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Sample records for age-specific incidence rate

  1. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Norovirus in the Community and Presenting to Primary Healthcare Facilities in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah J; Donaldson, Anna L; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Tam, Clarence C

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study and a study of primary-healthcare consultations, we had a rare opportunity to estimate age-specific rates of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in the United Kingdom. Rates in children aged <5 years were significantly higher than those for other age groups in the community (142.6 cases per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval {CI}, 99.8-203.9] vs 37.6 [95% CI, 31.5-44.7]) and those for individuals presenting to primary healthcare (14.4 cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 8.5-24.5] vs 1.4 [95% CI, .9-2.0]). Robust incidence estimates are crucial for vaccination policy makers. This study emphasises the impact of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease, especially in children aged <5 years. PMID:26744427

  2. Trimodal age-specific incidence patterns for Burkitt lymphoma in the United States, 1973-2005.

    PubMed

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Anderson, William F; Bhatia, Kishor; Rosenberg, Philip S; Linet, Martha S; Devesa, Susan S

    2010-04-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a unique B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with 3 established clinical-epidemiological variants: endemic, sporadic and AIDS-related BL. BL variants show characteristic dysregulation of MYC gene, but the causes of MYC dysregulation or BL arising at different ages are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined population-based BL incidence patterns in the United States to determine age-related risk. BL case and population data were obtained from the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Databases (1973-2005). Standard cross-sectional age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates were stratified by sex and race and supplemented with age-period-cohort models. We analyzed 3,058 BL cases diagnosed during 1,160,300,297 person-years of observation. Age-standardized incidence rates rose 6.8% per year (95% CI 4.5-9.1) for males and 7.1% (95% CI 3.2-11.1) for females during the study period. The rate among males was 3.2 times that among females, and among Whites 1.3 times that among Blacks. Male-to-female incidence rate ratios did not differ by race, but were 4.2 for pediatric (0-19 years), 4.1 for adult (20-59 years) and 2.0 for geriatric (> or = 60 years) BL. Cross-sectional age-specific rates showed 2 separate peaks among males and females, near ages 10 and 75 years, and a 3rd peak near age 40 years among males. The tri/bimodal incidence pattern was present in sensitivity analyses excluding registries with many HIV/AIDS cases and in period-specific, cohort-specific analyses. To our knowledge, tri/bimodal incidence patterns have not previously been reported for BL. Trimodal/bimodal BL suggests heterogeneity in etiology or biology of BL diagnosed at different ages in males and females. PMID:19810101

  3. Modeling age-specific cancer incidences using logistic growth equations: implications for data collection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xing-Rong; Feng, Rui; Chai, Jing; Cheng, Jing; Wang, De-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Large scale secular registry or surveillance systems have been accumulating vast data that allow mathematical modeling of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Most contemporary models in this regard use time series and APC (age-period-cohort) methods and focus primarily on predicting or analyzing cancer epidemiology with little attention being paid to implications for designing cancer registry, surveillance or evaluation initiatives. This research models age-specific cancer incidence rates using logistic growth equations and explores their performance under different scenarios of data completeness in the hope of deriving clues for reshaping relevant data collection. The study used China Cancer Registry Report 2012 as the data source. It employed 3-parameter logistic growth equations and modeled the age-specific incidence rates of all and the top 10 cancers presented in the registry report. The study performed 3 types of modeling, namely full age-span by fitting, multiple 5-year- segment fitting and single-segment fitting. Measurement of model performance adopted adjusted goodness of fit that combines sum of squred residuals and relative errors. Both model simulation and performance evalation utilized self-developed algorithms programed using C# languade and MS Visual Studio 2008. For models built upon full age-span data, predicted age-specific cancer incidence rates fitted very well with observed values for most (except cervical and breast) cancers with estimated goodness of fit (Rs) being over 0.96. When a given cancer is concerned, the R valuae of the logistic growth model derived using observed data from urban residents was greater than or at least equal to that of the same model built on data from rural people. For models based on multiple-5-year-segment data, the Rs remained fairly high (over 0.89) until 3-fourths of the data segments were excluded. For models using a fixed length single-segment of observed data, the older the age covered by the corresponding

  4. A theory of the cancer age-specific incidence data based on extreme value distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P.

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of cancers varies with age, if normalized this is called the age-specific incidence. A mathematical model that describes this variation should provide a better understanding of how cancers develop. We suggest that the age-specific incidence should follow an extreme value distribution, based on three widely accepted assumptions: (1) a tumor develops from a single cell, (2) many potential tumor progenitor cells exist in a tissue, and (3) cancer is diagnosed when the first of these many potential tumor cells develops into a tumor. We tested this by comparing the predicted distribution to the age-specific incidence data for colon and prostate carcinomas collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results network of 17 cancer registries. We found that colon carcinoma age-specific incidence data is consistent with an extreme value distribution, while prostate carcinomas age-specific incidence data generally follows the distribution. This model indicates that both colon and prostate carcinomas only occur in a subset of the population (22% for prostate and 13.5% for colon.) Because of their very general nature, extreme value distributions might be applicable to understanding other chronic human diseases.

  5. Age-specific incidence of neutralization antibodies of Herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Terzin, A. L.; Masic, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Sera of 1255 individuals from Novi Sad, varying in age from less than 1 month to 69 years, have been tested for neutralization antibodies to Herpes implex virus type 1. The eight newborns tested and 97% of the 507 adults were positive, with titres ranging from 1/4 to 1/256. The titres in newborns were significantly lower than the titres in adults. After birth the maternal antibodies declined rapidly and 94% of infants at the age of greater than 6 months and less than 2 years were negative. After the first year infants in Novi Sad start to acquire herpes-neutralizing antibodies actively, reaching a 50% incidence of positives between the 2nd and 3rd year of age. Age-specific incidence rates of herpes positives found in Novi Sad have been compared with those reported from Edinburgh, Freiburg i. Br. and Louisiana. Possible influences of several circumstances upon the incidence rate of positives detected by the neutralization test are discussed. PMID:185287

  6. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  7. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  8. Problems in estimating age-specific survival rates from recovery data of birds ringed as young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    (1) The life table model is frequently employed in the analysis of ringer samples of young in bird populations. The basic model is biologically unrealistic and of little use in making inferences concerning age-specific survival probabilities. (2) This model rests on a number of restrictive assumptions, the failure of which causes serious biases. Several important assumptions are not met with real data and the estimators of age-specific survival are not robust enough to these failures. (3) Five major problems in the use of the life table method are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate several of the problems involved in using this method in making inferences about survival rates and its age-specific nature. (4) We conclude that this is an invalid procedure and it should not be used. Furthermore, ringing studies involving only young birds are pointless as regards survival estimation because no valid method exists for estimating age-specific or time-specific survival rates from such data. (5) In our view, inferences about age-specific survival rates are possible only if both young and adult (or young, subadult and adult) age classes are ringed each year for k years (k ≥ 2).

  9. Incidence estimation using a single cross-sectional age-specific prevalence survey with differential mortality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth L; Sweeting, Michael J; Lindfield, Robert J; Deangelis, Daniela

    2014-02-10

    Here, we present a method for incidence estimation of a curable, non-recurring disease when data from a single cross-sectional survey are used together with population-level mortality rates and an assumption of differential mortality of diseased versus non-diseased individuals. The motivating example is cataract, and the VISION2020 goal to eliminate avoidable blindness globally by 2020. Reliable estimates of current and future cataract disease burden are required to predict how many surgeries would need to be performed to meet the VISION2020 goals. However, incidence estimates, needed to derive future burden, are not as easily available, due to the cost of conducting cohort studies. Disease is defined at the person-level in accordance with the WHO person-level definition of blindness. An extension of the standard time homogeneous illness-death model to a four-state model is described, which allows the disease to be cured, whereby surgery is performed on at least one diseased eye. Incidence is estimated, and the four-state model is used to predict disease burden assuming different surgical strategies whilst accounting for the competing risk of death. The method is applied to data from approximately 10,000 people from a survey of visual impairment in Nigeria. PMID:24009063

  10. Age-specificity of black-capped chickadee survival rates: Analysis of capture-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loery, G.; Pollock, K.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The ornithological literature indicates a widespread belief in two generalizations about the age-specificity of avian survival rates: (1) survival rates of young birds for some period following fledging are lower than those of adults, and (2) after reaching adulthood survival rates are constant for birds of all ages. There is a growing body of evidence in support of the first generalization, although little is known about how long the survival difference between young and adults lasts. This latter question can be addressed with capture-recapture or band recovery studies based on birds marked in the winter, but the inability to determine age in many species during winter has prevented the use of standard methods. There is very little evidence supporting the second generalization, and we are in need of methods and actual analyses that address this question. In the present paper we restate the two generalizations as hypotheses and test them using data from a wintering Black-capped Chickadee (Parus atricapillus) population in Connecticut, which has been studied by Loery for 26 yr. We use a cohort-based Jolly-Seber approach, which should be useful in other investigations of this nature. We found strong evidence of lower survival rates in 1st-yr birds than in adults, but could not determine whether this was the result of higher mortality rates, higher emigration rates, or a combination of the two. We also found evidence that survival rates of adult birds were not constant with age but decreased at a rate of ? 3.5%/yr. As adult birds are very faithful to their wintering areas, we believe that almost all this decrease can be attributed to an increase in mortality with age. Simulation results suggest that heterogeneity of capture probabilities could not explain the magnitude of the decrease in survival with age. Age-dependent tag loss is also discussed as an alternative explanation, but is dismissed as very unlikely in this situation. This analysis thus provides some of the

  11. Idiot savants: rate of incidence.

    PubMed

    Hill, A L

    1977-02-01

    Based on the replies to a survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded, an incidence rate for idiot savants was established. This rate of .06% is based on the reporting of 54 idiot savants within a population of 90,000 residents. Several reasons for caution in the acceptance of this incidence rate are discussed. PMID:840586

  12. Conners' Teacher Rating Scale for Preschool Children: A Revised, Brief, Age-Specific Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised (CTRS-R) is one of the most commonly used measures of child behavior problems. However, the scale length and the appropriateness of some of the items on the scale may reduce the usefulness of the CTRS-R for use with preschoolers. In this study, a Graded Response Model analysis based on Item Response Theory…

  13. Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)

  14. Age effects in monetary valuation of reduced mortality risks: the relevance of age-specific hazard rates.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    This paper highlights the relevance of age-specific hazard rates in explaining the age variation in "value of statistical life" (VSL) figures. The analysis-which refers to a stated preference framework-contributes to the ongoing discussion of whether benefits resulting from reduced mortality risk should be valued differently depending on the age of the beneficiaries. By focussing on a life-threatening environmental phenomenon I show that the consideration of the individual's age-specific hazard rate is important. If a particular risk affects all individuals regardless of their age so that their hazard rate is age-independent, VSL is rather constant for people at different age; if hazard rate varies with age, VSL estimates are sensitive to age. The results provide an explanation for the mixed outcomes in empirical studies and illustrate in which cases an adjustment to age may or may not be justified. Efficient provision of live-saving measures requires that such differences to be taken into account. PMID:20376521

  15. Cellular consequences in the brain and liver of age-specific selection for rate of development in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Atchley, W R; Wei, R; Crenshaw, P

    2000-01-01

    Changes in cell number (hyperplasia) and cell size (hypertrophy) in the brain and liver are described for mice subjected to 24 generations of age-specific restricted index selection for rate of development in body weight. One selection treatment (E) altered rate of development between birth and 10 days of age, another treatment (L) involved changes in rate of development between 28 and 56 days of age, while a third control treatment (C) involved random selection. Each selection treatment was replicated three times. These age-specific selection treatments focused on intervals during ontogeny when different developmental processes (hypertrophy or hyperplasia) were more predominant in the control of growth. Significant changes in brain and liver weight occurred at both 28 and 70 days of age. Early selection (E) generated significant changes in the number of cells in the brain while later selection (L) had no effect since the brain had stopped growth before selection was initiated. For the liver, early and late selection produced significant effects on both cell number and cell size. These results describe the dynamic and multidimensional aspects of selection in terms of its ability to alter different cellular and developmental components of complex morphological traits. PMID:10880493

  16. Age-specific vibrissae growth rates: a tool for determining the timing of ecologically important events in Steller sea lions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, L.D.; Christ, A.M.; Hayden, A.B.; Stegall, V.K.; Farley, S.D.; Stricker, Craig A.; Mellish, J.E.; Maniscalco, J.M.; Waite, J.N.; Burkanov, V.N.; Pitcher, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) grow their vibrissae continually, providing a multiyear record suitable for ecological and physiological studies based on stable isotopes. An accurate age-specific vibrissae growth rate is essential for registering a chronology along the length of the record, and for interpreting the timing of ecologically important events. We utilized four methods to estimate the growth rate of vibrissae in fetal, rookery pup, young-of-the-year (YOY), yearling, subadult, and adult SSL. The majority of vibrissae were collected from SSL live-captured in Alaska and Russia between 2000 and 2013 (n = 1,115), however, vibrissae were also collected from six adult SSL found dead on haul-outs and rookeries during field excursions to increase the sample size of this underrepresented age group. Growth rates of vibrissae were generally slower in adult (0.44 ± 0.15 cm/mo) and subadult (0.61 ± 0.10 cm/mo) SSL than in YOY (0.87 ± 0.28 cm/mo) and fetal (0.73 ± 0.05 cm/mo) animals, but there was high individual variability in these growth rates within each age group. Some variability in vibrissae growth rates was attributed to the somatic growth rate of YOY sea lions between capture events (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.206, n = 29).

  17. A study of the effects of cause specific death rates on age-specific death rates with special reference to Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, K

    1983-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of cause specific death rates on age specific death rates for Tamil Nadu rural females during the period 1970-75 in various age groups. 2 regression lines have been fitted. The age specific death rates were taken as dependent variables and time as an independent variable; the age-cause specific death rates were dependent variables and time was an independent variable. In the analysis, the ratio of regression coefficients of 2 regression lines gives the effect of age specific death rates due to the j-th cause in the i-th group. The trend of mortality in the age groups (0-4) and (5-14) declines over the period 1970-75 and increases in the age groups (15-34), (34-54) and 55 and older. The causes of declining mortality in the 0-4 age group are cough, fever, other clear symptoms and other causes. The %s of contribution for this decline are respectively 14%, 41%, 21% and 72% to the overall decline in that age group. The cause group violence and injury, digestive disorders and causes peculiar to infancy have contributed to increase in the 0-4 age group death rates. Digestive disorders, coughs and other causes have contributed to declining mortality in the 5-14 age group. The cause group accidents and injury, digestive disorders, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy and other causes are promoted to increase the mortality of the 15-34 age group. The causes contributing to the increasing trend of mortality in the 35-54 age group are violence and injury, digestive disorders, coughs, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy. Digestive disorders and other causes contributed to the mortality increase in the over 55 age group. PMID:12266915

  18. Age Specific Survival Rates of Steller Sea Lions at Rookeries with Divergent Population Trends in the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Altukhov, Alexey V.; Andrews, Russel D.; Calkins, Donald G.; Gelatt, Thomas S.; Gurarie, Eliezer D.; Loughlin, Thomas R.; Mamaev, Evgeny G.; Nikulin, Victor S.; Permyakov, Peter A.; Ryazanov, Sergey D.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas. PMID:26016772

  19. Maternal age specific risk rate estimates for Down syndrome among live births in whites and other races from Ohio and metropolitan Atlanta, 1970-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Huether, C A; Ivanovich, J; Goodwin, B S; Krivchenia, E L; Hertzberg, V S; Edmonds, L D; May, D S; Priest, J H

    1998-01-01

    Our primary objective was to estimate, by one year and five year intervals, maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among whites and among other races from two different populations, metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio, using live birth and prenatally diagnosed cases ascertained during 1970-1989. The five year estimates were also calculated separately for each of the five four year periods during these 20 years. Additionally, we compared two different methods of estimating these risk rates by using a third population of whites, and compared two different statistical methods of smoothing the risk rates. The results indicate good agreement between the metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio estimates within races, but show a statistically significant difference between the two race categories. Because 86% of live births in the "other races" category in the combined population are to blacks, these data may be seen as the first estimates of maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among blacks calculated by one year intervals. We found excellent agreement in the risk rate estimates among the five four year time periods, between the estimates obtained by using the two different methods of estimation, and between the estimates obtained using the two different methods of statistical smoothing. Our estimated risk rates for white women in their 20s strongly reinforce those from previous studies currently being used for genetic counselling purposes. While we did find somewhat higher rates for women under 20, and increasingly higher rates for those over 30 years of age, these differences are not substantial. Thus, this study in general supports the risk rates estimated from data collected mostly during the 1960s and 1970s. PMID:9643290

  20. Age-specific suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions of the former USSR during perestroika, in comparison with 22 European countries.

    PubMed

    Värnik, A; Wasserman, D; Dankowicz, M; Eklund, G

    1998-01-01

    Age-specific differences in suicide rates in the Baltic and Slavic regions of the former USSR were studied for the period 1984-1990, and were compared to those of 22 European countries. It was observed that suicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants in the Slavic and Baltic regions increased directly with age for women, and showed a bimodal distribution with peaks for the 45-54 and > or = 75 age groups for men. In most of the 22 European countries, the suicide rates of both men and women increased directly with age. In 1990 the suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions ranged from 25.1 for the 15-24 age group to 86.9 for men aged 75 or older, and from 6.0 to 29.8 for women, while the suicide rates in Europe ranged from 13.0 to 64.8 for men and from 3.6 to 18.7 for women. Decreases in the suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions during perestroika were largest for the 25-54 age group, averaging at drop of 45% for men and 33% for women between 1984 and 1986-1988. The pattern of age-specific suicide rates for women in the Slavic and Baltic regions remained similar to that in Europe throughout the period studied. This was in contrast to a distinct pattern of male suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions in 1984, which converged with those found in other parts of Europe during 1986-1988. It appears that perestroika contributed to a unique pattern of male suicide mortality in the Slavic and Baltic regions, especially in the 25-54 age group. PMID:9825014

  1. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa. PMID:22111004

  2. Sex- and age- specific relations between economic development, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, Alexander; Engström, Karin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. METHODS: Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries. Predictor variables were per capita gross domestic product (GDP), GINI coefficient, percentage change in per capita gross national product (GNP) and female economic activity as a percentage of male economic activity. Relations were analysed by ordinary least squares regression. FINDINGS: All predictors explained significant variances in homicide rates in those aged 15-24. Associations were stronger for males than females and weak for children aged 0-9. Models that included female economic inequality and percentage change in GNP increased the effect in children aged 0-9 and the explained variance in females aged 20-24. For children aged 0-4, country clustering by income increased the explained variance for both sexes. For males aged 15-24, the association with economic inequality was strong in countries with low incomes and weak in those with high incomes. CONCLUSION: Relations between economic factors and child and youth homicide rates varied with age and sex. Interventions to target economic factors would have the strongest impact on rates of homicide in young adults and late adolescent males. In societies with high economic inequality, redistributing wealth without increasing per capita GDP would reduce homicide rates less than redistributions linked with overall economic development. PMID:12471400

  3. Age-specific migration and regional diversity.

    PubMed

    Morrill, R

    1994-11-01

    "This author examines patterns of age-specific migration between 1980 and 1990 for a small, growing region, the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A., with the purpose of assessing the degree of geographic diversity in experience. A simple typology of the expected spatial and structural pattern of age-specific migration is proposed. Cluster analysis is used to group counties on the basis of age-specific rates of net migration. Even this fairly small region is found to exemplify most of the patterns that might be expected to occur in the nation as a whole." PMID:12288335

  4. Shoulder Injury Incidence Rates in NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Foy, Millennia; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the astronaut shoulder injury rates began with an operational concern at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training. An astronaut suffered a shoulder injury during an NBL training run and commented that it was possibly due to a hardware issue. During the subsequent investigation, questions arose regarding the rate of shoulder injuries in recent years and over the entire history of the astronaut corps.

  5. Marital status integration, suicide disapproval, and societal integration as explanations of marital status differences in female age-specific suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert

    2007-12-01

    Sociological analyses of suicide have often neglected female suicide rates. Three competing explanations are tested to determine why the suicide rates of married women are, typically, lower than the suicide rates of women who are not married: (1) marital status integration, (2) societal integration, and (3) a nation's normative order about disapproval of suicide. Data refer to age and marital status-specific female suicide rates from 12 developed countries. The results provide the strongest support for the marital status integration theory and consistent support for the social integration perspective. There is also mixed support for the cultural disapproval of suicide hypothesis. PMID:18275377

  6. Significantly Increased Medical Expenditure on Breast Cancer Failing to Bring Down Its Mortality and Incidence Rate

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming-Lin; Liaw, Yung-Po; Lai, Chien-Hsu; Chen, Yen-Yu; Tsai, Horng-Der; Chou, Ming-Chih; Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The direct impact of medical expenses on breast cancer incidence and mortality rate has not been sufficiently addressed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential correlation between the incidence and mortality rate of breast cancer and the medical expenses in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: Breast cancer cases were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) with corresponding to International Classification of Diseases, and the Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code 174, 1740-1749, 175, 1750 and 1759 from January 1999 to December 2006. Age-specific incidences were estimated by population data obtained from the Department of Statistics, Ministry of the Interior. Medical expenses, including outpatient and inpatient services, were also retrieved from the NHIRD. Results: The incidence increased from 20.06 per 100,000 in 1999 to 30.34 per 100,000 in 2006; the total expenses increased from 1,449,333,521 in 1999 to 4,350,400,592 Taiwan dollars in 2006. The age-standardized mortality rate for female breast cancer remained essentially unchanged, while the age-standardized incidence increased steadily (except 2002-2003). Among the top 20 coexisting ICD-9 codes for expenses, four are directly on cancers, while 16 are on other diseases or symptoms, which are not necessarily caused by breast cancer. Conclusions: Significantly increased medical expenditure on breast cancer failed to bring down its mortality and incidence rate. The finding has implications for healthcare policy planners in proposing strategies for breast cancer control and allocating the resources. PMID:23983817

  7. Analysis of medication incidents and development of a Medication Incident Rate Clinical Indicator.

    PubMed

    Headford, C; McGowan, S; Clifford, R

    2001-07-01

    Most health service organisations depend solely upon spontaneous voluntary reporting of medication incidents and a wide variety of available denominators are used in order to calculate the Medication Incident Rate (MIR). This paper describes how nursing staff and clinical pharmacists reviewed medication incident data, revised and established new systems of reporting and developed a clinically useful, rate-based MIR Clinical Indicator. In order to make the MIR more meaningful, the frequency of occurrence of incidents was considered within the context of the total number of medications given to patients. This was achieved by undertaking a point prevalence audit of all inpatient medication charts (n=372) to determine the total number of doses of medication given to patients during a 24 hour period (n=3211). This value was then used as the denominator for the MIR indicator. During 1998, a total of 475 medication incidents were reported; the average number of incidents was 1.3 per 24 hours. The MIR per 1000 doses was calculated to be 0.4. In most cases (77%) the incident caused no harm to the patient and no change in treatment was required, and the most 'severe' category for any incident was that active treatment was required (3% of reported incidents). The most common type of incident was the omission of a dose of medication (50%). A wide range of drugs were involved in the incidents, most commonly morphine (3.4%). The authors consider that the development and use of the MIR Clinical Indicator has positively influenced clinical practice in some areas at the authors' hospital. PMID:15484647

  8. First principles modeling of nonlinear incidence rates in seasonal epidemics.

    PubMed

    Ponciano, José M; Capistrán, Marcos A

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we used a general stochastic processes framework to derive from first principles the incidence rate function that characterizes epidemic models. We investigate a particular case, the Liu-Hethcote-van den Driessche's (LHD) incidence rate function, which results from modeling the number of successful transmission encounters as a pure birth process. This derivation also takes into account heterogeneity in the population with regard to the per individual transmission probability. We adjusted a deterministic SIRS model with both the classical and the LHD incidence rate functions to time series of the number of children infected with syncytial respiratory virus in Banjul, Gambia and Turku, Finland. We also adjusted a deterministic SEIR model with both incidence rate functions to the famous measles data sets from the UK cities of London and Birmingham. Two lines of evidence supported our conclusion that the model with the LHD incidence rate may very well be a better description of the seasonal epidemic processes studied here. First, our model was repeatedly selected as best according to two different information criteria and two different likelihood formulations. The second line of evidence is qualitative in nature: contrary to what the SIRS model with classical incidence rate predicts, the solution of the deterministic SIRS model with LHD incidence rate will reach either the disease free equilibrium or the endemic equilibrium depending on the initial conditions. These findings along with computer intensive simulations of the models' Poincaré map with environmental stochasticity contributed to attain a clear separation of the roles of the environmental forcing and the mechanics of the disease transmission in shaping seasonal epidemics dynamics. PMID:21379320

  9. A Comparison of the Incidence Rate in MTSS Tiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rackaway, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Tier System of Supports (MTSS) is an evolutionary educational method recently introduced to schools in Kansas. As part of an ongoing investigation into the deployment and effectiveness of the MTSS system, this pilot study established initial participation rates in the program. This project sought to define the incidence rate among males…

  10. Why have ovarian cancer mortality rates declined? Part I. Incidence.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Iqbal, Javaid; Rosen, Barry; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    The age-adjusted mortality rate from ovarian cancer in the United States has declined over the past several decades. The decline in mortality might be the consequence of a reduced number of cases (incidence) or a reduction in the proportion of patients who die from their cancer (case-fatality). In part I of this three-part series, we examine rates of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry database and we explore to what extent the observed decline in mortality can be explained by a downward shift in the stage distribution of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to early detection) or by fewer cases of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to a change in risk factors). The proportion of localized ovarian cancers did not increase, suggesting that a stage-shift did not contribute to the decline in mortality. The observed decline in mortality paralleled a decline in incidence. The trends in ovarian cancer incidence coincided with temporal changes in the exposure of women from different birth cohorts to various reproductive risk factors, in particular, to changes in the use of the oral contraceptive pill and to declining parity. Based on recent changes in risk factor propensity, we predict that the trend of the declining age-adjusted incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the United States will reverse and rates will increase in coming years. PMID:26080287

  11. Age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the frequency with which Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) of known age were observed breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. No one- or two-year old geese were observed on nests. Three-year old geese bred at a lower rate than four-year old geese. These data suggest that patterns of age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese are similar to other sympatrically nesting, large bodied geese [Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons)] but delayed relative to smaller bodied geese [Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Pacific Black Brant (B. bernicla nigricans)].

  12. HIGH CONSTANT INCIDENCE RATES OF SECOND PRIMARY CANCERS OF THE HEAD AND NECK: A POOLED ANALYSIS OF 13 CANCER REGISTRIES

    PubMed Central

    Bosetti, Cristina; Scelo, Ghislaine; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Tonita, Jon M.; Tamaro, Sharon; Jonasson, Jon G.; Kliewer, Erich V.; Hemminki, Kari; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pukkala, Eero; Tracey, Elizabeth; Olsen, Jorgen H.; Pompe-Kirn, Vera; Brewster, David H.; Martos, Carmen; Chia, Kee-Seng; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Scanty data are available on the incidence (i.e., the absolute risk) of second cancers of the head and neck (HN) and its pattern with age. We investigated this issue using data from a multicentric study of 13 population-based cancer registries from Europe, Canada, Australia and Singapore for the years 1943-2000. A total of 99,257 patients had a first primary HN cancer (15,985 tongue, 22,378 mouth, 20,758 pharyngeal, and 40,190 laryngeal cancer), contributing to 489,855 person-years of follow-up. 1294 of the patients (1.3%) were diagnosed with second HN cancers (342 tongue, 345 mouth, 418 pharynx, and 189 larynx). Male incidence rates of first HN cancer steeply increased from 0.68/100,000 at age 30-34 to 46.2/100,000 at age 70-74, and leveled off at higher age; female incidence increased from 0.50/100,000 at age 30-34 to 16.5/100,000 at age 80-84. However, age-specific incidence of second HN cancers after a first HN cancer in men was around 200-300/100,000 between age 40-44 and age 70-74, and tended to decline at subsequent ages (150/100,000 at age 80-84); in women, incidence of second HN cancers was around 200-300/100,000 between age 45-49 and 80-84. The patterns of age-specific incidence were consistent for different subsites of second HN cancer and sexes; moreover, they were similar for age-specific incidence of first primary HN cancer in patients who subsequently developed a second HN cancer. The incidence of second HN cancers does not increase with age, but remains constant, or if anything, decreases with advancing age. Impact statement While the incidence of first primary cancers of the head and neck increases with advancing age that of second primary cancers is stable between age 40 and 70 and, if anything, declines thereafter. PMID:20824702

  13. Asymptotically robust variance estimation for person-time incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Scosyrev, Emil

    2016-05-01

    Person-time incidence rates are frequently used in medical research. However, standard estimation theory for this measure of event occurrence is based on the assumption of independent and identically distributed (iid) exponential event times, which implies that the hazard function remains constant over time. Under this assumption and assuming independent censoring, observed person-time incidence rate is the maximum-likelihood estimator of the constant hazard, and asymptotic variance of the log rate can be estimated consistently by the inverse of the number of events. However, in many practical applications, the assumption of constant hazard is not very plausible. In the present paper, an average rate parameter is defined as the ratio of expected event count to the expected total time at risk. This rate parameter is equal to the hazard function under constant hazard. For inference about the average rate parameter, an asymptotically robust variance estimator of the log rate is proposed. Given some very general conditions, the robust variance estimator is consistent under arbitrary iid event times, and is also consistent or asymptotically conservative when event times are independent but nonidentically distributed. In contrast, the standard maximum-likelihood estimator may become anticonservative under nonconstant hazard, producing confidence intervals with less-than-nominal asymptotic coverage. These results are derived analytically and illustrated with simulations. The two estimators are also compared in five datasets from oncology studies. PMID:26439107

  14. Injury Types and Incidence Rates in Precollegiate Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Saluan, Paul; Styron, Joseph; Ackley, J. Freeland; Prinzbach, Arianna; Billow, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Background: With childhood sports opportunities continuing to increase at an enormous rate along with participation starting at younger ages, the number of female participants in sports has increased in paramount fashion over the past few decades. A review of the current literature reveals a very small number of studies (<30) that document specific injuries suffered by competitive female gymnasts. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the incidence of various injuries and injury rates for different gymnast levels among young precollegiate female gymnasts over a 21-year period, from 1985 to 2005. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This institutional review board–approved study retrospectively evaluated young, precollegiate female gymnasts over a 21-year period. Gymnasts were stratified into 1 of 4 competition levels based on the number of hours spent training. In addition to the frequency of injuries and hours trained, data collected on each gymnast included the following: age at the time of injury, body part injured, laterality of the injury, and diagnosis. Results: Over the 21-year period, 3681 new injuries were evaluated by a single physician. The injury incidence (2.155 per 1000 exposure hours) was slightly lower when compared with previously reported injury rates. There were 1,452,574 total exposure hours documented from training facility records. The injury rate per 1000 exposure hours was 2.859 for elite, 2.820 for high-level, 1.667 for intermediate, and 0.687 for novice gymnasts. The lower extremity was injured more often than the upper extremity (60.9% compared with 22.6% of total injuries). This difference was statistically significant across all levels. Conclusion: The injury incidence in this study was 2.155 per 1000 exposure hours. This was slightly lower when compared with previously reported injury rates. Although those studies only lasted 3 years or less, the injury rates can be directly compared because they are reported as

  15. HIV Incidence Rates and Risk Factors for Urban Women in Zambia: Preparing for a Microbicide Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kapina, Muzala; Reid, Cheri; Roman, Karisse; Cyrus-Cameron, Elena; Kwiecien, Antonia; Weiss, Stephen; Vermund, Sten H.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives A preparedness study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of sites and populations following the same study procedures intended for a larger scale microbicide efficacy trial. In the process the study evaluated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence, prevalence, and risk profiles for HIV-acquisition among young women in urban Zambia. Methods Women aged 16 to 49 years were screened for participation in the study that involved HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing and the assessment of sexual behavioral characteristics. Two hundred thirty-nine eligible women were enrolled and followed up for 12 months. Results Baseline HIV prevalence at screening was 38.7% (95% CI: 34.2%–43.3%). The highest age-specific prevalence of HIV was 54.1% (95% CI: 46.3%–61.8%) seen in women aged 26 to 34 years. HIV incidence was 2.6% per 100 woman years. Pregnancy rates were high at 17.4 per 100 woman years (95% CI: 12.2–24.1). Conclusion It was concluded that our general population sample, characterized by high HIV prevalence and ongoing incidence rates despite receiving regular risk reduction counseling and free condoms qualifies for future microbicide studies. A microbicide preparedness study conducted in Lusaka, Zambia found high HIV prevalence and appreciable HIV incidence in a population of women in an urban setting. PMID:19174729

  16. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  17. The Growing Burden of Invasive Melanoma: Projections of Incidence Rates and Numbers of New Cases in Six Susceptible Populations through 2031.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, David C; Green, Adele C; Olsen, Catherine M

    2016-06-01

    New melanoma therapies are being developed rapidly, complementing prevention and detection strategies for disease control. Estimating the future burden of melanoma is necessary for deciding how best to deploy limited resources to achieve effective melanoma control. Using three decades of cancer registry data (1982-2011) from six populations with moderate to high melanoma incidence (US whites and the populations of the United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Australia, New Zealand), we applied age-period-cohort models to describe current trends and project future incidence rates and numbers of melanomas out to 2031. Between 1982 and 2011, melanoma rates in US whites, and the populations of the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Norway increased at more than 3% annually and are projected to continue rising until at least 2022. Melanoma incidence in Australia has been declining since 2005 (-0.7% per year), and melanoma incidence in New Zealand is increasing but is projected to decline soon. The numbers of new melanoma cases will rise in all six populations because of aging populations and high age-specific rates in the elderly. In US whites, annual new cases will rise from around 70,000 in 2007-2011 to 116,000 in 2026-2031, with 79% of the increase attributable to rising age-specific rates and 21% to population growth and aging. The continued increases in case numbers in all six populations through 2031 will increase the challenges of melanoma control. PMID:26902923

  18. Age, Race and Regional Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in Georgia between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701

  19. A comparison of surveillance methods for small incidence rates

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Woodall, William H.; Reynolds, Marion R.

    2008-05-15

    A number of methods have been proposed to detect an increasing shift in the incidence rate of a rare health event, such as a congenital malformation. Among these are the Sets method, two modifcations of the Sets method, and the CUSUM method based on the Poisson distribution. We consider the situation where data are observed as a sequence of Bernoulli trials and propose the Bernoulli CUSUM chart as a desirable method for the surveillance of rare health events. We compare the performance of the Sets method and its modifcations to the Bernoulli CUSUM chart under a wide variety of circumstances. Chart design parameters were chosen to satisfy a minimax criteria.We used the steady- state average run length to measure chart performance instead of the average run length which was used in nearly all previous comparisons involving the Sets method or its modifcations. Except in a very few instances, we found that the Bernoulli CUSUM chart has better steady-state average run length performance than the Sets method and its modifcations for the extensive number of cases considered.

  20. Global Dynamics of a Parasite-Host Model with Nonlinear Incidence Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yilei

    The paper is concerned with the effect of a nonlinear incidence rate Sp Iq on dynamical behaviors of a parasite-host model. It is shown that the global attractor of the parasite-host model is an equilibrium if q = 1, which is similar to that of the parasite-host model with a nonlinear incidence rate of the fractional function (SI)/(S+I). However, when q is greater than one, more positive equilibria appear and limit cycles arise from Hopf bifurcations at the positive equilibria for the model with the incidence rate Sp Iq. It reveals that the nonlinear incidence rate of the exponential function Sp Iq for generic p and q can lead to more complicated and richer dynamics than the bilinear incidence rate or the fractional incidence rate for this model.

  1. Tuberculosis reinfection rate as a proportion of total infection rate correlates with the logarithm of the incidence rate: a mathematical model

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Pieter W; van Helden, Paul D; Hargrove, John W

    2008-01-01

    In a significant number of instances, an episode of tuberculosis can be attributed to a reinfection event. Because reinfection is more likely in high incidence regions than in regions of low incidence, more tuberculosis (TB) cases due to reinfection could be expected in high-incidence regions than in low-incidence regions. Empirical data from regions with various incidence rates appear to confirm the conjecture that, in fact, the incidence rate due to reinfection only, as a proportion of all cases, correlates with the logarithm of the incidence rate, rather than with the incidence rate itself. A theoretical model that supports this conjecture is presented. A Markov model was used to obtain a relationship between incidence and reinfection rates. It was assumed in this model that the rate of reinfection is a multiple, ρ (the reinfection factor), of the rate of first-time infection, λ. The results obtained show a relationship between the proportion of cases due to reinfection and the rate of incidence that is approximately logarithmic for a range of values of the incidence rate typical of those observed in communities across the globe. A value of ρ is determined such that the relationship between the proportion of cases due to reinfection and the logarithm of the incidence rate closely correlates with empirical data. From a purely theoretical investigation, it is shown that a simple relationship can be expected between the logarithm of the incidence rates and the proportions of cases due to reinfection after a prior episode of TB. This relationship is sustained by a rate of reinfection that is higher than the rate of first-time infection and this latter consideration underscores the great importance of monitoring recovered TB cases for repeat disease episodes, especially in regions where TB incidence is high. Awareness of this may assist in attempts to control the epidemic. PMID:18577502

  2. Tuberculosis reinfection rate as a proportion of total infection rate correlates with the logarithm of the incidence rate: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Uys, Pieter W; van Helden, Paul D; Hargrove, John W

    2009-01-01

    In a significant number of instances, an episode of tuberculosis can be attributed to a reinfection event. Because reinfection is more likely in high incidence regions than in regions of low incidence, more tuberculosis (TB) cases due to reinfection could be expected in high-incidence regions than in low-incidence regions. Empirical data from regions with various incidence rates appear to confirm the conjecture that, in fact, the incidence rate due to reinfection only, as a proportion of all cases, correlates with the logarithm of the incidence rate, rather than with the incidence rate itself. A theoretical model that supports this conjecture is presented. A Markov model was used to obtain a relationship between incidence and reinfection rates. It was assumed in this model that the rate of reinfection is a multiple, rho (the reinfection factor), of the rate of first-time infection, lambda. The results obtained show a relationship between the proportion of cases due to reinfection and the rate of incidence that is approximately logarithmic for a range of values of the incidence rate typical of those observed in communities across the globe. A value of rho is determined such that the relationship between the proportion of cases due to reinfection and the logarithm of the incidence rate closely correlates with empirical data. From a purely theoretical investigation, it is shown that a simple relationship can be expected between the logarithm of the incidence rates and the proportions of cases due to reinfection after a prior episode of TB. This relationship is sustained by a rate of reinfection that is higher than the rate of first-time infection and this latter consideration underscores the great importance of monitoring recovered TB cases for repeat disease episodes, especially in regions where TB incidence is high. Awareness of this may assist in attempts to control the epidemic. PMID:18577502

  3. Understanding the effects of age, period, and cohort on incidence and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Holford, T R

    1991-01-01

    Time trends for population-based disease rates often are summarized by using direct adjustment by period of diagnosis or death. Similarly, the effect of age often is presented graphically as age-specific rates for a given period of diagnosis. These approaches may be necessary if there is an absence of long-term data, as they provide a natural way for annually updating information when monitoring trends, or they may be a convenient way of summarizing a large amount of data (7, 10, 11, 39, 45). However, these summaries only can adjust for the effect of age in a given period; they implicitly ignore the cohort effect. The effect of cohort is an important factor in understanding time trends for many diseases. Thus, it is not advisable to use data analytic strategies that routinely ignore it. Another alternative to modeling is to give a graphical presentation of the age-specific rates themselves. As I noted in the introduction, some of the first analyses to identify the effect of cohort on diseases, such as tuberculosis and lung cancer, relied entirely on a graphical analysis. Although graphs certainly are an important part of the interpretation of time trends, it would be a mistake to limit your analysis to impressions of points on a graph. For example, such a perusal would not give an objective indication of the statistical significance of a particular pattern. Regression analysis forces us to recognize a fundamental problem with interpreting time trends in disease rates--a problem that you should remember, even when trying to understand a graphical display of time trends in age-specific rates. PMID:2049144

  4. Fitting age-specific fertility with the Makeham curve.

    PubMed

    Luther, N Y

    1984-01-01

    The Makeham curve has long been recognized for its empirically good fit of adult mortality experience. However, it has never been seriously used in fertility estimation. This paper aims to show that the Makeham curve provides a very good fit of cumulative age-specific fertility over the full range of the fertility experience. Presented here is a simple linearization procedure, easily executed by hand calcualtor, for the estimation of cumulative age-specific fertility per woman (or parity) ar exact age x. The procedure provides a check for the fit of the Makeham curve to cumulative age-specific fertility, locally or globally--that is, the fit to local ratios over any range of ages. The procedure also determines the parameters of optimum fit over any range of ages. To carry out the procedure, one must simply check the linearity of points in each of 2 data plots and determine the Makeham curve from the slopes and intercepts of the fitted straight lines. The mathematical methodology for the procedure is presented and the global goodness of fit studied. Because it is of a local nature, and since it elicits an explicit analytic formula for the fitted Makeham curve, the procedure is conducive to interpolation and extrapolation applications, including the completion of incomplete schedules of age-specific fertility rates at the tails of the reproductive age span. The use of the procedure for extrapolation purposes is illustrated with data from the 1968 Population Growth Survey of Pakistan. It suggests results that, for the most part, are consistent with the thesis of general age exaggeration of reporting women. However, further evidence is needed to be conclusive. PMID:12313262

  5. Recent trends in hormone therapy utilization and breast cancer incidence rates in the high incidence population of Marin County, California

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent declines in invasive breast cancer have been reported in the US, with many studies linking these declines to reductions in the use of combination estrogen/progestin hormone therapy (EPHT). We evaluated the changing use of postmenopausal hormone therapy, mammography screening rates, and the decline in breast cancer incidence specifically for Marin County, California, a population with historically elevated breast cancer incidence rates. Methods The Marin Women's Study (MWS) is a community-based, prospective cohort study launched in 2006 to monitor changes in breast cancer, breast density, and personal and biologic risk factors among women living in Marin County. The MWS enrolled 1,833 women following routine screening mammography between October 2006 and July 2007. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included items regarding historical hormone therapy regimen (estrogen only, progesterone only, EPHT), age of first and last use, total years of use, and reason(s) for stopping, as well as information regarding complementary hormone use. Questionnaire items were analyzed for 1,083 non-Hispanic white participants ages 50 and over. Breast cancer incidence rates were assessed overall and by tumor histology and estrogen receptor (ER) status for the years 1990-2007 using data from the Northern California Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry. Results Prevalence of EPHT use among non-Hispanic white women ages 50 and over declined sharply from 21.2% in 1998 to 6.7% by 2006-07. Estrogen only use declined from 26.9% in 1998 to 22.4% by 2006-07. Invasive breast cancer incidence rates declined 33.4% between 2001 and 2004, with drops most pronounced for ER+ cancers. These rate reductions corresponded to declines of about 50 cases per year, consistent with population attributable fraction estimates for EPHT-related breast cancer. Self-reported screening mammography rates did not change during this period. Use of

  6. Dynamics of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Hsien

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate. This type of nonlinear incidence can be used to describe the psychological effect of certain diseases spread in a contact network at high infective levels. We first find a threshold value for the transmission rate. This value completely determines the dynamics of the model and interestingly, the threshold is not dependent on the functional form of the nonlinear incidence rate. Furthermore, if the transmission rate is less than or equal to the threshold value, the disease will die out. Otherwise, it will be permanent. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the theoretical results. We also consider the effect of the nonlinear incidence on the epidemic dynamics.

  7. Nonlinear Stability of a SIRS Epidemic Model with Convex Incidence Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonomo, B.; Rionero, S.

    2010-09-01

    We study an epidemic model for infections with non permanent acquired immunity (SIRS). The incidence rate is assumed to be convex respect to the infective class. By using a peculiar Lyapunov function, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for the local nonlinear stability of equilibria. Conditions ensuring the global stability of the endemic equilibrium are also obtained. Our procedure allows to enlarge the class of incidence rates ensuring the Lyapunov nonlinear stability of the endemic equilibrium for SIRS models.

  8. Bias From Using Occupational Smoking Prevalence to Adjust Occupational Incidence Cohort Lung Cancer Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Roth, H. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how smoking correction factors based on comparing worker smoking prevalence with population smoking prevalence are biased if applied to an occupational incidence cohort. Methods: Relative rates of smoking for shorter-tenure workers derived from occupational cohort lung cancer studies were applied to incidence and prevalence population tenure distributions to calculate relative smoking estimates. Results: High smoking rates in short-tenure workers have little effect on prevalent worker rates (relative smoking estimates, 1.04 and 1.02) and much larger effect in occupational incidence populations (relative smoking estimates, 1.58 and 1.21), which have a much higher proportion of short tenure-workers. Conclusions: Smoking correction estimates derived from surveys of smoking habits in prevalent workers may introduce bias when applied to incidence workers because of very different proportions of short-tenure workers (length-time biased sampling). PMID:25427172

  9. Monitoring dry period intramammary infection incidence and elimination rates using somatic cell count measurements.

    PubMed

    Dufour, S; Dohoo, I R

    2012-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the predictive ability of the herd dry period (DP) intramammary infection (IMI) incidence and elimination rates derived from predry and postcalving somatic cell count (SCC) measurements [quarter-level SCC and dairy herd improvement (DHI) composite-level SCC] for monitoring the herd DP IMI incidence and elimination rates. A cohort of 91 Canadian dairy herds was followed from 2007 to 2008. In each herd, a sample of 15 cows was selected each year, and a series of 2 predry and 2 postcalving quarter milk samples were collected. Routine milk bacteriological culture was conducted to identify IMI, SCC was measured on the quarter milk samples, and composite SCC of the last predry and first postcalving DHI tests were obtained. Mastitis pathogens were grouped into 3 categories: major pathogens, minor pathogens, and any pathogens. For each herd, DP bacteriological culture-derived IMI incidence and elimination rates were computed using quarter milk culture data. Similarly, SCC-derived herd incidence and elimination rates were computed using quarter and DHI composite-level SCC measurements and using various SCC thresholds to define new and eliminated IMI. Linear regression was used to compare herd quarter-level and composite-level SCC-derived herd incidence and elimination with DP bacteriological culture-derived IMI incidence and elimination. Herd DP incidences computed by using quarter-level SCC, and with most of the SCC thresholds tested, were significant predictors of the DP major, minor, and any IMI incidences (F-test; P≤0.05). The highest coefficients of determination (R(2)) were obtained with thresholds of 200,000 (R(2): 12%) and 50,000 cells/mL (R(2): 25%) for predicting major and minor IMI, respectively. When using composite DHI SCC measurements, however, substantial losses of predictive power were seen for minor and any IMI incidences compared with quarter-level SCC. For DP major IMI incidence, composite SCC yielded similar

  10. Age-specific prevalence of HPV16/18 genotypes in cervical cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Anne; Rositch, Anne; Qeadan, Fares; Gravitt, Patti E; Blaakaer, Jan

    2016-06-15

    The prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer has been reported to decline with age in some papers. However, whether this decline in proportion of cancers positive for HPV16/18 is consistently observed across studies remains to be elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify papers reporting data on age-specific prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer and to summarize the results. We employed MEDLINE and Embase for a systematic literature search and thereby identified a total of 644 papers published in the period 1999-2015, of which 15 papers, reporting cross-sectional data, were included for review (11,526 cervical cancers). The prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer declined significantly with age (ρ = -0.83, p = 0.04) from 74.8% (95% CI 67.6-80.8) in women aged 30-39 years to 56.8% (95% CI 43.9-68.8) in women aged ≥70 years. As the HPV16/18 positive cancers are prevented in fully vaccinated cohorts, the age-specific epidemiology of cervical cancer is anticipated to change, with a shift in peak incidence rate to older ages. It will be important for integrated vaccination and screening strategies to consider predicted change in the age-specific epidemiology of cervical cancer. PMID:26661889

  11. Temporal Trends in Incidence and Mortality Rates for Colorectal Cancer by Tumor Location: 1975–2007

    PubMed Central

    Scoggins, John; Rossing, Mary Anne; Li, Christopher I.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated changes in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality by anatomic site to assess the possible impact of CRC screening. Methods. Using data from 9 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries, we estimated trends in 1975–2007 CRC incidence and 1985–2007 incidence-based mortality. We evaluated trends separately for proximal and distal CRC, overall and by stage, tumor site, and race. Results. Between 1975 and 2007, 323 237 adults in the study area were diagnosed with CRC. For most tumor and population subgroups, incidence rates increased between 1975 and 1985 and subsequently declined markedly. Declines were most rapid between 1999 and 2007 and were greater for distal than proximal CRC. Declines in incidence were greater for White than Black adults and greatest for regional-stage disease. There was little difference in trends across subsites within the proximal and distal colorectum. Declines in incidence-based mortality mirrored those for incidence. Conclusions. Recent declines in CRC incidence and mortality are greater for distal than proximal CRC. Differing trends across populations may reflect variations in screening prevalence; distinct trends by tumor characteristics likely reflect differences in screening efficacy. PMID:22873481

  12. Incidence rates of classical Kaposi's sarcoma and multiple myeloma do not correlate.

    PubMed

    Hjalgrim, H; Frisch, M; Melbye, M

    1998-08-01

    We compared population-based incidence rates for classical Kaposi's sarcoma and multiple myeloma. Neither for men (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r) = 0.01, P = 0.97, 13 pairs) nor for women (r = 0.24, P = 0.42, 13 pairs) did the incidences of the two conditions correlate. This absence of correlation does not support the hypothesis that Kaposi's sarcoma and multiple myeloma share a common aetiology, such as HHV-8. PMID:9703293

  13. Problem of small numbers in reporting of cancer incidence and mortality rates in Indian cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Takiar, Ramnath; Nadayil, Deenu; Nandakumar, A

    2009-01-01

    The present paper examines the problem of small numbers (<20 cases) associated with many sites of cancers in Indian cancer registries. The cancer incidence data of 14 Population Based Cancer Registries for the periods of 2001-03 and 2004-05 were utilized for the analysis. Nine out of 14 registries had more than 50% of their sites being associated with small numbers while seven registries had 50% of their sites having as low as 5 cases. Sites associated with small numbers showed a lot of variation and significant differences in their incidence rates within two years duration which are not feasible. The percentage age distribution was also found to vary with different periods. The paper has effectively shown the effect of population size on incidence rates. For a registry of population size 300,000, the incidence rate of 6 can very well be unstable. There are many registries in the world with their population size less than 200,000. Even in the case of registries with high population (>or= 500,000) the practice is to report the cancer incidence by different ethnic groups with populations less than 200,000 and thereby introduce the problem of small numbers in reporting the incidences of various cancer sites. To overcome this problem, pooling of data over broad age groups or ten years age groups or 3 to 5 years periods is one immediate solution. PMID:19827889

  14. Rating and Classification of Incident Reporting in Radiology in a Large Academic Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Aran, Shima; Shaqdan, Khalid W; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rate of safety incident report of adverse events in a large academic radiology department and to share the various types that may occur. This is a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant, institutional review board-approved study. Consent requirement was waived. All incident reports from April 2006-September 2012 were retrieved. Events were further classified as follows: diagnostic test orders, identity document or documentation or consent, safety or security or conduct, service coordination, surgery or procedure, line or tube, fall, medication or intravenous safety, employee general incident, environment or equipment, adverse drug reaction (ADR), skin or tissue, and diagnosis or treatment. Overall rates and subclassification rates were calculated. There were 10,224 incident reports and 4,324,208 radiology examinations (rate = 0.23%). The highest rates of the incident reports were due to diagnostic test orders (34.3%; 3509/10,224), followed by service coordination (12.2%; 1248/10,224) and ADR (10.3%; 1052/4,324,208). The rate of incident reporting was highest in inpatient (0.30%; 2949/970,622), followed by emergency radiology (0.22%; 1500/672,958) and outpatient (0.18%; 4957/2,680,628). Approximately 48.5% (4947/10,202) of incidents had no patient harm and did not affect the patient, followed by no patient harm, but did affect the patient (35.2%, 3589/10,202), temporary or minor patient harm (15.5%, 1584/10,202), permanent or major patient harm (0.6%, 62/10,202), and patient death (0.2%, 20/10,202). Within an academic radiology department, the rate of incident reports was only 0.23%, usually did not harm the patient, and occurred at higher rates in inpatients. The most common incident type was in the category of diagnostic test orders, followed by service coordination, and ADRs. PMID:27020256

  15. Short communication: relationship between herd intramammary infection incidence and elimination rate during the dry period.

    PubMed

    Dufour, S; Dohoo, I R

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the relationship between herd dry period (DP) intramammary infection (IMI) incidence and elimination rates. A cohort of 91 Canadian dairy herds was recruited and followed in 2007 and 2008. Universal dry cow therapy was widely adopted among the participating herds. At the beginning of years 2007 and 2008, a sample of 15 cows was selected in each herd. A series of quarter-milk samples consisting of 2 predry and 2 postcalving samples were collected on each quarter of these 30 cows. Milk samples were analyzed using routine bacteriological milk culture, and predry and postcalving IMI statuses of these quarters were established using parallel interpretation of the 2 predry and 2 postcalving tests, respectively. Intramammary infection status was defined as IMI by Staphylococcus aureus, streptococci other than Streptococcus agalactiae, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), or Corynebacterium spp. Incidence and elimination rates of DP IMI were computed for each herd. Lowess curves and linear regression were used to investigate the association between DP IMI incidence and elimination rates. Significant negative associations were found between incidence and elimination rates of Staph. aureus and CNS. The relationship between incidence and elimination rates was nonlinear for CNS, with a relatively strong negative relationship between DP IMI incidence and elimination rates for herds with relatively low DP IMI incidence (<0.10 new IMI/quarter-month). For herds with higher DP IMI incidence (≥ 0.10 new IMI/quarter-month), a weaker negative relationship was observed between rates. No significant associations could be seen between DP incidence and elimination rates of streptococci other than Strep. agalactiae and of Corynebacterium spp. These results suggest that, conversely to the general belief, acquisition of new IMI and elimination of existing IMI during the DP may be driven, at least for staphylococci, by common mechanisms. The use

  16. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. PMID:26513636

  17. The effects of different rates of ascent on the incidence of altitude decompression sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Waligora, James M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of different rates of ascent on the incidence of altitude decompression sickness (DCS) was analyzed by a retrospective study on 14,123 man-flights involving direct ascent up to 38,000 ft altitude. The data were classified on the basis of altitude attained, denitrogenation at ground level, duration of stay at altitude, rest or exercise while at altitude, frequency of exercise at altitude, and ascent rates. This database was further divided on the basis of ascent rates into different groups from 1000 ft/min up to 53,000 ft/min. The database was analyzed using multiple correlation and regression methods, and the results of the analysis reveal that ascent rates influence the incidence of DCS in combination with the various factors mentioned above. Rate of ascent was not a significant predictor of DCS and showed a low, but significant multiple correlation (R=0.31) with the above factors. Further, the effects of rates below 2500 ft/min are significantly different from that of rates above 2500 ft/min on the incidence of symptoms (P=0.03) and forced descent (P=0.01). At rates above 2500 ft/min and up to 53,000 ft/min, the effects of ascent rates are not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) in the population examined while the effects of rates below 2500 ft/min are not clear.

  18. Estimating the Esophagus Cancer Incidence Rate in Ardabil, Iran: A Capture-Recapture Method

    PubMed Central

    Khodadost, Mahmoud; Yavari, Parvin; Khodadost, Behnam; Babaei, Masoud; Sarvi, Fatemeh; Khatibi, Seyed Reza; Barzegari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accurate cancer registry and awareness of cancer incidence rate is essential in order to define strategies for cancer prevention and control programs. Capture-recapture methods have been recommended for reducing bias and increase the accuracy of cancer incidence estimation. Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the esophagus cancer incidence by capture-recapture method based on Ardabil population-based cancer registry data. Patients and Methods: Total new cases of esophagus cancer reported by three sources of pathology reports, medical records, and death certificates to Ardabil province cancer registry center in 2006 and 2008 were enrolled in the study. All duplicated cases between three sources were identified and removed using Excel software. Some characteristics such as name, surname, father’s name, date of birth and ICD codes related to their cancer type were used for data linkage and finding the common cases among three sources. The incidence rate per 100,000 was estimated based on capture-recapture method using the log-linear models. We used BIC, G2 and AIC statistics to select the best-fit model. Results: After removing duplicates, total 471 new cases of esophagus cancer were reported from three sources. The model with linkage between pathology reports, medical record sources and independence with the death certificates source was the best fitted model. The reported incidence rate for the years 2006 and 2008 was 18.77 and 18.51 per 100,000, respectively. In log-linear analysis, the estimated incidence rate for the years 2006 and 2008 was 49.71 and 53.87 per 100,000 populations, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that none of the sources of pathology reports, death certificates and medical records individually or collectively were fully covered the incidence cases of esophagus cancer and need to apply some changes in data abstracting and case finding.

  19. What is the relationship between ultraviolet B and global incidence rates of colorectal cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Raphael E.; Mohr, Sharif B.; Gorham, Edward D.; Garland, Cedric F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between ultraviolet B and global incidence of colorectal cancer, while controlling for relevant covariates. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between latitude and incidence rates of colon cancer in 173 countries. Multiple linear regression was employed to investigate the relationship between ultraviolet B dose and colorectal cancer rates while controlling for per capita intake of energy from animal sources, per capita health expenditure, pigmentation, and life expectancy. Data on all variables were available for 139 countries. Incidence of colon cancer was highest in countries distant from the equator (R2 = 0.50, p < 0.0001). UV B dose (p < 0.0001) was independently, inversely associated with incidence rates of colorectal cancer after controlling for intake of energy from animal sources, per capita health expenditure, pigmentation, and life expectancy (R2 for overall model = 0.76, p < 0.0001). Consistent with previous research, UVB was inversely associated with incidence of colon cancer. Further research on vitamin D and prevention of colon cancer in individuals should be conducted, including studies of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations than have been studied to date. PMID:24494052

  20. Primary intracerebral haemorrhage in the Jyväskylä region, central Finland, 1985-89: incidence, case fatality rate, and functional outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Fogelholm, R; Nuutila, M; Vuorela, A L

    1992-01-01

    The age and sex specific incidence rates, the case fatality rates, and the functional outcome of patients with primary intracerebral haemorrhage occurring in a population of 116,000 during a period of four years four months are presented. A total of 158 patients were identified, the diagnosis was confirmed in 78% by CT, and in 22% by necropsy. The crude annual incidence rate was 31/100,000 population, the age specific rates increased from two to 222/100,000 from the age of 30-39 to over 80 years. Men had higher incidence rates between the ages of 40 and 79 years. The short term case fatality rate was high, 27% of patients dying during the first day after onset of symptoms, and 50% were dead at 30 days. After the first month the probability of survival did not differ from an age- and sex-matched average population. Large haematoma volume had an adverse effect on the short term, old age (greater than 70 years) on the long term survival. Ventricular extension, especially when combined with hydrocephalus was a bad omen for short term survival. Infratentorial and large basal ganglionic haematomas, and primary intraventricular haemorrhage carried a worse prognosis than haematomas of other locations. At the end of a median 32 month follow up 55 (35%) of the patients were alive, 51% of these were independent in activities of daily living, 45% were dependent on outside help, and 4% needed constant nursing care. Old age (greater than 70 years), but not the haematoma volume or location, was associated with a poor functional recovery. PMID:1640229

  1. Global Stability of an HIV-1 Infection Model with General Incidence Rate and Distributed Delays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work an HIV-1 infection model with nonlinear incidence rate and distributed intracellular delays and with humoral immunity is investigated. The disease transmission function is assumed to be governed by general incidence rate f(T, V)V. The intracellular delays describe the time between viral entry into a target cell and the production of new virus particles and the time between infection of a cell and the emission of viral particle. Lyapunov functionals are constructed and LaSalle invariant principle for delay differential equation is used to establish the global asymptotic stability of the infection-free equilibrium, infected equilibrium without B cells response, and infected equilibrium with B cells response. The results obtained show that the global dynamics of the system depend on both the properties of the general incidence function and the value of certain threshold parameters R0 and R1 which depends on the delays. PMID:27355007

  2. Progress estimating incidence rates of tumors and deformities in St. Louis River white sucker

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC) was listed for the Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) of Fish Tumors and Other Deformities without the benefit of histological information. Information on the fish tumor incidence rate is important for the future removal of the BUI. Two year...

  3. Prevalence and Incidence Rates of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment No Dementia in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Mejia-Arango, Silvia; Gutierrez, Luis Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) in the Mexican population. Methods The MHAS study is a prospective panel study of health and aging in Mexico with 7,000 elders that represent 8 million subjects nationally. Using measurements of cognition and activities of daily living of dementia cases and CIND were identified at baseline and follow up. Overall incidence rates and specific rates for sex, age and education were calculated. Results Prevalence was 6.1% and 28.7% for dementia and CIND, respectively. Incidence rates were 27.3 per 1,000 person-years for dementia and 223 per 1,000 persons-year for CIND. Rates of dementia and CIND increased with advancing age and decreased with higher educational level; sex had a differential effect depending on the age strata. Hypertension, diabetes and depression were risk factors for dementia but not for CIND. Discussion These data provide estimates of prevalence and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment in the Mexican population for projection of future burden. PMID:21948770

  4. AgeStandardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Daoprasert, Karnchana; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Katruang, Narisara; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15year period studied. PMID:27509991

  5. Use of a claims database to characterize and estimate the incidence rate for Castleman disease.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Nikhil; Mehra, Maneesha; van de Velde, Helgi; Desai, Avinash; Potluri, Ravi; Vermeulen, Jessica

    2015-05-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder affecting single (unicentric; UCD) or multiple (multicentric; MCD) lymph nodes. The incidence of this difficult to diagnose disease is poorly understood, as no International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code is available. This study utilized a unique strategy to estimate its incidence using two commercial claims databases, IMS LifeLink™ and Truven Health Analytics MarketScan(®). Patients with an index diagnosis of lymphadenopathy (ICD-9 code 785.6) were followed longitudinally for 1 year prior to and 2 years post-index diagnosis date. An algorithm that identifies potential patients with CD was developed to determine the incidence rate in person-years. The incidence rate for CD was calculated as 21 (IMS LifeLink™) and 25 (MarketScan(®)) per million person-years. Additionally, 23% of patients with CD were identified as potentially suffering from MCD. These results are consistent with the definition of an orphan disease, and the low incidence of the disease estimated in the literature. PMID:25120049

  6. Incidence Rates of Clinically Significant Tinnitus: 10-Year Trend From a Cohort Study in England

    PubMed Central

    Wallenhorst, Christopher; McFerran, Don; Hall, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the incidence of tinnitus that burdens the health service in England. Design: This was an observational study of 4.7 million residents of England under 85 years of age who were at risk for developing clinically significant tinnitus (sigT). SigT was defined by a discharge from hospital with a primary diagnosis of tinnitus, or a primary care recording of tinnitus with subsequent related medical follow-up within 28 days. The database used was the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and individual records were linked to additional data from the Hospital Episode Statistics. The observational period was from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2011. Age-, gender-, and calendar year-specific incidence rates for and cumulative incidences of sigT were estimated and a projection of new cases of sigT between 2012 and 2021 was performed. Results: There were 14,303 incident cases of sigT identified among 26.5 million person-years of observation. The incidence rate was 5.4 new cases of sigT per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 5.3 to 5.5). The incidence rate did not depend on gender but increased with age, peaking at 11.4 per 10,000 in the age group 60 to 69 years. The annual incidence rate of sigT increased from 4.5 per 10,000 person-years in 2002 to 6.6 per 10,000 person-years in 2011. The 10-year cumulative incidence of sigT was 58.4 cases (95% confidence interval: 57.4 to 59.4) per 10,000 residents. Nearly 324,000 new cases of sigT are expected to occur in England between 2012 and 2021. Conclusions: Tinnitus presents a burden to the health care system that has been rising in recent years. Population-based studies provide crucial underpinning evidence; highlighting the need for further research to address issues around effective diagnosis and clinical management of this heterogeneous condition. PMID:25470370

  7. Thoracic kyphosis and rate of incident vertebral fractures: the Fracture Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vittinghoff, E.; Kado, D. M.; Lane, N. E.; Ensrud, K. E.; Shipp, K.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Biomechanical analyses support the theory that thoracic spine hyperkyphosis may increase risk of new vertebral fractures. While greater kyphosis was associated with an increased rate of incident vertebral fractures, our analysis does not show an independent association of kyphosis on incident fracture, after adjustment for prevalent vertebral fracture. Excessive kyphosis may still be a clinical marker for prevalent vertebral fracture. Introduction Biomechanical analyses suggest hyperkyphosis may increase risk of incident vertebral fracture by increasing the load on vertebral bodies during daily activities. We propose to assess the association of kyphosis with incident radiographic vertebral fracture. Methods We used data from the Fracture Intervention Trial among 3038 women 55–81 years of age with low bone mineral density (BMD). Baseline kyphosis angle was measured using a Debrunner kyphometer. Vertebral fractures were assessed at baseline and follow-up from lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine. We used Poisson models to estimate the independent association of kyphosis with incident fracture, controlling for age and femoral neck BMD. Results Mean baseline kyphosis was 48° (SD = 12) (range 7–83). At baseline, 962 (32 %) participants had a prevalent fracture. There were 221 incident fractures over a median of 4 years. At baseline, prevalent fracture was associated with 3.7° greater average kyphosis (95 % CI 2.8–4.6, p < 0.0005), adjusting for age and femoral neck BMD. Before adjusting for prevalent fracture, each 10° greater kyphosis was associated with 22 % increase (95 % CI 8–38 %, p = 0.001) in annualized rate of new radiographic vertebral fracture, adjusting for age and femoral neck BMD. After additional adjustment for prevalent fracture, estimated increased annualized rate was attenuated and no longer significant, 8 % per 10° kyphosis (95 % CI −4 to 22 %, p = 0.18). Conclusions While greater kyphosis increased the rate of

  8. Population-Based Age Group Specific Annual Incidence Rates of Symptomatic Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Jukka M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the population-based annual incidence rates of exudative, dry and all cases of symptomatic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in different age and sex groups. Methods. This is a one year, prospective, population-based study on all consecutive new patients with AMD in the hospital district of Central Finland. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients with slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a Spectralis HRA + OCT device, and the Heidelberg Eye Explorer 1.6.2.0 program. Fluorescein angiograms were taken when needed. Results. The population-based annual incidence rates of all cases of symptomatic AMD increased from 0.03% (95% CI, 0.01-0.05%) in the age group 50-59 years to 0.82% (95% CI, 0.55-1.09%) in the age group 85-89 years and were 0.2% (95% CI, 0.17-0.24%) in exudative, 0.11% (95% CI, 0.09-0.14%) in dry, and 0.32% (95% CI, 0.28-0.36%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. During the next 20 years in Central Finland the population-based annual incidence rates can be estimated to increase to 0.27% (95% CI, 0.24-0.30%) in exudative, to 0.13% (95% CI, 0.11-0.15%) in dry, and to 0.41% (95% CI, 0.37-0.45%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. The population-based annual incidence of AMD did not show statistically significant differences between males and females (p>0.1). Conclusion: The population-based age-group specific annual incidence rates of symptomatic AMD of this study may help to plan health care provision for patients of AMD. PMID:25674187

  9. Incidence and Mortality Rates of Disasters and Mass Casualty Incidents in Korea: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study, 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jin; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Sung, Joohon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality rates of disasters and mass casualty incidents (MCIs) over the past 10 yr in the administrative system of Korea administrative system and to examine their relationship with population characteristics. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. We calculated the nationwide incidence, as well as the crude mortality and injury incidence rates, of disasters and MCIs. The data were collected from the administrative database of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and from provincial fire departments from January 2000 to December 2009. A total of 47,169 events were collected from the NEMA administrative database. Of these events, 115 and 3,079 cases were defined as disasters and MCIs that occurred in Korea, respectively. The incidence of technical disasters/MCIs was approximately 12.7 times greater than that of natural disasters/MCIs. Over the past 10 yr, the crude mortality rates for disasters and MCIs were 2.36 deaths per 100,000 persons and 6.78 deaths per 100,000 persons, respectively. The crude injury incidence rates for disasters and MCIs were 25.47 injuries per 100,000 persons and 152 injuries per 100,000 persons, respectively. The incidence and mortality of disasters/MCIs in Korea seem to be low compared to that of trend around the world. PMID:23678255

  10. Racial differences in primary central nervous system lymphoma incidence and survival rates.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Jose S; Vierkant, Robert A; Olson, Janet E; Abrey, Lauren; Schiff, David; O'Neill, Brian Patrick

    2009-06-01

    To determine racial and ethnic differences in incidence and survival in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program data from 1992 to 2002 were queried. Data were substratified by age (20-49 years vs. 50 or above) and race (White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander [A/PI], American Indian/Alaskan Native [AI/AN]). Incidence of PCNSL and survival were calculated by SEER(*)Stat software. The incidence rates were 0.94 per 100,000 per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.98) for Whites, 1.10 (95% CI 0.98-1.22) for Blacks, 0.51 (95% CI 0.28-0.74) for AI/AN, and 0.64 (95% CI 0.56-0.72) for A/PI. In patients aged 20-49 years the rates were 0.72 (95% CI 0.68-0.76) for Whites, 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.59) for Blacks, 0.58 (95% CI 0.30-0.86) for AI/AN, and 0.21 (CI 0.15-0.27) for A/PI. In patients over 49 years, the rates were 1.30 (95% CI 1.22-1.38) for Whites, 0.56 (95% CI 0.40-0.72) for Blacks, 0.34 (95% CI 0-0.70) for AI/AN, and 1.31 (95% CI 1.00-1.53) for A/PI. PCNSL incidence for ages 20-49 years for Black patients was twice that for Whites. Incidence for ages over 49 years for Whites was twice that for Blacks. Survival at 12 months, 24 months, and 60 months was higher among Whites than Blacks. Research is needed to determine the origin of these differences. PMID:19273630

  11. The optimization of incident angles of low-energy oxygen ion beams for increasing sputtering rate on silicon samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, T.; Yoshida, N.; Takahashi, M.; Tomita, M.

    2008-12-01

    In order to determine an appropriate incident angle of low-energy (350-eV) oxygen ion beam for achieving the highest sputtering rate without degradation of depth resolution in SIMS analysis, a delta-doped sample was analyzed with incident angles from 0° to 60° without oxygen bleeding. As a result, 45° incidence was found to be the best analytical condition, and it was confirmed that surface roughness did not occur on the sputtered surface at 100-nm depth by using AFM. By applying the optimized incident angle, sputtering rate becomes more than twice as high as that of the normal incident condition.

  12. The Epidemiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prevalence and Incident Rates.

    PubMed

    Egan, Kathryn Brigham

    2016-08-01

    This article assesses the reported prevalence and incidence rates for benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) by age, symptom severity, and race/ethnicity. BPH/LUTS prevalence and incidence rates increase with increasing age and vary by symptom severity. The BPH/LUTS relationship is complex due to several factors. This contributes to the range of reported estimates and difficulties in drawing epidemiologic comparisons. Cultural, psychosocial, economic, and/or disease awareness and diagnosis factors may influence medical care access, symptom reporting and help-seeking behaviors among men with BPH/LUTS. However, these factors and their epidemiologic association with BPH/LUTS have not been thoroughly investigated. PMID:27476122

  13. Dynamics of a delayed epidemic model with non-monotonic incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Hai-Feng; Ma, Zhan-Ping

    2010-02-01

    A delayed epidemic model with non-monotonic incidence rate which describes the psychological effect of certain serious on the community when the number of infectives is getting larger is studied. The disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when R0 < 1 and is globally attractive when R0 = 1 are derived. On the other hand, The disease is permanent when R0 > 1 is also obtained. Numerical simulation results are given to support the theoretical predictions.

  14. Measurement of a drowning incidence rate combining direct observation of an exposed population with mortality statistics.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Damian; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drowning risk factors may be identified by comparing drowning incidence rates for comparable at-risk populations but precise methods are lacking. To address this knowledge gap, an ecological study extrapolated crude time-duration exposure to water for a specified at-risk sample of surf bathers to estimate the bather population for all wave-dominated beaches in Victoria, Australia, over a four-year summer season period. An incidence rate was calculated using surf bather drowning deaths frequencies matched for time and location. For the sample, 47,341 hours of surf bathing were estimated from 177,528 bathing episodes. Generalising these results to Victoria, the crude drowning deaths incidence rate in the summer season was 0.41 per 1,000,000 person-hours of surf bathing (95% CI 0.37-0.45). Further application of the method, particularly in open water settings, may be used to identify candidate drowning risk factors to advance drowning prevention strategies. PMID:24758173

  15. The Relationship Between Monthdisease Incidence Rate and Climatic Factor of Classical Swine Fever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbin; Xu, Danning; Xiao, Jianhua; Zhang, Ru; Dong, Jing

    The Swine Fever is a kind of acute, highly infective epidemic disease of animals; it is name as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) by World animal Health organization. Meteorological factors such as temperature, air pressure and rainfall affect the epidemic of CSF significantly through intermediary agent and CSF viral directly. However there is significant difference among different region for mode of effects. Accordingly, the analyze must adopt different methods. The dependability between incidence rate each month of CSF and meteorological factors from 1999 to 2004 was analyzed in this paper. The function of meteorological factors on CSF was explored and internal law was expected to be discovered. The correlation between the incidence rate of Swine Fever and meteorological factors, thus the foundation analysis of the early warning and the decision-making was made, the result indicated that the incidence rate of CSF has negative correlation with temperature, rainfall, cloudage; relative humidity has positive correlation with disease; for air pressure, except average air pressure of one month, other air pressure factors have positive correlation with disease; for wind speed, except Difference among moths of wind speed and average temperature of one month. have positive correlation with disease, other wind speed factors has negative correlation with disease.

  16. Total-body irradiation and cataract incidence: A randomized comparison of two instantaneous dose rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ozsahin, M.; Belkacemi, Y.; Pene, F.; Dominique, C.; Schwartz, L.H.; Uzal, C.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Gindrey-Vie, B.; Vitu-Loas, L.; Touboul, E. )

    1994-01-15

    To assess the influence of instantaneous total-body irradiation dose rate in hematological malignancies, the authors randomized 157 patients according to different instantaneous dose rates. Patients have undergone a total-body irradiation before bone-marrow transplantation according to two different techniques: Either in one fraction (1000 cGy given to the midplane at the level of L4, and 800 cGy to the lungs) or in six fractions (1200 cGy over 3 consecutive days to the midplane at the level of L4, and 900 cGy to the lungs). Patients were randomized according to two instantaneous dose rates, called LOW and HIGH, in single-dose (6 vs. 15 cGy/min) and fractionated (3 vs. 6 cGy/min) TBI groups; there were 77 cases for the LOW and 80 for the HIGH groups, with 57 patients receiving single-dose (28 LOW, 29 HIGH) and 100 patients receiving fractionated total-body irradiation (49 LOW, 51 HIGH). As of July 1992, 16 of 157 patients developed cataracts after 17 to 46 months, with an estimated incidence of 23% at 5 years. Four of 77 patients in the LOW group, 12 of 80 patients in the HIGH group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 12% and 34%, respectively. Ten of 57 patients in the single-dose group, and 6 of 100 patients in the fractionated group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 39% and 13%, respectively. When the subgroups were considered, in the single-dose group, 3 of 28 LOW patients, and 7 of 29 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 24% and 53%, respectively; in the fractionated group, 1 of 49 LOW patients, and 5 of 51 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 4% and 22%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of 5-year estimated cataract incidence between the patients receiving steroids and those not. The instantaneous dose rate was the only independent factor influencing the cataractogenesis. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Practical Implications of the Non-Linear Relationship between the Test Positivity Rate and Malaria Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Ross M.; Reyes, Raquel; Matte, Michael; Ntaro, Moses; Mulogo, Edgar; Lin, Feng-Chang; Siedner, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The test positivity rate (TPR), defined as the number of laboratory-confirmed malaria tests per 100 suspected cases examined, is widely used by malaria surveillance programs as one of several key indicators of temporal trends in malaria incidence. However, there have been few studies using empiric data to examine the quantitative nature of this relationship. Methods To characterize the relationship between the test positivity rate and the incidence of malaria, we fit regression models using the confirmed malaria case rate as the outcome of interest and TPR as the predictor of interest. We varied the relationship between the two by alternating linear and polynomial terms for TPR, and compared the goodness of fit of each model. Results A total of 7,668 encounters for malaria diagnostic testing were recorded over the study period within a catchment area of 25,617 persons. The semi-annual TPR ranged from 4.5% to 59% and the case rates ranged from 0.5 to 560 per 1,000 persons. The best fitting model was an exponential growth model (R2 = 0.80, AIC = 637). At low transmission levels (TPR<10%), the correlation between TPR and CMCR was poor, with large reductions in the TPR, for example from 10% to 1%, was associated with a minimal change in the CMCR (3.9 to 1.7 cases per 1,000 persons). At higher transmission levels, the exponential relationship made relatively small changes in TPR suggestive of sizeable change in estimated malaria incidence, suggesting that TPR remains a valuable surveillance indicator in such settings. Conclusions The TPR and the confirmed malaria case rate have a non-linear relationship, which is likely to have important implications for malaria surveillance programs, especially at the extremes of transmission. PMID:27018990

  18. [Incidence rate of adverse reaction/event by Qingkailing injection: a Meta-analysis of single rate].

    PubMed

    Ai, Chun-ling; Xie, Yan-ming; Li, Ming-quan; Wang, Lian-xin; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction/event by Qingkailing injection. Such databases as the PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, VIP WanFang data and CBM were searched by computer from foundation to July 30, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and cross check data. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by using the R 3.2.0 software, subgroup sensitivity analysis was performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and research quality. Sixty-three studies involving 9,793 patients with Qingkailing injection were included, 367 cases of adverse reactions/events were reported in total. The incidence rate of adverse reaction in skin and mucosa group was 2% [95% CI (0.02; 0.03)]; the digestive system adverse reaction was 6% [95% CI(0.05; 0.07); the injection site adverse reaction was 4% [95% CI (0.02; 0.07)]. In the digestive system as the main types of adverse reactions/events, incidence of children and adults were 4.6% [0.021 1; 0.097 7] and 6.9% [0.053 5; 0.089 8], respectively. Adverse reactions to skin and mucous membrane damage as the main performance/event type, the observation time > 7 days and ≤ 7 days incidence of 3% [0.012 9; 0.068 3] and 1.9% [0.007 8; 0.046 1], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that different types of adverse reactions, combination in the incidence of adverse reactions/events were higher than that of single drug, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). This study suggested the influence factors of adverse reactions occur, and clinical rational drug use, such as combination, age and other fators, and the influence factors vary in different populations. Therefore, clinical doctors for children and the elderly use special care was required for a clear and open spirit injection, the implementation of individualized medication. PMID:27245021

  19. Estimation of incidence and recovery rates of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia from longitudinal data

    PubMed Central

    Bekessy, A.; Molineaux, L.; Storey, J.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of estimating the malaria incidence rate ĥ and the recovery rate r from longitudinal data. The method is based on the assumption that the phenomenon of patent parasitaemia can be represented by a reversible two-state catalytic model; it is applicable to all problems that can be represented by such a model. The method was applied to data on falciparum malaria from the West African savanna and the findings suggested that immunity increases the rate of recovery from patent parasitaemia by a factor of up to 10, and also reduces the number of episodes of patent parasitaemia resulting from one inoculation. Under the effect of propoxur, ĥ varies with the estimated man-biting rate of the vector while r̂ increases, possibly owing to reduced super-infection. PMID:800968

  20. The evolution of HPV-related anogenital cancers reported in Quebec - incidence rates and survival probabilities.

    PubMed

    Louchini, R; Goggin, P; Steben, M

    2008-01-01

    Non-cervical anogenital cancers (i.e. anal, vulvar, vaginal and penile cancers) associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV), for which HPV is known to be the necessary cause of carcinogenesis, are poorly documented due to their relatively low incidence rate. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence rates of these cancers between 1984 and 2001, and their relative survival probabilities, in Quebec (Canada) between 1984 and 1998. The incidence of these cancers is on the rise, particularly anal cancer in women and, more recently (since 1993-95), vulvar cancer. Between 1984-86 and 1993-95, the 5-year relative survival probability for men with anal cancer decreased from 57% to 46%, while that for penile cancer dropped from 75% to 59%. However, during the same period, the 5-year relative survival probability for women with anal cancer rose from 56% to 65%, and remained stable for cervical and vulvar cancers, at 74% and 82%, respectively. PMID:18341764

  1. Population-Based Incidence Rates of First-Ever Stroke in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Ngoc, Mai Quang; Huy, Tran Van; Suzuki, Motoi; Tsujino, Akira; Toizumi, Michiko; Takahashi, Kensuke; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Anh, Dang Duc; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hien; Tho, Le Huu; Maeda, Takahiro; Cox, Sharon E.; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stroke incidence data with methodologically acceptable design in Southeast Asia countries is limited. This study aimed to determine incidence of age-, sex- and subtype-specific first-ever stroke (FES) in Vietnam. Methods We conducted a hospital-based retrospective study, targeting all stroke cases hospitalized at a solo-provider hospital in our study site of Nha Trang from January 2009 to December 2011 with International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes I60-69. We calculated positive predictive values (PPVs) of each ICD-10-coded stroke by conducting a detailed case review of 190 randomly selected admissions with ICD-10 codes of I60-I69. These PPVs were then used to estimate annual incident stroke cases from the computerized database. National census data in 2009 was used as a denominator. Results 2,693 eligible admissions were recorded during the study period. The crude annual incidence rate of total FES was 90.2 per 100,000 population (95% CI 81.1–100.2). The age-adjusted incidence of FES was 115.7 (95% CI 95.9–139.1) when adjusted to the WHO world populations. Importantly, age-adjusted intracerebral hemorrhage was as much as one third of total FES: 36.9 (95% CI 26.1–51.0). Conclusions We found a considerable proportion of FES in Vietnam to be attributable to intracerebral hemorrhage, which is as high or exceeding levels seen in high-income countries. A high prevalence of improperly treated hypertension in Vietnam may underlie the high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in this population. PMID:27513471

  2. Incidence and hospitalisation rates of Lyme borreliosis, France, 2004 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Vandenesch, A; Turbelin, C; Couturier, E; Arena, C; Jaulhac, B; Ferquel, E; Choumet, V; Saugeon, C; Coffinieres, E; Blanchon, T; Vaillant, V; Hanslik, T

    2014-08-28

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) has become a major concern recently, as trends in several epidemiological studies indicate that there has been an increase in this disease in Europe and America over the last decade. This work provides estimates of LB incidence and hospitalisation rates in France. LB data was obtained from the Sentinelles general practitioner surveillance network (2009–2012) and from the Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d’Information (PMSI) data processing centre for hospital discharges (2004–09). The yearly LB incidence rate averaged 42 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval (CI): 37–48), ranging from 0 to 184 per 100,000 depending on the region. The annual hospitalisation rate due to LB averaged 1.55 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% CI: 1.42–1.70). Both rates peaked during the summer and fall and had a bimodal age distribution (5–10 years and 50–70 years). Healthcare providers should continue to invest attention to prompt recognition and early therapy for LB, whereas public health strategies should keep promoting use of repellent, daily checks for ticks and their prompt removal. PMID:25188613

  3. Nationwide statistical analysis of myeloid malignancies in Korea: incidence and survival rate from 1999 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Hye; Lee, Hyewon; Won, Young-Joo; Ju, Hee Young; Oh, Chang-Mo; Ingabire, Cecile; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Park, Byung-Kiu; Yoon, Ju Young; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Lee, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-scale epidemiologic analysis for hematologic malignancies will be helpful to understand the trends in incidence and survival. Methods The Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) updated the nationwide analysis on the incidence and survival of myeloid malignancies, from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database between 1999 and 2012. Myeloid malignancies were classified based on the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology 3rd edition (ICD-O-3). Results Overall 3,771 cases of myeloid diseases, which was 1.7% of all cancers, were identified in 2012. The highest incidence of myeloid malignancies was observed in age 70s and male predominance was noted (1.3:1). Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was the most frequent subtype, followed by myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and MDS/MPN: age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) in 2012 for each disease were 2.02, 1.95, 1.13, and 0.12 per 100,000 persons, respectively. The ASR for all myeloid malignancies was increased from 3.31 in 1999 to 5.70 in 2012 with the annual percentage change (APC) of 5.4 %. Five-year relative survival rate (RS) for myeloid malignancies has gradually improved for decades. RS changed from 26.3% to 34.8% in AML, specifically from 51.6% to 69.6% in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and from 23.8% to 29.9% in non-APL AML, between 1996-2000 and 2008-2012. RS also increased from 81.8% to 87.1% in MPN, with a significant improvement in CML (from 74.5% to 85.5%), and from 27.3% to 31.7% in MDS/MPN between 2001-2005 and 2008-2012. However, there was no survival improvement in MDS during the study period (45.6% in 2001-2005 to 44.4% in 2008-2012). Conclusion This report updated the nationwide statistical analysis on myeloid malignancies since 2008, showing increasing incidence and improving trends in survival. PMID:26770948

  4. Malaria Incidence Rates from Time Series of 2-Wave Panel Surveys.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marcia C; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H

    2016-08-01

    Methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from a commonly occurring form of interval-censored longitudinal parasitological data-specifically, 2-wave panel data-was first proposed 40 years ago based on the theory of continuous-time homogeneous Markov Chains. Assumptions of the methodology were suitable for settings with high malaria transmission in the absence of control measures, but are violated in areas experiencing fast decline or that have achieved very low transmission. No further developments that can accommodate such violations have been put forth since then. We extend previous work and propose a new methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from 2-wave panel data, utilizing the class of 2-component mixtures of continuous-time Markov chains, representing two sub-populations with distinct behavior/attitude towards malaria prevention and treatment. Model identification, or even partial identification, requires context-specific a priori constraints on parameters. The method can be applied to scenarios of any transmission intensity. We provide an application utilizing data from Dar es Salaam, an area that experienced steady decline in malaria over almost five years after a larviciding intervention. We conducted sensitivity analysis to account for possible sampling variation in input data and model assumptions/parameters, and we considered differences in estimates due to submicroscopic infections. Results showed that, assuming defensible a priori constraints on model parameters, most of the uncertainty in the estimated incidence rates was due to sampling variation, not to partial identifiability of the mixture model for the case at hand. Differences between microscopy- and PCR-based rates depend on the transmission intensity. Leveraging on a method to estimate incidence rates from 2-wave panel data under any transmission intensity, and from the increasing availability of such data, there is an opportunity to foster further methodological developments

  5. Malaria Incidence Rates from Time Series of 2-Wave Panel Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H.

    2016-01-01

    Methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from a commonly occurring form of interval-censored longitudinal parasitological data—specifically, 2-wave panel data—was first proposed 40 years ago based on the theory of continuous-time homogeneous Markov Chains. Assumptions of the methodology were suitable for settings with high malaria transmission in the absence of control measures, but are violated in areas experiencing fast decline or that have achieved very low transmission. No further developments that can accommodate such violations have been put forth since then. We extend previous work and propose a new methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from 2-wave panel data, utilizing the class of 2-component mixtures of continuous-time Markov chains, representing two sub-populations with distinct behavior/attitude towards malaria prevention and treatment. Model identification, or even partial identification, requires context-specific a priori constraints on parameters. The method can be applied to scenarios of any transmission intensity. We provide an application utilizing data from Dar es Salaam, an area that experienced steady decline in malaria over almost five years after a larviciding intervention. We conducted sensitivity analysis to account for possible sampling variation in input data and model assumptions/parameters, and we considered differences in estimates due to submicroscopic infections. Results showed that, assuming defensible a priori constraints on model parameters, most of the uncertainty in the estimated incidence rates was due to sampling variation, not to partial identifiability of the mixture model for the case at hand. Differences between microscopy- and PCR-based rates depend on the transmission intensity. Leveraging on a method to estimate incidence rates from 2-wave panel data under any transmission intensity, and from the increasing availability of such data, there is an opportunity to foster further methodological

  6. Incidence rates of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, growing attention has been given to the mental health of workers. One way to examine the mental health of workers is to look at the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence. There is a scarcity of literature in which the incidence rates of mental illness-related sickness absence among different countries have been considered together. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to address the question: Are there similarities and differences in the incidence rates of mental disorder-related sickness absence among and within OECD identified Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American country categories? In this paper, we seek to identify differences and similarities in the literature rather than to explain them. With this review, we lay the groundwork for and point to areas for future research as well as to raise questions regarding reasons for the differences and similarities. Methods A systematic literature search of the following databases were performed: Medline Current, Medline In-process, PsycINFO, Econlit and Web of Science. The search period covered 2002–2013. The systematic literature search focused on working adults between 18–65 years old who had not retired and who had mental and/or substance abuse disorders. Intervention studies were excluded. The search focused on medically certified sickness absences. Results A total of 3,818 unique citations were identified. Of these, 10 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria; six were from Social Democratic countries. Their quality ranged from good to excellent. There was variation in the incidence rates reported by the studies from the Social Democratic, Liberal and Latin American countries in this review. Conclusions The results of this systematic review suggest that this is an emerging area of inquiry that needs to continue to grow. Priority areas to support growth include cross jurisdictional collaboration and development of a typology

  7. The End of the Hysterectomy Epidemic and Endometrial Cancer Incidence: What Are the Unintended Consequences of Declining Hysterectomy Rates?

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, Sarah M.; Minasian, Lori; Noone, Anne-Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Population-level cancer incidence rates are one measure to estimate the cancer burden. The goal is to provide information on trends to measure progress against cancer at the population level and identify emerging patterns signifying increased risk for additional research and intervention. Endometrial cancer is the most common of the gynecologic malignancies but capturing the incidence of disease among women at risk (i.e., women with a uterus) is challenging and not routinely published. Decreasing rates of hysterectomy increase the number of women at risk for disease, which should be reflected in the denominator of the incidence rate calculation. Furthermore, hysterectomy rates vary within the United States by multiple factors including geographic location, race, and ethnicity. Changing rates of hysterectomy are important to consider when looking at endometrial cancer trends. By correcting for hysterectomy when calculating incidence rates of cancers of the uterine corpus, many of the disparities that have been assumed for this disease are diminished. PMID:27148481

  8. Age specific fecundity of Lygus hesperus in high, fluctuating temperatures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have simulated hourly temperatures to examine Lygus response to hot summers in the San Joaquin Valley. Constant temperature of 33C quickly killed Lygus and SJV temperatures routinely surpass this level. Average hourly temperatures were tested for the months May, July, and September. Age specific ...

  9. Basis for the ICRP`s age-specific biokinetic model for uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.

    1994-12-01

    In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is developing age-specific biokinetic models and dose coefficients for environmentally important radionuclides. This paper describes the ICRP`s age-specific biokinetic model for uranium. The model is constructed within a physiologically based framework originally developed for application to the alkaline earth elements but sufficiently general to apply to the larger class of bone-volume-seeking elements. Transfer rates for a reference adult are based mainly on: (1) measurements of uranium in blood and excreta of several human subjects who were intravenously injected with uranium; (2) postmortem measurements of uranium in tissues of some of those subjects; (3) postmortem measurements of uranium in tissues of occupationally and non-occupationally exposed subjects; (4) data on baboons, dogs, and smaller laboratory animals exposed to uranium for experimental purposes; and (5) consideration of the physiological processes thought to control retention and translocation of uranium in the body. Transfer rates for the adult are extended to children by application of a set of generic assumptions applied by the ICRP to calcium-like elements. These assumptions were derived mainly from observations of the age-specific biokinetics of the alkaline earth elements and lead in humans and laboratory animals but are consistent with available age-specific biokinetic data on uranium. 82 refs., 17 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Modeling of influential predictors of gastric cancer incidence rates in Golestan province, North Iran.

    PubMed

    Behnampour, Nasser; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Zayeri, Farid; Semnani, Shahriar

    2014-01-01

    Golestan province has a reputation for relatively high incidence rates of gastric cancer in Iran. Along with dietary, lifestyle and environmental influential factors, soil selenium and high levels of pesticide used may exert influence in this region. The present study was designed for modeling the influential predictors on incidence of gastric cancer in Golestan. All registered cases of gastric cancer from March 2009 to March 2010 (49 females and 107 males) were investigated. Data were gathered by both check list and researcher made questionnaire (demographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics) and analysed using logistic regression. Mean (±SD) age at diagnosis was 62.9±13.8 years. CIR and ASR of gastric cancer showed 9.16 and 13.9 per 100,000 people, respectively. Based on univariate logistic regression, a history of smoking (OR= 2.076), unwashed hands after defecation (OR= 2.612), history of cancer in relatives (OR= 2.473), history of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives (OR= 2.278), numbers of gastric cancers in first-degree relatives (OR= 2.078), history of X-ray and dye exposure (OR= 2.395), history of CT scan encounter (OR= 2.915), improper food habits (OR= 3.320), specific eating behavior (OR= 0.740), consumption of probable high risk foods (OR= 2.942), charred flesh (OR= 1.945), and animal fat (OR= 2.716) were confirmed as a risk factors. Changes in lifestyle may be expected to increase gastric cancer incidence dramatically in the near future. Therefore, appropriate educational interventions should be designed and implemented by competent authorities. PMID:24606427

  11. Tuberculosis Incidence and Case Notification Rates in Kosovo and the Balkans in 2012: Cross-country Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Kurhasani, Xhevat; Hafizi, Hasan; Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a considerable burden especially for millions of young adults and disadvantaged people worldwide. The TB incidence and notification rates are good indicators of TB situation in a country. Our aim was to compare TB incidence and notification rates in Kosovo and in seven other Balkan countries. Methods: Retrospective epidemiologic analysis of published data on TB incidence and notification rates in eight Balkan countries in 2012. Notification rates were expressed per 100,000 inhabitants and were calculated based on the number of TB cases reported divided by the population of each country under analysis. Results: The TB incidence in Kosovo (47/100,000) was considerably higher compared to its four neighboring countries: Albania (16/100,000), Macedonia, Montenegro (18/100,000) and Serbia (23/100,000). The TB notification rates in Kosovo and other countries closely mimicked the incidence rates in these countries. Conclusion: The exceptionally high TB incidence rate in Kosovo could be due to many factors including low health and medical-seeking behaviors of the local population, poverty and low education levels. Effective interventions should be adapted to the local context in order to increase the chances of success. PMID:24757405

  12. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Shioda, Kayoko; Cosmas, Leonard; Audi, Allan; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Breiman, Robert F.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries. Methods Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including healthcare encounters and household visits in Kenya. We analyzed data from June 2007 to October 2008 in Lwak, a rural site in western Kenya, and from October 2006 to February 2009 in Kibera, an urban slum. Stool specimens from diarrhea cases of all ages who visited study clinics were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus by RT-PCR. Results Of 334 stool specimens from Lwak and 524 from Kibera, 85 (25%) and 159 (30%) were positive for norovirus, 13 (4%) and 31 (6%) for sapovirus, and 28 (8%) and 18 (3%) for astrovirus, respectively. Among norovirus-positive specimens, genogroup II predominated in both sites, detected in 74 (87%) in Lwak and 140 (88%) in Kibera. The adjusted community incidence per 100,000 person-years was the highest for norovirus (Lwak: 9,635; Kibera: 4,116), followed by astrovirus (Lwak: 3,051; Kibera: 440) and sapovirus (Lwak: 1,445; Kibera: 879). For all viruses, the adjusted incidence was higher among children aged <5 years (norovirus: 22,225 in Lwak and 17,511 in Kibera; sapovirus: 5,556 in Lwak and 4,378 in Kibera; astrovirus: 11,113 in Lwak and 2,814 in Kibera) compared to cases aged ≥5 years. Conclusion Although limited by a lack of controls, this is the first study to estimate the outpatient and community incidence rates of norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus across the age spectrum in Kenya, suggesting a substantial disease burden imposed by these viruses. By applying adjusted rates, we estimate approximately 2.8–3.3 million, 0.45–0.54 million, and 0.77–0.95 million people become ill with norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, respectively, every year in

  13. Monthly incidence rates of abusive encounters for canadian family physicians by patients and their families.

    PubMed

    Miedema, Baukje Bo; Hamilton, Ryan; Tatemichi, Sue; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Lemire, Francine; Manca, Donna; Ramsden, Vivian R

    2010-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to examine the monthly incidence rates of abusive encounters for family physicians in Canada. Methods. A 7-page cross-sectional survey. Results. Of the entire study sample (N = 720), 29% of the physicians reported having experienced an abusive event in the last month by a patient or patient family member. Abusive incidents were classified as minor, major, or severe. Of the physician participants who reported having been abused, all reported having experienced a minor event, 26% a major, and 8% a severe event. Of the physicians who experienced an abusive event, 55% were not aware of any policies to protect them, 76% did not seek help, and 64% did not report the abusive event. Conclusion. Family physicians are subjected to significant amounts of abuse in their day-to-day practices. Few physicians are aware of workplace policies that could protect them, and fewer report abusive encounters. Physicians would benefit from increased awareness of institutional policies that can protect them against abusive patients and their families and from the development of a national policy. PMID:22332007

  14. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Hyunsoon; Lee, Jong-Keun; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate of Korea’s current cancer burden, this study aimed to report on projected cancer incidence and mortality rates for the year 2016. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2013 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2014 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence in 2016 was projected by fitting a linear regression model to observed age-specific cancer incidence rates against observed years, then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. The Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend changed significantly. Results: A total of 254,962 new cancer cases and 75,172 cancer deaths are expected to occur in Korea in 2016. The five leading primary cancer incident sites in 2016 were estimated colorectal, stomach, lung, liver and thyroid cancer in men; thyroid, breast, colorectal, stomach, and lung cancer in women. Conclusion: Currently cancer is one of the foremost public health concerns in Korea. Although cancer rates are anticipated to decrease the nation’s cancer burden will continue to increase as the population ages. PMID:27034143

  15. Persistence and extinction for a class of stochastic SIS epidemic models with nonlinear incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Zhidong; Wang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a class of stochastic SIS epidemic models with nonlinear incidence rate is investigated. It is shown that the extinction and persistence of the disease in probability are determined by a threshold value R˜0. That is, if R˜0 < 1 and an additional condition holds then disease dies out, and if R˜0 > 1 then disease is weak permanent with probability one. To obtain the permanence in the mean of the disease, a new quantity R̂0 is introduced, and it is proved that if R̂0 > 1 the disease is permanent in the mean with probability one. Furthermore, the numerical simulations are presented to illustrate some open problems given in Remarks 1-3 and 5 of this paper.

  16. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  17. Childhood cancer incidence rates and hazardous air pollutants in California: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Peggy; Von Behren, Julie; Gunier, Robert B; Goldberg, Debbie E; Hertz, Andrew; Smith, Daniel F

    2003-01-01

    Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are compounds shown to cause cancer or other adverse health effects. We analyzed population-based childhood cancer incidence rates in California (USA) from 1988 to 1994, by HAP exposure scores, for all California census tracts. For each census tract, we calculated exposure scores by combining cancer potency factors with outdoor HAP concentrations modeled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We evaluated the relationship between childhood cancer rates and exposure scores for 25 potentially carcinogenic HAPs emitted from mobile, area, and point sources and from all sources combined. Our study period saw 7,143 newly diagnosed cancer cases in California; of these, 6,989 (97.8%) could be assigned to census tracts and included in our analysis. Using Poisson regression, we estimated rate ratios (RRs) adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and sex. We found little evidence for elevated cancer RRs for all sites or for gliomas among children living in high-ranking combined-source exposure areas. We found elevated RRs and a significant trend with increasing exposure level for childhood leukemia in tracts ranked highest for exposure to the combined group of 25 HAPs (RR = 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 1.42) and in tracts ranked highest for point-source HAP exposure (RR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.11, 1.57). Our findings suggest an association between increased childhood leukemia rates and high HAP exposure, but studies involving more comprehensive exposure assessment and individual-level exposure data will be important for elucidating this relationship. PMID:12676632

  18. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    PubMed Central

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  19. Low incidence of flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures but high rate of complications.

    PubMed

    Kuoppala, Eira; Parviainen, Roope; Pokka, Tytti; Sirviö, Minna; Serlo, Willy; Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common type of elbow fracture in children. A small proportion of them are flexion-type fractures. We analyzed their current incidence, injury history, clinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcomes. Patients and methods - We performed a population-based study, including all children <16 years of age. Radiographs were re-analyzed to include only flexion-type supracondylar fractures. Medical records were reviewed and outcomes were evaluated at a mean of 9 years after the injury. In addition, we performed a systematic literature review of all papers published on the topic since 1990 and compared the results with the findings of the current study. Results - During the study period, the rate of flexion-type fractures was 1.2% (7 out of 606 supracondylar humeral fractures). The mean annual incidence was 0.8 per 105. 4 fractures were multidirectionally unstable, according to the Gartland-Wilkins classification. All but 1 were operatively treated. Reduced range of motion, changed carrying angle, and ulnar nerve irritation were the most frequent short-term complications. Finally, in the long-term follow-up, mean carrying angle was 50% more in injured elbows (21°) than in uninjured elbows (14°). 4 patients of the 7 achieved a satisfactory long-term outcome according to Flynn's criteria. Interpretation - Supracondylar humeral flexion-type fractures are rare. They are usually severe injuries, often resulting in short-term and long-term complications regardless of the original surgical fixation used. PMID:27168001

  20. Identifying Differences Between Biochemical Failure and Cure: Incidence Rates and Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank A.; Shah, Chirag; Kestin, Larry; Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Ye Hong; Brabbins, Donald; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    2011-11-15

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer were evaluated to estimate the length of time required to document biochemical cure (BC) after treatment and the variables associated with long-term treatment efficacy. Patients and Methods: 2,100 patients received RT alone for localized prostate carcinoma (external-beam RT, n = 1,504; brachytherapy alone, n = 241; or brachytherapy + pelvic radiation, n = 355). The median external-beam dose was 68.4 Gy, and the median follow-up time was 8.6 years. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined according to the Phoenix definition. Results: Biochemical failure was experienced by 685 patients (32.6%). The median times to BF for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 6.0, 5.6, and 4.5 years respectively (p < 0.001). The average annual incidence rates of BF for years 1-5, 5-10,11-15, and 16-20 in low-risk patients were 2.0%, 2.0%, 0.3%, and 0.06% (p < 0.001); for intermediate-risk patients, 4%, 3%, 0.3%, and 0% (p < 0.001); and for high-risk patients, 10.0%, 5.0%, 0.3%, and 0.3% (p < 0.001). After 5 years of treatment, 36.9% of all patients experienced BF. The percentage of total failures occurring during years 1-5, 5-10, 11-15, and 16-20 were 48.7%, 43.5%, 6.5%, and 1.3% for low-risk patients; 64.0%, 32.2%, 3.8%, and 0% for intermediate-risk patients; and 71.9%, 25.9%, 1.1%, and 1.1% for high-risk patients, respectively. Increasing time to nadir was associated with increased time to BF. On multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with 10-year BC included prostate-specific antigen nadir and time to nadir. Conclusions: The incidence rates for BF did not plateau until later than 10 years after treatment, suggesting that extended follow-up time is required to monitor patients after treatment. Prostate-specific antigen nadir and time to nadir have the strongest association with long-term BC.

  1. Incidence Rates of Fish Tumors and Deformities in the St. Louis River Area of Concern: A Preliminary Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine the current incidence rate of fish tumors and deformities in the St. Louis River and compare that to the rate in a relatively unimpaired waterbody on Lake Superior. These data are necessary to remove the “Fish Tumors and Deformities” Benef...

  2. Trend of microbiologically-confirmed tuberculosis in a low-incidence setting with high immigration rates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The metropolitan area of Bologna, a city in Northern Italy (Emilia Romagna region), is considered a low incidence setting for TB, but has a high rate of foreign immigration (13.5% official resident immigrants relative to the whole population in 2011). The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological trend of TB, focusing on differences between Italian and foreign-born cases. Methods We examined all bacteriologically confirmed TB cases identified in the Microbiology Unit of Bologna University Hospital from January 2008 and December 2011. We compared demographic, clinical and microbiological data for Italian vs. foreign-born TB cases. Results Out of 255 TB cases identified during the study period, 168 (65.9%) were represented by foreign-born cases. The proportion of immigrants with TB progressively increased over the study period (from 60.8% in 2008 to 67.5% in 2011). Although foreign-born cases were significantly younger than Italian cases (mean age 32.3 ± 14.4 years vs 61.9 ± 21.5 years), the mean age among the latter decreased from 71.2 in 2008 to 54.6 years in 2011 (p = 0.036). Concerning TB localization, 65.9% (n = 168) had pulmonary TB (P-TB) and 34.1% (n = 87) extra-pulmonary TB (EP-TB). In this study, 35.6% of Italian-born P-TB cases were smear positive, versus 51.4% of foreign-born P-TB cases. The highest proportion of high-grade positive microscopy P-TB was among subjects between 25–34 years old (36.9%; p = 0.004). Mono-resistance to isoniazid (mono-H) was found among 9.2% and 10.1% of Italian and foreign-born cases, respectively. Among Italian cases, resistance to H and any other first line drug (poly-H) and Multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) were 4.6% and 1.2%, respectively. In foreign-born cases poly-H (12.8%) and MDR-TB (6.9%) significantly increased over the time (p = 0.003 and p = 0.007, respectively). The proportion of MDR-TB was significantly higher among immigrants from Eastern Europe (10

  3. Intertumor linkage of age-adjusted incidence rate in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M; Yokochi, T

    2000-01-01

    We report here that the application of the least square method of Gauss to the log-transformed age-adjusted incidence rate changes in time and space, as tested with either the male-female or the female-male tumor pairs for each of 15 tumor entities, has revealed the presence of intertumor linkage that was conditioning the changes of two cancer risk parameters to let them fit to the equilibrium model with close resemblance to the chemical equilibrium model. The dissimilarity of the cancer risk equilibrium model to the chemical equilibrium model--topological dissociation between the equilibrium model of centripetal force (r = -1.000) and that of centrifugal force (r = +1.000)--was discussed in the light of the concept of the oncogene activation-tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The proposed network hypothesis of human neoplasia found supporting evidence in the corresponding changes of the statistical features of human neoplasias with and without sex discrimination of cancer risk. PMID:10836207

  4. [Time trends of incidence rates of work accident with blood contamination in a North Italian teaching hospital].

    PubMed

    Ferrario, M M; Landone, S; De Biasi, M; Tagliasacchi, R; Riva, R; Veronesi, G; Sassi, M; Borchini, R; Bonzini, M

    2012-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of incidence rates of accidents with blood contaminations (ABC) and time trends is the milieu for assessing the effectiveness of preventive interventions. A standardised procedure for registration and follow-up of ABC was et up in a North Italian hospital since 2002. Accurate estimates of rate denominator, as full-time equivalent (FTE) person-years, was calculated, for exposed workers only and excluding periods of prolonged absence. In the observation period (2004-2011), training courses for head nurses on security procedures were repeatedly carried out as well as the progressive introduction of vacuum blood collection systems (since 2009). 1287 ABC have been reported, corresponding to an overall annual crude incidence rate of 4.73 per 100 FTE. Temporal trends, calculated on the biennial incidence, resulted in a reductions over the time period considered, in particular for needlestick injuries. Our results support the notions on the efficacy of the adopted prevention measures. PMID:23405640

  5. Dynamics of a competing two-strain SIS epidemic model on complex networks with a saturating incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junyuan; Li, Chun-Hsien

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies a two-strain SIS epidemic model with a competing mechanism and a saturating incidence rate on complex networks. This type of incidence rate can be used to reflect the crowding effect of the infective individuals. We first obtain the associated reproduction numbers for each of the two strains which determine the existence of the boundary equilibria. The stability of the disease-free and boundary equilibria are further examined. Besides this, we also show that the two competing strains can coexist under certain conditions. Interestingly, the saturating incidence rate can have specific effects on not only the stability of the boundary equilibria, but also the existence of the coexistence equilibrium. Numerical simulations are presented to support the theoretical results.

  6. Body growth considerations in age-specific dosimetry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1993-09-30

    This report describes the manner in which the age-specific dosimetric calculations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) addressed changes in organ size that occur with age. The approach involves an interpolation of dosimetric information derived for six reference individuals using the inverse of the total body mass as the interpolation variable. An alternative formulation is investigated that employs a functional representation of the organ mass as a function of age in conjunction with an explicit formulation of the dosimetric factors in terms of organ mass. Using an exponential-logistic growth function as suggested by Walker, this report demonstrates, through application to the dosimetry of radioiodines in the thyroid, that the alternative formulation can be formulated and implemented. Although either approach provides a workable basis for age-specific dosimetry, it is clear that the functional representation of organ growth has some attractive features. However, without question, the major difficulty is the quality and quantity of data available to address the age- and gender-specific parameters in the dosimetric formulations.

  7. Subtype-specific incidence rates of lymphoid malignancies in Hong Kong compared to the United States, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Bassig, Bryan A; Au, Wing-Yan; Mang, Oscar; Ngan, Roger; Morton, Lindsay M; Ip, Dennis K M; Hu, Wei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Seow, Wei Jie; Xu, Jun; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2016-06-01

    Clinical studies of lymphoid malignancies (LMs) have suggested that the descriptive patterns of LMs differ in East Asia compared to Western populations. However, there are very limited available data on population-based, subtype-specific incidence rates of LMs in the East Asian population, particularly in Chinese. Using data from the Hong Kong (HK) Cancer Registry and United States (U.S.) SEER Program, we calculated and compared age-adjusted incidence rates of LM subtypes in HK to those in Whites and Asians living in the U.S. Overall and sex-specific rates were calculated for the period 2001-2010. The incidence of most subtypes was low in the HK population, with rates <1 case per 100,000 for all subtypes except for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (3.26/100,000) and plasma cell neoplasms (1.99/100,000). Age-adjusted incidence rates of all evaluated B-cell subtypes were significantly higher in U.S. Whites compared to HK, with standardized rate ratios (SRRs) ranging from 1.6 (Burkitt lymphoma) to 9.1 (chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma). Rates in U.S. Asians were generally intermediate to those in U.S. Whites and HK. Conversely, rates of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma were significantly lower in both U.S. Whites (SRR=0.2) and U.S. Asians (SRR=0.5) compared to HK. Our data provide new insight into the subtype-specific patterns of LMs in the Chinese population, and suggest the need for etiological studies of LMs in the East Asian population to elucidate the factors responsible for these differences in the geographic incidence patterns. PMID:26991956

  8. Incidence Rate of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome without Specific Treatment in India and Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Potharaju, Nagabhushana Rao

    2012-01-01

    Background: A performance target (PT) for the incidence rate (IR) of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) was not defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to lack of data. There is no specific treatment for ~90% of the AES cases. Objectives: (1) To determine the IR of AES not having specific treatment (AESn) in two countries, India and Nepal. (2) To suggest the PT. Subjects and Methods: This was a record-based study of the entire population of India and Nepal from 1978 to 2011. The WHO definition was used for inclusion of cases. Cases that had specific treatment were excluded. IR was calculated per 100,000 population per annum. Forecast IR was generated from 2010 to 2013 using time-series analysis. Results: There were 165,461 cases from 1978 to 2011, of which 125,030 cases were from India and 40,431 were from Nepal. The mean IR of India was 0.42 (s 0.24) and that of Nepal was 5.23 (σ 3.03). IRs of 2010 and 2011 of India and that of 2011 of Nepal were closer to the mean IR rather than the forecast IR. IR of 2010 of Nepal was closer to the forecast IR. The forecast IR for India for 2012 was 0.49 (0.19-1.06), for 2013 was 0.42 (0.15-0.97) and for Nepal for both 2012 and 2013 was 5.62 (1.53-15.05). Conclusions: IRs were considerably different for India and Nepal. Using the current mean IR as PT for the next year was simple and practical. Using forecasting was complex and, less frequently, useful. PMID:23293439

  9. Rating the Relevance of QUORUM-Selected ASRS Incident Narratives to a "Controlled Flight into Terrain" Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Statler, Irving C.

    1998-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to identify commercial aviation incidents that are relevant to a "controlled flight into terrain" (CFIT) accident using a NASA-developed text processing method. The QUORUM method was used to rate 67820 incident narratives, virtually all of the narratives in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, according to their relevance to two official reports on the crash of American Airlines Flight 965 near Cali, Colombia in December 1995. For comparison with QUORUM's ratings, three experienced ASRS analysts read the reports of the crash and independently rated the relevance of the 100 narratives that were most highly rated by QUORUM, as well as 100 narratives randomly selected from the database. Eighty-four of 100 QUORUM-selected narratives were rated as relevant to the Cali accident by one or more of the analysts. The relevant incidents involved a variety of factors, including, over-reliance on automation, confusion and changes during descent/approach, terrain avoidance, and operations in foreign airspace. In addition, the QUORUM collection of incidents was found to be significantly more relevant than the random collection.

  10. Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in the Louisiana Acadian Parishes Demonstrated to be Among the Highest in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Karlitz, Jordan J; Blanton, Christine; Andrews, Patricia; Chen, Vivien W; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Fontham, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Determine whether colorectal cancer (CRC) rates are disproportionately high in the French-Acadian region (population 1.2 million) of Louisiana, home of the Cajuns, a founder population. Methods: 2005–2009 cancer incidence rates were stratified by age/race/gender in the 18 Acadian parish region and 9-parish subgroup with higher proportions of French speakers and compared with Louisiana and United States rates. Parishes were identified through language census data. A total of 3,288 CRC cases were identified in the Acadian region and 11,737 in Louisiana. Results: CRC rates in whites and white males in the 18 parishes were statistically significantly higher than both Louisiana and US rates. In the 9 parishes, rates increased further; whites had an incidence of 56.1/100,000, 13% higher than Louisiana (P<0.0003) and 23% higher than US rates (P<0.0001). In white males, incidence was 72.6/100,000, 19% higher than Louisiana (P<0.0002) and 37% higher than US rates (P<0.0001). If the 9-parish regions were considered a “state,” white males would have the highest CRC incidence in the United States by 11% (P<0.0175) compared with other white male populations. Conclusions: CRC rates are among the highest in the United States, increasing with the proportion of French speakers, a marker for the Cajun population. This appears to be the first study identifying a high rate of cancer in a large, regional, US founder population, raising the possibility of a genetic predisposition. Alternatively, an unidentified, robust environmental risk factor may be present. Future studies are needed to identify genetic and/or other risk factors in this population. PMID:25273154

  11. An Atypical Age-Specific Pattern of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Peru: A Threat for Andean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Loli, Sebastian; Moura, Julien; Zimic, Mirko; Deharo, Eric; Ruiz, Eloy

    2013-01-01

    Background In South America, the highest incidence of primary liver cancer is observed in Peru. However, national estimations on hepatocellular carcinoma incidence and mortality are approximated using aggregated data from surrounding countries. Thus, there is a lack of tangible information from Peru that impairs an accurate description of the local incidence, presentation, and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study attempts to fill this gap and assesses the clinical epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in this country. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analysing the medical charts of 1,541 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma admitted between 1997 and 2010 at the Peruvian national institute for cancer. The medical records including liver function, serologic status, and tumor pathology and stage were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed in order to characterize tumor presentation according to demographic features, risk factors, and regional origin. Results Surprisingly, the age distribution of the patient population displayed bimodality corresponding to two distinct age-based subpopulations. While an older group was in keeping with the age range observed for hepatocellular carcinoma around the world, a younger population displayed an abnormally juvenile mean age of 25.5 years old. In addition, each subpopulation displayed age-specific pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. Conclusions The analysis suggests two different age-specific natural histories of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Peruvian patient population. This otherwise unusual tumor process that is ongoing in younger patients leads to the hypothesis that there may be a Peru-endemic risk factor driving hepatocarcinogenesis in the local population. PMID:23840771

  12. Structural modeling of age specific fertility curves in Peninsular Malaysia: An approach of Lee Carter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafiah, Hazlenah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the study of fertility has been getting a lot of attention among research abroad following fear of deterioration of fertility led by the rapid economy development. Hence, this study examines the feasibility of developing fertility forecasts based on age structure. Lee Carter model (1992) is applied in this study as it is an established and widely used model in analysing demographic aspects. A singular value decomposition approach is incorporated with an ARIMA model to estimate age specific fertility rates in Peninsular Malaysia over the period 1958-2007. Residual plots is used to measure the goodness of fit of the model. Fertility index forecast using random walk drift is then utilised to predict the future age specific fertility. Results indicate that the proposed model provides a relatively good and reasonable data fitting. In addition, there is an apparent and continuous decline in age specific fertility curves in the next 10 years, particularly among mothers' in their early 20's and 40's. The study on the fertility is vital in order to maintain a balance between the population growth and the provision of facilities related resources.

  13. The incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: a four-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) and endometrial cancer (EC) in the Republic of Korea using national insurance claim data generated from 2009 to 2012. Materials and Methods Data that were generated from 2009 to 2012 were sourced from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Inpatients Sample database. The data from women who were assigned diagnosis codes representing EH or EC within 1 month of being assigned codes that corresponded to procedures that included endometrial biopsies and several types of gynecologic surgeries to obtain endometrial pathology samples, were selected for analysis. Results Data from 2,477,424 women were entered into the database between 2009 and 2012, and the data from 1,868 women with EH and 868 women with EC were extracted for analysis. The mean ages of the patients were 44.1 ± 0.4 years for those with EH and 52.7 ± 0.6 years for those with EC. The EH and EC incidence rates were 37 per 100,000 woman-years and 8 per 100,000 woman-years, respectively. The EH and EC incidence rates peaked when the women were in their late forties and fifties, respectively. Conclusions The EH and EC incidence rates determined in this study were somewhat lower than those determined from previous studies. Further studies are required that adjust the data for race, menopausal hormone therapy, and obesity.

  14. Melanoma incidence mortality rates and clinico-pathological types in the Siberian area of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Gyrylova, Svetlana Nikolaevna; Aksenenko, Mariya Borisovna; Gavrilyuk, Dmitriy Vladimirovich; Palkina, Nadezda Vladimirovna; Dyhno, Yuriy Alexandrovich; Ruksha, Tatiana Gennadievna; Artyukhov, Ivan Pavlovich

    2014-01-01

    Russian rates for melanoma incidence and mortality are relatively low as compared to some other white populations but the tumor is of increasing importance. In this paper, data are based on a retrospective descriptive analysis of melanoma epidemiology and clinicopathological characteristics in Krasnoyarsk Territory belonging to the Siberian Federal District of the Russian Federation. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for the period 1996-2009 were determined with subsequent retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data of 103 primary melanoma cases. Our results showed that incidence and mortality rates in the region under consideration match the Russian national trends and correspond to epidemiological data of the countries of Eastern Europe. Stratification of melanoma cases by age, sex, clinicopathological state and localization revealed a prevalence of lesions on the trunk and lower extremities. Most melanomas diagnosed were of superficial spreading type and the third Clark's level of tumor invasion and stage II according to AJCC. In spite of comparatively low rates of incidence and mortality the trend to increase of melanoma cases in the region under consideration obviously calls for more attention and further investigation. PMID:24716957

  15. [Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Venezuela: relationship between monthly rotavirus incidence and rainfall rates].

    PubMed

    González Chávez, Rosabel

    2015-09-01

    In general, it has been reported that rotavirus infection was detected year round in tropical countries. However, studies in Venezuela and Brazil suggest a seasonal behavior of the infection. On the other hand, some studies link infection with climatic variables such as rainfall. This study analyzes the pattern of behavior of the rotavirus infection in Carabobo-Venezuela (2001-2005), associates the seasonality of the infection with rainfall, and according to the seasonal pattern, estimates the age of greatest risk for infection. The analysis of the rotavirus temporal series and accumulated precipitation was performed with the software SPSS. The infection showed two periods: high incidence (November-April) and low incidence (May-October). Accumulated precipitation presents an opposite behavior. The highest frequency of events (73.8% 573/779) for those born in the period with a low incidence of the virus was recorded at an earlier age (mean age 6.5 +/- 2.0 months) when compared with those born in the station of high incidence (63.5% 568/870, mean age 11.7 +/- 2.2 months). Seasonality of the infection and the inverse relationship between virus incidence and rainfall was demonstrated. In addition, it was found that the period of birth determines the age and risk of infection. This information generated during the preaccine period will be helpful to measure the impact of the vaccine against the rotavirus. PMID:26710540

  16. The composite dynamic method as evidence for age-specific waterfowl mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; Anderson, David R.

    1979-01-01

    For the past 25 years estimation of mortality rates for waterfowl has been based almost entirely on the composite dynamic life table. We examined the specific assumptions for this method and derived a valid goodness of fit test. We performed this test on 45 data sets representing a cross section of banded sampled for various waterfowl species, geographic areas, banding periods, and age/sex classes. We found that: (1) the composite dynamic method was rejected (P <0.001) in 37 of the 45 data sets (in fact, 29 were rejected at P <0.00001) and (2) recovery and harvest rates are year-specific (a critical violation of the necessary assumptions). We conclude that the restrictive assumptions required for the composite dynamic method to produce valid estimates of mortality rates are not met in waterfowl data. Also we demonstrate that even when the required assumptions are met, the method produces very biased estimates of age-specific mortality rates. We believe the composite dynamic method should not be used in the analysis of waterfowl banding data. Furthermore, the composite dynamic method does not provide valid evidence for age-specific mortality rates in waterfowl.

  17. Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, B.A.; Krementz, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    Age structure proportions (proportion of harvested individuals within each age class) are commonly used as support for regulatory restrictions and input for deer population models. Such use requires critical evaluation when harvest regulations force hunters to selectively harvest specific age classes, due to impact on the underlying population age structure. We used a stochastic population simulation model to evaluate the impact of using harvest proportions to evaluate changes in population age structure under a selective harvest management program at two scales. Using harvest proportions to parameterize the age-specific harvest segment of the model for the local scale showed that predictions of post-harvest age structure did not vary dependent upon whether selective harvest criteria were in use or not. At the county scale, yearling frequency in the post-harvest population increased, but model predictions indicated that post-harvest population size of 2.5 years old males would decline below levels found before implementation of the antler restriction, reducing the number of individuals recruited into older age classes. Across the range of age-specific harvest rates modeled, our simulation predicted that underestimation of age-specific harvest rates has considerable influence on predictions of post-harvest population age structure. We found that the consequence of uncertainty in harvest rates corresponds to uncertainty in predictions of residual population structure, and this correspondence is proportional to scale. Our simulations also indicate that regardless of use of harvest proportions or harvest rates, at either the local or county scale the modeled SHC had a high probability (>0.60 and >0.75, respectively) of eliminating recruitment into >2.5 years old age classes. Although frequently used to increase population age structure, our modeling indicated that selective harvest criteria can decrease or eliminate the number of white-tailed deer recruited into older

  18. Age-Period-Cohort approaches to back-calculation of cancer incidence rate

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Cheongeun; Holford, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    A compartment model for cancer incidence and mortality is developed in which healthy subjects may develop cancer, and subsequently die of cancer or another cause. In order to adequately represent the experience of a defined population, it is also necessary to allow for subjects who are diagnosed at death, as well as subjects who migrate and are subsequently lost to follow-up. Expressions are derived for the number of cancer deaths as a function of the number of incidence cases and vice versa, which allows for the use of mortality statistics to obtain estimates of incidence using survival information. In addition, the model can be used to obtain estimates of cancer prevalence, which is useful for health care planning. The method is illustrated using data on lung cancer among males in Connecticut. PMID:25715831

  19. Breed-specific incidence rates of canine primary bone tumors — A population based survey of dogs in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Anfinsen, Kristin P.; Grotmol, Tom; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Jonasdottir, Thora J.

    2011-01-01

    This is one of few published population-based studies describing breed specific rates of canine primary bone tumors. Incidence rates related to dog breeds could help clarify the impact of etiological factors such as birth weight, growth rate, and adult body weight/height on development of these tumors. The study population consisted of dogs within 4 large/giant breeds; Irish wolfhound (IW), Leonberger (LB), Newfoundland (NF), and Labrador retriever (LR), born between January 1st 1989 and December 31st 1998. Questionnaires distributed to owners of randomly selected dogs — fulfilling the criteria of breed, year of birth, and registration in the Norwegian Kennel Club — constituted the basis for this retrospective, population-based survey. Of the 3748 questionnaires received by owners, 1915 were completed, giving a response rate of 51%. Forty-three dogs had been diagnosed with primary bone tumors, based upon clinical examination and x-rays. The breeds IW and LB, with 126 and 72 cases per 10 000 dog years at risk (DYAR), respectively, had significantly higher incidence rates of primary bone tumors than NF and LR (P < 0.0001). Incidence rates for the latter were 11 and 2 cases per 10 000 DYAR, respectively. Pursuing a search for risk factors other than body size/weight is supported by the significantly different risks of developing primary bone tumors between similarly statured dogs, like NF and LB, observed in this study. Defining these breed-specific incidence rates enables subsequent case control studies, ultimately aiming to identify specific etiological factors for developing primary bone tumors. PMID:22210997

  20. Incidence rates of dementia, Alzheimer disease, and vascular dementia in the Japanese American population in Seattle, WA: the Kame Project.

    PubMed

    Borenstein, Amy R; Wu, Yougui; Bowen, James D; McCormick, Wayne C; Uomoto, Jay; McCurry, Susan M; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Larson, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    There are few studies on the incidence of dementia in representative minority populations in the United States; however, no population-based study has been conducted on Japanese American women. We identified 3045 individuals aged 65+ with at least 1 parent of Japanese descent living in King County, WA in the period 1992 to 1994, of whom 1836 were dementia-free and were examined every 2 years (1994 to 2001) to identify incident cases of all dementias, Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and other dementias. Cox regression was used to examine associations with age, sex, years of education, and apolipoprotein (APOE)-ε4. Among 173 incident cases of dementia, the overall rate was 14.4/1000/y, with rates being slightly higher among women (15.9/1000) than men (12.5/1000). Rates roughly doubled every 5 years for dementia and AD; the age trend for VaD and other dementias was less consistent. Sex was not significantly related to incidence of dementia or its subtypes in adjusted models. There was a trend for an inverse association with increasing years of education. APOE-ε4 was a strong risk factor for all dementias [hazard ratio (HR)=2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.88-4.46], AD (HR=3.27; 95% CI, 2.03-5.28), and VaD (HR=3.33; 95% CI, 1.34-8.27). This study is the first to report population-based incidence rates for both Japanese American men and women. PMID:24045327

  1. Age-specific response of a migratory bird to an experimental alteration of its habitat.

    PubMed

    Haché, Samuel; Villard, Marc-André

    2010-07-01

    1. Recruitment, i.e. the influx of new breeding individuals into a population, is an important demographic parameter, especially in species with a short life span. Few studies have measured this parameter in solitary-breeding animal populations even though it may yield critical information on habitat suitability and functional connectivity. 2. Using a before-after, control-impact pairs (BACIP) experimental design, we measured: (i) the return rate and apparent survival rate of individually marked territorial males of a neotropical migrant bird species, the Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla Linnaeus and (ii) the age-specific recruitment rate. Study plots (n = 10) were paired: one was treated through single-tree selection harvesting (30-40% basal area removal) and the other acted as a control. We hypothesized that experienced males would out-compete inexperienced ones and tend to avoid settling in lower-quality, treated stands. 3. In the first year post-harvest, the mean density of territorial males was significantly lower in treated plots (-41%) than in controls and the difference remained relatively stable thereafter. This lower density mainly reflected a lower recruitment rate compared to controls (17.9 vs. 49.0% of males present), itself driven by a lower recruitment rate of experienced males (2.8 vs. 22.8%). Return rate was similar between controls and treated plots in the first year post-harvest (59 vs. 55%, respectively) but it decreased in treated plots during the second (-15.8% relative to controls) and third (-12.7%) year post-harvest. The trend was even stronger when considering only experienced males. The treatment was followed by a major expansion in mean territory size in treated plots (+49% relative to controls, 3rd year post-treatment). 4. Neither apparent survival rate nor recruitment rate varied as predicted. There was a strong year effect but no treatment effect on apparent survival rate, whereas male recruitment patterns were both year- and age-specific

  2. Malnutrition and age-specific nutritional management in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dodge, J A

    1992-10-01

    Malnutrition is recognised as a major prognostic factor adversely affecting survival in cystic fibrosis (CF) and is the result of an unfavourable energy balance in these patients. A high resting energy expenditure, dependent on the patient's genotype, in addition to pulmonary infection play an important role in producing anorexia and weight loss. Nutritional management with the aim to gain weight and catch up with growth is age-specific. It is important to repair nutritional status as early as possible after diagnosis. In infancy breast feeding is advised with, if necessary, supplemental feeding with predigested formulae such as Pregestimil. In childhood nutritional management must be aimed towards a normal weight gain and growth velocity. The latter is the best guide of nutritional adequacy. If weight gain falters the first principle is to treat any associated respiratory infection, the second is to ensure adequate enzyme therapy and control of steatorrhoea, and only then should dietary energy supplements be introduced. When oral hypernutrition fails, nocturnal naso-gastric tube feeding of a non-elemental formula may be considered. Parenteral nutrition is rarely indicated and should be reserved as a last solution for CF-patients. PMID:1470282

  3. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  4. Incidence and mortality rate of esophageal cancer has decreased during past 40 years in Hebei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Wu, Yan; Song, Guohui; Li, Yongwei; Liang, Di; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2015-01-01

    Background Hebei province is located in North of China with of approximately 6% of whole national population. It is known as a high-risk area for esophageal cancer in China and worldwide. The aim of our study was to estimate the esophageal cancer burden and trend in Hebei Province. Methods Eight cancer registries in Hebei Province submitted cancer registry data to the Hebei Provincial Cancer Registry Center. All data were qualified and compiled for cancer statistics in 2011. The pooled data were stratified by gender and age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…80+). Incidence and mortality rates were age-standardized to World Segi’s population standard and expressed per 100,000 persons. In addition, proportions and cumulative incidence/mortality rates for esophageal cancer were calculated. Esophageal cancer mortality data during the periods 1973-1975, 1990-1992, and 2004-2005 were extracted from the national death surveys. Mortality and incidence rate data from Cixian and Shexian were obtained from population-based cancer registries in each county. Results The estimated number of newly diagnosed esophageal cancer cases and deaths in 2011 in Hebei Province was 24,318 and 18,226, respectively. The crude incidence rate of esophageal cancer was 33.37/100,000 (males, 42.18/100,000 and females, 24.31/100,000). The age-standardized rate by world standard population (ASRW) was 28.09/100,000, ranking third among all cancers. The esophageal cancer mortality rate was 25.01/100,000 (males, 31.40/100,000 and females, 18.45/100,000), ranking third in deaths among all cancers. The mortality rates of esophageal cancer displayed a significant decreasing trend in Hebei Province from 1973-1975 (ASRW =48.69/100,000) to 2004-2005 (ASRW =28.02/100,000), with a decreased rate of 42.45%. In Cixian, the incidence of esophageal cancer decreased from 250.76/100,000 to 106.74/100,000 in males and from 153.86/100,000 to 75.41/100,000 in females, with annual percentage changes (APC) of 2.13 and 2

  5. Breast cancer incidence following low-dose rate environmental exposure: Techa River Cohort, 1956–2004

    PubMed Central

    Ostroumova, E; Preston, D L; Ron, E; Krestinina, L; Davis, F G; Kossenko, M; Akleyev, A

    2008-01-01

    In the 1950s, the Mayak nuclear weapons facility in Russia discharged liquid radioactive wastes into the Techa River causing exposure of riverside residents to protracted low-to-moderate doses of radiation. Almost 10 000 women received estimated doses to the stomach of up to 0.47 Gray (Gy) (mean dose=0.04 Gy) from external γ-exposure and 137Cs incorporation. We have been following this population for cancer incidence and mortality and as in the general Russian population, we found a significant temporal trend of breast cancer incidence. A significant linear radiation dose–response relationship was observed (P=0.01) with an estimated excess relative risk per Gray (ERR/Gy) of 5.00 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80, 12.76). We estimated that approximately 12% of the 109 observed cases could be attributed to radiation. PMID:19002173

  6. Environmental radioactivity and high incidence rates of stomach and esophagus cancer in the Van Lake region: a causal relationship?

    PubMed

    Akan, Zafer; Baskurt, Busranur; Asliyuksek, Hizir; Kam, Erol; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Yuksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Biyik, Recep; Esen, Ramazan; Koca, Dogan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the incidence rates of cancer cases (averages for 2006-2010) and relationships with environmental radioactivity levels. Soil and water samples were collected from provincial and district centers of Van city and the outdoor gamma doses were determined using a portable gamma scintillation detector. Gross alpha and beta, (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K activities were measured in both tap water and soil samples. Although high rates of stomach and esophagus cancers have been reported previously in Van the underlying reasons have not hitherto been defined. Incidences of cancers were highest in the Gurpinar (326.0) and Ozalp (377.1) counties (p<0.001). As to the results of the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity measurements in the drinking water, these two counties also had high beta radionuclide levels: Gurpinar (140 mBq/dm3) and Ozalp (206 mBq/dm3). Even if within the normal range, a relation between the higher rate of the incidence of stomach and esophagus cancers with that of the higher rate of beta radionuclide activity was clear. On Spearman correlation analysis, the relation between higher beta radionuclide levels and cancer incidence was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). According to the results of the analysis, Van residents receive an average 1.86 mSv/y annual dose from outdoor gamma radiation, ingestion of radionuclides in the drinking water, and indoor 222Rn activity. Moreover, gross alpha and beta activities were found to be extremely high in all of the lakes around the city of Van, Turkey. Further investigations with long-term detailed environmental radiation measurements are needed regarding the relationship between cancer cases and environmental radioactivity in the city of Van. PMID:24528059

  7. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary. PMID:26133134

  8. Occupational exposure and 25-year incidence rate of non-specific lung disease: the Zutphen Study.

    PubMed

    Heederik, D; Kromhout, H; Burema, J; Biersteker, K; Kromhout, D

    1990-12-01

    Information gathered in the Zutphen Study, the Dutch contribution to the Seven Countries Study that started in the 1960s, was used for the present study. In 1960 878 men participated in the physical examination and they were followed for 25 years until 1 July 1985. During this follow-up, their morbidity status was verified regularly. With this information the occurrence of chronic non-specific lung disease (CNSLD) at a specific time was coded by one physician, using strict criteria. The CNSLD diagnosis was based on the following criteria: episodes of respiratory symptoms such as regular cough and phlegm for longer than three months or episodes of wheezing and shortness of breath reported to the survey physician, or: diagnosis of CNSLD, including chronic bronchitis or emphysema by a clinical specialist. Occupation in 1960 was coded and used to generate specific occupational exposures with a Job Exposure Matrix. Because the exact time of diagnosis of CNSLD was known, incidence densities could be calculated. For 804 men a complete set of data was available. A Poisson regression analysis was used to analyse the relationships between the incidence density and independent variables like age, calendar period, occupation and specific occupational exposures. Blue collar workers had a significantly elevated incidence density ratio (IDR) compared to white collar workers (1.82, 95% confidence limits (CL): 1.35, 2.46). Subgroups of blue collar workers, wood and paper workers, textile workers, and tailors, construction workers and transport workers had significantly elevated IDRs also. Of the specific exposures heavy metals, mineral dust and adhesives had a significantly elevated IDR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2084026

  9. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation in a Delayed HIV Infection Model with General Incidence Rate and Immune Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuxiang; Ma, Wanbiao; Jiang, Zhichao; Li, Dan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical behavior of a delayed HIV infection model with general incidence rate and immune impairment. We derive two threshold parameters, the basic reproduction number R 0 and the immune response reproduction number R 1. By using Lyapunov functional and LaSalle invariance principle, we prove the global stability of the infection-free equilibrium and the infected equilibrium without immunity. Furthermore, the existence of Hopf bifurcations at the infected equilibrium with CTL response is also studied. By theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, the effect of the immune impairment rate on the stability of the infected equilibrium with CTL response has been studied. PMID:26413141

  10. Trends in the Attack Rates, Incidence, and Mortality of Stroke during 1986–2012: Data of Kaunas (Lithuania) Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Milinaviciene, Egle; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Luksiene, Dalia; Milasauskiene, Zemyna; Sopagiene, Diana; Rastenyte, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a lack of reliable epidemiological data on longitudinal trends in stroke attack rates, incidence, and mortality in the countries of the Baltic region. Aims The aim of the present study was to explore the longitudinal trends of stroke in middle-aged urban population of Lithuania during the period of 1986 through 2012. Methods All stroke events in the studied population were ascertained and validated according to the standardized criteria outlined by the WHO MONICA Project. The study included all patients in Kaunas (Lithuania) city aged 25 to 64 years who experienced a stroke between 1986 and 2012. Estimates of time-trends of the annual percentage change in stroke attack rates, incidence of stroke, and mortality from this condition were made by applying the Joinpoint regression analysis. Results During the study period, 9,992 stroke events were registered. The overall proportion of recurrent events was 25.7%. Overall, 18.9% of the events (20.0% in men, and 17.4% in women) were fatal within 28 days. During the period of 1986 to 2012, a flat trend in the incidence of stroke was observed among both male and female middle-aged inhabitants of Kaunas city, while attack rates were increasing due to the increase in recurrent strokes. Both mortality and 28-day case fatality of stroke declined significantly over the study period in both sexes. Conclusions An increase both in the incidence and recurrence of stroke among middle-aged men residing in Kaunas city and in the recurrence of stroke among women denotes the inefficiency of measures applied both for primary and secondary prevention of stroke in Lithuania. The revision of current prevention strategies and the introduction of new ones are of paramount importance in order to fight the epidemic of stroke. PMID:27124412

  11. Impact of Change to Molecular Testing for Clostridium difficile Infection on Healthcare Facility–Associated Incidence Rates

    PubMed Central

    Moehring, Rebekah W.; Lofgren, Eric T.; Anderson, Deverick J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Change from nonmolecular to molecular testing techniques is thought to contribute to the increasing trend in incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI); however the degree of effect attributed to this versus other time-related epidemiologic factors is unclear. METHODS We compared the relative change in incidence rate (IRR) of healthcare facility–associated (HCFA) CDI among hospitals in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network before and after the date of switch from nonmolecular tests to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using prospectively collected surveillance data from July 2009 to December 2011. Data from 10 hospitals that switched and 22 control hospitals were included. Individual hospital estimates were determined using Poisson regression. We used an interrupted time series approach to develop a Poisson mixed-effects model. Additional regression adjustments were made for clustering and proportion of intensive care unit patient-days. The variable for PCR was treated as a fixed effect; other modeled variables were random effects. RESULTS For those hospitals that switched to PCR, mean incidence rate of HCFA CDI before the switch was 6.0 CDIs per 10,000 patient-days compared with 9.6 CDIs per 10,000 patient-days after the switch. Estimates of hospital-specific IRR that compared after the switch with before the switch ranged from 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32–2.44) to 6.91 (95% CI, 1.12–42.54). After adjustment in the mixed-effects model, the overall IRR comparing CDI incidence after the switch to before the switch was 1.56 (95% CI, 1.28–1.90). Time-trend variables did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION Hospitals that switched from nonmolecular to molecular tests experienced an approximate 56% increase in the rate of HCFA CDI after testing change. PMID:24018922

  12. Time trends (1998-2007) in brain cancer incidence rates in relation to mobile phone use in England.

    PubMed

    de Vocht, Frank; Burstyn, Igor; Cherrie, John W

    2011-07-01

    Mobile phone use in the United Kingdom and other countries has risen steeply since the early 1990's when the first digital mobile phones were introduced. There is an ongoing controversy about whether radio frequency (RF) exposure from mobile phones increases the risk of brain cancer. However, given the widespread use and nearly two decades elapsing since mobile phones were introduced, an association should have produced a noticeable increase in the incidence of brain cancer by now. Trends in rates of newly diagnosed brain cancer cases in England between 1998 and 2007 were examined. There were no time trends in overall incidence of brain cancers for either gender, or any specific age group. Systematic increases in rates for cancers of the temporal lobe in men (0.04 new cases/year) and women (0.02/year) were observed, along with decreases in the rates of cancers of the parietal lobe (-0.03/year), cerebrum (-0.02/year) and cerebellum (-0.01/year) in men only. The increased use of mobile phones between 1985 and 2003 has not led to a noticeable change in the incidence of brain cancer in England between 1998 and 2007. The observed increase in the rate of cancers in the temporal lobe, if caused by mobile phone use, would constitute <1 additional case per 100,000 people in that period. These data do not indicate a pressing need to implement a precautionary principle by means of population-wide interventions to reduce RF exposure from mobile phones. PMID:21280060

  13. Overall false positive rates in tests for linear trend in tumor incidence in animal carcinogenicity studies of new drugs.

    PubMed

    Lin, K K; Rahman, M A

    1998-03-01

    Based on results of simulation and empirical studies conducted within the Divisions of Biometrics, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, and in collaboration with the National Toxicology Program, the Center has recently changed the significance levels for testing positive linear trend in incidence rate for common and rare tumors, respectively, from 0.01 and 0.05 to 0.005 and 0.025. The overall false positive rate resulting from the use of this new rule in the tests for linear trend in a two-species-two-sex study is about 10%, the rate that is judged as the most appropriate in a regulatory setting by the Center. This paper describes two of the studies. PMID:9547425

  14. Low Cloud Cover-Adjusted Ultraviolet B Irradiance Is Associated with High Incidence Rates of Leukemia: Study of 172 Countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are 52,380 cases of leukemia and 24,090 deaths from it in the US annually. Its causes are unknown and no preventive strategies have been implemented. We hypothesized that leukemia is due mainly to vitamin D deficiency, which is due mainly to low solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance. To test this hypothesis, we estimated age-standardized cloud-cover-adjusted winter UVB irradiance using cloud cover data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, latitudes of population centroids, and standard astronomical calculations. Incidence rates for 172 countries, available from the International Agency for Cancer Research, were plotted according to cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance. We used multiple regression to account for national differences in elevation and average life expectancy. Leukemia incidence rates were inversely associated with cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance in males (p ≤ 0.01) and females (p ≤ 0.01) in both hemispheres. There were few departures from the trend line, which was parabolic when plotted with the equator at the center of the display, northern hemisphere countries on the right side and southern hemisphere countries on the left. The bivariate association displayed by the polynomial trend line indicated that populations at higher latitudes had at least two times the risk of leukemia compared to equatorial populations. The association persisted in males (p ≤ 0.05) and females (p ≤ 0.01) after controlling for elevation and life expectancy. Incidence rates of leukemia were inversely associated with solar UVB irradiance. It is plausible that the association is due to vitamin D deficiency. This would be consistent with laboratory studies and a previous epidemiological study. Consideration should be given to prudent use of vitamin D for prevention of leukemia. PMID:26637119

  15. Low Cloud Cover-Adjusted Ultraviolet B Irradiance Is Associated with High Incidence Rates of Leukemia: Study of 172 Countries.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Garland, Cedric F; Gorham, Edward D; Mohr, Sharif B

    2015-01-01

    There are 52,380 cases of leukemia and 24,090 deaths from it in the US annually. Its causes are unknown and no preventive strategies have been implemented. We hypothesized that leukemia is due mainly to vitamin D deficiency, which is due mainly to low solar ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance. To test this hypothesis, we estimated age-standardized cloud-cover-adjusted winter UVB irradiance using cloud cover data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, latitudes of population centroids, and standard astronomical calculations. Incidence rates for 172 countries, available from the International Agency for Cancer Research, were plotted according to cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance. We used multiple regression to account for national differences in elevation and average life expectancy. Leukemia incidence rates were inversely associated with cloud-adjusted UVB irradiance in males (p ≤ 0.01) and females (p ≤ 0.01) in both hemispheres. There were few departures from the trend line, which was parabolic when plotted with the equator at the center of the display, northern hemisphere countries on the right side and southern hemisphere countries on the left. The bivariate association displayed by the polynomial trend line indicated that populations at higher latitudes had at least two times the risk of leukemia compared to equatorial populations. The association persisted in males (p ≤ 0.05) and females (p ≤ 0.01) after controlling for elevation and life expectancy. Incidence rates of leukemia were inversely associated with solar UVB irradiance. It is plausible that the association is due to vitamin D deficiency. This would be consistent with laboratory studies and a previous epidemiological study. Consideration should be given to prudent use of vitamin D for prevention of leukemia. PMID:26637119

  16. Incidence of fetal bradycardia and effect of placental injury on fetal heart rate during second-trimester genetic amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Hanprasertpong, T; Petpichetchian, C; Ponglopisit, S; Suksai, M; Kor-Anantakul, O; Geater, A; Pruksanusak, N; Hanprasertpong, J

    2016-05-01

    A prospective study was conducted for comparing the incidence of fetal bradycardia and level of fetal heart rate change following a second-trimester genetic amniocentesis with and without placental injury. A total of 257 and 495 participants in injured and non-injured groups were analysed. The incidence of fetal bradycardia following amniocentesis was not statistically different between the two groups (1.17%, [95% CI 0.24, 3.37] and 0.20%, [95% CI 0.005, 1.12]) in injured and non-injured placenta groups, respectively; p = 0.118). The mean change in baseline fetal heart rate before and after amniocentesis was also not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.844). No fetal death or pregnancy loss occurred within 4 weeks after the procedure. All 4 bradycardia participants were normal and healthy and had an appropriate weight for their gestational age. We conclude that placental injury during a second-trimester genetic amniocentesis due to advanced maternal age poses only a low risk of fetal bradycardia, and there is no evidence of differences between subjects with injured and non-injured placenta in the changes in fetal heart rate. PMID:26512899

  17. Updated fracture incidence rates for the US version of FRAX (registered trademark)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of results produced by the US version of FRAX (trademarked) indicates that this tool overestimates the likelihood of major osteoporotic fracture. In an attempt to correct this, we updated underlying baseline fracture rates for the model. We used US hospital discharge data from 2006 to ca...

  18. Bone-fracture incidence rate in two Italian regions with different fluoride concentration levels in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, L; Leoni, V; Vitali, M

    1999-12-01

    The effect of the fluoride concentration in drinking water on the prevention of fractures related to osteoporosis has been questioned or contradicted in several recent studies. These studies have been mostly performed using water with artificially added fluoride, at the optimum level of about 1 mg/l. In the present study authors have investigated the effect of equal or greater fluoride concentrations (mean 1.45 mg/l) naturally present in waters supplied for human consumption to a population of 72.756 (Bracciano county), in comparison with a population of 126.189 (Avezzano county), supplied with low fluoride concentration water (mean 0.05 mg/l). The incidence of fractures in the years 1990 and 1991 was evaluated in the two areas (Bracciano and Avezzano), which are located in central Italy and where population have a similar life style, economic and social level and employment structure. The incidence data were obtained from the registers of the public hospital taken as a reference in each district. The authors noticed a significantly greater rate of fracture incidence at several parts of the body, in particular femur fractures (relative risks for males 4.28 and for females 2.64), in the population of the district of Avezzano than in the population of Bracciano. The greater concentration of fluoride in waters distributed for human consumption in Bracciano district seems to have the effect of protecting its inhabitants against fractures. PMID:10707346

  19. Global stability for an HIV-1 infection model with Beddington-DeAngelis incidence rate and CTL immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Cuifang; Huang, Lihong; Yuan, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an HIV-1 infection model with Beddington-DeAngelis incidence rate and CTL immune response is investigated. One main feature of this model is that an eclipse stage for the infected cells is included and a portion of these cells is reverted to uninfected cells. We derive the basic reproduction number R1 and the immune response reproduction number R2 for the HIV-1 infection model. By constructing Lyapunov functions, the global stabilities for the equilibria have been analyzed.

  20. Effect of cardiovascular prevention strategies on incident coronary disease hospitalisation rates in Spain; an ecological time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, María José; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Ortíz, Cristina; Galán, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the overall population impact of primary prevention strategies (promotion of healthy lifestyles, prevention of smoking and use of vascular risk drug therapy) of coronary disease in Spain. Design Ecological time series analysis, 1982–2009. Setting All public and private hospitals in Spain. Participants General population. Outcome Incident coronary disease hospitalisation as derived from official hospital discharge data. Methods Annual hospitalisation rates were modelled according to nationwide use of statins, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and antiplatelet drugs, and prevalences of smoking, obesity and overweight. Additive generalised models and mixed Poisson regression models were used for the purpose, taking year as the random-effect variable and adjusting for age, sex, prevalence of vascular risk factors and the number of hospital beds in intensive and coronary care units. Results Across 28 years and 671.5 million person-years of observation, there were 2 986 834 hospitalisations due to coronary disease; of these, 1 441 980 (48.28%) were classified as incident. Hospitalisation rates increased from 1982 to 1996, with an inflection point in 1997 and a subsequent 52% decrease until 2009. Prevalences of smoking, obesity, overweight and use of vascular risk drug therapy were significantly associated with hospitalisation rates (p<0.001): incidence rates ratios (95% CI) for the fourth versus the first quartile were 1.46 (1.42 to 1.50), 1.80 (1.78 to 1.83), 1.58 (1.55 to 1.60) and 0.57 (0.51 to 0.63), respectively. These variables accounted for 92% of interannual variability. Conclusions After decades of continuous rises, hospitalisation due to incident ischaemic heart disease has been cut by half, an achievement associated with the decline in smoking and the increase in vascular risk drug therapy. These results indicate that these two primary prevention strategies have been effective at a population level, thanks to an appropriate balance

  1. A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William B.

    2013-01-01

    Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data) in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking), and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses). The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer), energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two), latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three), and per capita gross national product (five types). Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15–25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer. PMID:24379012

  2. Severe maternal morbidity from direct obstetric causes in West Africa: incidence and case fatality rates.

    PubMed Central

    Prual, A.; Bouvier-Colle, M. H.; de Bernis, L.; Bréart, G.

    2000-01-01

    Data on maternal morbidity make it possible to assess how many women are likely to need essential obstetric care, and permit the organization, monitoring and evaluation of safe motherhood programmes. In the present paper we propose operational definitions of severe maternal morbidity and report the frequency of such morbidity as revealed in a population-based survey of a cohort of 20,326 pregnant women in six West African countries. The methodology and questionnaires were the same in all areas. Each pregnant woman had four contacts with the obstetric survey team: at inclusion, between 32 and 36 weeks of amenorrhoea, during delivery and 60 days postpartum. Direct obstetric causes of severe morbidity were observed in 1215 women (6.17 cases per 100 live births). This ratio varied significantly between areas, from 3.01% in Bamako to 9.05% in Saint-Louis. The main direct causes of severe maternal morbidity were: haemorrhage (3.05 per 100 live births); obstructed labour (2.05 per 100), 23 cases of which involved uterine rupture (0.12 per 100); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0.64 per 100), 38 cases of which involved eclampsia (0.19 per 100); and sepsis (0.09 per 100). Other direct obstetric causes accounted for 12.2% of cases. Case fatality rates were very high for sepsis (33.3%), uterine rupture (30.4%) and eclampsia (18.4%); those for haemorrhage varied from 1.9% for antepartum or peripartum haemorrhage to 3.7% for abruptio placentae. Thus at least 3-9% of pregnant women required essential obstetric care. The high case fatality rates of several complications reflected a poor quality of obstetric care. PMID:10859853

  3. Centenarian Rates and Life Expectancy Related to the Death Rates of Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma, and Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Children.

    PubMed

    Lens-Pechakova, Lilia S

    2016-02-01

    The autoimmune diseases are among the 10 leading causes of death for women and the number two cause of chronic illness in America as well as a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Patients of some autoimmune diseases have shown a shorter life span and are a model of accelerated immunosenescence. Conversely, centenarians are used as a model of successful aging and have shown several immune parameters that are better preserved and lower levels of autoantibodies. The study reported here focused on clarifying the connection between longevity and some autoimmune and allergic diseases in 29 developed Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, because multidisciplinary analyses of the accelerated or delayed aging data could show a distinct relationship pattern, help to identify common factors, and determine new important factors that contribute to longevity and healthy aging. The relationships between the mortality rates data of multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), asthma, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) from one side and centenarian rates (two sets) as well as life expectancy data from the other side were assessed using regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients. The data obtained correspond to an inverse linear correlation with different degrees of linearity. This is the first observation of a clear tendency of diminishing centenarian rates or life expectancy in countries having higher death rates of asthma, MS, and RA and a higher incidence of T1D in children. The conclusion is that most probably there are common mechanistic pathways and factors affecting the above diseases and at the same time but in the opposite direction the processes of longevity. Further study, comparing genetic data, mechanistic pathways, and other factors connected to autoimmune diseases with those of longevity could clarify the processes involved, so as to promote longevity and limit the expansion of those

  4. Ion sputtering rates of W-, Ti- and Cr-carbides studied at different Ar + ion incidence angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalar, A.; Kovač, J.; Praček, B.; Panjan, P.; Čeh, M.

    2008-08-01

    To study the ion sputtering rates of W-, Ti- and Cr-carbides, trilayer structures comprising C-graphite (59 nm)/WC (50 nm)/W (38 nm), C-graphite (56 nm)/TiC (40 nm)/Ti (34 nm) and C-graphite (46 nm)/C 3C 2 (60 nm)/Cr (69 nm) with a tolerance ±2% were sputter deposited onto smooth silicon substrates. Their precise structural and compositional characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the WC and Cr 3C 2 layers were amorphous, while the TiC layer had a polycrystalline structure. The ion sputtering rates of all three carbides, amorphous carbon and polycrystalline Cr, Ti and W layers were determined by means of Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling as a function of the angle of incidence of two symmetrically inclined 1 keV Ar + ion beams in the range between 22° and 82°. The sputtering rates were calculated from the known thicknesses of the layers and the sputtering times necessary to remove the individual layers. It was found that the sputtering rates of carbides, C-graphite and metals were strongly angle dependent. For the carbides in the range between 36° and 62° the highest ion sputtering rate was found for Cr 3C 2 and the lowest for TiC, while the values of the sputtering rates for WC were intermediate. The normalized sputtering yields calculated from the experimentally obtained data for all three carbides followed the trend of theoretical results obtained by calculation of the transport of ions in solids by the SRIM code. The sputtering yields are also presented in terms of atoms/ion. Our experimental data for two ion incidence angles of 22° and 49° and reported values of other authors for C-graphite and metals are mainly inside the estimated error of about ±20%. The influence of the ion-induced surface topography on the measured sputtering yields was estimated from the atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements at the intermediate points of

  5. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita; Moonsamy, Suri; Abbai, Nathlee Samantha; Wand, Handan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002–2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR) were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old), unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole. PMID:27104835

  6. A cross-national analysis of the effects of methadone maintenance and needle and syringe program implementation on incidence rates of HIV in Europe from 1995 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Phillip L; McCullagh, Charlotte A

    2016-06-01

    Although many studies have found an association between harm reduction interventions and reductions in incidence rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, scant research explores the effects of harm reduction cross-nationally. This study used a year- and country-level fixed effects model to estimate the potential effects of needle-and-syringe programs (NSPs) and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) on incidence rates of HIV in the general population and among people who inject drugs (PWID), in a sample of 28 European nations. After adjusting for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and total expenditures on healthcare, we identified significant associations between years of MMT and NSP implementation and lower incidence rates of HIV among PWID and the general population. In addition to years of implementation of NSP and MMT, the greater proportion of GDP spent on healthcare was associated with a decrease in logged incidence rates of HIV. The findings of this study suggest that MMT and NSP may reduce incidence rates of HIV among PWID cross-nationally. The current study opens a new avenue of exploration, which allows for a focus on countrywide policies and economic drivers of the epidemic. Moreover, it highlights the immense importance of the adoption of harm reduction programs as empirically-based health policy as well as the direct benefits that are accrued from public spending on healthcare on incidence rates of HIV within the general population and among subpopulations of PWID. PMID:27212656

  7. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study. PMID:23244129

  8. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Promislow, D.E.L.; Tatar, M.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Peter Medawar proposed that senescence arises from an age-related decline in the force of selection, which allows late-acting deleterious mutations to accumulate. Subsequent workers have suggested that mutation accumulation could produce an age-related increase in additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits, as recently found in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report results from a genetic analysis of mortality in 65,134 D. melanogaster. Additive genetic variance for female mortality rates increases from 0.007 in the first week of life to 0.325 by the third week, and then declines to 0.002 by the seventh week. Males show a similar pattern, though total variance is lower than in females. In contrast to a predicted divergence in mortality curves, mortality curves of different genotypes are roughly parallel. Using a three-parameter model, we find significant V{sub A} for the slope and constant term of the curve describing age-specific mortality rates, and also for the rate at which mortality decelerates late in life. These results fail to support a prediction derived from Medawar`s {open_quotes}mutation accumulation{close_quotes} theory for the evolution of senescence. However, our results could be consistent with alternative interpretations of evolutionary models of aging. 65 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Application of a Novel Grey Self-Memory Coupling Model to Forecast the Incidence Rates of Two Notifiable Diseases in China: Dysentery and Gonorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaojun; Liu, Sifeng; Wu, Lifeng; Tang, Lingling

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this study, a novel grey self-memory coupling model was developed to forecast the incidence rates of two notifiable infectious diseases (dysentery and gonorrhea); the effectiveness and applicability of this model was assessed based on its ability to predict the epidemiological trend of infectious diseases in China. Methods The linear model, the conventional GM(1,1) model and the GM(1,1) model with self-memory principle (SMGM(1,1) model) were used to predict the incidence rates of the two notifiable infectious diseases based on statistical incidence data. Both simulation accuracy and prediction accuracy were assessed to compare the predictive performances of the three models. The best-fit model was applied to predict future incidence rates. Results Simulation results show that the SMGM(1,1) model can take full advantage of the systematic multi-time historical data and possesses superior predictive performance compared with the linear model and the conventional GM(1,1) model. By applying the novel SMGM(1,1) model, we obtained the possible incidence rates of the two representative notifiable infectious diseases in China. Conclusion The disadvantages of the conventional grey prediction model, such as sensitivity to initial value, can be overcome by the self-memory principle. The novel grey self-memory coupling model can predict the incidence rates of infectious diseases more accurately than the conventional model, and may provide useful references for making decisions involving infectious disease prevention and control. PMID:25546054

  10. Effect of carcinogen release rate on the incidence of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the respiratory tract epithelium in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shiba, M.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.; Marchok, A.C.; Pal, B.C.; Nettesheim, P.

    1982-11-01

    Inbred F344 rat tracheal transplants were exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) delivered at different release rates from intraluminal pellets made of various matrices to study the effect of carcinogen dose rate on the induction of lesions in the epithelium. These matrices were beeswax, beeswax-stearyl alcohol, and beeswax-cholesterol. In addition, DMBA adsorbed onto carbon particles was dispersed in beeswax-stearyl alcohol. The fastest release was obtained from beeswax pellets from which 99% of the carcinogen (198 ..mu..g) was released in 4 weeks, and the slowest release was from DMBA adsorbed on carbon at a ratio of 1:9 from which only 56% (113 ..mu..g) was released in 16 weeks. Morphometry of histologic sections showed marked differences in the percentage of luminal surface covered by dysplastic-neoplastic epithelium (i.e., 7.5% in the tracheas exposed to the fastest releasing pellets and 46.3% in the tracheas exposed to the slowest releasing pellets). An inverse linear correlation was found between the cumulative amount of DMBA release from the different pellet matrices at 2 weeks and the incidence of dysplastic plus neoplastic lesions of tracheal epithelium at 16 weeks. The results indicated that lower doses of carcinogen delivered slowly are more effective in producing dysplastic plus neoplastic lesions than higher doses delivered rapidly.

  11. Heart rate-based training intensity and its impact on injury incidence among elite-level professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Owen, Adam L; Forsyth, Jacky J; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Connelly, Sean P; Chamari, Karim

    2015-06-01

    Elite-level professional soccer players are suggested to have increased physical, technical, tactical, and psychological capabilities when compared with their subelite counterparts. Ensuring these players remain at the elite level generally involves training many different bodily systems to a high intensity or level within a short duration. This study aimed to examine whether an increase in training volume at high-intensity levels was related to injury incidence, or increased the odds of sustaining an injury. Training intensity was monitored through time spent in high-intensity (T-HI) and very high-intensity (T-VHI) zones of 85-<90% and ≥90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), and all injuries were recorded over 2 consecutive seasons. Twenty-three, elite professional male soccer players (mean ± SD age, 25.6 ± 4.6 years; stature, 181.8 ± 6.8 cm; and body mass, 79.3 ± 8.1 kg) were studied throughout the 2-years span of the investigation. The results showed a mean total injury incidence of 18.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.7-22.9) injuries per 1,000 hours of exposure. Significant correlations were found between training volume at T-HI and injury incidence (r = 0.57, p = 0.005). Further analysis revealed how players achieving more time in the T-VHI zone during training increased the odds of sustaining a match injury (odds ratio = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.12, p = 0.02) but did not increase the odds of sustaining a training injury. Reducing the number of competitive match injuries among elite-level professional players may be possible if greater focus is placed on the training intensity and volume over a period of time ensuring the potential reduction of fatigue or overuse injuries. In addition, it is important to understand the optimal training load at which adaptation occurs without raising the risk of injury. PMID:26010801

  12. Incidence Rates and Risk Factors for Ocular Complications and Vision Loss in HLA-B27-Associated Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Allison R.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To calculate the incidence rates of ocular complications and vision loss in HLA-B27-associated uveitis and to explore the effect of chronic inflammation on clinical outcomes. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort study Methods The clinical records of 99 patients (148 uveitis-affected eyes) with HLA-B27-associated uveitis seen at a tertiary care center were included. The main outcome measures were ocular complications (posterior iris synechiae, band keratopathy, posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataracts, ocular hypertension, hypotony, cystoid macular edema and epiretinal membrane) and vision loss. Anterior chamber inflammation was defined as ≥1+ grade inflammation. Chronic uveitis was defined as persistent inflammation with relapse in <3 months after discontinuing treatment or requiring medications to suppress inflammation for >3 months after reviewing the patient's entire clinical course. Results The clinical course was most commonly acute/recurrent (75%) or chronic (20%). The most common complications to develop during follow-up were ocular hypertension (0.10/eye-year) and PSC cataracts (0.09/eye-year). In multivariate analysis, the presence of posterior synechiae at presentation, inflammation, corticosteroid-sparing therapy, corticosteroid injections, chronic disease and male gender were associated with a statistically significant increased risk of developing vision loss (20/50 or worse). Chronic disease course was associated with a 7-fold increased risk of visual impairment (HR=6.8, P<0.0001). The presence of inflammation during follow-up was associated with an increased risk of developing visual impairment (HR=6.2, P<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, chronic disease course and topical corticosteroids were associated with an increased risk of developing any incident ocular complication (HR=2.2, P=0.04) and (HR=3.3, P=0.01), respectively. Conclusions Poorly controlled inflammation was associated with the development of ocular complications including

  13. ESTIMATES OF AGE-SPECIFIC URINARY EXCRETION RATES FOR CREATININE AMONG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of this study suggest that naïve adjustment by creatinine concentration, without consideration of the age-dependence of the physiological mechanisms controlling its excretion, may introduce sizeable error and is inappropriate when comparing metabolite concentrations a...

  14. Trends in Incidence Rates during 1999-2008 and Prevalence in 2008 of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in GERMANY – Model-Based National Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Kiess, Wieland; Kapellen, Thomas Michael; Stange, Thoralf; Manuwald, Ulf; Salzsieder, Eckhard; Holl, Reinhard Walter; Schoffer, Olaf; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Giani, Guido; Ehehalt, Stefan; Neu, Andreas; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Aims To estimate the national incidence rate and trend of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in Germany from 1999 to 2008 and the national prevalence in 2008 in the age group 0–14 years. Methods Data were taken from a nationwide registry for incident cases of T1DM in the ages 0–4 years and 3 regional registries (North-Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Wuerttemberg and Saxony) for incident cases of T1DM in the ages 0–14 years covering 41% of the child population in Germany. The degree of ascertainment was ≥ 97% in all registries. Incident and prevalent cases were grouped by region, sex, age (0–4, 5–9, 10–14 years), and, for incident data, additionally by two 5-year periods (1999–2003, 2004–2008). Poisson regression models were fitted to the data to derive national estimates of incidence rate trends and prevalence in the age groups 5–9, 10–14 and 0–14 years. We used direct age-standardization. Results The estimated national incidence rate in 0-14-year-olds increased significantly by 18.1% (95%CI: 11.6–25.0%, p<0.001) from 1999–2003 to 2004–2008, independent of sex, corresponding to an average annual increase of 3.4% (95%-CI: 2.2–4.6%). The overall incidence rate was estimated at 22.9 per 100,000 person-years and we identified a within-country west-east-gradient previously unknown. The national prevalence in the ages 0–14 years on 31/12/2008 was estimated to be 148.1 per 100,000 persons. Conclusions The national incidence rate of childhood T1DM in Germany is higher than in many other countries around the world. Importantly, the estimated trend of the incidence rate confirms the international data of a global increase of T1DM incidences. PMID:26181330

  15. Subnormal Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Strongly Predict Incident Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetic Chinese Population With Normoalbuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Jeng-Fu; Su, Shih-Li; Chen, Jung-Fu; Chen, Hung-Chun; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract No study has evaluated whether subnormal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (between 61 and 90 mL/min) and high normal albumin–creatinine ratio (ACR) (<30 mg/g) are associated with cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients with normoalbuminuria. We observed a longitudinal cohort study of 1291 T2DM patients with normoalbuminuria who were receiving intensified multifactorial treatment from 2004 to 2008. Cox regression models were used to evaluate eGFR and ACR as the risk factors of major CV events (nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke) and mortality. During the 4-year period, 56 patients died and 159 patients developed major CV events. We found eGFR, but not ACR, to be associated with major CV events. Compared to those with eGFR higher than 90 mL/min, patients with subnormal eGFR (HR: 3.133, 1.402–7.002, P = 0.005) were at greater risk of incident major CV events. Extremely low eGFR (<30 mL/min) was associated with mortality only in patients under 65 years old. Subnormal eGFR was a strong predictor of major CV events in diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria. Normoalbuminuric diabetic patients with subnormal eGFR may need intensive CV risk factor intervention to prevent and treat CV events. PMID:26765399

  16. Large-Amplitude, High-Rate Roll Oscillations of a 65 deg Delta Wing at High Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Schiff, Lewis B.

    2000-01-01

    The IAR/WL 65 deg delta wing experimental results provide both detail pressure measurements and a wide range of flow conditions covering from simple attached flow, through fully developed vortex and vortex burst flow, up to fully-stalled flow at very high incidence. Thus, the Computational Unsteady Aerodynamics researchers can use it at different level of validating the corresponding code. In this section a range of CFD results are provided for the 65 deg delta wing at selected flow conditions. The time-dependent, three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are used to numerically simulate the unsteady vertical flow. Two sting angles and two large- amplitude, high-rate, forced-roll motions and a damped free-to-roll motion are presented. The free-to-roll motion is computed by coupling the time-dependent RANS equations to the flight dynamic equation of motion. The computed results are compared with experimental pressures, forces, moments and roll angle time history. In addition, surface and off-surface flow particle streaks are also presented.

  17. Time trends over 16 years in incidence-rates of autism spectrum disorders across the lifespan based on nationwide Danish register data.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated time trends and associated factors of incidence rates of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan from 1995 to 2010, using data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. First time diagnosis of childhood autism, atypical autism, Asperger's syndrome, or pervasive developmental disorder-unspecified (PDD-NOS) were identified, incidence rates were calculated, and data were fitted using non-linear least squares methods. A total of 14.997 patients were identified and incidence rates for ASD increased from 9.0 to 38.6 per 100,000 person years during the 16-year period. The increases were most pronounced in females, adolescents, adults, and patients with Asperger's syndrome and PDD-NOS. PMID:24554161

  18. Self-Rated Health and Cardiovascular Disease Incidence: Results from a Longitudinal Population-Based Cohort in Norfolk, UK

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Rianne M.; Mavaddat, Nahal; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinmonth, Ann Louise

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Self-rated health (SRH) predicts chronic disease morbidity including cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a population-based cohort, we examined the association between SRH and incident CVD and whether this association was independent of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural participant characteristics. Methods Population-based prospective cohort study (European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk). 20,941 men and women aged 39–74 years without prevalent CVD attended a baseline health examination (1993–1998) and were followed for CVD events/death until March 2007 (mean 11 years). We used a Cox proportional hazards model to quantify the association between baseline SRH (reported on a four point scale – excellent, good, fair, poor) and risk of developing CVD at follow-up after adjusting for socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural risk factors. Results Baseline SRH was reported as excellent by 17.8% participants, good by 65.1%, fair by 16.0% and poor by 1.2%. During 225,508 person-years of follow-up, there were 55 (21.2%) CVD events in the poor SRH group and 259 (7.0%) in the excellent SRH group (HR 3.7, 95% CI 2.8–4.9). The HR remained significant after adjustment for behavioural risk factors (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9–3.5) and after adjustment for all socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural risk factors (HR 3.3, 95% CI 2.4–4.4). Associations were strong for both fatal and non-fatal events and remained strong over time. Conclusions SRH is a strong predictor of incident fatal and non-fatal CVD events in this healthy, middle-aged population. Some of the association is explained by lifestyle behaviours, but SRH remains a strong predictor after adjustment for socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural risk factors and after a decade of follow-up. This easily accessible patient-centred measure of health status may be a useful indicator of individual and population health for those working in primary care and public health. PMID

  19. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Fecundity and its genetic covariance with age-specific mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, M.; Promislow, D.E.L.; Khazaeli, A.A.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Under the mutation accumulation model of senescence, it was predicted that the additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits will increase with age. We measured age-specific mortality and fecundity from 65,134 Drosophila melanogaster and estimated genetic variance components, based on reciprocal crosses of extracted second chromosome lines. Elsewhere we report the results for mortality. Here, for fecundity, we report a biomodal pattern for V{sub A} with peaks at 3 days and at 17-31 days. Under the antagonistic pleiotropy model of senescence, it was predicted that negative correlations will exist between early and late life history traits. For fecundity itself we find positive genetic correlations among age classes >3 days but negative nonsignificant correlations between fecundity at 3 days and at older age classes. For fecundity vs. age-specific mortality, we find positive fitness correlations (negative genetic correlations) among the traits at all ages >3 days but a negative fitness correlation between fecundity at 3 days and mortality at the oldest ages (positive genetic correlations). For age-specific mortality itself we find overwhelmingly positive genetic correlations among all age classes. The data suggest that mutation accumulation may be a major source of standing genetic variance for senescence. 75 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Age-Specific Patterns of Genetic Variance in Drosophila Melanogaster. II. Fecundity and Its Genetic Covariance with Age-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, M.; Promislow, DEL.; Khazaeli, A. A.; Curtsinger, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Under the mutation accumulation model of senescence, it was predicted that the additive genetic variance (V(A)) for fitness traits will increase with age. We measured age-specific mortality and fecundity from 65,134 Drosophila melanogaster and estimated genetic variance components, based on reciprocal crosses of extracted second chromosome lines. Elsewhere we report the results for mortality. Here, for fecundity, we report a bimodal pattern for V(A) with peaks at 3 days and at 17-31 days. Under the antagonistic pleiotropy model of senescence, it was predicted that negative correlations will exist between early and late life history traits. For fecundity itself we find positive genetic correlations among age classes >3 days but negative nonsignificant correlations between fecundity at 3 days and at older age classes. For fecundity vs. age-specific mortality, we find positive fitness correlations (negative genetic correlations) among the traits at all ages >3 days but a negative fitness correlation between fecundity at 3 days and mortality at the oldest ages (positive genetic correlations). For age-specific mortality itself we find overwhelmingly positive genetic correlations among all age classes. The data suggest that mutation accumulation may be a major source of standing genetic variance for senescence. PMID:8725233

  1. Patterns of Multiple Myeloma During the Past 5 Decades: Stable Incidence Rates for All Age Groups in the Population but Rapidly Changing Age Distribution in the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Turesson, Ingemar; Velez, Ramon; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Landgren, Ola

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define age-adjusted incidence trends in multiple myeloma (MM) in a well-characterized population during a long period, given that some, but not all, studies have reported increasing MM incidence over time and that clinical experience from some centers suggests an increased incidence mainly in younger age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all patients (N=773) with MM diagnosed in Malmö, Sweden, from January 1, 1950, through December 31, 2005. Using census data for the population of Malmö, we calculated age- and sex-specific incidence rates. Incidence rates were also calculated for 10-year birth cohorts. Analyses for trends were performed using the Poisson regression. RESULTS: From 1950 through 2005, the average annual age-adjusted (European standard population) incidence rate remained stable (Poisson regression, P=.07 for men and P=.67 for women). Also, comparisons between 10-year birth cohorts (from 1870-1879 to 1970-1979) failed to detect any increase. Between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005, the median age at diagnosis of MM increased from 70 to 74 years, and the proportion of newly diagnosed patients aged 80 years or older increased from 16% to 31%. CONCLUSION: Our finding of stable MM incidence rates for all age groups during the past 5 decades suggests that recent clinical observations of an increase of MM in the young may reflect an increased referral stream of younger patients with MM, which in turn might be a consequence of improved access to better MM therapies. Importantly, because of the aging population, the proportion of patients with MM aged 80 years or older doubled between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005. PMID:20194150

  2. Relationship between herd-level incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, general risk factors and claw lesions in individual dairy cows recorded at maintenance claw trimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Laminitis and energy-related postpartum diseases share several risk factors, indicating a common etiology. Thus, a herd’s incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, such as displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis, might reflect the likelihood of cows to suffer from laminitis-related claw lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between herd-level incidence rate of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis, general risk factors, and claw lesions in individual cows recorded at maintenance claw trimming. Methods The dataset consisted of 6773 trimmings, performed between 2004 and 2006 by professional trimmers, from 3607 Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein cows in 26 herds. The herds were classified as having a high, inconsistent-high or low incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, based on the number of recorded cases of veterinary-diagnosed displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis in the Swedish national animal disease recording system during 2002 to 2006, and observations and interviews in connections with herd visits. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the association between herd-level incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases and laminitis-related lesions including sole ulcer and sole hemorrhage; and hygiene-related lesions including interdigital dermatitis, digital dermatitis, heel-horn erosion, verrucose dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia; and absence of any claw lesion. Systematic effects, including first-order interactions, with P < 0.05 were included in the models. Herd classification was forced into the models, and a random effect of herd was included. Results In comparison to herds with a high incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, low-incidence herds showed a lower odds ratio (OR; 0.2) for laminitis-related lesions in cows trimmed during the summer months. Low-incidence herds also showed numerically lower OR estimates for laminitis

  3. A systematic review of the incidence of schizophrenia: the distribution of rates and the influence of sex, urbanicity, migrant status and methodology

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, John; Saha, Sukanta; Welham, Joy; El Saadi, Ossama; MacCauley, Clare; Chant, David

    2004-01-01

    Background Understanding variations in the incidence of schizophrenia is a crucial step in unravelling the aetiology of this group of disorders. The aims of this review are to systematically identify studies related to the incidence of schizophrenia, to describe the key features of these studies, and to explore the distribution of rates derived from these studies. Methods Studies with original data related to the incidence of schizophrenia (published 1965–2001) were identified via searching electronic databases, reviewing citations and writing to authors. These studies were divided into core studies, migrant studies, cohort studies and studies based on Other Special Groups. Between- and within-study filters were applied in order to identify discrete rates. Cumulative plots of these rates were made and these distributions were compared when the underlying rates were sorted according to sex, urbanicity, migrant status and various methodological features. Results We identified 100 core studies, 24 migrant studies, 23 cohort studies and 14 studies based on Other Special Groups. These studies, which were drawn from 33 countries, generated a total of 1,458 rates. Based on discrete core data for persons (55 studies and 170 rates), the distribution of rates was asymmetric and had a median value (10%–90% quantile) of 15.2 (7.7–43.0) per 100,000. The distribution of rates was significantly higher in males compared to females; the male/female rate ratio median (10%–90% quantile) was 1.40 (0.9–2.4). Those studies conducted in urban versus mixed urban-rural catchment areas generated significantly higher rate distributions. The distribution of rates in migrants was significantly higher compared to native-born; the migrant/native-born rate ratio median (10%–90% quantile) was 4.6 (1.0–12.8). Apart from the finding that older studies reported higher rates, other study features were not associated with significantly different rate distributions (e.g. overall quality

  4. A demographic transition altered the strength of selection for fitness and age-specific survival and fertility in a 19th century American population

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.

    2012-01-01

    Modernization has increased longevity and decreased fertility in many human populations, but it is not well understood how or to what extent these demographic transitions have altered patterns of natural selection. I integrate individual-based multivariate phenotypic selection approaches with evolutionary demographic methods to demonstrate how a demographic transition in 19th century female populations of Utah altered relationships between fitness and age-specific survival and fertility. Coincident with this demographic transition, natural selection for fitness, as measured by the opportunity for selection, increased by 13–20% over 65 years. Proportional contributions of age-specific survival to total selection (the complement to age-specific fertility) diminished from approximately 1/3 to 1/7 following a marked increase in infant survival. Despite dramatic reductions in age-specific fertility variance at all ages, the absolute magnitude of selection for fitness explained by age-specific fertility increased by approximately 45%. I show that increases in the adaptive potential of fertility traits followed directly from decreased population growth rates. These results suggest that this demographic transition has increased the adaptive potential of the Utah population, intensified selection on reproductive traits, and de-emphasized selection on survival-related traits. PMID:23730757

  5. A new relation between prevalence and incidence of a chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Brinks, Ralph; Landwehr, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    In 1991 Keiding published a relation between the age-specific prevalence and incidence of a chronic disease (in Age-specific incidence and prevalence: a statistical perspective. J. Roy. Stat. Soc. A, 154, 371-412). For special cases alternative formulations by differential equations were given recently in Brinks et al. (2013, Deriving age-specific incidence from prevalence with an ordinary differential equation. Statist. Med., 32, 2070-2078) and in Brinks & Landwehr (2014, Age- and time-dependent model of the prevalence of non-communicable diseases and application to dementia in Germany, Theor. Popul. Biol., 92, 62-68). From these works, we generalize formulations and discuss the advantages of the novel approach. As an implication, we obtain a new way of estimating the incidence rate of a chronic disease from prevalence data. This enables us to employ cross-sectional studies where otherwise expensive and lengthy follow-up studies are needed. This article illustrates and validates the novel method in a simulation study about dementia in Germany. PMID:25576933

  6. Time Trends over 16 Years in Incidence-Rates of Autism Spectrum Disorders across the Lifespan Based on Nationwide Danish Register Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated time trends and associated factors of incidence rates of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan from 1995 to 2010, using data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. First time diagnosis of childhood autism, atypical autism, Asperger's syndrome, or pervasive developmental…

  7. Sex differences in the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases in Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, and a comparison with other rates published worldwide.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2016-09-01

    Many skin and skin-related diseases affect the sexes unequally, with attendant implications for public health and resource allocation. To evaluate better the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases affecting males vs. females, we reviewed published population-based epidemiology studies of skin disorders performed utilizing Rochester Epidemiology Project data. Females had a higher incidence of the following diseases: connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, morphea, dermatomyositis, primary Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus [not in all studies]), pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, condyloma acuminatum, hidradenitis suppurativa, herpes zoster (except in children), erythromelalgia, venous stasis syndrome, and venous ulcers. Males had a higher incidence of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, basal cell carcinoma (exception, females aged ≤40 years), squamous cell carcinoma, and lentigo maligna. Incidence rates were equal in males and females for cutaneous malignant melanoma (exception, higher in females aged 18-39 years), lower-extremity cellulitis, cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, Behçet disease, delusional infestation, alopecia areata, and bullous pemphigoid. Many of the population-based sex-specific incidence rates of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project are strikingly different from those estimated elsewhere. In general, females are more commonly affected by skin and skin-related diseases. The reasons for this imbalance remain to be determined and are likely multifactorial. PMID:27009931

  8. Prevalence of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus in Tehran: An Age-Specific Serological Study

    PubMed Central

    Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Salehi-Vaziri, Mostafa; Mohajel, Nasir; Keyvani, Hossein; Nasimi, Maryam; Esghaei, Maryam; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Several new types of polyomavirus have been discovered in recent years mainly because of the recent state-of-the-art detection technologies. Among the polyomaviruses, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has attracted the most attention because of its possible role in the etiology of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but lethal form of skin cancer. Objectives This study aimed to determine age-specific seroprevalence of MCPyV in Tehran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we collected 440 serum samples from healthy individuals 2 to 78 years of age who visited the Pasteur Institute’s clinic in Tehran, Iran, using a convenience sampling strategy. We developed a virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses VP1, the major capsid protein of MCPyV, to detect and quantitate serum antibodies to MCPyV. We compared the prevalence of MCPyV between males and females and across eight age groups. Results A total of 255 (57.9%) of the serum samples were MCPyV positive. The seroprevalence in children under 10 years of age was 25%. The seroprevalence increased to 56% over the next decade of life (10 - 19 years of age). The seroprevalence rate in males and females was 56.1% and 59.7% respectively, and a binary logistic regression showed no significant difference between males and females (P = 0.77). However, the prevalence of MCPyV increased with age (P = 0.012). Conclusions Our results suggest that human exposure to MCPyV occurs throughout life. The MCPyV antibody levels remained high among older adults in our population, consistent with reports from other populations. PMID:27437129

  9. The ICRP age-specific biokinetic model for lead: validations, empirical comparisons, and explorations.

    PubMed Central

    Pounds, J G; Leggett, R W

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to provide a description of the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) model and a comparison to other models (the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic [IEUBK] and O'Flaherty models), including the software used with the models, and a comparison of the model predictions for selected situations. The ICRP biokinetic model for Pb is a multicompartmental model for Pb uptake and disposition in children and in adults. The model describes deposition and retention of absorbed Pb in numerous tissues, removal from tissues to plasma, and movement along various routes of excretion. Long-term skeletal behavior of Pb is described in terms of age-specific rates of restructuring of compact and trabecular bone. The ICRP model is more flexible and has wider applicability than the IEUBK model. The major disadvantages are that application of the computer model requires some basic computer skills, and the user must convert the Pb concentrations in food, air, soil, dust, paint, or other media to the amount of Pb ingested or inhaled per day. Direct comparisons between the ICRP model and the IEUBK model are provided by modeling blood Pb levels using the IEUBK v0.99d default Pb uptakes and intake values. The model is used to simulate occupational exposure cases and a controlled Pb inhalation experiment in adult humans. Finally, use of the model to explore situations with limited data is illustrated by simulating the kinetics and disposition of Pb during acute Pb poisoning and chelation therapy in a child. PMID:9860909

  10. Basis and implications of the CAP88 age-specific dose coefficients.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Richard; Scofield, Patricia; Eckerman, Keith

    2013-08-01

    Recent versions of CAP88 incorporate age-specific dose coefficients based on biokinetic and dosimetric models applied in Federal Guidance Report 13, "Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides." With a few exceptions the models are those recommended in a series of reports by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on estimation of doses to the public from environmental radionuclides. This paper describes the basis for the ICRP's age-specific biokinetic and dosimetric models and examines differences with age in dose coefficients derived from those models. PMID:23803668

  11. Estimated incidence rate and distribution of tumours in 4,653 cases of archival submissions derived from the Dutch golden retriever population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A genetic predisposition for certain tumour types has been proven for some dog breeds. Some studies have suggested that this may also be true for the Golden retriever breed. The present study aimed to examine a possible existence of a tumour (type) predisposition in the Dutch population of Golden retrievers by evaluating annual estimated incidence rates compared to incidence rates from previous publications. A second aim was to evaluate whether incidences of various tumours differed as related to the diagnostic method chosen, being either cytology or histology. Results Tumours submitted to Utrecht University during the period 1998–2004 diagnosed either by means of cytology (n = 2,529) or histology (n = 2,124), were related to an average annual Dutch kennel club population of 29,304 Golden retrievers. Combining individual tumours from both the cytological and the histopathological data-set resulted in an annual estimated incidence rate of 2,242 for 100,000 dog-years at risk regarding tumour development in general. The most common cytological tumor diagnoses were ‘fat, possibly lipoma’ (35%), mast cell tumour (21%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (10%). The most commonly diagnosed tumours by histology were mast cell tumour (26%), soft tissue sarcomas (11%) and melanoma (8%). Both the cytological and histopathological data-sets, showed variation; in patient age distribution, age of onset and incidence of various tumours. Conclusion Comparing our data with previous reports in non-breed-specified dog populations, the Golden retriever breed shows an increased risk for the development of tumours in general, as well as an increased risk for the development of specific tumour types, including the group of soft tissue sarcomas. Variations in age, location and incidence of various tumours were observed between the two data-sets, indicating a selection bias for diagnostic procedure. PMID:24484635

  12. Incidence patterns and trends of gonadal and extragonadal germ cell tumors in Germany, 1998–2008

    PubMed Central

    Rusner, Carsten; Trabert, Britton; Katalinic, Alexander; Kieschke, Joachim; Emrich, Katharina; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background Gonadal (GGCT) and extragonal germ cell tumors [GCT (EGCT)] are thought to originate from primordial germ cells. In contrast to well reported population-based data of GGCTs in males, analyses of GGCTs in females and EGCTs in both sexes remain limited. Methods In a pooling project of nine population-based cancer registries in Germany of the years 1998–2008, 16,883 GCTs and their topographical sites were identified using ICD-O morphology and topography for those aged 15 years and older. We estimated age-specific and age-standardized incidence rates. Results Among males, the incidence of testicular GCTs increased over time. In contrast, there was no increase in the incidence of EGCTs. Among females, rates of ovarian GCTs were stable, while rates of EGCTs declined over time. The most frequent extragonadal sites were mediastinum among males and placenta among females. Conclusions Our results underline different incidence trends and distinct age-specific incidence patterns of GGCTs and EGCTs, as reported recently by several population-based registries. The differences suggest that GGCTs and EGCTs may have different etiologies. PMID:23683844

  13. Incidence rate of Kaposi sarcoma in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Southern Africa: a prospective multi-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Eliane; Valeri, Fabio; Maskew, Mhairi; Prozesky, Hans; Rabie, Helena; Garone, Daniela; Dickinson, Diana; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Lumano-Mulenga, Priscilla; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Wyss, Natascha; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M.; Egger, Matthias; Chi, Benjamin H.; Bohlius, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) among HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not well defined in resource-limited settings. We studied KS incidence rates and associated risk factors in children and adults on ART in Southern Africa. Methods We included patient data of six ART programs in Botswana, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We estimated KS incidence rates in patients on ART measuring time from 30 days after ART initiation to KS diagnosis, last follow-up visit, or death. We assessed risk factors (age, sex, calendar year, WHO stage, tuberculosis, and CD4 counts) using Cox models. Findings We analyzed data from 173,245 patients (61% female, 8% children aged <16 years) who started ART between 2004 and 2010. 564 incident cases were diagnosed during 343,927 person-years (pys). KS incidence rate overall was 164/100,000 pys (95% confidence interval [CI] 151–178). The incidence rate was highest 30 to 90 days after ART initiation (413/100,000 pys; 95% CI 342–497) and declined thereafter (86/100,000 pys[95% CI 71–105]>2 years after ART initiation). Male sex (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.34; 95% CI 1.12–1.61), low current CD4 counts (≥500 cells/µL versus <50 cells/µL, adjusted HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.23–0.55) and age (5 to 9 years versus 30 to 39 years, adjusted HR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05–0.79) were relevant risk factors for developing KS. Interpretation Despite ART, KS risk in HIV-infected persons in Southern Africa remains high. Early HIV testing and maintaining high CD4 counts is needed to further reduce KS-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25393941

  14. Associations of census-tract poverty with subsite-specific colorectal cancer incidence rates and stage of disease at diagnosis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kevin A; Sherman, Recinda L; McDonald, Kaila; Johnson, Christopher J; Lin, Ge; Stroup, Antoinette M; Boscoe, Francis P

    2014-01-01

    Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N = 278,097) were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum), sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.17) and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05-1.08). Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20-1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10-1.18) and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity. PMID:25165475

  15. Stereotypes of Ageing: Messages Promoted by Age-Specific Paper Birthday Cards Available in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Shannon R.; Morrison, Todd G.

    2005-01-01

    Birthday cards are a ceremonial token that may purposefully or unintentionally transmit stereotypes about the ageing process. In the current study, the authors examined 150 age-specific paper birthday cards sold in retail outlets located in a small metropolitan area. Results suggest that a greater proportion of the cards' textual messages…

  16. Contrasted patterns of age-specific reproduction in long-lived seabirds.

    PubMed

    Berman, M; Gaillard, J-M; Weimerskirch, H

    2009-01-22

    While the number of studies providing evidence of actuarial senescence is increasing, and covers a wide range of taxa, the process of reproductive senescence remains poorly understood. In fact, quite high reproductive output until the last years of life has been reported in several vertebrate species, so that whether or not reproductive senescence is widespread remains unknown. We compared age-specific changes of reproductive parameters between two closely related species of long-lived seabirds: the small-sized snow petrel Pagodroma nivea, and the medium-sized southern fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides. Both are sympatric in Antarctica. We used an exceptional dataset collected over more than 40 years to assess age-specific variations of both breeding probability and breeding success. We found contrasted age-specific reproductive patterns between the two species. Reproductive senescence clearly occurred from 21 years of age onwards in the southern fulmar, in both breeding probability and success, whereas we did not report any decline in the breeding success of the snow petrel, although a very late decrease in the proportion of breeders occurred at 34 years. Such a contrasted age-specific reproductive pattern was rather unexpected. Differences in life history including size or migratory behaviour are the most likely candidates to account for the difference we reported in reproductive senescence between these sympatric seabird species. PMID:18832060

  17. Temporal analysis of the incidence of meningitis in the Tehran metropolitan area, 1999-2005

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the temporal determinants of meningitis incidence in the population living in the Tehran metropolis. Methods All cases of meningitis reported to health districts throughout the Tehran metropolis from 1999 to 2005 were abstracted from patient files. Referral cases (patients who did not reside in the Tehran metropolis) were excluded. For each year, sex- and age-specific incidences were estimated. Temporality and its determinants were analyzed using Poisson regression. Results Age-specific incidence is highest among males younger than 5 years of age at 10.2 cases per 100,000 population per year. The lowest incidence was among females aged 30 to 40 years at 0.72 cases per 100,000 population per year, with an overall male-to-female incidence ratio of 2.1. The temporal analysis showed seasonality, with a higher risk of meningitis in spring at a rate ratio of 1.31 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.20 to 1.41 and in autumn (rate ratio = 1.16, 95% CI 1.06, 1.27). For periodicity, we found a peak of occurrence around the years 2000 and 2003. Conclusion The epidemiology of meningitis in Iran follows similar patterns of age, sex, and seasonality distribution as found in other countries and populations. PMID:20030846

  18. Do US thyroid cancer incidence rates increase with socioeconomic status among people with health insurance? An observational study using SEER population-based data

    PubMed Central

    Altekruse, Sean; Das, Anita; Cho, Hyunsoon; Petkov, Valentina; Yu, Mandi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The US thyroid cancer incidence rates are rising while mortality remains stable. Trends are driven by papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), the predominant cancer subtype which has a very good prognosis. We hypothesised that health insurance and high census tract socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with PTC risk. Design Relationships between thyroid cancer incidence, insurance and census tract SES during 2007–2010 were examined in population-based cancer registries. Cases were stratified by tumour histology, size and demography. Setting Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries covering 30% of the US population. Results PTCs accounted for 88% of incident thyroid cancer cases. Small PTCs (≤2 cm) accounted for 60% of cases. Unlike non-PTC cases, the majority of those diagnosed with PTC were <50 years of age and had ≤2 cm tumours. Rate ratios (RR) of PTC diagnoses increased monotonically with SES among fully insured cases. The effect was strongest for small PTCs, high-SES versus low-SES quintile RR=2.7, 95% CI 2.6 to 2.9, two-sided trend test p<0.0001. For small PTC cases with insurance, the monotonic increase in incidence rates with rising SES persisted among cases younger than 50 years of age (RR=3.3, 95% CI 3.0 to 3.5), women (RR=2.6, 95% CI 2.5 to 2.8) and Caucasians (RR=2.5, 95% CI 2.4 to 2.7). Among the less than fully insured, rates generally decreased with increasing SES. Conclusions The >2.5-fold increase in risk of PTC diagnosis among insured individuals associated with high SES may be informative with respect to the contemporary issue of PTC overdiagnosis. PMID:26644126

  19. [Time trends in cancer incidence in Osaka].

    PubMed

    Hanai, A; Fujimoto, I

    1984-03-01

    Changes in environments and life styles in Japan have caused the recent changes in the time trends of cancer incidence for various sites. Using the data from the Osaka Cancer Registry, time trends during 1966-80 were analysed for cancer incidence of the leading 5 sites: stomach, lung, liver, uterus and breast. Age-adjusted incidence rates of cancers of the stomach (both sexes) and uterus (invasive cancer) decreased to 75% and 64% respectively between the two periods of 1966-68 and 1978-80 while cancers of the lung, liver, and breast reached 163%, 140%, and 143 % during the same period. Decrease of stomach cancer incidence was observed in all age-groups under 79, however, not in the 25-44 age-groups among females. Analyzing the histological data in the registry, it was noticed that estimated incidence of the intestinal type of stomach carcinoma had decreased more rapidly than the diffuse type. In the 30-49 age-groups among females, no decrease was observed of the diffuse type of carcinoma. Concerning lung cancer, a marked increase was observed over 60 years of age. The age-specific incidence curves by birth cohort showed no or very small cohort effects for the population born 1920-29. Among males, percentages of adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma have increased and that of epidermoid carcinoma decreased. The change was more marked in the age-groups younger than 59. Liver cancer showed the 3rd highest incidence rate among males and 6th among females. A rising trend in recent years was noticeable over 45 years of age among males. For the invasive uterine carcinoma, the incidence rate has been decreasing in all ages. Comparing these figures with those of whites in Connecticut or of Japanese in Hawaii, the former was higher than the latter and the difference was larger in age-groups over 40. The recent age incidence curve of breast cancer in Osaka came to be close to that in Iceland in 1930-49 when the curve had kept a constant level for age-groups after

  20. Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Alghamdi, Mansour M; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32), followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07), and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69) than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men). Conclusion A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men. PMID:25028562

  1. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi

  2. Incidence of Second Malignancies in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Hamm, Jeremy; Jiang, Wei Ning; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; Lapointe, Vince; Kahnamelli, Adam; McKenzie, Michael; Miller, Stacy; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the second malignancy incidence in prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy (BT) relative to radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare both groups with the cancer incidence in the general population. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 2418 patients were treated with Iodine 125 prostate BT monotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency, and 4015 referred patients were treated with RP. Cancer incidence was compared with the age-matched general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Pelvic malignancies included invasive and noninvasive bladder cancer and rectal cancer. Cox multivariable analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates to determine whether treatment (RP vs BT) was associated with second malignancy risk. Results: The median age at BT was 66 years and at RP 62 years. The SIR comparing BT patients with the general population was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.22) for second malignancy and was 1.53 (95% CI 1.12-2.04) for pelvic malignancy. The SIR comparing RP patients with the general population was 1.11 (95% CI 0.98-1.25) for second malignancy and was 1.11 (95% CI 0.82-1.48) for pelvic malignancy. On multivariable analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05) and smoking (HR 1.65) were associated with increased second malignancy risk (P<.0001). Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased second malignancy risk relative to BT (HR 0.90, P=.43), even when excluding patients who received postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy (HR 1.13, P=.25). Older age (HR 1.09, P<.0001) and smoking (HR 2.17, P=.0009) were associated with increased pelvic malignancy risk. Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased pelvic malignancy risk compared with BT (HR 0.57, P=.082), even when excluding postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy patients (HR 0.87, P=.56). Conclusions: After adjustment for covariates, BT patients did not have an increased second

  3. Growing Fixed With Age: Lay Theories of Malleability Are Target Age-Specific.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Lassetter, Bethany

    2015-11-01

    Beliefs about whether people can change ("lay theories" of malleability) are known to have wide-ranging effects on social motivation, cognition, and judgment. Yet rather than holding an overarching belief that people can or cannot change, perceivers may hold independent beliefs about whether different people are malleable-that is, lay theories may be target-specific. Seven studies demonstrate that lay theories are target-specific with respect to age: Perceivers hold distinct, uncorrelated lay theories of people at different ages, and younger targets are considered to be more malleable than older targets. Both forms of target-specificity are consequential, as target age-specific lay theories predict policy support for learning-based senior services and the rehabilitation of old and young drug users. The implications of target age-specific lay theories for a number of psychological processes, the social psychology of aging, and theoretical frameworks of malleability beliefs are discussed. PMID:26351273

  4. Age-specific reproductive success and cost in female Alpine ibex.

    PubMed

    Rughetti, Marco; Dematteis, Andrea; Meneguz, Pier Giuseppe; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    In female mammals, reproduction requires high energy expenditure because of gestation and lactation, possibly leading to a fitness cost. Several studies, however, failed to find the expected negative correlation between current and future reproductive success, likely because of individual heterogeneity in reproductive potential. We compared reproductive performance and costs of reproduction for 40 female Alpine ibex in one established population with 29 females translocated from the same population to a new colony. We investigate factors affecting pregnancy, fecundity and overwinter survival of juveniles, after accounting for individual heterogeneity. In both populations, prime-aged females experienced a strong reproductive cost. Senescent females, however, showed no evidence of reproductive costs. The colonizing population showed lower reproductive cost and better age-specific reproductive performance than the established population. We found a general pattern of low age-specific fecundity and reproductive success that was affected by environmental constraints. Age-specific reproductive success was unrelated to longevity. Although about 84% of adult females appeared to conceive, independently of environmental constraints, energy was allocated to reproduction in a highly conservative manner, leading to low age-specific fecundity (only 36 and 21% of prime-aged and senescent females were seen with a kid) but high kid survival (100% to weaning and 92% to 1 year). Our results suggest that females embarked on lactation only if they had a very high probability of raising their offspring. Our study highlights how reproductive performance and costs in this species vary with age and environment, and are the result of a highly conservative reproductive tactic. PMID:25543851

  5. Age-specific forced polymorphism: implications of ontogenetic changes in morphology for male mating tactics.

    PubMed

    Irschick, Duncan J; Lailvaux, Simon P

    2006-01-01

    Age-specific forced polymorphism is the presence of two or more distinct phenotypes (here we consider only males) that occur in separate sexually mature age groups (e.g., horns in older males but not younger males). The life-stage morph maturation hypothesis posits that all younger males that possess a particular structure can transform into older males with a different structure, most likely via the influence of hormones. The life-stage morph selection hypothesis posits that polymorphism is due to intense selection resulting in a highly nonrandom sample of younger males surviving to become older males, thus leading to different mean phenotypes in different age groups. We conducted an extensive review of literature from the past 20 years (1983-2003) for cases of age-specific forced polymorphism. Overall, we found only a few cases that fit our criteria of age-specific forced polymorphism, and we argue that most (e.g., orangutans, elephant seals) have likely arisen via the life-stage morph maturation mechanism, but we also present several examples (e.g., green anole lizards) that appear to be candidates for life-stage morph selection. However, none of the reviewed studies provided enough information (e.g., age of morphs, growth patterns of the morphological structure) to definitively invoke either of the two mechanisms. We suggest that age-specific forced polymorphism is more common than reflected in this review and that future studies should gather demographic and laboratory data that will directly compare the life-stage morph maturation and life-stage morph selection hypotheses. PMID:16380929

  6. Age-Specificity of Clinical Dengue during Primary and Secondary Infections

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Khoa T. D.; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Hoang, Phuong Lan; Tran, Nga Thanh Thi; Phan, Giao Trong; Le, Hung Quoc; Tran, Binh Quang; Nguyen, Nam Van; de Vries, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aims to estimate the age-specific risks of clinical dengue attack (i.e., the risk of symptomatic dengue among the total number of dengue virus (DENV) infections) during primary and secondary infections. Methods We analyzed two pieces of epidemiological information in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam, i.e., age-specific seroprevalence and a community-wide longitudinal study of clinical dengue attack. The latter data set stratified febrile patients with DENV infection by age as well as infection parity. A simple modeling approach was employed to estimate the age-specific risks of clinical dengue attack during primary and secondary infections. Results Using the seroprevalence data, the force of infection was estimated to be 11.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 10.8–12.7) per year. Median age (and the 25–75 percentiles) of dengue fever patients during primary and secondary infections were 12 (9–20) and 20 (14–31) years, respectively. The estimated age-specific risk of clinical dengue increases as a function of age for both primary and secondary infections; the estimated proportion of symptomatic patients among the total number of infected individuals was estimated to be <7% for those aged <10 years for both primary and secondary infections, but increased as patients become older, reaching to 8–11% by the age of 20 years. Conclusions/Significance For both primary and secondary infections, higher age at DENV infection was shown to result in higher risk of clinical attack. Age as an important modulator of clinical dengue explains recent increase in dengue notifications in ageing countries in Southeast Asia, and moreover, poses a paradoxical problem of an increase in adult patients resulting from a decline in the force of infection, which may be caused by various factors including time-dependent variations in epidemiological, ecological and demographic dynamics. PMID:21713018

  7. Role of solar UVB irradiance and smoking in cancer as inferred from cancer incidence rates by occupation in Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiance and vitamin D reduce the risk of incidence and death for many types of cancer. However, most of that evidence comes from midlatitude regions, where solar UVB doses are generally high in summer. Data on cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) by sex and 54 occupation categories based on 1.4 million male and 1.36 million female cancer cases for 1961–2005 in the five Nordic countries provide the basis for an ecological study of the role of solar UVB in the risk of many types of cancer at high latitudes. Lip cancer SIRs less lung cancer SIRs for men was the best index of solar UVB dose, which was weakly inversely correlated with both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) SIRs. Lung cancer SIRs were used as the index of the effects of smoking. For men, the UVB index was significantly inversely correlated with 14 types of internal cancer—bladder, breast, colon, gallbladder, kidney, laryngeal, liver, lung, oral, pancreatic, pharyngeal, prostate, rectal and small intestine cancer. For women, the same UVB index was inversely correlated with bladder, breast and colon cancer. These results generally agree with findings from other studies. These results provide more support for the UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis and suggest that widespread fear of chronic solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiance may be misplaced. PMID:22928078

  8. Automated tissue classification of pediatric brains from magnetic resonance images using age-specific atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Andrew; Benavides, Amanda; Nopoulos, Peg; Magnotta, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop two age appropriate atlases (neonatal and one year old) that account for the rapid growth and maturational changes that occur during early development. Tissue maps from this age group were initially created by manually correcting the resulting tissue maps after applying an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and an adult atlas to pediatric subjects. The EM algorithm classified each voxel into one of ten possible tissue types including several subcortical structures. This was followed by a novel level set segmentation designed to improve differentiation between distal cortical gray matter and white matter. To minimize the req uired manual corrections, the adult atlas was registered to the pediatric scans using high -dimensional, symmetric image normalization (SyN) registration. The subject images were then mapped to an age specific atlas space, again using SyN registration, and the resulting transformation applied to the manually corrected tissue maps. The individual maps were averaged in the age specific atlas space and blurred to generate the age appropriate anatomical priors. The resulting anatomical priors were then used by the EM algorithm to re-segment the initial training set as well as an independent testing set. The results from the adult and age-specific anatomical priors were compared to the manually corrected results. The age appropriate atlas provided superior results as compared to the adult atlas. The image analysis pipeline used in this work was built using the open source software package BRAINSTools.

  9. Sex Specific Incidence Rates of Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors over 9 Years of Follow-Up: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Derakhshan, Arash; Sardarinia, Mahsa; Khalili, Davood; Momenan, Amir Abbas; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hadaegh, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the population-based incidence of type 2 diabetes and its potential risk factors in a sex-split cohort of Iranian population. Materials and Methods A total of 8400 non-diabetic participants, aged ≥20 years (3620 men and 4780 women) entered the study. Crude and age standardized incidence rates per 1000 person-years were calculated for whole population and each sex separately. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for all potential risk factors in both uni-variable and multivariable models. Results During a median follow-up of 9.5 years, 736 new cases of diabetes were identified, including 433 women and 303 men. The annual crude and age-standardized incidence rates (95% CI) of diabetes in the total population were 10.6 (9.92–11.4) and 9.94 (7.39–13.6) per 1000 person-years of follow-up and the corresponding sex specific rates were 10.2 (9.13–11.4) and 9.36 (5.84–14.92) in men and 11.0 (9.99–12.0) and 10.1 (7.24–13.9) in women, respectively. In the multivariable model, the risk for incident diabetes was significantly associated with fasting and 2 hour post challenge plasma glucose as well as family history of diabetes in both men and women. However, among women, only the contribution of wrist circumference to incident diabetes achieved statistical significance [HR: 1.16 (1.03–1.31)] with waist/height ratio being marginally significant [HR: 1.02 (0.99–1.04)]; while among men, only body mass index was a significant predictor [HR: 1.12 (1.02–1.22)]. Additionally, low education level conferred a higher risk for incident diabetes only among men [HR: 1.80 (1.23–2.36); P for interaction with sex = 0.003]. Conclusion Overall, sex did not significantly modify the impact of risk factors associated with diabetes among Iranian adults; however, among modifiable risk factors, the independent role of lower education and general adiposity in men and central adiposity in

  10. Trends in age-specific cerebrovascular disease in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Sun, Wei; Ji, Yue; Shi, Jing; Xuan, Qinkao; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xiao, Junjie; Kong, Xiangqing

    2014-01-01

    Although the mortality of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been steadily declined in the European Union (EU), CVD remains among the major causes of death in EU. As risk factors such asobesity and diabetes mellitus are increasing, the trends of European CVD mortality remains unknown. To understand the variation in CVD mortality of different EU countries, we studied the trends in CVD mortality in EU countries over the last three decades between males and females. Age- and sex-specific mortality rates between 1980 and 2011 were calculated by data from the WHO mortality database. Joinpoint software was used to calculate annual percentage changes and to characterize trends in mortality rates over time. Our study showed that between 1980 and 2011, CVD mortality significantly decreased in both men and women across all age groups. The specific mortality trends varied largely between EU countries. The plateau trend was observed in little regions at different age groups, however, the EU as a whole displayed declined trend CVD mortality. During the last three decades, CVD mortality decreased substantially in the entire population of EU. However, despite this overall decline in CVD mortality, several areas were identified as having no change in their CVD mortality rates at different period. The whole EU needs to establish strict prevention measures toreduce the incidence of CVD risk factors. PMID:25550927

  11. Apparently-Different Clearance Rates from Cohort Studies of Mycoplasma genitalium Are Consistent after Accounting for Incidence of Infection, Recurrent Infection, and Study Design.

    PubMed

    Smieszek, Timo; White, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a potentially major cause of urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and increased HIV risk. A better understanding of its natural history is crucial to informing control policy. Two extensive cohort studies (students in London, UK; Ugandan sex workers) suggest very different clearance rates; we aimed to understand the reasons and obtain improved estimates by making maximal use of the data from the studies. As M. genitalium is a sexually-transmitted infectious disease, we developed a model for time-to-event analysis that incorporates the processes of (re)infection and clearance, and fitted to data from the two cohort studies to estimate incidence and clearance rates under different scenarios of sexual partnership dynamics and study design (including sample handling and associated test sensitivity). In the London students, the estimated clearance rate is 0.80 p.a. (mean duration 15 months), with incidence 1.31%-3.93% p.a. Without adjusting for study design, corresponding estimates from the Ugandan data are 3.44 p.a. (mean duration 3.5 months) and 58% p.a. Apparent differences in clearance rates are probably mostly due to lower testing sensitivity in the Uganda study due to differences in sample handling, with 'true' clearance rates being similar, and adjusted incidence in Uganda being 28% p.a. Some differences are perhaps due to the sex workers having more-frequent antibiotic treatment, whilst reinfection within ongoing sexual partnerships might have caused some of the apparently-persistent infection in the London students. More information on partnership dynamics would inform more accurate estimates of natural-history parameters. Detailed studies in men are also required. PMID:26910762

  12. Apparently-Different Clearance Rates from Cohort Studies of Mycoplasma genitalium Are Consistent after Accounting for Incidence of Infection, Recurrent Infection, and Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Smieszek, Timo; White, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a potentially major cause of urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and increased HIV risk. A better understanding of its natural history is crucial to informing control policy. Two extensive cohort studies (students in London, UK; Ugandan sex workers) suggest very different clearance rates; we aimed to understand the reasons and obtain improved estimates by making maximal use of the data from the studies. As M. genitalium is a sexually-transmitted infectious disease, we developed a model for time-to-event analysis that incorporates the processes of (re)infection and clearance, and fitted to data from the two cohort studies to estimate incidence and clearance rates under different scenarios of sexual partnership dynamics and study design (including sample handling and associated test sensitivity). In the London students, the estimated clearance rate is 0.80p.a. (mean duration 15 months), with incidence 1.31%-3.93%p.a. Without adjusting for study design, corresponding estimates from the Ugandan data are 3.44p.a. (mean duration 3.5 months) and 58%p.a. Apparent differences in clearance rates are probably mostly due to lower testing sensitivity in the Uganda study due to differences in sample handling, with 'true' clearance rates being similar, and adjusted incidence in Uganda being 28%p.a. Some differences are perhaps due to the sex workers having more-frequent antibiotic treatment, whilst reinfection within ongoing sexual partnerships might have caused some of the apparently-persistent infection in the London students. More information on partnership dynamics would inform more accurate estimates of natural-history parameters. Detailed studies in men are also required. PMID:26910762

  13. The Secular Trends in the Incidence Rate and Outcomes of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Taiwan—A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Jen-Yu; Teng, Nai-Chi; Chao, Ting-Ting; Tsai, Shu-Ling; Chen, Chi-Liang; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Wu, Chin-Pyng; Lai, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Likwang

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the trends in incidence and mortality of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), as well as factors associated with OHCA outcomes in Taiwan. Methods Our study included OHCA patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) upon arrival at the hospital. We used national time-series data on annual OHCA incidence rates and mortality rates from 2000 to 2012, and individual demographic and clinical data for all OHCA patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) care from March of 2010 to September of 2011. Analytic techniques included the time-series regression and the logistic regression. Results There were 117,787 OHCAs in total. The overall incidence rate during the 13 years was 51.1 per 100,000 persons, and the secular trend indicates a sharp increase in the early 2000s and a decrease afterwards. The trend in mortality was also curvilinear, revealing a substantial increase in the early 2000s, a subsequent steep decline and finally a modest increase. Both the 30-day and 180-day mortality rates had a long-term decreasing trend over the period (p<0.01). For both incidence and mortality rates, a significant second-order autoregressive effect emerged. Among OHCA patients with MV, 1-day, 30-day and 180-day mortality rates were 31.3%, 75.8%, and 86.0%, respectively. In this cohort, older age, the female gender, and a Charlson comorbidity index score ≥ 2 were associated with higher 180-day mortality; patients delivered to regional hospitals and those residing in non-metropolitan areas had higher death risk. Conclusions Overall, both the 30-day and the 180-day mortality rates after OHCA had a long-term decreasing trend, while the 1-day mortality had no long-term decline. Among OHCA patients requiring MV, those delivered to regional hospitals and those residing in non-metropolitan areas tended to have higher mortality, suggesting a need for effort to further standardize and improve in-hospital care across hospitals and to advance pre

  14. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries. PMID:27336001

  15. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    PubMed

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries. PMID:27336001

  16. Associations of selected bedding types with incidence rates of subclinical and clinical mastitis in primiparous Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this observational study was to determine the association of exposure to selected bedding types with incidence of subclinical (SM) and clinical mastitis (CM) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows housed in identical pens at a single facility. At parturition, primiparous cows were randomly assigned to pens containing freestalls with 1 of 4 bedding materials: (1) deep-bedded new sand (NES, n=27 cows), (2) deep-bedded recycled sand (RS, n=25 cows), (3) deep-bedded manure solids (DBMS, n=31 cows), and (4) shallow-bedded manure solids over foam-core mattresses (SBMS, n=26 cows). For 12mo, somatic cell counts of quarter milk samples were determined every 28d and duplicate quarter milk samples were collected for microbiological analysis from all quarters with SM (defined as somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL). During this period, duplicate quarter milk samples were also collected for microbial analysis from all cases of CM. For an additional 16mo, cases of CM were recorded; however, no samples were collected. Quarter days at risk (62,980) were distributed among bedding types and most quarters were enrolled for >150d. Of 135 cases of SM, 63% resulted in nonsignificant growth and 87% of recovered pathogens (n=33) were identified as coagulase-negative staphylococci. The distribution of etiologies of pathogens recovered from cases of SM was associated with bedding type. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were recovered from 12, 38, 11, and 46% of quarters with SM from cows in pens containing NES, RS, DBMS, and SBMS, respectively. A result of nonsignificant growth was obtained for 81, 59, 89, and 46% of quarters with SM from cows in pens containing NES, RS, DBMS, and SBMS, respectively. Quarters of primiparous cows bedded with NES tended to have greater survival time to incidence of CM than quarters of primiparous cows bedded with RS or DBMS. PMID:27060828

  17. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents) or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50-1.56) and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66-1.71) of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. PMID:26904358

  18. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson's Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chih-Ching; Li, Chung-Yi; Lee, Pei-Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%). The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents) or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50–1.56) and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66–1.71) of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD. PMID:26904358

  19. Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; Dohal, Ahlam A; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR), and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling. Results A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001) in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83), followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82), and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98). The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years) and 1.71 + (0.09× years), respectively. Conclusion We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women. PMID:25028565

  20. Effect of low /sup 60/Co dose rates on sister chromatid exchange incidence in the benthic worm. Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-10-13

    The usefulness of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as a measure of low-level radiation effect was examined in a benthic marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Larvae were exposed to /sup 60/Co radiation for 12 to 24 h at total doses ranging from 0.5 to 309 R and at dose rates from 0.04 to 13 R/h. Animals exposed at intermediate dose rates (0.5, 0.6, 1.25, 2.0, and 2.5 R/h) had SCE frequencies per chromosome about twice that of those receiving no radiation (controls), whereas those exposed at the higher dose rates (7.0 and 13 R/h) had SCE frequencies lower than the controls. Animals exposed at the lower dose rates (0.04 and 0.1 R/h) had lower SCE frequencies than those exposed at intermediate dose rates (and higher SCE frequencies than controls). The length of chromosome pair number one differed among metaphase spreads and was used as an index of chromosome condensation in a given metaphase. Because there is a possibility that chromosome morphology may affect the ability to resolve SCEs, morphology will be monitored in future studies. A preliminary experiment was performed to assess the effects of 2.2 and 11.5 R/h for 24 h on growth and development. Larvae observed at 6 and 17 d after irradiation did not have significantly different numbers of abnormal larvae or survival rates.

  1. Five-Year Incidence of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Rate of Progression in Health Center-Based Korean Population: The Gangnam Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho; Kim, Dong Myung

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the 5-year incidence and progression rate of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in a health-center-based Korean population. Methods The study population comprised 5,021 subjects who participated in standardized health screening (including non-contact tonometry and fundus photography) at the Gangnam Healthcare Center during the period from January 2005 to December 2006 and again from January 2010 to December 2011. Among these subjects, 948 (18.9%) with findings suggestive of glaucoma were subjected to a comprehensive glaucoma evaluation, which included applanation tonometry and standard automated perimetry. Based on the results, the subjects were diagnosed as POAG suspect or definite POAG. Results The 5-year incidences of POAG suspect and definite POAG were 0.84% (42 subjects) and 0.72% (36 subjects), respectively. The rate of progression from POAG suspect to definite POAG was 4.75% per year. In subjects with a baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) >21 mmHg, the incidence of POAG suspect or definite POAG was significantly higher than in those with a baseline IOP≤21 mmHg (32% vs. 1.05%; P<0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that the progression from POAG suspect to definite POAG was significantly associated with older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.10), higher baseline IOP (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01–1.24), higher body mass index (BMI) (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03–1.31), higher education level (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05–2.17), and higher hematocrit level (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08–1.43). Conclusions In the health-center-based Korean population, the 5-year incidence of POAG was 0.72%, and the rate of progression from POAG suspect to definite POAG was 4.75% per year. This study identified old age, high baseline IOP, high BMI, high level of education, and high hematocrit level as significant risk factors for incident POAG. PMID:25474589

  2. Sunshine, Sea, and Season of Birth: MS Incidence in Wales.

    PubMed

    Balbuena, Lloyd D; Middleton, Rod M; Tuite-Dalton, Katie; Pouliou, Theodora; Williams, Kate Elizabeth; Noble, Gareth J

    2016-01-01

    Maternal sun exposure in gestation and throughout the lifetime is necessary for vitamin D synthesis, and living near the sea is a population level index of seafood consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Wales and examine its association with sun exposure, coastal living, and latitude. The study used a database of MS hospital visits and admissions in Wales between 2002 and 2013. For the 1,909 lower layer super output areas (LSOAs) in Wales, coastal status, population, longitude/latitude, and average sunshine hours per day were obtained. Age-specific and age-standardised MS incidence were calculated and modelled using Poisson regression. The distribution of births by month was compared between MS cases and the combined England and Wales population. There were 3,557 new MS cases between 2002 and 2013, with an average annual incidence of 8.14 (95% CI: 7.69-8.59) among males and 12.97 (95% CI: 12.44-13.50) among females per 100,000 population. The female-to-male ratio was 1.86:1. For both sexes combined, the average annual incidence rate was 9.10 (95% CI: 8.80-9.40). All figures are age-standardized to the 1976 European standard population. Compared to the combined England and Wales population, more people with MS were born in April, observed-to-expected ratio: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08-1.36). MS incidence varied directly with latitude and inversely with sunshine hours. Proximity to the coast was associated with lower MS incidence only in easterly areas. This study shows that MS incidence rate in Wales is comparable to the rate in Scotland and is associated with environmental factors that probably represent levels of vitamin D. PMID:27182982

  3. Sunshine, Sea, and Season of Birth: MS Incidence in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Balbuena, Lloyd D.; Middleton, Rod M.; Tuite-Dalton, Katie; Pouliou, Theodora; Williams, Kate Elizabeth; Noble, Gareth J.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal sun exposure in gestation and throughout the lifetime is necessary for vitamin D synthesis, and living near the sea is a population level index of seafood consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Wales and examine its association with sun exposure, coastal living, and latitude. The study used a database of MS hospital visits and admissions in Wales between 2002 and 2013. For the 1,909 lower layer super output areas (LSOAs) in Wales, coastal status, population, longitude/latitude, and average sunshine hours per day were obtained. Age-specific and age-standardised MS incidence were calculated and modelled using Poisson regression. The distribution of births by month was compared between MS cases and the combined England and Wales population. There were 3,557 new MS cases between 2002 and 2013, with an average annual incidence of 8.14 (95% CI: 7.69–8.59) among males and 12.97 (95% CI: 12.44–13.50) among females per 100,000 population. The female-to-male ratio was 1.86:1. For both sexes combined, the average annual incidence rate was 9.10 (95% CI: 8.80–9.40). All figures are age-standardized to the 1976 European standard population. Compared to the combined England and Wales population, more people with MS were born in April, observed-to-expected ratio: 1.21 (95% CI: 1.08–1.36). MS incidence varied directly with latitude and inversely with sunshine hours. Proximity to the coast was associated with lower MS incidence only in easterly areas. This study shows that MS incidence rate in Wales is comparable to the rate in Scotland and is associated with environmental factors that probably represent levels of vitamin D. PMID:27182982

  4. Increasing incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in black South Africans in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (1983-2006).

    PubMed

    Mosam, A; Carrara, H; Shaik, F; Uldrick, T; Berkman, A; Aboobaker, J; Coovadia, H M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the temporal trends in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in black South Africans in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). The study was designed as a retrospective record review. The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma was estimated using administrative records for patients receiving care for KS through public sector oncology clinics in KZN, 1983-2006. Annual age-standardized incidence rates were calculated using provincial census data for the denominator. Age-specific rates were calculated for the pre-AIDS (1983-1989) and for the generalized AIDS epidemic eras (2006). Age-standardized incidence of KS increased in KZN from <1:100,000 in 1990 to at least 15:100,000 in 2006; this increase was observed in both men and women. There was a shift in the peak age-specific incidence rates from the sixth decade of life in the pre-AIDS era to the fourth and fifth decades in the AIDS era. In conclusion, KS is a growing public health problem in KZN, South Africa. These data reinforce the need for comprehensive national access to and roll-out of antiretroviral drugs, given their success in prevention and treatment of KS in first-world settings. PMID:19625587

  5. Age-specific Parkinson disease risk in GBA mutation carriers: information for genetic counseling

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Huma Q.; Balwani, Manisha; Bier, Louise; Alcalay, Roy N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We sought to estimate age-specific risk of Parkinson disease in relatives of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligate carriers of GBA mutations and who were not ascertained by family history of Parkinson disease. Methods A validated family history of Parkinson disease questionnaire was administered to 119 patients with Gaucher disease who were evaluated at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine from 2009 to 2012; the ages of their parents, siblings, and children, history of Parkinson disease, age at onset of Parkinson disease, and ethnic background were obtained. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to estimate age-specific Parkinson disease penetrance among parents of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligatory GBA mutation carriers. Results Two participants with Gaucher disease were affected by Parkinson disease (5.4% of those who were 60 years or older). Of the 224 informative parents of patients with Gaucher disease, 11 had Parkinson disease (4.9%). Among the parents (obligatory carriers), cumulative risk of Parkinson disease by ages 65 and 85 was estimated to be 2.2% ±2.1% and 10.9% ±7.2%, respectively. Conclusion We provide useful age-specific estimates of Parkinson disease penetrance in patients with Gaucher disease and GBA heterozygous carriers for genetic counseling. Although GBA mutations may increase the risk for PD, the vast majority of patients with Gaucher disease and heterozygotes may not develop the disease. Further studies are needed to identify what modifies the risk of Parkinson disease in GBA mutation carriers. PMID:22935721

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Different Cervical Screening Strategies in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Middle-Income Country with a Low Incidence Rate of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nahvijou, Azin; Daroudi, Rajabali; Tahmasebi, Mamak; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Akbari Sari, Ali; Barati Marenani, Ahmad; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Objective Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Cervical screening programs have reduced the incidence and mortality rates of ICC. We studied the cost-effectiveness of different cervical screening strategies in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a Muslim country with a low incidence rate of ICC. Methods We constructed an 11-state Markov model, in which the parameters included regression and progression probabilities, test characteristics, costs, and utilities; these were extracted from primary data and the literature. Our strategies included Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing plus Pap smear triaging with different starting ages and screening intervals. Model outcomes included lifetime costs, life years gained, quality-adjusted life years (QALY), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the stability of the results. Results We found that the prevented mortalities for the 11 strategies compared with no screening varied from 26% to 64%. The most cost-effective strategy was HPV screening, starting at age 35 years and repeated every 10 years. The ICER of this strategy was $8,875 per QALY compared with no screening. We found that screening at 5-year intervals was also cost-effective based on GDP per capita in Iran. Conclusion We recommend organized cervical screening with HPV DNA testing for women in Iran, beginning at age 35 and repeated every 10 or 5 years. The results of this study could be generalized to other countries with low incidence rates of cervical cancer. PMID:27276093

  7. High Latent TB Infection Rate and Associated Risk Factors in the Eastern China of Low TB Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhijian; Peng, Hong; Kong, Wen; Zhou, Yang; Shao, Yan; Zhu, Limei; Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To disclose the associated risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and the current situation of LTBI in the eastern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the LTBI rate and risk factors. Results A total of 5305 subjects were finally included, with the IGRA positive rate of 19.98% (1060/5305). The LTBI rates were increasing with age (ORs were in significance from 6.60 to 20.92). Male gender significantly increased the risk of LTBI by 0.52 fold (OR = 1.52). Both smoking and drinking significantly increased the risk of LTBI (OR = 1.83 and OR = 1.67, respectively). Meanwhile, overweight and close contact with tuberculosis were risk factors for LTBI (OR = 1.36 and OR = 2.38, respectively). However, higher level of education and BCG vaccination lowered the risk of LTBI (OR = 0.16 and OR = 0.39, respectively). The multivariate logistic regression showed that age, male gender, smoking, overweight and close contacting with tuberculosis were risk factors for LTBI, but BCG vaccination was a protective factor for LTBI. Conclusions BCG vaccination exerted protective effect on tuberculosis. However, LTBI rate in the Chinese rural area was critical and subjects above 30 years, male, smoking, overweight and close contact with tuberculosis wound be the targets for LTBI screening and source of tuberculosis. PMID:26505997

  8. The age-specific force of natural selection and biodemographic walls of death

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Evans, Steven N.; Steinsaltz, David

    2013-01-01

    W. D. Hamilton’s celebrated formula for the age-specific force of natural selection furnishes predictions for senescent mortality due to mutation accumulation, at the price of reliance on a linear approximation. Applying to Hamilton’s setting the full nonlinear demographic model for mutation accumulation recently developed by Evans, Steinsaltz, and Wachter, we find surprising differences. Nonlinear interactions cause the collapse of Hamilton-style predictions in the most commonly studied case, refine predictions in other cases, and allow walls of death at ages before the end of reproduction. Haldane’s principle for genetic load has an exact but unfamiliar generalization. PMID:23657010

  9. Incidence of multiple myeloma in Great Britain, Sweden, and Malmö, Sweden: the impact of differences in case ascertainment on observed incidence trends

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Ramón; Turesson, Ingemar; Landgren, Ola; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Cuzick, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The increased incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) across China and East Asia stimulated us to examine the current rates in Great Britain, where rates increased dramatically in the second half of the 20th century. However, rates have been stable and high during this period in Malmö, Sweden, where there is a keen interest in MM. We thus assessed recent changes in MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden, and examined how these changes might explain recent reports of increased MM incidence across Asia. Design Estimation of MM incidence for Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. Populations MM incidence data for Great Britain (1975–2009) were obtained from Cancer Research UK and for Sweden (1970–2009) from the Swedish Cancer Registry. MM incidence data from Malmö, Sweden, were available from 1950 to 2012. Main outcome measures Age-specific incidence of MM in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö, Sweden. Results MM incidence in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö increased progressively with age, even among the oldest group. The MM age-adjusted incidence (European standard population) increased by 69% from 1975–1979 to 2005–2009 in Great Britain, from 3.2/100 000 to 5.4/100 000. The largest increases occurred among those 70–79 years of age, for whom rates increased from 17.9/100 000 to 33.6/100 000; reflecting an increase of 69%. During this same period, the age-adjusted incidence (European stand population) in Sweden overall remained stable, at approximately 4.7/100 000. Conclusions MM age-specific incidence is now similar in Great Britain, Sweden overall, and Malmö. We believe this is a result of improvements in case ascertainment in Great Britain, particularly among the elderly. Similar changes can be predicted to occur across Asia as improved access to healthcare contributes to better diagnosis of MM. PMID:26801465

  10. Age-specific epidemic waves of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in a subtropical city.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Chan, Kwok Hung; Suen, Lorna K P; Chan, King Pan; Wang, Xiling; Cao, Peihua; He, Daihai; Peiris, J S Malik; Wong, Chit Ming

    2015-01-01

    Both influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are active throughout the year in subtropical or tropical regions, but few studies have reported on age-specific seasonal patterns of these viruses. We examined the age-specific epidemic curves of laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza A (subtyped into seasonal A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and pandemic virus A(H1N1)pdm09), influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), in subtropical city Hong Kong from 2004 to 2013. We found that different types and subtypes of influenza showed similar two-peak patterns across age groups, with one peak in winter and another in spring/summer. Age differences were found in epidemic onset time and duration, but none could reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Age synchrony was found in epidemic peak time for both cool and warm seasons. RSV showed less clear seasonal patterns and non-synchronized epidemic curves across age. In conclusion, age synchrony was found in influenza seasonal epidemics and the 2009 pandemic, but not in RSV. None of the age groups consistently appear as the driving force for seasonal epidemics of influenza and RSV in Hong Kong. PMID:25981824

  11. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks' gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks' gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks' gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks' gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  12. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks’ gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks’ gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks’ gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks’ gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  13. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago. PMID:25865777

  14. Evolutionary demography and quantitative genetics: age-specific survival as a threshold trait

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers must understand how mutations affect survival at various ages to understand how ageing evolves. Many models linking mutation to age-specific survival have been proposed but there is little evidence to indicate which model is most appropriate. This is a serious problem because the predicted evolutionary endpoints of ageing depend upon the details of the specific model. We apply an explicitly quantitative genetic perspective to the problem. To determine the inheritance of dichotomous traits (such as survival), quantitative genetics has long employed a threshold model. Beginning from first principles, we show how this is the most defensible mutational model for age-specific survival and how this, relative to the standard model, predicts delayed senescence and mortality deceleration at late age. These are commonly observed patterns of ageing that heretofore have required more complicated survival models. We also show how this model can be developed further to unify quantitative genetics and evolutionary demography into a more complete conceptual framework for understanding the evolution of ageing. PMID:20659934

  15. Direct determination of track etch rate and response of CR-39 to normal incidence high-energy heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Awad, E M

    2001-12-01

    Response of CR-39 to high-energy heavy ions was investigated by using optical microphotographs of track profiles for Ar (480 MeV/n) and Ni (300 MeV/n). The depth dependence of track etch rate (VT) was determined experimentally by track length measurement. The results indicate that VT for the low REL Ar tracks is depth independent but for the high REL Ni tracks VT is gradually decreasing with depth. The region beyond 30 m depth inside the detector shows a stable region regarding the detector response for both ions. PMID:11688501

  16. Incidence rate and pattern of clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions in a large outpatient population of a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Nabovati, Ehsan; Vakili-Arki, Hasan; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine incidence rate, type, and pattern of clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) in a large outpatient population of a developing country. A retrospective, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on outpatients’ prescriptions in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, over 12 months. A list of 25 clinically relevant DDIs, which are likely to occur in the outpatient setting, was used as the reference. Most frequent clinically relevant pDDIs, most common drugs contributing to the pDDIs, and the pattern of pDDIs for each medical specialty were determined. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. In total, out of 8,169,142 prescriptions, 6,096 clinically relevant pDDIs were identified. The most common identified pDDIs were theophyllines-quinolones, warfarin-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benzodiazepines-azole antifungal agents, and anticoagulants-thyroid hormones. The most common drugs contributing to the identified pDDIs were ciprofloxacin, theophylline, warfarin, aminophylline, alprazolam, levothyroxine, and selegiline. While the incidence rate of clinically relevant pDDIs in prescriptions of general practitioners, internists, and cardiologists was the highest, the average pDDI incidence per 10,000 prescriptions of pulmonologists, infectious disease specialists, and cardiologists was highest. Although a small proportion of the analyzed prescriptions contained drug pairs with potential for clinically relevant DDIs, a significant number of outpatients have been exposed to the adverse effects associated with these interactions. It is recommended that in addition to training physicians and pharmacists, other effective interventions such as computerized alerting systems and electronic prescribing systems be designed and implemented. PMID:27499793

  17. Incidence rate and pattern of clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions in a large outpatient population of a developing country.

    PubMed

    Nabovati, Ehsan; Vakili-Arki, Hasan; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine incidence rate, type, and pattern of clinically relevant potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) in a large outpatient population of a developing country. A retrospective, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on outpatients' prescriptions in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, over 12 months. A list of 25 clinically relevant DDIs, which are likely to occur in the outpatient setting, was used as the reference. Most frequent clinically relevant pDDIs, most common drugs contributing to the pDDIs, and the pattern of pDDIs for each medical specialty were determined. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results. In total, out of 8,169,142 prescriptions, 6,096 clinically relevant pDDIs were identified. The most common identified pDDIs were theophyllines-quinolones, warfarin-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benzodiazepines-azole antifungal agents, and anticoagulants-thyroid hormones. The most common drugs contributing to the identified pDDIs were ciprofloxacin, theophylline, warfarin, aminophylline, alprazolam, levothyroxine, and selegiline. While the incidence rate of clinically relevant pDDIs in prescriptions of general practitioners, internists, and cardiologists was the highest, the average pDDI incidence per 10,000 prescriptions of pulmonologists, infectious disease specialists, and cardiologists was highest. Although a small proportion of the analyzed prescriptions contained drug pairs with potential for clinically relevant DDIs, a significant number of outpatients have been exposed to the adverse effects associated with these interactions. It is recommended that in addition to training physicians and pharmacists, other effective interventions such as computerized alerting systems and electronic prescribing systems be designed and implemented. PMID:27499793

  18. Adjuvant-induced Human Monocyte Secretome Profiles Reveal Adjuvant- and Age-specific Protein Signatures.

    PubMed

    Oh, Djin-Ye; Dowling, David J; Ahmed, Saima; Choi, Hyungwon; Brightman, Spencer; Bergelson, Ilana; Berger, Sebastian T; Sauld, John F; Pettengill, Matthew; Kho, Alvin T; Pollack, Henry J; Steen, Hanno; Levy, Ofer

    2016-06-01

    Adjuvants boost vaccine responses, enhancing protective immunity against infections that are most common among the very young. Many adjuvants activate innate immunity, some via Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), whose activities varies with age. Accordingly, characterization of age-specific adjuvant-induced immune responses may inform rational adjuvant design targeting vulnerable populations. In this study, we employed proteomics to characterize the adjuvant-induced changes of secretomes from human newborn and adult monocytes in response to Alum, the most commonly used adjuvant in licensed vaccines; Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4-activating adjuvant component of a licensed Human Papilloma Virus vaccine; and R848 an imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 agonist that is a candidate adjuvant for early life vaccines. Monocytes were incubated in vitro for 24 h with vehicle, Alum, MPLA, or R848 and supernatants collected for proteomic analysis employing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) (data available via ProteomeXchange, ID PXD003534). 1894 non-redundant proteins were identified, of which ∼30 - 40% were common to all treatment conditions and ∼5% were treatment-specific. Adjuvant-stimulated secretome profiles, as identified by cluster analyses of over-represented proteins, varied with age and adjuvant type. Adjuvants, especially Alum, activated multiple innate immune pathways as assessed by functional enrichment analyses. Release of lactoferrin, pentraxin 3, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was confirmed in newborn and adult whole blood and blood monocytes stimulated with adjuvants alone or adjuvanted licensed vaccines with distinct clinical reactogenicity profiles. MPLA-induced adult monocyte secretome profiles correlated in silico with transcriptome profiles induced in adults immunized with the MPLA-adjuvanted RTS,S malaria vaccine (Mosquirix™). Overall, adjuvants such as Alum, MPLA and R848 give rise to distinct and age-specific monocyte secretome profiles

  19. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from south-central Alaska: analysis of reproductive tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Lensink, C.

    1993-01-01

    We estimated age at sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from south-central Alaska, Primarily from western Prince William Sound, as a result of the T/V Exxon Valdez oit spill in 1989. We found 65% of our sample to be sexually mature. Sexual maturity was first attained at age 2. The proportion of sexually mature animals increased from 30% at age 2 to 100% at age 5. Annual reproductive rates increased from 22% at age 2 to 78% at age 5 and remained relatively stable (75-88%) through to age 15. the sex ratio (female:male) of 49 fetal sea otters was 18:37 and differed significantly from parity. Females younger than 8 tended to produce more female fetuses, while older mothers did not. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts wre similiar to those reported in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  20. Estimation of age-specific per capita home-produced food intake among populations that garden, farm, or raise animals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Linda; Moya, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Intake of home-produced foods may be a concern in areas where chemical contamination exists. Estimating exposure to contaminants in home-produced foods requires knowledge of the amount of these foods consumed. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Exposure Factors Handbook provides data on consumption of home-produced foods based on the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS), the most recent national food survey that contains the information necessary to estimate home-produced consumption. These data represent "consumer-only" intake rate distributions for various age and demographic categories. "Consumers-only" information is also provided for households who garden, farm, and raise animals for all age groups combined. However, these "consumer-only" values may not always be appropriate when assessing chronic exposures. Furthermore, data for all ages combined may not be useful for estimating exposure among age groups that may be of particular concern. This paper provides age-specific "per capita" intake rate distributions of home-produced foods specifically for the populations that garden, farm, and raise animals, using data from EPA's Exposure Factors Handbook. PMID:21522189

  1. Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyayula, Pavan; Chen, Robert Y.; Chooljian, Marc S.; Li, Ju; Kung, Sunny; Jiang, Kevin P.; Conboy, Irina M.

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle declines with age. Previous studies suggest that this process can be reversed by exposure to young circulation, but systemic age-specific factors responsible for this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here we report that oxytocin- a hormone best known for its role in lactation, parturition, and social behaviors - is required for proper muscle tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and that plasma levels of oxytocin decline with age. Inhibition of oxytocin signaling in young animals reduces muscle regeneration, whereas systemic administration of oxytocin rapidly improves muscle regeneration by enhancing aged muscle stem cell activation/proliferation throughactivation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway. We further show that the genetic lack of oxytocin does not cause a developmental defect in muscle, but instead leads to premature sarcopenia. Considering that oxytocin is an FDA approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent skeletal muscle aging. PMID:24915299

  2. Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Elabd, Christian; Cousin, Wendy; Upadhyayula, Pavan; Chen, Robert Y; Chooljian, Marc S; Li, Ju; Kung, Sunny; Jiang, Kevin P; Conboy, Irina M

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle declines with age. Previous studies suggest that this process can be reversed by exposure to young circulation; however, systemic age-specific factors responsible for this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here we report that oxytocin--a hormone best known for its role in lactation, parturition and social behaviours--is required for proper muscle tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and that plasma levels of oxytocin decline with age. Inhibition of oxytocin signalling in young animals reduces muscle regeneration, whereas systemic administration of oxytocin rapidly improves muscle regeneration by enhancing aged muscle stem cell activation/proliferation through activation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway. We further show that the genetic lack of oxytocin does not cause a developmental defect in muscle but instead leads to premature sarcopenia. Considering that oxytocin is an FDA-approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent skeletal muscle ageing. PMID:24915299

  3. Age-specific inhalation radiation dose commitment factors for selected radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-08-01

    Inhalation dose commitment factors are presented for selected radionuclides for exposure of individuals in four age groups: infant, child, teen and adult. Radionuclides considered are /sup 35/S, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 45/Ca, /sup 67/Ga, /sup 75/Se, /sup 85/Sr, /sup 109/Cd, /sup 113/Sn, /sup 125/I, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 170/Tm, /sup 169/Yb, /sup 182/Ta, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 198/Au, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 204/Tl, and /sup 236/Pu. The calculational method is based on the human metabolic model of ICRP as defined in Publication 2 (ICRP 1959) and as used in previous age-specific dose factor calculations by Hoenes and Soldat (1977). Dose commitment factors are presented for the following organs of reference: total body, bone, liver, kidney, thyroid, lung and lower large intestine.

  4. Measuring skill acquisition and retention with an ATM simulator: the need for age-specific training.

    PubMed

    Mead, S; Fisk, A D

    1998-09-01

    The present study focused on the type of information presented during training and its effects on initial and retention performance of older and younger adults interacting with computerized, new technology. The effects of emphasizing concepts versus actions during training on performance immediately after training and after a 1-month retention interval were examined. Younger and older adults completed either action or concept training for operating a virtual automatic teller machine (ATM). Overall, action training was associated with faster and more accurate performance immediately after training and better retention performance for older adults. For older adults, value of type of training interacted with type of task component. These findings are applicable to the development of age-specific training materials for computerized tasks. PMID:9849109

  5. Incidence and Survival of Childhood Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Yoon, Ju Young; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Park, Byung Kiu; Shin, Hee Young; Won, Young-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose An epidemiologic study of childhood cancer would provide useful information on cancer etiology and development of management guidelines. Materials and Methods Data from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database were used to examine the incidence and survival of cancer in patients aged 0-14 years. Patients were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, 3rd edition. Age-specific and age-standardized incidences per million and estimated annual percentage change (APC) were calculated by sex and age. Five-year relative survival was calculated for four periods from 1993 to 2011. Results The study comprised 15,113 patients with malignant neoplasms. Age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers were 134.9 per million children in 1999-2011 and 144.0 and 124.9 per million for males and females, respectively (M/F ratio, 1.2; p < 0.05). The highest incidences were observed for ‘leukemias, myeloproliferative diseases, and myelodysplastic diseases’ (group I) (46.4), ‘central nervous system neoplasms’ (group III) (18.3), and ‘lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms’ (group II) (13.4). Age-standardized incidence increased from 117.9 in 1999 to 155.3 in 2011, with an APC of 2.4% (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 2.7). There was a significant increase of APC in ‘neuroblastoma and other peripheral nervous cell tumors’ (group IV) (5.6%) and ‘other malignant epithelial neoplasms and malignant melanomas’ (group XI) (5.6%). The 5-year relative survival rate for all childhood cancers improved significantly from 56.2% (1993-1995) to 78.2% (2007-2011) (males, 56.7% to 77.7%; females, 55.5% to 78.8%). Conclusion This study provides reliable information on incidence and survival trends for childhood cancer in Korea. PMID:26790965

  6. Oral cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Zheng, Rongshou; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Siwei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To descript the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer among Chinese population in 2011, and provide valuable data for oral cancer prevention and research. Methods Data from 177 population-based cancer registries distributed in 28 provinces were accepted for this study after evaluation based on quality control criteria, covering a total of 175,310,169 populations and accounting for 13.01% of the overall national population in 2011. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated by area, gender and age groups. The numbers of new cases and deaths were estimated using the 5-year age-specific cancer incidence/mortality rates and the corresponding populations. The Chinese population in 2000 and World Segi’s population were used for age-standardized rates. Results The estimate of new cases diagnosed with oral cancer was 39,450 including 26,160 males and 13,290 females. The overall crude incidence rate for oral cancer was 2.93/100,000. The age-standardized rates by China (ASRCN) population and by World population (ASRwld) were 2.22/100,000 and 2.17/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative incidence rate was 0.25%. The estimated number of oral cancer deaths of China in 2011 was 16,933, including 11,794 males and 5,139 females. The overall crude mortality rate was 1.26/100,000, accounting for 0.80% of all cancer deaths. The ASRCN and ASRwld for mortality were 0.90/100,000 and 0.89/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative mortality rate was 0.10%. The incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer were much higher in males and urban areas than in females and rural areas. In addition, the incidence and mortality rates were increased by the raising of ages. Conclusions Results in the study may have important roles for oral cancer prevention and research. Although oral cancer burden of China is not high, we must pay attention to this malignancy as well. In addition, further researches need to be done for

  7. Increased Age and Race-Specific Incidence of Cervical Cancer After Correction for Hysterectomy Prevalence in the United States From 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Nowak, Rebecca G.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Invasive cervical cancer is thought to decline in women over 65 years old, the age at which cessation of routine cervical cancer screening is recommended. However, national cervical cancer incidence rates do not account for the high prevalence of hysterectomy in the United States. METHODS Using estimates of hysterectomy prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), hysterectomy-corrected age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of cervical cancer were calculated from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registry in the United States from 2000 to 2009. Trends in corrected cervical cancer incidence across age were analyzed using Joinpoint regression. RESULTS Unlike the relative decline in uncorrected rates, corrected rates continue to increase after age 35–39 (APCCORRECTED = 10.43) but at a slower rate than in 20–34 years (APCCORRECTED = 161.29). The highest corrected incidence was among 65- to 69-year-old women, with a rate of 27.4 cases per 100,000 women as opposed to the highest uncorrected rate of 15.6 cases per 100,000 aged 40 to 44 years. Correction for hysterectomy had the largest impact on older, black women given their high prevalence of hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS Correction for hysterectomy resulted in higher age-specific cervical cancer incidence rates, a shift in the peak incidence to older women, and an increase in the disparity in cervical cancer incidence between black and white women. Given the high and nondeclining rate of cervical cancer in women over the age of 60 to 65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, risk and screening guidelines for cervical cancer in older women may need to be reconsidered. PMID:24821088

  8. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the comparative effects of reduced irrigation regimes—partial root-zone drying (PRD) and conventional deficit irrigation (DI)—on the incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under three Ca-fertilization rates: 0, 100, and 200mg Ca kg–1 soil (denoted Ca0, Ca1, and Ca2, respectively). The plants were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and treated with PRD and DI during early flowering to the fruit maturity stage. The results showed that, in comparison with DI treatment, PRD significantly reduced BER incidence. A greater xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater resources, application of PRD irrigation could be a promising approach for saving water and for preventing BER development in tomatoes. PMID:23530128

  9. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the comparative effects of reduced irrigation regimes--partial root-zone drying (PRD) and conventional deficit irrigation (DI)--on the incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under three Ca-fertilization rates: 0, 100, and 200mg Ca kg(-1) soil (denoted Ca0, Ca1, and Ca2, respectively). The plants were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and treated with PRD and DI during early flowering to the fruit maturity stage. The results showed that, in comparison with DI treatment, PRD significantly reduced BER incidence. A greater xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater resources, application of PRD irrigation could be a promising approach for saving water and for preventing BER development in tomatoes. PMID:23530128

  10. Hip fracture incidence among Caucasians in Hawaii is similar to Japanese. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ross, P D; Huang, C

    2000-10-01

    Age-specific hip fracture incidence has been increasing in some parts of the world. The incidence of hip fractures among Japanese on the island of Oahu, Hawaii in 1979-1981 was approximately half that of Caucasians in North America, but similar to the incidence in Japan. We surveyed the incidence on Oahu again in 1991-1995 for all races to compare the incidence among Japanese to the earlier rates, and to other populations, including Caucasians on Oahu. The incidence of hip fracture among Japanese in Hawaii between 1991-1995 had not changed appreciably (compared to 1979-1981), and was similar to that among Caucasians on Oahu. The incidence among Hawaii Japanese and Caucasians was similar to, or lower than Japan overall, and much lower (one-third to one-half) than that reported for Caucasians in North America and Northern Europe, suggesting that the prevalence of certain risk factors may be lower in Hawaii. These findings confirm other studies suggesting that nongenetic factors may be responsible for much of the observed differences in hip fracture incidence between countries, and between races. PMID:11126521

  11. Human Papillomavirus Virus (HPV) Genotype- and Age-Specific Analyses of External Genital Lesions Among Men in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane A.; Stoler, Mark H.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A.; O'Keefe, Michael T.; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. Methods. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009–2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan–Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. Results. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9–19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Conclusion. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. PMID:25344518

  12. The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Daniel H; Christos, Paul J; LaBonte, Andrew M

    2013-04-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors' study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

  13. Utilizing United States Coast Guard data to calculate incidence rates and identify risk factors for occupational fishing injuries in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Day, Emily Ruth; Lefkowitz, Daniel K; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Hovinga, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Commercial fishing has high rates of work-related injury and death and needs preventive strategies. Work-related fatal and nonfatal injury rates for New Jersey (NJ) commercial fishermen who suffered unintentional traumatic injuries from 2001 to 2007 are calculated using data from the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Marine Safety and Pollution Database and estimated denominator data. Fatalities were compared to those ascertained by the NJ Fatality Assessment Control and Evaluation (FACE) surveillance system. For the study years, 225 nonfatal injuries and 31 fatal injuries were reported. Among nonfatal injuries, the causes by frequency were fall onto surface, crushed between objects, struck by moving object, line handling/caught in lines, collision with fixed objects, fall into water, and other noncontact injuries. The distribution of fatal injuries differed, with the most frequent cause as crushed between objects. Falls into water and several noncontact injuries accounted for most of the other fatalities. The large majority (96%) of nonfatal injuries were contact injuries, whereas only 68% of fatalities were classified as contact. The overall incidence rate of nonfatal injuries was 1188 per 100,000 full-time equivalents (FTEs) per year. The rate varied considerably by year, from a low of 286 per 100,000 FTEs in 2001 and 2007 to 3806 per 100,000 FTEs in 2003. The overall occupational fatality rate over the period 2001-2007 was 164 per 100,000 FTEs per year. These results can aid in targeting the commercial fishing industry for injury prevention strategies and interventions, especially for falls, crushing injuries, and drownings. PMID:20954031

  14. Age-specific survival and philopatry in three species of European ducks: a long-term study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Mednis, A.; Bauga, I.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Capture-recapture and band recovery models were used to estimate age-specific survival probabilities for female Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata), Common Pochards (Aythya ferina), and Tufted Ducks (Aythya.fuligula) at Engure Marsh, Latvia, in 1964-1993. We banded more than 65,100 day-old ducklings of both sexes and captured 10,211 incubating females (3,713 new bandings and 6,498 recaptures). We developed a set of 3-age capture-recapture models to estimate annual survival rates for female ducklings, yearlings (SY), and adults (ASY) using programs SURGE and SURVIV and selected parsimonious models using a method developed bv Akaike (1973). Survival rates of SY and ASY females were highest-for Tufted Ducks intermediate for Common Pochards, and lowest for Northern Shovelers. Survival rates of SY and ASY females varied in parallel for shovelers and pochards. We believe that much of the difference in survival estimates between SY and ASY birds was caused by mortality rather than permanent emigration. Estimates of day-old duckling survival, reflecting both mortality and permanent emigration, were 0.12 for shoveler, 0.06 for pochard, and 0.03 for Tufted Duck. For all species, duckling survival varied over years, but the pattern of variation was not similar to that of the other age classes. Estimates of survival using band recovery data for SY + ASY female pochards and Tufted Ducks were similar to the capture-recapturee stimates, suggestingt hat surviving females returned to the breeding marsh with probabilities approaching 1.

  15. An age-specific kinetic model of lead metabolism in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, R W

    1993-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in recent years in reducing human exposures to lead, the potential for high intake of this contaminant still exists in millions of homes and in many occupational settings. Moreover, there is growing evidence that levels of lead intake considered inconsequential just a few years ago can result in subtle, adverse health effects, particularly in children. Consequently, there have been increased efforts by health protection agencies to develop credible, versatile methods for relating levels of lead in environmental media to levels in blood and tissues of exposed humans of all ages. In a parallel effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is assembling a set of age-specific biokinetic models for calculating radiation doses from environmentally important radionuclides, including radioisotopes of lead. This paper describes a new age-specific biokinetic model for lead originally developed for the ICRP but expanded to include additional features that are useful for consideration of lead as a chemical toxin. The model is developed within a generic, physiologically motivated framework designed to address a class of calciumlike elements. This framework provides a useful setting in which to synthesize experimental, occupational, and environmental data on lead and exploit common physiological properties of lead and the alkaline earth elements. The modular design is intended to allow researchers to modify specific parameter values or model components to address special problems in lead toxicology or to incorporate new information. Transport of lead between compartments is assumed to follow linear, first-order kinetics provided the concentration in red blood cells remains below a nonlinear threshold level, but a nonlinear relation between plasma lead and red blood cell lead is modeled for concentrations above that level. The model is shown to be consistent

  16. Incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer according to histologic subtypes in Korea, 1999 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Won, Young-Joo; Seo, Sang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate trends in the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), according to histologic subtypes, in Korean women between 1999 and 2012. Methods Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry recorded between 1999 and 2012 were evaluated. The incidences of EOC histologic subtypes were counted. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and annual percentage changes (APCs) in incidence rates were calculated. Patient data were divided into three groups based on age (<40, 40 to 59, and >59 years), and age-specific incidence rates were compared. Results Overall, the incidence of EOC has increased. Annual EOC cases increased from 922 in 1999 to 1,775 in 2012. In 1999, the ASR was 3.52 per 100,000 and increased to 4.79 per 100,000 in 2012 (APC, 2.53%; p<0.001). The ASRs in 2012 and APCs between 1999 and 2012 for the four major histologic subtypes were as follows (in order of incidence): serous carcinoma (ASR, 2.32 per 100,000; APC, 4.34%; p<0.001), mucinous carcinoma (ASR, 0.73 per 100,000; APC, –1.05%; p=0.131), endometrioid carcinoma (ASR, 0.51 per 100,000; APC, 1.48%; p=0.032), and clear cell carcinoma (ASR, 0.50 per 100,000; APC, 8.13%; p<0.001). In the sub-analyses based on age, clear cell carcinoma was confirmed as the histologic subtype whose incidence had increased the most since 1999. Conclusion The incidence of EOC is increasing in Korea. Among the histologic subtypes, the incidence of clear cell carcinoma has increased markedly across all age groups since 1999. PMID:26463436

  17. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River.

    PubMed

    Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Veselov, Alexey E; Efremov, Denis A; Nemova, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  18. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  19. Development of age-specific Japanese head phantoms for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Fujii, K; Akahane, K; Yamauchi, M; Narai, K; Aoyama, T; Katsu, T; Obara, S; Imai, K; Ikeda, M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the authors developed age-specific physical head phantoms simulating the physique of Japanese children for dose evaluation in paediatric head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Anatomical structures at 99 places in 0-, 0.5-, 1- and 3-y-old Japanese patients were measured using DICOM viewer software from CT images, and the head phantom of each age was designed. For trial manufacture, a 3-y-old head phantom consisting of acrylic resin and gypsum was produced by machine processing. Radiation doses for the head phantom were measured with radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters and Si-pin photodiode dosemeters. To investigate whether the phantom shape was suitable for dose evaluation, organ doses in the same scan protocol were compared between the 3-y-old head and commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms having approximately the same head size. The doses of organs in both phantoms were equivalent. The authors' designed paediatric head phantom will be useful for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations. PMID:24821932

  20. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    PubMed Central

    Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Veselov, Alexey E.; Efremov, Denis A.; Nemova, Nina N.

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  1. Age-specific survival of reintroduced swift fox in Badlands National Park and surrounding lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasmal, Indrani; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Schroeder, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a reintroduction program was initiated at Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, USA, with swift foxes (Vulpes velox) translocated from Colorado and Wyoming, USA, as part of a restoration effort to recover declining swift fox populations throughout its historical range. Estimates of age-specific survival are necessary to evaluate the potential for population growth of reintroduced populations. We used 7 years (2003–2009) of capture–recapture data of 243 pups, 29 yearlings, and 69 adult swift foxes at BNP and the surrounding area to construct Cormack–Jolly–Seber model estimates of apparent survival within a capture–mark–recapture framework using Program MARK. The best model for estimating recapture probabilities included no differences among age classes, greater recapture probabilities during early years of the monitoring effort than later years, and variation among spring, winter, and summer. Our top ranked survival model indicated pup survival differed from that of yearlings and adults and varied by month and year. The apparent annual survival probability of pups (0.47, SE = 0.10) in our study area was greater than the apparent annual survival probability of yearlings and adults (0.27, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate low survival probabilities for a reintroduced population of swift foxes in the BNP and surrounding areas. Management of reintroduced populations and future reintroductions of swift foxes should consider the effects of relative low annual survival on population demography.

  2. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-11-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age.

  3. Subcutaneous Bortezomib in Multiple Myeloma Patients Induces Similar Therapeutic Response Rates as Intravenous Application But It Does Not Reduce the Incidence of Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Minarik, Jiri; Pavlicek, Petr; Pour, Ludek; Pika, Tomas; Maisnar, Vladimir; Spicka, Ivan; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Krejci, Marta; Bacovsky, Jaroslav; Radocha, Jakub; Straub, Jan; Kessler, Petr; Wrobel, Marek; Walterova, Lenka; Sykora, Michal; Obernauerova, Jarmila; Brozova, Lucie; Gregora, Evzen; Adamova, Dagmar; Gumulec, Jaromir; Adam, Zdenek; Scudla, Vlastimil; Hajek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Objective Subcutaneous (SC) application of bortezomib has been recently introduced as a new application route in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We performed an analysis to compare the outcomes of bortezomib-based therapy in multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated using either intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) route of administration. Patients and methods During January 2012 through December 2013, we performed a retrospective analysis of 446 patients with MM treated with bortezomib-based regimens (either once weekly – 63% or twice weekly – 27%) in both, the first line setting, and in relapse, with separate analysis of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation. We assessed the response rates and toxicity profiles in both, IV and SC route of bortezomib administration. Results The response rates in both IV and SC arm were similar with overall response rate 71.7% vs 70.7%, complete remissions in 13.9% vs 8.6%, very good partial remissions in 30.8% vs 34.5% and partial remissions in 27% vs 27.6%. The most frequent grade ≥3 toxicities were anemia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, with no significant differences between IV and SC group. There were no significant differences in the rate of peripheral neuropathy (PN). PN of any grade was present in 48% in the IV arm and in 41% in the SC arm. PN grade ≥2 was present in 20% vs 18% and PN grade ≥3 was present in 6% vs 4%. Conclusions We conclude that subcutaneous application of bortezomib has similar therapeutic outcomes and toxicity profile as intravenous route of application. In our cohort there was no difference in the incidence of PN, suggesting that PN is dose dependent and might be reduced by lower intensity schemes rather than by the route of administration. PMID:25875484

  4. Anal Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Ortiz, Ana P.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Torres-Cintrón, Mariela; Mercado-Acosta, Juan José; Suárez, Erick

    2013-01-01

    Objective Anal cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of anal cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US). Methods ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Results Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of anal cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of anal cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48–3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of anal cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women. Conclusion Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in anal cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in anal cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of anal cancer. PMID:23781623

  5. Uric acid: association with rate of renal function decline and time until start of dialysis in incident pre-dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) hyperuricemia is common. Evidence that hyperuricemia might also play a causal role in vascular disease, hypertension and progression of CKD is accumulating. Therefore, we studied the association between baseline uric acid (UA) levels and the rate of decline in renal function and time until start of dialysis in pre-dialysis patients. Methods Data from the PREPARE-2 study were used. The PREPARE-2 study is an observational prospective cohort study including incident pre-dialysis patients with CKD stages IV-V in the years between 2004 and 2011. Patients were followed for a median of 14.9 months until start of dialysis, kidney transplantation, death, or censoring. Main outcomes were the change in the rate of decline in renal function (measured as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)) estimated using linear mixed models, and time until start of dialysis estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results In this analysis 131 patients were included with a baseline UA level (mean (standard deviation (SD)) of 8.0 (1.79) mg/dl) and a mean decline in renal function of -1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), -2.01; -1.22) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. The change in decline in GFR associated with a unit increase in UA at baseline was -0.14 (95% CI -0.61;0.33, p = 0.55) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. Adjusted for demography, comorbidities, diet, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, proteinuria, diuretic and/or allopurinol usage the change in decline in eGFR did not change. The hazard ratio (HR) for starting dialysis for each mg/dl increase in UA at baseline was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.94;1.24, p = 0.27). After adjustment for the same confounders the HR became significant at 1.26 (95% CI, 1.06;1.49, p = 0.01), indicating an earlier start of dialysis with higher levels of UA. Conclusion Although high UA levels are not associated with an accelerated decline in renal function, a high serum UA level in incident pre

  6. Dose consequence of repository failure and leach events for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. [Dose-to-age-specific maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, S.

    1980-11-01

    The consequence of repository breaching followed by hydrogeologic transport of radioactivity to the biosphere has been assessed in terms of dose to age specific maximum individuals. The dose assessment calculations include environmental transport via drinking water, irrigation pathways, stock watering, and water related recreation pathways where applicable. A principal assumption in this analysis is that the radioactice material and its containers undergo dissolution at the same rate as the repository media. The analysis concludes that postulated releases to the Pecos River at Malaga Bend and subsequent use of the contaminated water for 1 yr would not result in exceeding the recommended dose limit of 500 mrem/yr for the total body of the maximum individual of a population group. Additionally, 4.5 x 10/sup 4/ years of release at the worst release rate assuming no decay or other environmental removal would be required before the total body dose limit would be exceeded. For the bone, 7.1 x 10/sup 4/ yrs of continuous release at the worst level would be required before the 1500 mrem/yr limit would be exceeded. Thus, it is apparent that when environmental removal by decay and other mechanisms is considered , long-term impact of accumulation of nuclides in the environment as a result of these scenarios is insignificant with respect to maximum individual exposure. In conclusion, neither the hypothetical and conservative repsitory failure events leading to discharges of contaminated water at Malaga bend nor discharges to a postulated well in the Rustler aquifer with subsequent use by humans results in any dose limit being exceeded.

  7. Incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death in a Young Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Farioli, Andrea; Christophi, Costas A; Quarta, Candida Cristina; Kales, Stefanos N

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the burden of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among active, presumably healthy persons. We investigated the incidence of SCD among US male career firefighters. Methods and Results All on-duty SCDs among US male career firefighters between 1998 and 2012 were identified from the US Fire Administration and the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health databases. Age-specific incidence rates (IRs) of SCD with 95% CIs were computed. A joinpoint model was fitted to analyze the trend in IR and to help estimate the annual percentage change of SCD rates over the years. The effects of seasonality were assessed through a Poisson regression model. We identified 182 SCDs; based on 99 available autopsy reports, the leading underlying cause of death was coronary heart disease (79%). The overall IR was 18.1 SCDs per 100 000 person-years. The age-specific IRs of SCD ranged between 3.8 (for those aged 18 to 24 years) and 45.2 (for those aged 55 to 64 years) per 100 000 person-years. The annual rate of SCD steadily declined over time (annual percentage change −3.9%, 95% CI −5.8 to −2.0). SCD events were more frequent during January (peak-to-low ratio 1.70; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.65). In addition, the IR was 3 times higher during high-risk duties compared with low-risk duties. IRs among firefighters were lower than those observed among the US general population and US military personnel. Conclusions SCD risk in this active working population is overestimated using statistics from the general population. To address public health questions among these subpopulations, more specific studies of active adults should be conducted. PMID:26066031

  8. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco; Glynn, Judith R

    2016-08-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children <2 years of age; 30% for those 5-14 years of age; and >60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20-29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5-9 (0.70), 10-14 (0.64), and 15-19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2-4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5-19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428

  9. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H.; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children <2 years of age; 30% for those 5–14 years of age; and >60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20–29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5–9 (0.70), 10–14 (0.64), and 15–19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2–4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5–19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428

  10. Molecular mechanism of age-specific hepatic lipid accumulation in PPARalpha (+/-):LDLR (+/-) mice, an obese mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yufeng; Sugiyama, Eiko; Yokoyama, Shin; Jiang, Lingling; Tanaka, Naoki; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms of age-specific hepatic lipid accumulation accompanying hyperinsulinemia in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) (+/-):low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (+/-) mouse line. The hepatic fat content, protein amounts, and mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were analyzed in 25-, 50-, 75- and 100-week-old mice. Severe fatty liver was confirmed only in 50- and 75-week-old mice. The hepatic expression of proteins that function in lipid transport and catabolism did not differ among the groups. In contrast, the mRNA levels and protein amounts of lipogenic enzymes, including acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-1, fatty acid synthase, and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, enhanced in the mice with fatty liver. Elevated mRNA and protein levels of lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid translocase, which are involved in hepatic lipid uptake, were also detected in mice with fatty liver. Moreover, both protein and mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), a transcription factor regulating lipid synthesis, had age-specific patterns similar to those of the proteins described above. Therefore, the age-specific fatty liver found in the PPARalpha (+/-):LDLR (+/-) mouse line is probably caused by age-specific expression of SREBP-1 and its downstream lipogenic genes, coordinated by the increased uptake of lipids. All of these factors might be affected by age-specific changes in serum insulin concentration. PMID:18335269

  11. Incidence of first primary central nervous system tumors in California, 2001-2005: children, adolescents and teens.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monica; Schrot, Rudolph; Bauer, Katrina; Dodge, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    This study used data from the California Cancer Registry to comprehensively examine first primary central nervous system tumors (PCNST) by the International Classification of Childhood Cancers (ICCC) diagnostic groups and to compare their incidence by age groups, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and tumor behavior. The study period, 2001-2005, represents the first 5 years of benign PCNST data collection in the state. The age-adjusted incidence rates were 2.1 for malignant and 1.3 for benign per 100,000. Children younger than 5 years old had the highest incidence of malignant PCNST (2.6 per 100,000). Teens aged 15-19 had the highest incidence of benign PCNST (1.8 per 100,000). Age-specific incidence rates were nearly the same for Hispanics, non-Hispanic whites, and Asian/Pacific Islanders for malignant PCNST among children younger than 5 (2.6-2.7 per 100,000); non-Hispanic whites had the highest rates in the 5-14 year-old age group (2.5 per 100,000) and Asian/Pacific Islanders the highest among the 15-19 year old age group (2.3 per 100,000). We found no statistically significant differences in the incidence of malignant PCNST by race/ethnicity in any age group. Astrocytoma had the highest incidence for both malignant and benign histology in most age groups. PMID:19340399

  12. Spatially adapted augmentation of age-specific atlas-based segmentation using patch-based priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengyuan; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Harrylock, Lisa; Kitsch, Averi; Miller, Steven; Chau, Van; Poskitt, Kenneth; Rousseau, Francois; Studholme, Colin

    2014-03-01

    One of the most common approaches to MRI brain tissue segmentation is to employ an atlas prior to initialize an Expectation- Maximization (EM) image labeling scheme using a statistical model of MRI intensities. This prior is commonly derived from a set of manually segmented training data from the population of interest. However, in cases where subject anatomy varies significantly from the prior anatomical average model (for example in the case where extreme developmental abnormalities or brain injuries occur), the prior tissue map does not provide adequate information about the observed MRI intensities to ensure the EM algorithm converges to an anatomically accurate labeling of the MRI. In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatic segmentation of such cases. This approach augments the atlas-based EM segmentation by exploring methods to build a hybrid tissue segmentation scheme that seeks to learn where an atlas prior fails (due to inadequate representation of anatomical variation in the statistical atlas) and utilize an alternative prior derived from a patch driven search of the atlas data. We describe a framework for incorporating this patch-based augmentation of EM (PBAEM) into a 4D age-specific atlas-based segmentation of developing brain anatomy. The proposed approach was evaluated on a set of MRI brain scans of premature neonates with ages ranging from 27.29 to 46.43 gestational weeks (GWs). Results indicated superior performance compared to the conventional atlas-based segmentation method, providing improved segmentation accuracy for gray matter, white matter, ventricles and sulcal CSF regions.

  13. Estimating HIV Incidence among Adults in Kenya and Uganda: A Systematic Comparison of Multiple Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Andrea A.; Hallett, Timothy; Stover, John; Gouws, Eleanor; Musinguzi, Joshua; Mureithi, Patrick K.; Bunnell, Rebecca; Hargrove, John; Mermin, Jonathan; Kaiser, Reinhard K.; Barsigo, Anne; Ghys, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Several approaches have been used for measuring HIV incidence in large areas, yet each presents specific challenges in incidence estimation. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a comparison of incidence estimates for Kenya and Uganda using multiple methods: 1) Epidemic Projections Package (EPP) and Spectrum models fitted to HIV prevalence from antenatal clinics (ANC) and national population-based surveys (NPS) in Kenya (2003, 2007) and Uganda (2004/2005); 2) a survey-derived model to infer age-specific incidence between two sequential NPS; 3) an assay-derived measurement in NPS using the BED IgG capture enzyme immunoassay, adjusted for misclassification using a locally derived false-recent rate (FRR) for the assay; (4) community cohorts in Uganda; (5) prevalence trends in young ANC attendees. EPP/Spectrum-derived and survey-derived modeled estimates were similar: 0.67 [uncertainty range: 0.60, 0.74] and 0.6 [confidence interval: (CI) 0.4, 0.9], respectively, for Uganda (2005) and 0.72 [uncertainty range: 0.70, 0.74] and 0.7 [CI 0.3, 1.1], respectively, for Kenya (2007). Using a local FRR, assay-derived incidence estimates were 0.3 [CI 0.0, 0.9] for Uganda (2004/2005) and 0.6 [CI 0, 1.3] for Kenya (2007). Incidence trends were similar for all methods for both Uganda and Kenya. Conclusions/Significance Triangulation of methods is recommended to determine best-supported estimates of incidence to guide programs. Assay-derived incidence estimates are sensitive to the level of the assay's FRR, and uncertainty around high FRRs can significantly impact the validity of the estimate. Systematic evaluations of new and existing incidence assays are needed to the study the level, distribution, and determinants of the FRR to guide whether incidence assays can produce reliable estimates of national HIV incidence. PMID:21408182

  14. Incidence and predictors of morphometric vertebral fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with an increased incidence of vertebral fractures (VFs); however the actual incidence and predictors of morphometric VFs are unknown. The present study examined the incidence and predictors of new VFs in a large AS cohort. Methods In total, 298 AS patients who fulfilled the modified New York criteria were enrolled and spinal radiographs were evaluated biennially. Clinical and laboratory data and radiographic progression were assessed according to the Bath AS Disease Activity Index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein (CRP), and the Stoke AS spine score (SASSS). VF was defined according to the Genant criteria. The incidence of VFs at 2 and 4 years was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The age-specific standardized prevalence ratio (SPR) for AS patients in comparison with the general population was calculated. Results Of 298 patients, 31 (10.8%) had previous VFs at baseline. A total of 30 new VFs occurred in 26 patients over 4 years. The incidence of morphometric VFs was 4.7% at 2 years and 13.6% at 4 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that previous VFs at baseline and increased CRP levels at 2 years were predictors of new VFs (odds ratio (OR) =12.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.6-45.3 and OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 1.4–15.9). The age-specific specific standardized prevalence ratio of morphometric VFs in AS was 3.3 (95% CI 2.1–4.5). Conclusions The incidence of morphometric VFs increased in AS. Previous VFs and increased CRP levels predicted future VFs. Further studies are needed to identify the effects of treatment interventions on the prevention of new VFs. PMID:24935156

  15. Pediatric, elderly, and emerging adult-onset peaks in Burkitt lymphoma incidence diagnosed in four continents, excluding Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Anderson, William F.; Ferlay, Jacques; Bhatia, Kishor; Chang, Cindy; Rosenberg, Philip S.; Devesa, Susan S.; Parkin, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in the general population and immunosuppressed persons with AIDS in United States was characterized by three age-specific incidence peaks near 10, 40 and 70 years. We hypothesized that BL from different geographical areas may exhibit pediatric, adult, and elderly age incidence peaks. We investigated this hypothesis using data on 3403 cases obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (1978–2002). Data from Africa were sparse or incomplete, and thus were excluded. Age-standardized rates (ASR) and age-specific incidence rates were calculated, supplemented with calculations performed using age-period-cohort models. The ASR rose 5.3% (95% confidence interval (CI), 5.0–5.6) per year in males and 4.6% (95% CI, 4.5–4.8) in females. The ASR increased gradually in children and steeply in adults and most rapidly in the elderly both in males and females. Overall, BL male/female ASR ratio was 2.5, but it declined from 3.1 (95% CI, 3.0–3.3) for pediatric BL to 2.3 (95% CI 2.2–2.4) for adult BL and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.4–1.6) for elderly BL. Age-specific incidence peaks occurred near 10 years and 70 years in all regions and periods. A peak near 40 years of age emerged in the mid-1990s, particularly in men. Findings using APC models confirmed those based on standard analyses. Our findings, based on international BL cases, support our hypothesis that BL is multimodal and that BL peaks at different ages may be clues to differences in the etiology and/or biology of BL at those ages. PMID:22488262

  16. Age-specific and sex-specific morbidity and mortality from avian influenza A(H7N9).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Joseph P; Mackay, Ian M

    2013-11-01

    We used data on age and sex for 136 laboratory confirmed human A(H7N9) cases reported as of 11 August 2013 to compare age-specific and sex-specific patterns of morbidity and mortality from the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus with those of the avian influenza A(H5N1) virus. Human A(H7N9) cases exhibit high degrees of age and sex bias: mortality is heavily biased toward males >50 years, no deaths have been reported among individuals <25 years old, and relatively few cases documented among children or adolescents. The proportion of fatal cases (PFC) for human A(H7N9) cases as of 11 August 2013 was 32%, compared to a cumulative PFC for A(H5N1) of 83% in Indonesia and 36% in Egypt. Approximately 75% of cases of all A(H7N9) cases occurred among individuals >45 years old. Morbidity and mortality from A(H7N9) are lowest among individuals between 10 and 29 years, the age group which exhibits the highest cumulative morbidity and case fatality rates from A(H5N1). Although individuals <20 years old comprise nearly 50% of all human A(H5N1) cases, only 7% of all reported A(H7N9) cases and no deaths have been reported among individuals in this age group. Only 4% of A(H7N9) cases occurred among children<5 years old, and only one case from the 10 to 20 year age group. Age- and sex-related differences in morbidity and mortality from emerging zoonotic diseases can provide insights into ecological, economic, and cultural factors that may contribute to the emergence and proliferation of novel zoonotic diseases in human populations. PMID:24091087

  17. Age-specific changes in electrocardiographic parameters in bipolar limb leads of conscious female native cats of Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Subhashree; Mahapatra, A. P. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Kundu, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study and compare the age-specific changes in electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters in bipolar limb leads of conscious female native cats of Odisha. Materials and Methods: 20 healthy female native cats aged between 4 and 36 months of age were selected for the study. These queens were divided into two groups of 10 animals each. Group 1 constituted the queens aged 4-10 months (before puberty) with a mean weight of 2.28 kg (±0.4 standard error [SE]), and those aged 11-36 months (after puberty) with a mean weight of 3.72 kg (±0.6 SE) were in Group 2. The ECG was recorded with a 12-lead standard ECG recorder, Cardiart 108 T-MK VII-BPL (India) in the Leads I, II, and III. Results: The mean heart rates were 160.73 (±7.83) beats/min and 139.09 (±2.72) beats/min in the cats aged 4-10 months and 11-36 months, respectively. Significant differences existed among Q- and R-wave amplitudes and duration of QT-interval in Lead I. In Lead II, duration of QT and RR intervals, duration of ST-segment and amplitudes of P- and R-waves varied significantly. Significant differences were also observed in the P- and R-wave amplitudes in Lead III. The mean electrical axis was 63.11 (±1.98°) and 50.03 (±4.86°) in the cats aged 4-10 months and 11-36 months, respectively. Conclusion: Since the ECG studies on conscious cats are scanty, and the number of native cats being presented in veterinary hospitals and clinics has increased drastically, there is a need to establish the reference values for ECG parameters in conscious native cats so that the cardiovascular abnormalities can be predicted. PMID:27051200

  18. The feasibility of age-specific travel restrictions during influenza pandemics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that imposing travel restrictions to prevent or delay an influenza pandemic may not be feasible. To delay an epidemic substantially, an extremely high proportion of trips (~99%) would have to be restricted in a homogeneously mixing population. Influenza is, however, strongly influenced by age-dependent transmission dynamics, and the effectiveness of age-specific travel restrictions, such as the selective restriction of travel by children, has yet to be examined. Methods A simple stochastic model was developed to describe the importation of infectious cases into a population and to model local chains of transmission seeded by imported cases. The probability of a local epidemic, and the time period until a major epidemic takes off, were used as outcome measures, and travel restriction policies in which children or adults were preferentially restricted were compared to age-blind restriction policies using an age-dependent next generation matrix parameterized for influenza H1N1-2009. Results Restricting children from travelling would yield greater reductions to the short-term risk of the epidemic being established locally than other policy options considered, and potentially could delay an epidemic for a few weeks. However, given a scenario with a total of 500 imported cases over a period of a few months, a substantial reduction in the probability of an epidemic in this time period is possible only if the transmission potential were low and assortativity (i.e. the proportion of contacts within-group) were unrealistically high. In all other scenarios considered, age-structured travel restrictions would not prevent an epidemic and would not delay the epidemic for longer than a few weeks. Conclusions Selectively restricting children from traveling overseas during a pandemic may potentially delay its arrival for a few weeks, depending on the characteristics of the pandemic strain, but could have less of an impact on the economy

  19. Age-specific association of migraine with cryptogenic TIA and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linxin; Schulz, Ursula G.; Kuker, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an association between previous migraine and cryptogenic TIA or ischemic stroke at older ages. Methods: We determined the age-specific associations of history of migraine and Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) subtype of TIA and ischemic stroke in a population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002–2012). Results: Among 1,810 eligible patients with TIA or ischemic stroke, 668 (36.9%) had cryptogenic events, of whom 187 (28.0%) had previous migraine. Migraine was more commonly associated with cryptogenic events than with those of known etiology (odds ratio [OR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38–2.16, p < 0.0001; cardioembolic 2.00, 1.50–2.66, p < 0.0001; large artery 1.75, 1.20–2.53, p = 0.003; small vessel 1.32, 0.95–1.83, p = 0.096). The association of migraine with cryptogenic events was independent of age, sex, and all measured vascular risk factors (RFs) (adjusted OR 1.68, 1.33–2.13, p < 0.0001) and was strongest at older ages (<55 years, OR 1.11, 0.55–2.23; 55–64 years, 1.48, 0.83–2.63; ≥65 years, 1.81, 1.39–2.36) and in patients without vascular RFs (0 RFs OR 2.62, 1.33–5.15; 1 RF 2.01, 1.35–3.01; 2 RFs 1.80, 1.21–2.68; 3 RFs 1.21, 0.71–2.07; 4 RFs 0.92, 0.28–2.99). Results were consistent for migraine with or without aura and for analyses excluding TIA or stratified by sex or vascular territory of event. Conclusions: In this population-based study of stroke etiology stratified by age, migraine was most strongly associated with cryptogenic TIA and ischemic stroke, particularly at older ages, suggesting a causal role or a shared etiology. PMID:26423431

  20. Similar herpes zoster incidence across Europe: results from a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥50 years. The forthcoming European launch of a vaccine against HZ (Zostavax®) prompts the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of HZ in Europe. Therefore the aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available data on HZ incidence in Europe and to describe age-specific incidence. Methods The Medline database of the National Library of Medicine was used to conduct a comprehensive literature search of population-based studies of HZ incidence published between 1960 and 2010 carried out in the 27 member countries of the European Union, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. The identified articles were reviewed and scored according to a reading grid including various quality criteria, and HZ incidence data were extracted and presented by country. Results The search identified 21 studies, and revealed a similar annual HZ incidence throughout Europe, varying by country from 2.0 to 4.6/1 000 person-years with no clearly observed geographic trend. Despite the fact that age groups differed from one study to another, age-specific HZ incidence rates seemed to hold steady during the review period, at around 1/1 000 children <10 years, around 2/1 000 adults aged <40 years, and around 1–4/1 000 adults aged 40–50 years. They then increased rapidly after age 50 years to around 7–8/1 000, up to 10/1 000 after 80 years of age. Our review confirms that in Europe HZ incidence increases with age, and quite drastically after 50 years of age. In all of the 21 studies included in the present review, incidence rates were higher among women than men, and this difference increased with age. This review also highlights the need to identify standardized surveillance methods to improve the comparability of data within European Union Member States and to monitor the impact of VZV immunization on the epidemiology of HZ. Conclusions

  1. A Method to Teach Age-Specific Demography with Field Grown Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Martin G.; Terrana, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that rapid cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants) can be used in inquiry-based, student ecological fieldwork. We are the first to describe age-specific survival for field-grown Fast Plants and identify life history traits associated with individual survival. This experiment can be adapted by educators as a…

  2. The Effect of High Rates of Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections on HIV Incidence in a Cohort of Black and White Men Who Have Sex with Men in Atlanta, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Adam S.; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis H.; Salazar, Laura F.; Frew, Paula M.; Cooper, Hannah L.F.; Diclemente, Ralph; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Rosenberg, Eli S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data reporting sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence rates among HIV-negative U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM) are lacking. In addition, it is difficult to analyze the effect of STI on HIV acquisition given that sexual risk behaviors confound the relationship between bacterial STIs and incident HIV. The InvolveMENt study was a longitudinal cohort of black and white HIV-negative, sexually active MSM in Atlanta who underwent routine screening for STI and HIV and completed behavioral questionnaires. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for urethral and rectal Chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC), and syphilis, stratified by race. Propensity-score-weighted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of STI on HIV incidence and calculate the population attributable fraction (PAF) for STI. We included 562 HIV-negative MSM with 843 person-years of follow-up in this analysis. High incidence rates were documented for all STIs, particularly among black MSM. Having a rectal STI was significantly associated with subsequent HIV incidence in adjusted analyses (aHR 2.7; 95% CI 1.2, 6.4) that controlled for behavioral risk factors associated with STI and HIV using propensity score weights. The PAF for rectal STI was 14.6 (95% CI 6.8, 31.4). The high incidence of STIs among Atlanta MSM and the association of rectal STI with HIV acquisition after controlling for behavioral risk underscore the importance of routine screening and treatment for STIs among sexually active MSM. Our data support targeting intensive HIV prevention interventions, such as preexposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP), for Atlanta MSM diagnosed with rectal STIs. PMID:25719950

  3. Age-specific seroprevalence of hepatitis A in Sari, northern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Alian, S; Ajami, A; Ghasemian, R; Yadegarinia, D

    2011-10-01

    The declining incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in the Islamic Republic of Iran may be reducing the population's natural immunity. This was the first systemized, population-based survey of the seroprevalence of HAV antibodies in urban and rural inhabitants of Sari, Mazandaran province. Serum from 1034 individuals aged 1-25 years in 2007 were tested for anti-HAV lgG antibody using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. The overall seroprevalence was 38.9%. The lowest prevalence (5.2%) was among the younger age group (1-5 years) from urban areas and the highest prevalence (82.0%) in the older age group (15-25 years) from rural areas. Seropositivity was significantly higher at higher age, among females and in rural areas. Sari is no longer classified as an area of high endemicity, and immunization against HAV may be needed in our population in the future. PMID:22256409

  4. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  5. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers.

    PubMed

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  6. Age-specific survival estimates of King Eiders derived from satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.

    2010-01-01

    Age- and sex-specific survival and dispersal are important components in the dynamics and genetic structure of bird populations. For many avian taxa survival rates at the adult and juvenile life stages differ, but in long-lived species juveniles' survival is logistically challenging to study. We present the first estimates of hatch-year annual survival rates for a sea duck, the King Eider (Somateria spectabilis), estimated from satellite telemetry. From 2006 to 2008 we equipped pre-fiedging King Eiders with satellite transmitters on breeding grounds in Alaska and estimated annual survival rates during their first 2 years of life with known-fate models. We compared those estimates to survival rates of adults marked in the same area from 2002 to 2008. Hatch-year survival varied by season during the first year of life, and model-averaged annual survival rate was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.48–0.80). We did not record any mortality during the second year and were therefore unable to estimate second-year survival rate. Adults' survival rate was constant through the year (0.94, 95% CI: 0.86–0.97). No birds appeared to breed during their second summer. While 88% of females with an active transmitter (n = 9) returned to their natal area at the age of 2 years, none of the 2-year old males (n = 3) did. This pattern indicates that females' natal philopatry is high and suggests that males' higher rates of dispersal may account for sex-specific differences in apparent survival rates of juvenile sea ducks when estimated with mark—recapture methods.

  7. Variable developmental period: intraspecific competition models with conditional age-specific maturity and mortality schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Frogner, K.J.

    1980-10-01

    A simulation model is presented incorporating a variable time to maturity resulting from density-dependent scarcity of resources for the immature stages. This mechanism is shown to be capable of regulating a population and the model population persists under these conditions. The model is qualitatively robust to changes in the parameters: resource input rate, offspring input rate, and immature death rate. Implications drawn from the model behavior with respect to pest control, r-selection under K conditions and field experiments are discussed.

  8. Age-Specific Sex-Related Differences in Infections: A Statistical Analysis of National Surveillance Data in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eshima, Nobuoki; Tokumaru, Osamu; Hara, Shohei; Bacal, Kira; Korematsu, Seigo; Karukaya, Shigeru; Uruma, Kiyo; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2012-01-01

    Background To prevent and control infectious diseases, it is important to understand how sex and age influence morbidity rates, but consistent clear descriptions of differences in the reported incidence of infectious diseases in terms of sex and age are sparse. Methods and Findings Data from the Japanese surveillance system for infectious diseases from 2000 to 2009 were used in the analysis of seven viral and four bacterial infectious diseases with relatively large impact on the Japanese community. The male-to-female morbidity (MFM) ratios in different age groups were estimated to compare incidence rates of symptomatic reported infection between the sexes at different ages. MFM ratios were >1 for five viral infections out of seven in childhood, i.e. male children were more frequently reported as infected than females with pharyngoconjunctival fever, herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, mumps, and varicella. More males were also reported to be infected with erythema infectiosum and exanthema subitum, but only in children 1 year of age. By contrast, in adulthood the MFM ratios decreased to <1 for all of the viral infections above except varicella, i.e. adult women were more frequently reported to be infected than men. Sex- and age-related differences in reported morbidity were also documented for bacterial infections. Reported morbidity for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection was higher in adult females and females were reportedly more infected with mycoplasma pneumonia than males in all age groups up to 70 years. Conclusions Sex-related differences in reported morbidity for viral and bacterial infections were documented among different age groups. Changes in MFM ratios with age may reflect differences between the sexes in underlying development processes, including those affecting the immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems, or differences in reporting rates. PMID:22848753

  9. Incidence, mortality and survival of female breast cancer during 2003-2011 in Jiangsu province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinran; Han, Renqiang; Zhou, Jinyi; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence, mortality and survival status of female breast cancer in Jiangsu province of China. Methods Population-based cancer registry data in Jiangsu province were collected during 2003-2011. Crude rates, age-specific rates, age-standardized rates and annual percent changes of incidence and mortality were calculated to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and time trends. Patients diagnosed from 2003 to 2005 were chosen for analyzing the survival status of breast cancer. Results From 2003 to 2011, 17,605 females were diagnosed with breast cancer and 4,883 died in selected registry areas in Jiangsu province. The crude incidence rate was 25.18/100,000, and the age-standardized rates by Chinese population (ASRC) and by world population (ASRW) were 19.03/100,000 and 17.92/100,000, respectively. During the same period, the crude mortality rate was 6.98/100,000 and the ASRC and ASRW were 4.93/100,000 and 4.80/100,000, respectively. From 2003 to 2011, the incidence and mortality increased with annual percent change of 11.37% and 5.78%, respectively. For survival analysis, 1,392 patients in 7 areas were identified in 2003-2005 and finished 5 years of follow-up. Survival rates were found to decrease with survival years, the 5-year observed survival rate was 45.9% and the relative survival rate was 52.0%. We also found that the survival rate varied across the province, which was lower in the north and higher in the south of Jiangsu province. Conclusions Breast cancer has become a significant public health problem in Jiangsu province and China. More resources should be invested in primary prevention, earlier diagnosis and better health services in order to increase survival rates among Chinese females. PMID:27478317

  10. Incidence of syndesmotic injury.

    PubMed

    Vosseller, J Turner; Karl, John W; Greisberg, Justin K

    2014-03-01

    Injury to the tibiofibular syndesmosis can occur with ankle sprain or fracture. The incidence of syndesmotic injury has not been specifically studied at a population level. Data on syndesmotic injury were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), a federal-state-private partnership. It is administered by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. Two HCUP databases were queried for 8 states: the State Inpatient Database and the State Emergency Department Database. The first 6 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) code diagnoses were searched for codes that are used for syndesmotic injury (ie, 845.03). These data, along with data from the 2010 US census, were used to yield incidence rates for syndesmosis injury, as well as for various demographic groups. National estimates of injury totals were also calculated. In the 8 states, there were a total of 1821 syndesmotic injuries. Given the population of these states, the incidence rate of syndesmotic injury was 2.09 syndesmotic injuries per 100,000 person-years. This incidence correlates to an estimated 6445 syndesmotic injuries per year in the United States. These data provide some baseline numbers as to the incidence of syndesmotic injury in the United States. Although the incidence was low relative to some other injuries, the fact that syndesmotic injuries tend to occur in younger patients may have a greater effect in terms of productive years of life lost. PMID:24762148

  11. Do age-specific survival patterns of wild boar fit current evolutionary theories of senescence?

    PubMed

    Gamelon, Marlène; Focardi, Stefano; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gimenez, Olivier; Bonenfant, Christophe; Franzetti, Barbara; Choquet, Rémi; Ronchi, Francesca; Baubet, Eric; Lemaître, Jean-François

    2014-12-01

    Actuarial senescence is widespread in age-structured populations. In growing populations, the progressive decline of Hamiltonian forces of selection with age leads to decreasing survival. As actuarial senescence is overcompensated by a high fertility, actuarial senescence should be more intense in species with high reproductive effort, a theoretical prediction that has not been yet explicitly tested across species. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) females have an unusual life-history strategy among large mammals by associating both early and high reproductive effort with potentially long lifespan. Therefore, wild boar females should show stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized related mammals. Moreover, being polygynous and much larger than females, males should display higher senescence rates than females. Using a long-term monitoring (18 years) of a wild boar population, we tested these predictions. We provided clear evidence of actuarial senescence in both sexes. Wild boar females had earlier but not stronger actuarial senescence than similar-sized ungulates. Both sexes displayed similar senescence rates. Our study indicates that the timing of senescence, not the rate, is associated with the magnitude of fertility in ungulates. This demonstrates the importance of including the timing of senescence in addition to its rate to understand variation in senescence patterns in wild populations. PMID:25180915

  12. Five Year Nationwide Incidence of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Requiring Surgery in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Jun; Choi, Nam-Kyoung; Park, Kyu Hyung; Woo, Se Joon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To define the incidence and demographic characteristics of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) requiring surgery in Korea. Design Nationwide population-based retrospective study. Methods Patients who underwent surgery for RRD from 2007 to 2011 were retrospectively identified using the diagnostic code for RRD and the surgical codes for retinal detachment surgeries in the national claim database. The average incidence rate of RRD during the 5-year period was estimated using the population data of the 2010 Census in Korea. Results A total of 24,928 surgically treated RRD cases were identified. The average incidence of surgery requiring RRD was 10.39 cases per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.26–10.52). The incidence in men (11.32 cases per 100,000 person-years; 95% CI: 11.13–11.51) was significantly higher than that in women (9.47 cases per 100,000 person-years; 95% CI: 9.29–9.64) (p<0.001). The incidence of surgery requiring RRD showed a bimodal distribution across age groups, with one peak (28.55 cases per 100,000 person-years; 95% CI: 27.46–29.67) representing patients between 65 and 69 years of age and the second peak (approximately 8.5 per 100,000 person-years) representing patients between 20 and 29 years of age. The male-to-female ratio was approximately 1.0 for the peak-incidence age groups, whereas the ratio was higher for the other age groups. Conclusions The incidence of RRD in the Korean population was similar to that reported previously, with the peak incidence being lower than that in the Caucasian population. The age-specific RRD incidence pattern in Korea followed a bimodal distribution. PMID:24236173

  13. Lifestyle Modifications Versus Antihypertensive Medications in Reducing Cardiovascular Events in an Aging Society: A Success Rate-oriented Simulation.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoichi; Shibazaki, Satomi; Araki, Ryuichiro; Miyazaki, Takashi; Sato, Makiko; Takahashi, Sachiko; Suwa, Emi; Takenaka, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is difficult to compare directly the practical effects of lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications on reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to compare the hypothetical potential of lifestyle modifications with that of antihypertensive medications in reducing CVD in an aging society using a success rate-oriented simulation. Methods We constructed a simulation model for virtual Japanese subpopulations according to sex and age at 10-year intervals from 40 years of age as an example of an aging society. The fractional incidence rate of CVD was calculated as the product of the incidence rate at each systolic blood pressure (SBP) level and the proportion of the SBP frequency distribution in the fractional subpopulations of each SBP. The total incidence rate was calculated by the definite integral of the fractional incidence rate at each SBP level in the sex- and age-specific subpopulations. Results If we consider the effects of lifestyle modifications on metabolic factors and transfer them onto SBP, the reductions in the total incidence rate of CVD were competitive between lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications in realistic scenarios. In middle-aged women, the preventive effects of both approaches were limited due to a low incidence rate. In middle-aged men and extremely elderly subjects whose adherence to antihypertensive medications is predicted to be low, lifestyle modifications could be an alternative choice. Conclusion The success rate-oriented simulation suggests that the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications or antihypertensive medications in preventing cardiovascular events largely depends on the baseline incidence rate and sex- and age-specific behavioral factors. PMID:27522993

  14. A longitudinal study of age-specific reproductive output and body condition among male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Fred B; Widdig, Anja; Trefilov, Andrea; Kessler, Matt J; Berard, John D; Schmidtke, Jörg; Nürnberg, Peter; Krawczak, Michael

    2003-07-01

    In many mammalian species, male reproductive success appears to climb sharply at young adulthood, form a brief plateau during prime ages, and decline among older animals, a pattern often attributed to reduced physical condition with ageing. However, solid evidence to either substantiate or refute this profile among nonhuman primates is lacking. Here, we combine a decade of genetic analysis of paternity among free-ranging rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, with information about body condition in order to evaluate how changes in morphology might govern age-specific reproduction among males. We show that age-specific reproductive success traverses the same life history profile as found in other mammals, but reductions in reproductive output with advanced age were associated with reduced chances of survivorship rather than accompanied by diminished body condition. We demonstrate that variance in male age at onset of reproduction is three times greater than variance in female age at onset of reproduction. We provide the first evidence from primates that age-specific reproductive output among males is not a consequence of age-related changes in body condition, but reflects social and demographic factors. PMID:12883773

  15. National cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zuo, Tingting; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries were collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). NCCR estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in China with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 261 cancer registries submitted cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the NCCR criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 193 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as national estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group [0, 1–4, 5–9, 10–14, …, 85+] and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding national population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 193 cancer registries (74 urban and 119 rural registries) covered 198,060,406 populations (100,450,109 in urban and 97,610,297 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 69.13% and 2.38%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.62. A total of 3,586,200 new cancer cases and 2,186,600 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2012. The incidence rate was 264.85/100,000 (289.30/100,000 in males, 239.15/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 191.89/100,000 and 187.83/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0–74 age years old) of 21.82%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 277.17/100,000, 195.56/100,000 and 190.88/100,000 compared to 251.20/100,000, 187.10/100,000 and 183.91/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality was 161.49/100,000 (198.99/100,000 in

  16. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  17. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  18. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  19. Ethnic differences in the time trend of female breast cancer incidence: Singapore, 1968 – 2002

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Xueling; Ali, R Ayesha; Wedren, Sara; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Tan, Chuen-Seng; Reilly, Marie; Hall, Per; Chia, Kee-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Background From 1968 to 2002, Singapore experienced an almost three-fold increase in breast cancer incidence. This increase appeared to be different across the three main ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. This paper used age-period-cohort (APC) modelling, to determine the effects of age at diagnosis, calendar period, and birth cohort on breast cancer incidence for each ethnic group. Methods This study included all breast cancer cases (n = 15,269) in the three ethnic groups, reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968 to 2002 between the ages 25 to 79. Age-specific fertility rates from the Department of Statistics were used to explore the role of fertility. Results In the 1970s, Indian women had the highest age-standardized breast cancer but by the mid-1980s the highest rates were seen among the Chinese. Remarkable differences were seen in the age-specific incidence rates by ethnic groups. After age 49, the incidence rates for the Chinese and Malays leveled off whereas it continued to rise in the Indians. While our analyses provided some evidence that an age-drift model described the trend seen in the Indians, age-period-cohort model and age-cohort model had the best fit for the Chinese and Malays aged 25 to 79 respectively. Overall, Chinese and Malay women born in later cohorts were at increased risk of developing breast cancer relative to their counterparts in the earlier cohorts. The three ethnic groups experienced similar changes in their fertility in the 1970s, which likely explained much of the increase in their breast cancer incidence but not the ethnic differences. There was a stronger inverse association between total fertility rate and pre-menopausal breast cancer incidence in the Chinese and Malays than the Indians. Conclusion The observed dissimilarity among ethnic groups suggests ethnic differences in exposure or response to certain risk factors. It is likely that longer and subtler differences in childbearing trends and other risk

  20. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Avellanal, Fuencisla; Calero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs). Methods We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd). For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined. Findings Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD), to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a) symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b) those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c) a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20–24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration. Interpretation These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to

  1. Incidence rates and deaths of tuberculosis in HIV-negative patients in the United States and Germany as analyzed by new predictive model for infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidence and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) have been decreasing worldwide. Given that TB is a cosmopolitan disease, proper surveillance and evaluation are critical for controlling dissemination. Herein, mathematical modeling was performed in order to: 1) demonstrate a correlation between the i...

  2. Increased incidence of melanoma in situ in Denmark from 1997 to 2011: results from a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Toender, Anita; Kjær, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased markedly among white populations in the recent decades. This may suggest that the incidence of melanoma in situ (MIS), the precursor of malignant melanoma, has also increased; however, few studies have assessed the incidence of MIS drawing on large population-based data sets. The present study aimed to assess MIS incidence trends in Denmark from 1997 to 2011. Data on MIS overall and on the histological subtypes superficial spreading MIS (SSM) and lentigo maligna (LM) were obtained from the Danish Nationwide Registry of Pathology. We calculated overall and age-specific incidence rates for both sexes, age-adjusted according to the world standard population. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using log-linear Poisson models. Among both sexes, a high continued increase in MIS incidence rates overall and in that of the histological subtypes SSM and LM were observed during the period from 1997 to 2011. During this period, the age-adjusted MIS incidence rate increased from 2.6 to 8.1 cases among women and from 1.4 to 5.6 cases among men per 100 000 person-years. For both sexes, the highest AAPC in MIS incidence was observed during the most recent 5-year calendar period. A markedly higher AAPC was observed for SSM than for LM during the most recent 5-year calendar period for both sexes. The marked increase in incidence of MIS during the last 5 years of the period may indicate a growing awareness of skin cancer among the general Danish population and more frequent excision of suspicious skin lesions. PMID:24892956

  3. Estimated cancer incidence and mortality in Hebei province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    He, Yutong; Liang, Di; Li, Daojuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhu, Junqing; Jin, Jing; Wen, Denggui

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Hebei province using incidence and mortality data from 9 population-based cancer registries in 2012. Methods The data of new diagnosed cancer cases and cancer deaths in 2012 were collected from 9 population-based cancer registries of Hebei province in 2015. All the data met the National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) criteria of data quality. The pooled data analysis was stratified by areas (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths in Hebei province were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The 10 most common cancers in different groups and the cumulative rates were calculated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi’s population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results All cancer registries covered 4,986,847 populations, 6.84% of Hebei provincial population (2,098,547 in urban and 2,888,300 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 76.40% and 4.72%, respectively. The mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.64. In 2012, it is estimated that there were about 187,900 new diagnosed cancer cases and 119,800 cancer deaths in Hebei province. The incidence rate of cancer was 258.12/100,000 (275.75/100,000 in males, 239.78/100,000 in females), and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 210.65/100,000 and 208.50/100,000, with the cumulative incidence rates (0.74 years old) of 24.46%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 256.99/100,000 and 211.32/100,000 in urban areas and 258.94/100,000 and 209.99/100,000 in rural areas, respectively. The cancer mortality rate was 164.63/100,000 (201.85/100,000 in males, 125.92/100,000 in females). Agestandardized mortality rates by Chinese

  4. Incidence and prevalence of Parkinson's disease among Navajo people living in the Navajo nation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Paul H; Mehal, Jason M; Holman, Robert C; Bartholomew, Michael L; Cheek, James E; Rowland, Andrew S

    2015-04-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is largely unstudied among American Indians. Unique populations might harbor clues to elusive causes. We describe the incidence and prevalence of PD among Navajo people residing in the Navajo Nation, home to the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. We analyzed 2001-2011 inpatient and outpatient visit data for Navajo people obtained from the Indian Health Service, which provides health care to American Indian people living on the Navajo Reservation. Cases were defined by at least two inpatient or outpatient visits with the diagnosis of PD. Crude and age-adjusted incidence and prevalence rates were calculated overall as well as by age, sex, region of residence, and time period. Five hundred twenty-four Navajo people with median age-at-onset of 74.0 years were diagnosed with PD during the study period, yielding an average annual crude incidence rate of 22.5/100,000. Age-specific incidence was 232.0 for patients 65 years of age or older and 302.0 for 80 years of age or older. Age-adjusted incidence was 35.9 overall (238.1 for ≥65 years), was higher in men than in women (47.5 vs. 27.7; P<0.001), varied by region (P=0.03), and was similar between time periods (2002-2004 vs. 2009-2011). The age-adjusted point prevalence rate was 261.0. The rate of PD among Navajo People appears to be as high as or higher than rates reported in many other populations. Rates increased to the highest age group, consistent with population-based studies. Further investigation is warranted to examine risk factors for PD in this remote population. PMID:25649219

  5. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) from southcentral Alaska: Analysis of reproductive tracts. Marine mammal study 6-4. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Lensink, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    We estimated age of sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from southcentral Alaska, primarily western Prince William Sound, following the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similar to those in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  6. [New incidence and mortality data. 2003-2005].

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta

    2009-01-01

    This is an update of incidence and mortality cancer data provided by the Italian Network of Cancer Registry (AIRTUM) relative to the period 2003-2005.AIRTUM is a network of general and specialized population-based cancer registries that covers about 1/3 of the Italian resident population (www.registri-tumori.it). Incidence and mortality data for the period 2003-2005 are based on 20 Registries. The five most frequently diagnosed cancers were: - prostate (18.5%), non melanoma skin (15.8%), lung (13.1%), colorectal (12.0%), bladder (5.7%) among males; - breast (24.9%), non melanoma skin (15.1%), colorectal (11.9%), lung (5.0%) and stomach (4.1%) among females. In the same period the most frequent causes of cancer death were: - cancer of the lung (27.6%), colorectal (10.7%), prostate (8.5%), stomach (7.3%) and liver (6.1%) among males; - breast cancer (16.3%), colorectal (11.9%), lung (10.3%), stomach (7.2%) and pancreas (6.5%) among females. According to the age-specific incidence rates one man and one woman every two will receive a cancer diagnosis during his/hers life (from birth to the age of 84 years). From 1993-1995 to 2003-2005, overall crude cancer incidence rate (males and females together) increased from 555.4 to 654.8 x 100,000. Standardization showed that 63% of this increase was due to ageing of the population. Moreover, most of the residual increase was among those cancer sites (breast, prostate, colorectal, thyroid and melanoma) for which early detection may have played a relevant role in anticipating (and therefore increasing) the number of diagnoses. Due to population ageing also overall cancer mortality did not show any decrease when crude rates were compared. On the contrary, standardized mortality rates (all cancers together) showed a strong decrease (311.4 vs. 266.5 x 100.000). The risk of receiving a diagnosis or dying because of cancer is still lower in residents in the regions of the South of Italy than in those of Central and Northern Italy

  7. Vulnerability to nicotine self-administration in adolescent mice correlates with age-specific expression of α4* nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Renda, Anthony; Penty, Nora; Komal, Pragya; Nashmi, Raad

    2016-09-01

    The majority of smokers begin during adolescence, a developmental period with a high susceptibility to substance abuse. Adolescents are affected differently by nicotine compared to adults, with adolescents being more vulnerable to nicotine's rewarding properties. It is unknown if the age-dependent molecular composition of a younger brain contributes to a heightened susceptibility to nicotine addiction. Nicotine, the principle pharmacological component of tobacco, binds and activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. The most prevalent is the widely expressed α4-containing (α4*) subtype which mediates reward and is strongly implicated in nicotine dependence. Exposing different age groups of mice, postnatal day (P) 44-86 days old, to a two bottle-choice oral nicotine self-administration paradigm for five days yielded age-specific consumption levels. Nicotine self-administration was elevated in the P44 group, peaked at P54-60 and was drastically lower in the P66 through P86 groups. We also quantified α4* nAChR expression via spectral confocal imaging of brain slices from α4YFP knock-in mice, in which the α4 nAChR subunit is tagged with a yellow fluorescent protein. Quantitative fluorescence revealed age-specific α4* nAChR expression in dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area. Receptor expression showed a strong positive correlation with daily nicotine dose, suggesting that α4* nAChR expression levels are age-specific and may contribute to the propensity to self-administer nicotine. PMID:27102349

  8. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  9. High-throughput transcriptomic analysis nominates proteasomal genes as age-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, S G; Jackson, W C; Kothari, V; Schipper, M J; Erho, N; Evans, J R; Speers, C; Hamstra, D A; Niknafs, Y S; Nguyen, P L; Schaeffer, E M; Ross, A E; Den, R B; Klein, E A; Jenkins, R B; Davicioni, E; Feng, F Y

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although prostate cancer (PCa) is hypothesized to differ in nature between younger versus older patients, the underlying molecular distinctions are poorly understood. We hypothesized that high-throughput transcriptomic analysis would elucidate biological differences in PCas arising in younger versus older men, and would nominate potential age-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Methods: The high-density Affymetrix GeneChip platform, encompassing >1 million genomic loci, was utilized to assess gene expression in 1090 radical prostatectomy samples from patients with long-term follow-up. We identified genes associated with metastatic progression by 10 years post-treatment in younger (age<65) versus older (age⩾65) patients, and ranked these genes by their prognostic value. We performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) to nominate biological concepts that demonstrated age-specific effects, and validated a target by treating with a clinically available drug in three PCa cell lines derived from younger men. Results: Over 80% of the top 1000 prognostic genes in younger and older men were specific to that age group. GSEA nominated the proteasome pathway as the most differentially prognostic in younger versus older patients. High expression of proteasomal genes conferred worse prognosis in younger but not older men on univariate and multivariate analysis. Bortezomib, a Food and Drug Administration approved proteasome inhibitor, decreased proliferation in three PCa cell lines derived from younger patients. Conclusions: Our data show significant global differences in prognostic genes between older versus younger men. We nominate proteasomeal gene expression as an age-specific biomarker and potential therapeutic target specifically in younger men. Limitations of our study include clinical differences between cohorts, and increased comorbidities and lower survival in older patients. These intriguing findings suggest that current models of PCa biology do

  10. Age-specific risk factor profiles of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus: A pooled analysis from the international BEACON consortium.

    PubMed

    Drahos, Jennifer; Xiao, Qian; Risch, Harvey A; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Anderson, Lesley A; Bernstein, Leslie; Brown, Linda; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gammon, Marilie D; Kamangar, Farin; Liao, Linda M; Murray, Liam J; Ward, Mary H; Ye, Weimin; Wu, Anna H; Vaughan, Thomas L; Whiteman, David C; Cook, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal (EA) and esophagogastric junction (EGJA) adenocarcinoma have been steadily increasing in frequency in younger people; however, the etiology of these cancers is poorly understood. We therefore investigated associations of body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to age-specific risks of EA and EGJA. We pooled individual participant data from eight population-based, case-control studies within the international Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON). The analysis included 1,363 EA patients, 1,472 EGJA patients and 5,728 control participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age-specific (<50, 50-59, 60-69, ≥70 years) cancer outcomes, as well as interactions by age. BMI, smoking status and pack-years, recurrent gastroesophageal reflux and frequency of gastroesophageal reflux were positively associated with EA and EGJA in each age group. Early-onset EA (<50 years) had stronger associations with recurrent gastroesophageal reflux (OR = 8.06, 95% CI: 4.52, 14.37; peffect modification  = 0.01) and BMI (ORBMI ≥ 30 vs . <25  = 4.19, 95% CI: 2.23, 7.87; peffect modification  = 0.04), relative to older age groups. In contrast, inverse associations of NSAID use were strongest in the oldest age group (≥70 years), although this apparent difference was not statistically significant. Age-specific associations with EGJA showed similar, but slightly weaker patterns and no statistically significant differences by age were observed. Our study provides evidence that associations between obesity and gastroesophageal reflux are stronger among earlier onset EA cancers. PMID:26175109

  11. Age-specific Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Ranges Among Apparently Healthy Nigerian Men Without Clinical Evidence of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ikuerowo, SO; Ajala, MO; Abolarinwa, AA; Omisanjo, OA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels increase with age and varies among different races and communities. The study was aimed at defining the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA in our environment. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between age and serum PSA levels and the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA among civil servants in Lagos, who underwent routine medical checkups. Criteria for inclusion were men who have no lower urinary tract symptoms, normal digital rectal examination and serum PSA ≤ 20 ng/ml. SPSS Statistic 21 was used for data evaluation and the mean, median, 95th percentile PSA levels were estimated. Pearson's correlation was used to examine the relationship, and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 4032 men met the criteria for inclusion in the evaluation. The mean age was 51.6 (range 40–70) years, and there was a strong correlation between serum PSA levels and age (r = 0.097, P < 0.001). PSA ranges of 0–2.5, >2.5–4.0, >4.0–10, and >10 ng/ml were found in 3218 (80%), 481 (12%), 284 (7%), and 52 (1%) men, respectively. The mean, median and the 95th percentile PSA for the overall group were 1.84, 1.33, and 5.2 ng/ml respectively. However the 95th percentile PSA levels for men aged 40–49, 50–59, and 60–70 years were 4.78, 5.47, and 8.93 ng/ml respectively. Conclusion: The age-specific PSA levels among Nigerian men for each age group is higher than what was described for men in the Western world. These reference ranges of serum PSA should be considered for men aged ≥40 years in our environment. PMID:27013850

  12. Age-specific survival of tundra swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Conn, Paul B.; Dau, Christian P.; Sarvis, John E.; Sowl, Kristine M.

    2013-01-01

    The population of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) breeding on the lower Alaska Peninsula represents the southern extremity of the species' range and is uniquely nonmigratory. We used data on recaptures, resightings, and recoveries of neck-collared Tundra Swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula to estimate collar loss, annual apparent survival, and other demographic parameters for the years 1978–1989. Annual collar loss was greater for adult males fitted with either the thinner collar type (0.34) or the thicker collar type (0.15) than for other age/sex classes (thinner: 0.10, thicker: 0.04). The apparent mean probability of survival of adults (0.61) was higher than that of immatures (0.41) and for both age classes varied considerably by year (adult range: 0.44–0.95, immature range: 0.25–0.90). To assess effects of permanent emigration by age and breeding class, we analyzed post hoc the encounter histories of swans known to breed in our study area. The apparent mean survival of known breeders (0.65) was generally higher than that of the entire marked sample but still varied considerably by year (range 0.26–1.00) and indicated that permanent emigration of breeding swans was likely. We suggest that reductions in apparent survival probability were influenced primarily by high and variable rates of permanent emigration and that immigration by swans from elsewhere may be important in sustaining a breeding population at and near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge.

  13. Climatic variation and age-specific survival in Asian elephants from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Mumby, Hannah S; Courtiol, Alexandre; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-05-01

    Concern about climate change has intensified interest in understanding how climatic variability affects animal life histories. Despite such effects being potentially most dramatic in large, long-lived, and slowly reproducing terrestrial mammals, little is known of the effects of climatic variation on survival in those species. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) are endangered across their distribution, and inhabit regions characterized by high seasonality of temperature and rainfall. We investigated the effects of monthly climatic variation on survival and causes of death in Asian elephants using a unique demographic data set of 1024 semi-captive, longitudinally monitored elephants from four sites in Myanmar between 1965 and 2000. Temperature had a significant effect on survival in both sexes and across all ages. For elephants between 1 month and 17 years of age, maximal survival was reached at -24 degrees C, and any departures from this temperature increased mortality, whereas neonates and mature elephants had maximal survival at even lower temperatures. Although males experienced higher mortality overall, sex differences in these optimal temperatures were small. Because the elephants spent more time during a year in temperatures above 24 degrees C than in temperatures below it, most deaths occurred at hot (temperatures>24 degrees C) rather than cold periods. Decreased survival at higher temperatures resulted partially from increased deaths from infectious disease and heat stroke, whereas the lower survival in the coldest months was associated with an increase in noninfectious diseases and poor health in general. Survival was also related to rainfall, with the highest survival rates during the wettest months for all ages and sexes. Our results show that even the normal-range monsoon variation in climate can exert a large impact on elephant survival in Myanmar, leading to extensive absolute differences in mortality; switching from favorable to unfavorable climatic

  14. Estimation of global and regional incidence and prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms 1990 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Uchechukwu K A; Norman, Paul E; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Aboyans, Victor; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Naghavi, Mohsen; Denenberg, Julie O; McDermott, Mary M; Criqui, Michael H; Mensah, George A; Ezzati, Majid; Murray, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The global burden of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has not been studied previously. Such information is important given the emergence of cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. We conducted a systematic literature review and estimated the global and regional incidence and prevalence of AAA in 21 world regions by age and sex. The search for prevalence and incidence of AAA using standard clinical and epidemiological terms was conducted using MEDLINE (1950 to 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010), AMED (1985 to 2010), CINAHL (1982 to 2010), and LILACS (2008 to 2010). Data abstracted from the systematic review served as priors for Bayesian meta-regression analyses. The analysis drew from 26 high-quality studies to estimate AAA prevalence and incidence. In 1990, the global age-specific prevalence rate per 100,000 ranged from 8.43 (95% CI: 7.03 to 10.14) in the 40 to 44 years age group to 2,422.53 (95% CI: 2,298.63 to 2,562.25) in the 75 to 79 years age group; the corresponding range in 2010 was 7.88 (95% CI: 6.54 to 9.59) to 2,274.82 (95% CI: 2,149.77 to 2,410.17). Prevalence was higher in developed versus developing nations, and the rates within each development stratum decreased between 1990 and 2010. Globally, the age-specific annual incidence rate per 100,000 in 1990 ranged from 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66 to 1.17) in 40 to 44 years age group to 176.08 (95% CI: 162.72 to 190.28) in the 75 to 79 years age group. In 2010, this range was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.61 to 1.11) to 164.57 (95% CI: 152.20 to 178.78). The highest prevalence in 1990 was in Australasia and North America high income regions: 382.65 (95% CI: 356.27 to 410.88) and 300.59 (95% CI: 280.93 to 321.54), respectively. Australasia had the highest prevalence in 2010, although the prevalence decreased to 310.27 (95% CI: 289.01 to 332.94). Regional prevalence increased in Oceania, tropical Latin America, Asia Pacific high income, Southern Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Central SSA, South Asia, Western SSA, and Central Asia. AAA

  15. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Mitochondrial Lineages in Cities with Distinct Dengue Incidence Rates Suggests Complex Population Dynamics of the Dengue Vector in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Dueñez, Jeiczon; Arboleda, Sair; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4), Chikungunya and yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure and the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic landscapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure and phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV. Methods/Findings Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI) - NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were sequenced and analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 and 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium and high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time and a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello and in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time and space in these cities. Conclusions Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is

  16. Using auditory pre-information to solve the cocktail-party problem: electrophysiological evidence for age-specific differences

    PubMed Central

    Getzmann, Stephan; Lewald, Jörg; Falkenstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Speech understanding in complex and dynamic listening environments requires (a) auditory scene analysis, namely auditory object formation and segregation, and (b) allocation of the attentional focus to the talker of interest. There is evidence that pre-information is actively used to facilitate these two aspects of the so-called “cocktail-party” problem. Here, a simulated multi-talker scenario was combined with electroencephalography to study scene analysis and allocation of attention in young and middle-aged adults. Sequences of short words (combinations of brief company names and stock-price values) from four talkers at different locations were simultaneously presented, and the detection of target names and the discrimination between critical target values were assessed. Immediately prior to speech sequences, auditory pre-information was provided via cues that either prepared auditory scene analysis or attentional focusing, or non-specific pre-information was given. While performance was generally better in younger than older participants, both age groups benefited from auditory pre-information. The analysis of the cue-related event-related potentials revealed age-specific differences in the use of pre-cues: Younger adults showed a pronounced N2 component, suggesting early inhibition of concurrent speech stimuli; older adults exhibited a stronger late P3 component, suggesting increased resource allocation to process the pre-information. In sum, the results argue for an age-specific utilization of auditory pre-information to improve listening in complex dynamic auditory environments. PMID:25540608

  17. Effective number of breeding adults in Bufo bufo estimated from age-specific variation at minisatellite loci

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Arntzen, J.W.; Burke, T.

    1997-01-01

    Estimates of the effective number of breeding adults were derived for three semi-isolated populations of the common toad Bufo bufo based on temporal (i.e. adult-progeny) variance in allele frequency for three highly polymorphic minisatellite loci. Estimates of spatial variance in allele frequency among populations and of age-specific measures of genetic variability are also described. Each population was characterized by a low effective adult breeding number (N(b)) based on a large age-specific variance in minisatellite allele frequency. Estimates of N(b) (range 21-46 for population means across three loci) were ??? 55-230-fold lower than estimates of total adult census size. The implications of low effective breeding numbers for long-term maintenance of genetic variability and population viability are discussed relative to the species' reproductive ecology, current land-use practices, and present and historical habitat modification and loss. The utility of indirect measures of population parameters such as N(b) and N(e) based on time-series data of minisatellite allele frequencies is discussed relative to similar measures estimated from commonly used genetic markers such as protein allozymes.

  18. Epidemiology, incidence and mortality of lung cancer and their relationship with the development index in the world

    PubMed Central

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mehtarpour, Mojtaba; Khani, Farah; Hesami, Sayed Mohammadali; Shamlou, Reza; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza; Moini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background The highest incidence of lung cancer is seen in North America and the lowest incidence in central Africa. Socioeconomic factors of inequality reflect regional disparities in human development. Due to the importance of awareness about incidence and mortality of lung cancer in health programming and the possible role of the human development index (HDI), this study was done with the aim to investigate the epidemiology of lung cancer in the world and its relationship with HDI. Methods The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank (including the HDI and its components). Data about the age-specific incidence and mortality rate (ASR) for every country in 2012 were getting from the global cancer project. To analyze data, correlation tests between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components were employed with a significance level of 0.05 using SPSS software. Results Lung cancer with standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and standardized mortality rate (ASMR), equal to 23.1 and 19.7 (in 100,000 people), respectively. The highest and lowest values of mortality incidence ratio (MIR) for lung cancer due to continents division were 0.93 and 0.71 for Eastern Africa and Australia/New Zealand, respectively. Univariate analysis showed significant relationship (P<0.0001) between ASIR and ASMR with life expectancy at birth and mean years of schooling. Conclusions The highest MIR for lung cancer was for medium human development countries. Linear regression analysis showed a reverse significant relationship between MIR and HDI. PMID:27293825

  19. Age-Specific Regulation of Drug-Processing Genes in Mouse Liver by Ligands of Xenobiotic-Sensing Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Cindy Yanfei; Renaud, Helen J; Klaassen, Curtis D; Cui, Julia Yue

    2016-07-01

    The xenobiotic-sensing transcription factors (xeno-sensors) AhR, CAR, and PXR upregulate the expression of many drug-processing genes (DPGs) in liver. Previous studies have unveiled profound changes in the basal expression of DPGs during development; however, knowledge on the ontogeny of the inducibility of DPGs in response to pharmacological activation of xeno-sensors is still limited. The goal of this study was to investigate the age-specific regulation of DPGs by prototypical xeno-sensor ligands: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) for AhR; 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) for CAR; and pregnane-16α-carbonitrile (PCN) for PXR during mouse liver development. The basal mRNAs of most DPGs were low during neonatal age, but gradually increased to adult levels, whereas some DPGs (Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, Gstm2, Gstm3, Papss2, and Oatp1a4) exhibited an adolescent-predominant expression pattern. The inducibility of DPGs was age-specific: 1) during neonatal age, the highest fold increase in the mRNA expression was observed for Cyp1a2, Sult5a1, and Ugt1a9 by TCDD; Cyp3a11 and Mrp2 by TCPOBOP; as well as Gstm2 and Gstm3 by PCN; 2) during adolescent age, the highest fold increase in the mRNA expression was observed for Ugt1a6 and Mrp4 by TCDD, Cyp2b10, Ugt2b34, and Ugt2b35 by TCPOBOP, as well as Gsta1, Gsta4, Sult1e1, Ugt1a1, Mrp3, and Mrp4 by PCN; 3) in adults, the highest fold increase in the mRNA expression was observed for Aldh1a1, Aldh1a7, and Ugt2b36 by TCPOBOP, as well as Papss2 and Oatp1a4 by PCN. In conclusion, the inducibility of hepatic DPGs following the pharmacological activation of xeno-sensors is age specific. PMID:26577535

  20. Report of cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zhao, Ping; Zeng, Hongmei; Zou, Xiaonong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the cancer incidences and mortalities in China in 2010. Methods On basis of the evaluation procedures and data quality criteria described in the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR), data from 219 cancer registries were evaluated. Data from 145 registries were identified as qualified and then accepted for the 2010 cancer registry report. The incidences and mortalities of major cancers and the overall incidence and mortality were stratified by residency (urban or rural), areas (eastern, middle, and western), gender, and age. The cancer cases and deaths were estimated based on age-specific rate and national population in 2010. The China 2010 Population Census data and Segi’s world population data were used for calculating the age-standardized cancer incidence/mortality rates. Results Data were obtained from a total of 145 cancer registries (63 in urban areas and 82 in rural areas) covering 158,403,248 people (92,433,739 in urban areas and 65,969,509 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases (MV%) were 67.11%; 2.99% of incident cases were identified through proportion of death certification only (DCO%), with the mortality to incidence ratio of (M/I) 0.61. The estimates of new cancer cases and cancer deaths were 3,093,039 and 1,956,622 in 2010, respectively. The crude incidence was 235.23/105 (268.65/105 in males and 200.21/105 in females), the age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and by world standard population (ASR world) were 184.58/105 and 181.49/105, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 21.11%. The cancer incidence and ASR China were 256.41/105 and 187.53/105 in urban areas and 213.71/105 and 181.10/105 in rural areas. The crude cancer mortality in China was 148.81/105 (186.37/105 in males and 109.42/105 in females), the age-standardized mortalities by Chinese standard population and by world standard population were 113.92/105 and 112.86/105, and the cumulative

  1. Mortality incidence estimation using federal death certificate and natality data with an application to Tay-Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Kabir; Carter, Randy L

    2015-09-01

    For confidentiality reasons, US federal death certificate data are incomplete with regards to the dates of birth and death for the decedents, making calculation of total lifetime of a decedent impossible and thus estimation of mortality incidence difficult. This paper proposes the use of natality data and an imputation-based method to estimate age-specific mortality incidence rates in the face of this missing information. By utilizing previously determined probabilities of birth, a birth date and death date are imputed for every decedent in the dataset. Thus, the birth cohort of each individual is imputed, and the total on-study time can be calculated. This idea is implemented in two approaches for estimation of mortality incidence rates. The first is an extension of a person-time approach, while the second is an extension of a life table approach. Monte Carlo simulations showed that both approaches perform well in comparison to the ideal complete data methods, but that the person-time method is preferred. An application to Tay-Sachs disease is demonstrated. It is concluded that the imputation methods proposed provide valid estimates of the incidence of death from death certificate data without the need for additional assumptions under which usual mortality rates provide valid estimates. PMID:26080753

  2. Obliquely incident ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Shengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ion beam figuring (IBF) technique, obliquely incident IBF (OI-IBF), is proposed. In OI-IBF, the ion beam bombards the optical surface obliquely with an invariable incident angle instead of perpendicularly as in the normal IBF. Due to the higher removal rate in oblique incidence, the process time in OI-IBF can be significantly shortened. The removal rates at different incident angles were first tested, and then a test mirror was processed by OI-IBF. Comparison shows that in the OI-IBF technique with a 30 deg incident angle, the process time was reduced by 56.8%, while keeping the same figure correcting ability. The experimental results indicate that the OI-IBF technique is feasible and effective to improve the surface correction process efficiency.

  3. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Paul T.; Phillips-Meek, Michelle C.; Richards, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in five-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research.1 PMID:25904864

  4. Association of Seasonal Climate Variability and Age-Specific Mortality in Northern Sweden before the Onset of Industrialization

    PubMed Central

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Edvinsson, Sören; Arnqvist, Per; de Luna, Sara Sjöstedt; Schumann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Little is known about health impacts of climate in pre-industrial societies. We used historical data to investigate the association of temperature and precipitation with total and age-specific mortality in Skellefteå, northern Sweden, between 1749 and 1859. Methods: We retrieved digitized aggregated population data of the Skellefteå parish, and monthly temperature and precipitation measures. A generalized linear model was established for year to year variability in deaths by annual and seasonal average temperature and cumulative precipitation using a negative binomial function, accounting for long-term trends in population size. The final full model included temperature and precipitation of all four seasons simultaneously. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for total, sex- and age-specific mortality. Results: In the full model, only autumn precipitation proved statistically significant (RR 1.02; CI 1.00–1.03, per 1cm increase of autumn precipitation), while winter temperature (RR 0.98; CI 0.95–1.00, per 1 °C increase in temperature) and spring precipitation (RR 0.98; CI 0.97–1.00 per 1 cm increase in precipitation) approached significance. Similar effects were observed for men and women. The impact of climate variability on mortality was strongest in children aged 3–9, and partly also in older children. Infants, on the other hand, appeared to be less affected by unfavourable climate conditions. Conclusions: In this pre-industrial rural region in northern Sweden, higher levels of rain during the autumn increased the annual number of deaths. Harvest quality might be one critical factor in the causal pathway, affecting nutritional status and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Autumn rain probably also contributed to the spread of air-borne diseases in crowded living conditions. Children beyond infancy appeared most vulnerable to climate impacts. PMID:25003551

  5. The etiology and incidence of anaphylaxis in Rochester, Minnesota: A report from the Rochester Epidemiology Project

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Wyatt W.; Campbell, Ronna L.; Manivannan, Veena; Luke, Anuradha; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Amy; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Stead, Latha G.; Li, James T. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reported incidences of anaphylaxis range from 3.2 to 20 per 100,000 population. The incidence and trend over time has meaningful public health implications but has not been well characterized because of a lack of a standard definition and deficiencies in reporting of events. Objective We sought to determine the incidence and cause of anaphylaxis over a 10-year period. Methods We performed a population-based incidence study that was conducted in Rochester, Minnesota, from 1990 through 2000. Anaphylaxis episodes were identified on the basis of symptoms and signs of mast cell and basophil mediator release plus mucocutaneous, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, or cardiovascular system involvement. Results Two hundred eleven cases of anaphylaxis were identified (55.9% in female subjects). The mean age was 29.3 years (SD, 18.2 years; range, 0.8–78.2 years). The overall age-and sex-adjusted incidence rate was 49.8 (95% CI, 45.0–54.5) per 100,000 person-years. Age-specific rates were highest for ages 0 to 19 years (70 per 100,000 person-years). Ingested foods accounted for 33.2% (70 cases), insect stings accounted for 18.5% (39 cases), medication accounted for 13.7% (29 cases), radiologic contrast agent accounted for 0.5% (1 case), “other” causes accounted for 9% (19 cases), and “unknown” causes accounted for 25.1% (53 cases). The “other” group included cats, latex, cleaning agents, environmental allergens, and exercise. There was an increase in the annual incidence rate during the study period from 46.9 per 100,000 persons in 1990 to 58.9 per 100,000 persons in 2000 (P = .03). Conclusion The overall incidence rate is 49.8 per 100,000 person-years, which is higher than previously reported. The annual incidence rate is also increasing. Food and insect stings continue to be major inciting agents for anaphylaxis. PMID:18992928

  6. Suicide in Recent Onset Psychosis Revisited: Significant Reduction of Suicide Rate over the Last Two Decades — A Replication Study of a Dutch Incidence Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Jill S.; van Es, Frank D.; Visser, Ellen; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare the suicide risk over the past decade following recent onset psychosis to findings from the eighties and nineties in the same catchment area and to identify predictors of suicide in the context of the Psychosis Recent Onset Groningen-Survey (PROGR-S). A medical file search was carried out to determine the current status of all patients admitted between 2000 and 2009. The suicide rate was compared with a study executed in 1973–1988 in the same catchment area. Predictors of suicide were investigated using Cox regression. The status of 424 of the 614 patients was known in July 2014. Suicide occurred in 2.4% of patients with psychosis disorders (n = 10; mean follow-up 5.6 years); 6 out of 10 suicides took place within two years. Within two decades, the suicide rate dropped from 11% (follow-up 15 years, 8.5% after 5 years) to 2.4%. The Standardized Mortality Rate (SMR) of suicides compared with the general population was 41.6. A higher age was the only significant predictor for suicide. Neuroticism, living situation, disorganized and negative symptoms, and passive coping style all showed a trend for significance. A significant reduction in the suicide rate was found for people with psychosis over the past decades. Given the high SMR, suicide research should be given the highest priority. Identifying predictors may contribute to further reduction of suicide among patients with psychosis. PMID:26068417

  7. Presence of animal feeding operations and community socioeconomic factors impact salmonellosis incidence rates: An ecological analysis using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kristi S; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Malayil, Leena; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of foodborne illness. Risk factors for salmonellosis include the consumption of contaminated chicken, eggs, pork and beef. Agricultural, environmental and socioeconomic factors also have been associated with rates of Salmonella infection. However, to our knowledge, these factors have not been modeled together at the community-level to improve our understanding of whether rates of salmonellosis are variable across communities defined by differing factors. To address this knowledge gap, we obtained data on culture-confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport and S. Javiana cases (2004-2010; n=14,297) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), and socioeconomic, environmental and agricultural data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regressions. Multiple community-level factors were associated with salmonellosis rates; however, our findings varied by state. For example, in Georgia (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.01; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.005-1.015) Maryland (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.003-1.015) and Tennessee (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.002-1.012), zip codes characterized by greater rurality had higher rates of S. Newport infections. The presence of broiler chicken operations, dairy operations and cattle operations in a zip code also was associated with significantly higher rates of infection with at least one serotype in states that are leading producers of these animal products. For instance, in Georgia and Tennessee, rates of S. Enteritidis infection were 48% (IRR=1.48; 95% CI=1.12-1.95) and 46% (IRR=1.46; 95% CI=1.17-1.81) higher in zip codes with broiler chicken operations compared to those without these operations. In Maryland, New Mexico and Tennessee, higher poverty levels in zip codes were associated with

  8. Mortality Rates in a Genetically Heterogeneous Population of Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Anne; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Johnson, Thomas E.

    1994-02-01

    Age-specific mortality rates in isogenic populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans increase exponentially throughout life. In genetically heterogeneous populations, age-specific mortality increases exponentially until about 17 days and then remains constant until the last death occurs at about 60 days. This period of constant age-specific mortality results from genetic heterogeneity. Subpopulations differ in mean life-span, but they all exhibit near exponential, albeit different, rates of increase in age-specific mortality. Thus, much of the observed heterogeneity in mortality rates later in life could result from genetic heterogeneity and not from an inherent effect of aging.

  9. Rate of ectasia and incidence of irregular topography in patients with unidentified preoperative risk factors undergoing femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Moshirfar, Majid; Smedley, Jared G; Muthappan, Valliammai; Jarsted, Allison; Ostler, Erik M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report the rate of postoperative ectasia after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with femtosecond laser-assisted flap creation, in a population of patients with no identified preoperative risk factors. Methods A retrospective case review of 1,992 eyes (1,364 patients) treated between March 2007 and January 2009 was conducted, with a follow up of over 4 years. After identifying cases of ectasia, all the patient charts were examined retrospectively for preoperative findings suggestive of forme fruste keratoconus (FFKC). Results Five eyes of four patients with post-LASIK ectasia were identified. All eyes passed preoperative screening and received bilateral LASIK. One of the five patients developed ectasia in both eyes. Three patients retrospectively revealed preoperative topography suggestive of FFKC, while one patient had no identifiable preoperative risk factors. Upon review of all the charts, a total 69 eyes, including four of the five eyes with ectasia, were retrospectively found to have topographies suggestive of FFKC. Conclusion We identified four cases of post-LASIK ectasia that had risk factors for FFKC on reexamination of the chart and one case of post-LASIK ectasia with no identifiable preoperative risk factors. The most conservative screening recommendations would not have precluded this patient from LASIK. The rate of purely iatrogenic post-LASIK ectasia at our center was 0.05% (1/1,992), and the total rate of post-LASIK ectasia for our entire study was 0.25% (1/398). The rate of eyes with unrecognized preoperative FFKC that developed post-LASIK ectasia was 5.8% (1/17). PMID:24363553

  10. Geographical spread of gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence in the Caspian Sea region of Iran: Spatial analysis of cancer registry data

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Wolfe, Rory; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Mohammad, Kazem; Zeraati, Hojjat; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2008-01-01

    Background High incidence rates of gastrointestinal tract cancers have been reported in the Caspian region of Iran. This study aimed to: 1) describe the geographical spatial patterns of gastrointestinal tract cancer incidence based on cancer registry data and, 2) determine whether geographical clusters of statistical significance exist. Methods The Babol Cancer Registry, which covers the two major northern Iranian provinces of Mazandaran and Golestan (total population = 4,484,622) was used to identify new gastrointestinal tract cancer cases during 2001 to 2005. Age-specific cancer incidence rates were calculated for 7 gastrointestinal tract cancer sites in 26 wards of the Mazandaran and Golestan provinces. Spatial autocorrelation indices, hierarchical Bayesian Poisson models, and spatial scan statistics were used in measuring the geographic pattern and clusters. Results There were non-random spatial patterns in esophageal and stomach cancers that were similar for both sexes. Clusters of high incidence were identified in esophageal, stomach, colorectal and liver cancer for both sexes, as well as a possible cluster of pancreas cancer in males. Conclusion Gastrointestinal tract cancers exhibit significant spatial clustering of risk in northern Iran. Further work is needed to relate these geographical patterns to information on potential life-style and environmental factors. PMID:18479519

  11. Foodborne Illness Incidence Rates and Food Safety Risks for Populations of Low Socioeconomic Status and Minority Race/Ethnicity: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe. PMID:23955239

  12. Rising incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer in Australia over two decades: report and review.

    PubMed

    Young, Joanne P; Win, Aung Ko; Rosty, Christophe; Flight, Ingrid; Roder, David; Young, Graeme P; Frank, Oliver; Suthers, Graeme K; Hewett, Peter J; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew; Hauben, Ehud; Adelstein, Barbara-Ann; Parry, Susan; Townsend, Amanda; Hardingham, Jennifer E; Price, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    The average age at diagnosis for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Australia is 69, and the age-specific incidence rises rapidly after age 50 years. The incidence has stabilized or is declining in older age groups in Australia during recent decades, possibly related to the increased uptake of screening and high-risk surveillance. In the same time frame, a rising incidence of CRC in younger adults has been well-documented in the United States. This rise in incidence in the young has not been reported from other countries that share long-term exposure to westernised urban lifestyles. Using data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, we examined trends in national incidence rates for CRC under age 50 years and observed that rates in people under age 40 years have been rising for the last two decades. We further performed a review of the literature regarding CRC in young adults to outline the extent of current understanding, explore potential risk factors such as obesity, alcohol, and sedentary lifestyles, and to identify the questions remaining to be addressed. Although absolute numbers might not justify a population screening approach, the dispersal of young adults with CRC across the primary health-care system decreases probability of their recognition. Patient and physician awareness, aided by stool and emerging blood-screening tests and risk profiling tools, have the potential to aid in identification of those young adults who would most benefit from a colonoscopy through early detection of CRCs or by removal of advanced polyps. PMID:25251195

  13. Incidence rate of type 2 diabetes is >50% lower in GrassrootsHealth cohort with median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 41 ng/ml than in NHANES cohort with median of 22 ng/ml.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, S L; Baggerly, L L; French, C B; Heaney, R P; Gorham, E D; Holick, M F; Scragg, R; Garland, C F

    2016-01-01

    Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. This study compared incidence rates of type 2 diabetes among participants aged ≥20 years in two U.S. cohorts with markedly different median 25(OH)D concentrations. The median 25(OH)D concentration in the GrassrootsHealth (GRH) cohort was 41 ng/ml (N=4933) while in the 2005-6 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) it was 22 ng/ml (N=4078) (P<0.0001). The adjusted annual incidence rate of type 2 diabetes was 3.7 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval=1.9, 6.6) in the GRH cohort, compared to 9.3 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval=6.7, 12.6) in NHANES. In the NHANES cohort, the lowest 25(OH)D tertiles (<17, 17-24 ng/ml) had higher odds of developing diabetes than the highest tertile (OR: 4.9, P=0.02 and 4.8, P=0.01 respectively), adjusting for covariates. Differences in demographics and methods may have limited comparability. Raising serum 25(OH)D may be a useful tool for reducing risk of diabetes in the population. PMID:26151742

  14. Age-specific genetic and antigenic variations of influenza A viruses in Hong Kong, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Peihua; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Wang, Xiling; Chan, King-Pan; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Poon, Leo Lit-Man; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Age-specific genetic and antigenic variations of influenza viruses have not been documented in tropical and subtropical regions. We implemented a systematic surveillance program in two tertiary hospitals in Hong Kong Island, to collect 112 A(H1N1)pdm09 and 254 A(H3N2) positive specimens from 2013 to 2014. Of these, 56 and 72 were identified as genetic variants of the WHO recommended vaccine composition strains, respectively. A subset of these genetic variants was selected for hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests, but none appeared to be antigenic variants of the vaccine composition strains. We also found that genetic and antigenicity variations were similar across sex and age groups of ≤18 yrs, 18 to 65 yrs, and ≥65 yrs. Our findings suggest that none of the age groups led other age groups in genetic evolution of influenza virus A strains. Future studies from different regions and longer study periods are needed to further investigate the age and sex heterogeneity of influenza viruses. PMID:27453320

  15. Age-specific genetic and antigenic variations of influenza A viruses in Hong Kong, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Cao, Peihua; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Wang, Xiling; Chan, King-Pan; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Poon, Leo Lit-Man; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Age-specific genetic and antigenic variations of influenza viruses have not been documented in tropical and subtropical regions. We implemented a systematic surveillance program in two tertiary hospitals in Hong Kong Island, to collect 112 A(H1N1)pdm09 and 254 A(H3N2) positive specimens from 2013 to 2014. Of these, 56 and 72 were identified as genetic variants of the WHO recommended vaccine composition strains, respectively. A subset of these genetic variants was selected for hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests, but none appeared to be antigenic variants of the vaccine composition strains. We also found that genetic and antigenicity variations were similar across sex and age groups of ≤18 yrs, 18 to 65 yrs, and ≥65 yrs. Our findings suggest that none of the age groups led other age groups in genetic evolution of influenza virus A strains. Future studies from different regions and longer study periods are needed to further investigate the age and sex heterogeneity of influenza viruses. PMID:27453320

  16. Age-specific functional epigenetic changes in p21 and p16 in injury-activated satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ju; Han, Suhyoun; Cousin, Wendy; Conboy, Irina M

    2015-03-01

    The regenerative capacity of muscle dramatically decreases with age because old muscle stem cells fail to proliferate in response to tissue damage. Here, we uncover key age-specific differences underlying this proliferative decline: namely, the genetic loci of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CDKIs) p21 and p16 are more epigenetically silenced in young muscle stem cells, as compared to old, both in quiescent cells and those responding to tissue injury. Interestingly, phosphorylated ERK (pERK) induced in these cells by ectopic FGF2 is found in association with p21 and p16 promoters, and moreover, only in the old cells. Importantly, in the old satellite cells, FGF2/pERK silences p21 epigenetically and transcriptionally, which leads to reduced p21 protein levels and enhanced cell proliferation. In agreement with the epigenetic silencing of the loci, young muscle stem cells do not depend as much as old on ectopic FGF/pERK for their myogenic proliferation. In addition, other CDKIs, such asp15(INK4B) and p27(KIP1) , become elevated in satellite cells with age, confirming and explaining the profound regenerative defect of old muscle. This work enhances our understanding of tissue aging, promoting strategies for combating age-imposed tissue degeneration. PMID:25447026

  17. Age-specific functional epigenetic changes in p21 and p16 in injury-activated satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ju; Han, Suhyoun; Cousin, Wendy; Conboy, Irina M.

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of muscle dramatically decreases with age because old muscle stem cells fail to proliferate in response to tissue damage. Here we uncover key age-specific differences underlying this proliferative decline: namely, the genetic loci of CDK inhibitors (CDKI) p21 and p16 are more epigenetically silenced in young muscle stem cells, as compared to old, both in quiescent cells and those responding to tissue injury. Interestingly, phosphorylated ERK (pERK) induced in these cells by ectopic FGF-2 is found in association with p21 and p16 promoters, and moreover, only in the old cells. Importantly, in the old satellite cells FGF-2/pERK silences p21 epigenetically and transcriptionally, which leads to reduced p21 protein levels and enhanced cell proliferation. In agreement with the epigenetic silencing of the loci, young muscle stem cells do not depend as much as old on ectopic FGF/pERK for their myogenic proliferation. In addition, other CDKIs, such asp15INK4B and p27KIP1, become elevated in satellite cells with age, confirming and explaining the profound regenerative defect of old muscle. This work enhances our understanding of tissue aging, promoting strategies for combating age-imposed tissue degeneration. PMID:25447026

  18. Haploinsufficiency in the PPAR{alpha} and LDL receptor genes leads to gender- and age-specific obesity and hyperinsulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Eiko . E-mail: eikoyoko@nagano-kentan.ac.jp; Tanaka, Naoki; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijo, Yuji; Yokoyama, Shin; Li Yufeng; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2006-11-17

    When preparing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}:low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (-/-) double knockout mice, we unexpectedly found a unique gender- and age-specific obesity in the F1 generation, PPAR{alpha} (+/-):LDLR (+/-), even in mice fed standard chow. Body weights of the male heterozygous mice increased up to about 60 g at 75 weeks of age, then decreased by about 30 g at 100 weeks of age. More than 95% of the heterozygous mice between 35- and 75-week-olds were overweight. Of interest, the obese heterozygous mice also exhibited hyperinsulinemia correlating with moderate insulin resistance. Hepatic gene expression of LDLR was lower than expected in the heterozygous mice, particularly at 50 and 75 weeks of age. In contrast, the hepatic expression of PPAR{alpha} was higher than expected in obese heterozygous mice, but decreased in non-obese older heterozygous mice. Modulated expression of these genes may be partially associated with the onset of the hyperinsulinemia.

  19. The age-specific prevalence of human parvovirus immunity in Victoria, Australia compared with other parts of the world.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, H. A.; Siebert, D.; Hammond, R.; Leydon, J.; Kiely, P.; Maskill, W.

    2000-01-01

    The age-specific immunity to human parvovirus infection was estimated in Victoria, Australia using prospectively collected samples from the Royal Children's Hospital, the Royal Women's Hospital and the Australian Red Cross Blood Service and from sera stored at the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL). All testing was performed at VIDRL using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Biotrin). Of the 824 sera tested, 28% of those drawn from people aged 0-9 years contained protective antibodies to human parvovirus. This rose to 51% in the next decade of life. There was then a slow rise to about 78% immunity over 50 years of age. An analysis of all requests for parvovirus serology at VIDRL from 1992 to 1998 suggested that parvovirus tended to occur in 4-year cycles, with 2 epidemic years followed by 2 endemic years. A review of published reports of parvovirus immunity suggested that parvovirus infection may be more common, with a correspondingly higher proportion of the community immune, in temperate as opposed to tropical countries. PMID:10982069

  20. Age specific trends in asthma mortality in England and Wales, 1983-95: results of an observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. J.; Cogman, G. R.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in asthma mortality by age group in England and Wales during 1983-95. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: All deaths classified as having an underlying cause of asthma registered from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time trends for age specific asthma deaths. RESULTS: Deaths in the age group 5-14 years showed an irregular downward trend during 1983-95; deaths in the age groups 15-44, 45-64, and 65-74 years peaked before 1989 and then showed a downward trend; and deaths in the age group 75-84 years peaked between 1988 and 1993 and subsequently dropped. Trends were: age group 5-14 years, 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%); 15-44 years, 6% (5% to 7%); 45-64 years, 5% (4% to 6%); 65-74 years, 2% (1% to 3%). Deaths in the 75-84 and 85 and over categories plateaued. CONCLUSIONS: There are downward trends in asthma mortality in Britain, which may be due to increased use of prophylactic treatment. PMID:9167558

  1. Age-specific patterns of factors related to fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: focus on young and elderly drivers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Fraser, S; Lindsay, J; Clarke, K; Mao, Y

    1998-09-01

    This population-based study examines patterns of fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) by age group (16-24, 25-64, 65+) among Canadian drivers. The Canadian Traffic Accident Information Databank (TRAID) provided information about fata MVTCs between 1984 and 1993. Distribution of risk factors was compared by age group. Crude odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated for both young and elderly drivers compared with middle-aged drivers. The middle-age group was selected as reference population since it demonstrates the lowest risk of fatality. Compared to the middle-aged group, young drivers demonstrated excess risk for (1) risk-taking behaviours and conditions, specifically alcohol and illicit drug use, speeding, non use of seat belts, fatigue and falling asleep, and inexperience; (2) crashes during the summer, during weekends and at night; and (3) single-vehicle collisions and on performing overtaking manoeuvres. Excess risk among elderly drivers was noted for (1) medical and physical conditions, inattention and inexperience; (2) driver actions, for example, improper turning, failure to yield right-to-way; (3) occurrence on weekdays and during the day; and (4) collisions at intersection and vehicle--vehicle sideswipes. The results show notable differences in risk factors by age group and confirm the need for preventive efforts that incorporate age-specific strategies. PMID:9807923

  2. Trends in the incidence and prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, and cognitive impairment in the United States*

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Walter A.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Knopman, David S.; Hebert, Liesi E.; Evans, Denis A.; Hall, Kathleen S.; Gao, Sujuan; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Larson, Eric B.; White, Lon R.

    2010-01-01

    Declines in heart disease and stroke mortality rates are conventionally attributed to reductions in cigarette smoking, recognition and treatment of hypertension and diabetes, effective medications to improve serum lipid levels and to reduce clot formation, and general lifestyle improvements. Recent evidence implicates these and other cerebrovascular factors in the development of a substantial proportion of dementia cases. Analyses were undertaken to determine if corresponding declines in age-specific prevalence and incidence rates for dementia and cognitive impairment have occurred in recent years. Data spanning 1 or 2 decades were examined from community-based epidemiologic studies in Minnesota, Illinois, and Indiana, and from the Health and Retirement Study, a national survey. Although a marginal decline was observed in the Minnesota cohort, no clinically significant trends were apparent in the community studies. A significant reduction in cognitive impairment measured by neuropsychological testing was identified in the national survey. Cautious optimism appears justified. PMID:21255746

  3. Modelling postfledging survival and age- specific breeding probabilities in species with delayed maturity: A case study of Roseate Terns at Falkner Island, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lebreton, J.D.; Pradel, R.

    2002-01-01

    We modelled postfledging survival and age-specific breeding probabilities in endangered Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) at Falkner Island, Connecticut, USA using capture-recapture data from 1988-1998 of birds ringed as chicks and as adults. While no individuals bred as 2-year-olds during this period, about three-quarters of the young that survived and returned as 3-year-olds nested, and virtually all surviving birds had begun breeding by the time they reached 5 years of age. We found no evidence of temporal variation age of first breeding of birds from different cohorts. There was significant temporal variation in the annual survival of adults and the survival over the typical 3-year maturation period of prebreeding birds, with extremely low values for both groups from the 1991 breeding season. The estimated overwinter survival rate (0.62) for adults from 1991-1992 was about three-quarters the usual rate of about 0.83, but the low survival of fledglings from 1991 resulted in less than 25% of the otherwise expected number of young from that cohort returning as breeding birds; this suggests that fledglings suffered a greater proportional decrease in survival than did adults. The survival estimates of young from 1989 and 1990 show that these cohorts were not negatively influenced by the events that decimated the young from 1991, and the young from 1992 and 1993 had above-average survival estimates. The apparent decrease since 1996 in development of fidelity of new recruits to this site is suspected to be due mainly to nocturnal disturbance and predation of chicks causing low productivity.

  4. Modelling postfledging survival and age-specific breeding probabilities in species with delayed maturity: a case study of Roseate Terns at Falkner Island, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lebreton, J.D.; Pradel, R.

    2002-01-01

    We modeled postfledging survival and age-specific breeding probabilities in endangered Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) at Falkner Island, Connecticut, USA using capture-recapture data from 1988-1998 of birds ringed as chicks and as adults. While no individuals bred as 2-yr-olds during this period, about three-quarters of the young that survived and returned as 3-yr-olds nested, and virtually all surviving birds had begun breeding by the time they reached 5 years of age. We found no evidence of temporal variation in age of first breeding of birds from different cohorts. There was significant temporal variation in the annual survival of adults and the survival over the typical 3-yr maturation period of prebreeding birds, with extremely low values for both groups from the 1991 breeding season. The estimated overwinter survival rate (0.62) for adults from 1991-1992 was about three-quarters the usual rate of about 0.83, but the low survival of fledglings from 1991 resulted in less than 25% of the otherwise expected number of young from that cohort returning as breeding birds; this suggests that fledglings suffered a greater proportional decrease in survival than did adults. The survival estimates of young from 1989 and 1990 show that these cohorts were not negatively influenced by the events that decimated the young from 1991, and the young from 1992 and 1993 had above-average survival estimates. The apparent decrease since 1996 in development of fidelity of new recruits to this site is suspected due mainly to nocturnal disturbance and predation of chicks causing low productivity.

  5. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  6. Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis in French Polynesia: age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, circulating antigen, and specific IgG and IgG4 responses according to transmission level.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Plichart, C; Luquiaud, P; Moulia-Pelat, J P; N'Guyen, L; Cartel, J L

    1995-01-01

    The age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, Og4C3 antigenemia, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 were assessed in 3 villages of low, medium and high transmission level for Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis. The prevalence rates for each of the 4 markers were clearly age dependent and their patterns strongly associated with the transmission level. The antigenemia prevalence rate was consistently higher than the microfilaremia prevalence rate, in all age groups. The prevalences of anti-B. malayi IgG and IgG4 responses were very similar and much higher than those of microfilaremia or antigenemia. Antibody responses reached the plateau at an earlier age and at a higher prevalence with increased intensity of transmission. For all the markers, the prevalence rates were significantly higher in males than in females. PMID:7797377

  7. Racial variation in incidence of trisomy 21: survey of 57,742 Chinese deliveries.

    PubMed

    Lau, T K; Fung, H Y; Rogers, M S; Cheung, K L

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to establish whether the influence of advanced maternal age on the incidence of trisomy 21 in the local Chinese population is similar to that seen among European patients by comparing the observed number of trisomy 21 cases against the expected number which was calculated from age-specific Caucasian data and adjusted for intrauterine lethality and rate of amniocentesis. The obstetric and neonatal data of 57,742 pregnancies in ethnic Chinese were reviewed, of which 10.5% were from mothers age 35 or over. A total of 74 cases of trisomy 21 was detected (overall incidence of 1.28 per 1,000 deliveries). The expected number of trisomy 21 cases in mothers younger than 35 was 45.6, which was similar to the observed number of 43. Among mothers age 35 or above, the expected and observed numbers of cases were 38.52 and 31, respectively, again a difference not statistically significant. Therefore we conclude that there is no significant racial variation in the incidence of trisomy 21, both in the younger and older age groups, when comparing Chinese to Caucasian populations. PMID:9482644

  8. From non school-based, co-payment to school-based, free Human Papillomavirus vaccination in Flanders (Belgium): a retrospective cohort study describing vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities.

    PubMed

    Lefevere, Eva; Theeten, Heidi; Hens, Niel; De Smet, Frank; Top, Geert; Van Damme, Pierre

    2015-09-22

    School-based, free HPV vaccination for girls in the first year of secondary school was introduced in Flanders (Belgium) in 2010. Before that, non school-based, co-payment vaccination for girls aged 12-18 was in place. We compared vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities in coverage - 3 important parameters contributing to the effectiveness of the vaccination programs - under both vaccination systems. We used retrospective administrative data from different sources. Our sample consisted of all female members of the National Alliance of Christian Mutualities born in 1995, 1996, 1998 or 1999 (N=66,664). For each vaccination system we described the cumulative proportion HPV vaccination initiation and completion over time. We used life table analysis to calculate age-specific rates of HPV vaccination initiation and completion. Analyses were done separately for higher income and low income groups. Under non school-based, co-payment vaccination the proportions HPV vaccination initiation and completion slowly rose over time. By age 17, the proportion HPV vaccination initiation/completion was 0.75 (95% CI 0.74-076)/0.66 (95% CI 0.65-0.67). The median age at vaccination initiation/completion was 14.4 years (95% CI 14.4-14.5)/15.4 years (95% CI 15.3-15.4). Socio-economic inequalities in coverage widened over time and with age. Under school-based, free vaccination rates of HPV vaccination initiation were substantially higher. By age 14,the proportion HPV vaccination initiation/completion was 0.90 (95% CI 0.90-0.90)/0.87 (95% CI 0.87-0.88). The median age at vaccination initiation/completion was 12.7 years (95% CI 12.7-12.7)/13.3 years (95% CI 13.3-13.3). Socio-economic inequalities in coverage and in age-specific coverage were substantially smaller. PMID:26254978

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer With 2 Fractions in 1 Application Under Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia: Incidence and Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Czajka-Pepl, Agnieszka; Scharbert, Gisela; Wetzel, Léonore; Sturdza, Alina; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the psychological consequences of high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, validated questionnaires were used for prospective assessment of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD/PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale–Revision), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Cervical Cancer 24), physical functioning (World Health Organization performance status), and pain (visual analogue scale), before and during treatment and 1 week and 3 months after treatment. Qualitative interviews were recorded in open format for content analysis. Results: Symptoms of ASD occurred in 30% of patients 1 week after treatment; and of PTSD in 41% 3 months after treatment in association with this specific brachytherapy procedure. Pretreatment predictive variables explain 82% of the variance of PTSD symptoms. Helpful experiences were the support of the treatment team, psychological support, and a positive attitude. Stressful factors were pain, organizational problems during treatment, and immobility between brachytherapy fractions. Conclusions: The specific brachytherapy procedure, as performed in the investigated mono-institutional setting with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia, bears a considerable risk of traumatization. The source of stress seems to be not the brachytherapy application itself but the maintenance of the applicator under epidural anesthesia in the time between fractions. Patients at risk may be identified before treatment, to offer targeted psycho-social support. The patients' open reports regarding helpful experiences are an encouraging feedback for the treatment team; the reported stressful factors

  10. A prospective randomised trial comparing insertion success rate and incidence of catheterisation-related complications for subclavian venous catheterisation using a thin-walled introducer needle or a catheter-over-needle technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, E; Kim, B G; Lim, Y J; Jeon, Y T; Hwang, J W; Kim, H C; Choi, Y H; Park, H P

    2016-09-01

    In clinical practice, both a thin-walled introducer needle and catheter-over-needle technique can be used to allow insertion of a guidewire during central venous catheterisation using the Seldinger technique. We compared the incidence of catheterisation-related complications (arterial puncture, haemothorax, pneumothorax, haematoma and catheter tip malposition) and insertion success rate for these two techniques in patients requiring right-sided subclavian central venous catheterisation. A total of 414 patients requiring infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterisation were randomly allocated to either a thin-walled introducer needle (needle group, n = 208) or catheter-over-needle technique (catheter group, n = 206). The catheterisation-related complication rate was lower in the needle group compared with the catheter group (5.8% vs. 15.5%; p = 0.001). Overall insertion success rates were similar (97.1% and 92.7% in the needle and catheter groups respectively; p = 0.046), although the first-pass success rate was higher in the needle group (62.0% vs. 35.4%; p < 0.001). We recommend the use of a thin-walled introducer needle technique for right-sided infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterisation. PMID:27396474

  11. Age specific responses to acute inhalation of diffusion flame soot particles: Cellular injury and the airway antioxidant response

    PubMed Central

    Van Winkle, Laura S.; Chan, Jackie K.W.; Anderson, Donald S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Wexler, Anthony S; Wallis, Christopher; Abid, Aamir D.; Sutherland, Katherine M.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of particulate matter (PM) are confounded by the fact that PM is a complex mixture of primary (crustal material, soot, metals) and secondary (nitrates, sulfates and organics formed in the atmosphere) compounds with considerable variance in composition by sources and location. We have developed a laboratory-based PM that is replicable, does not contain dust or metals and that can be used to study specific health effects of PM composition in animal models. We exposed both neonatal (7 days of age) and adult rats to a single 6-hr exposure of laboratory generated fine diffusion flame soot (DFP; 170 ug/m3), or filtered air. Pulmonary gene and protein expression as well as indicators of cytotoxicity were evaluated 24 hours after exposure. Although DFP exposure did not alter airway epithelial cell composition in either neonates or adults, increased LDH activity was found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of neonates indicating an age-specific increase in susceptibility. In adults, 16 genes were differentially expressed as a result of DFP exposure while only 6 genes were altered in the airways of neonates. Glutamate cytsteine ligase protein was increased in abundance in both DFP exposed neonates and adults indicating an initiation of antioxidant responses involving the synthesis of glutathione. DFP significantly decreased catalase gene expression in adult airways, although catalase protein expression was increased by DFP in both neonates and adults. We conclude that key airway antioxidant enzymes undergo changes in expression in response to a moderate PM exposure that does not cause frank epithelial injury and that neonates have a different response pattern than adults. PMID:20961279

  12. Relationship of Self-Rated Health to Stroke Incidence and Mortality in Older Individuals with and without a History of Stroke: A Longitudinal Study of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing (CFAS) Population

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nahal; van der Linde, Rianne; Parker, Richard; Savva, George; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Brayne, Carol; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been associated with increased risk of death and poor health outcomes even after adjusting for confounders. However its’ relationship with disease-specific mortality and morbidity has been less studied. SRH may also be particularly predictive of health outcomes in those with pre-existing conditions. We studied whether SRH predicts new stroke in older people who have never had a stroke, or a recurrence in those with a prior history of stroke. Methods MRC CFAS I is a multicentre cohort study of a population representative sample of people in their 65th year and older. A comprehensive interview at baseline included questions about presence of stroke, self-rated health and functional disability. Follow-up at 2 years included self-report of stroke and stroke death obtained from death certificates. Multiple logistical regression determined odds of stroke at 2 years adjusting for confounders including disability and health behaviours. Survival analysis was performed until June 2014 with follow-up for up to 13 years. Results 11,957 participants were included, of whom 11,181 (93.8%) had no history of stroke and 776 (6.2%) one or more previous strokes. Fewer with no history of stroke reported poor SRH than those with stroke (5 versus 21%). In those with no history of stroke, poor self-rated health predicted stroke incidence (OR 1.5 (1.1–1.9)), but not stroke mortality (OR 1.2 (0.8–1.9)) at 2 years nor for up to 13 years (OR 1.2(0.9–1.7)). In those with a history of stroke, self-rated health did not predict stroke incidence (OR 0.9(0.6–1.4)), stroke mortality (OR 1.1(0.5–2.5)), or survival (OR 1.1(0.6–2.1)). Conclusions Poor self-rated health predicts risk of stroke at 2 years but not stroke mortality among the older population without a previous history of stroke. SRH may be helpful in predicting who may be at risk of developing a stroke in the near future. PMID:26928666

  13. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affects women, American Indian, Alaska Native, and black people more than other groups. These disparities show that ... female. Having an American Indian, Alaska Native, or black ... can be prevented by tracking people who have these risk factors. What CDC Is ...

  14. Rising incidence of breast cancer among young women in Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Ranstam, J.; Janzon, L.; Olsson, H.

    1990-01-01

    The national Swedish cancer registry was used to analyse the age-specific time trends in breast cancer incidence in Sweden from 1970 to 1984. The analysis included both a calendar year and a birth cohort approach to estimate time trends in disease occurrence. According to the birth cohort approach there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence with an average annual increase of the incidence of 3.2% (P = 0.0114), 3.4% (P = 0.0002) and 2.2% (P = 0.0264) in the age groups 25-29, 30-34 and 35-39, respectively. Possible causes of the observed increasing incidence are discussed. PMID:2297482

  15. Estimation of the incidence of MRSA patients: evaluation of a surveillance system using health insurance claim data.

    PubMed

    Tanihara, S; Suzuki, S

    2016-08-01

    Because sentinel surveillance systems cannot obtain information about patients who visit non-sentinel medical facilities, the characteristics of patients identified by these systems may be biased. In this study, we evaluated the representativeness of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance system using health insurance claim (HIC) data, which does not depend on physician notification. We calculated the age-specific incidence of MRSA patients using data from the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JANIS) programme, which is based on sentinel surveillance systems, and inpatient HICs submitted to employee health insurance organizations in 2011, and then computed age-specific incidence ratios between the HIC and JANIS data. Age-specific MRSA incidence in both datasets followed J-shaped curves with similar shapes. For all age groups, the ratios between HIC and JANIS data were around 10. These findings indicate that JANIS notification of MRSA cases was not affected by patients' age. PMID:27350233

  16. Cancer incidence and mortality in Shandong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhentao; Lu, Zilong; Li, Yingmei; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Gaohui; Chen, Xianxian; Chu, Jie; Ren, Jie; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries in Shandong province were collected by Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SDCDC). SDCDC estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Shandong province with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 21 cancer registries submitted data of cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 15 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as provincial estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+ years) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 15 cancer registries (4 urban and 11 rural registries) covered 17,189,988 populations (7,486,039 in urban and 9,703,949 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 66.12% and 2.93%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.60. A total of 253,060 new cancer cases and 157,750 cancer deaths were estimated in Shandong province in 2012. The incidence rate was 263.86/100,000 (303.29/100,000 in males, 223.23/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 192.42/100,000 and 189.50/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0.74 years old) of 22.07%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 267.64/100,000, 195.27/100,000 and 192.02/100,000 compared to 262.32/100,000, 191.26/100,000 and 188.48/100,000 in

  17. Effects of salinity on the transcriptome of growing maize leaf cells point at cell-age specificity in the involvement of the antioxidative response in cell growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    . Conclusions The results demonstrate a cell-age specificity in the salinity response of growing cells, and point at involvement of the antioxidative response in cell growth restriction. Processes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging are more pronounced in the young cells, while the higher growth sensitivity of older cells is suggested to involve effects on cell-wall rigidity and lower protein protection. PMID:23324477

  18. Child Abuse and Neglect in Ontario: Incidence and Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocme, Nico; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (OIS), which is based on a survey of child protection workers involved in 2,447 abuse and neglect investigations. OIS found an incidence rate of reported maltreatment of 21 per 1,000 children and a 27% substantiation rate. Includes comparisons with incidence rates for the…

  19. Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in a Multicenter Cohort of HIV-Positive Patients in Spain 2004–2011: Increasing Rates of HCV Diagnosis but Not of HCV Seroconversions

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Monge Corella, Susana; Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Félix; Blanco, José Ramón; Santos, Ignacio; del Romero, Jorge; Segura, Ferrán; Portilla, Joaquín; Guillén, Santiago Moreno; del Amo, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We aim to describe rates and risk factors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) diagnoses, follow-up HCV testing and HCV seroconversion from 2004–2011 in a cohort of HIV-positive persons in Spain. Methods CoRIS is a multicentre, open and prospective cohort recruiting adult HIV-positive patients naïve to antiretroviral therapy. We analysed patients with at least one negative and one follow-up HCV serology. Incidence Rates (IR) were calculated and multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted Rates Ratios (aIRR). Results Of 2112 subjects, 53 HCV diagnoses were observed, IR = 0.93/100py (95%CI: 0.7–1.2). IR increased from 0.88 in 2004–05 to 1.36 in 2010–11 (aIRR = 1.55; 95%CI: 0.37–6.55). In men who have sex with men (MSM) from 0.76 to 1.10 (aIRR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.31–6.82); in heterosexual (HTX) subjects from 1.19 to 1.28 (aIRR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.11–10.24). HCV seroconversion rates decreased from 1.77 to 0.65 (aIRR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.12–1.11); in MSM from 1.06 to 0.49 (aIRR = 0.46; 95%CI: 0.09–2.31); in HTX from 2.55 to 0.59 (aIRR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.06–0.98). HCV infection risk was higher for injecting drug users (IDU) compared to HTX (aIRR = 9.63;95%CI: 2.9–32.2); among MSM, for subjects aged 40–50 compared to 30 or less (IRR = 3.21; 95%CI: 1.7–6.2); and among HTX, for female sex (aIRR = 2.35; 95%CI: 1.03–5.34) and <200 CD4-count (aIRR = 2.39; 95%CI: 0.83–6.89). Conclusion We report increases in HCV diagnoses rates which seem secondary to intensification of HCV follow-up testing but not to rises in HCV infection rates. HCV IR is higher in IDU. In MSM, HCV IR increases with age. Among HTX, HCV IR is higher in women and in subjects with impaired immunological situation. PMID:25549224

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Reducing the Incidence Rate of Healthcare-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection: A Non-Randomized, Stepped Wedge, Single-Site, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI) is estimated at 1 in 100 patients. Antibiotic exposure is the most consistently reported risk factor for HA-CDI. Strategies to reduce the risk of HA-CDI have focused on reducing antibiotic utilization. Prospective audit and feedback is a commonly used antimicrobial stewardship intervention (ASi). The impact of this ASi on risk of HA-CDI is equivocal. This study examines the effectiveness of a prospective audit and feedback ASi on reducing the risk of HA-CDI. Methods Single-site, 339 bed community-hospital in Barrie, Ontario, Canada. Primary outcome is HA-CDI incidence rate. Daily prospective and audit ASi is the exposure variable. ASi implemented across 6 wards in a non-randomized, stepped wedge design. Criteria for ASi; any intravenous antibiotic use for ≥ 48 hrs, any oral fluoroquinolone or oral second generation cephalosporin use for ≥ 48 hrs, or any antimicrobial use for ≥ 5 days. HA-CDI cases and model covariates were aggregated by ward, year and month starting September 2008 and ending February 2016. Multi-level mixed effect negative binomial regression analysis was used to model the primary outcome, with intercept and slope coefficients for ward-level random effects estimated. Other covariates tested for inclusion in the final model were derived from previously published risk factors. Deviance residuals were used to assess the model’s goodness-of-fit. Findings The dataset included 486 observation periods, of which 350 were control periods and 136 were intervention periods. After accounting for all other model covariates, the estimated overall ASi incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0.48 (95% 0.30, 0.79). The ASi effect was independent of antimicrobial utilization. The ASi did not seem to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile infection on the surgery wards (IRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.45, 1.69) compared to the medicine wards (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28, 0.63). The ward

  1. International long-term trends and recent patterns in the incidence of leukemias and lymphomas among children and adolescents ages 0-19 years.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Brown, Linda M; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Check, David; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Landgren, Annelie; Devesa, Susan S

    2016-04-15

    To enhance understanding of etiology, we examined international population-based cancer incidence data for lymphoid leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloid leukemia among children aged 0-19. Based on temporal trends during 1978-2007 in 24 populations, lymphoid leukemia and myeloid leukemia incidence rates generally have not changed greatly and differences in rates for non-Hodgkin and for Hodgkin lymphoma have diminished in some regions. Lymphoid leukemia rates during 2003-2007 in 54 populations varied about 10-fold, with rates highest in US white Hispanics (50.2 per million person-years) and Ecuador (48.3) and lowest in US blacks (20.4), Tunisia (17.7) and Uganda (6.9). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma rates varied 30-fold, with very high rates in sub-Saharan Africa (146.0 in Malawi and 54.3 in Uganda) and low rates (≤ 10) in some Asian populations (China, Japan, India, the Philippines and Thailand) and U.S. Asian-Pacific Islanders, eastern and northern European populations and Puerto Rico. Hodgkin lymphoma rates varied 15-fold, with rates highest in Italy (21.3) and lowest in China (1.7). Myeloid leukemia rates varied only about fivefold, with rates highest in the Philippines and Korea (exceeding 14.0) and lowest in Eastern Europe (5.9 in Serbia and 5.3 in the Czech Republic) and Uganda (2.7). The boy/girl average incidence rate ratios were 2.00 or lower. Age-specific patterns differed among the four hematopoietic malignancies, but were generally consistent within major categories world-wide, except for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A systematic world-wide approach comparing postulated etiologic factors in low- versus high-risk populations may help clarify the etiology of these childhood malignancies. PMID:26562742

  2. The estimated prevalence and incidence of late stage age related macular degeneration in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Zakariya; Wormald, Richard; Cook, Derek G; Fletcher, Astrid E; Rudnicka, Alicja R

    2012-01-01

    Background UK estimates of age related macular degeneration (AMD) occurrence vary. Aims To estimate prevalence, number and incidence of AMD by type in the UK population aged ≥50 years. Methods Age-specific prevalence rates of AMD obtained from a Bayesian meta-analysis of AMD prevalence were applied to UK 2007–2009 population data. Incidence was estimated from modelled age-specific prevalence. Results Overall prevalence of late AMD was 2.4% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.7% to 3.3%), equivalent to 513 000 cases (95% CrI 363 000 to 699 000); estimated to increase to 679 000 cases by 2020. Prevalences were 4.8% aged ≥65 years, 12.2% aged ≥80 years. Geographical atrophy (GA) prevalence rates were 1.3% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.9%), 2.6% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.7%) and 6.7% (95% CrI 4.6% to 9.6%); neovascular AMD (NVAMD) 1.2% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.7%), 2.5% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.4%) and 6.3% (95% CrI 4.5% to 8.6%), respectively. The estimated number of prevalent cases of late AMD were 60% higher in women versus men (314 000 cases in women, 192 000 men). Annual incidence of late AMD, GA and NVAMD per 1000 women was 4.1 (95% CrI 2.4% to 6.8%), 2.4 (95% CrI 1.5% to 3.9%) and 2.3 (95% CrI 1.4% to 4.0%); in men 2.6 (95% CrI 1.5% to 4.4%), 1.7 (95% CrI 1.0% to 2.8%) and 1.4 (95% CrI 0.8% to 2.4%), respectively. 71 000 new cases of late AMD were estimated per year. Conclusions These estimates will guide health and social service provision for those with late AMD and enable estimation of the cost of introducing new treatments. PMID:22329913

  3. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  4. [Incidence of cancer in Navarre].

    PubMed

    Ardanaz, E; Moreno, C; Pérez de Rada Arístegui, M E; Ezponda, C; Navaridas, N

    2004-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2000 an annual average of 3,303 cases of invasive cancer were registered in Navarre, 58% of them in men. If we except non melanoma skin tumours, the annual number of cases was 2,495, with gross incidence rates of 559 and 372 per 100,000 in men and women, and rates adjusted to the world population of 312 and 203 per 100,000 respectively. Amongst men, the four most frequently diagnosed tumoural localisations were the prostate, lung, colorectal and bladder, accounting for 57% of all cases. The most notable due to their frequency amongst women were tumours of the breast, colorectal, uterus body and ovary, accounting for 54% of all cases. With respect to the five year period from 1993 to 1997, the global incidence of cancer in the three year period from 1998 to 2000 has increased 4.2% in men and 7.4% in women. The incidence of lung cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphomas in both sexes and of breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men are notable. There continues to be a fall in the incidence rates of stomach cancer in both sexes, following the tendency begun in the 1970s. PMID:15644889

  5. Age-adjustment and related epidemiology rates in education and research.

    PubMed

    Baker, John D; Kruckman, Laurence; George, Joyce

    2006-01-01

    A quick review of introductory textbooks reveals that while gerontology authors and instructors introduce some aspect of demography and epidemiology data, there is limited focus on age adjustment or other important epidemiology rates. The goal of this paper is to reintroduce a variety of basic epidemiology strategies such as incidence, prevalence, crude, age-specific and age-adjustment rates into the gerontology classroom. Background information and formulas for each rate, as well as examples of how they can be applied are provided. A recent change, encouraged by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, from a 1940 to a 2000 "standard million population" for ageadjusted rates, is reviewed. Finally, a teaching module with answers is provided for use in the gerontology classroom. PMID:16873207

  6. Entering out-of-home care during childhood: Cumulative incidence study in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Melissa; Maclean, Miriam; Sims, Scott; Brownell, Marni; Ekuma, Okechukwu; Gilbert, Ruth

    2016-09-01

    Cumulative incidence provides a more accurate indicator than annual incidence rates of the number of children who experience out-of-home care during childhood. The study utilises a cohort of all children born in Western Australia (WA) 1994-2005 and Manitoba 1998-2008 using de-identified linked data. Life tables were used to calculate the age-specific cumulative incidence over time and for at-risk groups. Cox regression was used to compare risk factors for entry to care. Manitoba had a larger proportion of children entering care compared to WA (9.4% vs 1.5% by age 12). Over time children entered care at a younger age in both WA (HR=1.5, CI:1.4-1.5) and Manitoba (HR=1.5, CI:1.5-1.6). Similar factors were associated with earlier age care entries in both countries including: socioeconomic disadvantage, young maternal age, maternal hospital admissions for mental health issues, substance misuse and assault. Supplementary analysis for WA showed a time trend with young children (<3years of age) who entered care spending an increasing proportion of their early years in care. Whilst Manitoba had a larger proportion of children entering care, over time in Western Australia children have been entering care at a younger age and spending more time in care. These latter factors contribute to an increased burden on the out-of-home care system. Manitoba had over five times greater cumulative incidence than WA, however risk factors for entry to out-of-home care were consistent in both countries. Knowledge of the risk factors for entry to out-of-home care can inform targeted support and prevention programs. PMID:27521764

  7. Altitude Modulates Concussion Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David W.; Myer, Gregory D.; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Clark, Joseph F.; Bailes, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research indicates that the volume and/or pressure of intracranial fluid, a physiology affected by one’s altitude (ie, elevation above sea level), may be associated with the likelihood and/or severity of a concussion. The objective was to employ an epidemiological field investigation to evaluate the relationship between altitude and concussion rate in high school sports. Hypothesis: Because of the physiologies that occur during acclimatization, including a decline in intracranial compliance (a “tighter fit”), increased altitude may be related to a reduction in concussion rates in high school athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data on concussions and athlete exposures (AEs) between 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 were obtained from a large national sample of high schools (National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System [High School RIO]) and were used to calculate total, competition, and practice concussion rates for aggregated sports and for football only. Results: Altitude of participating schools ranged from 7 to 6903 ft (median, 600 ft), and a total of 5936 concussions occurred in 20,618,915 exposures (2.88 per 10,000 AEs). When concussion rates were dichotomized by altitude using the median, elevated altitude was associated with a reduction in concussion rates overall (rate ratio [RR], 1.31; P < .001), in competition (RR, 1.31; P < .001), and in practice (RR, 1.29; P < .001). Specifically, high school sports played at higher altitude demonstrated a 31% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-38%) in the incidence of total reported concussions. Likewise, concussion rates at increased altitude were reduced 30% for overall exposures, 27% for competition exposures, and 28% for practice exposures in football players (P < .001). Conclusion: The results of this epidemiological investigation indicate increased physiological responses to altitude may be associated with a reduction in sports

  8. Incidence of community-acquired pneumonia in the population of four municipalities in eastern Finland.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, C; Heiskanen, L; Juvonen, H; Kallinen, S; Karkola, K; Korppi, M; Kurki, S; Rönnberg, P R; Seppä, A; Soimakallio, S

    1993-05-01

    Between September 1, 1981, and August 31, 1982, all patients with suspected or confirmed pneumonia among the 46,979 inhabitants of four municipalities in the province of Kuopio, Finland, were reported to a pneumonia register by their attending physicians. In addition, two study pathologists reported all cases of pneumonia found at autopsy, and two permanent registers were checked for retrospective identification of patients. Chest radiographs were obtained from 97% of all patients. The final diagnosis was based on radiologic or autopsy criteria. A total 546 patients (323 males and 223 females) had community-acquired pneumonia; of these, 37% were less than 15 years of age, and 31% were 60 years of age or older. Nineteen percent of the patients had defined chronic conditions, and 42% were admitted to hospital. The case fatality rate was 4%. The overall incidence of community-acquired pneumonia per 1,000 inhabitants per year was 11.6 (13.9 in males, 9.4 in females). The age-specific incidence per 1,000 inhabitants per year was as follows: age < 5 years, 36.0; age 5-14 years, 16.2; age 15-59 years, 6.0; age 60-74 years, 15.4; and age > or = 75 years, 34.2. PMID:8317455

  9. Anatomy-based inverse optimization in high-dose-rate brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: Comparison of incidence of acute genitourinary toxicity between anatomy-based inverse optimization and geometric optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Akimoto, Tetsuo . E-mail: takimoto@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Yoshizumi; Shirai, Katsuyuki; Shioya, Mariko; Nakano, Takashi

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the advantages of anatomy-based inverse optimization (IO) in planning high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 114 patients who received HDR brachytherapy (9 Gy in two fractions) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) were analyzed. The dose distributions of HDR brachytherapy were optimized using geometric optimization (GO) in 70 patients and by anatomy-based IO in the remaining 44 patients. The correlation between the dose-volume histogram parameters, including the urethral dose and the incidence of acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity, was evaluated. Results: The averaged values of the percentage of volume receiving 80-150% of the prescribed minimal peripheral dose (V{sub 8}-V{sub 15}) of the urethra generated by anatomy-based IO were significantly lower than the corresponding values generated by GO. Similarly, the averaged values of the minimal dose received by 5-50% of the target volume (D{sub 5}-D{sub 5}) obtained using anatomy-based IO were significantly lower than those obtained using GO. Regarding acute toxicity, Grade 2 or worse acute GU toxicity developed in 23% of all patients, but was significantly lower in patients for whom anatomy-based IO (16%) was used than in those for whom GO was used (37%), consistent with the reduced urethral dose (p <0.01). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that anatomy-based IO is superior to GO for dose optimization in HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer.

  10. Sex- and age-specific trends in antibiotic resistance patterns of Escherichia coli urinary isolates from outpatients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections treated in ambulatory care settings, however the epidemiology differs by age and sex. The incidence of UTI is far greater in females than males, and infection in pediatric patients is more often due to anatomical abnormalities. The purpose of this research was to describe age- and sex-specific trends in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli from ambulatory primary care patients in a regional health maintenance organization. Methods Clinical microbiology data were collected for all urine cultures from patients with visits to primary care clinics in a regional health maintenance organization between 2005 and 2010. The first positive culture for E. coli tested for antibiotic susceptibilities per patient per year was included in the analysis dataset. The frequency of susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was calculated for male and female patients. The Cochrane-Mantel-Haenzel test was used to test for differences in age-stratified susceptibility to each antibiotic between males and females. Results A total of 43,493 E. coli isolates from 34,539 unique patients were identified for study inclusion. After stratifying by age, E. coli susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin differed significantly between males and females. However, the magnitude of the differences was less than 10% for all strata except amoxicillin-clavulanate susceptibility in E. coli isolated from males age 18–64 compared to females of the same age. Conclusions We did not observe clinically meaningful differences in antibiotic susceptibility to common urinary anti-infectives among E. coli isolated from males versus females. These data suggest that male sex alone should not be used as an indication for empiric use of

  11. A comparative study of prevalence-based incidence estimation techniques with application to dementia data in Germany.

    PubMed

    Landwehr, Sandra; Brinks, Ralph

    2016-02-28

    Dementia is becoming a major health burden, which is mainly due to the increasing life expectancy in many developed countries. To describe the disease progression of individuals, multistate models are generally appropriate tools. These models allow the individuals to move along a path consisting of a finite number of disease states. We consider a simplifying illness-death model in which the subjects progress through the states healthy, diseased and dead. We use this model to study analytic relationships between the prevalence, incidence and mortality rates of irreversible diseases that have been applied in the past. One of these approaches is a rather recently proposed technique based on an ordinary differential equation (ODE). We conduct a simulation study to compare the performance of two suggested numerical approximations of this ODE with three alternative techniques, the common goal of which is to estimate age-specific incidence from cross-sectional information. The quality of the estimation methods is further explored using data on dementia in Germany. In the simulation scenarios as well as in the dementia data setting, the ODE method turns out to be the predominant technique with regard to the quality of the estimation of the known incidence regimes. PMID:26376995

  12. Association between the proportion of sampled transition cows with increased nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate and disease incidence, pregnancy rate, and milk production at the herd level.

    PubMed

    Ospina, P A; Nydam, D V; Stokol, T; Overton, T R

    2010-08-01

    In this study the herd alarm level was defined as the proportion of sampled transition cows per herd with increased prepartum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), postpartum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), or NEFA concentrations that were associated with herd-level incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis (CK), pregnancy rate (PR), and milk production. The objectives were to 1) identify the herd alarm level for excessive negative energy balance and 2) describe the herd-level prevalence of this proportion. This was a prospective cohort study of 60 free-stall herds fed total mixed rations in the northeast United States. Two cohorts of approximately 15 animals were assessed for prepartum NEFA and postpartum BHBA and NEFA. The herd alarm level (i.e., the proportion of sampled animals above a certain metabolite threshold) was as follows: 15% had prepartum NEFA of 0.27 mEq/L; 15 and 20% had BHBA of 10 and 12 mg/dL, respectively; and 15% had postpartum NEFA of 0.60 and 0.70 mEq/L. The different herd alarm levels correspond to differences between the metabolites and respective herd-level effect. The herd-level effects for herds above the herd alarm level for prepartum NEFA were 3.6% increase in DA and CK incidence, 1.2% decrease in PR, and 282 kg decrease in average mature equivalent 305-d (ME 305) milk. For BHBA, the herd-level effects were a 1.8% increase in DA and CK, 0.8% decrease in PR, and 534 and 358 kg decrease in projected ME 305 milk yield for heifers and cows, respectively. For postpartum NEFA, the herd-level effects were 1.7% increase in DA and CK, 0.9% decrease in PR, and 288 and 593 kg decrease in projected ME 305 milk yield for heifers and cows, respectively. The prevalence of herds in which more than 15% of animals sampled had prepartum NEFA concentration >or=0.30 mEq/L was 75%, BHBA >or=12 mg/dL was 40%, and postpartum NEFA >or=0.70 mEq/L was 65%. This study showed that there were detrimental herd-level effects if a large enough proportion of cows

  13. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won

    2015-01-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, P<0.001), whereas the diagnosis rate was 5% in all GA with the use of a GA-specific cut-off value (P=0.995). Therefore, GA-specific criteria might be more appropriate for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:26339172

  14. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-09-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, P<0.001), whereas the diagnosis rate was 5% in all GA with the use of a GA-specific cut-off value (P=0.995). Therefore, GA-specific criteria might be more appropriate for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:26339172

  15. Age-related incidence and other epidemiological aspects of myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Aul, C; Gattermann, N; Schneider, W

    1992-10-01

    Although most haematologists perceive a rising prevalence and incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), reliable epidemiological data on these disorders are largely lacking. The bone marrow register of the University of Düsseldorf allowed us to assess among other epidemiological features the incidence of MDS, which was compared to that of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Among a total of 18,416 different patients registered between 1975 and 1990, 584 cases of MDS (3.2%) and 506 cases of AML (2.8%) were identified. Over the study period, the percentage of newly diagnosed MDS rose from 1.3% to 4.5%, while there was no upward trend for AML. Among all patients undergoing bone marrow biopsy, the proportion of those over 60 years of age increased from 41.9% in 1975 to 54.1% in 1990. We found a strong correlation between the proportion of elderly patients and the relative frequency of MDS diagnoses. Thirty-one patients (5.3%) were classified as a secondary MDS because of previous treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or irradiation for a variety of malignancies. Twelve patients were identified in whom occupational exposure to organic solvents could not be ruled out. For calculating age-specific incidence rates, the analysis was confined to the town district of Düsseldorf (575,000 inhabitants), because exact demographical data were available for this population. In the last quinquennium of the study period (1986-90), myelodysplastic syndromes were more frequent than AML in the age group 50-70 years (4.9 v 1.8/100,000/year). In patients over 70, the incidence of MDS was more than 3 times that of AML (22.8 v 6.7/100,000). In this group, men had a higher incidence of MDS (33.9/100,000) than women (18/100,000). Crude annual incidence (all age groups) was also higher for MDS (4.1/100,000) than for AML (2.1/100,000) in recent years. We conclude that MDS are relatively common haematological neoplasias. The rising incidence in recent years is probably not due to changes in

  16. Childhood cancer incidence patterns by race, sex and age for 2000-2006: a report from the South African National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Friederike; Kielkowski, Danuta; Schonfeld, Sara J; Kellett, Patricia; Stanulla, Martin; Dickens, Caroline; Kaatsch, Peter; Singh, Elvira; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Higher childhood cancer incidence rates are generally reported for high income countries although high quality information on descriptive patterns of childhood cancer incidence for low or middle income countries is limited, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need to quantify global differences by cancer types, and to investigate whether they reflect true incidence differences or can be attributed to under-diagnosis or under-reporting. For the first time, we describe childhood cancer data reported to the pathology report-based National Cancer Registry of South Africa in 2000-2006 and compare our results to incidence data from Germany, a high income country. The overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) for South Africa in 2000-2006 was 45.7 per million children. We observed substantial differences by cancer types within South Africa by racial group; ASRs tended to be 3-4-fold higher in South African Whites compared to Blacks. ASRs among both Black and White South Africans were generally lower than those from Germany with the greatest differences observed between the Black population in South Africa and Germany, although there was marked variation between cancer types. Age-specific rates were particularly low comparing South African Whites and Blacks with German infants. Overall, patterns across South African population groups and in comparison to Germans were similar for boys and girls. Genetic and environmental reasons may probably explain rather a small proportion of the observed differences. More research is needed to understand the extent to which under-ascertainment and under-diagnosis of childhood cancers drives differences in observed rates. PMID:25363616

  17. Incidence of Chromosome Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    A minority of conceptions result in live births. Of recognized conceptions, 15% result in spontaneous abortions, up to 60% of which are due to chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of the different disorders is given. Of live births, one in 200 suffers a chromosome abnormality. The common abnormalities are described with their incidence. The effect of maternal age on this incidence is pronounced, but even so must be kept in proportion for counselling purposes.

  18. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

  19. Early childhood leukemia incidence trends in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of childhood leukemia vary between different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to test possible trends in incidence rate of early childhood leukemia (children <5 years old at the diagnosis) in Brazil. Data from 18 population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) were analyzed (period 1999-2010). The analysis consisted of frequencies, age-adjusted incidence rates, and joinpoint regression results, including annual average percent change (AAPC) in incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The median age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) of overall early childhood leukemia was 61 per million. The AAIR for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was 44 per million and nonlymphoid acute leukemia (NLAL) was 14 per million. The median ALL/NLAL ratio was 3.0, suggesting higher incidence rate of NLAL in these settings. The joinpoint analysis demonstrated increased leukemia incidence rate in João Pessoa (AAPC = 20; 95% CI: 3.5, 39.4) and Salvador (AAPC = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.9), respectively, whereas incidence rate in São Paulo PBCR decreased (AAPC = -4.02%; 95% CI: -6.1%, -1.9%). Correlation between ALL AAIR and selected variables of socioeconomic (SES) factors was not observed. Increased AAIR regionally overtime was observed. However, the interpretation for such phenomenon should be cautious because it might reflect the access to health care, diagnosis procedures, and improvement of PBCR´s quality. The observed trend supports the necessity of further ecological studies. PMID:26925506

  20. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  1. Melanin-based coloration covaries with ovary size in an age-specific manner in the barn owl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-10-01

    While the adaptive function of black eumelanin-based coloration is relatively well known, the function of reddish-brown pheomelanin-based coloration is still unclear. Only a few studies have shown or suggested that the degree of reddish-brownness is associated with predator-prey relationships, reproductive parameters, growth rate and immunity. To gain insight into the physiological correlates of melanin-based coloration, I collected barn owl ( Tyto alba) cadavers and examined the covariation between this colour trait and ovary size, an organ that increases in size before reproduction. A relationship is expected because melanin-based coloration often covaries with sexual activity. The results showed that reddish-brown juveniles had larger ovaries than whiter juveniles particularly in individuals in poor condition and outside the breeding season, while in birds older than 2 years lightly coloured females had larger ovaries than reddish-brown conspecifics. As barn owls become less reddish-brown between the first and second year of age, the present study suggests that reddish-brown pheomelanic and whitish colorations are associated with juvenile- and adult-specific adaptations, respectively.

  2. A comparison of trends in melanoma mortality in New Zealand and Australia: the two countries with the highest melanoma incidence and mortality in the world

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New Zealand and Australia have the highest incidence and mortality rates from cutaneous melanoma in the world. The predominantly fair-skinned New Zealanders and Australians both enjoy sun, tanned skin and the outdoors, and differences in these activities among generations have been important determinants of trends in melanoma mortality. We examined whether New Zealand trends in melanoma mortality mirror those in Australia, through detailed comparison of the trends in both countries from 1968 to 2007. Methods Five-year age-specific and age-standardised mortality rates were calculated for each country for 5-year time periods. Tests for trends in age-specific rates were performed using the Mantel-Haenszel extension chi-square test. The age-adjusted mortality rate ratios for New Zealand/Australia were plotted against period of death to show relative changes in mortality over time. Age-specific mortality rates were plotted against period and the median year of birth to illustrate age-group and birth cohort effects. To compare the mortality of birth cohorts, age-adjusted melanoma mortality rate ratios were calculated for the birth cohorts in the quin-quennial tables of mortality rates. Results The age-standardised mortality rate for melanoma increased in both sexes in New Zealand and Australia from 1968 to 2007, but the increase was greater in New Zealanders and women in particular. There was evidence of recent significant decreases in mortality in younger Australians and less so in New Zealand women aged under 45 years. Mortality from melanoma increased in successive generations born from about 1893 to 1918. In Australia, a decline in mortality started for generations born from about 1958 but in New Zealand there is possibly a decrease only in generations born since 1968. Conclusions Mortality trends in New Zealand and Australia are discrepant. It is too early to know if the pattern in mortality rates in New Zealand is simply a delayed response to melanoma

  3. Age-Related Incidence Curve of Hospitalized Shaken Baby Syndrome Cases: Convergent Evidence for Crying as a Trigger to Shaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald G.; Trent, Roger B.; Cross, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an age-specific incidence of hospitalized cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) that has similar properties to the previously reported ''normal crying curve,'' as a form of indirect evidence that crying is an important stimulus for SBS. Design and setting: The study analyzed cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome by…

  4. Age-specific survival of male golden-cheeked warblers on the Fort Hood Military Reservation, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duarte, Adam; Hines, James E.; Nichols, James D.; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    Population models are essential components of large-scale conservation and management plans for the federally endangered Golden-cheeked Warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter GCWA). However, existing models are based on vital rate estimates calculated using relatively small data sets that are now more than a decade old. We estimated more current, precise adult and juvenile apparent survival (Φ) probabilities and their associated variances for male GCWAs. In addition to providing estimates for use in population modeling, we tested hypotheses about spatial and temporal variation in Φ. We assessed whether a linear trend in Φ or a change in the overall mean Φ corresponded to an observed increase in GCWA abundance during 1992-2000 and if Φ varied among study plots. To accomplish these objectives, we analyzed long-term GCWA capture-resight data from 1992 through 2011, collected across seven study plots on the Fort Hood Military Reservation using a Cormack-Jolly-Seber model structure within program MARK. We also estimated Φ process and sampling variances using a variance-components approach. Our results did not provide evidence of site-specific variation in adult Φ on the installation. Because of a lack of data, we could not assess whether juvenile Φ varied spatially. We did not detect a strong temporal association between GCWA abundance and Φ. Mean estimates of Φ for adult and juvenile male GCWAs for all years analyzed were 0.47 with a process variance of 0.0120 and a sampling variance of 0.0113 and 0.28 with a process variance of 0.0076 and a sampling variance of 0.0149, respectively. Although juvenile Φ did not differ greatly from previous estimates, our adult Φ estimate suggests previous GCWA population models were overly optimistic with respect to adult survival. These updated Φ probabilities and their associated variances will be incorporated into new population models to assist with GCWA conservation decision making.

  5. Parasites of Trinidadian guppies: evidence for sex- and age-specific trait-mediated indirect effects of predators.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Jessica F; van Oosterhout, Cock; Mohammed, Ryan S; Cable, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    Predation pressure can alter the morphology, physiology, life history, and behavior of prey; each of these in turn can change how surviving prey interact with parasites. These trait-mediated indirect effects may change in direction or intensity during growth or, in sexually dimorphic species, between the sexes. The Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata presents a unique opportunity to examine these interactions; its behavioral ecology has been intensively studied in wild populations with well-characterized predator faunas. Predation pressure is known to have driven the evolution of many guppy traits; for example, in high-predation sites, females (but not males) tend to shoal, and this anti-predator behavior facilitates parasite transmission. To test for evidence of predator-driven differences in infection in natural populations, we collected 4715 guppies from 62 sites across Trinidad between 2003 and 2009 and screened them for ectosymbionts, including Gyrodactylus. A novel model-averaging analysis revealed that females were more likely to be infected with Gyrodactylus parasites than males, but only in populations with both high predation pressure and high infection prevalence. We propose that the difference in shoaling tendency between the sexes could explain the observed difference in infection prevalence between males and females in high-predation sites. The infection rate of juveniles did not vary with predation regime, probably because juveniles face constant predation pressure from conspecific adults and therefore tend to shoal in both high- and low-predation sites. This represents the first evidence for age- and sex-specific trait-mediated indirect effects of predators on the probability of infection in their prey. PMID:26240870

  6. Global Incidence of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Tielsch, James M

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the incidence of preterm birth depends on accurate assessment of gestational age and pregnancy outcomes. In many countries, such data are not routinely collected, making global estimates difficult. A recent systematic approach to this problem has estimated a worldwide incidence of 11.1 per 100 live births in 2010. Significant variation in rates by country and region of the world was noted, but this variation is smaller than observed for a number of other important reproductive outcomes. Rates range from approximately 5% in some northern European countries to over 15% in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Time trends suggest that preterm birth incidence is increasing, but much of this change may reflect changes in medically induced early delivery practices as improvements in survival of preterm infants has improved. Whether there have been major changes in spontaneous preterm birth is unknown. New approaches to classifying etiologic heterogeneity have been proposed and offer the promise of developing specific interventions to address the range of underlying causes of this important health problem. PMID:26111559

  7. Morbidity and mortality in motor neuron disease: comparison with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease: age and sex specific rates and cohort analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Li, T M; Swash, M; Alberman, E

    1985-01-01

    The cause of motor neuron disease (MND) remains unknown although recent reports have suggested a possible rise in mortality rate. The present account describes age-specific patterns in morbidity rate and cross-sectional and cohort analyses of mortality rate, and compares these with those in multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. First hospital admission rate for motor neuron disease (a proxy for incidence rates) rose steadily with age in males and females until the age of 75 years or more, but then fell, but only in females. This irregular pattern suggested the possibility of an environmental effect on certain older birth cohorts. The validity of the results was supported by a similar pattern in the two hospital regional authorities studied and the difference between this pattern and that found in multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Age-specific mortality rates of motor neuron disease between 15 and 64 years for males and females in England and Wales from 1940 to 1982 rose steadily with age. Mortality rates after the age of 65 fell in all female cohorts studied, but only in the earlier male cohorts. Unlike Parkinson's disease there was no strong birth cohort effect. However an analysis of Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (Registrar General) reports has revealed a slight increase in the age-specific mortality rate in both males and females aged 65 and over for successive birth cohorts born since 1900. Neither changes in ICD coding or in diagnostic habits could account for this pattern, which differed from that seen in Parkinson's disease. No such effect was seen in multiple sclerosis. PMID:3873517

  8. Age-specific vaccine effectiveness of seasonal 2010/2011 and pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in preventing influenza in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Pebody, R G; Andrews, N; Fleming, D M; McMenamin, J; Cottrell, S; Smyth, B; Durnall, H; Robertson, C; Carman, W; Ellis, J; Sebastian-Pillai, P; Zambon, M; Kearns, C; Moore, C; Thomas, D Rh; Watson, J M

    2013-03-01

    An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42-66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45-97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27-97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI -6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15-91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42-68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32-91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group. PMID:22691710

  9. Time-series analysis of monthly age-specific numbers of newly registered cases of active tuberculosis in Japan from 1998 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Kohei, Y; Sumi, A; Kobayashi, N

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the seasonality of age-specific tuberculosis (TB) in Japan. To allow the development of TB control strategies for different age groups we used a time-series analysis, including a spectral analysis and least squares method, to analyse the monthly age-specific numbers of newly registered cases of all forms of active TB in Japan from January 1998 to December 2013. The time-series data are reported in 10-year age groups: 0-9, 10-19, …, 70-79, and ⩾80 years. We defined the contribution ratio of the 1-year cycle, Q 1, as the contribution of the amplitude of a 1-year cycle to the whole amplitude of the time-series data. The Q 1 values in the age groups corresponding to adolescence and middle life (10-39 years) and old age (⩾70 years) were high. The peaks in the active TB epidemics for the ⩾70 years age group occurred in August and September, 1-2 months behind the peaks for the 10-39 years age group (June and July). An active TB epidemic might be attributable to travel by public transport and irregular employment in the 10-39 years age group and immune system suppression by low winter temperatures in the ⩾70 years age group. PMID:26979927

  10. [Decreasing incidence of stent thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Lemesle, G; Delhaye, C

    2011-12-01

    Stent thrombosis (ST) remains a major pitfall of stent implantation in contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) leading to high rates of death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Many predictors of ST have been reported worldwide but the strongest have to be highlighted regarding the catastrophic prognosis of such an event. Because platelet aggregation has a pivotal role in ST pathogenesis, the new antiplatelet regimens combining aspirin and P2Y12 receptor inhibitors have led to a remarkable decrease in the ST incidence, especially in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this article, our purpose is to review the evolution of ST incidence since first stent use in PCI. We will also overview the main predictors of ST focusing on ACS and clopidogrel low response. PMID:22054519

  11. High Prevalence and High Incidence of Coinfection with Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Syphilis and Low Rate of Effective Vaccination against Hepatitis B in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men with Known Date of HIV Seroconversion in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Klaus; Thamm, Michael; Bock, Claus-Thomas; Scheufele, Ramona; Kücherer, Claudia; Muenstermann, Dieter; Hagedorn, Hans-Jochen; Jessen, Heiko; Dupke, Stephan; Hamouda, Osamah; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Meixenberger, Karolin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at higher risk for coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis than the general population. HIV infection and these coinfections accelerate disease progression reciprocally. This study evaluated the prevalence and incidence of these coinfections in HIV1-positive MSM in Germany. Materials and Methods As part of a nationwide, multicenter, prospective cohort study of HIV-infected MSM, plasma samples collected yearly were screened for HBsAg and antibodies to HBc, HBs, HCV, and syphilis. Samples with indications of active HBV or HCV infection were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and incidence of each infection and incidence rates per study participant were calculated, and incidences over 4-year time intervals compared. Results This study screened 5,445 samples from 1,843 MSM. Median age at HIV seroconversion was 33 years. Prevalences of active, cleared, and occult HBV, and of active/cleared HCV were 1.7%, 27.1%, 0.2%, and 8.2%, respectively, and 47.5% had been effectively vaccinated against HBV. Prevalence of antibodies to Treponema pallidum and of triple or quadruple sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were 39.6% and 18.9%, respectively. Prevalence of STI, cleared HBV, HBV vaccination, and history of syphilis differed significantly among age groups. Incidences of HBV, HCV, and syphilis were 2.51, 1.54, and 4.06 per 100 person-years, respectively. Incidences of HCV and syphilis increased over time. HCV incidence was significantly higher in MSM coinfected with syphilis and living in Berlin, and syphilis incidence was significantly higher for MSM living in Berlin. Discussion Despite extensive HBV vaccination campaigns, fewer than 50% of screened MSM were effectively vaccinated, with a high proportion of HIV-positive MSM coinfected with HBV. High rates of STI coinfections in HIV-positive MSM and increasing incidences emphasize the need for better tailored campaigns for

  12. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwing, Travis G.; Rash, Joshua A.; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Bramble, Bev; Landine, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety (TA) can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian…

  13. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Survey in Wuwei, Gansu Province, Northwestern China from 2003 to 2012: A Retrospective Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Yun; Ye, Yan-Cheng; Liang, Ge-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Liang, Ying; Xu, Fen-Lan; Li, Jing; Xiang, Ji-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Population-based cancer registry collects the data on cancer incidence and mortality deaths from covered population to describe and survey the epidemics in certain areas. The aim of this study was to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in Wuwei, Gansu province, Northwestern China from 2003 to 2012. The goal is to better understand cancer distribution and long-term development of cancer prevention and treatment in Wuwei. Methods: Data were collected from the Wuwei Cancer Registry between 2003 and 2012. In this registry, data from 46 cancer report centers were included in this analysis. Incidence/mortality rates, age-specific incidence/mortality rates, age-standardized incidence/mortality rates, and cumulative incidence/mortality rates were calculated. Totally, 9,836,740 person-years (5,110,342 for males and 4,726,398 for females) had been monitored over this time period. The gender ratio of male/female was 1.08:1. The number of new cancer cases and related deaths was 24,705 and 17,287 from 2003 to 2012, respectively. Results: The proportion of morphological verification was 74.43%. The incidence of cases identified through death certification only was 1.21%, and the mortality to incidence ratio was 0.70. The average crude incidence was 251.15/100,000 persons (310.61 and 186.87 for males and females per 100,000 persons, respectively). The age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR-China) and by world standard population (ASR-world) were 207.76 and 245.42 per 100,000 persons, respectively. The crude cancer mortality was 175.74/100,000 persons (228.34 and 118.86 for males and females per 100,000 persons). ASR for China and the world was 149.57 and 175.13/100,000 persons, respectively. The most common cancers and leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Wuwei were as follows: cancers of stomach, esophagus, liver, lung, colorectum, breast, cervix, lymphoma, blood (leukemia), brain, and central nervous system. In Wuwei, during 2003

  14. Image quality and age-specific dose estimation in head and chest CT examinations with organ-based tube-current modulation.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Yamauchi, M; Imai, K; Ikeda, M; Aoyama, T

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an organ-based tube-current modulation (OBTCM) system on image quality and age-specific dose in head and chest CT examinations. Image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image entropy were assessed using statistical and entropy analyses. Radiation doses for newborn, 6-y-old child and adult phantoms were measured with in-phantom dosimetry systems. The quality of CT images obtained with OBTCM was not different from that obtained without OBTCM. In head CT scans, the eye lens dose decreased by 20-33 % using OBTCM. In chest CT scans, breast dose decreased by 5-32 % using OBTCM. Posterior skin dose, however, increased by 11-20 % using OBTCM in head and chest CT scans. The reduction of effective dose using OBTCM was negligibly small. Detailed image quality and dose information provided in this study can be effectively used for OBTCM application. PMID:23734058

  15. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  16. Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. X. Age-specific dynamics of adult epicuticular hydrocarbon expression in response to different host plants

    PubMed Central

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cassia C

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of sexual selection and sexual isolation in Drosophila mojavensis and its relatives has revealed a pervasive role of rearing substrates on adult courtship behavior when flies were reared on fermenting cactus in preadult stages. Here, we assessed expression of contact pheromones comprised of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from eclosion to 28 days of age in adults from two populations reared on fermenting tissues of two host cacti over the entire life cycle. Flies were never exposed to laboratory food and showed significant reductions in average CHC amounts consistent with CHCs of wild-caught flies. Overall, total hydrocarbon amounts increased from eclosion to 14–18 days, well past age at sexual maturity, and then declined in older flies. Most flies did not survive past 4 weeks. Baja California and mainland populations showed significantly different age-specific CHC profiles where Baja adults showed far less age-specific changes in CHC expression. Adults from populations reared on the host cactus typically used in nature expressed more CHCs than on the alternate host. MANCOVA with age as the covariate for the first six CHC principal components showed extensive differences in CHC composition due to age, population, cactus, sex, and age × population, age × sex, and age × cactus interactions. Thus, understanding variation in CHC composition as adult D. mojavensis age requires information about population and host plant differences, with potential influences on patterns of mate choice, sexual selection, and sexual isolation, and ultimately how these pheromones are expressed in natural populations. Studies of drosophilid aging in the wild are badly needed. PMID:25360246

  17. Age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A in Santiago, Chile: risk factors and shift in age of infection among children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Fix, Alan D; Martin, Oriana San; Gallicchio, Lisa; Vial, Pablo A; Lagos, Rosanna

    2002-05-01

    Transition from high to lower endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection may portend increased public health burden with the shift of infection to older ages and increasing morbidity and mortality. This report describes age-specific prevalence of antibodies to HAV (anti-HAV) among children and young adults in Santiago, Chile, compared with previous prevalence data and assesses factors predictive for anti-HAV. In 1998, a serosurvey was performed in Metropolitan Santiago, designed to enroll a representative, age-stratified population on the basis of area of residence. A total of 784 individuals (age range, 1-24 years) were enrolled. Anti-HAV prevalence by year of life was as follows: ages 1 to 4, 12.5%; 5 to 9, 26.2%; 10 to 14, 43.4%; 15 to 19, 57.4%; 20 to 24, 73.9%. Adjusting for age, factors associated (inversely) with anti-HAV included residential areas of higher socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, and household characteristics of potable water, municipal sewage system, and the presence of a toilet or refrigerator in the house. In logistic regression analysis, only maternal years of education and residence in areas of higher SES remained independently associated with anti-HAV. Excluding those from higher SES areas, comparison of the age-specific anti-HAV prevalence data from previous studies of similar methodology in areas of lower SES revealed consistent decreases across all age groups; the age-standardized prevalence for this age range (1-24 years) dropped from 53.7% in 1990 to 40.6% in 1998. In light of the growing pool of susceptible individuals at older ages, with HAV continuing to circulate in the communities, evaluation of the feasibility of vaccination programs would be judicious. PMID:12201603

  18. EUROGIN 2014 roadmap: differences in human papillomavirus infection natural history, transmission and human papillomavirus-related cancer incidence by gender and anatomic site of infection.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Anna R; Nyitray, Alan G; Kreimer, Aimée R; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Goodman, Marc T; Sudenga, Staci L; Monsonego, Joseph; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-06-15

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cancer at multiple anatomic sites in men and women, including cervical, oropharyngeal, anal, vulvar and vaginal cancers in women and oropharyngeal, anal and penile cancers in men. In this EUROGIN 2014 roadmap, differences in HPV-related cancer and infection burden by gender and anatomic site are reviewed. The proportion of cancers attributable to HPV varies by anatomic site, with nearly 100% of cervical, 88% of anal and <50% of lower genital tract and oropharyngeal cancers attributable to HPV, depending on world region and prevalence of tobacco use. Often, mirroring cancer incidence rates, HPV prevalence and infection natural history varies by gender and anatomic site of infection. Oral HPV infection is rare and significantly differs by gender; yet, HPV-related cancer incidence at this site is several-fold higher than at either the anal canal or the penile epithelium. HPV seroprevalence is significantly higher among women compared to men, likely explaining the differences in age-specific HPV prevalence and incidence patterns observed by gender. Correspondingly, among heterosexual partners, HPV transmission appears higher from women to men. More research is needed to characterize HPV natural history at each anatomic site where HPV causes cancer in men and women, information that is critical to inform the basic science of HPV natural history and the development of future infection and cancer prevention efforts. PMID:25043222

  19. Geographic clustering of testicular cancer incidence in the northern part of The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Sonneveld, D J; Schaapveld, M; Sleijfer, D T; Meerman, G J; van der Graaf, W T; Sijmons, R H; Koops, H S; Hoekstra, H J

    1999-12-01

    Geographic variations in testicular cancer incidence may be caused by differences in environmental factors, genetic factors, or both. In the present study, geographic patterns of age-adjusted testicular cancer incidence rates (IRs) in 12 provinces in The Netherlands in the period 1989-1995 were analysed. In addition, the age-adjusted IR of testicular cancer by degree of urbanization was evaluated. Cancer incidence data were obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. The overall annual age-adjusted IR of testicular cancer in The Netherlands in the period 1989-1995 was 4.4 per 100000 men. The province Groningen in the north of the country showed the highest annual IR with 5.8 per 100000 men, which was higher (P < 0.05) than the overall IR in The Netherlands (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.6). The highest IR in Groningen was seen for both seminomas and non-seminomas. In addition, Groningen showed the highest age-specific IRs in all relevant younger age groups (15-29, 30-44 and 45-59 years), illustrating the consistency of data. The province Friesland, also situated in the northern part of the country, showed the second highest IR of testicular cancer with 5.3 cases per 100000 men per year (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5, not significant). This mainly resulted from the high IR of seminoma in Friesland. Analysis of age-adjusted IRs of testicular cancer by degree of urbanization in The Netherlands showed no urban-rural differences at analysis of all histological types combined, or at separate analyses of seminomas and non-seminomas. Geographic clustering of testicular cancer seems to be present in the rural north of The Netherlands with some stable founder populations, which are likely to share a relatively high frequency of genes from common ancestors including genes possibly related to testicular cancer. Although this finding does not exclude the involvement of shared environmental factors in the aetiology of testicular cancer, it may

  20. Age-specific periictal electroclinical features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and potential risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Joel; Kaur, Gurmeen; Fernandez, Guadalupe Baca-Vaca; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Kaffashi, Farhad; Loparo, Kenneth A; Rao, Shyam; Loplumlert, Jakrin; Kaiboriboon, Kitti; Amina, Shahram; Tuxhorn, Ingrid; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2013-11-01

    Generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) is the commonest seizure type associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). This study examined the semiological and electroencephalographic differences (EEG) in the GTCSs of adults as compared with those of children. The rationale lies on epidemiological observations that have noted a tenfold higher incidence of SUDEP in adults. We analyzed the video-EEG data of 105 GTCS events in 61 consecutive patients (12 children, 23 seizure events and 49 adults, 82 seizure events) recruited from the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit. Semiological, EEG, and 3-channel EKG features were studied. Periictal seizure phase durations were analyzed including tonic, clonic, total seizure, postictal EEG suppression (PGES), and recovery phases. Heart rate variability (HRV) measures including RMSSD (root mean square successive difference of RR intervals), SDNN (standard deviation of NN intervals), and SDSD (standard deviation of differences) were analyzed (including low frequency/high frequency power ratios) during preictal baseline and ictal and postictal phases. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to find associations between electroclinical features. Separate subgroup analyses were carried out on adult and pediatric age groups as well as medication groups (no antiepileptic medication cessation versus unchanged or reduced medication) during admission. Major differences were seen in adult and pediatric seizures with total seizure duration, tonic phase, PGES, and recovery phases being significantly shorter in children (p<0.01). Generalized estimating equation analysis, using tonic phase duration as the dependent variable, found age to correlate significantly (p<0.001), and this remained significant during subgroup analysis (adults and children) such that each 0.12-second increase in tonic phase duration correlated with a 1-second increase in PGES duration. Postictal EEG suppression durations were on average 28s shorter in

  1. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  2. RAPID INCIDENT RESPONSE FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Will discuss WERF Contract (RFP# 03-HHE-5PP), Protocols for the Timely Investigation of Potential Health Incidents Associated with Biosolids Land Application, as a member of the project advisory committee. The contractor, University of North Carolina, started work in early June, ...

  3. Declining incidence of acromioplasty in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Paloneva, Juha; Lepola, Vesa; Karppinen, Jaro; Ylinen, Jari; Äärimaa, Ville; Mattila, Ville M

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose An increased incidence rate of acromioplasty has been reported; we analyzed data from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register. Patients and methods During the 14-year study period (1998–2011), 68,877 acromioplasties without rotator cuff repair were performed on subjects aged 18 years or older. Results The incidence of acromioplasty increased by 117% from 75 to 163 per 105 person years between 1998 and 2007. The highest incidence was observed in 2007, after which the incidence rate decreased by 20% to 131 per 105 person years in 2011. The incidence declined even more at non-profit public hospitals from 2007 to 2011. In contrast, it continued to rise at profit-based private orthopedic clinics. Interpretation We propose that this change in clinical practice is due to accumulating high-quality scientific evidence that shows no difference in outcome between acromioplasty and non-surgical interventions for rotator cuff disease with subacromial impingement syndrome. However, the exact cause of the declining incidence cannot be defined based solely on a registry study. Interestingly, this change was not observed at private clinics, where the number of operations increased steadily from 2007 to 2011. PMID:25340548

  4. Adult onset motor neuron disease: worldwide mortality, incidence and distribution since 1950.

    PubMed Central

    Chancellor, A M; Warlow, C P

    1992-01-01

    This review examines the commonly held premise that, apart from the Western Pacific forms, motor neuron disease (MND), has a uniform worldwide distribution in space and time; the methodological problems in studies of MND incidence; and directions for future epidemiological research. MND is more common in men at all ages. Age-specific incidence rises steeply into the seventh decade but the incidence in the very elderly is uncertain. A rise in mortality from MND over recent decades has been demonstrated wherever this has been examined and may be real rather than due to improved case ascertainment. Comparison of incidence studies in different places is complicated by non-standardised methods of case ascertainment and diagnosis but there appear to be differences between well studied populations. In developed countries in the northern hemisphere there is a weak positive correlation between standardised, age-specific incidence and distance from the equator. There is now strong evidence for an environmental factor as the cause of the Western Pacific forms of MND. A number of clusters of sporadic MND have been reported from developed countries, but no single agent identified as responsible. Images PMID:1479386

  5. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 1. TRENDS AND INCIDENCE BY SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER AND SIZE OF MUNICIPALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The available data resources in the State of Iowa were used to investigate the relationships of drinking water contaminants and cancer incidence rates for communities. Age-adjusted, sex-specific cancer incidence rates for the years 1969-1978 were determined for municipalities hav...

  6. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Rosita; Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima Dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were studied; results were compared according to diabetes treatment and with persons without diabetes. TSH, FT4, antithyroperoxidase, fasting glucose, and HbA1c were measured. Results and Discussion. 6.4% of patients with diabetes had hypothyroidism, a higher prevalence compared with persons without diabetes (5.1%), but lower than observed in many studies. The use of age-specific TSH reference interval (RI) could explain this difference. Patients taking metformin (MTF) had TSH (showed in medians) slightly lower (2.8 mU/L) than those not on MTF (3.3 mU/L), p < 0.05. MTF doses influenced TSH levels. Conclusions. The use of specific TSH RI could avoid the misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly with diabetes. Patients in use of MTF as single drug had lower TSH than those using other medications and persons without diabetes. PMID:27403442

  7. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  8. Age-specific oxidative status and the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits in male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Noguera, Jose C; Dean, Rebecca; Isaksson, Caroline; Velando, Alberto; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2012-09-01

    Oxidative stress is emerging as a key factor underpinning life history and the expression of sexually selected traits. Resolving the role of oxidative stress in life history and sexual selection requires a pluralistic approach, which investigates how age affects the relationship between oxidative status (i.e., antioxidants and oxidative damage) and the multiple traits contributing to variation in reproductive success. Here, we investigate the relationship between oxidative status and the expression of multiple sexually selected traits in two-age classes of male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, a species which displays marked male reproductive senescence. We found that, irrespective of male age, both male social status and comb size were strongly associated with plasma oxidative status, and there was a nonsignificant tendency for sperm motility to be associated with seminal oxidative status. Importantly, however, patterns of plasma and seminal antioxidant levels differed markedly in young and old males. While seminal antioxidants increased with plasma antioxidants in young males, the level of seminal antioxidants remained low and was independent of plasma levels in old males. In addition, old males also accumulated more oxidative damage in their sperm DNA. These results suggest that antioxidant allocation across different reproductive traits and somatic maintenance might change drastically as males age, leading to age-specific patterns of antioxidant investment. PMID:23139875

  9. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were studied; results were compared according to diabetes treatment and with persons without diabetes. TSH, FT4, antithyroperoxidase, fasting glucose, and HbA1c were measured. Results and Discussion. 6.4% of patients with diabetes had hypothyroidism, a higher prevalence compared with persons without diabetes (5.1%), but lower than observed in many studies. The use of age-specific TSH reference interval (RI) could explain this difference. Patients taking metformin (MTF) had TSH (showed in medians) slightly lower (2.8 mU/L) than those not on MTF (3.3 mU/L), p < 0.05. MTF doses influenced TSH levels. Conclusions. The use of specific TSH RI could avoid the misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly with diabetes. Patients in use of MTF as single drug had lower TSH than those using other medications and persons without diabetes. PMID:27403442

  10. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Moon, Min Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  11. Incidence rate of and factors associated with loss-to-follow-up in a longitudinal cohort of anti-retroviral treated HIV-infected persons: an AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT) analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, S; Wu, K; Smurzynski, M; Bosch, RJ; Benson, CA; Collier, AC; Klebert, MK; Feinberg, J; Koletar, SL

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Examine incidence and factors associated with loss to follow-up (LTFU) in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT) cohort. Method ALLRT is a prospective cohort of HIV-infected persons randomized to ARV regimens/strategies in ACTG trials and followed long-term after the trial ends. Person-years were calculated from ALLRT entry until LTFU (defined using off-study reasons or ≥3 consecutive missed visits), death/severe debilitation/site closures, or June 2009 (censored). Poisson regression was used to examine LTFU factors separately among participants who were ARV-naïve or ARV-experienced at trial entry. Results Among 4630 participants (22,524 person-years), 1140 were lost to follow-up, 237 died, 29 were severely debilitated, and 443 were at sites that closed. The LTFU incidence was 5.5 and 4.2 per 100 person-years among previously ARV-naïve and ARV-experienced participants, respectively. In both groups, age≤50, site location, being off-ARVs and viral load ≥400 copies/ml were associated with a higher risk of LTFU. Among ARV-naïves, male sex, education<16 years, IV drug use and cigarette smoking were also associated with LTFU. Conclusion Knowledge of differential LTFU can help researchers identify participants at risk of LTFU in longitudinal HIV cohorts and design retention strategies, thereby limiting study bias. The identified factors should be included in inverse probability of weighting models to account for LTFU. PMID:22044855

  12. Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors. Methods Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions. Results Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence −1.7%, (−2.5; −0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden −4.2%, (−4.8; −3.6) and China −4.9%, (−6.5; −3.3). Conclusion Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease. PMID:24204171

  13. Incidence of medulloblastoma in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Donna L; Keene, Daniel; Kostova, Maria; Strother, Douglas; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Fryer, Chris; Scheinemann, Katrin; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Fleming, Adam; Percy, Vanessa; Afzal, Samina; Wilson, Beverly; Bowes, Lynette; Zelcer, Shayna; Mpofu, Chris; Silva, Mariana; Larouche, Valerie; Brossard, Josee; Bouffet, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. There was a perception of pediatric neuro-oncologists that the incidence had declined in Canada. An epidemiological survey was undertaken to determine the incidence of this tumor in Canada and if a change had indeed occurred. All patients 14 years and under diagnosed with medulloblastoma from 1990 to 2009 inclusive in Canada were included. Data collected included date of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, gender, stage, pathology, treatment, recurrence and current status. Data were analysed for change in incidence over time. Data were obtained on 574 eligible patients. The mean overall incidence per 1,000,000 persons was 4.82 (95 % CI 4.28-5.35) for the study time period. The mean age at diagnosis was 5.8 years, and there was a male predominance. Although there was an increase in incidence over the first three time periods (24 % for 1990-1994, 27.5 % for 1995-1999, 27.7 % for 2000-2004), the most recent time period (2005-2009) showed a decrease (21 %). This was true for male children while the incidence was stable for females. The mean incidence rate was double for children under the age of 5 years (7.92 per million) compared to those over 5 years (3.64 per million).This study showed that from 1990 to 2009 the incidence of medulloblastoma was relatively stable, with a slight decrease in the last five-year time period. PMID:25129547

  14. Incidence trends and associated factors of diabetes mellitus in Korean children and adolescents: a retrospective cohort study in Busan and Gyeongnam

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Kim, Yu-Mi; Kwak, Min Jung; Kim, Su Yung; Kim, Hyun-Ji; Cheon, Chong Kun; Chung, Woo Yeong; Choi, Im-Jeong; Hong, Su Young; Chueh, Hee Won

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the incidence trends and associated factors of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents under 15 years of age in Busan and Gyeongnam, Korea from 2001 to 2010. Methods Medical records of newly diagnosed diabetes patients (n=328; 160 males, 168 females) were collected in questionnaire form from 5 tertiary and 42 general hospitals in Busan and Gyeongnam. Results The average crude incidence rate of T1DM and T2DM was 2.01/100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76-2.28) and 0.75/100,000 (95% CI, 0.60-0.92), respectively. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of T1DM was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.01-1.69), and that of T2DM was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.25-3.11) in the latter half-decade (2006 to 2010) compared to the early half-decade (2001 to 2005). There were gradually increasing incidence trends in both T1DM and T2DM over the 10-year period (P for trend: T1DM, 0.0009; T2DM, <0.0001). Age-specific IRR was highest in the 10- to 14-year-old group, regardless of diabetes type. In particular, a rapid increase in incidence of T2DM occurred in the 10- to 14-year-old group. IRR for females was 1.07 (95% CI, 0.83-1.38) for T1DM and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.01-2.41) for T2DM. IRR for Busan (urban) was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.09-1.83) for T1DM and 1.49 (95% CI, 0.96-2.30) for T2DM. Conclusion T1DM and T2DM incidence both increased over time in youth under age 15 living in Busan and Gyeongnam; in particular, the incidence of T2DM in adolescents increased more rapidly. PMID:26817007

  15. Age-specific population frequencies of amyloidosis and neurodegeneration among cognitively normal people age 50-89 years: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Clifford R.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Rocca, Walter A.; Knopman, David S.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Lowe, Val J.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Preboske, Gregory M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background As treatment of pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a focus of therapeutic intervention, observational research studies should recognize the overlap between imaging abnormalities associated with typical aging vs those associated with AD. Our objective was to characterize how typical aging and pre-clinical AD blend together with advancing age in terms of neurodegeneration and b-amyloidosis. Methods We measured age-specific frequencies of amyloidosis and neurodegeneration in 985 cognitively normal subjects age 50 to 89 from a population-based study of cognitive aging. Potential participants were randomly selected from the Olmsted County, Minnesota population by age- and sex-stratification and invited to participate in cognitive evaluations and undergo multimodality imaging. To be eligible for inclusion, subjects must have been judged clinically to have no cognitive impairment and have undergone amyloid PET, FDG PET and MRI. Imaging studies were obtained from March 2006 to December 2013. Amyloid positive/negative status (A+/A−) was determined by amyloid PET using Pittsburgh Compound B. Neurodegeneration positive/negative status (N+/N−) was determined by an AD-signature FDG PET measure and/or hippocampal volume on MRI. We labeled subjects positive or negative for neurodegeneration (FDG PET or MRI) or amyloidosis by using cutpoints defined such that 90% of 75 clinically diagnosed AD dementia subjects were categorized as abnormal. APOE genotype was assessed using DNA extracted from blood. Every individual was assigned to one of four groups: A−N−, A+N−, A−N+, or A+N+. Age specific frequencies of the 4 A/N groups were determined cross-sectionally using multinomial regression models. Associations with APOE ε4 and sex effects were evaluated by including these covariates in the multinomial models. Findings The population frequency of A−N− was 100% (n=985) at age 50 and declined thereafter. The frequency of A+N− increased to a

  16. Age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in young pregnant women, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Sahota, Daljit S; Law, Lai-Wa; Cheng, Yvonne KY; Leung, Tak-Yeung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in young pregnant women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, and to determine whether an increase in prevalence occurs during adolescence. Methods HBV prevalence was quantified using data from routine antenatal screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in 10 808 women aged 25 years or younger born in Hong Kong SAR and managed at a single hospital between 1998 and 2011. The effect on prevalence of maternal age, parity and birth before or after HBV vaccine availability in 1984 was assessed, using Spearman’s correlation and multiple logistic regression analysis. Findings Overall, 7.5% of women were HBsAg-positive. The prevalence ranged from 2.3% to 8.4% in those aged ≤ 16 and 23 years, respectively. Women born in or after 1984 and those younger than 18 years of age were less likely to be HBsAg-positive (odds ratio, OR: 0.679; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.578–0.797) and (OR: 0.311; 95% CI: 0.160–0.604), respectively. For women born before 1984, there was no association between HBsAg carriage and being younger than 18 years of age (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.262–1.370) Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of HBsAg carriage was influenced more by the woman being 18 years old or older (adjusted OR, aOR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.46–5.47) than being born before 1984 (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.21–1.67). Conclusion Immunity to HBV in young pregnant women who had been vaccinated as neonates decreased in late adolescence. PMID:25378739

  17. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hong-mei; Zheng, Rong-shou; Zhang, Si-wei; He, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age, sex and geographic area in 2007. Methods In 2010, 48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China. Of them, 38 registries’ data met the national criteria. Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites, age, gender, and area. Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population. Results The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively. The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural). Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000, respectively. The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, bladder, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases. The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung, liver, stomach, esophagus, colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, leukemia, brain and lymphoma, accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths. Conclusion Cancer remains a major disease threatening people’s health in China. Prevention and control should be enhanced, especially for the main cancers. PMID:23359628

  18. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  19. Transfusion associated circulatory overload: a critical incident.

    PubMed

    Goodall, E

    2014-01-01

    Transfusion associated circulatory overload (TACO) is a serious but under-recognised complication of blood transfusion. While the exact incidence rate is unknown the associated morbidity and mortality make this a transfusion reaction worthy of attention. This article provides details of a critical incident involving TACO followed by a literature review and discussion written from the perspective of a student ODP. The goal of this article is to raise awareness of TACO amongst hospital staff to facilitate faster recognition and earlier intervention in future events. PMID:24516967

  20. Birth cohort effects on incidence of lung cancers: a population-based study in Nagasaki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Soda, H; Oka, M; Soda, M; Nakatomi, K; Kawabata, S; Suenaga, M; Kasai, T; Yamada, Y; Kamihira, S; Kohno, S

    2000-10-01

    Smoking prevalence remains high (around 60%) among Japanese males, but smoking initiation among males born in the 1930s decreased by approximately 10% due to economic difficulties following World War II. The present study was designed to examine whether this temporary decline in smoking initiation influenced the subsequent incidence of lung cancers, especially adenocarcinoma. Trends of lung cancer incidence by histological type in both sexes were investigated using data from the population-based cancer registry in Nagasaki, Japan, from 1986 through 1995. During this period, 5668 males and 2309 females were diagnosed as having lung cancer, and the overall incidence of lung cancers among both sexes remained stable. However, males aged 55 - 59 years showed a decrease in the age-specific incidence of adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). In birth cohort analyses, the incidence of adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma was lower in the 1935 - 1939 birth male cohort than in the successive cohorts. The incidence of lung cancers among females with low smoking prevalence did not change with birth cohort. The low smoking initiation among the 1935 - 1939 birth male cohort appeared to have resulted in a decreased incidence of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma among middle-aged Japanese males. The present study suggests that smoking prevention has an effect in reducing the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma, as well as squamous-cell carcinoma, among smokers. PMID:11050464

  1. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  2. Racist Incident-Based Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ocampo, Carlota

    2005-01-01

    Racist incidents are potentially traumatizing forms of victimization that may lead to increased psychiatric and psychophysiological symptoms in targets. The magnitude of the problem of racist incidents in the United States is difficult to estimate; however, data from several sources permit the inference that the prevalence of racist incidents,…

  3. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled "Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012" [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept "prevalence" is not correctly used.[...]. PMID:27376318

  4. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'. PMID:23707157

  5. [Cancer incidence in the military: an update].

    PubMed

    Peragallo, Mario Stefano; Urbano, Francesco; Sarnicola, Giuseppe; Lista, Florigio; Vecchione, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    An abnormally elevated rate of Hodgkin's lymphoma was reported in 2001 among Italian soldiers in Bosnia and Kosovo since 1995: a surveillance system was therefore set up for the military community. Preliminary results for a longer period (1996-2007) have shown incidence rates lower than expected for all malignancies. No significant difference was registered between observed and expected cases of Hodkin's lymphoma: the excess of reported cases for this malignancy in 2001-2002 was probably due to a peak occurred in 2000 among the whole military; it is therefore unrelated to deployment in the Balkans, and probably represents a chance event. Moreover, a significant excess of thyroid cancer was reported among the whole military.The estimated number of incident cases, including those missed by the surveillance system, was not significantly higher than expected for all cancers; conversely, the estimated incidence rate of thyroid cancer was significantly increased; this excess, however, is probably due to a selection bias.These data concerning cancer surveillance in the Italian military are consistent with lacking evidence of an increased cancer incidence among troops of other countries deployed in the areas of Iraq, Bosnia, and Kosovo, where armour penetrating depleted uranium shells have been used. However, a comprehensive assessment of cancer morbidity in the military requires a revision of the privacy regulations, in order to link individual records of military personnel and data bases of the National Health Service. PMID:22166781

  6. Grazing incidence beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  7. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  8. Variance in age-specific sex composition of Pacific halibut catches, and comparison of statistical and genetic methods for reconstructing sex ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Timothy; Woods, Monica A.; Jimenez-Hidalgo, Isadora; Hauser, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Declines in size at age of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, in concert with sexually-dimorphic growth and a constant minimum commercial size limit, have led to the expectation that the sex composition of commercial catches should be increasingly female-biased. Sensitivity analyses suggest that variance in sex composition of landings may be the most influential source of uncertainty affecting current understanding of spawning stock biomass. However, there is no reliable way to determine sex at landing because all halibut are eviscerated at sea. In 2014, a statistical method based on survey data was developed to estimate the probability that fish of any given length at age (LAA) would be female, derived from the fundamental observation that large, young fish are likely female whereas small, old fish have a high probability of being male. Here, we examine variability in age-specific sex composition using at-sea commercial and closed-season survey catches, and compare the accuracy of the survey-based LAA technique to genetic markers for reconstructing the sex composition of catches. Sexing by LAA performed best for summer-collected samples, consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to characterize catches can be influenced by seasonal demographic shifts. Additionally, differences between survey and commercial selectivity that allow fishers to harvest larger fish within cohorts may generate important mismatch between survey and commercial datasets. Length-at-age-based estimates ranged from 4.7% underestimation of female proportion to 12.0% overestimation, with mean error of 5.8 ± 1.5%. Ratios determined by genetics were closer to true sample proportions and displayed less variability; estimation to within < 1% of true ratios was limited to genetics. Genetic estimation of female proportions ranged from 4.9% underestimation to 2.5% overestimation, with a mean absolute error of 1.2 ± 1.2%. Males were generally more difficult to assign than females: 6.7% of

  9. Incident velocity and incident angle of saltating sand grains on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiao-Jing; Fu, Lin-Tao; Bo, Tian-Li

    2013-04-01

    Incident velocity and incident angle are important parameters for Martian aeolian research. In this paper we have established a model for investigating the saltation of sand in steady state, mainly considering the hopping of sand in the air and sand-bed collision process. The model proves to be able to predict sand motion in steady-state saltation on Earth well both qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus, it was applied to the study of sand saltation on Mars. With the help of the model, we found incident velocities and incident angles of Martian grains in steady-state saltation in cases of various wind strengths. Then, these predicted velocities and angles were compared with previous studies. Besides, the model also can show information on lift-off parameters of saltating particles. Therefore, it allows us to study other features in aeolian processes such as the saltation length and sand transport rate.

  10. The Modification of Age-Specific Expectations of Piaget's Theory of Development of Intentionality in Moral Judgments of Four- to Seven-Year Old Children in Relation to Use of Puppets in a Social (Imitative) Learning Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, John M.; Michael, William B.

    The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain whether the age specific expectations of Piaget's theory (1965) regarding the development of moral judgment in children from four to seven years of age were modifiable through use of a certain adaptation of Bandura and McDonald's imitative learning paradigm which had utilized adult models. In this…

  11. All cause mortality and the case for age specific alcohol consumption guidelines: pooled analyses of up to 10 population based cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Ngaire; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Biddulph, Jane P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the suitability of age specific limits for alcohol consumption and to explore the association between alcohol consumption and mortality in different age groups. Design Population based data from Health Survey for England 1998-2008, linked to national mortality registration data and pooled for analysis using proportional hazards regression. Analyses were stratified by sex and age group (50-64 and ≥65 years). Setting Up to 10 waves of the Health Survey for England, which samples the non-institutionalised general population resident in England. Participants The derivation of two analytical samples was based on the availability of comparable alcohol consumption data, covariate data, and linked mortality data among adults aged 50 years or more. Two samples were used, each utilising a different variable for alcohol usage: self reported average weekly consumption over the past year and self reported consumption on the heaviest day in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the former sample comprised Health Survey for England years 1998-2002, 18 368 participants, and 4102 deaths over a median follow-up of 9.7 years, whereas the latter comprised Health Survey for England years 1999-2008, 34 523 participants, and 4220 deaths over a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Main outcome measure All cause mortality, defined as any death recorded between the date of interview and the end of data linkage on 31 March 2011. Results In unadjusted models, protective effects were identified across a broad range of alcohol usage in all age-sex groups. These effects were attenuated across most use categories on adjustment for a range of personal, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors. After the exclusion of former drinkers, these effects were further attenuated. Compared with self reported never drinkers, significant protective associations were limited to younger men (50-64 years) and older women (≥65 years). Among younger men, the range of protective effects was

  12. Cancer incidence and mortality among Swedish smelter workers.

    PubMed Central

    Sandström, A I; Wall, S G; Taube, A

    1989-01-01

    Cancer incidence was analysed in a retrospective cohort of 3710 male Swedish smelter workers between 1958 and 1982 using a record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register. During this period 467 cancers were registered in the cohort. An excess incidence of total cancer of about 30% was shown relative to general and local populations mainly due to 120 respiratory cancers. Excess SMRs for all cancer and respiratory cancer were highly significant. Trends in the incidence of cancer were studied using moving five year calendar periods. A decreasing rate of lung cancer was found during 1976-80 for both mortality and incidence. Incidence figures for two more years show a continued decreasing trend. This is validated by an analysis of different employment cohorts, taking latency into account, showing that the later the date of first employment the lower the incidence of cancer, especially for lung cancer. PMID:2923829

  13. Security incidents on the Internet, 1989--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an analysis of trends in Internet security based on an investigation of 4,299 Internet security-related incidents reported to the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center (CERT{reg_sign}/CC) from 1989 through 1995. Prior to this research, knowledge of actual Internet security incidents was limited and primarily anecdotal. This research: (1) developed a taxonomy to classify Internet attacks and incidents, (2) organized, classified, and analyzed CERT{reg_sign}/CC incident records, (3) summarized the relative frequency of the use of tools and vulnerabilities, success in achieving access, and results of attacks, (4) estimated total Internet incident activity, (5) developed recommendations for Internet users and suppliers, and (6) developed recommendations for future research. With the exception of denial-of-service attacks, security incidents were found to be increasing at a rate less than Internet growth. Estimates showed that most, if not all, severe incidents were reported to the CERT{reg_sign}/CC, and that more than one out of three above average incidents (in terms of duration and number of sites) were reported. Estimates also indicated that a typical Internet site was involved in, at most, around one incident (of any kind) per year, and a typical Internet host in, at most, around one incident in 45 years. The probability of unauthorized privileged access was around an order of magnitude less likely. As a result, simple and reasonable security precautions should be sufficient for most Internet users.

  14. Muscular Strength and Incident Hypertension in Normotensive and Prehypertensive Men

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Sui, Xuemei; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hussey, Jim; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    The protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on hypertension (HTN) are well known; however, the association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN has yet to be examined. Purpose This study evaluated the strength-HTN association with and without accounting for CRF. Methods Participants were 4147 men (20–82 years) in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study for whom an age-specific composite muscular strength score was computed from measures of a 1-repetition maximal leg and a 1-repetition maximal bench press. CRF was quantified by maximal treadmill exercise test time in minutes. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals of incident HTN events according to exposure categories. Results During a mean follow-up of 19 years, there were 503 incident HTN cases. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HRs of hypertension in normotensive men comparing middle and high strength thirds to the lowest third were not significant at 1.17 and 0.84, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted (excluding CRF) HRs of hypertension in baseline prehypertensive men comparing middle and high strength thirds to the lowest third were significant at 0.73 and 0.72 (p=.01 each), respectively. The association between muscular strength and incidence of HTN in baseline prehypertensive men was no longer significant after control for CRF (p=.26). Conclusions The study indicated that middle and high levels of muscular strength were associated with a reduced risk of HTN in prehypertensive men only. However, this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for CRF. PMID:19927030

  15. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  16. Increasing incidence of canine leptospirosis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  17. Did the 'Great Recession' produce a depression in tuberculosis incidence?

    PubMed

    Holland, D P; Person, A K; Stout, J E

    2011-05-01

    In 2009, the United States experienced a record drop in its tuberculosis (TB) case rate, coinciding with a major economic downturn. To investigate this relationship, we modeled short-term changes in gross domestic product, unemployment, and immigration as predictors of TB incidence. We also correlated each state's 2009-2010 change in unemployment with its 2008-2009 change in TB incidence. Although economic factors did not explain the decline, the 2009-2010 change in unemployment negatively correlated with incidence. We hypothesize that factors related to increased unemployment, such as diagnostic delay, may have played a role in the sudden drop in TB case rates. PMID:21756525

  18. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  19. Harnessing Critical Incidents for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A critical incident is a situation or event that holds significance for learning, both for the students and teachers. This paper presents four examples of critical incidents from a Year 7 teacher's lesson excerpts in Indonesia involving teaching of fractions, to show how they shaped classroom situation, brought forward elements of conflict, and…

  20. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players

    PubMed Central

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. Methods: A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at p<0.05, Odds ratios, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results: 75.50% participated, 71.40% were 18 years old, and 71.40% were White. Injury was sustained by 83% of players with the knee (25%) most commonly injured. Injury incidence was 1.52 per player with an injury rate of 5.95 injuries per 1000 match playing hours. The Stability Index increased significantly (p=0.03) by 15% in the medial/lateral direction post-season compared to pre-season. Significant differences in post-test anterior posterior and overall static and front and front right dynamic stability between injured and uninjured players were noted. Risk factors for injury included the scrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only. PMID:25674136

  1. Network Modeling of Crohn’s Disease Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Jean-Marc; Debret, Gaëlle; Lesne, Annick; Pascoe, Leigh; Carrivain, Pascal; Wainrib, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous genetic and environmental risk factors play a role in human complex genetic disorders (CGD). However, their complex interplay remains to be modelled and explained in terms of disease mechanisms. Methods and findings Crohn's Disease (CD) was modeled as a modular network of patho-physiological functions, each summarizing multiple gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. The disease resulted from one or few specific combinations of module functional states. Network aging dynamics was able to reproduce age-specific CD incidence curves as well as their variations over the past century in Western countries. Within the model, we translated the odds ratios (OR) associated to at-risk alleles in terms of disease propensities of the functional modules. Finally, the model was successfully applied to other CGD including ulcerative colitis, ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. Conclusion Modeling disease incidence may help to understand disease causative chains, to delineate the potential of personalized medicine, and to monitor epidemiological changes in CGD. PMID:27309539

  2. Positivity and incidence of human papillomavirus in women attending gynecological department of a major comprehensive hospital in Kunming, China 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huachun; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Guiqian; Tu, Yuanquan; Meng, Xiaojun; Liu, Tieniu; Ping, Zhuxian; Fan, Xin; Gao, Yuhong

    2016-04-01

    HPV DNA testing is receiving increasing popularity in cervical cancer screening. There is a lack of universal guidelines on HPV testing. Our study aimed to assess age-specific and year-on-year trend of HPV positivity and incidence and HPV retesting among 26,457 individual women attending the gynecological department at the First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province (FPHY) who had an HPV testing between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2014. HPV 16, HPV 52, and cp8304 ranked among top 5 with regard to positivity in each year and overall incidence. The positivity of various HPV types peaked among women aged 15-19 years, then sharply decreased with age, stabilized among women aged 25-49 years and then surged again among women aged 50 years and older. The positivity of high-risk (HR) HPV types, including HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 56 and 58, were on the rise during the time period (P < 0.05 for all). HR HPV types tended to be more likely to persist than LR HPV types (P < 0.05). Additionally, the incidence rate for any HR HPV type was also significantly higher than that for any LR HPV type (42.8 vs. 12.6 per 100 person-years, P < 0.001). The majority (57.3-77.5%) of women detected with HR HPV types did not retest within 12 months. Clinical guidelines on HPV DNA testing are needed and education, and counseling about HPV infection and its implications for women detected with HPV at clinical settings, are warranted. PMID:26363107

  3. LEPTOSPIROSIS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Hussin, Narwani; Cheah, Wee Kooi; Verasahib, Khebir; Goh, Pik Pin

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. Malaysia was categorized as a probable endemic country without any available data. Thus, this study was conducted to determine incidence, case fatality rate and mortality rate of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease in Malaysia since 2010 whereby probable or confirmed cases must be notified to relevant health district office. There were 3,665 and 4,457 probable and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases notified in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the 2-year period, the most common age group of patients was 19 years old or less (23.3%) with male:female ratio of 2.61:1. Students consisted about 16.9% of patients, followed by agriculture-based or plantation workers (14.7%). Overall age-standardized incidence rate of leptospirosis in Malaysia for 2012 and 2013 was 29.02 per 100,000. Overall case fatality rate was 1.47% for 2-year period and overall age-standardized mortality rate was 0.45 per 100,000. Leptospirosis is an emerging public health concern in Malaysia and may pose a significant health impact and burden to the nation in the coming years if not well controlled. PMID:27405126

  4. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  5. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  6. Age-specific models for evaluating dose and risk from internal exposures to radionuclides: Report of current work of the Metabolism and Dosimetry Research Group, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Warren, B.P.

    1987-09-01

    A projection of the health risk to a population internally exposed to a radionuclide requires explicit or implicit use of demographic, biokinetic, dosimetric, and dose-response models. Exposure guidelines have been based on models for a reference adult with a fixed life span. In this report, we describe recent efforts to develop a comprehensive methodology for estimation of radiogenic risk to individuals and to heterogeneous populations. Emphasis is on age-dependent biokinetics and dosimetry for internal emitters, but consideration also is given to conversion of age-specific doses to estimates of risk using realistic, site-specific demographic models and best available age-specific dose-response functions. We discuss how the methods described here may also improve estimates for the reference adult usually considered in radiation protection. 159 refs.

  7. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  8. Changing cancer incidence in Kampala, Uganda, 1991-2006.

    PubMed

    Parkin, Donald Maxwell; Nambooze, Sarah; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Wabinga, Henry R

    2010-03-01

    Incidence rates of different cancers have been calculated for the population of Kyadondo County (Kampala, Uganda) for a 16-year period (1991-2006). This period coincides with continuing social and lifestyle changes and the peak and subsequent wane of the epidemic of HIV-AIDS. There has been an overall increase in the risk of cancer during the period in both sexes, with the incidence rates of cancers of the breast and prostate showing particularly marked increases (4.5% annually). Prostate cancer is now the most common cancer in men. The incidence of cancer of the esophagus, formerly the most common cancer in men and second in frequency in women, has remained relatively constant, whereas the incidence of cancer of the cervix, the most common malignancy in women, continues to increase. Since the early 1990s the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in men has declined, and while remaining relatively constant in women, it has been diagnosed at progressively later ages. The rates of pediatric KS have declined by about 1/3rd. The incidence of squamous cell cancers of the conjunctiva has also declined since the mid 1990s. Cancer control in Uganda, as elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, involves meeting the challenge of emerging cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (large bowel, breast and prostate); although the incidence of cancers associated with poverty and infection (liver, cervix, esophagus) shows little decline, the residual burden of the AIDS-associated cancers remains a major burden. PMID:19688826

  9. Near anastigmatic grazing incidence telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1984-01-01

    A performance capability assessment is presently conducted for short versus long grazing incidence telescope designs, in view of the observation that the field curvature and astigmatism that are the primary residual aberrations of a Wolter-type incidence telescope can be substantially reduced through mirror length reduction. A major advantage of the short element telescope is that, if sufficiently short, both the paraboloid and hyperboloid surfaces may be fabricated as a single piece; this significantly facilitates the task of alignment.

  10. Neonatal Incidence of Hip Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Peled, Eli; Eidelman, Mark; Katzman, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The advantages of sonographic examination are well known, but its main disadvantage is that it might lead to overdiagnosis, which might cause overtreatment. Variations in the incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip are well known. We ascertained the incidence of neonatal sonographic developmental dysplasia of the hip without considering the development of those joints during followup. All 45,497 neonates (90,994 hips) born in our institute between January 1992 and December 2001 were examined clinically and sonographically during the first 48 hours of life. Sonography was performed according to Graf’s method, which considers mild hip sonographic abnormalities as Type IIa. We evaluated the different severity type incidence pattern and its influence on the total incidence during and between the investigated years. According to our study, sonographic Type IIa has major effects on the incidence of overall developmental dysplasia of the hip with a correlation coefficient of 0.95, whereas more severe sonographic abnormalities show relatively stable incidence patterns. Level of Evidence: Level I, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18288551

  11. Incidence of childhood leukaemia in The Netherlands (1973-1980).

    PubMed Central

    van Steensel-Moll, H. A.; Valkenburg, H. A.; van Zanen, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    The childhood leukaemia incidence rate for the Netherlands was estimated at 3.11 per 100.000 children (aged 0-15 year) per year, based on a complete nation-wide childhood leukaemia registry comprising the period 1973-1980. Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) accounted for 82.4% of the patients, acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia for 13.6% and chronic myeloid leukaemia for 2.9%. ALL occurred more frequently in boys (sex ratio 1.2). The highest ALL rate was observed in the 3-4 year age group. These figures corresponded with the data of the Manchester Children's Tumour Registry. Neither the incidence rates according to year of diagnosis nor the incidence rates according to year of birth showed a significant trend with time. The total leukaemia incidence rate in urban areas was somewhat higher than in rural areas. While the direct comparison of the incidence rate between these areas is not significant, the trend over the three categories of urbanisation is significant. PMID:6573905

  12. Bicycle Helmet Laws are Associated with a Lower Fatality Rate from Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Meehan, William P.; Lee, Lois K.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Mannix, Rebekah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between bicycle helmet legislation and bicycle-related deaths sustained by children involved in bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. Study design We conducted a cross sectional study of all bicyclists aged 0-16 years included in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) who died between January 1999 and December 2010. We compared fatality rates per age-specific state populations between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. We used a clustered Poisson multivariate regression model to adjust for factors previously associated with rates of motor vehicle fatalities: elderly driver licensure laws, legal blood alcohol limit (< 0.08% vs. ≥ 0.08%), and household income. Results A total of 1,612 bicycle-related fatalities were sustained by children <16 years old. There were no statistical differences in median household income, the proportion of states with elderly licensure laws, or the proportion of states with a blood alcohol limit of > 0.08 between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. The mean unadjusted rates of fatalities were lower in states with helmet laws (2.0/1,000,000 vs. 2.5/1,000,000; p= 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, states with mandatory helmet laws continued to be associated with a lower rate of fatalities (adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.70, 0.98). Conclusions Bicycle helmet safety laws are associated with a lower incidence of fatalities among child bicyclists involved in motor vehicle collisions. PMID:23706604

  13. Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing

    2008-08-07

    This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates.

  14. Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing

    2008-08-01

    This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates

  15. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to

  16. Cancer Incidence, Survival, and Mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horm, John W.; Burhansstipanov, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Overall cancer incidence among southwestern American Indians is less than half that of U.S. whites; Alaska Native and white rates are similar. However, both native groups have elevated rates for specific cancers (stomach, liver, and gallbladder), and Indians have low five-year survival rates. Data tables outline incidence, mortality, and survival…

  17. Incidence Trends and Geographical Distribution of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safavi-Naini, Ali; Raad, Nasim; Ghorbani, Jahangir; Chaibakhsh, Samira; Ramezani-Daryasar, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has known as a highly distinct kind of head and neck cancer. This distinction has been due to its clinical presentation, epidemiology, outcome, and treatment. There have not been any reports of epidemiological analysis of NPC in Iran. This study has evaluated the incidence rates and trends of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Iranian population during 2004 to 2009. Methods The data have collected from the Iranian national cancer data system registry. All the cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (with the topography code 11 and histology of carcinoma) have retrieved and analyzed from an overall cancer database during a 6-year period. The data have analyzed by using the SPSS, version 16. Results To determine the current incidence of NPC in Iran, we have examined the NPC cases from 2004 to 2009. A total of 1431 cases (981 male and 450 female NPC patients) have analyzed epidemiologically in this study. The mean age of the patients was 47.1 years. The incidence was 0.33 per 100000 persons. The overall incidence rate have increased annually (p<0.05). The incidence of NPC gradually increased with age. Prefectures that bordering the Caspian Sea have proved to have a higher incidence than the other studied areas. Conclusion Our study has indicated an increasing trend in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Therefore; attempts should be precipitated for prevention. PMID:26396710

  18. Spatial Clustering of Tuberculosis Incidence in the North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani-Charati, Jamshid; Siamian, Hasan; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Vahedi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Tuberculosis (TB) poses a serious threat to public health throughout the world but disproportionately afflicts low-income nations. The aim of this study is to identify the high-risk areas in Mazandaran province (North of Iran) in helping the heath programmer for the best intervention. Materials and Methods: This is an ecological study conducted from 1999 through 2008. The sample included 2444 Tuberculosis (TB) patients. The variables were age, gender, type of disease and residential location, analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and spatial analysis to identify cluster of disease incidence. Geographical information system software applied to map of smooth rate of TB. Results: Of 2444 registered patients, 1283 (52.5%) were male. The data showed 61% urban and 96.4% of them with the Iranian nationality. There was insignificant difference between genders, but the main difference was observed between locations that are the incidence rate in the Tonekabon and Behshahr cities were 30% higher than mean incidence rate of Mazandaran province (P-value<0.05). The comprising chance of acquiring infection between urban and rural was 1.46 with confidence interval of 95% (1.35, 1.59). Conclusion: Geostatistical method showed spatial variability of TB incidence rate in all districts and identifying high-risk area (core areas). The most important core of TB incidence has been noticed in the eastern boundary of Mazandaran in the city of Behshahr which is due to proximity to Golestan Province. The incidence rate of TB in Behshahr city is about two times more than the number observed in Mazandaran province. Lower TB incidence rate has been observed in Golestan province is because there is usually a delay in the diagnosis of the disease especially in the positive smear patients. PMID:25363121

  19. Estimation of the age-specific per-contact probability of Ebola virus transmission in Liberia using agent-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Anastassopoulou, Cleo; Russo, Lucia; Grigoras, Christos; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2016-06-01

    Based on multiscale agent-based computations we estimated the per-contact probability of transmission by age of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) that swept through Liberia from May 2014 to March 2015. For the approximation of the epidemic dynamics we have developed a detailed agent-based model with small-world interactions between individuals categorized by age. For the estimation of the structure of the evolving contact network as well as the per-contact transmission probabilities by age group we exploited the so called Equation-Free framework. Model parameters were fitted to official case counts reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as to recently published data of key epidemiological variables, such as the mean time to death, recovery and the case fatality rate.

  20. Elder Abuse and Black Americans: Incidence, Correlates, Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazenave, Noel A.

    Existing evidence on family violence rates by age and race as well as the available data on race and physical elder abuse incidence rates suggests that because such data are not based on random or representative samples and tend to reflect a "sampling artifact" of the particular client populations served by the professionals surveyed, there are no…

  1. Cosmic rays, solar activity, magnetic coupling, and lightning incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, J. T. A.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented and described that unifies the complex influence of several factors on spatial and temporal variation of lightning incidence. These factors include the cosmic radiation, solar activity, and coupling between geomagnetic and interplanetary (solar wind) magnetic fields. Atmospheric electrical conductivity in the 10 km region was shown to be the crucial parameter altered by these factors. The theory reconciles several large scale studies of lightning incidence previously misinterpreted or considered contradictory. The model predicts additional strong effects on variations in lightning incidence, but only small effects on the morphology and rate of thunderstorm development.

  2. Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Results From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). Conclusions In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. PMID:26685027

  3. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. PMID:20807386

  4. Incidence and Demographics of Childhood Ptosis

    PubMed Central

    Griepentrog, Gregory J.; Diehl, Nancy; Mohney, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the incidence and demographics of childhood ptosis diagnosed over a 40-year period in a well-defined population. Design Retrospective, population-based cohort study. Participants Patients (< 19 years) diagnosed with childhood ptosis as residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 2004 Methods The medical records of all potential patients identified by the Rochester Epidemiology Project were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures Calculated annual age- and sex-specific incidence rates and demographic information. Results A total of 107 children were diagnosed with ptosis during the 40-year period, yielding an incidence of 7.9/100,000 < 19 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4-9.5) of age. Ninety-six (89.7%) of the 107 were congenital in onset, 81 (75%) of which had simple congenital ptosis, yielding a birth prevalence of 1 in 842 births. A family history of childhood ptosis was present in twelve percent of queried patients with simple congenital ptosis. Three (4%) of the simple congenital ptosis cases were bilateral and 55 (68%) of the unilateral cases involved the left upper eyelid (95% CI: 57%-78%, p<0.001). Conclusion Childhood ptosis was diagnosed in 7.9 per 100,000 patients less than 19 years (95% CI: 6.4-9.5). Simple congenital ptosis was the most prevalent form, occurring in 1 in 842 births, and significantly more likely to involve the left side. PMID:21496927

  5. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population. PMID:26801472

  6. Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liderazgo de la DEA Resource Center » Statistics & Facts » Methamphetamine Lab Incidents Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014 NOTE: These maps include all meth incidents, including labs, "dumpsites" or "chemical and glassware" ...

  7. Cancer Incidence among Former Love Canal Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gensburg, Lenore J.; Pantea, Cristian; Kielb, Christine; Fitzgerald, Edward; Stark, Alice; Kim, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background The Love Canal was a rectangular 16-acre, 10-ft-deep chemical waste landfill situated in a residential neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York. This seriously contaminated site came to public attention in 1978. Only one prior study examined cancer incidence in former residents of the Love Canal neighborhood (LC). Objective In this study we aimed to describe cancer incidence in former LC residents from 1979 to 1996 and to investigate whether it differs from that of New York State (NYS) and Niagara County (NC). Methods From 1978 to 1982, we interviewed 6,181 former residents, and 5,052 were eligible to be included in this study. In 1996, we identified 304 cancer diagnoses in this cohort using the NYS Cancer Registry. We compared LC cancer incidence with that of NYS and NC using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and we compared risks within the LC group by potential exposure to the landfill using survival analysis. Results SIRs were elevated for cancers of the bladder [SIRNYS = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91–2.16] and kidney (SIRNYS = 1.48; 95% CI, 0.76–2.58). Although CIs included 1.00, other studies have linked these cancers to chemicals similar to those found at Love Canal. We also found higher rates of bladder cancer among residents exposed as children, based on two cases. Conclusions In explaining these excess risks, the role of exposure to the landfill is unclear given such limitations as a relatively small and incomplete study cohort, imprecise exposure measurements, and the exclusion of cancers diagnosed before 1979. Given the relatively young age of the cohort, further surveillance is warranted. PMID:19672407

  8. The Incidence and Prevalence of Neuromyelitis Optica

    PubMed Central

    Gryba, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Interest in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has increased substantially over the last few years, but it is not known whether NMO has the same geographic and temporal variations in disease risk as multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the worldwide incidence and prevalence of NMO through a systematic review of published peer-reviewed studies. We performed a search of the English-language literature using MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1985 to March 2012. Search terms included “neuromyelitis optica,” “Devic's,” “opticospinal,” “incidence,” “prevalence,” and “epidemiology.” We assessed study quality using a standardized instrument. A total of five studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of the studies were from North America, and all studies were published between 2005 and 2012. All studies were of good quality, but only one study reported standardized rates, and subgroup-specific estimates were rarely reported. The incidence of NMO per 100,000 population ranged from 0.053 to 0.40, while the prevalence per 100,000 population ranged from 0.52 to 4.4. Heterogeneity was high among the incidence (I2 = 68.0%) and prevalence studies (I2 = 94.0%). This review highlights the limited knowledge regarding the epidemiology of NMO and the importance of obtaining estimates standardized to common populations to enhance comparability of studies from different jurisdictions. Future studies would also benefit from reporting age-, sex-, and race- or ethnicity-specific estimates. PMID:24453773

  9. The incidence of scarlet fever.

    PubMed Central

    Perks, E. M.; Mayon-White, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    This study attempted to find the incidence of scarlet fever in the Oxford region, including the proportion of patients from whom Streptococcus pyogenes could be isolated. General practitioners collected throat swabs from patients with suspected scarlet fever. The swabs were examined for viral and bacterial pathogens. Children admitted to hospital were used as controls. Twenty-five of 105 patients with suspected scarlet fever grew Str. pyogenes; M type 4 was the commonest type. The clinical diagnosis of scarlet fever was not always confirmed by throat culture. The annual incidence of scarlet fever was estimated to be 0.3 cases per 1000 per year. PMID:6358344

  10. Prostate cancer trends in Canada: rising incidence or increased detection?

    PubMed Central

    Levy, I G; Gibbons, L; Collins, J P; Perkins, D G; Mao, Y

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse trends in the incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer in Canada according to age distribution, temporal pattern and provincial variation; to determine any association with the rate of prostatectomy; and to determine whether any observed increase in the rate of prostate cancer was due to an increase in the detection rate. DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiologic study based on Canadian population data from 1959 to 1989 and chart review from one Canadian hospital. SETTING: The chart review was conducted at the Ottawa Civic Hospital. SUBJECTS: The data on prostate cancer trends were obtained from the Canadian population. Charts were reviewed for two groups of patients: (a) men discharged from inpatient care during 1976 and 1986-87 with prostate cancer first diagnosed in the same year and (b) men who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) during 1976 and 1986. OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer, rates of prostatectomy and TURP, and correlations between them. From the hospital data, changes between 1976 and 1986-87 in distribution of cancer stages, distribution of cases detected incidentally after surgery for suspected benign prostatic hypertrophy and average number of slides analysed per gram of tissue obtained from prostatectomy. RESULTS: The epidemiologic data showed that the age-adjusted incidence rates increased by 72% overall, an increase seen in all age groups over 60 years. The mortality rates increased by 29% overall, primarily in men over 85 years old. The prostatectomy rate increased by 55%. There were significant linear correlations between the national and provincial incidence rates of prostate cancer and the TURP rates. The chart review revealed that during 1976, 53% of the cases of prostate cancer diagnosed were localized, as compared with 75% in 1986-87 (p < 0.01). The proportion of tumours diagnosed incidentally in men undergoing TURP increased by 11%, whereas the number of

  11. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  12. Serious Incident Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara

    2007-01-01

    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  13. Benefit Incidence Analysis in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard; Tan, Jee-Peng

    2007-01-01

    The standard benefit incidence algebra generally produces biased estimates of the distribution of public spending on education when students from poor and rich families are enrolled in schools that receive different levels of public spending per student. Except in very rare instances, removing these biases entails combining several sources of…

  14. The incidence of diagnostic error in medicine.

    PubMed

    Graber, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    A wide variety of research studies suggest that breakdowns in the diagnostic process result in a staggering toll of harm and patient deaths. These include autopsy studies, case reviews, surveys of patient and physicians, voluntary reporting systems, using standardised patients, second reviews, diagnostic testing audits and closed claims reviews. Although these different approaches provide important information and unique insights regarding diagnostic errors, each has limitations and none is well suited to establishing the incidence of diagnostic error in actual practice, or the aggregate rate of error and harm. We argue that being able to measure the incidence of diagnostic error is essential to enable research studies on diagnostic error, and to initiate quality improvement projects aimed at reducing the risk of error and harm. Three approaches appear most promising in this regard: (1) using 'trigger tools' to identify from electronic health records cases at high risk for diagnostic error; (2) using standardised patients (secret shoppers) to study the rate of error in practice; (3) encouraging both patients and physicians to voluntarily report errors they encounter, and facilitating this process. PMID:23771902

  15. Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Lithuania in 1978–2003

    PubMed Central

    Smailyte, Giedre; Miseikyte-Kaubriene, Edita; Kurtinaitis, Juozas

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to analyze changes in thyroid cancer incidence trends in Lithuania during the period 1978–2003 using joinpoint regression models, with special attention to the period 1993–2003. Methods The study was based on all cases of thyroid cancer reported to the Lithuanian Cancer Registry between 1978 and 2003. Age group-specific rates and standardized rates were calculated for each gender, using the direct method (world standard population). The joinpoint regression model was used to provide estimated annual percentage change and to detect points in time where significant changes in the trends occur. Results During the study period the age-standardized incidence rates increased in males from 0.7 to 2.5 cases per 100 000 and in females from 1.5 to 11.4 per 100 000. Annual percentage changes during this period in the age-standardized