was analysed. For awareness regarding the existence of car sharing schemes, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to post measurement was found within intervention group 1 (p = 0.001) and intervention group 2 (p = 0.030) compared to the control group in which no change was found. In addition, a significant increase in awareness from baseline to follow

  17. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  18. Bone mineral density in systemic lupus erythematosus: comparison with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Gilboe, I.; Kvien, T.; Haugeberg, G.; Husby, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine bone mineral density (BMD) frequency of osteoporosis and reduced bone mass in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and compare the data of the SLE patients with matched rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls. Secondly, to study possible correlations between BMD, demographic and disease variables in the SLE patients.
METHODS—Measures of BMD assessed by dual energy x ray absorptiometry were obtained from 75 SLE patients aged ⩽ 70 years, 75 RA patients matched for age, sex and disease duration, and from 75 healthy controls matched for age, sex and geographical area. Disease activity and accumulated organ damage were assessed in the SLE patients.
RESULTS—The SLE patients had significantly lower BMD values at lumbar spine L2-L4 and hip, and higher frequency of osteoporosis at all sites of measurement compared with matched healthy controls. The matched SLE and RA patients had similar BMD, prevalence of osteoporosis and reduced bone mass. In the SLE patients BMD was more strongly correlated with accumulated organ damage than with markers of disease activity or duration. In multivariate analyses BMD was at all sites predicted by age and body mass, at lumbar spine also by the current corticosteroid dose.
CONCLUSION—The study showed reduced BMD in patients with SLE compared with matched healthy controls. Premenopausal women taking corticosteroids were especially affected. Furthermore, the BMD of matched SLE and RA patients was reduced to a similar extent.

 PMID:10666165

  19. Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3–4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points—baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510

  20. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period.

  1. Delinquency and Recidivism: A Multicohort, Matched-Control Study of the Role of Early Adverse Experiences, Mental Health Problems, and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile…

  2. Effects of Home-Based Constraint-Induced Therapy versus Dose-Matched Control Intervention on Functional Outcomes and Caregiver Well-Being in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling; Chang, Kai-chieh; Lin, Yu-chan; Chen, Yi-ju

    2011-01-01

    This study compared home-based constraint-induced therapy (CIT) with a dose-matched home-based control intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The differences in unilateral and bilateral motor performance, daily functions, and quality of parental well-being (i.e., the stress level of their parents) were evaluated. The study included 21…

  3. A Research Methodology for Future Summative Evaluation Studies: Incorporating the Component of Multiple Sets of Matched Samples into the Statistical Control Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan H.; Modarresi, Shahpar; Yang, Yu N.

    2006-01-01

    Summative evaluations have often been undertaken to determine the impact of educational programs on student academic achievement employing a quasi-experimental design. The summative finding is expected to be less misleading if a statistical model is performed on a dataset including a sound matched sample as a control group. This is because an…

  4. Cellular and humoral immunity in a wild mammal: Variation with age & sex and association with overwinter survival.

    PubMed

    Watson, Rebecca L; McNeilly, Tom N; Watt, Kathryn A; Pemberton, Josephine M; Pilkington, Jill G; Waterfall, Martin; Hopper, Phoebe R T; Cooney, Daniel; Zamoyska, Rose; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-12-01

    Immune defenses are expected to be crucial for survival under the considerable parasite pressures experienced by wild animals. However, our understanding of the association between immunity and fitness in nature remains limited due to both the complexity of the vertebrate immune system and the often-limited availability of immune reagents in nonmodel organisms. Here, we use methods and reagents developed by veterinary researchers for domestic ungulates on blood samples collected from a wild Soay sheep population, to evaluate an unusually broad panel of immune parameters. Our evaluation included different innate and acquired immune cell types as well as nematode parasite-specific antibodies of different isotypes. We test how these markers correlate with one another, how they vary with age-group and sex, and, crucially, whether they predict overwinter survival either within or among demographic groups. We found anticipated patterns of variation in markers with age, associated with immune development, and once these age trends were accounted for, correlations among our 11 immune markers were generally weak. We found that females had higher proportions of naïve T cells and gamma-delta T cells than males, independent of age, while our other markers did not differ between sexes. Only one of our 11 markers predicted overwinter survival: sheep with higher plasma levels of anti-nematode IgG antibodies were significantly more likely to survive the subsequent high mortality winter, independent of age, sex, or weight. This supports a previous finding from this study system using a different set of samples and shows that circulating antibody levels against ecologically relevant parasites in natural systems represent an important parameter of immune function and may be under strong natural selection. Our data provide rare insights into patterns of variation among age- and sex groups in different T-cell subsets and antibody levels in the wild, and suggest that certain types of

  5. Epidemiology of Fractures in the United Kingdom 1988-2012: Variation with age, sex, geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Elizabeth M; van der Velde, Robert; Moon, Rebecca J; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Geusens, Piet; de Vries, Frank; van Staa, Tjeerd P; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    Summary Rates of fracture worldwide are changing. Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), age, and gender, geographical, ethnic and socioeconomic trends in fracture rates across the United Kingdom were studied over a 24 year period 1988-2012. Previously observed patterns in fracture incidence by age and fracture site were evident. New data on the influence of geographic location, ethnic group and socioeconomic status were obtained. Introduction With secular changes in age- and sex-specific fracture incidence observed in many populations, and global shifts towards an elderly demography, it is vital for health care planners to have an accurate understanding of fracture incidence nationally. We aimed to present up to date fracture incidence data in the UK, stratified by age, sex, geographic location, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Methods The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) contains anonymised electronic health records for approximately 6.9% of the UK population. Information comes from General Practitioners, and covers 11.3 million people from 674 practices across the UK, demonstrated to be representative of the national population. The study population consisted of all permanently registered individuals aged >=18 years. Validated data on fracture incidence were obtained from their medical records, as was information on socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity and geographic location. Age and sex-specific fracture incidence rates were calculated. Results Fracture incidence rates by age and sex were comparable to those documented in previous studies and demonstrated a bimodal distribution. Substantial geographic heterogeneity in age and sex adjusted fracture incidence was observed, with rates in Scotland almost 50% greater than those in London and South East England. Lowest rates of fracture were observed in black individuals of both sexes; rates of fragility fracture in white women were 4.7 times greater than in black women. Strong

  6. Comparing risk factors for primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and primary drug-susceptible tuberculosis in Jiangsu province, China: a matched-pairs case-control study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Lu, Wei; Zu, Rong-Qiang; Zhu, Li-Mei; Yang, Hai-Tao; Chen, Cheng; Shen, Tao; Zeng, Guang; Jiang, Shi-Wen; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Li-Xia

    2015-02-01

    To find out the reason why some people get infected directly with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), whereas some get infected with drug-susceptible tuberculosis (DS-TB), a 1:1:1 matched-pairs case-control study was conducted to identify predictors associated with primary MDR-TB and primary DS-TB against the control in Jiangsu Province, China. All three groups were geographically matched (by neighborhood) and matched on sex and age (±5 years). In total, 110 participants were enrolled in each of three matched groups. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that predictors independently associated with primary MDR-TB were illiteracy or primary school education, annual per capita income ≤ US$2,000, per capita living space < 40 m(2), and interval ≥ 7 days of eating fruits; predictors with primary DS-TB were body mass index ≤ 20 and feeling higher life pressure. This indicates that there are different predictors impacting the transmission range of primary MDR-TB and primary DS-TB in the general population.

  7. Robust finite-time containment control for high-order multi-agent systems with matched uncertainties under directed communication graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Junjie; Wang, Jinzhi

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the robust finite-time containment control problem for a class of high-order uncertain nonlinear multi-agent systems modelled as high-order integrator systems with bounded matched uncertainties. When relative state information between neighbouring agents is available, an observer-based distributed controller is proposed for each follower using the sliding mode control technique which solves the finite-time containment control problem under general directed communication graphs. When only relative output information is available, robust exact differentiators and high-order sliding-mode controllers are employed together with the distributed finite-time observers. It is shown that robust finite-time containment control can still be achieved in this situation. An application in the coordination of multiple non-holonomic mobile robots is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies.

  8. Reinforcer Control by Comparison-Stimulus Color and Location in a Delayed Matching-to-Sample Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Brent; Jones, B. Max

    2008-01-01

    Six pigeons were trained in a delayed matching-to-sample task involving bright- and dim-yellow samples on a central key, a five-peck response requirement to either sample, a constant 1.5-s delay, and the presentation of comparison stimuli composed of red on the left key and green on the right key or vice versa. Green-key responses were…

  9. Age, sex, and road-use patterns of motor vehicular trauma in Rhode Island: A population-based hospital emergency department study

    SciTech Connect

    Rockett, I.R.H.; Lieberman, E.S.; Hollinshead, W.H.; Putnam, S.L.; Thode, H.C. Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY )

    1990-12-01

    Population-based hospital emergency department data on motor vehicle traffic trauma in Rhode Island, 1984-85, are analyzed by age, sex, and road-use status. Annualized rates of overall and severe trauma were 1,195 cases (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1,164, 1,225) and 102 cases (95% CI = 94, 111) per 100,000 population, respectively. Overall and severe rates peaked at ages 15-24 years. Male rate excesses were most pronounced for motorcycle and pedal cycle trauma.

  10. Kinematic Movement Strategies in Primary School Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls during Visuo-Manual Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    The present study focused on the mechanism subserving the production of kinematic patterns in 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 age- and IQ-matched control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) when performing a visuo-manual…

  11. Risk factors and potential preventive measures for nephropatia epidemica in Sweden 2011–2012: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Gherasim, Alin; Hjertqvist, Marika; Lundkvist, Åke; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Carlson, Jenny Verner; Stenmark, Stephan; Widerström, Mikael; Österlund, Anders; Boman, Hans; Ahlm, Clas; Wallensten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nephropatia epidemica (NE), a relatively mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by the Puumala virus (PUUV), is endemic in northern Sweden. We aim to study the risk factors associated with NE in this region. Methods We conducted a matched case–control study between June 2011 and July 2012. We compared confirmed NE cases with randomly selected controls, matched by age, sex, and place of infection or residence. We analyzed the association between NE and several occupational, environmental, and behavioral exposures using conditional logistic regression. Results We included in the final analysis 114 cases and 300 controls, forming 246 case–control pairs. Living in a house with an open space beneath, making house repairs, living less than 50 m from the forest, seeing rodents, and smoking were significantly associated with NE. Conclusion Our results could orient public health policies targeting these risk factors and subsequently reduce the NE burden in the region. PMID:26134289

  12. Sliding hip screw versus sliding helical blade for intertrochanteric fractures: a propensity score-matched case control study.

    PubMed

    Fang, C; Lau, T W; Wong, T M; Lee, H L; Leung, F

    2015-03-01

    The spiral blade modification of the Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS) was designed for superior biomechanical fixation in the osteoporotic femoral head. Our objective was to compare clinical outcomes and in particular the incidence of loss of fixation. In a series of 197 consecutive patients over the age of 50 years treated with DHS-blades (blades) and 242 patients treated with conventional DHS (screw) for AO/OTA 31.A1 or A2 intertrochanteric fractures were identified from a prospectively compiled database in a level 1 trauma centre. Using propensity score matching, two groups comprising 177 matched patients were compiled and radiological and clinical outcomes compared. In each group there were 66 males and 111 females. Mean age was 83.6 (54 to 100) for the conventional DHS group and 83.8 (52 to 101) for the blade group. Loss of fixation occurred in two blades and 13 DHSs. None of the blades had observable migration while nine DHSs had gross migration within the femoral head before the fracture healed. There were two versus four implant cut-outs respectively and one side plate pull-out in the DHS group. There was no significant difference in mortality and eventual walking ability between the groups. Multiple logistic regression suggested that poor reduction (odds ratio (OR) 11.49, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.45 to 90.9, p = 0.021) and fixation by DHS (OR 15.85, 95%CI 2.50 to 100.3, p = 0.003) were independent predictors of loss of fixation. The spiral blade design may decrease the risk of implant migration in the femoral head but does not reduce the incidence of cut-out and reoperation. Reduction of the fracture is of paramount importance since poor reduction was an independent predictor for loss of fixation regardless of the implant being used. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:398-404.

  13. Iodine 125 Brachytherapy With Vitrectomy and Silicone Oil in the Treatment of Uveal Melanoma: 1-to-1 Matched Case-Control Series

    SciTech Connect

    McCannel, Tara A. McCannel, Colin A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We initially reported the radiation-attenuating effect of silicone oil 1000 centistokes for iodine 125. The purpose of this report was to compare the clinical outcomes in case patients who had iodine 125 brachytherapy with vitrectomy and silicone oil 1000 centistokes with the outcomes in matched control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with uveal melanoma who were treated with iodine 125 plaque brachytherapy and vitrectomy with silicone oil with minimum 1-year follow-up were included. Control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone were matched for tumor size, location, and sex. Baseline patient and tumor characteristics and tumor response to radiation, final visual acuity, macular status, central macular thickness by ocular coherence tomography (OCT), cataract progression, and metastasis at last follow-up visit were compared. Surgical complications were also determined. Results: Twenty case patients met the inclusion criteria. The average follow-up time was 22.1 months in case patients and 19.4 months in control patients. The final logMAR vision was 0.81 in case patients and 1.1 in control patients (P=.071); 8 case patients and 16 control patients had abnormal macular findings (P=.011); and the average central macular thickness by OCT was 293.2 μm in case patients and 408.5 μm in control patients (P=.016). Eleven case patients (55%) and 1 control patient (5%) had required cataract surgery at last follow-up (P=.002). Four patients in the case group and 1 patient in the control group experienced metastasis (P=.18). Among the cases, intraoperative retinal tear occurred in 3 patients; total serous retinal detachment and macular hole developed in 1 case patient each. There was no case of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, treatment failure, or local tumor dissemination in case patients or control patients. Conclusions: With up to 3 years of clinical follow-up, silicone oil during brachytherapy

  14. Effectiveness of adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines (Inflexal V ® and Fluad ® ) in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia in the elderly: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Rossi, Stefania; Panatto, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the main mean of preventing influenza in the elderly. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines available in Italy in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia, a matched case-control study was performed in elderly subjects during the 2010-2011 season in Genoa (Italy). Cases and controls were matched in a 1:1 ratio according to gender, age, socio-economic status and type of influenza vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as IVE = [(1-OR)x100] and crude odds ratios were estimated through conditional logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated through multivariable logistic models.   In the study area, influenza activity was moderate in the 2010-2011 season, with optimal matching between circulating viruses and vaccine strains. We recruited 187 case-control pairs; 46.5% of cases and 79.1% of controls had been vaccinated. The adjuvanted influenza vaccines (Fluad (®) considered together with Inflexal V (®) ) were associated with a significant reduction in the risk of hospitalization, their effectiveness being 94.8% (CI 77.1-98.8). Adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 95.2% (CI 62.8-99.4) and 87.8 (CI 0.0-98.9) for Inflexal V (®) and Fluad (®) , respectively. Both adjuvanted vaccines proved effective, although the results displayed statistical significance only for Inflexal V (®) (p = 0.004), while for Fluad (®) statistical significance was not reached (p = 0.09). Our study is the first to provide information on the effectiveness of Inflexal V (®) in terms of reducing hospitalizations for influenza or pneumonia in the elderly, and demonstrates that this vaccine yields a high degree of protection and that its use would generate considerable saving for the National Health Service.

  15. A Comparison of Substantia Nigra T1 Hyperintensity in Parkinson's Disease Dementia, Alzheimer's Disease and Age-Matched Controls: Volumetric Analysis of Neuromelanin Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ju-Yeon; Yun, Won-Sung; Jeon, Ji Yeong; Moon, Yeon Sil; Kim, Heejin; Kwak, Ki-Chang; Lee, Jong-Min; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Objective Neuromelanin loss of substantia nigra (SN) can be visualized as a T1 signal reduction on T1-weighted high-resolution imaging. We investigated whether volumetric analysis of T1 hyperintensity for SN could be used to differentiate between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-matched controls. Materials and Methods This retrospective study enrolled 10 patients with PDD, 18 patients with AD, and 13 age-matched healthy elderly controls. MR imaging was performed at 3 tesla. To measure the T1 hyperintense area of SN, we obtained an axial thin section high-resolution T1-weighted fast spin echo sequence. The volumes of interest for the T1 hyperintense SN were drawn onto heavily T1-weighted FSE sequences through midbrain level, using the MIPAV software. The measurement differences were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc comparison. Results A comparison of the three groups showed significant differences in terms of volume of T1 hyperintensity (p < 0.001, Bonferroni corrected). The volume of T1 hyperintensity was significantly lower in PDD than in AD and normal controls (p < 0.005, Bonferroni corrected). However, the volume of T1 hyperintensity was not different between AD and normal controls (p = 0.136, Bonferroni corrected). Conclusion The volumetric measurement of the T1 hyperintensity of SN can be an imaging marker for evaluating neuromelanin loss in neurodegenerative diseases and a differential in PDD and AD cases. PMID:27587951

  16. [Lack of association between MMR vaccination and the incidence of autism in children: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka; Majewska, Renata

    2009-01-01

    The matched case-control study has been undertook to investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine may be casually associated with autism in children. Cases were children to 14-year old with diagnosis of core autism or atypical autism. Controls were matched on age, sex and general practice. The 96 cases and 192 controls were included. The study provides strong evidence against association of autism with both MMR and a single measles individual vaccine. Additionally children vaccinated with MMR, regardless of age of vaccination (to 18th, 24th and 36th month of life), had risk equal half of that of single measles vaccinated (for vaccinated to 18th month OR=0.41 95%PU: 0.20-0.85). Our findings confirm that MMR vaccination is not associated with an increased risk of autism in children.

  17. Comparing pyridoxine and doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A matched, controlled cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pope, Eliza; Maltepe, Caroline; Koren, Gideon

    2015-07-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common gestational condition. This is the first study to compare the use of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) versus Diclectin (doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl) for NVP symptoms. Participants were pregnant women with NVP who used either pyridoxine or doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl for ≥4 days prior to calling the Motherisk NVP Helpline. Women receiving pyridoxine only (n = 80) were matched to a woman taking doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl only (n = 80), accounting for potential confounders and baseline level of NVP, measured by the Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) score. Change in NVP severity after a week of therapy with either pyridoxine or doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl was quantified using the PUQE-24 scale, which describes NVP symptoms 24 hours prior to their call. Doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use found a significant reduction in PUQE score, compared with pyridoxine (+0.5 versus -0.2, P < .05; negative denotes worsening). This association was especially prominent in women with more severe symptoms, where doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use saw a mean improvement of 2.6 versus 0.4 with pyridoxine (P < .05). As well, doxylamine succinate-pyridoxine HCl use was associated with fewer women experiencing moderate to severe scores after a week of treatment, compared with the pyridoxine group (7 versus 17, P < .05), despite similar baseline PUQE scores.

  18. Inter-image matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, R. H., Jr.; Juday, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Interimage matching is the process of determining the geometric transformation required to conform spatially one image to another. In principle, the parameters of that transformation are varied until some measure of some difference between the two images is minimized or some measure of sameness (e.g., cross-correlation) is maximized. The number of such parameters to vary is faily large (six for merely an affine transformation), and it is customary to attempt an a priori transformation reducing the complexity of the residual transformation or subdivide the image into small enough match zones (control points or patches) that a simple transformation (e.g., pure translation) is applicable, yet large enough to facilitate matching. In the latter case, a complex mapping function is fit to the results (e.g., translation offsets) in all the patches. The methods reviewed have all chosen one or both of the above options, ranging from a priori along-line correction for line-dependent effects (the high-frequency correction) to a full sensor-to-geobase transformation with subsequent subdivision into a grid of match points.

  19. EEG spectral analysis of NREM sleep in a large sample of patients with insomnia and good sleepers: effects of age, sex and part of the night.

    PubMed

    Svetnik, Vladimir; Snyder, Ellen S; Ma, Junshui; Tao, Peining; Lines, Christopher; Herring, William Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies of the differences between patients with insomnia and good sleepers with regard to quantitative electroencephalographic measures have mostly utilized small samples and consequently had limited ability to account for potentially important confounding factors of age, sex and part of the night. We conducted a power spectral analysis using a large database of sleep electroencephalographic recordings to evaluate differences between patients with insomnia (N = 803) and good sleepers (N = 811), while simultaneously accounting for these factors and their interaction. Comparisons of power as a function of age and part of the night were made between cohorts (patients with insomnia versus good sleepers) by sex. Absolute power in the delta, theta and sigma bands declined with age for both females and males. Females had significantly greater power than males at all ages, and for each band, cohort and part of the night. These sex differences were much greater than differences between patients with insomnia and good sleepers. Compared with good sleepers, patients with insomnia under age 40-45 years had reduced delta band power during Part 1 of the night. Females with insomnia over age 45 years had increased delta and theta band power in Parts 2 and 3 of the night, and males with insomnia under age 40 years had reduced theta power in Part 1. Females with insomnia had increased beta2 power in all parts of the night, and males with insomnia had reduced alpha power during all parts of the night. Relative power (the proportion that an individual frequency band contributes to the total power) decreased in the delta band and increased in all other bands with age for both cohorts, sexes and all parts of the night. This analysis provides a unique resource for quantitative information on the differences in power spectra between patients with insomnia and good sleepers accounting for age, sex and part of the night.

  20. Risk factors associated with Tuberculosis (TB) among people living with HIV/AIDS: A pair-matched case-control study in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhezhe; Lin, Mei; Nie, Shaofa; Lan, Rushu

    2017-01-01

    Background As one of the poorest provinces in China, Guangxi has a high HIV and TB prevalence, with the annual number of TB/HIV cases reported by health department among the highest in the country. However, studies on the burden of TB-HIV co-infection and risk factors for active TB among HIV-infected persons in Guangxi have rarely been reported. Objective To investigate the risk factors for active TB among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, China. Methods A surveillance survey was conducted of 1 019 HIV-infected patients receiving care at three AIDS prevention and control departments between 2013 and 2015. We investigated the cumulative prevalence of TB during 2 years. To analyze risk factors associated with active TB, we conducted a 1:1 pair-matched case-control study of newly reported active TB/HIV co-infected patients. Controls were patients with HIV without active TB, latent TB infection or other lung disease, who were matched with the case group based on sex and age (± 3 years). Results A total of 1 019 subjects were evaluated. 160 subjects (15.70%) were diagnosed with active TB, including 85 clinically diagnosed cases and 75 confirmed cases. We performed a 1:1 matched case-control study, with 82 TB/HIV patients and 82 people living with HIV/AIDS based on surveillance site, sex and age (±3) years. According to multivariate analysis, smoking (OR = 2.996, 0.992–9.053), lower CD 4+ T-cell count (OR = 3.288, 1.161–9.311), long duration of HIV-infection (OR = 5.946, 2.221–15.915) and non-use of ART (OR = 7.775, 2.618–23.094) were independent risk factors for TB in people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion The prevalence of active TB among people living with HIV/AIDS in Guangxi was 173 times higher than general population in Guangxi. It is necessary for government to integrate control planning and resources for the two diseases. Medical and public health workers should strengthen health education for TB/HIV prevention and

  1. Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee-Oh; O'Sullivan, David; Choi, Bum-Gwon; Kim, Mi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite(®) system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns.

  2. ANTERIOR CHAMBER DEPTH, LENS THICKNESS, AND RELATED MEASURES IN AFRICAN-AMERICAN FEMALES WITH LONG ANTERIOR ZONULES: A MATCHED STUDY WITH CONTROL FOR REFRACTIVE ERROR

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Daniel K.; Teitelbaum, Bruce A.; Castells, David D.; Winters, Janis E.; Wilensky, Jacob T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), vitreous body length (VBL), and axial length (AL) in African-American females with long anterior zonules (LAZ) while controlling for refractive error. Methods The eyes of 50 African-American females with LAZ were compared to 50 controls matched on age, race, sex, and refractive error. Central ACD, LT, VBL, and AL measurements were obtained in a masked fashion using a-scan ultrasonography. Results LAZ cases had a mean age ± SD (range) = 67.1 ± 7.6 years (52–85 years) and a mean refractive error = +1.85 ± 1.41D (−1.75 to +4.75D). Parameters were similar for controls. Mean ACD for cases was 2.45 ± 0.34 mm and 2.57 ± 0.38 mm for controls. Mean LT for cases was 4.94 ± 0.43 mm and 4.83 ± 0.45 mm for controls. Mean VBL for cases was 15.00 ± 0.72 mm and 15.17 ± 0.76 mm for controls. Mean AL for cases was 22.39 ± 0.82 mm and 22.57 ± 0.76 mm for controls. Using multiple logistic regression to control for any residual differences in age and refractive error, no significant differences were present between LAZ eyes and control eyes relative to the a-scan variables (P>0.1). Conclusions When refractive error was controlled for, this group of African-American females with LAZ did not exhibit clinically significant differences in ACD, LT, VBL, and AL as compared to controls. PMID:25093521

  3. Religion and action control: Faith-specific modulation of the Simon effect but not Stop-Signal performance.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S; Scorolli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M

    2011-08-01

    Previous findings suggest that religion has a specific impact on attentional processes. Here we show that religion also affects action control. Experiment 1 compared Dutch Calvinists and Dutch atheists, matched for age, sex, intelligence, education, and cultural and socio-economic background, and Experiment 2 compared Italian Catholics with matched Italian seculars. As expected, Calvinists showed a smaller and Catholics a larger Simon effect than nonbelievers, while performance of the groups was comparable in the Stop-Signal task. This pattern suggests that religions emphasizing individualism or collectivism affects action control in specific ways, presumably by inducing chronic biases towards a more "exclusive" or "inclusive" style of decision-making. Interestingly, there was no evidence that religious practice affects inhibitory skills.

  4. Effects of Morphine on Temporal Discrimination and Color Matching: General Disruption of Stimulus Control or Selective Effects on Timing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Ryan D.; Odum, Amy L.

    2005-01-01

    Discrepant effects of drugs on behavior maintained by temporal-discrimination procedures make conclusive statements about the neuropharmacological bases of timing difficult. The current experiment examined the possible contribution of a general, drug-induced disruption of stimulus control. Four pigeons responded on a three-component multiple…

  5. Characterization of facial phenotypes of children with congenital hypopituitarism and their parents: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Manousaki, Despoina; Allanson, Judith; Wolf, Lior; Deal, Cheri

    2015-07-01

    Congenital Hypopituitarism (CH) has traditionally been associated with specific facial phenotypes subsumed under the term midface retrusion, based on cephalometric studies. In this study, we used a systematic anthropometric approach to facial morphology in 37 individuals with CH and their parents, primarily of French Canadian ancestry, and compared them to a control group of 78 French Canadian patients with well-controlled type 1 diabetes and their parents. We were able to demonstrate clear morphological differences, which were more prevalent in the affected group than in the control group. More specifically, we showed the presence of a shorter skull base width (P < 0.001) and reduced inner canthal distance (P = 0.006) in the CH face, as well as a relative underdevelopment of the mandible (P = 0.001). These findings were present in individuals of all ages, and were independent of the duration of growth hormone treatment (median treatment 90.8 months; range 7.2-175.8 months). In addition, skull base width was significantly reduced in both mothers and fathers of affected children compared to the parents of the controls (P < 0.001), despite comparable parental heights, supporting an underlying genetic etiology. Such extensive phenotypic studies have not been done in congenital hypopituitarism and will provide further opportunities for data mining.

  6. Improving the time control of the Subboreal/Subatlantic transition in a Czech peat sequence by 14C wiggle-matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, A.; van der Plicht, J.; van Geel, B.

    2000-11-01

    To achieve an optimal time-control for a late Subboreal to early Subatlantic peat sequence from Pančavská Louka in the Czech Republic, different strategies are applied to convert a series of radiocarbon dates into a calendar time-scale. The methods of selection and preparation of the samples for AMS 14C dating are presented. The results of calibrating single radiocarbon dates are compared with a 14C wiggle-match strategy. As the accumulation rate of the peat was not constant, the concentrations of arboreal pollen are used to estimate the accumulation rate changes and to correct for these changes. The resulting time-control represents the best solution for this peat sequence with the methods currently available.

  7. Remnant Woven Bone and Calcified Cartilage in Mouse Bone: Differences between Ages/Sex and Effects on Bone Strength

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Victoria; Toth, Zacharie; Chibnall, John; McBride-Gagyi, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mouse models are used frequently to study effects of bone diseases and genetic determinates of bone strength. Murine bones have an intracortical band of woven bone that is not present in human bones. This band is not obvious under brightfield imaging and not typically analyzed. Due to the band’s morphology and location it has been theorized to be remnant bone from early in life. Furthermore, lamellar and woven bone are well known to have differing mechanical strengths. The purpose of this study was to determine (i) if the band is from early life and (ii) if the woven bone or calcified cartilage contained within the band affect whole bone strength. Woven Bone Origin Studies In twelve to fourteen week old mice, doxycycline was used to label bone formed prior to 3 weeks old. Doxycycline labeling and woven bone patterns on contralateral femora matched well and encompassed an almost identical cross-sectional area. Also, we highlight for the first time in mice the presence of calcified cartilage exclusively within the band. However, calcified cartilage could not be identified on high resolution cone-beam microCT scans when examined visually or by thresholding methods. Mechanical Strength Studies Subsequently, three-point bending was used to analyze the effects of woven bone and calcified cartilage on whole bone mechanics in a cohort of male and female six and 13 week old Balb/C mice. Three-point bending outcomes were correlated with structural and compositional measures using multivariate linear regression. Woven bone composed a higher percent of young bones than older bones. However, calcified cartilage in older bones was twice that of younger bones, which was similar when normalized by area. Area and/or tissue mineral density accounted for >75% of variation for most strength outcomes. Percent calcified cartilage added significant predictive power to maximal force and bending stress. Calcified cartilage and woven bone could have more influence in genetic

  8. The Long-Term Effect of Radical Prostatectomy on Erectile Function, Urinary Continence, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Comparison to Age-Matched Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ponholzer, Anton; Augustin, Herbert; Madersbacher, Stephan; Pummer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. To analyze the impact of radical prostatectomy (RPE) on erectile function and lower urinary tract function in comparison to age-matched healthy men. Materials and Methods. Patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy completed questionnaires containing the IIEF-5, the Bristol female LUTS questionnaire, and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Results. Patients after RPE were included (n = 363). Age-matched healthy men (n = 363) were included. The mean IIEF-5 of patients aged 61–70 yrs after RPE was 10.4 ± 6.6 versus 18.8 ± 5.3 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs after RPE were 7.2 ± 6.5 versus 13.6 ± 7.7 in the control cohort. Urinary incontinence after RPE was reported in 41.9% (61–70 years) and 37.7% (71–80) versus 7.5% and 15.1% in the control cohort. The mean IPSS of patients after RPE aged 61–70 yrs was 5.0 ± 4.4 versus 5.5 ± 4.9 in the control cohort; the respective values for men aged 71–80 yrs were 6.0 ± 4.9 versus 7.5 ± 5.7 in the healthy cohort. Conclusions. The negative effect of radical prostatectomy on erectile and urinary incontinence remains substantial. The physiologically declining erectile and lower urinary tract function with ageing reduces the difference between healthy men and those after surgery. Healthy men have a higher IPSS presumably due to the presence of bladder outlet obstruction. PMID:28261619

  9. Connexin 50 gene on human chromosome 1q21 is associated with schizophrenia in matched case–control and family‐based studies

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xingqun; Valente, Jose; Azevedo, Maria H; Pato, Michelle T; Pato, Carlos N; Kennedy, James L

    2007-01-01

    Background The gap junction subunit connexin permits direct intercellular exchange of ions and molecules including glutamate, and plays an important role in the central nervous system. The connexin 40 (Cx40) and connexin 50 (Cx50) genes are located on chromosome 1q21.1, a region strongly linked with schizophrenia. These lines of evidence suggest that Cx40 and Cx50 may play a role in schizophrenia. Methods Using an allele‐specific PCR assay, four polymorphisms each were genotyped for Cx40 and Cx50 in 190 Caucasian patients with schizophrenia and 190 controls matched for sex, age and ethnicity. Following up, Cx50 rs989192 and rs4950495 were investigated in 99 Canadian and 163 Portuguese trios and nuclear families with schizophrenia probands. Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium (LD) block identification was carried out with HaploView, and association analysis for alleles and haplotypes with a permutation test of 10 000 simulations was carried out using the UNPHASED software program. Results Distributions of genotype frequencies of all markers were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in Caucasian patients, controls and families. One rs989192‐rs4950495 LD block was found in patients but not in controls. We found a significant association between the Cx50 rs989192‐rs4950495 haplotype and schizophreniay (χ2 = 29.55, p<0.01). The A‐C haplotype had a higher frequency in patients (χ2 = 7.153, p<0.01). Family studies also showed that the A‐C haplotype was transmitted more often to patients with schizophrenia (χ2 = 8.43, p<0.01). No association of Cx40 with schizophrenia was found for allele, genotype or haplotype analyses. Conclusions Our matched case–control and family study indicate that Cx50, but not Cx40, may play a role in the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. PMID:17412882

  10. The influence of caregivers and behavioral and psychological symptoms on nursing home placement of persons with Alzheimer’s disease: A matched case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Candace N; Miller, Margaret C; Lane, Marcia; Cornman, Carol; Sarsour, Khaled; Kahle-Wrobleski, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and caregiver characteristics may influence the decision to provide care at home or in a nursing home, though few studies examine this association near the actual time of nursing home placement. Using a matched case–control design, this study investigates the association between (1) total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score, (2) the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-4 (an agitation/aggression subscale), and (3) individual domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and nursing home placement. Methods: Data from the South Carolina Alzheimer’s disease Registry provides an opportunity to expand the literature by looking at cases at the time of nursing home care eligibility/placement and allowing for propensity-score-matched controls. Cases (n = 352) entered a nursing home within 6 months of study initiation; controls (n = 289) remained in the community. Registry data were combined with caregiver survey data, including the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Conditional logistic regression was applied. Results: A 10% increase in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score implied a 30% increase in odds of nursing home admission (odds ratio: 1.30; 95% confidence interval: 1.14–1.50), having married or male caregivers predicted nursing home placement. Cases versus controls were significantly more likely to have behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia related to agitation/aggression 1 month prior to nursing home admission. Conclusion: Interventions targeting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia without available effective interventions in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and caregiver support services are necessary to prevent or delay nursing home admission. PMID:27606063

  11. Invasive candidiasis in low birth weight preterm infants: risk factors, clinical course and outcome in a prospective multicenter study of cases and their matched controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This multicenter prospective study of invasive candidiasis (IC) was carried out to determine the risk factors for, incidence of, clinical and laboratory features, treatment and outcome of IC in infants of birth weight <1250 g. Methods Neonates <1250 g with IC and their matched controls (2:1) were followed longitudinally and descriptive analysis was performed. Survivors underwent neurodevelopmental assessment at 18 to 24 months corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was defined as blindness, deafness, moderate to severe cerebral palsy, or a score <70 on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development 2nd edition. Multivariable analyses were performed to determine risk factors for IC and predictors of mortality and NDI. Results Cumulative incidence rates of IC were 4.2%, 2.2% and 1.5% for birth-weight categories <750 g, <1000 g, <1500 g, respectively. Forty nine infants with IC and 90 controls were enrolled. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was the only independent risk factor for IC (p = 0.03). CNS candidiasis occurred in 50% of evaluated infants, while congenital candidiasis occurred in 31%. Infants with CNS candidiasis had a higher mortality rate (57%) and incidence of deafness (50%) than the overall cohort of infants with IC. NDI (56% vs. 33%; p = 0.017) and death (45% vs. 7%; p = 0.0001) were more likely in cases than in controls, respectively. IC survivors were more likely to be deaf (28% vs. 7%; p = 0.01). IC independently predicted mortality (p = 0.0004) and NDI (p = 0.018). Conclusion IC occurred in 1.5% of VLBW infants. Preceding NEC increased the risk of developing IC. CNS candidiasis is under-investigated and difficult to diagnose, but portends a very poor outcome. Mortality, deafness and NDI were independently significantly increased in infants with IC compared to matched controls. PMID:24924877

  12. Acoustic Beam Forming Array Using Feedback-Controlled Microphones for Tuning and Self-Matching of Frequency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radcliffe, Eliott (Inventor); Naguib, Ahmed (Inventor); Humphreys, Jr., William M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A feedback-controlled microphone includes a microphone body and a membrane operatively connected to the body. The membrane is configured to be initially deflected by acoustic pressure such that the initial deflection is characterized by a frequency response. The microphone also includes a sensor configured to detect the frequency response of the initial deflection and generate an output voltage indicative thereof. The microphone additionally includes a compensator in electric communication with the sensor and configured to establish a regulated voltage in response to the output voltage. Furthermore, the microphone includes an actuator in electric communication with the compensator, wherein the actuator is configured to secondarily deflect the membrane in opposition to the initial deflection such that the frequency response is adjusted. An acoustic beam forming microphone array including a plurality of the above feedback-controlled microphones is also disclosed.

  13. Long-term survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest: A matched cohort study☆

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, Paul; Mina, Michael J.; Burke, Rachel M.; Hashimoto, Barry; Gregg, Sara; Martin, Greg S.; Leeper, Kenneth; Buchman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background Each year, 200,000 patients undergo an in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA), with approximately 15–20% surviving to discharge. Little is known, however, about the long-term prognosis of these patients after discharge. Previous efforts to describe out-of-hospital survival of IHCA patients have been limited by small sample sizes and narrow patient populations Methods A single institution matched cohort study was undertaken to describe mortality following IHCA. Patients surviving to discharge following an IHCA between 2008 and 2010 were matched on age, sex, race and hospital admission criteria with non-IHCA hospital controls and follow-up between 9 and 45 months. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox PH models assessed differences in survival. Results Of the 1262 IHCAs, 20% survived to hospital discharge. Of those discharged, survival at 1 year post-discharge was 59% for IHCA patients and 82% for controls (p < 0.0001). Hazard ratios (IHCA vs. controls) for mortality were greatest within the 90 days following discharge (HR = 2.90, p < 0.0001) and decreased linearly thereafter, with those surviving to one year post-discharge having an HR for mortality below 1.0. Survival after discharge varied amongst IHCA survivors. When grouped by discharge destination, out of hospital survival varied; in fact, IHCA patients discharged home without services demonstrated no survival difference compared to their non-IHCA controls (HR 1.10, p = 0.72). IHCA patients discharged to long-term hospital care or hospice, however, had a significantly higher mortality compared to matched controls (HR 3.91 and 20.3, respectively; p < 0.0001). Conclusion Among IHCA patients who survive to hospital discharge, the highest risk of death is within the first 90 days after discharge. Additionally, IHCA survivors overall have increased long-term mortality vs. controls. Survival rates were varied widely with different discharge destinations, and those discharged to home, skilled nursing facilities or to

  14. No differences in rates of energy expenditure between post-obese women and their matched, lean controls.

    PubMed

    de Peuter, R; Withers, R T; Brinkman, M; Tomas, F M; Clark, D G

    1992-10-01

    Rates of energy expenditure at rest, during different daily activities and following a standardized liquid meal were compared in eight post-obese women, with a mean weight loss of 21.5 kg (range 14.1 to 33.3 kg) and eight controls who had never been overweight. Age, height, body mass index, fat-free mass and average daily energy intake were similar for both experimental groups. Resting metabolic rate averaged 23.04 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 1.14) in the post-obese and 22.70 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 0.64) in the controls on their first visit to the laboratory. Metabolic rates in the two groups rose in parallel as energy expenditure was increased by sitting, standing and walking at three different speeds (2.4, 3.9 and 5.4 km/h). At the highest walking speed energy expenditure averaged 95.30 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 4.18) in the post-obese and 93.42 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 2.97) in the control women. Comparisons of postprandial thermogenesis revealed no significant differences between the two groups. The results of the present study do not support the thesis that rates of energy expenditure, whether at rest, during different activities, or after eating, are reduced in post-obese women.

  15. Use of Self-Matching to Control for Stable Patient Characteristics While Addressing Time-Varying Confounding on Treatment Effect: A Case Study of Older Intensive Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Ling; Pisani, M A; Araujo, K L B; Allore, Heather G

    Exposure-crossover design offers a non-experimental option to control for stable baseline confounding through self-matching while examining causal effect of an exposure on an acute outcome. This study extends this approach to longitudinal data with repeated measures of exposure and outcome using data from a cohort of 340 older medical patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). The analytic sample included 92 patients who received ≥1 dose of haloperidol, an antipsychotic medication often used for patients with delirium. Exposure-crossover design was implemented by sampling the 3-day time segments prior (Induction) and posterior (Subsequent) to each treatment episode of receiving haloperidol. In the full cohort, there was a trend of increasing delirium severity scores (Mean±SD: 4.4±1.7) over the course of the ICU stay. After exposure-crossover sampling, the delirium severity score decreased from the Induction (4.9) to the Subsequent (4.1) intervals, with the treatment episode falling in-between (4.5). Based on a GEE Poisson model accounting for self-matching and within-subject correlation, the unadjusted mean delirium severity scores was -0.55 (95% CI: -1.10, -0.01) points lower for the Subsequent than the Induction intervals. The association diminished by 32% (-0.38, 95%CI: -0.99, 0.24) after adjusting only for ICU confounding, while being slightly increased by 7% (-0.60, 95%CI: -1.15, -0.04) when adjusting only for baseline characteristics. These results suggest that longitudinal exposure-crossover design is feasible and capable of partially removing stable baseline confounding through self-matching. Loss of power due to eliminating treatment-irrelevant person-time and uncertainty around allocating person-time to comparison intervals remain methodological challenges.

  16. Comparison of the Association of Excess Weight on Health Related Quality of Life of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Age- and BMI-Matched Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shishehgar, Farnaz; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hajian, Sepideh; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background It is assumed that obesity adversely affects the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), not only due to the excess weight, but also due to several other obesity induced metabolic and reproductive consequences. We aimed to compare the effects of excess body weight on the HRQOL between women with PCOS and controls. Methods This is a case control study of 142 women with PCOS and 140 age- and BMI- matched controls. The Iranian version of short form health survey 36 (SF 36) was used to assess HRQOL. Domains of SF 36 were compared in women with PCOS and controls using multivariate analysis of covariance. The Pearson correlation was used to assess the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and domain scores of SF 36, and the differences between two correlations in cases and controls, using Fisher’s Z test. Results Women with PCOS had significantly lower scores for both, the physical and the mental component summary scales, compared to controls. In the cases, a significant negative correlations were observed for BMI with physical function (r = - 0.301, P<0.001), bodily pain (r = - 0.23, P = 0.006), and physical summary score (r = -0.3, P = 0.007). In controls, significant correlation was seen for BMI with bodily pain (r = - 0.3, P<0.001) and physical summary score (r = - 0.27, P = 0.001). The differences between correlations of physical function with BMI in PCOS and controls were statistically significant (Z = -2.41, P = 0.008). Conclusion Although the physical aspects of HRQOL are adversely affected by overweight in both PCOS and controls, these impaired effects are greater in women with PCOS. PMID:27736861

  17. Nutrition and health - the association between eating behavior and various health parameters: a matched sample study.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Eva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Population-based studies have consistently shown that our diet has an influence on health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze differences between different dietary habit groups in terms of health-related variables. The sample used for this cross-sectional study was taken from the Austrian Health Interview Survey AT-HIS 2006/07. In a first step, subjects were matched according to their age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES). After matching, the total number of subjects included in the analysis was 1320 (N = 330 for each form of diet - vegetarian, carnivorous diet rich in fruits and vegetables, carnivorous diet less rich in meat, and carnivorous diet rich in meat). Analyses of variance were conducted controlling for lifestyle factors in the following domains: health (self-assessed health, impairment, number of chronic conditions, vascular risk), health care (medical treatment, vaccinations, preventive check-ups), and quality of life. In addition, differences concerning the presence of 18 chronic conditions were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests. Overall, 76.4% of all subjects were female. 40.0% of the individuals were younger than 30 years, 35.4% between 30 and 49 years, and 24.0% older than 50 years. 30.3% of the subjects had a low SES, 48.8% a middle one, and 20.9% had a high SES. Our results revealed that a vegetarian diet is related to a lower BMI and less frequent alcohol consumption. Moreover, our results showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with poorer health (higher incidences of cancer, allergies, and mental health disorders), a higher need for health care, and poorer quality of life. Therefore, public health programs are needed in order to reduce the health risk due to nutritional factors.

  18. Evidence-based decision-making in infectious diseases epidemiology, prevention and control: matching research questions to study designs and quality appraisal tools

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Project on a Framework for Rating Evidence in Public Health (PRECEPT) was initiated and is being funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) to define a methodology for evaluating and grading evidence and strength of recommendations in the field of public health, with emphasis on infectious disease epidemiology, prevention and control. One of the first steps was to review existing quality appraisal tools (QATs) for individual research studies of various designs relevant to this area, using a question-based approach. Methods Through team discussions and expert consultations, we identified 20 relevant types of public health questions, which were grouped into six domains, i.e. characteristics of the pathogen, burden of disease, diagnosis, risk factors, intervention, and implementation of intervention. Previously published systematic reviews were used and supplemented by expert consultation to identify suitable QATs. Finally, a matrix was constructed for matching questions to study designs suitable to address them and respective QATs. Key features of each of the included QATs were then analyzed, in particular in respect to its intended use, types of questions and answers, presence/absence of a quality score, and if a validation was performed. Results In total we identified 21 QATs and 26 study designs, and matched them. Four QATs were suitable for experimental quantitative study designs, eleven for observational quantitative studies, two for qualitative studies, three for economic studies, one for diagnostic test accuracy studies, and one for animal studies. Included QATs consisted of six to 28 items. Six of the QATs had a summary quality score. Fourteen QATs had undergone at least one validation procedure. Conclusions The results of this methodological study can be used as an inventory of potentially relevant questions, appropriate study designs and QATs for researchers and authorities engaged with evidence-based decision

  19. A case-control study of Alzheimer's disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    Broe, G A; Henderson, A S; Creasey, H; McCusker, E; Korten, A E; Jorm, A F; Longley, W; Anthony, J C

    1990-11-01

    We conducted a case-control study of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) on 170 cases aged 52 to 96 years, and 170 controls matched for age, sex and, where possible, the general practice of origin. Trained lay interviewers naive to the hypotheses and to the clinical status of the elderly person carried out risk-factor interviews with informants. Significant odds ratios were found for 4 variables: a history of either dementia, probable AD, or Down's syndrome in a 1st-degree relative, and underactivity as a behavioral trait in both the recent and more distant past. Previously reported or suggested associations not confirmed by this study include head injury, starvation, thyroid disease, analgesic abuse, antacid use (aluminum exposure), alcohol abuse, smoking, and being left-handed.

  20. Long-term results of carmustine wafer implantation for newly diagnosed glioblastomas: a controlled propensity-matched analysis of a French multicenter cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pallud, Johan; Audureau, Etienne; Noel, Georges; Corns, Robert; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle; Duntze, Julien; Pavlov, Vladislav; Guyotat, Jacques; Hieu, Phong Dam; Le Reste, Pierre-Jean; Faillot, Thierry; Litre, Claude-Fabien; Desse, Nicolas; Petit, Antoine; Emery, Evelyne; Voirin, Jimmy; Peltier, Johann; Caire, François; Vignes, Jean-Rodolphe; Barat, Jean-Luc; Langlois, Olivier; Dezamis, Edouard; Parraga, Eduardo; Zanello, Marc; Nader, Edmond; Lefranc, Michel; Bauchet, Luc; Devaux, Bertrand; Menei, Philippe; Metellus, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background The standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma is maximal safe surgical resection, followed by chemoradiation therapy. We assessed carmustine wafer implantation efficacy and safety when used in combination with standard care. Methods Included were adult patients with (n = 354, implantation group) and without (n = 433, standard group) carmustine wafer implantation during first surgical resection followed by chemoradiation standard protocol. Multivariate and case-matched analyses (controlled propensity-matched cohort, 262 pairs of patients) were conducted. Results The median progression-free survival was 12.0 months (95% CI: 10.7–12.6) in the implantation group and 10.0 months (9.0–10.0) in the standard group and the median overall survival was 20.4 months (19.0–22.7) and 18.0 months (17.0–19.0), respectively. Carmustine wafer implantation was independently associated with longer progression-free survival in patients with subtotal/total surgical resection in the whole series (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.76 [95% CI: 0.63–0.92], P = .005) and after propensity matching (HR, 0.74 [95% CI: 0.60–0.92], P = .008), whereas no significant difference was found for overall survival (HR, 0.95 [0.80–1.13], P = .574; HR, 1.06 [0.87–1.29], P = .561, respectively). Surgical resection at progression whether alone or combined with carmustine wafer implantation was independently associated with longer overall survival in the whole series (HR, 0.58 [0.44–0.76], P < .0001; HR, 0.54 [0.41–0.70], P < .0001, respectively) and after propensity matching (HR, 0.56 [95% CI: 0.40–0.78], P < .0001; HR, 0.46 [95% CI: 0.33–0.64], P < .0001, respectively). The higher postoperative infection rate in the implantation group did not affect survival. Conclusions Carmustine wafer implantation during surgical resection followed by the standard chemoradiation protocol for newly diagnosed glioblastoma in adults resulted in a significant progression-free survival

  1. Comparison of gait of persons with partial foot amputation wearing prosthesis to matched control group: observational study.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael P; Barker, Timothy M

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of the gait mechanics of persons with partial foot amputation and the influence of prosthetic intervention has been limited by the reporting of isolated gait parameters in specific amputation levels and limited interpretation and discussion of results. This observational study aimed to more completely describe the gait patterns of persons with partial foot amputation wearing their existing prosthesis and footwear in comparison with a nonamputee control group. Major adaptations occurred once the metatarsal heads were compromised. Persons with transmetatarsal and Lisfranc amputation who were wearing insoles and slipper sockets maintained the center of pressure behind the end of the residuum until after contralateral heel contact. This gait pattern may be a useful adaptation to protect the residuum, moderate the requirement of the calf musculature, or compensate for the compliance of the forefoot. Power generation across the affected ankle was virtually negligible, necessitating increased power generation across the hip joints. The clamshell devices fitted to the persons with Chopart amputation restored their effective foot length and normalized many aspects of gait. These persons' ability to adopt this gait pattern may be the result of the broad anterior shell of the socket, a relatively stiff forefoot, and immobilization of the ankle. The hip joints still contributed significantly to the power generation required to walk.

  2. Generation of squeezed light with a monolithic optical parametric oscillator: simultaneous achievement of phase matching and cavity resonance by temperature control.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Nagashima, Koyo; Furusawa, Akira

    2010-09-13

    We generate squeezed state of light at 860 nm with a monolithic optical parametric oscillator. The optical parametric oscillator consists of a periodically poled KTiOPO(4) crystal, both ends of which are spherically polished and mirror-coated. We achieve both phase matching and cavity resonance by controlling only the temperature of the crystal. We observe up to -8.0±0.2 dB of squeezing with the bandwidth of 142 MHz. Our technique makes it possible to drive many monolithic cavities simultaneously by a single laser. Hence our monolithic optical parametric oscillator is quite suitable to continuous-variable quantum information experiments where we need a large number of highly squeezed light beams.

  3. Psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy: A matched case-control study in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Weldu, Meresa Gebremedhin; Misgina, Kebede Haile

    2017-01-01

    Background Malnutrition hastens progression to Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS) related illnesses; undermines adherence and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-poor settings. However, nutritional status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can be affected by various psychosocial factors which have not been well explored in Ethiopia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART in Central zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A matched case-control study design was conducted to assess psychosocial correlates of nutritional status among PLHIV on ART. Data were collected by an interviewer-administered technique using structured pre-tested questionnaire, record review using a checklist and anthropometric measurements. Cases were selected by simple random sampling and controls purposively to match the selected cases. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute relevant associations by STATA version 12. Results The psychosocial factors independently associated with malnutrition were ever consuming alcohol after starting ART [AOR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.8–12.3], ever smoking cigarette after starting ART [AOR = 7.6, 95% CI: 2.3–25.5], depression [AOR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.1], not adhering to ART [AOR = 6.8,95% CI: 2.0–23.0] and being in the second lowest wealth quintile [AOR = 4.3,95% CI: 1.1–17.7]. Conclusion Ever consuming alcohol and ever smoking cigarette after starting ART, depression, not adhering to ART and being in the second lowest wealth quintile were significantly associated with malnutrition. Therefore; policies, strategies, and programs targeting people living with HIV should consider psychosocial factors that can impact nutritional status of people living with HIV enrolled on ART. PMID:28301592

  4. Age, sex, and lactating status regulate ghrelin secretion and GOAT mRNA levels from isolated rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Al-Massadi, O; Crujeiras, A B; González, R C; Pardo, M; Diéguez, C; Casanueva, F F; Seoane, L M

    2010-09-01

    Ghrelin is a stomach derivate peptide involved in energy homeostasis regulation, and ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the enzyme responsible for ghrelin acylation. Puberty is a period characterized by profound changes in the metabolic requirements and notable variations of sexual hormone levels. On the other hand, the weaning process is a fundamental modification of the diet, which implicates several adaptations of the gastrointestinal tract physiology. Until now the direct secretion of ghrelin by the stomach in these conditions, without interferences from other organs, has never been studied. The main objective of this article was to investigate how the stomach modulates ghrelin production and secretion as well as GOAT expression on these periods of life. Gastric ghrelin secretion is regulated through postnatal life in an independent way of gastric expression and circulating levels of this hormone. The present work shows a strong regulation of gastric ghrelin secretion by estrogens. The weaning strongly regulates gastric ghrelin secretion. Animals subjected to delayed weaning present a lower body weight than the corresponding controls. For the first time, it is shown that a noticeable decrease in circulating levels of testosterone and estrogens is associated with delay of weaning. GOAT mRNA levels in the stomach are strongly regulated by age, breastfeeding, and testosterone. In conclusion, the stomach itself regulates ghrelin and GOAT production to adapt the organism to the metabolic requirements demanded through each stage of life.

  5. The relationship between paternal age, sex ratios, and aneuploidy frequencies in human sperm, as assessed by multicolor FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.; Spriggs, E. |; Ko, E.

    1995-12-01

    We studied the frequencies of X- and Y-chromosome bearing sperm, diploidy and disomy for chromosomes 1, 12, X, and Y in sperm from 10 normal men aged 21 - 52 years, to determine whether there was any relationship between donor age and any of these variables. Multicolor FISH was used to control for lack of probe hybridization and to distinguish diploid sperm from disomic sperm. A minimum of 10,000 sperm per donor was evaluated for each chromosome, for a total of 225,846 sperm studied. Sperm were considered disomic if two fluorescent signals were separated by a minimal distance of one signal domain. The mean frequencies of X- and Y-bearing sperm were 50.1% and 49.0%, respectively; not significantly different from 50%. There was no correlation between paternal age and {open_quotes}sex ratio {close_quotes} in sperm. Similarly, there was no association between the frequency of diploid sperm (mean, .16%; range, .06%-.42%) and donor age. For disomy frequencies, there was no relationship between donor age and disomy 12 (mean, .16%; range, .10%-.25%), XX (mean, .07%; range, .03%-.17%), and XY sperm (mean, .16%; range, .08%-.24%). There was a significant increase in the frequency of YY sperm (P = .04; mean, .18%; range, .10%-.43%) and disomy 1 sperm (P = .01; mean, .11%; range, .05%-.18%) with donor age. In summary, our results do not support a correlation between paternal age and sex ratio or diploidy. A relationship between paternal age and disomy was observed for disomy 1 and YY sperm but not for disomy 12, XX or XY sperm. 37 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Prevalence of Escherichia coli strains with localized, diffuse, and aggregative adherence to HeLa cells in infants with diarrhea and matched controls.

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, T A; Blake, P A; Trabulsi, L R

    1989-01-01

    To determine the possible role of Escherichia coli strains with three different patterns of adherence to HeLa cells in causing diarrhea in infants in São Paulo, Brazil, we studied stool specimens from 100 infants up to 1 year of age with acute diarrheal illnesses and 100 age-matched control infants without recent diarrhea. E. coli with localized adherence to HeLa cells was much more common in patients (23%) than in controls (2%) (P less than 0.0001) and was detected more frequently than rotavirus (19%) was in patients, even though the study was conducted during the coldest months of the year. Most (80%) of the E. coli colonies with localized adherence were of traditional enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes. Little difference was found between patients and controls in the rate of isolation of E. coli with diffuse adherence (31 and 32%, respectively) or aggregative adherence (10 and 8%, respectively). A genetic probe used to detect a plasmid-mediated adhesin which confers expression of localized adherence proved to be 100% sensitive and 99.9% specific in detecting E. coli with localized adherence to HeLa cells. Although E. coli strains with localized adherence have now been shown to be enteric pathogens in several parts of the world, the role of strains showing diffuse adherence and aggregative adherence is still uncertain. PMID:2563383

  7. Plasma electrophoretic profiles and hemoglobin binding protein reference intervals in the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) and influences of age, sex, season, and location.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Byrd, John; Cray, Carolyn; Allender, Matthew C

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of plasma electrophoretic profiles and acute phase protein concentrations may play a valuable role in health assessment of reptiles; however, little is known about reference intervals in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals of protein electrophoretic profiles and hemoglobin binding protein ([HBP] as determined by a haptoglobin assay) in free-ranging eastern box turtles and to assess any possible correlations between varying age class (adults vs. juvenile), sex (male, female, or unknown), season (spring, summer, or fall), or location (Tennessee vs. Illinois). Blood samples were obtained from 324 eastern box turtles from 2010 to 2012 at three sites in Illinois and one site in Tennessee, USA. Significant differences were observed with total protein (sex, season, state, Illinois location), albumin (age class, season, state, Illinois location), α-1 globulins (sex, season, Illinois location), α-2 globulins (sex, season, state, Illinois location), β globulins (age class, sex, season, state, Illinois location), γ globulins (sex, season state, Illinois location), and hemoglobin binding protein (age class, sex, state, Illinois location). The use of electrophoretic profiles and acute phase proteins is a relatively new concept in reptilian medicine, and this study allowed for establishment of references intervals in the eastern box turtle and emphasized differences that occured based on age, sex, season, and location. Future research in this area can now build on these data to determine changes in population health over time or alterations due to specific environmental or disease threats.

  8. Sociodemographic factors in a pediatric chronic pain clinic: The roles of age, sex and minority status in pain and health characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Subhadra; Taub, Rebecca; Tsao, Jennie CI; Meldrum, Marcia; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how sociodemographic factors relate to children’s chronic pain. This paper describes the pain, health, and sociodemographic characteristics of a cohort of children presenting to an urban tertiary chronic pain clinic and documents the role of age, sex and minority status on pain-related characteristics. A multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Two hundred and nineteen patients and their parents were given questionnaire packets to fill out prior to their intake appointment which included demographic information, clinical information, Child Health Questionnaire – Parent Report, Functional Disability Index – Parent Report, Child Somatization Index – Parent Report, and a Pain Intensity Scale. Additional clinical information was obtained from patients’ medical records via chart review. This clinical sample exhibited compromised functioning in a number of domains, including school attendance, bodily pain, and health compared to normative data. Patients also exhibited high levels of functional disability. Minority children evidenced decreased sleep, increased somatization, higher levels of functional disability, and increased pain intensity compared to Caucasians. Caucasians were more likely to endorse headaches than minorities, and girls were more likely than boys to present with fibromyalgia. Younger children reported better functioning than did teens. The results indicate that sociodemographic factors are significantly associated with several pain-related characteristics in children with chronic pain. Further research must address potential mechanisms of these relationships and applications for treatment. PMID:21686073

  9. Assessment of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in plasma of bottlenose dolphins from two southeast US estuarine areas: relationship with age, sex and geographic locations.

    PubMed

    Fair, Patricia A; Houde, Magali; Hulsey, Thomas C; Bossart, Gregory D; Adams, Jeff; Balthis, Len; Muir, Derek C G

    2012-01-01

    Plasma PFCs were measured in 157 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) sampled from two US southeast Atlantic sites (Charleston (CHS), SC and Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL) during 2003-2005. ∑PFCs, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (∑PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (∑PFSAs) and individual compounds were significantly higher in CHS dolphins for all age/sex categories compared to IRL dolphins. Highest ∑PFCs concentrations occurred in CHS juvenile dolphins (2340 ng/g w.w.); significantly higher than found in adults (1570 ng/g w.w. males; 1330 ng/g w.w. females). ∑PFCAs were much greater in CHS dolphins (≈ 21%) compared to IRL dolphins (≈ 7%); ∑PFSAs were 79% in CHS dolphins versus 93% in IRL dolphins. PFOS, the dominant compound, averaged 72% and 84%, respectively, in CHS and IRL dolphins. Decreasing PFC levels occurred with age on the bioaccumulation of PFCs in both sites. These observations suggest PFC accumulation in these two dolphin populations are influenced by site-specific exposures with significantly higher levels in CHS dolphins.

  10. The Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Vaccine Does Not Increase the Mortality Rate of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia: A Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Shintaro; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Inoue, Eisuke; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Kono, Shigeru; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the mortality rate after administration of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine on patients with underlying diseases is currently scarce. We conducted a case-control study in Japan to compare the mortality rates of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia after the vaccines were administered and were not administered. Methods Between October 2009 and March 2010, we collected clinical records in Japan and conducted a 1∶1 matched case-control study. Patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia who died during this period were considered case patients, and those who survived were considered control patients. We determined and compared the proportion of each group that received the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine and estimated the odds ratio. Finally, we conducted simulations that compensated for the shortcomings of the study associated with adjusted severity of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Results The case and control groups each comprised of 75 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. The proportion of patients who received the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine was 30.7% and 38.7% for the case and control groups, respectively. During that winter, the crude conditional odds ratio of mortality was 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.25–1.47) and the adjusted conditional odds ratio was 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.33–4.49); neither was significant. The simulation study showed more accurate conditional odds ratios of 0.63–0.71. Conclusions In our study, we detected no evidence that the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine increased the mortality rate of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. The results, however, are limited by the small sample size and low statistical power. A larger-scale study is required. PMID:24586445

  11. Urinary catecholamines in essential hypertension: results of 24-hour urine catecholamine analyses from patients in the Medical Research Council trial for mild hypertension and from matched controls.

    PubMed

    Brown, M J; Causon, R C; Barnes, V F; Brennan, P; Barnes, G; Greenberg, G

    1985-10-01

    Four consecutive 24-h urine samples were collected from 134 male and 134 female placebo-treated patients in the Medical Research Council Trial for Mild Hypertension. Similar samples were collected from age and sex-matched normotensive controls. On the fourth day noradrenaline excretion was 22.05 +/- 1.01 nmol/mmol creatinine in the hypertensives compared with 22.22 +/- 1.16 nmol/mmol creatinine in the controls. Adrenaline excretion on the same day was 6.13 +/- 0.33 nmol/mmol creatinine in the hypertensive subjects compared with 6.32 +/- 0.38 nmol/mmol creatinine in the controls. There was no significant difference for either catecholamine between the two groups. However, in the control group there was a highly significant correlation between excretion of adrenaline and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.218, p = 0.0004) and between noradrenaline excretion and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.200, p = 0.001). Catecholamine excretion and blood pressure were not significantly correlated in the hypertensive patients. There were no significant correlations in either group between catecholamine excretion and heart rate, caffeine intake, nicotine consumption or the Bortner self-assessment score of personality type. This study has found no evidence of elevated sympathoadrenal activity in mild hypertensives. The correlations in the control group may reflect the role of sympathoadrenal activity in acute fluctuations in blood pressure or may suggest that the level of blood pressure within the 'normal' range depends in part on the level of sympathoadrenal activity.

  12. [A population-based case control study of primary liver cancer in Fusui].

    PubMed

    Zhang, M D

    1993-02-01

    A population-based case control study of primary liver cancer (PLC) was undertaken in Fusui County, Guangxi Autonomous Region. Ninety-nine PLC cases and 99 age-sex-matched controls were surveyed for their general conditions, life style features, dietary habits, types of drinking water and family history. Cases and controls were well distributed in nationality, education, marital status and annual income per person. Conditional logistic regression results showed that HBV infection, drinking pond-ditch water, family history and total alcohol intake were the risk factors of PLC with the relative risks 5.330 (2.502-11.35), 3.703 (1.251-10.96), 2.881 (1.289-6.441), 1.002 (1.000-1.004), respectively. And antibody of HBV surface antigen is protective factor with the relative risk of 0.418 (0.210-0.834).

  13. Effects of home-based constraint-induced therapy versus dose-matched control intervention on functional outcomes and caregiver well-being in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling; Chang, Kai-chieh; Lin, Yu-chan; Chen, Yi-ju

    2011-01-01

    This study compared home-based constraint-induced therapy (CIT) with a dose-matched home-based control intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The differences in unilateral and bilateral motor performance, daily functions, and quality of parental well-being (i.e., the stress level of their parents) were evaluated. The study included 21 children with CP (age range, 48-119 months) who were randomly assigned to the CIT or control group. All participants received individualized home-based interventions, 3.5-4h a day, twice a week for 4weeks. Primary outcomes were measured by the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales II (PDMS-2) and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) is the whole name of the assessment. All first letters of this instrument title should be in upper case. Secondary outcome measures were the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL), the Caregiver Functional Use Survey (CFUS), and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI). Outcome measures were performed at baseline (pretreatment), 4weeks (posttreatment), and 6-month (follow-up). Compared with the control group, the CIT group exhibited significantly better performance in grasping control as measured by the PDMS-2, unilateral/bilateral motor efficacy as measured by the BOTMP, and unilateral hand function as measured by the PMAL immediately after the treatment. At the 6-month follow-up, CIT had beneficial effects on grasping control assessed by PDMS-2 and on unilateral/bilateral functional performance measured by the PMAL and CFUS. Parents in both groups reported comparable stress levels at the 6-month follow-up, although the parent-child dysfunctional interaction deteriorated more immediately after CIT than after the control intervention. The follow-up of this randomized controlled trial suggested beneficial effects of home-based CIT on unilateral grasping skills and unilateral/bilateral functional performance at 6 months. The higher stress level reported by the parents in the

  14. Prenatal exposure to lead in relation to risk of preterm low birth weight: a matched case-control study in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A.; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Du, Xiaofu; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Zheng, Tongzhang; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and the risk of preterm low birth weight (PLBW). Pb concentrations in maternal urine collected at birth from 408 subjects (102 cases and 306 matched controls) were analyzed and adjusted by creatinine. The median Pb concentration in the PLBW cases (10.60 μg Pb/g creatinine) was higher than that of the controls (7.28 μg Pb/g creatinine). An adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.96 (95% CI = 1.49-5.87) for PLBW was observed when the highest tertile was compared to the lowest tertile of Pb levels. The association was more pronounced among female infants (adjusted OR = 3.67 for the highest tertile; 95% CI = 1.35-9.93) than male infants (adjusted OR = 1.91 for the highest tertile; 95% CI = 0.74-4.95). Our study suggests that prenatal exposure to levels of Pb encountered today in China is associated with an elevated risk of PLBW. PMID:26122562

  15. Risk Factors Associated With Early Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Results From a Multinational Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    López-Medrano, F; Silva, J T; Fernández-Ruiz, M; Carver, P L; van Delden, C; Merino, E; Pérez-Saez, M J; Montero, M; Coussement, J; de Abreu Mazzolin, M; Cervera, C; Santos, L; Sabé, N; Scemla, A; Cordero, E; Cruzado-Vega, L; Martín-Moreno, P L; Len, Ó; Rudas, E; de León, A Ponce; Arriola, M; Lauzurica, R; David, M; González-Rico, C; Henríquez-Palop, F; Fortún, J; Nucci, M; Manuel, O; Paño-Pardo, J R; Montejo, M; Muñoz, P; Sánchez-Sobrino, B; Mazuecos, A; Pascual, J; Horcajada, J P; Lecompte, T; Lumbreras, C; Moreno, A; Carratalà, J; Blanes, M; Hernández, D; Hernández-Méndez, E A; Fariñas, M C; Perelló-Carrascosa, M; Morales, J M; Andrés, A; Aguado, J M

    2016-07-01

    Risk factors for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) after kidney transplantation have been poorly explored. We performed a multinational case-control study that included 51 kidney transplant (KT) recipients diagnosed with early (first 180 posttransplant days) IPA at 19 institutions between 2000 and 2013. Control recipients were matched (1:1 ratio) by center and date of transplantation. Overall mortality among cases was 60.8%, and 25.0% of living recipients experienced graft loss. Pretransplant diagnosis of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD; odds ratio [OR]: 9.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-90.58; p = 0.041) and delayed graft function (OR: 3.40; 95% CI: 1.08-10.73; p = 0.037) were identified as independent risk factors for IPA among those variables already available in the immediate peritransplant period. The development of bloodstream infection (OR: 18.76; 95% CI: 1.04-339.37; p = 0.047) and acute graft rejection (OR: 40.73, 95% CI: 3.63-456.98; p = 0.003) within the 3 mo prior to the diagnosis of IPA acted as risk factors during the subsequent period. In conclusion, pretransplant COPD, impaired graft function and the occurrence of serious posttransplant infections may be useful to identify KT recipients at the highest risk of early IPA. Future studies should explore the potential benefit of antimold prophylaxis in this group.

  16. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with higher levels of objectively measured sedentary behaviour and lower levels of physical activity than matched healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Moore, Sarah; Ploetz, Thomas; Anstee, Quentin M; Taylor, Roy; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Physical activity is a key determinant of metabolic control and is recommended for people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), usually alongside weight loss and dietary change. To date, no studies have reported the relationship between objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity, liver fat and metabolic control in people with NAFLD, limiting the potential to target sedentary behaviour in clinical practice. This study determined the level of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in people with NAFLD, and investigated links between physical activity, liver fat and glucose control. Methods Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed in 37 adults with NAFLD using a validated multisensor array over 7 days. Liver fat and glucose control were assessed, respectively, by 1H-MRS and fasting blood samples. Patterns of sedentary behaviour were assessed by power law analyses of the lengths of sedentary bouts fitted from raw sedentary data. An age and sex-matched healthy control group wore the activity monitor for the same time period. Results People with NAFLD spent approximately half an hour extra a day being sedentary (1318±68 vs1289±60 mins/day; p<0.05) and walked 18% fewer steps (8483±2926 vs 10377±3529 steps/day; p<0.01). As a consequence, active energy expenditure was reduced by 40% (432±258 vs 732±345 kcal/day; p<0.01) and total energy expenditure was lower in NAFLD (2690±440 vs 2901±511 kcal/day; p<0.01). Power law analyses of the lengths of sedentary bouts demonstrated that patients with NAFLD also have a lower number of transitions from being sedentary to active compared with controls (13±0.03 vs15±0.03%; p<0.05). Conclusions People with NAFLD spend more time sedentary and undertake less physical activity on a daily basis than healthy controls. High levels of sedentary behaviour and low levels of physical activity represent a therapeutic target that may prevent

  17. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  18. Effect of Octreotide Injection on Postoperative Drainage After Neck Dissection: A Preliminary Report of a Prospective, Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dongbin; Jeon, Jae Han; Kim, Heejin; Sohn, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Somatostatin inhibits lymph production and reduces lymph flow into the lymphatic duct. We hypothesized that octreotide, a long-acting somatostatin analog, would reduce drainage after neck dissection (ND) by reducing the overall lymphatic flow in the neck as well as thoracic duct flow. Methods From 2012 to 2014, total 123 patients who had undergone left-sided comprehensive ND, were divided into an octreotide group (49 patients) and a control group (74 patients). Seventeen patients from the octreotide group and 17 from the control group were individually matched by age (±10 years), sex, body mass index (±1 kg/m2), type of cancer, surgeon, and the extent of surgery. These 34 patients were finally included in the study. Results The total fluid drainage volume (540.9 mL vs. 707.9 mL) and drainage volume during the period of octreotide use (the first 5 postoperative days) (461.1 mL vs. 676.4 mL) were significantly lower in the octreotide group. The duration of drain placement (6.3 days vs. 9.4 days) was also shorter in the octreotide group. In the octreotide group, the mean triglyceride concentration in the drainage fluid was significantly lower than that in the control group (43.1 mg/dL vs. 88.8 mg/dL). There was no complication associated with the use of octreotide. Conclusion Our study has shown that postoperative octreotide injections reduce postoperative drainage and the duration of drain placement. Further studies with larger patient populations are warranted to confirm these results and to evaluate the clinical benefits for patients. PMID:27090270

  19. Impact of intensive-care-unit(ICU)-acquired ventilator-associated pneumonia(VAP) on hospital mortality: a matched-paired case-control study.

    PubMed

    Uno, Hideo; Takezawa, Jun; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Suka, Machi; Yoshida, Katsumi

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ICU-acquired ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) on hospital mortality is still a controversial issue in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ICU-acquired VAP on hospital mortality in a Japanese university hospital. Our study population was comprised of patients aged 16 years or older who were admitted to our ICU and received mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours during a period of 42 months as of December 2003. To evaluate whether VAP was an independent risk factor for hospital mortality after controlling for other clinical factors, patients with fatal outcomes (cases) were compared to those who survived (controls). From 587 eligible patients, we analyzed 75 cases and 150 controls who were successfully matched on sex, age, and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score using conditional logistic regression models. Univariate analysis demonstrated that hemodialysis (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-4.15; p = 0.01), surgical site infection (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.22-4.91; p = 0.01), and VAP (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.55-4.69; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with hospital mortality. After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that hemodialysis (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.06-3.94; p = 0.03) and VAP (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.10-4.39; p = 0.03) were independently associated with hospital mortality. In conclusion, these data suggest that ICU-acquired VAP significantly affects hospital mortality.

  20. Risk Factors for Influenza A(H7N9) Disease in China, a Matched Case Control Study, October 2014 to April 2015

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Ren, Ruiqi; Ou, Jianming; Kang, Min; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Havers, Fiona; Huo, Xiang; Liu, Xiaoqing; Sun, Qianlai; He, Yongchao; Liu, Bo; Wu, Shenggen; Wang, Yali; Sui, Haitian; Zhang, Yongjie; Tang, Shaopei; Chang, Caiyun; Xiang, Lunhui; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Shiguang; Zhou, Suizan; Chen, Tao; Xiang, Nijuan; Greene, Carolyn M.; Zhang, Yanping; Shu, Yuelong; Feng, Zijian; Li, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been associated with exposure to poultry and live poultry markets (LPMs). We conducted a case-control study to identify additional and more specific risk factors. Methods. Cases were laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) infections in persons in China reported from October 1, 2014 to April 30, 2015. Poultry workers, those with insufficient data, and those refusing participation were excluded. We matched up to 4 controls per case by sex, age, and residential community. Using conditional logistic regression, we examined associations between A(H7N9) infection and potential risk factors. Results. Eighty-five cases and 334 controls were enrolled with similar demographic characteristics. Increased risk of A(H7N9) infection was associated with the following: visiting LPMs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6–15.3), direct contact with live poultry in LPMs (aOR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.1–15.6), stopping at a live poultry stall when visiting LPMs (aOR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1–6.9), raising backyard poultry at home (aOR, 7.7; 95% CI, 2.0–30.5), direct contact with backyard poultry (aOR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.1–22.1), and having ≥1 chronic disease (aOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.5–6.5). Conclusions. Our study identified raising backyard poultry at home as a risk factor for illness with A(H7N9), suggesting the need for enhanced avian influenza surveillance in rural areas. PMID:27704029

  1. Disparities in receipt of radiotherapy and survival by age, sex, and race among patients with non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, Doug M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Combination chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care for treatment of non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA). This population based study evaluated disparities in receipt of radiotherapy (RT) as well as comparative survival rates for SCCA patients in the United States. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 database was used to identify patients with non-metastatic SCCA diagnosed between 1998 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the relationships between age, sex, and race and the receipt of RT, adjusting for marital status and stage of disease. Relative survival (RS) rates were compared by each factor, with added adjustment for RT status, using Cox proportional hazards model. Results A total of 3,885 patients with localized or regional SCCA as the only primary malignancy were included in the study, of which, 3,192 (82%) received RT. In our multivariate analysis, lower rates of RT were found for those 65+ years old [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.71; P<0.001], males (adjusted OR 0.65; P<0.001), and blacks (adjusted OR 0.78; P=0.049). Multivariate survival analysis showed worse survival among those 65+ years old (adjusted HR 1.65; P<0.001), males (adjusted HR 1.53; P<0.001), and blacks (adjusted HR 1.35; P=0.001). Conclusions This population based study identified older patients, males, and blacks as less likely to receive RT. Worse survival was also found in these groups. PMID:28078120

  2. Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

    2013-12-01

    Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling.

  3. Diabetes, cardiac disorders and asthma as risk factors for severe organ involvement among adult dengue patients: A matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Junxiong; Hsu, Jung Pu; Yeo, Tsin Wen; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Progression to severe organ involvement due to dengue infection has been associated with severe dengue disease, intensive care treatment, and mortality. However, there is a lack of understanding of the impact of pre-existing comorbidities and other risk factors of severe organ involvement among dengue adults. The aim of this retrospective case-control study is to characterize and identify risk factors that predispose dengue adults at risk of progression with severe organ involvement. This study involved 174 dengue patients who had progressed with severe organ involvement and 865 dengue patients without severe organ involvement, matched by the year of presentation of the cases, who were admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital between year 2005 and 2008. Age group of 60 years or older, diabetes, cardiac disorders, asthma, and having two or more pre-existing comorbidities were independent risk factors of severe organ involvement. Abdominal pain, clinical fluid accumulation, and hematocrit rise and rapid platelet count drop at presentation were significantly associated with severe organ involvement. These risk factors, when validated in a larger study, will be useful for triage by clinicians for prompt monitoring and clinical management at first presentation, to minimize the risk of severe organ involvement and hence, disease severity. PMID:28045096

  4. Effectiveness of Short-Term Inpatient Psychotherapy Based on Transactional Analysis With Patients With Personality Disorders: A Matched Control Study Using Propensity Score.

    PubMed

    Horn, Eva K; Verheul, Roel; Thunnissen, Moniek; Delimon, Jos; Soons, Mirjam; Meerman, Anke M M A; Ziegler, Uli M; Rossum, Bert V; Andrea, Helene; Stijnen, Theo; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Busschbach, Jan J V

    2015-10-01

    Controlled studies on the effectiveness of inpatient psychotherapy with patients with personality disorders (PD) are rare. This study aims to compare 3-month short-term inpatient psychotherapy based on transactional analysis (STIP-TA) with other psychotherapies (OP) up to 36-month follow-up. PD patients treated with STIP-TA were matched with OP patients using the propensity score. The primary outcome measure was general psychiatric symptomatology; secondary outcomes were psychosocial functioning and quality of life. In 67 pairs of patients, both STIP-TA and OP showed large symptomatic and functional improvements. However, STIP-TA patients showed more symptomatic improvement at all time points compared to OP patients. At 36 months, 68% of STIP-TA patients were symptomatically recovered compared to 48% of OP patients. STIP-TA outperformed OP in terms of improvements in general psychiatric symptomatology and quality of life. Superiority of STIP-TA was most pronounced at 12-month follow-up, but remained intact over the course of the 3-year follow-up.

  5. Using social-emotional and character development to improve academic outcomes: a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial in low-income, urban schools

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD, but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. METHODS The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design. Student-reported disaffection with learning and academic grades, and teacher ratings of academic ability and motivation were assessed for a cohort followed from grades 3 to 8. Aggregate school records were used to assess standardized test performance (for entire school, cohort, and demographic subgroups) and absenteeism (entire school). Multilevel growth-curve analyses tested program effects. RESULTS PA significantly improved growth in academic motivation and mitigated disaffection with learning. There was a positive impact of PA on absenteeism and marginally significant impact on math performance of all students. There were favorable program effects on reading for African American boys and cohort students transitioning between grades 7 and 8, and on math for girls and low-income students. CONCLUSIONS A school-based SECD program was found to influence academic outcomes among students living in low-income, urban communities. Future research should examine mechanisms by which changes in SECD influence changes in academic outcomes. PMID:24138347

  6. Impact of yoga on blood pressure and quality of life in patients with hypertension – a controlled trial in primary care, matched for systolic blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical treatment of hypertension is not always sufficient to achieve blood pressure control. Despite this, previous studies on supplementary therapies, such as yoga, are relatively few. We investigated the effects of two yoga interventions on blood pressure and quality of life in patients in primary health care diagnosed with hypertension. Methods Adult patients (age 20–80 years) with diagnosed hypertension were identified by an electronic chart search at a primary health care center in southern Sweden. In total, 83 subjects with blood pressure values of 120–179/≤109 mmHg at baseline were enrolled. At baseline, the patients underwent standardized blood pressure measurement at the health care center and they completed a questionnaire on self-rated quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF). There were three groups: 1) yoga class with yoga instructor (n = 28); 2) yoga at home (n = 28); and 3) a control group (n = 27). The participants were matched at the group level for systolic blood pressure. After 12 weeks of intervention, the assessments were performed again. At baseline a majority of the patients (92%) were on antihypertensive medication, and the patients were requested not to change their medication during the study. Results The yoga class group showed no improvement in blood pressure or self-rated quality of life, while in the yoga at home group there was a decline in diastolic blood pressure of 4.4 mmHg (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Moreover, the yoga at home group showed significant improvement in self-rated quality of life compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions A short yoga program for the patient to practice at home seems to have an antihypertensive effect, as well as a positive effect on self-rated quality of life compared to controls. This implies that simple yoga exercises may be useful as a supplementary blood pressure therapy in addition to medical treatment when prescribed by primary care

  7. A case-control study of bidi smoking and bronchogenic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, R.; Ahuja, R. C.; Singhal, S.; Srivastava, A. N.; James, P.; Kesarwani, V.; Singh, D.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risks imposed by tobacco smoking, in particular, bidi smoking, in the development of lung cancer. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-four histologically confirmed patients of bronchogenic carcinoma and 852 controls matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status were interviewed according to a predesigned questionnaire. Effects of individual variables defining the various aspects of tobacco smoking, in particular, bidi smoking, were assessed using logistic regression models. RESULTS: 81.3% cases of bronchogenic carcinoma were ever smokers as compared with 42.2% among controls. The odd ratios for ever smoking, bidi smoking, and cigarette smoking were 5.9 (confidence interval [CI] 4.3, 8.4), 6.1 (CI 4.3, 8.7), and 5.3 (CI 2.7, 10.4), respectively. CONCLUSION: Bidi smoking poses a very high risk for lung cancer even more than that of cigarette smoking. PMID:20981185

  8. Risk factors in lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow): a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Titchener, A G; Fakis, A; Tambe, A A; Smith, C; Hubbard, R B; Clark, D I

    2013-02-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common condition, but relatively little is known about its aetiology and associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for lateral epicondylitis in the community. Our dataset included 4998 patients with lateral epicondylitis who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice. The median age at diagnosis was 49 (interquartile range 42-56) years . Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with lateral epicondylitis were rotator cuff pathology (OR 4.95), De Quervain's disease (OR 2.48), carpal tunnel syndrome (OR 1.50), oral corticosteroid therapy (OR 1.68), and previous smoking history (OR 1.20). Diabetes mellitus, current smoking, trigger finger, rheumatoid arthritis, alcohol intake, and obesity were not found to be associated with lateral epicondylitis.

  9. Matching a Distribution by Matching Quantiles Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sgouropoulos, Nikolaos; Yao, Qiwei; Yastremiz, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of selecting representative portfolios for backtesting counterparty credit risks, we propose a matching quantiles estimation (MQE) method for matching a target distribution by that of a linear combination of a set of random variables. An iterative procedure based on the ordinary least-squares estimation (OLS) is proposed to compute MQE. MQE can be easily modified by adding a LASSO penalty term if a sparse representation is desired, or by restricting the matching within certain range of quantiles to match a part of the target distribution. The convergence of the algorithm and the asymptotic properties of the estimation, both with or without LASSO, are established. A measure and an associated statistical test are proposed to assess the goodness-of-match. The finite sample properties are illustrated by simulation. An application in selecting a counterparty representative portfolio with a real dataset is reported. The proposed MQE also finds applications in portfolio tracking, which demonstrates the usefulness of combining MQE with LASSO. PMID:26692592

  10. Matching a Distribution by Matching Quantiles Estimation.

    PubMed

    Sgouropoulos, Nikolaos; Yao, Qiwei; Yastremiz, Claudia

    2015-04-03

    Motivated by the problem of selecting representative portfolios for backtesting counterparty credit risks, we propose a matching quantiles estimation (MQE) method for matching a target distribution by that of a linear combination of a set of random variables. An iterative procedure based on the ordinary least-squares estimation (OLS) is proposed to compute MQE. MQE can be easily modified by adding a LASSO penalty term if a sparse representation is desired, or by restricting the matching within certain range of quantiles to match a part of the target distribution. The convergence of the algorithm and the asymptotic properties of the estimation, both with or without LASSO, are established. A measure and an associated statistical test are proposed to assess the goodness-of-match. The finite sample properties are illustrated by simulation. An application in selecting a counterparty representative portfolio with a real dataset is reported. The proposed MQE also finds applications in portfolio tracking, which demonstrates the usefulness of combining MQE with LASSO.

  11. Serum levels of endothelial glycocalyx constituents in women at 20 weeks' gestation who later develop gestational diabetes mellitus compared to matched controls: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Weilin; Taylor, Rennae S; McCowan, Lesley M E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this pilot study was to determine the serum concentration of heparan sulfate, hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate and syndecan-1 and if these serum concentrations can be used to identify women at 20 weeks' gestation who later develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Design Nested case–control study from Auckland, New Zealand participants in the prospective cohort Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Setting Auckland, New Zealand. Participants 20 pregnant women (70% European, 15% Indian, 10% Asian, 5% Pacific Islander) at 20 weeks' gestation without any hypertensive complications who developed GDM by existing New Zealand criteria defined as a fasting glucose ≥5.5 mmol/L and/or 2 hours ≥9.0 mmol/L after a 75 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Women not meeting these criteria were excluded from this study. The patients with GDM were matched with 20 women who had uncomplicated pregnancies and negative screening for GDM and matched for ethnicity, maternal age and BMI. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary measures were the serum concentrations of syndecan-1, heparan sulfate, hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate determined by quantitative ELISA. There were no secondary outcome measures. Results Binary logistic regression was performed to determine if serum concentrations of endothelial glycocalyx layer constituents in women at 20 weeks' gestation would be useful in predicting the subsequent diagnosis of GDM. The model was not statistically significant χ2=12.5, df=8, p=0.13, which indicates that the model was unable to distinguish between pregnant women at 20 weeks' gestation who later developed GDM and those who did not. Conclusions Serum concentrations of syndecan-1, heparan sulfate, hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate in pregnant women at 20 weeks' gestation were not associated with later development of GDM. To further explore whether there is any relationship between endothelial glycocalyx constituents and GDM

  12. Vacuolating Cytotoxin Genotypes Are Strong Markers of Gastric Cancer and Duodenal Ulcer-Associated Helicobacter pylori Strains: a Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Nawfal R.; Miendje Deyi, Véronique Y.; Burette, Alain; Atherton, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori virulence gene, cagA, and active forms of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene, vacA, are major determinants of pathogenesis. However, previous studies linking these factors to disease risk have often included patients using aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) or acid-suppressing drugs, both of which may confound results. Also, particularly for gastric cancer (GC), controls have often been of quite different ages. Here, we performed a careful study in a “clean” Belgian population with gastric cancer cases age and sex matched to 4 controls and with a parallel duodenal ulcer (DU) group. As in other populations, there was a close association between the presence of cagA and the vacA s1 genotype. For GC, associations were found for vacA s1-positive (P = 0.01, odds ratio [OR], 9.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 201.89), i1-positive (P = 0.003; OR, 12.08; 95% CI, 1.50 to 259.64), and cagA-positive status (P < 0.05; OR, infinity; 95% CI, 0.76 to infinity). For DU, associations were found with vacA s1 (P = 0.002; OR, 6.04; 95% CI, 1.52 to 27.87) and i1 (P = 0.004; OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.36 to 14.78) status but not with cagA status. Neither condition showed independent associations with the vacA m1 allele or with more biologically active forms of cagA with longer 3′ variable regions. In this Belgian population, the best markers of gastric cancer- and duodenal ulcer-associated strains are the vacA s1 and i1 genotypes. This fits with experimental data showing that the s and i regions are the key determinants of vacuolating cytotoxin activity. PMID:24920772

  13. Hip fracture risk assessment: artificial neural network outperforms conditional logistic regression in an age- and sex-matched case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporotic hip fractures with a significant morbidity and excess mortality among the elderly have imposed huge health and economic burdens on societies worldwide. In this age- and sex-matched case control study, we examined the risk factors of hip fractures and assessed the fracture risk by conditional logistic regression (CLR) and ensemble artificial neural network (ANN). The performances of these two classifiers were compared. Methods The study population consisted of 217 pairs (149 women and 68 men) of fractures and controls with an age older than 60 years. All the participants were interviewed with the same standardized questionnaire including questions on 66 risk factors in 12 categories. Univariate CLR analysis was initially conducted to examine the unadjusted odds ratio of all potential risk factors. The significant risk factors were then tested by multivariate analyses. For fracture risk assessment, the participants were randomly divided into modeling and testing datasets for 10-fold cross validation analyses. The predicting models built by CLR and ANN in modeling datasets were applied to testing datasets for generalization study. The performances, including discrimination and calibration, were compared with non-parametric Wilcoxon tests. Results In univariate CLR analyses, 16 variables achieved significant level, and six of them remained significant in multivariate analyses, including low T score, low BMI, low MMSE score, milk intake, walking difficulty, and significant fall at home. For discrimination, ANN outperformed CLR in both 16- and 6-variable analyses in modeling and testing datasets (p?

  14. Dietary Echium Oil Increases Long-Chain n–3 PUFAs, Including Docosapentaenoic Acid, in Blood Fractions and Alters Biochemical Markers for Cardiovascular Disease Independently of Age, Sex, and Metabolic Syndrome12

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Fuhrmann, Claudia; Köhler, Melanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO) containing stearidonic acid (SDA) is a plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) n–3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in humans. We investigated the effect of EO on LC n–3 PUFA accumulation in blood and biochemical markers with respect to age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. This double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled study started with a 2-wk run-in period, during which participants (n = 80) were administered 17 g/d run-in oil. Normal-weight individuals from 2 age groups (20–35 and 49–69 y) were allotted to EO or fish oil (FO; control) groups. During the 8-wk intervention, participants were administered either 17 g/d EO (2 g SDA; n = 59) or FO [1.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); n = 19]. Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 19) were recruited for EO treatment only. During the 10-wk study, the participants followed a dietary n–3 PUFA restriction, e.g., no fish. After the 8-wk EO treatment, increases in the LC n–3 metabolites EPA (168% and 79%) and docosapentaenoic acid [DPA (68% and 39%)] were observed, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased (−5% and −23%) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Compared with FO, the efficacy of EO to increase EPA and DPA in blood was significantly lower (∼25% and ∼50%, respectively). A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower relative and net increases in EPA and DPA. Compared with baseline, EO significantly reduced serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, and triglyceride (TG), but also HDL cholesterol, regardless of age and BMI. In the FO group, only TG decreased. Overall, daily intake of 15–20 g EO increased EPA and DPA in blood but had no influence on DHA. EO lowered cardiovascular risk markers, e.g., serum TG, which is particularly relevant for individuals with metabolic syndrome. Natural EO could be a noteworthy source of n–3 PUFA in human nutrition. This trial

  15. LAT Software Induced Savings on Medical Costs of Alcohol Addicts' Care - Results from a Matched-Pairs Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Jovanovic, Mirjana; Rancic, Nemanja; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Djordjevic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Lesch Alcoholism Typology (LAT) is one of the most widely used clinical typologies of alcohol addiction. Study tested whether introduction of LAT software in clinical practice leaded to improved outcomes and reduced costs. Retrospective matched-pairs case-control cost comparison study was conducted at the Regional Addiction Center of the University Clinic in Serbia involving 250 patients during the four-year period. Mean relapse frequency followed by outpatient detoxification was 0.42±0.90 vs. 0.70±1.66 (LAT/non-LAT; p = 0.267). Adding relapses after inpatient treatment total mean-number of relapses per patient was 0.70±1.74 vs. 0.97±1.89 (LAT/non-LAT; p = 0.201). However, these relapse frequency differentials were not statistically significant. Total hospital costs of Psychiatry clinic based non-LAT addicts' care (€54,660) were significantly reduced to €36,569 after initiation of LAT. Mean total cost per patient was reduced almost by half after initiation of LAT based treatment: €331±381 vs. €626±795 (LAT/non-LAT; p = 0.001). Mean cost of single psychiatry clinic admission among non-LAT treatment group was €320±330 (CI 95% 262–378) and among LAT €197±165 (CI 95% 168–226) (p = 0.019). Mean LAT software induced net savings on psychiatric care costs were €144 per patient. Total net savings on hospital care including F10 associated somatic co-morbidities amounted to €295 per patient. More sensitive diagnostic assessment and sub-type specific pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy following implementation of LAT software lead to significant savings on costs of hospital care. PMID:25379730

  16. LAT software induced savings on medical costs of alcohol addicts' care--results from a matched-pairs case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Jovanovic, Mirjana; Rancic, Nemanja; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Djordjevic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Lesch Alcoholism Typology (LAT) is one of the most widely used clinical typologies of alcohol addiction. Study tested whether introduction of LAT software in clinical practice leaded to improved outcomes and reduced costs. Retrospective matched-pairs case-control cost comparison study was conducted at the Regional Addiction Center of the University Clinic in Serbia involving 250 patients during the four-year period. Mean relapse frequency followed by outpatient detoxification was 0.42 ± 0.90 vs. 0.70 ± 1.66 (LAT/non-LAT; p = 0.267). Adding relapses after inpatient treatment total mean-number of relapses per patient was 0.70 ± 1.74 vs. 0.97 ± 1.89 (LAT/non-LAT; p = 0.201). However, these relapse frequency differentials were not statistically significant. Total hospital costs of Psychiatry clinic based non-LAT addicts' care (€ 54,660) were significantly reduced to € 36,569 after initiation of LAT. Mean total cost per patient was reduced almost by half after initiation of LAT based treatment: € 331 ± 381 vs. € 626 ± 795 (LAT/non-LAT; p = 0.001). Mean cost of single psychiatry clinic admission among non-LAT treatment group was € 320 ± 330 (CI 95% 262-378) and among LAT € 197 ± 165 (CI 95% 168-226) (p = 0.019). Mean LAT software induced net savings on psychiatric care costs were € 144 per patient. Total net savings on hospital care including F10 associated somatic co-morbidities amounted to € 295 per patient. More sensitive diagnostic assessment and sub-type specific pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy following implementation of LAT software lead to significant savings on costs of hospital care.

  17. Survival of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) estimated by capture-recapture models in relation to age, sex, color morph, time, and birthplace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, W.S.; Kery, M.; Hines, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile survival is one of the least known elements of the life history of many species, in particular snakes. We conducted a mark–recapture study of Crotalus horridus from 1978–2002 in northeastern New York near the northern limits of the species' range. We marked 588 neonates and estimated annual age-, sex-, and morph-specific recapture and survival rates using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model. Wild-caught neonates (field-born, n  =  407) and neonates produced by captive-held gravid females (lab-born, n  =  181) allowed comparison of the birthplace, or lab treatment effect, in estimated survival. Recapture rates declined from about 10–20% over time while increasing from young to older age classes. Estimated survival rates (S ± 1 SE) in the first year were significantly higher among field-born (black morph: S  =  0.773 ± 0.203; yellow morph: S  =  0.531 ± 0.104) than among lab-born snakes (black morph: S  =  0.411 ± 0.131; yellow morph: S  =  0.301 ± 0.081). Lower birth weights combined with a lack of field exposure until release apparently contributed to the lower survival rate of lab-born snakes. Subsequent survival estimates for 2–4-yr-old snakes were S  =  0.845 ± 0.084 for the black morph and S  =  0.999 (SE not available) for the yellow morph, and for ≥5-yr-old snakes S  =  0.958 ± 0.039 (black morph) and S  =  0.822 ± 0.034 (yellow morph). The most parsimonious model overall contained an independent time trend for survival of each age, morph, and lab-treatment group. For snakes of the first two age groups (ages 1 yr and 2–4 yr), survival tended to decline over the years for both morphs, while for adult snakes (5 yr and older), survival was constant or even slightly increased. Our data on survival and recapture are among the first rigorous estimates of these parameters in a rattlesnake and among the few yet available for any viperid snake. These data are useful for analyses of the life

  18. Impact of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on School-Level Indicators of Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, and Disciplinary Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. The "Positive Action" Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse…

  19. A hospital-based matched case–control study to identify clinical outcome and risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare-associated infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are increasing and few effective antibiotics are currently available to treat patients. We observed decreased carbapenem susceptibility among K. pneumoniae isolated from patients at a tertiary private hospital that showed a phenotype compatible with carbapenemase production although this group of enzymes was not detected in any sample. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical outcomes associated with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae and to determine the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. Methods Risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections were investigated by a matched case–control study from January 2006 through August 2008. A cohort study was also performed to evaluate the association between carbapenem resistance and in-hospital mortality. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility were determined by Vitek 2 and Etest. Carbapenemase activity was detected using spectrophotometric assays. Production of beta-lactamases and alterations in genes encoding K. pneumoniae outer membrane proteins, OmpK35 and OmpK36, were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing, as well as SDS-Page. Genetic relatedness of carbapenem resistant isolates was evaluated by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. Results Sixty patients were included (20 cases and 40 controls) in the study. Mortality was higher for patients with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae infections compared with those with carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae (50.0% vs 25.7%). The length of central venous catheter use was independently associated with carbapenem resistance in the multivariable analysis. All strains, except one, carried blaCTX-M-2, an extended-spectrum betalactamase gene. In addition, a single isolate also possessed blaGES-1. Genes encoding plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases or carbapenemases (KPC, metallo-betalactamases or OXA-carbapenemases) were not

  20. Hospital admissions for asthma and acute bronchitis in El Paso, Texas: Do age, sex, and insurance status modify the effects of dust and low wind events?

    PubMed Central

    Staniswalis, Joan G.; Bulathsinhala, Priyangi; Peng, Yanlei; Gill, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Background El Paso County (Texas) is prone to still air inversions and is one of the dust “hot spots” in North America. In this context, we examined the sub-lethal effects of airborne dust and low wind events on human respiratory health (i.e., asthma and acute bronchitis) between 2000 and 2003, when 110 dust and 157 low wind events occurred. Because environmental conditions may not affect everyone the same, we explored the effects of dust and low wind within three age groups (children, adults, and the elderly), testing for effect modifications by sex and insurance status, while controlling for weather and air pollutants. Methods We used a case-crossover design using events matched with referent days on the same day-of-the-week, month, and year with conditional logistic regression to estimate the probability of hospital admission, while controlling for apparent temperature (lag 1), nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter of 2.5 micrometers or less. Results Children (aged 1–17) were 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.00–1.41) times more likely to be hospitalized for asthma three days after a low wind event, and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.01–1.75) times more likely to be hospitalized for acute bronchitis one day after a dust event than on a clear day. Girls were more sensitive to acute bronchitis hospitalizations after dust events (1.83, 95% CI: 1.09–3.08) than boys, but less sensitive than boys to acute bronchitis hospitalizations after low wind events (0.68, 95% CI: 0.46–1.00). We found general trends with regard to dust and low wind events being associated with increased odds of hospitalization for asthma and bronchitis amongst all ages and adults (aged 18–64). Adults covered by Medicaid and adults without health insurance had higher risks of hospitalization for asthma and acute bronchitis after both low wind and dust event Conclusions Results suggest that there were respiratory health effects associated with dust and low wind events in El Paso, with stronger

  1. Ontology Matching Across Domains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    matching include GMO [1], Anchor-Prompt [2], and Similarity Flooding [3]. GMO is an iterative structural matcher, which uses RDF bipartite graphs to...AFRL under contract# FA8750-09-C-0058. References [1] Hu, W., Jian, N., Qu, Y., Wang, Y., “ GMO : a graph matching for ontologies”, in: Proceedings of

  2. DOE Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Marvin Adams

    2002-03-01

    OAK 270 - The DOE Matching Grant Program provided $50,000.00 to the Dept of N.E. at TAMU, matching a gift of $50,000.00 from TXU Electric. The $100,000.00 total was spent on scholarships, departmental labs, and computing network.

  3. Matched-pair classification

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P

    2009-01-01

    Following an analogous distinction in statistical hypothesis testing, we investigate variants of machine learning where the training set comes in matched pairs. We demonstrate that even conventional classifiers can exhibit improved performance when the input data has a matched-pair structure. Online algorithms, in particular, converge quicker when the data is presented in pairs. In some scenarios (such as the weak signal detection problem), matched pairs can be generated from independent samples, with the effect not only doubling the nominal size of the training set, but of providing the structure that leads to better learning. A family of 'dipole' algorithms is introduced that explicitly takes advantage of matched-pair structure in the input data and leads to further performance gains. Finally, we illustrate the application of matched-pair learning to chemical plume detection in hyperspectral imagery.

  4. Hospital-Based Case-Control Study of MDS Subtypes and Benzene Exposure in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Copley, G. Bruce; Schnatter, A. Robert; Armstrong, Thomas W.; Irons, Richard D.; Chen, Min; Wang, Xiao Qin; Kerzic, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Due to the sparse data on benzene exposure and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) subtypes, we studied this relationship in patients from 29 hospitals in Shanghai, China. Methods: We recruited 604 cases of MDS and 1193 controls matched on age, sex, and admission date. We interviewed subjects for information on workplace and lifestyle exposures, and developed semi-quantitative exposure estimates. Results: Benzene exposure showed a direct exposure–response pattern with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, a less certain association with refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia, and no association with other MDS subtypes. A different pattern was observed with farm residence and smoking, which was primarily related to refractory anemias. Conclusions: This research demonstrates the importance of MDS subtype specification for more robust etiologic insights. Our data suggests that subtypes with non-erythroid dysplasia are associated with benzene exposure. PMID:28146040

  5. An association between newly diagnosed cutaneous T cell lymphoma and prior impetigo: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Boursi, Ben; Haynes, Kevin; Mamtani, Ronac; Yang, Yu-Xiao

    2016-11-01

    Colonization with staphylococcus aureus (SA) is associated with disease activity and progression in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) secondary to T-cell activation by bacterial superantigens. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possible role of SA as an etiologic factor affecting CTCL initiation. We conducted a nested case-control study in a large population-representative database from the UK. Cases were defined as all patients with an incident diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF) or Sezary syndrome (SS) between 1995 and 2013. For every case, four eligible controls matched on age, sex, practice-site, and duration of follow-up were selected. Exposure of interest was clinical diagnosis of impetigo prior to CTCL diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds-ratio (ORs) and 95 % confidence-interval (CI) for CTCL risk. The results were further stratified according to age, sex and time interval between impetigo and CTCL diagnosis. The study population included 310 cases with MF or SS and 1223 matched controls. Among cases with CTCL 4.8 % (n = 15) had impetigo prior to cancer diagnosis compared to 2 % (n = 24) of controls. The adjusted OR for CTCL diagnosis among patients with prior impetigo was 2.33 (95 % CI 1.12-4.83). The risk was elevated among individuals with impetigo 1-5 years before cancer diagnosis (OR 3.33, 95 % CI 1.00-11.10). There was no change in risk among patients with impetigo more than 5 years before cancer diagnosis (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 0.35-3.37). Our results suggest a possible association between SA colonization and CTCL initiation that might serve as an important etiological factor for the disease.

  6. Position of laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery nephrectomy in clinical practice and comparison (matched case-control study) with standard laparoscopic nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Eret, Viktor; Stránský, Petr; Trávníček, Ivan; Ürge, Tomáš; Ferda, Jiří; Petersson, Fredrik; Hes, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction One way how to reduce morbidity and improve cosmesic of kidney surgery is single site laparoscopy. Relatively well described concept but without defined position in clincal practise. Aim To report of institutional experience with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) nephrectomy (NE) and compare (matched case-control study) it with that of standard laparoscopic NE (LNE). Material and methods In the period 8/2011 to 10/2013, we performed 183 mini-invasive NE (132 tumours, 51 benign aetiology); 45 of them (24.6%) were LESS, the rest LNE. The main but not absolute indications for LESS were: non-obese men, and less advanced tumours. In 13 patients undergoing LESS-NEs (28.9%) there was a transumbilical approach. For the rest, a pararectal incision was performed and an accessory port was added in 31.1% (14) – 2/22 (9.1%) left sided, 12/23 (52.2%) right sided. Twenty-four LESS-NE were performed by a more experienced surgeon (mean operation time (MOT) 73.1 min), 21 LESS-NE by 4 other surgeons (MOT 132.8 min). These 24 were compared with 43 LNE done by the same surgeon before the period of LESS (1/2007–8/2011) and with similar characteristics of cases (body mass index (BMI) ≤ 35 kg/m2, less advanced tumour). Results We found no statistically significant differences in any of the parameters studied. The MOT 73.1 min vs. 75.0 min (p = 0.78), BMI 27.4 kg/m2 vs. 29.2 kg/m2 (p = 0.08), blood loss 54.7 vs. 39.2 (p = 0.47). Complications (4.2% vs. 11.6%) were only of internal character in origin. No conversion in either group. In LESS-NE, staplers were used more frequently (more expensive than clips) for division of renal hilar vessels (70.8% vs. 51.2%). The mean price of LESS-NE was €367 higher. Conclusions The LESS NE performed by an experienced surgeon is a safe and efficient method for the surgical treatment of both malignant and benign renal conditions in patients with BMI < 30 kg/m2 and with low-stage tumours. The LESS NE is more expensive compared

  7. Using the Multiple-Matched-Sample and Statistical Controls to Examine the Effects of Magnet School Programs on the Reading and Mathematics Performance of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yu N.; Li, Yuan H.; Tompkins, Leroy J.; Modarresi, Shahpar

    2005-01-01

    This summative evaluation of magnet programs employed a quasi-experimental design to investigate whether or not students enrolled in magnet programs gained any achievement advantage over students who were not enrolled in a magnet program. Researchers used Zero-One Linear Programming to draw multiple sets of matched samples from the non-magnet…

  8. Testing Stage-Specific Effects of a Stage-Matched Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial Targeting Physical Exercise and Its Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf; Ziegelmann, Jochen P.; Scholz, Urte; Schuz, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Health education interventions can be tailored toward stages of change. This strategy is based on theories that predict at which stage which variables are indicative of subsequent behavior change processes. For example, planning is regarded as being effective in intenders. However, rather few studies have tested whether matched interventions are…

  9. Using Social-Emotional and Character Development to Improve Academic Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Low-Income, Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. Methods: The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized…

  10. Learning graph matching.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Tibério S; McAuley, Julian J; Cheng, Li; Le, Quoc V; Smola, Alex J

    2009-06-01

    As a fundamental problem in pattern recognition, graph matching has applications in a variety of fields, from computer vision to computational biology. In graph matching, patterns are modeled as graphs and pattern recognition amounts to finding a correspondence between the nodes of different graphs. Many formulations of this problem can be cast in general as a quadratic assignment problem, where a linear term in the objective function encodes node compatibility and a quadratic term encodes edge compatibility. The main research focus in this theme is about designing efficient algorithms for approximately solving the quadratic assignment problem, since it is NP-hard. In this paper we turn our attention to a different question: how to estimate compatibility functions such that the solution of the resulting graph matching problem best matches the expected solution that a human would manually provide. We present a method for learning graph matching: the training examples are pairs of graphs and the 'labels' are matches between them. Our experimental results reveal that learning can substantially improve the performance of standard graph matching algorithms. In particular, we find that simple linear assignment with such a learning scheme outperforms Graduated Assignment with bistochastic normalisation, a state-of-the-art quadratic assignment relaxation algorithm.

  11. Latent fingerprint matching.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2011-01-01

    Latent fingerprint identification is of critical importance to law enforcement agencies in identifying suspects: Latent fingerprints are inadvertent impressions left by fingers on surfaces of objects. While tremendous progress has been made in plain and rolled fingerprint matching, latent fingerprint matching continues to be a difficult problem. Poor quality of ridge impressions, small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion are the main difficulties in latent fingerprint matching compared to plain or rolled fingerprint matching. We propose a system for matching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolled fingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases. In addition to minutiae, we also use extended features, including singularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridge wavelength map, and skeleton. We tested our system by matching 258 latents in the NIST SD27 database against a background database of 29,257 rolled fingerprints obtained by combining the NIST SD4, SD14, and SD27 databases. The minutiae-based baseline rank-1 identification rate of 34.9 percent was improved to 74 percent when extended features were used. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each extended feature, these features were incrementally used in the order of their cost in marking by latent experts. The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy.

  12. Active impedance matching of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active impedance matching of complex structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: traveling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; control problem: optimal impedance matching; H2 optimal solution; statistical energy analysis (SEA) solution; experimental transfer functions; interferometer actuator and sensor locations; active strut configurations; power dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; dereverberated transfer function; compensators; and relative power flow.

  13. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p < 0.05 for the overall physiologic state effect (lactation vs. control), and a within tissue pairwise comparison of p < 0.01. The proportion of false positives, an estimate of the ratio of false positives in the list of differentially expressed genes, was calculated for each tissue. The number of differentially expressed genes was 420 in the liver, 337 in the duodenum, 402 in the jejunum, and 523 in the ileum. The list of differentially expressed genes was in turn analyzed by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) to detect biological pathways that were overrepresented. In all tissues, sterol regulatory element binding protein (Srebp)-regulated genes involved in cholesterol synthesis showed increased mRNA expression, with the fewest changes detected in the jejunum. We detected increased Scap mRNA in the liver only, suggesting an explanation for the difference in response to lactation between the liver and small intestine. Expression of Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In

  14. Cognitive Levels Matching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Martin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Cognitive Levels Matching Project trains teachers to guide students' skill acquisition and problem-solving processes by assessing students' cognitive levels and adapting their teaching materials accordingly. (MLF)

  15. Project Matching Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership's Project Matching initiative works to connect green power users with new, not-yet-built renewable energy projects that may align with their energy, environmental, and financial objectives.

  16. The molecular matching problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.

  17. Comparative effectiveness of flexible versus rigid neuroendoscopy for endoscopic third ventriculostomy and choroid plexus cauterization: a propensity score-matched cohort and survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shelly; Stone, Scellig; Weil, Alexander G; Fallah, Aria; Warf, Benjamin C; Ragheb, John; Bhatia, Sanjiv; Kulkarni, Abhaya V

    2017-03-17

    OBJECTIVE Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV)/choroid plexus cauterization (CPC) has become an increasingly common technique for the treatment of infant hydrocephalus. Both flexible and rigid neuroendoscopy can be used, with little empirical evidence directly comparing the two. Therefore, the authors used a propensity score-matched cohort and survival analysis to assess the comparative efficacy of flexible and rigid neuroendoscopy. METHODS Individual data were collected through retrospective review of infants younger than 2 years of age, treated at 1 of 2 hospitals: 1) Boston Children's Hospital, exclusively utilizing flexible neuroendoscopy, and 2) Nicklaus Children's Hospital-Jackson Memorial Hospital, exclusively utilizing rigid neuroendoscopy. Patient characteristics and postoperative outcomes were assessed. A propensity score model was developed to balance patient characteristics in the case mix. RESULTS A propensity score model for neuroendoscope type was developed with 5 independent variables: chronological age, sex, hydrocephalus etiology, prior CSF diversion, and prepontine scarring. Propensity score decile-adjusted and 1-to-1 nearest-neighbor matching analysis revealed that compared with flexible neuroendoscopy, rigid neuroendoscopy had an ETV/CPC failure odds ratio (OR) of 1.43 (p = 0.31) and 1.31 (p = 0.47), respectively, compared with an unadjusted OR of 2.40 (p = 0.034). Furthermore, in a Cox regression analysis controlled by propensity score, rigid neuroendoscopy had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.10 (p = 0.70), compared with an unadjusted HR of 1.61 (p = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS Although unadjusted analysis suggested worse ETV/CPC outcomes for infants treated by rigid neuroendoscopy, much of the difference could be attributed to the case mix and other predictors of outcome. A larger sample observational study or randomized controlled trials are required to provide evidence-based guidelines on ETV/CPC technique.

  18. Does COPD have a clinically relevant impact on hearing loss? A retrospective matched cohort study with selection of patients diagnosed with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Kamenski, Gustav; Bendova, Jana; Fink, Waltraud; Sönnichsen, Andreas; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Zehetmayer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a multisystemic disease has a measurable and biologically explainable impact on the auditory function detectable in the laboratory. This study tries to clarify if COPD is also a significant and clinically relevant risk factor for hearing impairment detectable in the general practice setting. Design Retrospective matched cohort study with selection of patients diagnosed with COPD. Setting 12 general practices in Lower Austria. Participants Consecutive patients >35 years with a diagnosis of COPD who consulted 1 of 12 single-handed GPs in 2009 and 2010 were asked to participate. Those who agreed were individually 1:1 matched with controls according to age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease and chronic heart failure. Main outcome measures Sensorineural hearing impairment as assessed by pure tone audiometry, answers of three questions concerning a self-perceived hearing problem, application of the whispered voice test and the score of the Hearing Inventory for the Elderly, Screening Version (HHIE-S). Results 194 patients (97 pairs of 194 cases and controls) with a mean age of 65.5 (SD 10.2) were tested. Univariate conditional logistic regression resulted in significant differences in the mean bone conduction hearing loss and in the total score of HHIE-S, in the multiple conditional regression model, only smoking (p<0.0001) remained significant. Conclusions The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that there is an association between COPD and hearing impairment which, if found, would have allowed better management of patients with COPD. PMID:26586319

  19. Inpatient Suicide in a Psychiatric Hospital: A Nested Case–control Study

    PubMed Central

    Khanra, Sourav; Mahintamani, Tathagata; Bose, Swarnali; Khess, Christoday Raja Jayant; Umesh, Shreekantiah; Ram, Daya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Risk factors for inpatient suicide are different from those in the general population. We examined sociodemographic and clinical variables of patients who committed suicide as an inpatient in a psychiatric hospital in India. Methods: Matched retrospective nested case–control design was adopted. Ten patients who died by suicide as inpatients between 2000 and 2013 were included, along with fifty controls, matched with respect to age, sex, diagnosis, and period of admission. Results: Suicide completers were mostly unskilled in occupation (P = 0.03), had a history of past suicide attempts (P < 0.001), shorter duration of hospital stay (P = 0.001), poorer improvement on psychopathology (P = 0.02), and were having more suicidal ideation (P = 0.02). Significantly more completers were receiving antidepressants (P = 0.04). Conclusion: This study adds to the existing sparse literature on inpatient suicides from Asia. Strength of the study was close matching between case and controls and blindedness. Limitations were retrospective design, and variations in prescription behavior and treatment decisions. PMID:28031595

  20. Face matching impairment in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    White, David; Rivolta, Davide; Burton, A Mike; Al-Janabi, Shahd; Palermo, Romina

    2017-02-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is commonly referred to as 'face blindness', a term that implies a perceptual basis to the condition. However, DP presents as a deficit in face recognition and is diagnosed using memory-based tasks. Here, we test face identification ability in six people with DP, who are severely impaired on face memory tasks, using tasks that do not rely on memory. First, we compared DP to control participants on a standardized test of unfamiliar face matching using facial images taken on the same day and under standardized studio conditions (Glasgow Face Matching Test; GFMT). Scores for DP participants did not differ from normative accuracy scores on the GFMT. Second, we tested face matching performance on a test created using images that were sourced from the Internet and so varied substantially due to changes in viewing conditions and in a person's appearance (Local Heroes Test; LHT). DP participants showed significantly poorer matching accuracy on the LHT than control participants, for both unfamiliar and familiar face matching. Interestingly, this deficit is specific to 'match' trials, suggesting that people with DP may have particular difficulty in matching images of the same person that contain natural day-to-day variations in appearance. We discuss these results in the broader context of individual differences in face matching ability.

  1. Propensity Score Matching: Retrospective Randomization?

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    Randomized controlled trials are viewed as the optimal study design. In this commentary, we explore the strength of this design and its complexity. We also discuss some situations in which these trials are not possible, or not ethical, or not economical. In such situations, specifically, in retrospective studies, we should make every effort to recapitulate the rigor and strength of the randomized trial. However, we could be faced with an inherent indication bias in such a setting. Thus, we consider the tools available to address that bias. Specifically, we examine matching and introduce and explore a new tool: propensity score matching. This tool allows us to group subjects according to their propensity to be in a particular treatment group and, in so doing, to account for the indication bias.

  2. Is matching innate?

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S

    2007-03-01

    Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling. Matching was observed from the outset; it did not improve with training. When the numbers of pellets received were proportional to time invested, investment was unstable, swinging abruptly from sustained, almost complete investment in one hopper, to sustained, almost complete investment in the other-in the absence of appropriate local fluctuations in returns (pellets obtained per time invested). The abruptness of the swings strongly constrains possible models. We suggest that matching reflects an innate (unconditioned) program that matches the ratio of expected visit durations to the ratio between the current estimates of expected incomes. A model that processes the income stream looking for changes in the income and generates discontinuous income estimates when a change is detected is shown to account for salient features of the data.

  3. Factorized Graph Matching.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; de la Torre, Fernando

    2015-11-19

    Graph matching (GM) is a fundamental problem in computer science, and it plays a central role to solve correspondence problems in computer vision. GM problems that incorporate pairwise constraints can be formulated as a quadratic assignment problem (QAP). Although widely used, solving the correspondence problem through GM has two main limitations: (1) the QAP is NP-hard and difficult to approximate; (2) GM algorithms do not incorporate geometric constraints between nodes that are natural in computer vision problems. To address aforementioned problems, this paper proposes factorized graph matching (FGM). FGM factorizes the large pairwise affinity matrix into smaller matrices that encode the local structure of each graph and the pairwise affinity between edges. Four are the benefits that follow from this factorization: (1) There is no need to compute the costly (in space and time) pairwise affinity matrix; (2) The factorization allows the use of a path-following optimization algorithm, that leads to improved optimization strategies and matching performance; (3) Given the factorization, it becomes straight-forward to incorporate geometric transformations (rigid and non-rigid) to the GM problem. (4) Using a matrix formulation for the GM problem and the factorization, it is easy to reveal commonalities and differences between different GM methods. The factorization also provides a clean connection with other matching algorithms such as iterative closest point; Experimental results on synthetic and real databases illustrate how FGM outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for GM. The code is available at http://humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/fgm.

  4. Is Matching Innate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallistel, C. R.; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B.; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling.…

  5. Derivatives of Matching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrnstein, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The matching law for reinforced behavior solves a differential equation relating infinitesimal changes in behavior to infinitesimal changes in reinforcement. The equation expresses plausible conceptions of behavior and reinforcement, yields a simple nonlinear operator model for acquisition, and suggests a alternative to the economic law of…

  6. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    developed a new automated algorithm for matching supernovae to their host galaxies. Their work builds on currently existing algorithms and makes use of information about the nearby galaxies, accounts for the uncertainty of the match, and even includes a machine learning component to improve the matching accuracy.Gupta and collaborators test their matching algorithm on catalogs of galaxies and simulated supernova events to quantify how well the algorithm is able to accurately recover the true hosts.Successful MatchingThe matching algorithms accuracy (purity) as a function of the true supernova-host separation, the supernova redshift, the true hosts brightness, and the true hosts size. [Gupta et al. 2016]The authors find that when the basic algorithm is run on catalog data, it matches supernovae to their hosts with 91% accuracy. Including the machine learning component, which is run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy of the matching to 97%.The encouraging results of this work which was intended as a proof of concept suggest that methods similar to this could prove very practical for tackling future survey data. And the method explored here has use beyond matching just supernovae to their host galaxies: it could also be applied to other extragalactic transients, such as gamma-ray bursts, tidal disruption events, or electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave detections.CitationRavi R. Gupta et al 2016 AJ 152 154. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/154

  7. Matching: its acquisition and generalization.

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Michael A; Donahoe, John W

    2004-01-01

    Choice typically is studied by exposing organisms to concurrent variable-interval schedules in which not only responses controlled by stimuli on the key are acquired but also switching responses and likely other operants as well. In the present research, discriminated key-pecking responses in pigeons were first acquired using a multiple schedule that minimized the reinforcement of switching operants. Then, choice was assessed during concurrent-probe periods in which pairs of discriminative stimuli were presented concurrently. Upon initial exposure to concurrently presented stimuli, choice approximated exclusive preference for the alternative associated with the higher reinforcement frequency. Concurrent schedules were then implemented that gave increasingly greater opportunities for switching operants to be conditioned. As these operants were acquired, the relation of relative response frequency to relative reinforcement frequency converged toward a matching relation. An account of matching with concurrent schedules is proposed in which responding exclusively to the discriminative stimulus associated with the higher reinforcement frequency declines as the concurrent stimuli become more similar and other operants-notably switching-are acquired and generalize to stimuli from both alternatives. The concerted effect of these processes fosters an approximate matching relation in commonly used concurrent procedures. PMID:15540502

  8. Resurgence matches quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couso-Santamaría, Ricardo; Mariño, Marcos; Schiappa, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    The quest to find a nonperturbative formulation of topological string theory has recently seen two unrelated developments. On the one hand, via quantization of the mirror curve associated to a toric Calabi–Yau background, it has been possible to give a nonperturbative definition of the topological-string partition function. On the other hand, using techniques of resurgence and transseries, it has been possible to extend the string (asymptotic) perturbative expansion into a transseries involving nonperturbative instanton sectors. Within the specific example of the local {{{P}}2} toric Calabi–Yau threefold, the present work shows how the Borel–Padé–Écalle resummation of this resurgent transseries, alongside occurrence of Stokes phenomenon, matches the string-theoretic partition function obtained via quantization of the mirror curve. This match is highly non-trivial, given the unrelated nature of both nonperturbative frameworks, signaling at the existence of a consistent underlying structure.

  9. Surface matching via currents.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, Marc; Glaunès, Joan

    2005-01-01

    We present a new method for computing an optimal deformation between two arbitrary surfaces embedded in Euclidean 3-dimensional space. Our main contribution is in building a norm on the space of surfaces via representation by currents of geometric measure theory. Currents are an appropriate choice for representations because they inherit natural transformation properties from differential forms. We impose a Hilbert space structure on currents, whose norm gives a convenient and practical way to define a matching functional. Using this Hilbert space norm, we also derive and implement a surface matching algorithm under the large deformation framework, guaranteeing that the optimal solution is a one-to-one regular map of the entire ambient space. We detail an implementation of this algorithm for triangular meshes and present results on 3D face and medical image data.

  10. Matching analysis on seven manufacturing CD SEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowley, Reginald R., Jr.; Beecher, James E.; Cogley, Robert M.; Dupuis, Sandra R.; Farrington, Dewey L.

    1998-06-01

    The control of critical dimensions is of primary importance in a semiconductor manufacturing line. While the use of level- dedicated CDSEMs assures maximum process control, it is preferable to use multiple CDSEMs interchangeably to minimize the effect of any CDSEM unavailability caused by systems being down, preventive maintenance, or when maximum flexibility and enhanced production throughput are required. Maintaining process control while measuring on multiple CDSEMs requires that CDSEM tool-to-tool matching of less than 5 nm be achieved and maintained. This paper describes a methodology whereby a seven-system CDSEM toolset is initially baselined to determine the subset(s) of systems which most closely match. A method of evaluating the inherent matching of seven OPALTM7830i CDSEMs within a single manufacturing facility is presented. The matching analysis was performed using a single production- level wafer, a level known to have previously exhibited poor matching results. All seven CDSEMs were networked to a common database server to insure that all measured consistently across the toolset. An experiment is described to ascertain the effects of multiple electron-beam measurements on this semiconductor sample and to evaluate any relative dimensional changes. A methodology for monitoring and controlling CDSEM system parameters during the matching evaluation is described. Finally, a procedure for determining the subset(s) of matched CDSEMs using analysis-of-variance (ANOVA), least significant difference (LSD, also known as a pairwise t-test) and Duncan's Multiple Range Test is presented. Using these methods, three subsets of systems are defined within the seven-system toolset that exhibited similar matching performance.

  11. The Mexican-American Trial of Community Health workers (MATCH): Design and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing a culturally tailored community diabetes self-management intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Steven K.; Martin, Molly A.; Swider, Susan M.; Lynas, Carmen T.; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been recommended to reduce diabetes disparities, but few robust trials of this approach have been conducted. Limitations of prior studies include: unspecified a priori outcomes; lack of blinded outcome assessments; high participant attrition rates; and lack of attention to intervention fidelity. These limitations reflect challenges in balancing methodologic rigor with the needs of vulnerable populations. The Mexican-American Trial of Community Health workers (MATCH) was a blinded randomized controlled trial testing CHW efficacy in improving physiologic outcomes and self-management behaviors among Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes. This paper describes methods used to overcome limitations of prior studies. Research Design and Methods The primary aim was to determine if a CHW intervention would result in significant reductions in Hemoglobin A1c and rates of uncontrolled blood pressure. 144 Mexican-Americans with diabetes were randomized. The intervention consisted of self-management training delivered by CHWs over a 24-month period; the comparison population received identical information via bilingual newsletter. Blinded research assistants completed assessments at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months post-randomization. Results The MATCH cohort was characterized by low acculturation and socioeconomic status. Study participants had low rates of medication adherence and glucose monitoring. 70% had poor glycemic control with A1c levels over 7.0, and 57.3% had blood pressures worse than ADA target levels (<130/80). Conclusions MATCH preserved community sensitivity and methodologic rigor. The study’s attention to intervention fidelity, behavioral attention control, blinded outcomes assessment, and strategies to enhance participant retention can be replicated by researchers testing culturally-tailored CHW interventions. PMID:22115970

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Synovial Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived from Hip Joints: A Comparative Analysis with a Matched Control Knee Group

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Akihisa; Utsunomiya, Hajime; Tsukamoto, Manabu; Nakashima, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Eiichiro; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Sekiya, Ichiro; Sakai, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the characteristics of MSCs from hip and compare them to MSCs from knee. Methods. Synovial tissues were obtained from both the knee and the hip joints in 8 patients who underwent both hip and knee arthroscopies on the same day. MSCs were isolated from the knee and hip synovial samples. The capacities of MSCs were compared between both groups. Results. The number of cells per unit weight at passage 0 of synovium from the knee was significantly higher than that from the hip (P < 0.05). While it was possible to observe the growth of colonies in all the knee synovial fluid samples, it was impossible to culture cells from any of the hip samples. In adipogenesis experiments, the frequency of Oil Red-O-positive colonies and the gene expression of adipsin were significantly higher in knee than in hip. In osteogenesis experiments, the expression of COL1A1 and ALPP was significantly less in the knee synovium than in the hip synovium. Conclusions. MSCs obtained from hip joint have self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials. However, in matched donors, adipogenesis and osteogenesis potentials of MSCs from the knees are superior to those from the hips. Knee synovium may be a better source of MSC for potential use in hip diseases. PMID:28115945

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Synovial Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived from Hip Joints: A Comparative Analysis with a Matched Control Knee Group.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Akihisa; Uchida, Soshi; Utsunomiya, Hajime; Tsukamoto, Manabu; Nakashima, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Eiichiro; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Sekiya, Ichiro; Sakai, Akinori

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the characteristics of MSCs from hip and compare them to MSCs from knee. Methods. Synovial tissues were obtained from both the knee and the hip joints in 8 patients who underwent both hip and knee arthroscopies on the same day. MSCs were isolated from the knee and hip synovial samples. The capacities of MSCs were compared between both groups. Results. The number of cells per unit weight at passage 0 of synovium from the knee was significantly higher than that from the hip (P < 0.05). While it was possible to observe the growth of colonies in all the knee synovial fluid samples, it was impossible to culture cells from any of the hip samples. In adipogenesis experiments, the frequency of Oil Red-O-positive colonies and the gene expression of adipsin were significantly higher in knee than in hip. In osteogenesis experiments, the expression of COL1A1 and ALPP was significantly less in the knee synovium than in the hip synovium. Conclusions. MSCs obtained from hip joint have self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials. However, in matched donors, adipogenesis and osteogenesis potentials of MSCs from the knees are superior to those from the hips. Knee synovium may be a better source of MSC for potential use in hip diseases.

  14. Materials for light-induced water splitting: In situ controlled surface preparation of GaPN epilayers grown lattice-matched on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Supplie, Oliver; May, Matthias M.; Stange, Helena; Höhn, Christian; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim; Hannappel, Thomas

    2014-03-21

    Energy storage is a key challenge in solar-driven renewable energy conversion. We promote a photochemical diode based on dilute nitride GaPN grown lattice-matched on Si(100), which could reach both high photovoltaic efficiencies and evolve hydrogen directly without external bias. Homoepitaxial GaP(100) surface preparation was shown to have a significant impact on the semiconductor-water interface formation. Here, we grow a thin, pseudomorphic GaP nucleation buffer on almost single-domain Si(100) prior to GaPN growth and compare the GaP{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02}/Si(100) surface preparation to established P- and Ga-rich surfaces of GaP/Si(100). We apply reflection anisotropy spectroscopy to study the surface preparation of GaP{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02} in situ in vapor phase epitaxy ambient and benchmark the signals to low energy electron diffraction, photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. While the preparation of the Ga-rich surface is hardly influenced by the presence of the nitrogen precursor 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), we find that stabilization with UDMH after growth hinders well-defined formation of the V-rich GaP{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02}/Si(100) surface. Additional features in the reflection anisotropy spectra are suggested to be related to nitrogen incorporation in the GaP bulk.

  15. Cost‐effectiveness of neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy versus esophagectomy for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A population‐based matched case‐control study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen‐Yuan; Fang, Hsin‐Yuan; Feng, Chun‐Lung; Li, Chia‐Chin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (NCCRT) is often considered for locally‐advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (LA‐ESCC) patients; however, no data regarding the cost‐effectiveness of this treatment is available. Our study aimed to evaluate the cost‐effectiveness of NCCRT versus esophagectomy for LA‐ESCC at population level. Methods We identified LA‐ESCC patients diagnosed within 2008–2009 and treated with either NCCRT or esophagectomy through the Taiwan Cancer Registry. We included potential confounding covariables (age, gender, residency, comorbidity, social‐economic status, disease stage, treating hospital level and surgeon's experience, and the use of endoscopic ultrasound before treatment) and used propensity score (PS) to construct a 1:1 population. The duration of interest was three years within the date of diagnosis. Effectiveness was measured as overall survival. We took the payer's perspective and converted the cost to 2014 United States dollars (USD). In sensitivity analysis, we evaluated the potential impact of an unmeasured confounder on the statistical significance of incremental net benefit at suggested willingness‐to‐pay. Results Our study population constituted 150 PS matched subjects. The mean cost (2014 USD) and survival (year) were higher for NCCRT compared with esophagectomy (US$91,460 vs. $75,836 for cost; 2.2 vs. 1.8 for survival) with an estimated incremental cost‐effectiveness ratio of US$39,060/life‐year. Conclusions When compared to esophagectomy, NCCRT is likely to improve survival and is probably more cost‐effective. Cost‐effectiveness results should be interpreted with caution given our results were sensitive to potential unmeasured confounder(s) in sensitivity analysis. PMID:27148413

  16. Effects of a School-Based Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on Health Behaviors: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M.; Acock, Alan; DuBois, David L.; Yan, Zi; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Day, Joseph; Flay, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable research that suggests that school-based social-emotional programs can foster improved mental health and reduce problem behaviors for participating youth; in contrast, much less is known about the impact of these programs on physical health, even though some of these programs also include at least limited direct attention to promoting physical health behaviors. We examined the effects of one such program, Positive Action (PA), on physical health behaviors and body mass index (BMI), and tested for mediation of program effects through a measure of social-emotional and character development (SECD). Participating schools in the matched-pair, cluster-randomized trial were 14 low-performing K-8 Chicago Public Schools. We followed a cohort of students in each school from grades 3 to 8 (eight waves of data collection; 1,170 total students). Student self-reports of health behaviors served as the basis for measures of healthy eating and exercise, unhealthy eating, personal hygiene, consistent bedtime, and SECD. We collected height and weight measurements at endpoint to calculate age- and gender-adjusted BMI z-scores. Longitudinal multilevel modeling analyses revealed evidence of favorable program effects on personal hygiene (effect size [ES] = 0.48), healthy eating and exercise (ES = 0.21), and unhealthy eating (ES = −0.19); in addition, BMI z-scores were lower among students in PA schools at endpoint (ES = −0.21). Program effects were not moderated by either gender or student mobility. Longitudinal structural equation modeling demonstrated mediation through SECD for healthy eating and exercise, unhealthy eating, and personal hygiene. Findings suggest that a social-emotional and character development program without a primary focus on health behavior promotion can have a modest impact on outcomes in this domain during the childhood to adolescence transition. PMID:26781590

  17. Effects of a School-Based Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on Health Behaviors: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M; Acock, Alan; DuBois, David L; Yan, Zi; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Day, Joseph; Flay, Brian R

    2016-02-01

    There is considerable research that suggests that school-based social-emotional programs can foster improved mental health and reduce problem behaviors for participating youth; in contrast, much less is known about the impact of these programs on physical health, even though some of these programs also include at least limited direct attention to promoting physical health behaviors. We examined the effects of one such program, Positive Action (PA), on physical health behaviors and body mass index (BMI), and tested for mediation of program effects through a measure of social-emotional and character development (SECD). Participating schools in the matched-pair, cluster-randomized trial were 14 low-performing K-8 Chicago Public Schools. We followed a cohort of students in each school from grades 3 to 8 (eight waves of data collection; 1170 total students). Student self-reports of health behaviors served as the basis for measures of healthy eating and exercise, unhealthy eating, personal hygiene, consistent bedtime, and SECD. We collected height and weight measurements at endpoint to calculate age- and gender-adjusted BMI z-scores. Longitudinal multilevel modeling analyses revealed evidence of favorable program effects on personal hygiene [effect size (ES) = 0.48], healthy eating and exercise (ES = 0.21), and unhealthy eating (ES = -0.19); in addition, BMI z-scores were lower among students in PA schools at endpoint (ES = -0.21). Program effects were not moderated by either gender or student mobility. Longitudinal structural equation modeling demonstrated mediation through SECD for healthy eating and exercise, unhealthy eating, and personal hygiene. Findings suggest that a SECD program without a primary focus on health behavior promotion can have a modest impact on outcomes in this domain during the childhood to adolescence transition.

  18. Human water contacts patterns in Schistosoma mansoni epidemic foci in northern Senegal change according to age, sex and place of residence, but are not related to intensity of infection.

    PubMed

    Scott, J T; Diakhaté, M; Vereecken, K; Fall, A; Diop, M; Ly, A; De Clercq, D; de Vlas, S J; Berkvens, D; Kestens, L; Gryseels, B

    2003-02-01

    In an epidemic focus in northern Senegal, adults had lower intensities of infection than adolescents, a phenomenon that could not be attributed to immunity acquired over the previous 10-15 years of exposure to the parasite because all age groups had had the same number of years' experience of the worm. This article considers whether this pattern could have been because of higher levels of exposure to the parasite in younger age groups. Personal contact with infected water was recorded using a questionnaire in Schistosoma mansoni foci not more than 3 years old and in another, 10-year-old focus. Many aspects of contact (e.g. frequency, duration or time of day of contact) may contribute to the number of encounters with infective cercariae (true exposure), so various assumptions regarding the relationship between water contact and true exposure were tested resulting in a range of exposure indices. People reported a mean of 4.4 separate contacts, and spent a median of 57 min per day in water. Patterns of water contact differed depending on the exposure index used, e.g. considering duration, males spent a longer time in water than females (P < 0.001). But using frequency, females had more contacts with water than males in most villages (P < 0.001). Generally, exposure levels dropped as people become aged (P < 0.001) and residents of the older focus were more exposed than residents of other foci (P < 0.002). Intensity of (re)infection was not related to exposure either alone or in models incorporating age, sex and/or village irrespective of the index used. There is therefore evidence that age, sex and place of residence determine exposure but none to suggest that exposure had an influence on the relationship between these factors and intensity of infection. We propose therefore that in this population other factors have principal importance in determining intensity of infection.

  19. A single-arm trial indirect comparison investigation: a proof-of-concept method to predict venous leg ulcer healing time for a new acellular synthetic matrix matched to standard care control.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Ronald; Nelson, Andrea

    2016-11-20

    To compare data on time to healing from two separate cohorts: one treated with a new acellular synthetic matrix plus standard care (SC) and one matched from four large UK pragmatic, randomised controlled trials [venous leg ulcer (VLU) evidence network]. We introduce a new proof-of-concept strategy to a VLU clinical evidence network, propensity score matching and sensitivity analysis to predict the feasibility of the new acellular synthetic matrix plus SC for success in future randomised, controlled clinical trials. Prospective data on chronic VLUs from a safety and effectiveness study on an acellular synthetic matrix conducted in one wound centre in the UK (17 patients) and three wound centres in Australia (36 patients) were compared retrospectively to propensity score-matched data from patients with comparable leg ulcer disease aetiology, age, baseline ulcer area, ulcer duration, multi-layer compression bandaging and majority of care completed in specialist wound centres (average of 1 visit per week), with the outcome measures at comparable follow-up periods from patients enrolled in four prospective, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised studies of venous ulcers in the UK (the comparison group; VLU evidence network). Analysis using Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a mean healing time of 73·1 days for ASM plus SC (ASM) treated ulcers in comparison with 83·5 days for comparison group ulcers treated with SC alone (Log rank test, χ(2) 5·779, P = 0·016) within 12 weeks. Sensitivity analysis indicates that an unobserved covariate would have to change the odds of healing for SC by a factor of 1·1 to impact the baseline results. Results from this study predict a significant effect on healing time when using a new ASM as an adjunct to SC in the treatment of non-healing venous ulcers in the UK, but results are sensitive to unobserved covariates that may be important in healing time comparison.

  20. Automatic rate matching system

    SciTech Connect

    Handke, W.A.

    1991-04-02

    This patent describes a method of controlling the delivery of bulk material into a vessel from which delivered bulk material moves. It comprises: generating a control signal; designating a direction of change; generating; determining the highest sensor; and controlling the control signal in response to the highest sensor.

  1. Clothing Matching for Visually Impaired Persons

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuai; Tian, YingLi; Arditi, Aries

    2012-01-01

    Matching clothes is a challenging task for many blind people. In this paper, we present a proof of concept system to solve this problem. The system consists of 1) a camera connected to a computer to perform pattern and color matching process; 2) speech commands for system control and configuration; and 3) audio feedback to provide matching results for both color and patterns of clothes. This system can handle clothes in deficient color without any pattern, as well as clothing with multiple colors and complex patterns to aid both blind and color deficient people. Furthermore, our method is robust to variations of illumination, clothing rotation and wrinkling. To evaluate the proposed prototype, we collect two challenging databases including clothes without any pattern, or with multiple colors and different patterns under different conditions of lighting and rotation. Results reported here demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed clothing matching system. PMID:22523465

  2. Clothing Matching for Visually Impaired Persons.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuai; Tian, Yingli; Arditi, Aries

    2011-01-01

    Matching clothes is a challenging task for many blind people. In this paper, we present a proof of concept system to solve this problem. The system consists of 1) a camera connected to a computer to perform pattern and color matching process; 2) speech commands for system control and configuration; and 3) audio feedback to provide matching results for both color and patterns of clothes. This system can handle clothes in deficient color without any pattern, as well as clothing with multiple colors and complex patterns to aid both blind and color deficient people. Furthermore, our method is robust to variations of illumination, clothing rotation and wrinkling. To evaluate the proposed prototype, we collect two challenging databases including clothes without any pattern, or with multiple colors and different patterns under different conditions of lighting and rotation. Results reported here demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed clothing matching system.

  3. Skyline based terrain matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Lance A.

    1990-01-01

    Skyline-based terrain matching, a new method for locating the vantage point of stereo camera or laser range-finding measurements on a global map previously prepared by satellite or aerial mapping is described. The orientation of the vantage is assumed known, but its translational parameters are determined by the algorithm. Skylines, or occluding contours, can be extracted from the sensory measurements taken by an autonomous vehicle. They can also be modeled from the global map, given a vantage estimate from which to start. The two sets of skylines, represented in cylindrical coordinates about either the true or the estimated vantage, are employed as 'features' or reference objects common to both sources of information. The terrain matching problem is formulated in terms of finding a translation between the respective representations of the skylines, by approximating the two sets of skylines as identical features (curves) on the actual terrain. The search for this translation is based on selecting the longest of the minimum-distance vectors between corresponding curves from the two sets of skylines. In successive iterations of the algorithm, the approximation that the two sets of curves are identical becomes more accurate, and the vantage estimate continues to improve. The algorithm was implemented and evaluated on a simulated terrain. Illustrations and examples are included.

  4. Digital matched filter ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, D. T.; Edwards, G.

    The architecture of a digital matched filter (DMF) and the selected technology used is described. The characteristics of the DMF ASIC are summarized in tabular form. Three architectures are considered for the implementation of a DMF ASIC. First, there is the conventional trapped delay line architecture which requires a large adder tree. The second architecture is the systolic array DMF which consists of a number of identical stages cascaded together. The third architecture is the bank-of-correlators DMF, in which the reference code is recirculated around through the delay line. Since the objective is to maximize the length of the DMF, the tapped delay line architecture is selected. The tapped delay form is designed to support BPSK, QPSK, and OQPSK chip modulation. Matched filter lengths of up to 256 chips can be supported by cascading 4 ASICs. The DMF is designed as a gate array using an advanced double metal, 1.5 micron CMOS process. The regularity of FIR filter architecture allows the core of the device to be laid out very compactly, resulting in efficient usage of the gate array.

  5. Evidence for a persistent, major excess in all cause admissions to hospital in children with type-1 diabetes: results from a large Welsh national matched community cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Adrian; Thayer, Daniel; Harvey, John N; Luzio, Stephen; Atkinson, Mark D; French, Robert; Warner, Justin T; Dayan, Colin M; Wong, Susan F; Gregory, John W

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the excess in admissions associated with type1 diabetes in childhood. Design Matched-cohort study using anonymously linked hospital admission data. Setting Brecon Group Register of new cases of childhood diabetes in Wales linked to hospital admissions data within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank. Population 1577 Welsh children (aged between 0 and 15 years) from the Brecon Group Register with newly-diagnosed type-1 diabetes between 1999–2009 and 7800 population controls matched on age, sex, county, and deprivation, randomly selected from the local population. Main outcome measures Difference in all-cause hospital admission rates, 30-days post-diagnosis until 31 May 2012, between participants and controls. Results Children with type-1 diabetes were followed up for a total of 12 102 person years and were at 480% (incidence rate ratios, IRR 5.789, (95% CI 5.34 to 6.723), p<0.0001) increased risk of hospital admission in comparison to matched controls. The highest absolute excess of admission was in the age group of 0–5 years, with a 15.4% (IRR 0.846, (95% CI 0.744 to 0.965), p=0.0061) reduction in hospital admissions for every 5-year increase in age at diagnosis. A trend of increasing admission rates in lower socioeconomic status groups was also observed, but there was no evidence of a differential rate of admissions between men and women when adjusted for background risk. Those receiving outpatient care at large centres had a 16.1% (IRR 0.839, (95% CI 0.709 to 0.990), p=0.0189) reduction in hospital admissions compared with those treated at small centres. Conclusions There is a large excess of hospital admissions in paediatric patients with type-1 diabetes. Rates are highest in the youngest children with low socioeconomic status. Factors influencing higher admission rates in smaller centres (eg, “out of hours resources”) need to be explored with the aim of targeting modifiable influences on admission rates. PMID

  6. Risk factors of mortality during the first year after low energy osteoporosis fracture: a retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Aurore; Coiffier, Guillaume; Couchouron, Tiffen; Perdriger, Aleth; Guggenbuhl, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Osteoporotic fractures are a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality of fracture complications. The objective of this study was to examine predictive factors of mortality during the first year after an osteoporotic fracture. Methods It is a retrospective case-control study using data of a group of 1081 patients aged over 50 years with severe osteoporotic fractures by the Rennes university hospital emergency department from August 2007 to September 2008. Patients (cases) who died during the year following the fracture were compared with others who had survived (controls) one year after the fracture, matched on age, sex and type of fracture. Pre-fracture comorbidities and complications after the fractures were studied. Results Forty-two cases and 126 controls were analyzed without significant differences in age, sex or type of fracture. On univariate analysis, previous neoplasia, neurodegenerative disease, walking aids, thromboembolic complication, post fracture infection, post fracture heart failure, post fracture acute respiratory failure were associated with more mortality after osteoporotic fracture. After multivariate analysis, only previous neoplasia (OR = 4.63 [1.79 – 11.95]; p = 0.02) and acute respiratory failure after fracture (OR = 28.15 [5.75 – 137.9]; p<0.001) were retained as predictive factors during the year following the fracture. Conclusion Patients died more often from their co-morbidities than direct complications of their fractures. Osteoporotic fracture seems to be a marker of poor health status and a factor which may hasten the death. PMID:27920808

  7. Clinical comorbidity in patients with osteoarthritis: a case-control study of general practice consulters in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, U; Jordan, K; Croft, P

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine patterns of clinical comorbidity in general practice consulters with OA and compare them with comorbidity in consulters without OA. Methods: A case-control study nested in a one-year prevalence survey of consultations in 60 general practices in England and Wales. Cases were 11 375 subjects aged 50 and over who had consulted with OA during the study year. Controls were 11 780 subjects matched for age and sex who had consulted during the study year, but not for OA. Morbidity outcomes were based on a standard clinical classification system. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, and social class, cases were significantly more likely to have high levels of comorbidity than controls (2.35; 2.16 to 2.55). Significant OA comorbid associations with other musculoskeletal conditions included arthropathies (OR 2.26; 99% CI 1.50 to 3.41), upper limb sprain (2.04; 1.38 to 3.00), synovial and tendon disorders (2.03; 1.54 to 2.68), and other joint disorders (2.00; 1.71 to 2.32). OA non-musculoskeletal associations were with obesity (2.25; 1.73 to 2.92), gastritis (1.98; 1.46 to 2.68), phlebitis (1.80; 1.28 to 2.52), diaphragmatic hernia (1.80; 1.29 to 2.51), ischaemic heart disease (1.73; 1.13 to 2.66) and intestinal diverticula (1.63; 1.20 to 2.23). Conclusions: Comorbidity for OA was extensive, with musculoskeletal as well as non-musculoskeletal conditions. Age, sex, and social class did not explain this comorbidity but propensity to consult may be a part explanation. An important question remains as to whether comorbidity in general practice significantly adds to the disability or further impairs the health of patients with OA. PMID:15020335

  8. Association between depression and diabetes amongst adults in Bangladesh: a hospital based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Ferrari, Uta; Seissler, Jochen; Niessen, Louis; Lechner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Methods A matched case–control study was conducted among 591 consecutive patients with diabetes attending a tertiary hospital in Dhaka and 591 controls matched for age, sex and area of residence without diabetes not related with the index–case. Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire–9. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the association between depression and diabetes. Results The mean age (±standard deviation) of the participants was 50.4 ± 11.4 years, with a male to female ratio of 43:57. The prevalence of depression was 45.2% and 19.8% among cases and controls, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, mild as well as moderate to severe depression were significantly associated with diabetes and independent of sociodemographic factors and co–morbidity (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4–2.9 and adjusted OR = 6.4, 95% CI = 3.4–12.3; P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion The high prevalence and strong association of depression in individuals with diabetes in Bangladesh suggests that depression should be routinely screened for patients with diabetes at the clinics and that management strategies adequate for resource–poor settings need to be developed. Further research to determine the pathophysiological role of depression in the development of diabetes is merited. PMID:26649173

  9. Varenicline and Risk of Self-Harm: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Diana; Yao, Zhan; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.; Gomes, Tara; Antoniou, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking remains a serious public health concern. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, including bupropion and varenicline, are proven means to increase quit rates. Post-marketing reports describing suicidal behaviours have raised concerns about the safety of varenicline. However, whether varenicline imparts a higher risk of suicide relative to bupropion remains uncertain. Methods A population-based nested case-control study in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2015 was conducted. Subjects were residents of Ontario aged 18 years and older with publicly funded drug coverage receiving either bupropion or varenicline for smoking cessation. We defined cases were those with a hospitalization or emergency department visit for suicide or non-fatal self-harm within 90 days of treatment. For each case, we identified up to fifty controls from the same cohort matched on age, sex, history of self-harm, use of selected psychotropic medications, alcohol abuse and prior admission to a mental health unit. Adjusted odds ratio were used to compare the risk of suicide/self-harm of varenicline to bupropion. Results We identified 331 cases and 5,346 matched-controls. Following adjustment for potential confounders, we found that varenicline was not associated with an increased risk of suicide/self-harm relative to bupropion (adjusted odds ratio 1.15; 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.87). Interpretation Treatment with varenicline does not appear to significantly increase the risk of suicide or self-harm relative to bupropion. PMID:27662654

  10. Case—control study to identify risk factors for paediatric endemic typhoid fever in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Black, Robert E.; Cisneros, Luis; Levine, Myron M.; Banfi, Antonio; Lobos, Hernan; Rodriguez, Hector

    1985-01-01

    Typhoid fever is an important endemic health problem in Santiago, Chile. Its incidence has more than doubled in recent years, during which access to potable water and sewage disposal in the home became almost universal in the city. A matched case—control study was carried out to identify risk factors and vehicles of transmission of paediatric typhoid fever; 81 children in the 3-14-years age group with typhoid fever were compared with controls, matched with respect to age, sex, and neighbourhood. It was found that case children more frequently bought lunch at school and shared food with classmates. Also, case children more often consumed flavoured ices bought outside the home; none of 41 other food items considered in the study was associated with a higher risk of typhoid fever. Only two food handlers for cases and one for controls were positive for Salmonella typhi, indicating that persons preparing food solely for their own family were not the main source of S. typhi infection. Rather, the risk factors identified in this study are consistent with the hypothesis that paediatric endemic typhoid fever in Santiago is largely spread by consumption of food-stuffs that are prepared outside the individual's home and are shared with or sold to children. PMID:3879201

  11. Carotid artery intima-media thickness in patients with autoimmune connective tissue diseases: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bruzzese, Vincenzo; Marrese, Cinzia; Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Ridola, Lorenzo; Izzo, Annamaria; Riccioni, Camillo

    2013-12-01

    Patients with autoimmune rheumatic disorders have an increased incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality. Despite this being related to a high prevalence of the traditional CV risk factors, systemic inflammation has been postulated to be an independent CV risk factor, particularly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, data are still controversial. We designed a case-control study, in which patients with autoimmune rheumatic disorders were matched with age-, sex-matched controls. Prevalence of early atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement. IMT values were considered normal (IMT ≤ 0.9 mm) or abnormal (IMT > 0.9). Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of pathological IMT. Overall, 152 patients and 140 matched controls were enrolled. Prevalence of >0.9 mm IMT values did not significantly differ between patients with autoimmune rheumatic disorders and controls (61 vs. 69%, p = 0.1). In detail, a similar IMT distribution between the 69 RA patients and controls was observed. Cases with a CV risk factor showed a higher prevalence of pathological IMT as compared to those without any risk factor, both in patients (77.1 vs. 38.6%; p < 0.0001) and controls (84.6 vs. 25%; p < 0.0001). At multivariate analysis, age and presence of CV risk factors were found to be independent predictors of >0.9 mm IMT, while RA as well as any other considered rheumatic disease were not. Our data found a similar prevalence of preclinical arterial wall atherosclerotic damage in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases and matched controls. Presence of traditional CV risk factors and patient age remain the main factors involved in preclinical atherosclerosis in patients with autoimmune rheumatic disorders, including RA.

  12. Age, sex and ethnic differences in the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the CDC and IOTF cut points in Asian culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No nationally representative data from middle- and low-income countries have been analyzed to compare the prevalence of underweight and overweight, defined by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF) body mass index cut points. To exa...

  13. Baseline results from the UK SIGNIFY study: a whole-body MRI screening study in TP53 mutation carriers and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Saya, Sibel; Killick, Emma; Thomas, Sarah; Taylor, Natalie; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Rothwell, Jeanette; Benafif, Sarah; Dias, Alexander; Mikropoulos, Christos; Pope, Jenny; Chamberlain, Anthony; Gunapala, Ranga; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy; Walker, Lisa; Tomkins, Susan; Cook, Jackie; Barwell, Julian; Wiles, Vicki; Limb, Lauren; Eccles, Diana; Leach, Martin O; Shanley, Susan; Gilbert, Fiona J; Hanson, Helen; Gallagher, David; Rajashanker, Bala; Whitehouse, Richard W; Koh, Dow-Mu; Sohaib, S Aslam; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2017-01-16

    In the United Kingdom, current screening guidelines for TP53 germline mutation carriers solely recommends annual breast MRI, despite the wide spectrum of malignancies typically seen in this group. This study sought to investigate the role of one-off non-contrast whole-body MRI (WB MRI) in the screening of asymptomatic TP53 mutation carriers. 44 TP53 mutation carriers and 44 population controls were recruited. Scans were read by radiologists blinded to participant carrier status. The incidence of malignancies diagnosed in TP53 mutation carriers against general population controls was calculated. The incidences of non-malignant relevant disease and irrelevant disease were measured, as well as the number of investigations required to determine relevance of findings. In TP53 mutation carriers, 6 of 44 (13.6, 95% CI 5.2-27.4%) participants were diagnosed with cancer during the study, all of which would be considered life threatening if untreated. Two were found to have two primary cancers. Two participants with cancer had abnormalities on the MRI which were initially thought to be benign (a pericardial cyst and a uterine fibroid) but transpired to be sarcomas. No controls were diagnosed with cancer. Fifteen carriers (34.1, 95% CI 20.5-49.9%) and seven controls (15.9, 95% CI 6.7-30.1%) underwent further investigations following the WB MRI for abnormalities that transpired to be benign (p = 0.049). The cancer detection rate in this group justifies a minimum baseline non-contrast WB MRI in germline TP53 mutation carriers. This should be adopted into national guidelines for management of adult TP53 mutation carriers in addition to the current practice of contrast enhanced breast MRI imaging.

  14. The Earliest Matches

    PubMed Central

    Goren-Inbar, Naama; Freikman, Michael; Garfinkel, Yosef; Goring-Morris, Nigel A.; Grosman, Leore

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical objects made usually of fired clay but sometimes of stone were found at the Yarmukian Pottery Neolithic sites of Sha‘ar HaGolan and Munhata (first half of the 8th millennium BP) in the Jordan Valley. Similar objects have been reported from other Near Eastern Pottery Neolithic sites. Most scholars have interpreted them as cultic objects in the shape of phalli, while others have referred to them in more general terms as “clay pestles,” “clay rods,” and “cylindrical clay objects.” Re-examination of these artifacts leads us to present a new interpretation of their function and to suggest a reconstruction of their technology and mode of use. We suggest that these objects were components of fire drills and consider them the earliest evidence of a complex technology of fire ignition, which incorporates the cylindrical objects in the role of matches. PMID:22870306

  15. The earliest matches.

    PubMed

    Goren-Inbar, Naama; Freikman, Michael; Garfinkel, Yosef; Goring-Morris, A Nigel; Goring-Morris, Nigel A; Grosman, Leore

    2012-01-01

    Cylindrical objects made usually of fired clay but sometimes of stone were found at the Yarmukian Pottery Neolithic sites of Sha'ar HaGolan and Munhata (first half of the 8(th) millennium BP) in the Jordan Valley. Similar objects have been reported from other Near Eastern Pottery Neolithic sites. Most scholars have interpreted them as cultic objects in the shape of phalli, while others have referred to them in more general terms as "clay pestles," "clay rods," and "cylindrical clay objects." Re-examination of these artifacts leads us to present a new interpretation of their function and to suggest a reconstruction of their technology and mode of use. We suggest that these objects were components of fire drills and consider them the earliest evidence of a complex technology of fire ignition, which incorporates the cylindrical objects in the role of matches.

  16. Distinctiveness Maps for Image Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manduchi, Roberto; Tomasi, Carlo

    2000-01-01

    Stereo correspondence is hard because different image features can look alike. We propose a measure for the ambiguity of image points that allows matching distinctive points first and breaks down the matching task into smaller and separate subproblems. Experiments with an algorithm based on this measure demonstrate the ensuing efficiency and low likelihood of incorrect matches.

  17. Selection of Air Traffic Controllers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    major part of this report consists of an integrated presentation of the significant research efforts that resulted in the adoption of the new selec...system. The analysis presented suggests that much coordination may yet be needed between systems engineers, who are designing the hardware and computer...controllers--such as stress and the impact of prior aviation experience, age, sex, and education on . .. - controller job performance. It presents a

  18. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Context: Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. Aims: To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Materials and Methods: Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Results: Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P < 0.05). Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP. PMID:27958201

  19. Differences in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-specific and –nonspecific immune responses in classic Kaposi sarcoma cases and matched controls in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Amodio, Emanuele; Goedert, James J.; Barozzi, Patrizia; Riva, Giovanni; Firenze, Alberto; Bonura, Filippa; Viviano, Enza; Romano, Nino; Luppi, Mario

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Kaposi sarcoma (KS) may develop because of incompetent immune responses, both nonspecifically and specifically against the KS-associated herpes virus (KSHV). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 15 classic (non-AIDS) KS cases, 13 KSHV seropositives (without KS), and 15 KSHV-seronegative controls were tested for interferon-γ T-cell (Elispot) responses to KSHV-LANA, KSHV-K8.1, and CMV/EBV peptide pools. The forearm and thigh of each participant also was tested for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) against common recall antigens. Groups were compared with Fisher exact test and multinomial logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). KSHV Elispot response was detected in 10 (67%) classic KS cases, 11 (85%) KSHV seropositives (without KS), and 2 (13%) seronegative controls. All 4 cases with KSHV-LANA responses had current KS lesions, whereas 5 of 6 cases with KSHV-K8.1 responses had no lesions (P=0.048). No case responded to both LANA and K8.1. Compared to seronegative controls, risk for classic KS was inversely related to DTH in the thigh (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55–0.94, P=0.01), directly associated with DTH in the forearm (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02–1.80, P=0.04), and tended to be increased 5-fold per KSHV Elispot response (OR 5.13, 95% CI 0.86–30.77, P=0.07). Compared to KSHV seropositives (without KS), risk for classic KS, was reduced 5-fold (OR 0.20, CI 0.03–0.77, P=0.04) per KSHV response. CMV/EBV Elispot responses were irrelevant. Deficiency of both KSHV-specific and –nonspecific immunity is associated with classic KS. This may clarify why Kaposi sarcoma responds to immune reconstitution. PMID:21740480

  20. Sex offender treatment outcome, actuarial risk, and the aging sex offender in Canadian corrections: a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present study to control for risk-related differences between treated and untreated offenders. In total, 732 offenders were identified as having completed (n = 625) or not attended (n = 107) a sex offender treatment program and for whom sufficient information was available to complete the scale. Controlling for risk and individual differences in follow-up time using Cox regression survival analyses and an 8-year fixed follow-up period, treated sex offenders demonstrated significantly lower rates of violent, but not sexual, recidivism. When the treated and untreated groups were stratified by risk level, significant differences were observed only among moderate or high risk offenders. Some significant group differences also emerged on indicators of recidivism severity, with treated offenders demonstrating slower times to sexual reoffense and lower scores on a quantified metric of sexual and violent recidivism severity after controlling for risk. Differences in recidivism base rates between treated and untreated offenders were also larger in magnitude for younger offenders (i.e., under age 50 at release), than for older offenders; however, interactions between age and treatment were not found. The findings are consistent with the risk principle and have possible implications regarding the dynamic nature of sexual violence risk.

  1. Gender differences in food craving among overweight and obese patients attending low energy diet therapy: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Innamorati, Marco; Tamburello, Stella; Continisio, Massimo; Contardi, Anna; Tamburello, Antonino; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta

    2013-09-01

    This case-control study examined gender differences in food craving among a sample of overweight and obese patients attending low energy diet therapy. To disentangle the specific role of gender from the role of confounders, we paired groups for BMI, age and severity of binge eating as assed by the Binge Eating Scale (BES). The participants were 73 pairs of patients who were attending low energy diet therapy. All the participants were administered the State and Trait Food Cravings Questionnaire, trait version (FCQ-T) and the BES. Female patients had higher mean scores on six out of nine dimensions of the FCQ-T. When controlling for the effect of other variables, obese and overweight female patients were 1.1 times more likely to report higher anticipation of relief of negative states and feelings from eating than their male pairs. Obese and overweight female patients experience more cravings for food than their male pairs despite comparable severity of binge eating and obesity suggesting the need for tailored interventions.

  2. Temperature matching of multilayer insulation to penetrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. L.; Plachta, D. W.; Rhys, N. O.; Kelly, A. O.

    2014-01-01

    To accurately predict the heat load into a cryogenic tank or cold mass which includes multilayer insulation (MLI), heat loads other than just through the pristine MLI must be accounted for. One such type of heat load is the integration of the MLI system around penetrations. While a number of different methods that have been developed, the ideal solution would be one in which there are zero thermal losses due to the integration. Theoretically, the be st method to achieving zero integration losses is to match the individual MLI temperature layers with the corresponding penetration location having the same temperature; this method is known as temperature matching. Recently, NASA has employed temperature matching integration of multilayer insulation systems onto several different cryogenic tanks with different structural elements and attachments. T esting included the Methane Lunar Surface Thermal Control testing at Glenn Research Center, the CRYOTE Ground Test Article testing at Marshall Space Flight Center, and the Penetration Calorimetery work done at Kennedy Space Center. Each test was instrumented to determine the effects of temperature matching within MLI and each system was designed in a different manner. The testing showed that temperature matching can indeed produce nearly zero thermal losses. However, our findings show that there are many practical limitations to this approach. Temperature matching integration schemes were found to be very sensitive to thermal environmental changes and even tank liquid level changes. The approach is therefore considered useful only for a select few cases and not useful for most engineering applications.

  3. Constraint-based stereo matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, D. T.

    1987-01-01

    The major difficulty in stereo vision is the correspondence problem that requires matching features in two stereo images. Researchers describe a constraint-based stereo matching technique using local geometric constraints among edge segments to limit the search space and to resolve matching ambiguity. Edge segments are used as image features for stereo matching. Epipolar constraint and individual edge properties are used to determine possible initial matches between edge segments in a stereo image pair. Local edge geometric attributes such as continuity, junction structure, and edge neighborhood relations are used as constraints to guide the stereo matching process. The result is a locally consistent set of edge segment correspondences between stereo images. These locally consistent matches are used to generate higher-level hypotheses on extended edge segments and junctions to form more global contexts to achieve global consistency.

  4. Feature-accelerated block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Bo; Orchard, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    We study the relationship between local features and block matching in this paper. We show that the use of many features can greatly improve the block matching results by introducing several fast block matching algorithms. The first algorithm is pixel decimation-based. We show that pixels with larger gradient magnitude have larger motion compensation error. Therefore for pixel decimation-based fast block matching, it benefits to subsample the block by selecting pixels with the largest gradient magnitude. Such a gradient-assisted adaptive pixel selection strategy greatly outperforms two other subsampling procedures proposed in previous literature. Fast block matching can achieve the optimal performance obtained using full search. We present a family of such fast block matching algorithm using various local features, such as block mean and variance. Our algorithm reduces more than 80 percent computation, while achieving the same performance as the full search. This present a brand new approach toward fast block matching algorithm design.

  5. DBD Plasma Actuators for Flow Control in Air Vehicles and Jet Engines - Simulation of Flight Conditions in Test Chambers by Density Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma actuators for active flow control in aircraft and jet engines need to be tested in the laboratory to characterize their performance at flight operating conditions. DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet electronically by creating weakly ionized plasma, therefore their performance is affected by gas discharge properties, which, in turn, depend on the pressure and temperature at the actuator placement location. Characterization of actuators is initially performed in a laboratory chamber without external flow. The pressure and temperature at the actuator flight operation conditions need to be simultaneously set in the chamber. A simplified approach is desired. It is assumed that the plasma discharge depends only on the gas density, while other temperature effects are assumed to be negligible. Therefore, tests can be performed at room temperature with chamber pressure set to yield the same density as in operating flight conditions. The needed chamber pressures are shown for altitude flight of an air vehicle and for jet engines at sea-level takeoff and altitude cruise conditions. Atmospheric flight conditions are calculated from standard atmosphere with and without shock waves. The engine data was obtained from four generic engine models; 300-, 150-, and 50-passenger (PAX) aircraft engines, and a military jet-fighter engine. The static and total pressure, temperature, and density distributions along the engine were calculated for sea-level takeoff and for altitude cruise conditions. The corresponding chamber pressures needed to test the actuators were calculated. The results show that, to simulate engine component flows at in-flight conditions, plasma actuator should be tested over a wide range of pressures. For the four model engines the range is from 12.4 to 0.03 atm, depending on the placement of the actuator in the engine. For example, if a DBD plasma actuator is to be placed at the compressor exit of a 300 PAX engine, it

  6. Effects of age, sex, lactation and social dominance on faecal egg count patterns of gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    PubMed

    Vadlejch, J; Kotrba, R; Čadková, Z; Růžičková, A; Langrová, I

    2015-10-01

    nematode infection. This effect was evident for strongyles (P<0.0001) and Capillaria sp. nematodes (P=0.0065). The results of our study suggest that control measures applicable in domestic cattle and small ruminants might be similarly applicable for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infections in captive farmed elands.

  7. Using propensity score matching to construct experimental stimuli.

    PubMed

    Huber, Stefan; Dietrich, Julia F; Nagengast, Benjamin; Moeller, Korbinian

    2016-07-15

    Propensity score matching is widely used in various fields of research, including psychology, medicine, education, and sociology. It is usually applied to find a matched control group for a treatment group. In the present article, we suggest that propensity score matching might also be used to construct item sets matched for different parameters. We constructed stimuli to illustrate the use of propensity score matching in item construction for the exemplary cases of numerical cognition research and reading research. In particular, we provide a step-by-step approach, using the statistics software R, for how to apply propensity score matching for constructing matched stimuli. This approach involves deciding on a population of stimuli, determining and calculating the covariates, and finally applying the propensity-matching method to find a set of items matched to another predefined set. Thereby, we were able to construct well-matched item sets for both examples. Hence, we conclude that the propensity-score-matching method is useful for constructing matched stimuli. Further cases of application are discussed.

  8. In search of the best match: probing a multi-dimensional cloud microphysical parameter space to better understand what controls cloud thermodynamic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ivy; Storelvmo, Trude

    2015-04-01

    Substantial improvements have been made to the cloud microphysical schemes used in the latest generation of global climate models (GCMs), however, an outstanding weakness of these schemes lies in the arbitrariness of their tuning parameters, which are also notoriously fraught with uncertainties. Despite the growing effort in improving the cloud microphysical schemes in GCMs, most of this effort has neglected to focus on improving the ability of GCMs to accurately simulate the present-day global distribution of thermodynamic phase partitioning in mixed-phase clouds. Liquid droplets and ice crystals not only influence the Earth's radiative budget and hence climate sensitivity via their contrasting optical properties, but also through the effects of their lifetimes in the atmosphere. The current study employs NCAR's CAM5.1, and uses observations of cloud phase obtained by NASA's CALIOP lidar over a 79-month period (November 2007 to June 2014) guide the accurate simulation of the global distribution of mixed-phase clouds in 20∘ latitudinal bands at the -10∘ C, -20∘C and -30∘C isotherms, by adjusting six relevant cloud microphysical tuning parameters in the CAM5.1 via Quasi-Monte Carlo sampling. Among the parameters include those that control the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) timescale for the conversion of supercooled liquid droplets to ice and snow in mixed-phase clouds, the fraction of ice nuclei that nucleate ice in the atmosphere, ice crystal sedimentation speed, and wet scavenging in stratiform and convective clouds. Using a Generalized Linear Model as a variance-based sensitivity analysis, the relative contributions of each of the six parameters are quantified to gain a better understanding of the importance of their individual and two-way interaction effects on the liquid to ice proportion in mixed-phase clouds. Thus, the methodology implemented in the current study aims to search for the combination of cloud microphysical parameters in a GCM that

  9. DOE Matching Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoukalas, L.

    2002-12-31

    Funding used to support a portion of the Nuclear Engineering Educational Activities. Upgrade of teaching labs, student support to attend professional conferences, salary support for graduate students. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded Purdue University School of Nuclear Engineering during the period of five academic years covered in this report starting in the academic year 1996-97 and ending in the academic year 2000-2001. The total amount of funding for the grant received from DOE is $416K. In the 1990's, Nuclear Engineering Education in the US experienced a significant slow down. Student enrollment, research support, number of degrees at all levels (BS, MS, and PhD), number of accredited programs, University Research and Training Reactors, all went through a decline to alarmingly low levels. Several departments closed down, while some were amalgamated with other academic units (Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, etc). The School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University faced a major challenge when in the mid 90's our total undergraduate enrollment for the Sophomore, Junior and Senior Years dropped in the low 30's. The DOE Matching Grant program greatly strengthened Purdue's commitment to the Nuclear Engineering discipline and has helped to dramatically improve our undergraduate and graduate enrollment, attract new faculty and raise the School of Nuclear Engineering status within the University and in the National scene (our undergraduate enrollment has actually tripled and stands at an all time high of over 90 students; total enrollment currently exceeds 110 students). In this final technical report we outline and summarize how the grant was expended at Purdue University.

  10. Complexity matching in dyadic conversation.

    PubMed

    Abney, Drew H; Paxton, Alexandra; Dale, Rick; Kello, Christopher T

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies of dyadic interaction have examined phenomena of synchronization, entrainment, alignment, and convergence. All these forms of behavioral matching have been hypothesized to play a supportive role in establishing coordination and common ground between interlocutors. In the present study, evidence is found for a new kind of coordination termed complexity matching. Temporal dynamics in conversational speech signals were analyzed through time series of acoustic onset events. Timing in periods of acoustic energy was found to exhibit behavioral matching that reflects complementary timing in turn-taking. In addition, acoustic onset times were found to exhibit power law clustering across a range of timescales, and these power law functions were found to exhibit complexity matching that is distinct from behavioral matching. Complexity matching is discussed in terms of interactive alignment and other theoretical principles that lead to new hypotheses about information exchange in dyadic conversation and interaction in general.

  11. Rigid body constrained noisy point pattern matching.

    PubMed

    Morgera, S D; Cheong, P C

    1995-01-01

    Noisy pattern matching problems arise in many areas, e.g., computational vision, robotics, guidance and control, stereophotogrammetry, astronomy, genetics, and high-energy physics. Least-squares pattern matching over the Euclidean space E(n) for unordered sets of cardinalities p and q is commonly formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem having complexity p(p-1)...(p-q+1), q=/matching problem under rigid motion constraints, which often apply. The method reduces the complexity to l(21).n(4)+l(12).p(3), where l(12) and l(21) are the number of iterations required by steepest-ascent and singular value decomposition (SVD)-based procedures, respectively.

  12. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex

  13. Antenna impedance matching with neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hemminger, Thomas L

    2005-10-01

    Impedance matching between transmission lines and antennas is an important and fundamental concept in electromagnetic theory. One definition of antenna impedance is the resistance and reactance seen at the antenna terminals or the ratio of electric to magnetic fields at the input. The primary intent of this paper is real-time compensation for changes in the driving point impedance of an antenna due to frequency deviations. In general, the driving point impedance of an antenna or antenna array is computed by numerical methods such as the method of moments or similar techniques. Some configurations do lend themselves to analytical solutions, which will be the primary focus of this work. This paper employs a neural control system to match antenna feed lines to two common antennas during frequency sweeps. In practice, impedance matching is performed off-line with Smith charts or relatively complex formulas but they rarely perform optimally over a large bandwidth. There have been very few attempts to compensate for matching errors while the transmission system is in operation and most techniques have been targeted to a relatively small range of frequencies. The approach proposed here employs three small neural networks to perform real-time impedance matching over a broad range of frequencies during transmitter operation. Double stub tuners are being explored in this paper but the approach can certainly be applied to other methodologies. The ultimate purpose of this work is the development of an inexpensive microcontroller-based system.

  14. Anti-tuberculosis treatments and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in tuberculosis patients with liver cirrhosis: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y-P; Lin, C-L; Hung, D-Z; Lin, Y-N; Kao, C-H

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the use of anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) agents, isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), and their combination (INH + RIF), and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic patients. This population-based case-control study was conducted using a research database of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program. Cirrhotic patients first diagnosed with HCC between 1996 and 2011 (n = 50,351), among whom 4,738 were anti-TB medication users, were evaluated. Cirrhotic patients who did not develop HCC within the same period, frequency-matched according to age, sex, and index year, were evaluated as the control group (n = 47,488). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of HCC was 1.34 [95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.20-1.50] in INH + RIF users compared with non-INH + RIF users. Long-term (>12 months) use of INH, RIF, and INH + RIF was significantly associated with increased risk of HCC, with an adjusted OR of 3.51 (95 % CI, 2.11-5.84), 4.17 (95 % CI, 2.76-4.31), and 7.17 (95 % CI, 4.08-12.6), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. An average dose of INH + RIF >16,050 mg/year was associated with increased risk of HCC in cirrhotic patients, with an adjusted OR of 1.48 (95 % CI, 1.27-1.73). Our results indicate that cirrhotic patients with long-term or high-dose INH and RIF treatment, particularly their combination, are associated with increased risk of HCC development.

  15. Brain functional plasticity associated with the emergence of expertise in extreme language control.

    PubMed

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2015-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to longitudinally examine brain plasticity arising from long-term, intensive simultaneous interpretation training. Simultaneous interpretation is a bilingual task with heavy executive control demands. We compared brain responses observed during simultaneous interpretation with those observed during simultaneous speech repetition (shadowing) in a group of trainee simultaneous interpreters, at the beginning and at the end of their professional training program. Age, sex and language-proficiency matched controls were scanned at similar intervals. Using multivariate pattern classification, we found distributed patterns of changes in functional responses from the first to second scan that distinguished the interpreters from the controls. We also found reduced recruitment of the right caudate nucleus during simultaneous interpretation as a result of training. Such practice-related change is consistent with decreased demands on multilingual language control as the task becomes more automatized with practice. These results demonstrate the impact of simultaneous interpretation training on the brain functional response in a cerebral structure that is not specifically linguistic, but that is known to be involved in learning, in motor control, and in a variety of domain-general executive functions. Along with results of recent studies showing functional and structural adaptations in the caudate nuclei of experts in a broad range of domains, our results underline the importance of this structure as a central node in expertise-related networks.

  16. Host and environment factors for exposure to poisons: a case-control study of preschool children in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chatsantiprapa, K; Chokkanapitak, J; Pinpradit, N

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To identify host and environment characteristics associated with poison exposure among preschool children in Thailand. Setting—A matched case-control study in 20 public hospitals in Khon Kaen province. Methods—Cases comprised 100 consecutive preschool children attending hospital between September 1997 and February 1999 because of reported exposure to a poison. Controls were three children matched by age, sex and area of residence to each case, who had never attended a hospital for this reason. Risk factors were elicited by interviewing the children's caregivers at their homes using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Results—Number of siblings, whether the child was "medicine eating" and "rushing to explore new objects", the child's activities while the caregiver was working during the daytime, the child's distance from the caregiver while the caregiver was working, whether the child was taken to a non-agricultural worksite, and the number of used containers around the residence, were all statistically significant in univariate analyses. However, when all significant variables were included in a multivariate model, only "medicine eating" and the number of used containers around the residence remained statistically significant. Conclusion—Attention to "medicine eating" and used containers through increased supervision could be a protective factor against poison exposure for these children. To reduce risk, caregivers should not refer to medicines as foods and used containers should be systematically collected for disposal or recycling. PMID:11565987

  17. INFOODS guidelines for food matching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is necessary to match food consumption data with food composition data in order to calculate estimates of nutrient intakes and dietary exposure. This can be done manually or through an automated system. As food matching procedures are key to obtaining high quality estimations of nutrient intake...

  18. Reproductive Aging, Sex Steroids, and Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Harsh, Veronica; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Rubinow, David R.; Schmidt, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have documented that the majority of women do not become depressed during the menopause transition. However, recent longitudinal studies suggest that in some women, the events related to the menopause transition could play a role in the onset of depression. In this article we review evidence suggesting a relationship between the menopause transition and depression. Additionally, we describe several findings that suggest a role of ovarian hormones in the onset of these depressions, including the clustering of episodes of depression during the stage of the menopause transition that is accompanied by estradiol withdrawal, and the therapeutic effects of short-term estradiol in depressed perimenopausal women. Finally, we discuss possible causes of affective disturbances during the menopause transition. PMID:19373618

  19. Intensity of tennis match play

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, J; Mendez‐Villanueva, A; Pluim, B M

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the characteristics of tennis players during match play and provides a greater insight into the energy demands of tennis. A tennis match often lasts longer than an hour and in some cases more than five hours. During a match there is a combination of periods of maximal or near maximal work and longer periods of moderate and low intensity activity. Match intensity varies considerably depending on the players' level, style, and sex. It is also influenced by factors such as court surface and ball type. This has important implications for the training of tennis players, which should resemble match intensity and include interval training with appropriate work to rest ratios. PMID:16632566

  20. Mental illness, poverty and stigma in India: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Kuhlberg, Jill; Narayanan, Sreelatha S; Venkataraman, Hemalatha; Mishra, Nagendra N; Groce, Nora E; Jadhav, Sushrut; Deshpande, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of experienced stigma on depth of multidimensional poverty of persons with severe mental illness (PSMI) in Delhi, India, controlling for gender, age and caste. Design Matching case (hospital)–control (population) study. Setting University Hospital (cases) and National Capital Region (controls), India. Participants A case–control study was conducted from November 2011 to June 2012. 647 cases diagnosed with schizophrenia or affective disorders were recruited and 647 individuals of same age, sex and location of residence were matched as controls at a ratio of 1:2:1. Individuals who refused consent or provided incomplete interview were excluded. Main outcome measures Higher risk of poverty due to stigma among PSMI. Results 38.5% of PSMI compared with 22.2% of controls were found poor on six dimensions or more. The difference in multidimensional poverty index was 69% between groups with employment and income of the main contributors. Multidimensional poverty was strongly associated with stigma (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.27 to 5.31), scheduled castes/scheduled tribes/other backward castes (2.39, 1.39 to 4.08), mental illness (2.07, 1.25 to 3.41) and female gender (1.87, 1.36 to 2.58). A significant interaction between stigma, mental illness and gender or caste indicates female PSMI or PSMI from ‘lower castes’ were more likely to be poor due to stigma than male controls (p<0.001) or controls from other castes (p<0.001). Conclusions Public stigma and multidimensional poverty linked to SMI are pervasive and intertwined. In particular for low caste and women, it is a strong predictor of poverty. Exclusion from employment linked to negative attitudes and lack of income are the highest contributors to multidimensional poverty, increasing the burden for the family. Mental health professionals need to be aware of and address these issues. PMID:25712818

  1. A case-control study on risk factors for unintentional childhood poisoning in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Mansori, Kamyar; Soori, Hamid; Farnaghi, Fariba; Khodakarim, Sohila; Mansouri hanis, Shiva; Khodadost, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poisoning is a major public health problem and is one of the most frequent causes of emergency hospital admissions. The aim of this study was to identify the main risk factors for unintentional childhood poisoning in Tehran, Iran and to suggest possible causes and preventative measures. Methods: In this case-control study (case, n=140; control, n=280), two controls were selected for every case. Controls were matched by age, sex, and date of hospital attendance. All children and their guardians were then interviewed by the same person using a standard questionnaire that covered the demographic, behavioral, and risk factors associated with accidental poisonings. Results: The most common type of poisoning was related to narcotics (58.6%); and among the narcotics, methadone was the most prevalent poisoning agent (74.7%). Multivariate conditional logistic regression model revealed that addiction in the family (OR=14.6; 95% CI:6.2-34.6), previous poisoning (OR=7; 95% CI:2.4- 20.2), maternal occupation (OR=4; 95% CI:1.3- 12.3), and inaccessibility of poisoning products (OR=0.03; 95% CI:0.01- 0.12) were the main risk factors in unintentional childhood poisoning. Conclusion: Addiction in the family as a risk factor and inaccessibility of poisoning products as a protecting factor were recognized to have the highest correlation with the unintentional child poisoning. These two factors were considered as priorities in health education programs. PMID:27453885

  2. Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure and Inhibitory Control among Young School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Derauf, Chris; LaGasse, Linda L.; Smith, Lynne M.; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Neal, Charles; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Lin, Hai; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between prenatal methamphetamine exposure and inhibitory control in 66 month old children followed since birth in the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle Study. Study design The sample included 137 children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure and 130 comparison children, matched for race, birth weight, maternal education and type of insurance. Inhibitory control, an executive function related to emotional and cognitive control, was assessed using a computerized Stroop-like task developed for young children. Hierarchical linear modeling tested the relationship between the extent (heavy, some and no use) of prenatal methamphetamine exposure and accuracy and reaction time outcomes, adjusting for prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco and marijuana, age, sex, socioeconomic status, caregiver IQ and psychological symptoms, child protective services report of physical or sexual abuse, and site. Results In adjusted analyses, heavy prenatal methamphetamine exposure was related to reduced accuracy in both the incongruent and mixed conditions on the Stroop task. Caregiver psychological symptoms and Child Protective Services (CPS) report of physical or sexual abuse were associated with reduced accuracy in the incongruent and mixed, and incongruent conditions, respectively. Conclusions Heavy prenatal methamphetamine exposure, along with caregiver psychological distress and child maltreatment, is related to subtle deficits in inhibitory control during the early school-aged years. PMID:22424953

  3. Contour matching by epipolar geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mao-Lin; Zhang, Damin; Wei, Sui

    2003-09-01

    Matching features computed in images is an important process in multiview image analysis. When the motion between two images is large, the matching problem becomes very difficult. In this paper, we propose a contour matching algorithm based on geometric constraints. With the assumption that the contours are obtained from images taken from a moving camera with static scenes, we apply the epipolar constraint between two sets of contours and compute the corresponding points on the contours. From the initial epipolar constraints obtained from comer point matching, candidate contours are selected according to the epipolar geometry, the linear relation among tangent vectors of the contour. In order to reduce the possibility of false matches, the curvature of the contour of match points on a contour is also used as a selection method. The initial epipolar constraint is refined from the matched sets of contours. The algorithm can be applied to a pair or two pairs of images. All of the processes are fully automatic and successfully implemented and tested with various synthetic images.

  4. Cognition-induced modulation of serotonin in the orbitofrontal cortex: a controlled cross-over PET study of a delayed match-to-sample task using the 5-HT2a receptor antagonist [18F]altanserin.

    PubMed

    Hautzel, Hubertus; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Herzog, Hans; Grandt, Rüdiger

    2011-10-01

    Behavioral and cellular studies indicate that serotonin interacting with the 5-HT2a receptor (5-HT2aR) is involved in cognitive processes supporting working memory (WM). However, 5-HT receptor neuroimaging studies directly relating WM-induced neuronal activations to concomitant changes in the availability of 5-HT receptors as a functional measure for serotonin release are lacking. This controlled cross-over PET study aimed to identify brain regions with WM-induced changes in the binding potential (BP(nd)) of the 5-HT2aR antagonist [(18)F]altanserin. Ten young males underwent a delayed match-to-sample task using photographs of faces and a control task. The BP(nd)s for both conditions were calculated by applying Ichise's noninvasive plot. Statistics were performed with the SPM toolbox statistical nonparametric mapping (SnPM3) particularly suited for analyzing whole-brain PET data in an exploratory way. A higher BP(nd) for [(18)F]altanserin during WM versus control was found in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) pointing towards an increased [(18)F]altanserin/5-HT2aR interaction in OFC while BP(nd) decreases during WM were not found. Furthermore, no BP(nd) changes in regions known from functional neuroimaging studies to be more specifically involved in WM were identified. These findings may suggest that the increased [(18)F]altanserin BP(nd) under WM challenge and hence the increased availability of 5-HT2aR reflects a decrease in local OFC serotonin. As the OFC plays a prominent role in decision-making and supports cognitive processes related to the central executive functions of WM it might be modulated by the serotoninergic system via the 5-HT2aR in order to support and optimize basic cognitive functions.

  5. Alternative Matching Scores to Control Type I Error of the Mantel-Haenszel Procedure for DIF in Dichotomously Scored Items Conforming to 3PL IRT and Nonparametric 4PBCB Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Patrick O.; Ankenmann, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    When the matching score is either less than perfectly reliable or not a sufficient statistic for determining latent proficiency in data conforming to item response theory (IRT) models, Type I error (TIE) inflation may occur for the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure or any differential item functioning (DIF) procedure that matches on summed-item…

  6. Identity Matching-to-Sample with Olfactory Stimuli in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Tracy; Pitts, Raymond C.; Galizio, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Identity matching-to-sample has been difficult to demonstrate in rats, but most studies have used visual stimuli. There is evidence that rats can acquire complex forms of olfactory stimulus control, and the present study explored the possibility that identity matching might be facilitated in rats if olfactory stimuli were used. Four rats were…

  7. MATCHING IN INFORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Eeckhout, Jan; Munshi, Kaivan

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes an informal financial institution that brings heterogeneous agents together in groups. We analyze decentralized matching into these groups, and the equilibrium composition of participants that consequently arises. We find that participants sort remarkably well across the competing groups, and that they re-sort immediately following an unexpected exogenous regulatory change. These findings suggest that the competitive matching model might have applicability and bite in other settings where matching is an important equilibrium phenomenon. (JEL: O12, O17, G20, D40) PMID:24027491

  8. Impact of a social-emotional and character development program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2(nd) ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai'i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently.

  9. Matching Faces Against the Clock

    PubMed Central

    Fysh, Matthew; Cross, Katie; Watts, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of time pressure on face-matching accuracy. Across two experiments, observers decided whether pairs of faces depict one person or different people. Time pressure was exerted via two additional displays, which were constantly updated to inform observers on whether they were on track to meet or miss a time target. In this paradigm, faces were matched under increasing or decreasing (Experiment 1) and constant time pressure (Experiment 2), which varied from 10 to 2 seconds. In both experiments, time pressure reduced accuracy, but the point at which this declined varied from 8 to 2 seconds. A separate match response bias was found, which developed over the course of the experiments. These results indicate that both time pressure and the repetitive nature of face matching are detrimental to performance. PMID:27757219

  10. Matching Network For Microwave Preamplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sifri, Jack D.

    1988-01-01

    Stable operation and broadband, optimum noise performance achieved. Amplifier designed by new method of matching input impedance for optimum noise figure and stability. Output more nearly constant over wider frequency range.

  11. Designing self-matching linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, R.S.; Crandall, K.R.; Farrell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The present trend in ion-linac design is to begin with a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac followed by one or more drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks in which permanent-magnet quadrupoles are used for transverse focusing. The lack of adjustable elements (knobs) strongly suggests that one should seek linac designs with intertank matching solutions that are insensitive to beam currents and emittances, which can be accomplished if there are no sharp discontinuities in the focusing properties along the entire linac. Guidelines are presented for linac design and describe techniques for longitudinal as well as transverse matching between tanks. For a wide range of beam currents and emittances, a beam matched at the entrance to the RFQ should remain well matched throughout the entire linac.

  12. In-group modulation of perceptual matching.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Zargol; Sui, Jie; Hewstone, Miles; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-10-01

    We report a novel effect of in-group bias on a task requiring simple perceptual matching of stimuli. Football fans were instructed to associate the badges of their favorite football team (in-group), a rival team (out-group), and neutral teams with simple geometric shapes. Responses to matching in-group stimuli were more efficient, and discriminability was enhanced, as compared to out-group stimuli (rival and neutral)-a result that occurred even when participants responded only to the (equally familiar) geometric shapes. Across individuals, the in-group bias on shape matching was correlated with measures of group satisfaction, and similar results were found when football fans performed the task, in the context of both the football ground and a laboratory setting. We also observed effects of in-group bias on the response criteria in some but not all of the experiments. In control studies, the advantage for in-group stimuli was not found in an independent sample of participants who were not football fans. This indicates that there was not an intrinsic advantage for the stimuli that were "in-group" for football fans. Also, performance did not differ for familiar versus unfamiliar stimuli without in-group associations. These findings indicate that group identification can affect simple shape matching.

  13. Matching games with partial information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laureti, Paolo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2003-06-01

    We analyze different ways of pairing agents in a bipartite matching problem, with regard to its scaling properties and to the distribution of individual “satisfactions”. Then we explore the role of partial information and bounded rationality in a generalized Marriage Problem, comparing the benefits obtained by self-searching and by a matchmaker. Finally we propose a modified matching game intended to mimic the way consumers’ information makes firms to enhance the quality of their products in a competitive market.

  14. 76 FR 5235 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA Internal Match)-Match Number 1014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA Internal Match)--Match Number 1014 AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA) ACTION: Notice of a new computer matching program. SUMMARY... computer matching program that we are conducting with ourselves. DATES: We will file a report of...

  15. Case-control study of urinary bladder cancer in metropolitan Nagoya.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Y; Aoki, K; Obata, K; Morrison, A S

    1985-12-01

    We conducted a population-based case-control study of patients with bladder cancer and of controls drawn randomly from the general population of Metropolitan Nagoya and interviewed both groups. The incidence rates of bladder cancer were 2.42 and 7.05/100,000 for females and males, respectively. The analysis, based on 293 patients and 589 controls who were frequency matched for age, sex, and residence, provided the following major findings. Age-adjusted relative risks of 1.89 (1.15-3.10) and 3.53 (1.71-7.27) were found in male and female cigarette smokers, respectively. Significant relative risk was also found in males who drank cocoa. Elevated risk with a dose-response relationship was observed among women who used hair dye and who smoke, but this risk was insignificant, with the disappearance of a dose-response relationship, when it was adjusted for smoking. Age- and smoking-adjusted relative risk of coffee drinking was insignificant with no dose-response relationship. Relative risk of artificial sweetener use was below 1 with adjustment for age and smoking. Intake of alcoholic beverages and cola was insignificantly associated. Reduced risk of significance was suggested for the intake of black tea and matcha (powdered green tea) in females and of fruit juice in males.

  16. Neurotrophin Genes and Antidepressant-Worsening Suicidal Ideation: A Prospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramoz, Nicolas; Shekhtman, Tatyana; Courtet, Philippe; Gorwood, Philip; Kelsoe, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antidepressant-worsening suicidal ideation is a rare but serious phenomenon. This study aimed to test for association between antidepressant-worsening suicidal ideation and polymorphisms of BDNF/NTRK2 neurotrophin pathway genes, known to be involved in depression and suicide. Methods: This was a case-control study comparing patients with antidepressant-worsening suicidal ideation to patients without. Patients were collected from the GENESE cohort (3771 depressed tianeptine-treated outpatients). Antidepressant-worsening suicidal ideation was defined by an increase of at least 2 points on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-item10 during treatment. Controls were matched for age, sex, and baseline Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-item10 score. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms covering 5 BDNF/NTRK2 pathway genes were genotyped. Results: A total 78 cases and 312 controls were included. Two NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated to antidepressant-worsening suicidal ideation: rs1439050 (P=.01) and rs1867283 (P=.04). Association with rs1439050 remained significant after adjustment for potentially confounding factors, including previous suicide attempts (P<.01). Conclusions: This naturalistic prospective study is consistent with previous studies on highlighting the potential role of the neurotrophin pathway, and especially of NTRK2, in antidepressant-worsening suicidal ideation. PMID:27378793

  17. Pure Laparoscopic Versus Open Liver Resection for Primary Liver Carcinoma in Elderly Patients: A Single-Center, Case-Matched Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Tao; Wang, Hong-Guang; Duan, Wei-Dong; Wu, Cong-Ying; Chen, Ming-Yi; Li, Hao; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Fu-Bo; Dong, Jia-Hong

    2015-10-01

    Pure laparoscopic liver resection (PLLR) has been reported to be as safe and effective as open liver resection (OLR) for liver lesions, and it is associated with less intraoperative blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and lower complication rate. However, studies comparing PLLR with OLR in elderly patients were limited. The aim of this study was to analyze the short-term outcome of PLLR versus OLR for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in elderly patients.Between January 2008 and October 2014, 30 consecutive elderly patients (≥70 years) who underwent PLLR for PLC were included into analysis. Sixty patients who received OLR for PLC during the same study period were also included as a case-matched control group. Patients were well matched in terms of age, sex, comorbid illness, Child Pugh class, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, tumor size, tumor location, and extent of hepatectomy.No significant differences were observed with regard to patient preoperative baseline status, median tumor size (Group PLLR 4.0 cm vs Group OLR 5.0 cm, P = 0.125), tumor location, extent of hepatectomy, and operation time (Group PLLR 133 minutes vs Group OLR 170 minutes, P = 0.073). Compared with OLR, the PLLR group displayed a significantly less frequent Pringle maneuver application (10.0% vs 70.0%, P < 0.001), less blood loss (100 vs 300 mL; P < 0.001), shorter hospital stay (5 vs 10 days; P < 0.001), and lower total hospitalization cost ($9147.50 vs $10,867.10, P = 0.008). The postoperative complication rates were similar between groups (Group PLLR 10.0% vs Group OLR 16.7%; P = 0.532). There was no hospital mortality in both groups.PLLR for PLC is as safe and feasible as OLR, but with less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, and lower hospitalization cost for selected elderly patients.

  18. Mix and match: how to regain your balance.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    In retrospective studies, a demographic imbalance often exists between cases and controls. This imbalance may affect outcome, independent of experimental group. We discuss matching methods that allow us to overcome these imbalances.

  19. Force matching errors following eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Morgan, D L; Percival, P; Weerakkody, N S; Canny, B J

    2004-10-01

    During eccentric exercise contracting muscles are forcibly lengthened, to act as a brake to control motion of the body. A consequence of eccentric exercise is damage to muscle fibres. It has been reported that following the damage there is disturbance to proprioception, in particular, the senses of force and limb position. Force sense was tested in an isometric force-matching task using the elbow flexor muscles of both arms before and after the muscles in one arm had performed 50 eccentric contractions at a strength of 30% of a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The exercise led to an immediate reduction of about 40%, in the force generated during an MVC followed by a slow recovery over the next four days, and to the development of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) lasting about the same time. After the exercise, even though participants believed they were making an accurate match, they made large matching errors, in a direction where the exercised arm developed less force than the unexercised arm. This was true whichever arm was used to generate the reference forces, which were in a range of 5-30% of the reference arm's MVC, with visual feedback of the reference arm's force levels provided to the participant. The errors were correlated with the fall in MVC following the exercise, suggesting that participants were not matching force, but the subjective effort needed to generate the force: the same effort producing less force in a muscle weakened by eccentric exercise. The errors were, however, larger than predicted from the measured reduction in MVC, suggesting that factors other than effort might also be contributing. One factor may be DOMS. To test this idea, force matches were done in the presence of pain, induced in unexercised muscles by injection of hypertonic (5%) saline or by the application of noxious heat to the skin over the muscle. Both procedures led to errors in the same direction as those seen after eccentric exercise.

  20. Case–Control Study of Blood Lead Levels and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Li; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Yang, Bin; Ma, Fang-Li; Wang, Shu; Tang, Ming-Liang; Hao, Ming-Gao; Ruan, Di-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and lead exposure are high-prevalence conditions among children. Objective Our goal was to investigate the association between ADHD and blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese children, adjusting for known ADHD risk factors and potential confounding variables. Methods We conducted a pair-matching case–control study with 630 ADHD cases and 630 non-ADHD controls 4–12 years of age, matched on the same age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The case and control children were systematically evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews, including caregiver interviews, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., revised criteria (DSM-IV-R). We evaluated the association between BLLs and ADHD using the Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and the Student t-test for continuous data. We then performed conditional multiple variables logistic regression analyses with backward stepwise selection to predict risk factors for ADHD. Results There was a significant difference in BLLs between ADHD cases and controls. ADHD cases were more likely to have been exposed to lead during childhood than the non-ADHD control subjects, with adjustment for other known risk factors [children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL vs. ≤ 5 μg/dL; OR = 6.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.10–8.77, p < 0.01; 5–10 μg/dL vs.≤ 5 μg/dL, OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 3.47–6.98, p < 0.01]. These results were not modified by age and sex variables. Conclusions This was the largest sample size case–control study to date to study the association between BLLs and ADHD in Chinese children. ADHD may be an additional deleterious outcome of lead exposure during childhood, even when BLLs are < 10 μg/dL. PMID:18941585

  1. Double propensity-score adjustment: A solution to design bias or bias due to incomplete matching.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C

    2017-02-01

    Propensity-score matching is frequently used to reduce the effects of confounding when using observational data to estimate the effects of treatments. Matching allows one to estimate the average effect of treatment in the treated. Rosenbaum and Rubin coined the term "bias due to incomplete matching" to describe the bias that can occur when some treated subjects are excluded from the matched sample because no appropriate control subject was available. The presence of incomplete matching raises important questions around the generalizability of estimated treatment effects to the entire population of treated subjects. We describe an analytic solution to address the bias due to incomplete matching. Our method is based on using optimal or nearest neighbor matching, rather than caliper matching (which frequently results in the exclusion of some treated subjects). Within the sample matched on the propensity score, covariate adjustment using the propensity score is then employed to impute missing potential outcomes under lack of treatment for each treated subject. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that the proposed method resulted in estimates of treatment effect that were essentially unbiased. This method resulted in decreased bias compared to caliper matching alone and compared to either optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone. Caliper matching alone resulted in design bias or bias due to incomplete matching, while optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone resulted in bias due to residual confounding. The proposed method also tended to result in estimates with decreased mean squared error compared to when caliper matching was used.

  2. Understanding Y haplotype matching probability.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    The Y haplotype population-genetic terrain is better explored from a fresh perspective rather than by analogy with the more familiar autosomal ideas. For haplotype matching probabilities, versus for autosomal matching probabilities, explicit attention to modelling - such as how evolution got us where we are - is much more important while consideration of population frequency is much less so. This paper explores, extends, and explains some of the concepts of "Fundamental problem of forensic mathematics - the evidential strength of a rare haplotype match". That earlier paper presented and validated a "kappa method" formula for the evidential strength when a suspect matches a previously unseen haplotype (such as a Y-haplotype) at the crime scene. Mathematical implications of the kappa method are intuitive and reasonable. Suspicions to the contrary raised in rest on elementary errors. Critical to deriving the kappa method or any sensible evidential calculation is understanding that thinking about haplotype population frequency is a red herring; the pivotal question is one of matching probability. But confusion between the two is unfortunately institutionalized in much of the forensic world. Examples make clear why (matching) probability is not (population) frequency and why uncertainty intervals on matching probabilities are merely confused thinking. Forensic matching calculations should be based on a model, on stipulated premises. The model inevitably only approximates reality, and any error in the results comes only from error in the model, the inexactness of the approximation. Sampling variation does not measure that inexactness and hence is not helpful in explaining evidence and is in fact an impediment. Alternative haplotype matching probability approaches that various authors have considered are reviewed. Some are based on no model and cannot be taken seriously. For the others, some evaluation of the models is discussed. Recent evidence supports the adequacy of

  3. Block Matching for Object Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S

    2003-10-13

    Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.

  4. Matching illumination of solid objects.

    PubMed

    Pont, Sylvia C; Koenderink, Jan J

    2007-04-01

    The appearance of objects is determined by their surface reflectance and roughness and by the light field. Conversely, human observers might derive properties of the light field from the appearance of objects. The inverse problem has no unique solution, so perceptual interactions between reflectance, roughness, and lightfield are to be expected. In two separate experiments, we tested whether observers are able to match the illumination of spheres under collimated illumination only (matching of illumination direction) and under more or less diffuse illumination (matching of illumination direction and directedness of the beam). We found that observers are quite able to match collimated illumination directions of two rendered Lambertian spheres. Matching of the collimated beam directions of a Lambertian sphere and that of a real object with arbitrary reflectance and roughness properties resulted in similar results for the azimuthal angle, but in higher variance for the polar angle. Translucent objects and a tennis ball were found to be systematic outliers. If the directedness of the beam was also varied, the direction settings showed larger variance for more diffuse illumination. The directedness settings showed an overall quite large variance and, interestingly, interacted with the polar angle settings. We discuss possible photometrical mechanisms behind these effects.

  5. A Multifunctional Bread Rich in Beta Glucans and Low in Starch Improves Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: A Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tessari, Paolo; Lante, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Design: Functional foods may be useful for people with diabetes. The soluble fibers beta glucans can modify starch digestion and improve postprandial glucose response. We analyzed the metabolic effects of a specifically designed ‘functional’ bread, low in starch, rich in fibers (7 g/100 g), with a beta glucan/starch ratio of (7.6:100, g/g), in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Clinical and metabolic data from two groups of age-, sex- and glycated hemoglobin-matched diabetic subjects, taking either the functional bread or regular white bread, over a roughly six-month observation period, were retrieved. Results: Bread intake did not change during the trial. The functional bread reduced glycated hemoglobin by ~0.5% (absolute units) vs. pre-treatment values (p = 0.028), and by ~0.6% vs. the control group (p = 0.027). Post-prandial and mean plasma glucose was decreased in the treatment group too. Body weight, blood pressure and plasma lipids did not change. The acceptance of the functional bread was good in the majority of subjects, except for taste. Conclusions: A starch-restricted, fiber-rich functional bread, with an increased beta glucan/starch ratio, improved long term metabolic control, and may be indicated in the dietary treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:28304350

  6. Clinical utility of far-infrared therapy for improvement of vascular access blood flow and pain control in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo Jeong; Cho, Eun Hee; Jo, Hye Min; Min, Changwook; Ji, Young Sok; Park, Moo Yong; Kim, Jin Kuk; Hwang, Seung Duk

    2015-01-01

    Background Maintenance of a well-functioning vascular access and minimal needling pain are important goals for achieving adequate dialysis and improving the quality of life in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Far-infrared (FIR) therapy may improve endothelial function and increase access blood flow (Qa) and patency in HD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of FIR therapy on Qa and patency, and needling pain in HD patients. Methods This prospective clinical trial enrolled 25 outpatients who maintained HD with arteriovenous fistula. The other 25 patients were matched as control with age, sex, and diabetes. FIR therapy was administered for 40 minutes during HD 3 times/wk and continued for 12 months. The Qa was measured by the ultrasound dilution method, whereas pain was measured by a numeric rating scale at baseline, then once per month. Results One patient was transferred to another facility, and 7 patients stopped FIR therapy because of an increased body temperature and discomfort. FIR therapy improved the needling pain score from 4 to 2 after 1 year. FIR therapy increased the Qa by 3 months and maintained this change until 1 year, whereas control patients showed the decrease in Qa. The 1-year unassisted patency with FIR therapy was not significantly different from control. Conclusion FIR therapy improved needling pain. Although FIR therapy improved Qa, the unassisted patency was not different compared with the control. A larger and multicenter study is needed to evaluate the effect of FIR therapy. PMID:27069856

  7. Path similarity skeleton graph matching.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiang; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a novel framework to for shape recognition based on object silhouettes. The main idea is to match skeleton graphs by comparing the shortest paths between skeleton endpoints. In contrast to typical tree or graph matching methods, we completely ignore the topological graph structure. Our approach is motivated by the fact that visually similar skeleton graphs may have completely different topological structures. The proposed comparison of shortest paths between endpoints of skeleton graphs yields correct matching results in such cases. The skeletons are pruned by contour partitioning with Discrete Curve Evolution, which implies that the endpoints of skeleton branches correspond to visual parts of the objects. The experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to produce correct results in the presence of articulations, stretching, and occlusion.

  8. Matching optics for Gaussian beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunter, William D. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A system of matching optics for Gaussian beams is described. The matching optics system is positioned between a light beam emitter (such as a laser) and the input optics of a second optics system whereby the output from the light beam emitter is converted into an optimum input for the succeeding parts of the second optical system. The matching optics arrangement includes the combination of a light beam emitter, such as a laser with a movable afocal lens pair (telescope) and a single movable lens placed in the laser's output beam. The single movable lens serves as an input to the telescope. If desired, a second lens, which may be fixed, is positioned in the beam before the adjustable lens to serve as an input processor to the movable lens. The system provides the ability to choose waist diameter and position independently and achieve the desired values with two simple adjustments not requiring iteration.

  9. Propensity score matching and complex surveys.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C; Jembere, Nathaniel; Chiu, Maria

    2016-07-26

    Researchers are increasingly using complex population-based sample surveys to estimate the effects of treatments, exposures and interventions. In such analyses, statistical methods are essential to minimize the effect of confounding due to measured covariates, as treated subjects frequently differ from control subjects. Methods based on the propensity score are increasingly popular. Minimal research has been conducted on how to implement propensity score matching when using data from complex sample surveys. We used Monte Carlo simulations to examine two critical issues when implementing propensity score matching with such data. First, we examined how the propensity score model should be formulated. We considered three different formulations depending on whether or not a weighted regression model was used to estimate the propensity score and whether or not the survey weights were included in the propensity score model as an additional covariate. Second, we examined whether matched control subjects should retain their natural survey weight or whether they should inherit the survey weight of the treated subject to which they were matched. Our results were inconclusive with respect to which method of estimating the propensity score model was preferable. In general, greater balance in measured baseline covariates and decreased bias was observed when natural retained weights were used compared to when inherited weights were used. We also demonstrated that bootstrap-based methods performed well for estimating the variance of treatment effects when outcomes are binary. We illustrated the application of our methods by using the Canadian Community Health Survey to estimate the effect of educational attainment on lifetime prevalence of mood or anxiety disorders.

  10. Memristor-based pattern matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimo, Martin; Such, Ondrej; Skvarek, Ondrej; Fratrik, Milan

    2014-10-01

    Pattern matching is a machine learning area that requires high-performance hardware. It has been hypothesized that massively parallel designs, which avoid von Neumann architecture, could provide a significant performance boost. Such designs can advantageously use memristive switches. This paper discusses a two-stage design that implements the induced ordered weighted average (IOWA) method for pattern matching. We outline the circuit structure and discuss how a functioning circuit can be achieved using metal oxide devices. We describe our simulations of memristive circuits and illustrate their performance on a vowel classification task.

  11. The beauty of match play.

    PubMed

    Clark, Russell D

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated whether higher seeded players have an advanage in the only match play event on the PGA Tour. Analysis showed that the higher seeded won 54% of the time (p=.06); the correlation was .17 (p<.01) between higher seeded players winning and the difference in World Rankings between players. Given professional golfers are at the highest end of the distribution of golf ability, these players are so nearly equal in ability, it is mainly a matter of chance who will win a match play event or who will have the best round on any given day.

  12. Combining epidemiology and biomechanics in sports injury prevention research: a new approach for selecting suitable controls.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Ullah, Shahid; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    selection strategy that reflects the importance of biomechanical considerations, which ensures that controls are selected based on the presence of the same global injury mechanism as the cases. To summarize, the general biomechanical principles that should apply to the selection of controls in future case-control studies are as follows: (i) each control must have been exposed to the same global injury mechanism as the case, (e.g. head impact, fall onto outstretched arm); and (ii) intrinsic (individual) factors (e.g. age, sex, skill level) that might modify the person's response to the relevant biomechanical loads are adjusted when either selecting the controls or are in the analysis phase. The same considerations for control selection apply to other study designs such as matched cohort studies or case-crossover studies.

  13. 7 CFR 2903.5 - Matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.5 Matching requirements. There are no matching funds requirements for the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program and matching...

  14. 7 CFR 2903.5 - Matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.5 Matching requirements. There are no matching funds requirements for the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program and matching...

  15. 7 CFR 2903.5 - Matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.5 Matching requirements. There are no matching funds requirements for the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program and matching...

  16. 7 CFR 2903.5 - Matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.5 Matching requirements. There are no matching funds requirements for the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program and matching...

  17. Relaxation matching algorithm for moving photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Liu, Ke; Miao, Yinxiao; Zhu, Jigui

    2015-02-01

    Moving photogrammetry is an application of close range photogrammetry in industrial measurement to realize threedimensional coordinate measurement within large-scale volume. This paper describes an approach of relaxation matching algorithm applicable to moving photogrammetry according to the characteristics of accurate matching result of different measuring images. This method uses neighborhood matching support to improve the matching rate after coarse matching based on epipolar geometry constraint and precise matching using three images. It reflects the overall matching effect of all points, that means when a point is matched correctly, the matching results of those points round it must be correct. So for one point considered, the matching results of points round it are calculated to judge whether its result is correct. Analysis indicates that relaxation matching can eliminate the mismatching effectively and acquire 100% rate of correct matching. It will play a very important role in moving photogrammetry to ensure the following implement of ray bundle adjustment.

  18. 7 CFR 2903.5 - Matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.5 Matching requirements. There are no matching funds requirements for the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program and matching...

  19. Risk factors for sporadic Campylobacter infections: results of a case-control study in southeastern Norway.

    PubMed Central

    Kapperud, G; Skjerve, E; Bean, N H; Ostroff, S M; Lassen, J

    1992-01-01

    In 1989 and 1990, a case-control study designed to identify risk factors for sporadic infections with thermotolerant Campylobacter bacteria was conducted in three counties in southeastern Norway. The investigation was confined to infections which were acquired in Norway. A total of 52 bacteriologically confirmed cases and 103 controls matched by age, sex, and geographic region were interviewed. The following risk factors were found to be independently associated with illness in conditional logistic regression analysis: consumption of sausages at a barbecue (odds ratio [OR] = 7.64; P = 0.005), daily contact with a dog (OR = 4.26; P = 0.024), and eating of poultry which was brought into the house raw (frozen or refrigerated) (OR = 3.20; P = 0.024). The risk associated with consumption of sausages at a barbecue could not be attributed to cross-contamination from poultry products. By univariate analysis, consumption of poultry which was brought raw and frozen was associated with illness (OR = 2.42; P = 0.042), even though freezing substantially reduces the number of viable campylobacters. When poultry consumption was examined by country of origin, eating of poultry produced in Denmark or Sweden was strongly associated with illness (OR = 13.66; P = 0.014), whereas consumption of poultry produced in Norway was not (OR = 1.33; P = 0.41). PMID:1452694

  20. Double propensity-score adjustment: A solution to design bias or bias due to incomplete matching

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Propensity-score matching is frequently used to reduce the effects of confounding when using observational data to estimate the effects of treatments. Matching allows one to estimate the average effect of treatment in the treated. Rosenbaum and Rubin coined the term “bias due to incomplete matching” to describe the bias that can occur when some treated subjects are excluded from the matched sample because no appropriate control subject was available. The presence of incomplete matching raises important questions around the generalizability of estimated treatment effects to the entire population of treated subjects. We describe an analytic solution to address the bias due to incomplete matching. Our method is based on using optimal or nearest neighbor matching, rather than caliper matching (which frequently results in the exclusion of some treated subjects). Within the sample matched on the propensity score, covariate adjustment using the propensity score is then employed to impute missing potential outcomes under lack of treatment for each treated subject. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that the proposed method resulted in estimates of treatment effect that were essentially unbiased. This method resulted in decreased bias compared to caliper matching alone and compared to either optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone. Caliper matching alone resulted in design bias or bias due to incomplete matching, while optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone resulted in bias due to residual confounding. The proposed method also tended to result in estimates with decreased mean squared error compared to when caliper matching was used. PMID:25038071

  1. A free interactive matching program

    SciTech Connect

    J.-F. Ostiguy

    1999-04-16

    For physicists and engineers involved in the design and analysis of beamlines (transfer lines or insertions) the lattice function matching problem is central and can be time-consuming because it involves constrained nonlinear optimization. For such problems convergence can be difficult to obtain in general without expert human intervention. Over the years, powerful codes have been developed to assist beamline designers. The canonical example is MAD (Methodical Accelerator Design) developed at CERN by Christophe Iselin. MAD, through a specialized command language, allows one to solve a wide variety of problems, including matching problems. Although in principle, the MAD command interpreter can be run interactively, in practice the solution of a matching problem involves a sequence of independent trial runs. Unfortunately, but perhaps not surprisingly, there still exists relatively few tools exploiting the resources offered by modern environments to assist lattice designer with this routine and repetitive task. In this paper, we describe a fully interactive lattice matching program, written in C++ and assembled using freely available software components. An important feature of the code is that the evolution of the lattice functions during the nonlinear iterative process can be graphically monitored in real time; the user can dynamically interrupt the iterations at will to introduce new variables, freeze existing ones into their current state and/or modify constraints. The program runs under both UNIX and Windows NT.

  2. Acceptable Ungrammaticality in Sentence Matching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Nigel; Matsuo, Ayumi; Roberts, Leah

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new set of experiments using the "sentence-matching paradigm" (Forster, 1979; Freedman and Forster, 1985; see also Bley-Vroman and Masterson, 1989), investigating native speakers' and second language (L2) learners' knowledge of constraints on clitic placement in French. Our purpose is three-fold: (1) to shed more light on…

  3. Non-specific effect of measles vaccination on overall child mortality in an area of rural India with high vaccination coverage: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Zubair; Long, Jean; Reddaiah, Vankadara P.; Kevany, John; Kapoor, Suresh K.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether vaccination against measles in a population with sustained high vaccination coverage and relatively low child mortality reduces overall child mortality. METHODS: In April and May 2000, a population-based, case-control study was conducted at Ballabgarh (an area in rural northern India). Eligible cases were 330 children born between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 1998 who died aged 12-59 months. A programme was used to match 320 controls for age, sex, family size, and area of residence from a birth cohort of 15 578 born during the same time period. FINDINGS: The analysis used 318 matched pairs and suggested that children aged 12-59 months who did not receive measles vaccination in infancy were three times more likely to die than those vaccinated against measles. Children from lower caste households who were not vaccinated in infancy had the highest risk of mortality (odds ratio, 8.9). A 27% increase in child mortality was attributable to failure to vaccinate against measles in the study population. CONCLUSION: Measles vaccine seems to have a non-specific reducing effect on overall child mortality in this population. If true, children in lower castes may reap the greatest gains in survival. The findings should be interpreted with caution because the nutritional status of the children was not recorded and may be a residual confounder. "All-cause mortality" is a potentially useful epidemiological endpoint for future vaccine trials. PMID:12764490

  4. Adult asthma and risk of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and heart failure: a prospective study of 2 matched cohorts.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, Carlos; Tolstykh, Irina V; Miller, Mary K; Sobel, Erica; Eisner, Mark D

    2012-12-01

    Asthma has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The authors ascertained the association of asthma with CVD and the roles that sex, concurrent allergy, and asthma medications may play in this association. They assembled a cohort of 203,595 Northern California adults with asthma and a parallel asthma-free referent cohort (matched 1:1 on age, sex, and race/ethnicity); both cohorts were followed for incident nonfatal or fatal CVD and all-cause mortality from January 1, 1996, through December 31, 2008. Each cohort was 66% female and 47% white. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, cardiac risk factors, and comorbid allergy, asthma was associated with a 1.40-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35, 1.45) increased hazard of coronary heart disease, a 1.20-fold (95% CI: 1.15, 1.25) hazard of cerebrovascular disease, a 2.14-fold (95% CI: 2.06, 2.22) hazard of heart failure, and a 3.28-fold (95% CI: 3.15, 3.41) hazard of all-cause mortality. Stronger associations were noted among women. Comorbid allergy predicted CVD but did not synergistically increase the CVD risk associated with asthma. Only asthma patients using asthma medications (particularly those on oral corticosteroids alone or in combination) were at enhanced risk of CVD. In conclusion, asthma was prospectively associated with increased risk of major CVD. Modifying effects were noted for sex and asthma medication use but not for comorbid allergy.

  5. A case-control study of acute diarrheal disease among school-age children in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hirata, M; Kuropakornpong, V; Arun, S; Sapchatura, M; Kumnurak, S; Sukpipatpanont, B; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Funahara, Y; Sato, S

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study of school-age children in Phatthalung, a province in southern Thailand using a questionnaire to investigate associations of children's hygiene-related behavior and hygienic conditions in their homes with acute diarrheal disease. We compared 69 acute diarrhea (less than 7 days duration) cases that attended two hospitals in Phatthalung during August 1995 to June 1996 with 69 age-, sex- and address-matched controls in primary schools who had not suffered from diarrheal disease for the past one year before August 1995. Three factors were found to be significantly associated with acute diarrheal disease: farmer or gum planter as the occupation of father [Odds ratio (OR) 6.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-26.1, p < 0.01], installation of a refrigerator in children's homes (OR 0.2; CI 0.1-0.8, p < 0.05), and drinking untreated water (OR 2.3; CI 0.9-6.1, p < 0.1). There was no significant difference for sources of drinking water between cases and controls. Considering the data on drinking water, the results indicated that there are some problems with quality of sources of drinking water. The results also suggested that having a refrigerator could have preventive effects on acute diarrheal disease, while inadequate behavior and unhygienic environment in the homes of farmers and gum planters might be related to acute diarrheal among school-age children.

  6. Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Aljefree, Najlaa M.; Lee, Patricia; Alsaqqaf, Jamal M.; Ahmed, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD). Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL) was much more prevalent in CHD cases than in controls (46% and 3%, respectively). The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL) was associated with CHD, with an odds ratio of 6.5 (95% CI: 2.7–15, p < 0.001). The current study revealed that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with CHD, suggesting an important predictor of CHD among Saudi adults. PMID:27763496

  7. Association between Vitamin D Status and Coronary Heart Disease among Adults in Saudi Arabia: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Aljefree, Najlaa M; Lee, Patricia; Alsaqqaf, Jamal M; Ahmed, Faruk

    2016-10-17

    Recent evidence has pointed out an association between vitamin D deficiency and coronary heart disease (CHD). Due to the growing epidemic of CHD and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabia, exploring the role of vitamin D in the prevention of CHD is crucial. The aim of this study was to examine the association between vitamin D status and CHD in Saudi Arabian adults. This case-control study included 130 CHD cases and 195 age-sex matched controls. Study subjects were recruited from three hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Study participants were interviewed face-to-face to collect data on their socio-demographic characteristics and family history of CHD. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum levels of vitamin D, glucose, and total cholesterol were measured. Body weight, height, and blood pressure measurements were also recorded. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL) was much more prevalent in CHD cases than in controls (46% and 3%, respectively). The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL) was associated with CHD, with an odds ratio of 6.5 (95% CI: 2.7-15, p < 0.001). The current study revealed that vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with CHD, suggesting an important predictor of CHD among Saudi adults.

  8. 78 FR 73195 - Privacy Act of 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Privacy Act of 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching Program Match No. 1312 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of Computer...

  9. MUSCLE DAMAGE AFTER A TENNIS MATCH IN YOUNG PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, R.V.; Santos, R.C.O.; Nosaka, K.; Moreira, A.; Miyabara, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated changes in indirect markers of muscle damage following a simulated tennis match play using nationally ranked young (17.6 ± 1.4 years) male tennis players. Ten young athletes played a 3-hour simulated match play on outdoor red clay courts following the International Tennis Federation rules. Muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), serum myoglobin concentration (Mb), one repetition maximum (1RM) squat strength, and squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) heights were assessed before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 h after the simulated match play. All parameters were also evaluated in a non-exercised group (control group). A small increase in the indirect markers of muscle damage (muscle soreness, CK and Mb) was detected at 24-48 hours post-match (p < 0.05). A marked acute decrement in neuromuscular performance (1RM squat strength: -35.2 ± 10.4%, SJ: -7.0 ± 6.0%, CMJ: -10.0 ± 6.3%) was observed immediately post-match (p < 0.05). At 24 h post-match, the 1RM strength and jump heights were not significantly different from the baseline values. However, several players showed a decrease of these measures at 24 h after the match play. The simulated tennis match play induced mild muscle damage in young players. Coaches could monitor changes in the indirect markers of muscle damage to assess athletes’ recovery status during training and competition. PMID:24917686

  10. Global Efficiency of Structural Networks Mediates Cognitive Control in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Berlot, Rok; Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia; Ikram, M. Arfan; Jones, Derek K.; O’Sullivan, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive control has been linked to both the microstructure of individual tracts and the structure of whole-brain networks, but their relative contributions in health and disease remain unclear. Objective: To determine the contribution of both localized white matter tract damage and disruption of global network architecture to cognitive control, in older age and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with MCI and 20 age, sex, and intelligence-matched healthy volunteers were investigated with 3 Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cognitive control and episodic memory were evaluated with established tests. Structural network graphs were constructed from diffusion MRI-based whole-brain tractography. Their global measures were calculated using graph theory. Regression models utilized both global network metrics and microstructure of specific connections, known to be critical for each domain, to predict cognitive scores. Results: Global efficiency and the mean clustering coefficient of networks were reduced in MCI. Cognitive control was associated with global network topology. Episodic memory, in contrast, correlated with individual temporal tracts only. Relationships between cognitive control and network topology were attenuated by addition of single tract measures to regression models, consistent with a partial mediation effect. The mediation effect was stronger in MCI than healthy volunteers, explaining 23-36% of the effect of cingulum microstructure on cognitive control performance. Network clustering was a significant mediator in the relationship between tract microstructure and cognitive control in both groups. Conclusion: The status of critical connections and large-scale network topology are both important for maintenance of cognitive control in MCI. Mediation via large-scale networks is more important in patients with MCI than healthy volunteers. This effect is domain-specific, and true for

  11. Impact of Restless Legs Syndrome on Cardiovascular Autonomic Control

    PubMed Central

    Bertisch, Suzanne M.; Muresan, Cristen; Schoerning, Laura; Winkelman, John W.; Taylor, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate specific alterations in cardiovascular autonomic control. Methods: Patients with moderate-severe restless legs syndrome (n = 20, 80% female) and controls (n = 20) matched for age, sex, body mass index, and free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease were enrolled. We assessed cardiovagal baroreflex gain via the modified Oxford technique, sympathetically mediated vascular responses to isometric exercise to fatigue, bradycardiac response to Valsalva maneuver, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during paced breathing. Standard electrocardiography, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiration, and popliteal blood flow velocity were recorded continuously. Results: Resting blood pressure and heart rate were similar between groups. However, baroreflex gain averaged 14.3 ± 1.4 msec/mm Hg in restless legs syndrome and was lower than in controls (22.6 ± 3.5 msec/mm Hg, P = 0.04). Hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise were similar between groups, though participants with restless legs syndrome had lower leg blood flow (P < 0.001), with greater leg vascular resistance (P < 0.0001), before and during isometric exercise. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva ratios were similar between groups. Neither baroreflex gain nor vascular resistance was correlated with sleep duration, sleep quality, or symptom duration. Conclusion: Patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate compromised cardiovagal control, specific to the arterial baroreflex, with greater peripheral vascular resistance, potentially due to heightened sympathetic outflow. These autonomic alterations may directly relate to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in restless legs syndrome. Citation: Bertisch SM, Muresan C, Schoerning L, Winkelman JW, Taylor JA. Impact of restless legs syndrome on cardiovascular autonomic control. SLEEP 2016;39(3):565–571. PMID:26564128

  12. Utilizing the Zero-One Linear Programming Constraints to Draw Multiple Sets of Matched Samples from a Non-Treatment Population as Control Groups for the Quasi-Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan H.; Yang, Yu N.; Tompkins, Leroy J.; Modarresi, Shahpar

    2005-01-01

    The statistical technique, "Zero-One Linear Programming," that has successfully been used to create multiple tests with similar characteristics (e.g., item difficulties, test information and test specifications) in the area of educational measurement, was deemed to be a suitable method for creating multiple sets of matched samples to be…

  13. Photometric invariant stereo matching method.

    PubMed

    Gu, Feifei; Zhao, Hong; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Jinjun; Bu, Penghui; Zhao, Zixin

    2015-12-14

    A robust stereo matching method based on a comprehensive mathematical model for color formation process is proposed to estimate the disparity map of stereo images with noise and photometric variations. The band-pass filter with DoP kernel is firstly used to filter out noise component of the stereo images. Then the log-chromaticity normalization process is applied to eliminate the influence of lightning geometry. All the other factors that may influence the color formation process are removed through the disparity estimation process with a specific matching cost. Performance of the developed method is evaluated by comparing with some up-to-date algorithms. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the method.

  14. University Reactor Matching Grants Program

    SciTech Connect

    John Valentine; Farzad Rahnema; Said Abdel-Khalik

    2003-02-14

    During the 2002 Fiscal year, funds from the DOE matching grant program, along with matching funds from the industrial sponsors, have been used to support research in the area of thermal-hydraulics. Both experimental and numerical research projects have been performed. Experimental research focused on two areas: (1) Identification of the root cause mechanism for axial offset anomaly in pressurized water reactors under prototypical reactor conditions, and (2) Fluid dynamic aspects of thin liquid film protection schemes for inertial fusion reactor chambers. Numerical research focused on two areas: (1) Multi-fluid modeling of both two-phase and two-component flows for steam conditioning and mist cooling applications, and (2) Modeling of bounded Rayleigh-Taylor instability with interfacial mass transfer and fluid injection through a porous wall simulating the ''wetted wall'' protection scheme in inertial fusion reactor chambers. Details of activities in these areas are given.

  15. 32 CFR 806b.50 - Computer matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Computer matching. 806b.50 Section 806b.50... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.50 Computer matching. Computer matching programs... on forms used in applying for benefits. Coordinate computer matching statements on forms with...

  16. 32 CFR 806b.50 - Computer matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computer matching. 806b.50 Section 806b.50... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.50 Computer matching. Computer matching programs... on forms used in applying for benefits. Coordinate computer matching statements on forms with...

  17. 32 CFR 806b.50 - Computer matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Computer matching. 806b.50 Section 806b.50... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.50 Computer matching. Computer matching programs... on forms used in applying for benefits. Coordinate computer matching statements on forms with...

  18. 32 CFR 806b.50 - Computer matching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Computer matching. 806b.50 Section 806b.50... PROGRAM Disclosing Records to Third Parties § 806b.50 Computer matching. Computer matching programs... on forms used in applying for benefits. Coordinate computer matching statements on forms with...

  19. DITEC: Technology Matching Tool (TMT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    each sub-capability a numerical priority. (Figure 1) The User Requirement vectors tested were cybersecurity technology vectors, for this...Romero-Mariona, J. 2014. “DITEC (DoD-Centric and Independent Technology Evaluation Capability): A Process for Testing Security.” IEEE Seventh...TECHNICAL REPORT 3021 August 2016 DITEC Technology Matching Tool (TMT) Roger A. Hallman Braulio Coronado . Approved for public

  20. Segment-Based Stereo Matching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    N JIIU.J, IMlüliHM — o - SEGMENT-BASED STEREO MATCHING* By o Gerard G. Medioni and Ramakant Nevatia Intelligent Systems Group...industrial robotics. Stereo analysis provides a more direct quantitative depth evaluation than techniques such as shape from shad- ing, and its being...surveillance[Henderson79] and industrial robotics. Proposed solutions for the stereo problem follow a paradigm involving the following steps

  1. Matched witness for multipartite entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-yu; Jiang, Li-zhen; Xu, Zhu-an

    2017-04-01

    Entanglement criteria for multipartite entangled states are obtained by matching witnesses to multipartite entangled states. The necessary and sufficient criterion of separability for three qubit X states is given as an example to illustrate the procedure of finding a criterion. The result is utilized to obtain the noise tolerance of W state. The necessary and sufficient criteria of three partite separability and full separability for four qubit noisy cluster states, three partite separability for four qubit noisy GHZ states are obtained.

  2. Template Matching on Parallel Architectures,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    memory. The processors run asynchronously. Thus according to Hynn’s categories the Butterfl . is a MIMD machine. The processors of the Butterfly are...Generalized Butterfly Architecture This section describes timings for pattern matching on the generalized Butterfl .. Ihe implementations on the Butterfly...these algorithms. Thus the best implementation of the techniques on the generalized Butterfl % are the same as the implementation on the real Butterfly

  3. Frequency of attendance in general practice and symptoms before development of chronic fatigue syndrome: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, W T; Hall, G H; Round, A P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) research has concentrated on infective, immunological, and psychological causes. Illness behaviour has received less attention, with most research studying CFS patients after diagnosis. Our previous study on the records of an insurance company showed a highly significant increase in illness reporting before development of CFS. AIM: To investigate the number and type of general practitioner (GP) consultations by patients with CFS for 15 years before they develop their condition. DESIGN OF STUDY: Case-control study in 11 general practices in Devon. SETTING: Forty-nine patients with CFS (satisfying the Centers for Disease Control criteria), 49 age, sex, and general practice matched controls, and 37 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were identified from the general practices' computerised databases. METHOD: The number of general practice consultations and symptoms recorded in three five-year periods (quinquennia) were counted before development of the patients' condition. RESULTS: The median number of consultations was significantly higher for CFS patients than that of matched controls in each of the quinquennia: ratios for first quinquennium = 1.88, P = 0.01; second quinquennium = 1.70, P = 0.005; last quinquennium = 2.25, P < 0.001. More CFS patients than controls attended for 13 of the 18 symptoms studied. Significant increases were found for upper respiratory tract infection (P < 0.001), lethargy (P < 0.001), and vertigo (P = 0.02). Similar results were found for CFS patients when compared with MS. CONCLUSIONS: CFS patients consulted their GP more frequently in the 15 years before development of their condition, for a wide variety of complaints. Several possibilities may explain these findings. The results support the hypothesis that behavioural factors have a role in the aetiology of CFS. PMID:11462315

  4. A Step-by-Step Guide to Propensity Score Matching in R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.; Falbe, Kristina; Manuel, Austin Kureethara; Balloun, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Propensity score matching is a statistical technique in which a treatment case is matched with one or more control cases based on each case's propensity score. This matching can help strengthen causal arguments in quasi-experimental and observational studies by reducing selection bias. In this article we concentrate on how to conduct propensity…

  5. Improving Hypertension Control and Patient Engagement Using Digital Tools.

    PubMed

    Milani, Richard V; Lavie, Carl J; Bober, Robert M; Milani, Alexander R; Ventura, Hector O

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is present in 30% of the adult US population and is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. The established office-based approach yields only 50% blood pressure control rates and low levels of patient engagement. Available home technology now provides accurate, reliable data that can be transmitted directly to the electronic medical record. We evaluated blood pressure control in 156 patients with uncontrolled hypertension enrolled into a home-based digital-medicine blood pressure program and compared them with 400 patients (matched to age, sex, body mass index, and blood pressure) in a usual-care group after 90 days. Digital-medicine patients completed questionnaires online, were asked to submit at least one blood pressure reading/week, and received medication management and lifestyle recommendations via a clinical pharmacist and a health coach. Blood pressure units were commercially available that transmitted data directly to the electronic medical record. Digital-medicine patients averaged 4.2 blood pressure readings per week. At 90 days, 71% of digital-medicine vs 31% of usual-care patients had achieved target blood pressure control. Mean decrease in systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 14/5 mm Hg in digital medicine, vs 4/2 mm Hg in usual care (P < .001). Excess sodium consumption decreased from 32% to 8% in the digital-medicine group (P = .004). Mean patient activation increased from 41.9 to 44.1 (P = .008), and the percentage of patients with low patient activation decreased from 15% to 6% (P = .03) in the digital-medicine group. A digital hypertension program is feasible and associated with significant improvement in blood pressure control rates and lifestyle change. Utilization of a virtual health intervention using connected devices improves patient activation and is well accepted by patients.

  6. Using Full Matching to Estimate Causal Effects in Nonexperimental Studies: Examining the Relationship between Adolescent Marijuana Use and Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Green, Kerry M.

    2008-01-01

    Matching methods such as nearest neighbor propensity score matching are increasingly popular techniques for controlling confounding in nonexperimental studies. However, simple k:1 matching methods, which select k well-matched comparison individuals for each treated individual, are sometimes criticized for being overly restrictive and discarding…

  7. Dietary factors and the risk of glioma in adults: results of a case-control study in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Giles, G G; McNeil, J J; Donnan, G; Webley, C; Staples, M P; Ireland, P D; Hurley, S F; Salzberg, M

    1994-11-01

    In a population-based case-control study of 416 incident gliomas in adults carried out in Melbourne, Australia, between 1987 and 1991, 409 age-sex-matched case-control pairs (243 male and 166 female) had adequate data available to examine associations between the dietary intake of N-nitroso compounds, N-nitroso precursors, other nutrients including N-nitroso inhibitors, and the risk of glioma. Dietary intakes were based on the reported frequency of consumption of 59 food items. Increased odds ratio (OR) were observed in males who consumed high levels of bacon, corned meats, apples, melons and oil. OR less than unity were observed in men consuming cabbage and cola drinks, and in women who consumed wholegrain bread, pasta, corned meat, bananas, cauliflower, brocoli, cola drinks and nuts. Generally, N-nitroso associations were greater in men and micronutrient associations were greater in women. Elevated OR in men, but not women, were associated with the intake of N-nitroso dimethylamine (NDMA), retinol and vitamin E. The intake of nitrate (largely of vegetable origin) was protective in women but not in men. When analyzed using multiple logistic regression, the association with NDMA intake in males was not modified by dietary micronutrient intakes. In females, beta carotene alone, though not directly associated with risk, modified the effect of NDMA. On balance, this study added only limited support to the N-nitroso hypothesis of glial carcinogenesis.

  8. On the causal association between exposure to leather dust and nasal cancer: further evidence from a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Merler, E; Baldasseroni, A; Laria, R; Faravelli, P; Agostini, R; Pisa, R; Berrino, F

    1986-02-01

    A case-control study was performed on the incident cases of nasal cavity tumours which occurred between 1968 and 1982 among the residents of Vigevano (Lombardy region, northern Italy). This area is characterised by a high prevalence of shoemakers (especially in leather); the activity has predominated in Vigevano since the beginning of this century. Twenty one cases were identified (16 men and five women); 20 were histologically confirmed as nasal epithelial tumours; 17 had already died at the time of interview and the occupational history was obtained from the next of kin. Two controls per case were selected from the general population and matched by vital status, age, sex, and residence. The overall odds ratio for the subjects exposed to leather dust was 47.1 for men and 3.5 for women. The odds ratio was higher for adenocarcinoma and among the workers exposed to the worst working conditions. A significant trend for the level of exposure to leather dust was found. Nevertheless, even the jobs characterised by a relatively low exposure were found to have a significantly higher risk (OR = 7.5). Smoking habits and exposure to solvents are unlikely to confound the relation between exposure to leather and nasal tumours.

  9. Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Dauphiné, David C.; Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R.; Bates, Michael N.; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002–2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ≥85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55–3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59–4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks. PMID:23917816

  10. Spontaneous acromegaly: a retrospective case control study in German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Fracassi, F; Zagnoli, L; Rosenberg, D; Furlanello, T; Caldin, M

    2014-10-01

    Acromegaly results from the overproduction of growth hormone in adulthood and is characterised by overgrowth of soft tissue and/or bone as well as insulin resistance. There are few data indicating the risk factors associated with this disease in dogs or its clinicopathological features and sequelae. The objective of this retrospective study was to catalogue and assess these aspects of the disease in German shepherd dogs (GSDs) which were found to be over-represented among acromegalic dogs attending two veterinary referral clinics over a period of 7 years. Each acromegalic dog (AD) was compared with two breed/age/sex matched controls. Clinical signs of acromegaly included panting, polyuria/polydipsia, widened interdental spaces, weakness, inspiratory stridor, macroglossia, weight gain, redundant skin folds, thick coat, exophthalmos and mammary masses. Serum alkaline phosphatase, creatine-kinase, glucose, triglyceride, phosphate ion, and 'calcium per phosphate product' concentrations were significantly higher in acromegalic animals while haemoglobin concentration, blood urea nitrogen, sodium and chloride ion concentrations, and urinary specific gravity, osmolality and fractional excretion of phosphate were significantly lower. Although, in the majority of cases clinicopathological abnormalities resolved following ovariohysterectomy, in one dog, acromegalic signs abated and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations normalised only following the surgical excision of mammary tumours carried out 2 months after ovariohysterectomy. The findings of this study indicate that GSDs are predisposed to the development of acromegaly with a suspected inherited susceptibility.

  11. Case-control study of arsenic in drinking water and lung cancer in California and Nevada.

    PubMed

    Dauphiné, David C; Smith, Allan H; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R; Bates, Michael N; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-08-02

    Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002-2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ≥85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55-3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59-4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks.

  12. Phase Matching Using the Linear Electro-Optic Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zijian; Liu, Dean; Miao, Jie; Yang, Aihua; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2017-01-01

    Phase matching is a necessary condition for achieving high-efficiency optical-frequency conversion. To date, practical means of accomplishing phase matching in homogeneous crystals remain limited, despite considerable efforts. Herein, we report a new class of methods aimed at achieving quasiperfect phase matching, based on controllable birefringence produced via the linear electro-optic effect, termed "voltage-tuning phase matching." The wave vectors of the induced polarization and the generated fields can be matched and maintained along the direction of propagation by introducing an external electric field. We analyze the validity and feasibility of this method theoretically and demonstrate it experimentally by applying the linear electro-optic effect and fourth-harmonic generation simultaneously in a partially deuterated KH2PO4 crystal. Quasiperfect phase matching is achieved systematically over a temperature range of the initial phase-matching temperature ±2 ° C . Moreover, this method can overcome the limitation of the birefringence in traditional technologies and provides new functionalities for conventional nonlinear materials as well as low-birefringence and isotropic materials. This technology may significantly impact the study of optical-frequency conversion and has promise for a broad range of applications in nonlinear optics.

  13. Betting on Illusory Patterns: Probability Matching in Habitual Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Wilke, Andreas; Scheibehenne, Benjamin; McCanney, Paige; Barrett, H Clark

    2016-03-01

    Why do people gamble? A large body of research suggests that cognitive distortions play an important role in pathological gambling. Many of these distortions are specific cases of a more general misperception of randomness, specifically of an illusory perception of patterns in random sequences. In this article, we provide further evidence for the assumption that gamblers are particularly prone to perceiving illusory patterns. In particular, we compared habitual gamblers to a matched sample of community members with regard to how much they exhibit the choice anomaly 'probability matching'. Probability matching describes the tendency to match response proportions to outcome probabilities when predicting binary outcomes. It leads to a lower expected accuracy than the maximizing strategy of predicting the most likely event on each trial. Previous research has shown that an illusory perception of patterns in random sequences fuels probability matching. So does impulsivity, which is also reported to be higher in gamblers. We therefore hypothesized that gamblers will exhibit more probability matching than non-gamblers, which was confirmed in a controlled laboratory experiment. Additionally, gamblers scored much lower than community members on the cognitive reflection task, which indicates higher impulsivity. This difference could account for the difference in probability matching between the samples. These results suggest that gamblers are more willing to bet impulsively on perceived illusory patterns.

  14. Matching isotopic distributions from metabolically labeled samples

    PubMed Central

    McIlwain, Sean; Page, David; Huttlin, Edward L.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: In recent years stable isotopic labeling has become a standard approach for quantitative proteomic analyses. Among the many available isotopic labeling strategies, metabolic labeling is attractive for the excellent internal control it provides. However, analysis of data from metabolic labeling experiments can be complicated because the spacing between labeled and unlabeled forms of each peptide depends on its sequence, and is thus variable from analyte to analyte. As a result, one generally needs to know the sequence of a peptide to identify its matching isotopic distributions in an automated fashion. In some experimental situations it would be necessary or desirable to match pairs of labeled and unlabeled peaks from peptides of unknown sequence. This article addresses this largely overlooked problem in the analysis of quantitative mass spectrometry data by presenting an algorithm that not only identifies isotopic distributions within a mass spectrum, but also annotates matches between natural abundance light isotopic distributions and their metabolically labeled counterparts. This algorithm is designed in two stages: first we annotate the isotopic peaks using a modified version of the IDM algorithm described last year; then we use a probabilistic classifier that is supplemented by dynamic programming to find the metabolically labeled matched isotopic pairs. Such a method is needed for high-throughput quantitative proteomic metabolomic experiments measured via mass spectrometry. Results: The primary result of this article is that the dynamic programming approach performs well given perfect isotopic distribution annotations. Our algorithm achieves a true positive rate of 99% and a false positive rate of 1% using perfect isotopic distribution annotations. When the isotopic distributions are annotated given ‘expert’ selected peaks, the same algorithm gets a true positive rate of 77% and a false positive rate of 1%. Finally, when annotating using

  15. An Aerial-Image Dense Matching Approach Based on Optical Flow Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wei; Chen, Shiyu; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Jianya; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-06-01

    Dense matching plays an important role in many fields, such as DEM (digital evaluation model) producing, robot navigation and 3D environment reconstruction. Traditional approaches may meet the demand of accuracy. But the calculation time and out puts density is hardly be accepted. Focus on the matching efficiency and complex terrain surface matching feasibility an aerial image dense matching method based on optical flow field is proposed in this paper. First, some high accurate and uniformed control points are extracted by using the feature based matching method. Then the optical flow is calculated by using these control points, so as to determine the similar region between two images. Second, the optical flow field is interpolated by using the multi-level B-spline interpolation in the similar region and accomplished the pixel by pixel coarse matching. Final, the results related to the coarse matching refinement based on the combined constraint, which recognizes the same points between images. The experimental results have shown that our method can achieve per-pixel dense matching points, the matching accuracy achieves sub-pixel level, and fully meet the three-dimensional reconstruction and automatic generation of DSM-intensive matching's requirements. The comparison experiments demonstrated that our approach's matching efficiency is higher than semi-global matching (SGM) and Patch-based multi-view stereo matching (PMVS) which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  16. Hyperactivity of the default-mode network in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia at rest revealed by family-based case-control and traditional case-control designs.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Li, Lehua; Zhang, Zhikun; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal regional activity and functional connectivity of the default-mode network (DMN) have been reported in schizophrenia. However, previous studies may have been biased by unmatched case-control design. To limit such bias, the present study used both the family-based case-control design and the traditional case-control design to investigate abnormal regional activity of the DMN in patients with schizophrenia at rest.Twenty-eight first-episode, drug-naive patients with schizophrenia, 28 age-, sex-matched unaffected siblings of the patients (family-based controls, FBC), and 40 healthy controls (HC) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. The group-independent component analysis and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) methods were used to analyze the data.Patients with schizophrenia show increased fALFF in an overlapped region of the right superior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) relative to the FBC and the HC. Compared with the HC, the patients and the FBC exhibit increased fALFF in an overlapped region of the left posterior cingulate cor