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Sample records for age-specific mortality rates

  1. Age effects in monetary valuation of reduced mortality risks: the relevance of age-specific hazard rates.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    This paper highlights the relevance of age-specific hazard rates in explaining the age variation in "value of statistical life" (VSL) figures. The analysis-which refers to a stated preference framework-contributes to the ongoing discussion of whether benefits resulting from reduced mortality risk should be valued differently depending on the age of the beneficiaries. By focussing on a life-threatening environmental phenomenon I show that the consideration of the individual's age-specific hazard rate is important. If a particular risk affects all individuals regardless of their age so that their hazard rate is age-independent, VSL is rather constant for people at different age; if hazard rate varies with age, VSL estimates are sensitive to age. The results provide an explanation for the mixed outcomes in empirical studies and illustrate in which cases an adjustment to age may or may not be justified. Efficient provision of live-saving measures requires that such differences to be taken into account.

  2. Age-specific divorce rates.

    PubMed

    Kunz, P R; England, J L

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the various types of US divorce rates in 1970 and 1980 and concludes that the age-specific rate is most precise. Using data from the states' vital statistics reports and the 1980 census reports for states, the authors conclude that the teen and early 20s marriages are most at risk to divorce. Rates have increased from 1970 to 1980 with the most dramatic increases occurring in the 25-35 and 40-44 age groups. Study needs to be done to see what factors have led to such disproportionate increases in divorce rates in these age categories. Similarly, research is needed to understand why the 55 and over groups show no change of decline in rates between 1970 and 1980 in light of increases in other age groups. Contrary to general belief, however, divorce does not increase during the 'mid-life crisis' or ' after the children leave home.' PMID:12281968

  3. Observational, longitudinal study of delirium in consecutive unselected acute medical admissions: age-specific rates and associated factors, mortality and re-admission

    PubMed Central

    Pendlebury, ST; Lovett, NG; Smith, SC; Dutta, N; Bendon, C; Lloyd-Lavery, A; Mehta, Z; Rothwell, PM

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to determine age-specific rates of delirium and associated factors in acute medicine, and the impact of delirium on mortality and re-admission on long-term follow-up. Design Observational study. Consecutive patients over two 8-week periods (2010, 2012) were screened for delirium on admission, using the confusion assessment method (CAM), and reviewed daily thereafter. Delirium diagnosis was made using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fourth Edition (DSM IV) criteria. For patients aged ≥65 years, potentially important covariables identified in previous studies were collected with follow-up for death and re-admission until January 2014. Participants 503 consecutive patients (age median=72, range 16–99 years, 236 (48%) male). Setting Acute general medicine. Results Delirium occurred in 101/503 (20%) (71 on admission, 30 during admission, 17 both), with risk increasing from 3% (6/195) at <65 years to 14% (10/74) for 65–74 years and 36% (85/234) at ≥75 years (p<0.0001). Among 308 patients aged >65 years, after adjustment for age, delirium was associated with previous falls (OR=2.47, 95% CI 1.45 to 4.22, p=0.001), prior dementia (2.08, 1.10 to 3.93, p=0.024), dependency (2.58, 1.48 to 4.48, p=0.001), low cognitive score (5.00, 2.50 to 9.99, p<0.0001), dehydration (3.53, 1.91 to 6.53, p<0.0001), severe illness (1.98, 1.17 to 3.38, p=0.011), pressure sore risk (5.56, 2.60 to 11.88, p<0.0001) and infection (4.88, 2.85 to 8.36, p<0.0001). Patients with delirium were more likely to fall (OR=4.55, 1.47 to 14.05, p=0.008), be incontinent of urine (3.76, 2.15 to 6.58, p<0.0001) or faeces (3.49, 1.81–6.73, p=0.0002) and be catheterised (5.08, 2.44 to 10.54, p<0.0001); and delirium was associated with stay >7 days (2.82, 1.68 to 4.75, p<0.0001), death (4.56, 1.71 to 12.17, p=0.003) and an increase in dependency among survivors (2.56, 1.37 to 4.76, p=0.003) with excess mortality still evident at 2-year follow-up. Patients with

  4. The Application of Age-Specific Rates to Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, J. Lynn; Kunz, Phillip R.

    1975-01-01

    Age-Specific divorce rates and weighted divorce rates are evaluated in comparison with several traditional rates. The analysis reversals of the ranking of some states in comparison with rankings based on other divorce rates, and the age-specific rates for young married couples is lower than expected. (Author)

  5. Age specific xerophthalmia rates among displaced Ethiopians.

    PubMed

    Pizzarello, L D

    1986-11-01

    The recent famine in Ethiopia has resulted in the dislocation of millions of people. Many of these individuals have moved to refugee camps in Sudan or to feeding centres within Ethiopia. A total of 1325 children up to the age of 15 years were examined by an ophthalmologist in January 1985 at several sites in these two countries. The rates of Bitot's spots were three times greater in those between the ages of 7 and 10 compared with those under 7. Rates of corneal xerosis were comparable for each group. Previously, xerophthalmia was considered predominantly to affect children aged under 6. These data document the presence of the disease in older children and raise questions regarding future modifications in the prevention and treatment of xerophthalmia.

  6. The composite dynamic method as evidence for age-specific waterfowl mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; Anderson, David R.

    1979-01-01

    For the past 25 years estimation of mortality rates for waterfowl has been based almost entirely on the composite dynamic life table. We examined the specific assumptions for this method and derived a valid goodness of fit test. We performed this test on 45 data sets representing a cross section of banded sampled for various waterfowl species, geographic areas, banding periods, and age/sex classes. We found that: (1) the composite dynamic method was rejected (P <0.001) in 37 of the 45 data sets (in fact, 29 were rejected at P <0.00001) and (2) recovery and harvest rates are year-specific (a critical violation of the necessary assumptions). We conclude that the restrictive assumptions required for the composite dynamic method to produce valid estimates of mortality rates are not met in waterfowl data. Also we demonstrate that even when the required assumptions are met, the method produces very biased estimates of age-specific mortality rates. We believe the composite dynamic method should not be used in the analysis of waterfowl banding data. Furthermore, the composite dynamic method does not provide valid evidence for age-specific mortality rates in waterfowl.

  7. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Promislow, D.E.L.; Tatar, M.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Peter Medawar proposed that senescence arises from an age-related decline in the force of selection, which allows late-acting deleterious mutations to accumulate. Subsequent workers have suggested that mutation accumulation could produce an age-related increase in additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits, as recently found in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report results from a genetic analysis of mortality in 65,134 D. melanogaster. Additive genetic variance for female mortality rates increases from 0.007 in the first week of life to 0.325 by the third week, and then declines to 0.002 by the seventh week. Males show a similar pattern, though total variance is lower than in females. In contrast to a predicted divergence in mortality curves, mortality curves of different genotypes are roughly parallel. Using a three-parameter model, we find significant V{sub A} for the slope and constant term of the curve describing age-specific mortality rates, and also for the rate at which mortality decelerates late in life. These results fail to support a prediction derived from Medawar`s {open_quotes}mutation accumulation{close_quotes} theory for the evolution of senescence. However, our results could be consistent with alternative interpretations of evolutionary models of aging. 65 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Fecundity and its genetic covariance with age-specific mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, M.; Promislow, D.E.L.; Khazaeli, A.A.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Under the mutation accumulation model of senescence, it was predicted that the additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits will increase with age. We measured age-specific mortality and fecundity from 65,134 Drosophila melanogaster and estimated genetic variance components, based on reciprocal crosses of extracted second chromosome lines. Elsewhere we report the results for mortality. Here, for fecundity, we report a biomodal pattern for V{sub A} with peaks at 3 days and at 17-31 days. Under the antagonistic pleiotropy model of senescence, it was predicted that negative correlations will exist between early and late life history traits. For fecundity itself we find positive genetic correlations among age classes >3 days but negative nonsignificant correlations between fecundity at 3 days and at older age classes. For fecundity vs. age-specific mortality, we find positive fitness correlations (negative genetic correlations) among the traits at all ages >3 days but a negative fitness correlation between fecundity at 3 days and mortality at the oldest ages (positive genetic correlations). For age-specific mortality itself we find overwhelmingly positive genetic correlations among all age classes. The data suggest that mutation accumulation may be a major source of standing genetic variance for senescence. 75 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The dissimilar costs of love and war: age-specific mortality as a function of the operational sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Adler, M I; Bonduriansky, R

    2011-06-01

    Lifespan and ageing are strongly affected by many environmental factors, but the effects of social environment on these life-history traits are not well understood. We examined effects of social interaction on age-specific mortality rate in the sexually dimorphic neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. We found that although interaction with other individuals reduced longevity of both sexes, the costs associated with variation in operational sex ratio were sex specific: males' early-life mortality rate increased, and lifespan decreased, with increasing male bias in the sex ratio, whereas surprisingly, the presence of males had no effect on early-life mortality or lifespan of females. Intriguingly, early-life (immediate) mortality costs did not covary with late-life (latent) costs. Rather, both sexes aged most rapidly in a social environment dominated by the opposite sex. Our findings suggest that distinct reproductive activities, such as mating and fighting, impose different age-specific patterns of mortality, and that such costs are strongly sex specific.

  10. Age-specific mortality trends in France and Italy since 1900: period and cohort effects.

    PubMed

    Caselli, G; Vallin, J; Vaupel, J W; Yashin, A

    1987-11-01

    The age/sex-specific mortality trends of France and Italy were studied over the 1899-1979 period in as much detail as possible in an effort to distinguish between cohort effects and those related to period changes. Complete series of mortality data by individual years of age and calendar years were available from 1869 to 1979 for Italy and from 1899 to 1982 for France. For both countries, these data include the military and civil deaths not registered in vital statistics during the war periods. They cover each national territory as defined by its present boundaries. The graphical representation method of mortality surfaces, elaborated by Vaupel, Gambill, and Yashin (1985), was adopted. The age/sex-specific mortality patterns of France and Italy have not followed the same trends, and the differences observed today are not those of 100 years ago. The mean death probabilities for the 1975-79 period were used to illustrate the age-specific patterns of mortality. Although infant mortality was higher in Italy than in France, the death probabilities at ages 1-15 for both sexes were roughly the same for both countries. At ages 15-23, they were much higher in France than in Italy, and they remained considerably higher in France up to age 55. From then on, the sexes differ: for males, the 2 countries showed similar patterns, whereas for females the probabilities were noticeably higher for France. The situation was very different for both countries at the beginning of the century. For both sexes, higher mortality was observed in Italy not only during infancy but throughout childhood and the adolescent years up to age 15. The 2 countries showed similar patterns from 15-25. Above age 25, the 2 countries had similar patterns for females, whereas male mortality was higher in France right up to the old age groups. Such differences in the age-specific mortality trends depend in part on a different development of health and social conditions but also may be due to factors concerning

  11. Mortality Rates in a Genetically Heterogeneous Population of Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Anne; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Johnson, Thomas E.

    1994-02-01

    Age-specific mortality rates in isogenic populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans increase exponentially throughout life. In genetically heterogeneous populations, age-specific mortality increases exponentially until about 17 days and then remains constant until the last death occurs at about 60 days. This period of constant age-specific mortality results from genetic heterogeneity. Subpopulations differ in mean life-span, but they all exhibit near exponential, albeit different, rates of increase in age-specific mortality. Thus, much of the observed heterogeneity in mortality rates later in life could result from genetic heterogeneity and not from an inherent effect of aging.

  12. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  13. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  14. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension.

  15. Age-specificity of black-capped chickadee survival rates: Analysis of capture-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loery, G.; Pollock, K.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The ornithological literature indicates a widespread belief in two generalizations about the age-specificity of avian survival rates: (1) survival rates of young birds for some period following fledging are lower than those of adults, and (2) after reaching adulthood survival rates are constant for birds of all ages. There is a growing body of evidence in support of the first generalization, although little is known about how long the survival difference between young and adults lasts. This latter question can be addressed with capture-recapture or band recovery studies based on birds marked in the winter, but the inability to determine age in many species during winter has prevented the use of standard methods. There is very little evidence supporting the second generalization, and we are in need of methods and actual analyses that address this question. In the present paper we restate the two generalizations as hypotheses and test them using data from a wintering Black-capped Chickadee (Parus atricapillus) population in Connecticut, which has been studied by Loery for 26 yr. We use a cohort-based Jolly-Seber approach, which should be useful in other investigations of this nature. We found strong evidence of lower survival rates in 1st-yr birds than in adults, but could not determine whether this was the result of higher mortality rates, higher emigration rates, or a combination of the two. We also found evidence that survival rates of adult birds were not constant with age but decreased at a rate of ? 3.5%/yr. As adult birds are very faithful to their wintering areas, we believe that almost all this decrease can be attributed to an increase in mortality with age. Simulation results suggest that heterogeneity of capture probabilities could not explain the magnitude of the decrease in survival with age. Age-dependent tag loss is also discussed as an alternative explanation, but is dismissed as very unlikely in this situation. This analysis thus provides some of the

  16. Age-Specific Citation Rates and the Egghe-Rao Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Quentin L.

    2003-01-01

    Extends connections between retrospective citation age studies and reliability theory by considering the failure rate function from reliability, re-interpreted as the age-specific citation rate (ASCR). This is linked to earlier studies of retrospective citation distributions by Egghe and Ravichandra Rao who introduced a function claimed to…

  17. Problems in estimating age-specific survival rates from recovery data of birds ringed as young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    (1) The life table model is frequently employed in the analysis of ringer samples of young in bird populations. The basic model is biologically unrealistic and of little use in making inferences concerning age-specific survival probabilities. (2) This model rests on a number of restrictive assumptions, the failure of which causes serious biases. Several important assumptions are not met with real data and the estimators of age-specific survival are not robust enough to these failures. (3) Five major problems in the use of the life table method are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate several of the problems involved in using this method in making inferences about survival rates and its age-specific nature. (4) We conclude that this is an invalid procedure and it should not be used. Furthermore, ringing studies involving only young birds are pointless as regards survival estimation because no valid method exists for estimating age-specific or time-specific survival rates from such data. (5) In our view, inferences about age-specific survival rates are possible only if both young and adult (or young, subadult and adult) age classes are ringed each year for k years (k ≥ 2).

  18. A study of the effects of cause specific death rates on age-specific death rates with special reference to Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, K

    1983-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of cause specific death rates on age specific death rates for Tamil Nadu rural females during the period 1970-75 in various age groups. 2 regression lines have been fitted. The age specific death rates were taken as dependent variables and time as an independent variable; the age-cause specific death rates were dependent variables and time was an independent variable. In the analysis, the ratio of regression coefficients of 2 regression lines gives the effect of age specific death rates due to the j-th cause in the i-th group. The trend of mortality in the age groups (0-4) and (5-14) declines over the period 1970-75 and increases in the age groups (15-34), (34-54) and 55 and older. The causes of declining mortality in the 0-4 age group are cough, fever, other clear symptoms and other causes. The %s of contribution for this decline are respectively 14%, 41%, 21% and 72% to the overall decline in that age group. The cause group violence and injury, digestive disorders and causes peculiar to infancy have contributed to increase in the 0-4 age group death rates. Digestive disorders, coughs and other causes have contributed to declining mortality in the 5-14 age group. The cause group accidents and injury, digestive disorders, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy and other causes are promoted to increase the mortality of the 15-34 age group. The causes contributing to the increasing trend of mortality in the 35-54 age group are violence and injury, digestive disorders, coughs, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy. Digestive disorders and other causes contributed to the mortality increase in the over 55 age group. PMID:12266915

  19. Age-specific mortality and short-term changes in the standard of living: Sweden, 1751-1859.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, T; Ohlsson, R

    1985-11-01

    "The response of mortality to short-term changes in real wages is analyzed here not just in its own right but more particularly as an indicator of long-term shifts in the general standard of living. It is hypothesized that the response would have been stronger the lower the standard of living. The relationship between age-specific mortality levels and real-wage series for Sweden 1751-1860 is analyzed using a distributed-lag model and spectral analysis. The results suggest a real shift in the material standard of living during the period." (summary in FRE) PMID:12314070

  20. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone influences age-specific mortality patterns in a captive passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Schwabl, Hubert; Holmes, Donna; Strasser, Rosemary; Scheuerlein, Alex

    2012-02-01

    Hormones are potent mediators of developmental programming and maternal epigenetic effects. In vertebrates, developmental exposure to maternal androgen hormones has been shown to impact multiple behavioral and physiological traits of progeny, but the possible consequences of this early exposure in terms of aging-related changes in mortality and fitness remain largely unexplored. Avian eggs naturally contain variable doses of maternal hormones-in particular, androgens-which have documented effects on embryo growth and differentiation as well as adult behavior and physiology. Here, we report that injections of a physiological dose of testosterone (T) into yolks of freshly laid eggs of a small, seasonally breeding songbird, the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), increased survivorship in a semi-natural aviary environment. In addition, survival effects of developmental T exposure were sex-dependent, with males generally having a higher risk of death. Separate analyses for young birds in their first year of life (from hatching up to the first reproductive period the following calendar year) and in adulthood (after the first breeding season) showed similar effects. For first-year birds, mortality risk was higher during the winter than during the period after fledging; for adults, mortality risk was higher during the reproductive than the non-reproductive phase (post-breeding molt and winter). T treatment did not affect nestling body mass, but resulted in higher body mass at 3-4 months of age; T and body mass at this age interacted to influence mortality risk. Embryonic exposure to maternal testosterone may result in lower adult mortality by modifying intrinsic physiological processes involved in health or aging over the lifespan of adult birds.

  1. Variable developmental period: intraspecific competition models with conditional age-specific maturity and mortality schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Frogner, K.J.

    1980-10-01

    A simulation model is presented incorporating a variable time to maturity resulting from density-dependent scarcity of resources for the immature stages. This mechanism is shown to be capable of regulating a population and the model population persists under these conditions. The model is qualitatively robust to changes in the parameters: resource input rate, offspring input rate, and immature death rate. Implications drawn from the model behavior with respect to pest control, r-selection under K conditions and field experiments are discussed.

  2. Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing

    2008-08-07

    This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates.

  3. Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing

    2008-08-01

    This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates

  4. Association of Seasonal Climate Variability and Age-Specific Mortality in Northern Sweden before the Onset of Industrialization

    PubMed Central

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Edvinsson, Sören; Arnqvist, Per; de Luna, Sara Sjöstedt; Schumann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Little is known about health impacts of climate in pre-industrial societies. We used historical data to investigate the association of temperature and precipitation with total and age-specific mortality in Skellefteå, northern Sweden, between 1749 and 1859. Methods: We retrieved digitized aggregated population data of the Skellefteå parish, and monthly temperature and precipitation measures. A generalized linear model was established for year to year variability in deaths by annual and seasonal average temperature and cumulative precipitation using a negative binomial function, accounting for long-term trends in population size. The final full model included temperature and precipitation of all four seasons simultaneously. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for total, sex- and age-specific mortality. Results: In the full model, only autumn precipitation proved statistically significant (RR 1.02; CI 1.00–1.03, per 1cm increase of autumn precipitation), while winter temperature (RR 0.98; CI 0.95–1.00, per 1 °C increase in temperature) and spring precipitation (RR 0.98; CI 0.97–1.00 per 1 cm increase in precipitation) approached significance. Similar effects were observed for men and women. The impact of climate variability on mortality was strongest in children aged 3–9, and partly also in older children. Infants, on the other hand, appeared to be less affected by unfavourable climate conditions. Conclusions: In this pre-industrial rural region in northern Sweden, higher levels of rain during the autumn increased the annual number of deaths. Harvest quality might be one critical factor in the causal pathway, affecting nutritional status and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Autumn rain probably also contributed to the spread of air-borne diseases in crowded living conditions. Children beyond infancy appeared most vulnerable to climate impacts. PMID:25003551

  5. Age specific trends in asthma mortality in England and Wales, 1983-95: results of an observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. J.; Cogman, G. R.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in asthma mortality by age group in England and Wales during 1983-95. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: All deaths classified as having an underlying cause of asthma registered from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time trends for age specific asthma deaths. RESULTS: Deaths in the age group 5-14 years showed an irregular downward trend during 1983-95; deaths in the age groups 15-44, 45-64, and 65-74 years peaked before 1989 and then showed a downward trend; and deaths in the age group 75-84 years peaked between 1988 and 1993 and subsequently dropped. Trends were: age group 5-14 years, 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%); 15-44 years, 6% (5% to 7%); 45-64 years, 5% (4% to 6%); 65-74 years, 2% (1% to 3%). Deaths in the 75-84 and 85 and over categories plateaued. CONCLUSIONS: There are downward trends in asthma mortality in Britain, which may be due to increased use of prophylactic treatment. PMID:9167558

  6. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  7. Using skew-logistic probability density function as a model for age-specific fertility rate pattern.

    PubMed

    Asili, Sahar; Rezaei, Sadegh; Najjar, Lotfollah

    2014-01-01

    Fertility rate is one of the most important global indexes. Past researchers found models which fit to age-specific fertility rates. For example, mixture probability density functions have been proposed for situations with bi-modal fertility patterns. This model is less useful for unimodal age-specific fertility rate patterns, so a model based on skew-symmetric (skew-normal) pdf was proposed by Mazzuco and Scarpa (2011) which was flexible for unimodal and bimodal fertility patterns. In this paper, we introduce skew-logistic probability density function as a better model: its residuals are less than those of the skew-normal model and it can more precisely estimate the parameters of the model. PMID:24967404

  8. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life.

  9. Mortality rates decline in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Experiencing remarkable decreases in mortality rates over the past 3 decades, Malaysia currently has one of the lowest mortality rates among developing countries, a rate that compares favorably with those of developed countries. Between 1957 and 1989, the crude death rate dropped from 12.4/1000 population to 4.6. Over the same period, Malaysia recorded even greater decreases in the infant mortality rate, from 75.5/1000 births to 15.2. The Maternal mortality rate also declined from 1.48 in 1970 to 0.24 in 1988. The data indicates that mortality rates vary from state to state, and that rural areas have a higher mortality than urban areas. According to a study by the National Population and Family Development Board, the use of maternal and child health services has played an important role in reducing neonatal, perinatal, infant, child, and maternal mortality rates. Nearly all women in Malaysia receive antenatal services. While the country has achieved great gains on mortality rates, programs focusing on specific age and socioeconomic groups could lead to even greater reductions. The Minister for National Unity and Social Development, Dato Napsiah Omar, has called for the development of programs designed to improve the population's quality of life. PMID:12284509

  10. Prediction of mortality rates in the presence of missing values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chon Sern; Pooi, Ah Hin

    2015-12-01

    A time series model based on multivariate power-normal distribution has been applied in the past literature on the United States (US) mortality data from the years 1933 to 2000 to forecast the future age-specific mortality rates of the years 2001 to 2010. In this paper, we show that the method based on multivariate power-normal distribution can still be used for an incomplete US mortality dataset that contains some missing values. The prediction intervals based on this incomplete training data are found to still have good ability of covering the observed future mortality rates although the interval lengths may become wider for long-range prediction.

  11. Temporal and spatial variation in age-specific survival rates of a long-lived mammal, the Hawaiian monk seal.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jason D; Thompson, Paul M

    2007-02-01

    Estimates of variability in pinniped survival rates are generally based on observations at single sites, so it is not certain whether observed rates represent the whole population. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of spatio-temporal variation in age-specific survival rates for endangered Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) based on capture-recapture analyses of more than 85% of the pups weaned in this population over the last two decades. Uniquely, these data have been collected from six subpopulations, encompassing all major breeding sites across its 1800 km long core range. Analyses of individual subpopulations revealed similar patterns in age-specific survival, characterized by the relatively low survival rates from weaning to 2 years of age, intermediate rates to 4 years of age, and then by relatively high 'mature' survival rates until 17 years of age, after which a senescent decline was observed. Juvenile, subadult and adult survival rates all varied significantly over time. Trends in survival among subpopulations were coherent with their relative geographical positions, suggesting regional structuring and connectedness within the archipelago. Survival rates for different age classes tended to be positively correlated, suggesting that similar factors may influence the survival for seals of all ages. PMID:17164205

  12. Conners' Teacher Rating Scale for Preschool Children: A Revised, Brief, Age-Specific Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The Conners' Teacher Rating Scale-Revised (CTRS-R) is one of the most commonly used measures of child behavior problems. However, the scale length and the appropriateness of some of the items on the scale may reduce the usefulness of the CTRS-R for use with preschoolers. In this study, a Graded Response Model analysis based on Item Response Theory…

  13. Age-specific vibrissae growth rates: a tool for determining the timing of ecologically important events in Steller sea lions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, L.D.; Christ, A.M.; Hayden, A.B.; Stegall, V.K.; Farley, S.D.; Stricker, Craig A.; Mellish, J.E.; Maniscalco, J.M.; Waite, J.N.; Burkanov, V.N.; Pitcher, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) grow their vibrissae continually, providing a multiyear record suitable for ecological and physiological studies based on stable isotopes. An accurate age-specific vibrissae growth rate is essential for registering a chronology along the length of the record, and for interpreting the timing of ecologically important events. We utilized four methods to estimate the growth rate of vibrissae in fetal, rookery pup, young-of-the-year (YOY), yearling, subadult, and adult SSL. The majority of vibrissae were collected from SSL live-captured in Alaska and Russia between 2000 and 2013 (n = 1,115), however, vibrissae were also collected from six adult SSL found dead on haul-outs and rookeries during field excursions to increase the sample size of this underrepresented age group. Growth rates of vibrissae were generally slower in adult (0.44 ± 0.15 cm/mo) and subadult (0.61 ± 0.10 cm/mo) SSL than in YOY (0.87 ± 0.28 cm/mo) and fetal (0.73 ± 0.05 cm/mo) animals, but there was high individual variability in these growth rates within each age group. Some variability in vibrissae growth rates was attributed to the somatic growth rate of YOY sea lions between capture events (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.206, n = 29).

  14. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Dementia and Alzheimer Disease in NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA Families

    PubMed Central

    Vardarajan, Badri N.; Faber, Kelley M.; Bird, Thomas D.; Bennett, David A.; Rosenberg, Roger; Boeve, Bradley F.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Goate, Alison M.; Farlow, Martin; Sweet, Robert A.; Lantigua, Rafael; Medrano, Martin Z.; Ottman, Ruth; Schaid, Daniel J.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Mayeux, Richard

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), defined as onset of symptoms after age 65 years, is the most common form of dementia. Few reports investigate incidence rates in large family-based studies in which the participants were selected for family history of LOAD. OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in unaffected members in the National Institute on Aging Genetics Initiative for Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease/National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease (NIA-LOAD/NCRAD) and Estudio Familiar de Influencia Genetica en Alzheimer (EFIGA) family studies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Families with 2 or more affected siblings who had a clinical or pathological diagnosis of LOAD were recruited as a part of the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD Family Study. A cohort of Caribbean Hispanics with familial LOAD was recruited in a different study at the Taub Institute for Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain in New York and from clinics in the Dominican Republic as part of the EFIGA study. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Age-specific incidence rates of LOAD were estimated in the unaffected family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and EFIGA data sets. We restricted analyses to families with follow-up and complete phenotype information, including 396 NIA-LOAD/NCRAD and 242 EFIGA families. Among the 943 at-risk family members in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families, 126 (13.4%) developed dementia, of whom 109 (86.5%) met criteria for LOAD. Among 683 at-risk family members in the EFIGA families, 174 (25.5%) developed dementia during the study period, of whom 145 (83.3%) had LOAD. RESULTS The annual incidence rates of dementia and LOAD in the NIA-LOAD/NCRAD families per person-year were 0.03 and 0.03, respectively, in participants aged 65 to 74 years; 0.07 and 0.06, respectively, in those aged 75 to 84 years; and 0.08 and 0.07, respectively, in those 85 years or older. Incidence rates in the EFIGA families were slightly higher, at 0.03 and 0.02, 0.06 and 0.05, 0

  15. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22352149

  16. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Altukhov, Alexey V; Andrews, Russel D; Calkins, Donald G; Gelatt, Thomas S; Gurarie, Eliezer D; Loughlin, Thomas R; Mamaev, Evgeny G; Nikulin, Victor S; Permyakov, Peter A; Ryazanov, Sergey D; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Burkanov, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas.

  18. Age Specific Survival Rates of Steller Sea Lions at Rookeries with Divergent Population Trends in the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Altukhov, Alexey V.; Andrews, Russel D.; Calkins, Donald G.; Gelatt, Thomas S.; Gurarie, Eliezer D.; Loughlin, Thomas R.; Mamaev, Evgeny G.; Nikulin, Victor S.; Permyakov, Peter A.; Ryazanov, Sergey D.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas. PMID:26016772

  19. Rate of bacterial mortality in aquatic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Servais, P.; Billen, G.; Rego, J.V.

    1985-06-01

    A method is proposed which provides a minimum estimate of the rate of bacterial mortality in growing natural populations of planktonic bacteria. This estimate is given by the rate of decrease of radioactivity from the DNA of a (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labeled natural assemblage of bacteria after all added thymidine has been exhausted from the medium. Results obtained from river water, estuarine water, and seawater show overall bacterial mortality rates in the range 0.010 to 0.030 h/sup -1/, in good agreement with the range of growth rates measured in the same environments. Use of selective filtration through Nuclepore filters (pore size, 2 ..mu..m) allowed us to determine the contribution of microzooplankton grazing to overall bacterial mortality. Grazing rates estimated by this method ranged from 0 to 0.02 h/sup -1/.

  20. Maternal age specific risk rate estimates for Down syndrome among live births in whites and other races from Ohio and metropolitan Atlanta, 1970-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Huether, C A; Ivanovich, J; Goodwin, B S; Krivchenia, E L; Hertzberg, V S; Edmonds, L D; May, D S; Priest, J H

    1998-01-01

    Our primary objective was to estimate, by one year and five year intervals, maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among whites and among other races from two different populations, metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio, using live birth and prenatally diagnosed cases ascertained during 1970-1989. The five year estimates were also calculated separately for each of the five four year periods during these 20 years. Additionally, we compared two different methods of estimating these risk rates by using a third population of whites, and compared two different statistical methods of smoothing the risk rates. The results indicate good agreement between the metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio estimates within races, but show a statistically significant difference between the two race categories. Because 86% of live births in the "other races" category in the combined population are to blacks, these data may be seen as the first estimates of maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among blacks calculated by one year intervals. We found excellent agreement in the risk rate estimates among the five four year time periods, between the estimates obtained by using the two different methods of estimation, and between the estimates obtained using the two different methods of statistical smoothing. Our estimated risk rates for white women in their 20s strongly reinforce those from previous studies currently being used for genetic counselling purposes. While we did find somewhat higher rates for women under 20, and increasingly higher rates for those over 30 years of age, these differences are not substantial. Thus, this study in general supports the risk rates estimated from data collected mostly during the 1960s and 1970s. PMID:9643290

  1. Age-specific and age-standardised incidence rates for intraoral squamous cell carcinoma in blacks on the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Altini, M; Kola, A H

    1985-12-01

    All new cases of intraoral squamous cell carcinoma which occurred in Blacks resident on the Witwatersrand during the 10-yr period 1971-80 were traced by examining the records of all the hospital pathology departments in this area. The population at risk at the mid-point of the study (1975) was calculated from the National Population Censuses of 1970 and 1980, and consisted of 1125960 men and 880269 women. Age-specific incidence rates and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated for each intraoral site for men and women. In the latter calculation a standard World population was used. All rates are expressed as average number of cases per 100000 population per annum. The age-specific incidence rates and age-standardised incidence rates (in brackets) for men and women respectively are: tongue, 1.43 and 0.26 (2.69 and 0.41); gingiva and alveolar ridge, 0.04 and 0.01 (0.07 and 0.01); floor of mouth, 0.87 and 0.22 (1.64 and 0.38); buccal mucosa, 0.05 and 0.04 (0.13 and 0.05); hard and soft palate, 0.34 and 0.05 (0.63 and 0.08). There appears to have been an increase in the incidence of intraoral cancer in Black South Africans since the first survey in 1953-55, which can probably be ascribed to the urbanization process. In Europe, North America and in other population groups in South Africa, the palate is least frequently affected. In contrast, in Black South Africans lesions of the palate are much more common, being less frequent only than tongue and floor of mouth lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Sex- and age- specific relations between economic development, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, Alexander; Engström, Karin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. METHODS: Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries. Predictor variables were per capita gross domestic product (GDP), GINI coefficient, percentage change in per capita gross national product (GNP) and female economic activity as a percentage of male economic activity. Relations were analysed by ordinary least squares regression. FINDINGS: All predictors explained significant variances in homicide rates in those aged 15-24. Associations were stronger for males than females and weak for children aged 0-9. Models that included female economic inequality and percentage change in GNP increased the effect in children aged 0-9 and the explained variance in females aged 20-24. For children aged 0-4, country clustering by income increased the explained variance for both sexes. For males aged 15-24, the association with economic inequality was strong in countries with low incomes and weak in those with high incomes. CONCLUSION: Relations between economic factors and child and youth homicide rates varied with age and sex. Interventions to target economic factors would have the strongest impact on rates of homicide in young adults and late adolescent males. In societies with high economic inequality, redistributing wealth without increasing per capita GDP would reduce homicide rates less than redistributions linked with overall economic development. PMID:12471400

  3. Does cosmic weather affect infant mortality rate?

    PubMed

    Shamir, Lior

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes to consider a link between infant mortality rate (IMR) and galactic cosmic radiation (CR) density. The periodical increase in solar activity increases the effect of the magnetic field of the sun, and therefore weakens galactic cosmic rays hitting the Earth's surface. As a result, embryos in their early stages of development may be less exposed to high-energy ionizing cosmic rays when the solar activity peaks. In the study discussed here, cosmic ray density data were correlated with the U.S. infant mortality rate in the following year. Statistical analysis shows that in the past 30 years, Pearson correlation between the change in galactic CR flux and IMR decrease in the following year was -0.36 (p < .05). PMID:20687328

  4. Female breast cancer mortality rates in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nurhan; Toprak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the mortality trends of female breast cancer in Turkey between the years 1987-2008. The rates per 100,000 age-standardized to the European standard population were assessed and time trends presented using joinpoint regression analysis. Average annual percent change (AAPC), anual percent change (APC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Nearly 23,000 breast cancer deaths occurred in Turkey during the period 1987-2008, with the average annual age-standardized mortality rate (ASR) being 11.9 per 100,000 women. In the last five years, significant increases were observed in all age groups, but there was no significant change over the age of 65. In this period, the biggest significant increase was in the 45-54 age group (AAPC=4.3, 95%CI=2.6 to 6.0). PMID:25292030

  5. Size-dependent mortality rate profiles.

    PubMed

    Roa-Ureta, Ruben H

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of mortality rates is crucial to the understanding of population dynamics in populations of free-living fish and invertebrates in marine and freshwater environments, and consequently to sustainable resource management. There is a well developed theory of population dynamics based on age distributions that allow direct estimation of mortality rates. However, for most cases the aging of individuals is difficult or age distributions are not available for other reasons. The body size distribution is a widely available alternative although the theory underlying the formation of its shape is more complicated than in the case of age distributions. A solid theory of the time evolution of a population structured by any physiological variable has been developed in 1960s and 1970s by adapting the Hamilton-Jacobi formulation of classical mechanics, and equations to estimate the body size-distributed mortality profile have been derived for simple cases. Here I extend those results with regards to the size-distributed mortality profile to complex cases of non-stationary populations, individuals growing according to a generalised growth model and seasonally patterned recruitment pulses. I apply resulting methods to two cases in the marine environment, a benthic crustacean population that was growing during the period of observation and whose individuals grow with negative acceleration, and a sea urchin coastal population that is undergoing a stable cycle of two equilibrium points in population size whose individuals grow with varying acceleration that switches sign along the size range. The extension is very general and substantially widens the applicability of the theory. PMID:27164999

  6. Slowing of Mortality Rates at Older Ages in Large Medfly Cohorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, James R.; Liedo, Pablo; Orozco, Dina; Vaupel, James W.

    1992-10-01

    It is generally assumed for most species that mortality rates increase monotonically at advanced ages. Mortality rates were found to level off and decrease at older ages in a population of 1.2 million medflies maintained in cages of 7,200 and in a group of approximately 48,000 adults maintained in solitary confinement. Thus, life expectancy in older individuals increased rather than decreased with age. These results cast doubt on several central concepts in gerontology and the biology of aging: (i) that senescence can be characterized by an increase in age-specific mortality, (ii) that the basic pattern of mortality in nearly all species follows the same unitary pattern at older ages, and (iii) that species have absolute life-span limits.

  7. Estimating cause-specific mortality rates using recovered carcasses.

    PubMed

    Joly, Damien O; Heisey, Dennis M; Samuel, Michael D; Ribic, Christine A; Thomas, Nancy J; Wright, Scott D; Wright, Irene E

    2009-01-01

    Stranding networks, in which carcasses are recovered and sent to diagnostic laboratories for necropsy and determination of cause of death, have been developed to monitor the health of marine mammal and bird populations. These programs typically accumulate comprehensive, long-term datasets on causes of death that can be used to identify important sources of mortality or changes in mortality patterns that lead to management actions. However, the utility of these data in determining cause-specific mortality rates has not been explored. We present a maximum likelihood-based approach that partitions total mortality rate, estimated by independent sources, into cause-specific mortality rates. We also demonstrate how variance estimates are derived for these rates. We present examples of the method using mortality data for California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). PMID:19204341

  8. Infant, neonatal and perinatal mortality rates in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L

    1982-07-01

    Infant, neonatal and perinatal mortality rates are reliable indices of the health status and delivery of health care in a country. These rates have been declining in Singapore since World War II, and presently have become comparable to those of many developing countries. The pattern has also changed; postneonatal mortality has fallen markedly, resulting in neonatal mortality accounting for 75% of infant mortality, and first week mortality for 85% of neonatal mortality. Perinatal mortality rates have also declined over the years, due mainly to a decline in the first week mortality rates though a slight fall in stillbirth rates has also occurred. Further improvements can be expected in the perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. As neonatal intensive care improves, the prognosis of the very small and feeble infants will be brighter even though the efforts required might be very much greater. Such a challenge will prove to be very exciting and stimulating, and be an impetus to the raising of neonatal intensive care to a much higher level.

  9. Predictive intervals for age-specific fertility.

    PubMed

    Keilman, N; Pham, D Q

    2000-03-01

    A multivariate ARIMA model is combined with a Gamma curve to predict confidence intervals for age-specific birth rates by 1-year age groups. The method is applied to observed age-specific births in Norway between 1900 and 1995, and predictive intervals are computed for each year up to 2050. The predicted two-thirds confidence intervals for Total Fertility (TF) around 2010 agree well with TF errors in old population forecasts made by Statistics Norway. The method gives useful predictions for age-specific fertility up to the years 2020-30. For later years, the intervals become too wide. Methods that do not take into account estimation errors in the ARIMA model coefficients underestimate the uncertainty for future TF values. The findings suggest that the margin between high and low fertility variants in official population forecasts for many Western countries are too narrow. PMID:12158991

  10. Cross-temporal and cross-national poverty and mortality rates among developed countries.

    PubMed

    Fritzell, Johan; Kangas, Olli; Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie; Blomgren, Jenni; Hiilamo, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    A prime objective of welfare state activities is to take action to enhance population health and to decrease mortality risks. For several centuries, poverty has been seen as a key social risk factor in these respects. Consequently, the fight against poverty has historically been at the forefront of public health and social policy. The relationship between relative poverty rates and population health indicators is less self-evident, notwithstanding the obvious similarity to the debated topic of the relationship between population health and income inequality. In this study we undertake a comparative analysis of the relationship between relative poverty and mortality across 26 countries over time, with pooled cross-sectional time series analysis. We utilize data from the Luxembourg Income Study to construct age-specific poverty rates across countries and time covering the period from around 1980 to 2005, merged with data on age- and gender-specific mortality data from the Human Mortality Database. Our results suggest not only an impact of relative poverty but also clear differences by welfare regime that partly goes beyond the well-known differences in poverty rates between welfare regimes. PMID:23840235

  11. United States counties with low black male mortality rates

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert; Rust, George; Aliyu, Muktar; Pisu, Maria; Zoorob, Roger; Goldzweig, Irwin; Juarez, Paul; Husaini, Baqar; Hennekens, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the United States, young and middle-aged black men have significantly higher total mortality than any other racial or ethnic group. We describe the characteristics of US counties with low non–Hispanic Black or African American male mortality (ages 25-64 years, 1999-2007). METHODS Information was accessed through public data, the US Census, the US Compressed Mortality File, and the Native American Graves Repatriation Act military database. RESULTS Of 1307 counties with black mortality rates classified as reliable by the National Center for Health Statistics (at least 20 deaths), 66 recorded lower mortality among black men than corresponding US whites. Most notable, 97% of the 66 counties were home to or adjacent a military installation versus 37% of comparable US counties (P .001). Blacks in these counties had less poverty, higher percentages of elderly civilian veterans, and higher per capita income. Within these counties, national black:white disparities in mortality were eliminated for ischemic heart disease, accidents, diseases of the liver, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and mental disorder from psychoactive substance use. Application of age-, race-, ethnicity-, gender-, and urbanization-specific mortality rates from counties with relatively low mortality would reduce the black:white mortality rate ratio for black men aged 25 to 64 years from 1.67 to 1.20 nationally and to 1.00 in areas outside large central metropolitan areas. CONCLUSIONS These descriptive data demonstrate a small number of communities with low mortality rates among young and middle-aged black/African American men. Their characteristics may provide clinical and public health insights to reduce these higher mortality rates in the US population. Analytic epidemiologic studies are necessary to test these hypotheses. PMID:23260504

  12. Investigating the Effect of Social Changes on Age-Specific Gun-Related Homicide Rates in New York City During the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Steven F.; Tracy, Melissa; Vlahov, David; Goldmann, Emily; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether New York City's gun-related homicide rates in the 1990s were associated with a range of social determinants of homicide rates. Methods. We used cross-sectional time-series data for 74 New York City police precincts from 1990 through 1999, and we estimated Bayesian hierarchical models with a spatial error term. Homicide rates were estimated separately for victims aged 15–24 years (youths), 25–34 years (young adults), and 35 years or older (adults). Results. Decreased cocaine consumption was associated with declining homicide rates in youths (posterior median [PM] = 0.25; 95% Bayesian confidence interval [BCI] = 0.07, 0.45) and adults (PM = 0.07; 95% BCI = 0.02, 0.12), and declining alcohol consumption was associated with fewer homicides in young adults (PM = 0.14; 95% BCI = 0.02, 0.25). Receipt of public assistance was associated with fewer homicides for young adults (PM = –104.20; 95% BCI = –182.0, –26.14) and adults (PM = –28.76; 95% BCI = –52.65, –5.01). Misdemeanor policing was associated with fewer homicides in adults (PM = –0.01; 95% BCI = –0.02, –0.001). Conclusions. Substance use prevention policies and expansion of the social safety net may be able to cause major reductions in homicide among age groups that drive city homicide trends. PMID:20395590

  13. Prescription of enoxaparin is associated with decreasing pulmonary embolism mortality rate in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pütter, Carolin; von Beckerath, Olga; Sobik, Hanna Maria; Reinecke, Holger; Stausberg, Jürgen; Kröger, Knut

    2015-11-01

    We analysed time trends in the pulmonary embolism (PE) mortality rates in Germany from 2004 and assessed for an association between the use of anticoagulants and PE caused mortality. We extracted age-specific number of deaths due to PE (ICD-10 I26) from 2004 to 2011 as available from the WHO mortality databases. In addition we derived defined daily dosage (DDD) of prescribed anticoagulants and the low molecular heparin Enoxaparin for the years 2004-2011 from the statutory health insurance-drug-information system reports. Age-standardized PE mortality per 100,000 decreased from 5.9283 in year 2004 to 4.4876 in 2011 (-24.3 %). Amounts of prescribed anticoagulants increased in this period from 271,810.7 × 1000 DDD to 416,611.8 × 1000 DDD (+53.3 %), that of Enoxaparin increased from 27,071.1 × 1000 DDD in 2004 97,276.5 × 1000 DDD in 2011. The PE mortality is negatively correlated with anticoagulants (-0.9463, p = 0.0004) as well as with enoxaparin (-0.9740, p < 0.0001) and of DDD of Enoxaparin per 1000 insured (-0.9682, p < 0.0001). In univariate linear regression model, anticoagulants, Enoxaparin and Enoxaparin per 1000 insured all reach significance (p = 0.0004, p = 4.31 × 10(-5) and p = 0.0001 respectively). Multiple regression models show that Enoxaparin has the most robust effect. Including the time trend in the model does not alter the results. Our study shows that increasing number of prescribed Enoxaparin in an outpatient setting might be one determinant of decreasing PE mortality rate in Germany since 2004.

  14. Cause-specific mortality rates in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Adjuik, Martin; Smith, Tom; Clark, Sam; Todd, Jim; Garrib, Anu; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kahn, Kathy; Mola, Mitiki; Ashraf, Ali; Masanja, Honorati; Adazu, Kubaje; Adazu, Ubaje; Sacarlal, Jahit; Alam, Nurul; Marra, Adama; Gbangou, Adjima; Mwageni, Eleuther; Binka, Fred

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide internationally comparable data on the frequencies of different causes of death. METHODS: We analysed verbal autopsies obtained during 1999 -2002 from 12 demographic surveillance sites in sub-Saharan Africa and Bangladesh to find cause-specific and age-specific mortality rates. The cause-of-death codes used by the sites were harmonized to conform to the ICD-10 system, and summarized with the classification system of the Global Burden of Disease 2000 (Version 2). FINDINGS: Causes of death in the African sites differ strongly from those in Bangladesh, where there is some evidence of a health transition from communicable to noncommunicable diseases, and little malaria. HIV dominates in causes of mortality in the South African sites, which contrast with those in highly malaria endemic sites elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa (even in neighbouring Mozambique). The contributions of measles and diarrhoeal diseases to mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are lower than has been previously suggested, while malaria is of relatively greater importance. CONCLUSION: The different patterns of mortality we identified may be a result of recent changes in the availability and effectiveness of health interventions against childhood cluster diseases. PMID:16583076

  15. Why have ovarian cancer mortality rates declined? Part I. Incidence.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Iqbal, Javaid; Rosen, Barry; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    The age-adjusted mortality rate from ovarian cancer in the United States has declined over the past several decades. The decline in mortality might be the consequence of a reduced number of cases (incidence) or a reduction in the proportion of patients who die from their cancer (case-fatality). In part I of this three-part series, we examine rates of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry database and we explore to what extent the observed decline in mortality can be explained by a downward shift in the stage distribution of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to early detection) or by fewer cases of ovarian cancer (i.e. due to a change in risk factors). The proportion of localized ovarian cancers did not increase, suggesting that a stage-shift did not contribute to the decline in mortality. The observed decline in mortality paralleled a decline in incidence. The trends in ovarian cancer incidence coincided with temporal changes in the exposure of women from different birth cohorts to various reproductive risk factors, in particular, to changes in the use of the oral contraceptive pill and to declining parity. Based on recent changes in risk factor propensity, we predict that the trend of the declining age-adjusted incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the United States will reverse and rates will increase in coming years. PMID:26080287

  16. Ecological integrity of streams related to human cancer mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Hitt, Nathaniel P; Hendryx, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Assessments of ecological integrity have become commonplace for biological conservation, but their role for public health analysis remains largely unexplored. We tested the prediction that the ecological integrity of streams would provide an indicator of human cancer mortality rates in West Virginia, USA. We characterized ecological integrity using an index of benthic macroinvertebrate community structure (West Virginia Stream Condition Index, SCI) and quantified human cancer mortality rates using county-level data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Regression and spatial analyses revealed significant associations between ecological integrity and public health. SCI was negatively related to age-adjusted total cancer mortality per 100,000 people. Respiratory, digestive, urinary, and breast cancer rates increased with ecological disintegrity, but genital and oral cancer rates did not. Smoking, poverty, and urbanization were significantly related to total cancer mortality, but did not explain the observed relationships between ecological integrity and cancer. Coal mining was significantly associated with ecological disintegrity and higher cancer mortality. Spatial analyses also revealed cancer clusters that corresponded to areas of high coal mining intensity. Our results demonstrated significant relationships between ecological integrity and human cancer mortality in West Virginia, and suggested important effects of coal mining on ecological communities and public health. Assessments of ecological integrity therefore may contribute not only to monitoring goals for aquatic life, but also may provide valuable insights for human health and safety.

  17. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  18. Improving estimates of tree mortality probability using potential growth rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Tree growth rate is frequently used to estimate mortality probability. Yet, growth metrics can vary in form, and the justification for using one over another is rarely clear. We tested whether a growth index (GI) that scales the realized diameter growth rate against the potential diameter growth rate (PDGR) would give better estimates of mortality probability than other measures. We also tested whether PDGR, being a function of tree size, might better correlate with the baseline mortality probability than direct measurements of size such as diameter or basal area. Using a long-term dataset from the Sierra Nevada, California, U.S.A., as well as existing species-specific estimates of PDGR, we developed growth–mortality models for four common species. For three of the four species, models that included GI, PDGR, or a combination of GI and PDGR were substantially better than models without them. For the fourth species, the models including GI and PDGR performed roughly as well as a model that included only the diameter growth rate. Our results suggest that using PDGR can improve our ability to estimate tree survival probability. However, in the absence of PDGR estimates, the diameter growth rate was the best empirical predictor of mortality, in contrast to assumptions often made in the literature.

  19. Increased cardiovascular disease mortality rates in traumatic lower limb amputees.

    PubMed

    Modan, M; Peles, E; Halkin, H; Nitzan, H; Azaria, M; Gitel, S; Dolfin, D; Modan, B

    1998-11-15

    We evaluated the 24-year mortality rates of male traumatic lower limb amputees (n = 201) of the Israeli army, wounded between 1948 and 1974 compared with a cohort sample representing the general population (n = 1,832). Mortality rates were significantly higher (21.9% vs 12.1%, p <0.001) in amputees than in controls. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality was the main cause for this difference. The prevalence of selected risk factors for CVD was determined in 101 surviving amputees (aged 50 to 65 years) and a sample of the controls (n = 96) matched by age and ethnic origin. Amputees had higher plasma insulin levels (during fasting and in response to oral glucose loading) and increased blood coagulation activity. No differences were found in rates of current symptoms of ischemic heart disease or of cerebrovascular disease, obesity, hypertension, altered plasma lipoprotein profile, impaired physical activity, smoking, or nutritional habits. Traumatic lower limb amputees had increased mortality rates due to CVD. Surviving amputees had hyperinsulinemia, increased coagulability, and increased sympathetic and parasympathetic responses (described previously). These established CVD risk factors may explain the excess mortality due to CVD in traumatic amputees.

  20. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Luquero, Francisco J; Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-03-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1-35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported.

  1. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P.; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1–35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported. PMID:26886511

  2. Infant mortality, the birth rate, and development in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Field, J O; Ropes, G

    1980-07-01

    This paper is a product of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Cairo University Health Care Delivery Systems Project which has examined the delivery of health services in Egypt in relation to malnutrition, early childhood mortality, and fertility. Egypt's economic progress since the 1952 Revolution has had only limited effect on high mortality among preschool children, infants and a high rate of population growth. This paper uses governorate data and simple analytical methods. 10% of Egyptian children die in the 1st year of life; subsequent mortality is also extensive in the preschool age children. The crude birthrate remains in the high 30s and overall population growth continues unabated. Early childhood mortality reflects the interplay of malnutrition and infection and population growth is caused by the fact that children, especially males, are considered economic assets. High fertility is a reflection of high mortality to a significant degree. 4 dimensions of development in Egypt are: 1) an urban cluster, 2) poverty, 3) the incidence of women in the paid labor force, 4) development in the rural sector, and 5) population density. Agricultural income increases as women enter the paid labor force and agricultural productivity is weakly related to the practice of women working for pay. Infant mortality in Egypt varies with and is most influenced by population pressures on the land, including urban crowdedness and by the proportion of households living below the poverty line. Female employment adds to family income and affects infant mortality indirectly. Policy implications are: 1) the government must deal with the density factor, 2) it must pursue a development strategy that stimulates productivity and raises the resource base of society, and 3) the government must address infant mortality along with malnutrition and morbidity. The author concludes that: 1) variation in the birth rate is less than variation in the infant mortality rate, 2) mortality and

  3. Benchmarking clinical practice in surgery: looking beyond traditional mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ricardo A S; Oliveira, Pedro N; Silva Portela, Conceição; Camanho, Ana S; Queiroz e Melo, João

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes two new measures to assess performance of surgical practice based on observed mortality: reliability, measured as the area under the ROC curve and a living score, the sum of individual risk among surviving patients, divided by the total number of patients. A Monte Carlo simulation of surgeons' practice was used for conceptual validation and an analysis of a real-world hospital department was used for managerial validation. We modelled surgical practice as a bivariate distribution function of risk and final state. We sampled 250 distributions, varying the maximum risk each surgeon faced, the distribution of risk among dead patients, the mortality rate and the number of surgeries performed yearly. We applied the measures developed to a Portuguese cardiothoracic department. We found that the joint use of the reliability and living score measures overcomes the limitations of risk adjusted mortality rates, as it enables a different valuation of deaths, according to their risk levels. Reliability favours surgeons with casualties, predominantly, in high values of risk and penalizes surgeons with deaths in relatively low levels of risk. The living score is positively influenced by the maximum risk for which a surgeon yields surviving patients. These measures enable a deeper understanding of surgical practice and, as risk adjusted mortality rates, they rely only on mortality and risk scores data. The case study revealed that the performance of the department analysed could be improved with enhanced policies of risk management, involving the assignment of surgeries based on surgeon's reliability and living score.

  4. Fiscal decentralisation and infant mortality rate: the Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Soto, Victoria Eugenia; Farfan, Maria Isabel; Lorant, Vincent

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of research analysing the influence of fiscal decentralisation on health outcomes. Colombia is an interesting case study, as health expenditure there has been decentralising since 1993, leading to an improvement in health care insurance. However, it is unclear whether fiscal decentralisation has improved population health. We assess the effect of fiscal decentralisation of health expenditure on infant mortality rates in Colombia. Infant mortality rates for 1080 municipalities over a 10-year period (1998-2007) were related to fiscal decentralisation by using an unbalanced fixed-effect regression model with robust errors. Fiscal decentralisation was measured as the locally controlled health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure. We also evaluated the effect of transfers from central government and municipal institutional capacity. In addition, we compared the effect of fiscal decentralisation at different levels of municipal poverty. Fiscal decentralisation decreased infant mortality rates (the elasticity was equal to -0.06). However, this effect was stronger in non-poor municipalities (-0.12) than poor ones (-0.081). We conclude that decentralising the fiscal allocation of responsibilities to municipalities decreased infant mortality rates. However, this improved health outcome effect depended greatly on the socio-economic conditions of the localities. The policy instrument used by the Health Minister to evaluate municipal institutional capacity in the health sector needs to be revised. PMID:22417812

  5. Age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the frequency with which Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) of known age were observed breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. No one- or two-year old geese were observed on nests. Three-year old geese bred at a lower rate than four-year old geese. These data suggest that patterns of age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese are similar to other sympatrically nesting, large bodied geese [Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons)] but delayed relative to smaller bodied geese [Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Pacific Black Brant (B. bernicla nigricans)].

  6. Estimating cancer mortality rates from SEER incidence and survival data.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K C; Horm, J W; Smart, C R

    1990-01-01

    A method to estimate site-specific cancer mortality rates using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program incidence and survival data is proposed, calculated, and validated. This measure, the life table-derived mortality rate (LTM), is the sum of the product of the probability of being alive at the beginning of an interval times the probability of dying of the cancer of interest during the interval times the annual age-adjusted incidence rate for each year that data have been collected. When the LTM is compared to death certificate mortality rates (DCM) for organ sites with no known misclassification problems, the LTM was within 10 percent of the death certificate rates for 13 of 14 organ sites. In the sites that have problems with the death certificate rates, there were major disagreements between the LTM and DCM. The LTM was systematically lower than the DCM for sites if there was overreporting on the death certificates, and the LTM was higher than the DCM for sites if there was underreporting. The limitations and applications of the LTM are detailed. PMID:2106703

  7. Mortality rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases in Italy from 1979 to 2010: an age–period–cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate the trends in CLRD mortality in Italy, and the specific contributions of age, time period and birth cohort in driving these trends. Population and cause-of-death data in Italy between 1979 and 2010 were collected from the World Health Organization website. Age-specific mortality rates for CLRDs, and effects for age, time period and birth cohort on mortality trends were estimated using age–period–cohort models. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis represent nearly 98% of the deaths from CLRDs. Despite the overall number of deaths have been stable (in men) or increasing (in women), the age-standardised rates have been steadily decreasing from 1979 to 2010, passing from 104.3 to 55.4 per 100 000 person-years in men and from 32.2 to 19.6 per 100 000 person-years in women. The average relative annual decrease was −3.6% in men and −2.7% in women. Since the end of the 1990s, the decreasing trend of CLRD mortality has started to level off, in particular in women. The decrease in CLRD mortality rates has been more accentuated in more recent cohorts and in younger age groups. Both birth cohort and time period significantly affected the CLRD mortality rates, suggesting that changes in the spread of risk factors (smoking habits, early-life and occupational exposures) across different birth cohorts, as well as in advanced in healthcare and medical practice, may have played a major role in secular changes in COPD mortality rates in Italy. PMID:27730182

  8. Infectious Disease Mortality Rates, Thailand, 1958–2009

    PubMed Central

    McCarron, Margaret; Lertiendumrong, Jongkol; Olsen, Sonja J.; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta

    2012-01-01

    To better define infectious diseases of concern in Thailand, trends in the mortality rate during 1958–2009 were analyzed by using data from public health statistics reports. From 1958 to the mid-1990s, the rate of infectious disease–associated deaths declined 5-fold (from 163.4 deaths/100,000 population in 1958 to 29.5/100,000 in 1997). This average annual reduction of 3.2 deaths/100,000 population was largely attributed to declines in deaths related to malaria, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal infections. However, during 1998–2003, the mortality rate increased (peak of 70.0 deaths/100,000 population in 2003), coinciding with increases in mortality rate from AIDS, tuberculosis, and pneumonia. During 2004–2009, the rate declined to 41.0 deaths/100,000 population, coinciding with a decrease in AIDS-related deaths. The emergence of AIDS and the increase in tuberculosis- and pneumonia-related deaths in the late twentieth century emphasize the need to direct resources and efforts to the control of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. PMID:23092558

  9. Suicide mortality rates in Louisiana, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Ratard, Raoult

    2012-01-01

    This report is a descriptive study on suicide deaths in Louisiana occurring in the years 1999 to 2010. Mortality data was collected from death certificates from this 12-year period to describe suicide mortality by year, race, sex, age group, and methods of suicide. Data were also compared to national data. Rates and methods used to commit suicide vary greatly according to sex, race, and age. The highest rates were observed in white males, followed by black males, white females, and black females. Older white males had the highest suicide rates. The influence of age was modulated by the sex and race categories. Firearm was the most common method used in all four categories. Other less common methods were hanging/strangulation/suffocation (HSS) and drugs/alcohol. Although no parish-level data were systematically analyzed, a comparison of suicide rates post-Katrina versus pre-Katrina was done for Orleans Parish, the rest of the Greater New Orleans area, and a comparison group. It appears that rates observed among whites, particularly males, were higher after Katrina. Data based on mortality do not give a comprehensive picture of the burden of suicide, and their interpretation should be done with caution. PMID:23362593

  10. Suicide mortality rates in Louisiana, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Ratard, Raoult

    2012-01-01

    This report is a descriptive study on suicide deaths in Louisiana occurring in the years 1999 to 2010. Mortality data was collected from death certificates from this 12-year period to describe suicide mortality by year, race, sex, age group, and methods of suicide. Data were also compared to national data. Rates and methods used to commit suicide vary greatly according to sex, race, and age. The highest rates were observed in white males, followed by black males, white females, and black females. Older white males had the highest suicide rates. The influence of age was modulated by the sex and race categories. Firearm was the most common method used in all four categories. Other less common methods were hanging/strangulation/suffocation (HSS) and drugs/alcohol. Although no parish-level data were systematically analyzed, a comparison of suicide rates post-Katrina versus pre-Katrina was done for Orleans Parish, the rest of the Greater New Orleans area, and a comparison group. It appears that rates observed among whites, particularly males, were higher after Katrina. Data based on mortality do not give a comprehensive picture of the burden of suicide, and their interpretation should be done with caution.

  11. Self-rated health and mortality in people with diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Dasbach, E J; Klein, R; Klein, B E; Moss, S E

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examined whether self-rated health is an independent and significant predictor of mortality in people with diabetes, using data collected in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. METHODS. Participants were asked to rate their health in comparison with others their age. A proportional hazards model was used to regress survival time on self-rated health and a number of covariates measuring physical health. RESULTS. People with younger onset diabetes (n = 891) who rated their health relative to their peers as "worse" or "don't know" were no more likely to die than those rating their health as "the same" or "better" when physical health status was controlled. In contrast, those with older onset diabetes (n = 987) who rated their health as "worse" or "don't know" were almost twice as likely to die as those rating their health as "the same" or "better" when physical health status was controlled. CONCLUSIONS. Self-rated health is a significant predictor of mortality in people with older onset diabetes but not in those with younger onset diabetes when physical health status is controlled. PMID:7977916

  12. Dynamics of self-rated health and selective mortality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Self-rated health status (SRHS) is one of the most frequently used health measures in empirical health economics. This article analyzes the first seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and finds that (1) all available lags have decreasing but significant predictive power for current SRHS and (2) SRHS and future mortality are strongly related which leads to a specific selection problem known as survivorship bias. A parsimonious joint model with an autocorrelated latent health component in both the SRHS and the mortality equation is suggested. It is better able to capture the empirical facts than commonly used models including random effects and/or state dependence and better able to correct the survivorship bias than commonly used strategies such as inverse probability weighting. PMID:21423875

  13. The case of the elusive infant mortality rate.

    PubMed

    Hartford, R B

    1984-05-01

    The layperson's concern focuses on 4 criteria for comparabiltiy of infant mortality data: appropriateness of unit of analysis, whether or not the population measured is a certain minimum size or conforms to some social or demographic standard; completeness, i.e., the extent to which all relevant are counted; coverage -- the extent to which all population segements or subgroups are included in the registration system within a country; and uniformity of measurement, that is, use of standard definitions and measurement procedures. A year ago Carl Haub's article, "Where Does the U.S. Stand in Infant Mortality," ranked the US 19th in a comparison with 30 other countries. Following UN practice, Haub excluded countries reporting less than 50 infant deaths, whose rates might be easily skewed. Completeness of registration was not a problem in highly industrialized nations with highly developed medical care and statistics recording systems. In recent years coverage has been essentially comprehensive. It is with the uniformity of measurement that complications arise -- in discriminating between a fetal death and an infant death. The UN standard lists 4 life signs for an infant, any one of which constitutes a live birth. Other countries have had a shorter list of admissible signs. Still other countries have excluded infants dying within 24 hours of birth or set viability criteria for including newly born in the infant category. Yet, the statistics in many cases have become standardized. Regarding the objection that the US with its large mixed population cannot be compared with small European countries, 10 states of the US with the lowest infant mortality rates in 1980 are examined. They are: New Hampshire (9.2); Wyoming (9.8); Vermont (9.9); Minnesota (10.0); Colorado (10.1); Wisconsin (10.3); Hawaii (10.3); Kansas (10.4); Utah (10.4); and Massachustetts (10.5). The populations of most of these states are small and homogeneous. If these states were to be inserted into Haub

  14. Disentangling Effects of Vector Birth Rate, Mortality Rate, and Abundance on Spread of Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sisterson, Mark S; Stenger, Drake C

    2016-04-01

    Models on the spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens often fix vector population size by assuming that deaths are offset by births. Although such mathematical simplifications are often justified, deemphasizing parameters that govern vector population size is problematic, as reproductive biology and mortality schedules of vectors of plant pathogens receive little empirical attention. Here, the importance of explicitly including parameters for vector birth and death rates was evaluated by comparing results from models with fixed vector population size with models with logistic vector population growth. In fixed vector population size models, increasing vector mortality decreased percentage of inoculative vectors, but had no effect on vector population size, as deaths were offset by births. In models with logistic vector population growth, increasing vector mortality decreased percentage of inoculative vectors and decreased vector population size. Consequently, vector mortality had a greater effect on pathogen spread in models with logistic vector population growth than in models with fixed vector population size. Further, in models with logistic vector population growth, magnitude of vector birth rate determined time required for vector populations to reach large size, thereby determining when pathogen spread occurred quickly. Assumptions regarding timing of vector mortality within a time step also affected model outcome. A greater emphasis of vector entomologists on studying reproductive biology and mortality schedules of insect species that transmit plant pathogens will facilitate identification of conditions associated with rapid growth of vector populations and could lead to development of novel control strategies.

  15. Immunization coverage and infant mortality rate in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shimouchi, A; Ozasa, K; Hayashi, K

    1994-01-01

    We examined whether immunization coverage (IMC) is one of the predictors of infant mortality rate (IMR), as a single indicator representing the availability of primary health care (PHC) services in developing countries. Multiple regression analysis showed that partial correlation coefficients for IMR with immunization coverage (-0.224), logarithm of per capita GNP (-0.294), total fertility rate (0.269), and adult literacy rate (-0.325) were all statistically significant (p < 0.001) in 97 developing countries which make up more than 97% of the population in all the developing countries of the world. Multiple correlation coefficients of IMR with these four variables in 97 countries was 0.921. Thus, more than 80% of variation of IMR in developing countries were explained by the variation of the four variables. The study also showed that IMC was well correlated (simple correlation) with the four indicators of the availability of primary health care services; access to local care (0.730), care of pregnant women (0.603), delivery care (0.666), and infant care (0.553), all of which were statistically significant (p < 0.001) in the 48 developing countries which make up 42% of the population of all developing countries. Multiple correlation coefficients of these four variables was 0.787. About 60% of the variation of IMC will be explained by the variation of the four variables. Thus we conclude that immunization coverage is one of the main predictors of the infant mortality rate. It represents one of the health intervention components which can be used as a proxy indicator of the availability of PHC service in developing countries.

  16. Strategies to reduce infant mortality rate in India.

    PubMed

    Ghai, O P

    1985-01-01

    As a systems approach is needed to develop strategies to reduce the infant mortality rate (IMR), it is appropriate to analyze the present situation in India, reasons for low IMR in some Indian states vis-a-vis others, the status in some neighboring countries, and the cost effectiveness of various available technological interventions and their organizational constraints. A 1981 survey revealed 1) a low IMR for the state of Kerala, one which was comparable with Western nations, despite the fact that nearly half of the population in Kerala lived below the poverty line; 2) a very high IMR for the state of Uttar Pradesh, even though the number of people living below the poverty line was not significantly by different from the state of Kerala; and a moderate IMR reduction in the state of Punjab, even though only 15% of the population was below the poverty line. Favorable factors for low IMR appear to be a high female literacy rate, good medical and educational facilities close to the place of residence, and an excellent transportation and communication system. To significantly reduce IMR in a short period of time, it is necessary to adopt certain immediate measures. Nearly 55% of infant deaths occur in the 1st month of life, and these generally are not amenable to general measures and technological interventions. The problem is difficult, but a solution can be found by reaching a broad consensus among professionals and administrators. The major recommendations of a seminar on the Strategies for Reducing infant Mortality in India, held during January 1984, were: provide antenatal care to 100% of pregnant women; work for early registration of pregnancy and identification of high risk pregnancies; immunize 100% of pregnant women with tetanus toxoid; make available intrapartum care for all pregnant women; delineate anticipated job requirements, duties, and functions of village level health workers; make presterilized packaged delivery kits available to all female health

  17. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    PubMed

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    To expand upon the findings that lower mortality was found in Japanese urban areas in contrast to the Western model where in the US and Britain the risk of death was higher in metropolitan areas and conurbations, 22 social life indicators are examined among 46 prefectures in Japan in terms of their effect on age specific mortality, life expectancy, and age adjusted marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The effects of these factors on age adjusted mortality for 8 major working and nonworking male populations, where also analyzed. The 22 social life factors were selected from among 227 indicators in the system of Statistical Indicators on Life. Factor analysis was used to classify the indicators into 8 groups of factors for 1970 and 7 for 1975. Factors 1-3 for both years were rural or urban residence, low income and unemployment, and prefectural age distribution. The 4th for 1970 was home help for the elderly and for 1975, social mobility. The social life indicators were classified form 1 to 8 as rural residence in 1970 and 1975, urban residence, low income, high employment, old age, young age, social mobility, and home help for the elderly which moved from 8th place in 1970 to 1st in 1975. Between 1960-75, rapid urbanization took place with the proportion of farmers, fishermen, and workers declining from 43% in 1960 to 19% in 1975. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicate a positive relationship of urban residence with mortality of men and women except school-aged and middle-aged women, and the working populations, as well as life expectancy at birth for males and females and ages 20 and 40 years for males. Rural residence was positively associated with the male marriage rate, whereas the marriage rate for females was affected by industrialization and urbanization. High employment and social mobility were positively related to the female marriage rate. Low income was positively related to the divorce rate for males and females. Rural residence and high

  18. Modelling the strategies for age specific vaccination scheduling during influenza pandemic outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Knipl, Diána H; Röst, Gergely

    2011-01-01

    Finding optimal policies to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the ongoing pandemic is a top public health priority. Using a compartmental model with age structure and vaccination status, we examined the effect of age specific scheduling of vaccination during a pandemic influenza outbreak, when there is a race between the vaccination campaign and the dynamics of the pandemic. Our results agree with some recent studies on that age specificity is paramount to vaccination planning. However, little is known about the effectiveness of such control measures when they are applied during the outbreak. Comparing five possible strategies, we found that age specific scheduling can have a huge impact on the outcome of the epidemic. For the best scheme, the attack rates were up to 10% lower than for other strategies. We demonstrate the importance of early start of the vaccination campaign, since ten days delay may increase the attack rate by up to 6%. Taking into account the delay between developing immunity and vaccination is a key factor in evaluating the impact of vaccination campaigns. We provide a general framework which will be useful for the next pandemic waves as well. PMID:21361404

  19. Differences between Older Men and Women in the Self-Rated Health-Mortality Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bath, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to examine differences between older men and women: (a) in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality, (b) in the effect of different follow-up periods on the self-rated health mortality relationship, and (c) in the relative importance of self-rated health and self-rated change in health in…

  20. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  1. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  2. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    PubMed

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  3. Effects of type of ownership of skilled nursing facilities on residents' mortality rates in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Bell, R; Krivich, M

    1990-01-01

    The effect of ownership on the quality and cost of care in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) was examined using unadjusted and adjusted mortality rates for such facilities in Illinois for the 1986-87 reporting year. Results indicated that when using unadjusted mortality rates, for-profit facilities had much lower rates than either government-owned or nonprofit SNFs. When mortality rates were adjusted, using available measures of intervening variables, differences by type of ownership disappeared. The higher percentage of discharges to general hospitals exhibited by for-profit facilities, compared with other types of facility ownership, appears to have the strongest effect on SNF mortality rates. PMID:2120730

  4. Causes and rates of mortality of swift foxes in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Roy, C.C.; Bright, J.B.; Gillis, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of mortality factors is important for developing strategies to conserve the swift fox (Vulpes velox), a species being considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act, but available information about swift fox mortality is inadequate. We used radiotelemetry techniques to examine the magnitude and causes of mortality of swift fox populations in 2 study areas in western Kansas. One study area was predominantly cropland, the other rangeland. Mortality rates, calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimation techniques in a staggered entry design, were 0.55 ?? 0.08 (5 ?? SE) for adult and 0.67 ?? 0.08 for juvenile swift foxes. We did not detect differences between study areas in mortality rates for adults or juveniles. Predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) was the major cause of mortality for adult and juvenile swift foxes in both study areas, and vehicle collision was an important mortality factor for juveniles in the cropland study area. No mortality was attributed to starvation or disease.

  5. Causes and implications of the correlation between forest productivity and tree mortality rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, Nathan L.; van Mantgem, Philip J.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Bruner, Howard; Harmon, Mark E.; O'Connell, Kari B.; Urban, Dean L.; Franklin, Jerry F.

    2011-01-01

    For only one of these four mechanisms, competition, can high mortality rates be considered to be a relatively direct consequence of high NPP. The remaining mechanisms force us to adopt a different view of causality, in which tree growth rates and probability of mortality can vary with at least a degree of independence along productivity gradients. In many cases, rather than being a direct cause of high mortality rates, NPP may remain high in spite of high mortality rates. The independent influence of plant enemies and other factors helps explain why forest biomass can show little correlation, or even negative correlation, with forest NPP.

  6. Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Byrne, J.C.; Daniels, L.D.; Franklin, J.F.; Fule, P.Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Larson, A.J.; Smith, Joseph M.; Taylor, A.H.; Veblen, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent changes in tree mortality rates can alter forest structure, composition, and ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration. Our analyses of longitudinal data from unmanaged old forests in the western United States showed that background (noncatastrophic) mortality rates have increased rapidly in recent decades, with doubling periods ranging from 17 to 29 years among regions. Increases were also pervasive across elevations, tree sizes, dominant genera, and past fire histories. Forest density and basal area declined slightly, which suggests that increasing mortality was not caused by endogenous increases in competition. Because mortality increased in small trees, the overall increase in mortality rates cannot be attributed solely to aging of large trees. Regional warming and consequent increases in water deficits are likely contributors to the increases in tree mortality rates.

  7. Child Mortality Estimation: Consistency of Under-Five Mortality Rate Estimates Using Full Birth Histories and Summary Birth Histories

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Romesh

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the lack of complete vital registration data in most developing countries, for many countries it is not possible to accurately estimate under-five mortality rates from vital registration systems. Heavy reliance is often placed on direct and indirect methods for analyzing data collected from birth histories to estimate under-five mortality rates. Yet few systematic comparisons of these methods have been undertaken. This paper investigates whether analysts should use both direct and indirect estimates from full birth histories, and under what circumstances indirect estimates derived from summary birth histories should be used. Methods and Findings Usings Demographic and Health Surveys data from West Africa, East Africa, Latin America, and South/Southeast Asia, I quantify the differences between direct and indirect estimates of under-five mortality rates, analyze data quality issues, note the relative effects of these issues, and test whether these issues explain the observed differences. I find that indirect estimates are generally consistent with direct estimates, after adjustment for fertility change and birth transference, but don't add substantial additional insight beyond direct estimates. However, choice of direct or indirect method was found to be important in terms of both the adjustment for data errors and the assumptions made about fertility. Conclusions Although adjusted indirect estimates are generally consistent with adjusted direct estimates, some notable inconsistencies were observed for countries that had experienced either a political or economic crisis or stalled health transition in their recent past. This result suggests that when a population has experienced a smooth mortality decline or only short periods of excess mortality, both adjusted methods perform equally well. However, the observed inconsistencies identified suggest that the indirect method is particularly prone to bias resulting from violations of its strong

  8. Measures to reduce the infant mortality rate in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Karungula, J

    1992-05-01

    Tanzanian health problems reflect those in other developing countries where the standard of living is low and housing and sanitation are inadequate. The major cause of infant mortality can be attributed to preventable diseases such as gastroenteritis, acute respiratory infections and malnutrition. In spite of the fact that various efforts have been made to extend primary health care coverage, particularly in rural areas, the scarcity of economic resources impedes the implementation of many health programmes. However, only by maintaining primary health care as a major part of the country's development strategy can the needs of both rural and urban people be met.

  9. The effects of differential unemployment rate increases of occupation groups on changes in mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Martikainen, P T; Valkonen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the effects of changes in unemployment rates of occupation groups on changes in mortality in a period of increasing unemployment. METHODS: Census records for all 20- to 64-year-old economically active Finnish men in 1985 were linked to information on unemployment and deaths in 1987 through 1993. RESULTS: Change in mortality was similar in occupation groups in which unemployment rates increased at a different pace. These relationships were similar for all age groups and for mortality from diseases as well as accidents and violence. CONCLUSIONS: Unemployment does not seem to cause mortality in the short term. Excess mortality rates among unemployed individuals observed in previous studies may have been due in part to selection. PMID:9842389

  10. Women Chemists Mortality Study Finds High Suicide Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A study of white women members (N=347) of the American Chemical Society who died between 1925 and 1979 finds five times the expected rate of suicide, a higher risk for some forms of cancer, and a lower rate of heart disease. These and other findings are discussed. (JN)

  11. Occupational injury mortality rates in the United States: changes from 1980 to 1989.

    PubMed Central

    Stout, N A; Jenkins, E L; Pizatella, T J

    1996-01-01

    Changes in occupational injury mortality rates over the 1980s were examined through analysis of the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system. The US occupational injury mortality rate decreased 37% over the decade, with decreases seen in nearly every demographic and employment sector. Greater declines were among men, Blacks, and younger workers, as well as among agricultural, trade, and service workers. Electrocutions, machine-related incidents, and homicides showed the greatest decreases. Changes in occupational mortality rates by demography, industry, and cause of death indicate the areas in which the most progress has been made and those that are prime targets for prevention efforts. PMID:8561247

  12. Self rated health and mortality: a long term prospective study in eastern Finland

    PubMed Central

    Heistaro, S; Jousilahti, P; Lahelma, E; Vartiainen, E; Puska, P

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the relation between self rated health and mortality over a period of 23 years, taking into account medical history, cardiovascular risk factors, and education at the beginning of the follow up.
DESIGN—A cohort of random population samples. The baseline studies included a self administered questionnaire and a health examination. Mortality data were collected from the national mortality register using personal identification numbers.
SETTING—The provinces of North Karelia and Kuopio in eastern Finland.
PARTICIPANTS—Random samples of working age people (n=21 302) from the population register.
MAIN RESULTS—For self rated health, the age adjusted poor to good relative risk for all cause mortality was 2.36 (95% confidence intervals 2.10, 2.64) for men and 1.90 (1.63, 2.22) for women, and for cardiovascular mortality 2.29 (1.96, 2.68) for men and 2.34 (1.84, 2.96) for women. Adjusted for selected potentially fatal diseases from the subjects' medical histories, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and education, the corresponding relative risks for all cause mortality were 1.66 (1.47, 1.88) for men and 1.50 (1.26, 1.78) for women, and for cardiovascular mortality 1.54 (1.29, 1.82) for men and 1.63 (1.26, 2.10) for women. The association between self rated health and mortality attributable to external causes was fairly strong.
CONCLUSIONS—Poor self rated health is a strong predictor of mortality, and the association is only partly explained by medical history, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and education.


Keywords: self rated health; mortality; Finland PMID:11238576

  13. Captive Reptile Mortality Rates in the Home and Implications for the Wildlife Trade.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Janine E; St John, Freya A V; Griffiths, Richard A; Roberts, David L

    2015-01-01

    The trade in wildlife and keeping of exotic pets is subject to varying levels of national and international regulation and is a topic often attracting controversy. Reptiles are popular exotic pets and comprise a substantial component of the live animal trade. High mortality of traded animals raises welfare concerns, and also has implications for conservation if collection from the wild is required to meet demand. Mortality of reptiles can occur at any stage of the trade chain from collector to consumer. However, there is limited information on mortality rates of reptiles across trade chains, particularly amongst final consumers in the home. We investigated mortality rates of reptiles amongst consumers using a specialised technique for asking sensitive questions, additive Randomised Response Technique (aRRT), as well as direct questioning (DQ). Overall, 3.6% of snakes, chelonians and lizards died within one year of acquisition. Boas and pythons had the lowest reported mortality rates of 1.9% and chameleons had the highest at 28.2%. More than 97% of snakes, 87% of lizards and 69% of chelonians acquired by respondents over five years were reported to be captive bred and results suggest that mortality rates may be lowest for captive bred individuals. Estimates of mortality from aRRT and DQ did not differ significantly which is in line with our findings that respondents did not find questions about reptile mortality to be sensitive. This research suggests that captive reptile mortality in the home is rather low, and identifies those taxa where further effort could be made to reduce mortality rates.

  14. Captive Reptile Mortality Rates in the Home and Implications for the Wildlife Trade

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Janine E.; St. John, Freya A. V.; Griffiths, Richard A.; Roberts, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The trade in wildlife and keeping of exotic pets is subject to varying levels of national and international regulation and is a topic often attracting controversy. Reptiles are popular exotic pets and comprise a substantial component of the live animal trade. High mortality of traded animals raises welfare concerns, and also has implications for conservation if collection from the wild is required to meet demand. Mortality of reptiles can occur at any stage of the trade chain from collector to consumer. However, there is limited information on mortality rates of reptiles across trade chains, particularly amongst final consumers in the home. We investigated mortality rates of reptiles amongst consumers using a specialised technique for asking sensitive questions, additive Randomised Response Technique (aRRT), as well as direct questioning (DQ). Overall, 3.6% of snakes, chelonians and lizards died within one year of acquisition. Boas and pythons had the lowest reported mortality rates of 1.9% and chameleons had the highest at 28.2%. More than 97% of snakes, 87% of lizards and 69% of chelonians acquired by respondents over five years were reported to be captive bred and results suggest that mortality rates may be lowest for captive bred individuals. Estimates of mortality from aRRT and DQ did not differ significantly which is in line with our findings that respondents did not find questions about reptile mortality to be sensitive. This research suggests that captive reptile mortality in the home is rather low, and identifies those taxa where further effort could be made to reduce mortality rates. PMID:26556237

  15. Rate of ESRD Exceeds Mortality among African Americans with Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelei; Wright, Jackson T.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Greene, Tom; Norris, Keith; Lewis, Julia

    2010-01-01

    In several studies, patients with CKD seemed to be at greater risk for dying from cardiovascular disease (CVD) than reaching ESRD. The purpose of this study was to compare incident ESRD rates with rates of total mortality, CVD death, and a CVD composite (CVD mortality and CVD hospitalization) among participants who had hypertensive nephrosclerosis and were enrolled in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK). The study period included the AASK trial phase (1996 through 2001) and a subsequent cohort phase (2002 through 2007). The AASK enrolled 1094 participants. Of the 764 participants who completed the trial phase without an event, 691 (90%) enrolled in the cohort phase. During 11 years of follow-up, there were 59 CVD-related deaths and 118 non–CVD-related deaths. The rate of ESRD (3.9/100 patient-years) was significantly higher than the rates of total mortality (2.2/100 patient-years), CVD mortality (0.8/100 patient-years), and the CVD composite (3.2/100 patient-years). The incidence rate ratio of ESRD to CVD mortality was 5.0. The rate of ESRD consistently exceeded the various mortality rates across most of the subgroups defined by age, gender, income, education, previous CVD, baseline urine protein excretion, and baseline estimated GFR. In conclusion, AASK participants were more likely to reach ESRD than to die. PMID:20651163

  16. Mortality rates in a female cohort following asbestos exposure in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rösler, J A; Woitowitz, H J; Lange, H J; Woitowitz, R H; Ulm, K; Rödelsperger, K

    1994-08-01

    A cohort study was conducted of 616 German female workers with a history of exposure to asbestos. Standardized proportionate mortality analysis was done except for mesothelioma, for which proportionate mortality was computed based on best evident cause of death. Mortality from lung cancer was increased three times over expected value. Death rates due to mesothelioma were 340 times higher than in the general population. Female mortality rates surpassed those observed in men twofold for lung cancer and fourfold for mesothelioma. In comparison with published data from international cohort studies, the observed mortality for mesothelioma in our female cohort appeared higher than that previously reported. German women with a history of asbestos exposure are considered a high-risk group for developing mesothelioma and lung cancer. They should be a target group for intervention strategies (eg, chemoprevention, smoking cessation, early cancer detection).

  17. Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Infant Mortality Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific infant mortality rates, by race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, 2007 Gestational age (weeks) ... ethnic groups is higher than in other developed countries, all U.S. racial and ethnic groups might benefit ...

  18. [Survey of suicidal mortality rate in several districts of Sichuan province].

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Liu, X; Huo, K; Zhang, W

    1992-09-01

    A survey of the suicidal mortality rates in two cities and six districts in Sichuan province was carried out from 1980 to 1988 by the authors. The average suicidal mortality rate (ASMR) in these districts from 1980 to 1988 was 15.5/10(5), and the population and suicidal mortality rate positively correlated, r = 0.53. The ASMR in the male was 14.9/10(5), in the female 17.1/10(5), in the urban area 9.4/10(5), in the rural area 21/10(5), and the ASMR in the urban area was higher than that in the rural area (P < 0.05). The peak age of suicidal mortality was around twenty years. PMID:1304550

  19. [Survey of suicidal mortality rate in several districts of Sichuan province].

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Liu, X; Huo, K; Zhang, W

    1992-09-01

    A survey of the suicidal mortality rates in two cities and six districts in Sichuan province was carried out from 1980 to 1988 by the authors. The average suicidal mortality rate (ASMR) in these districts from 1980 to 1988 was 15.5/10(5), and the population and suicidal mortality rate positively correlated, r = 0.53. The ASMR in the male was 14.9/10(5), in the female 17.1/10(5), in the urban area 9.4/10(5), in the rural area 21/10(5), and the ASMR in the urban area was higher than that in the rural area (P < 0.05). The peak age of suicidal mortality was around twenty years.

  20. Mortality rate in children born to mothers and fathers with celiac disease: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zugna, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Stephansson, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2013-06-15

    Celiac disease (CD) is associated with increased mortality rate and adverse pregnancy outcome, but little is known about offspring mortality rate. In this nationwide retrospective cohort study, we identified persons whose biopsy-verified CD was diagnosed in Sweden in 1969-2008. We compared mortality rates in children born to mothers with and without CD (n = 16,121 vs. n = 61,782) and children born to fathers with and without CD (n = 9,289 vs. n = 32,984). Median age of offspring at end of follow-up was 28.7 (range, 16.7-39.7) years. We also examined mortality rates in children born to mothers with undiagnosed CD (later CD diagnosis; n = 12,919) and diagnosed CD (n = 3,202) to determine if intrauterine exposures associated with CD could affect offspring mortality rate. We estimated hazard ratios for death by using Cox regression. Death rates were independent of maternal CD (60 deaths per 100,000 person-years in children of mothers with CD, vs. 54 in controls) and paternal CD (53 deaths per 100,000 person-years in children of fathers with CD, vs. 53 in controls). Corresponding adjusted hazard ratios were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.26) for maternal CD and 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 1.23) for paternal CD. Death rates were similar in children born to mothers with undiagnosed CD and in children whose mothers had diagnosed CD during pregnancy. Parental CD does not seem to influence mortality rate in offspring, which suggests that neither genetic influences of CD nor intrauterine conditions have adverse effects on offspring mortality rate.

  1. Declining effect of latitude on melanoma mortality rates in the United States. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lee, J A

    1997-09-01

    The gradient of mortality from melanoma of the skin with latitude among US whites was estimated from the slopes of semilogarithmic models fitted to the state-specific mortality rates and the latitudes of the states' capital cities. The upward gradient of mortality from north to south for malignant melanoma of the skin has been decreasing since 1950-1959, when data first became available, through 1960-1969, 1970-1979, and 1988-1992. By the early years of the 21st century, rates of melanoma mortality in the contiguous United States are expected to be unaffected by latitude. For the country as a whole, melanoma mortality rates have been rising for many years. This rise has become progressively slower, such that national rates have been projected to stabilize in the near future. While increasing geographic mobility has probably played a role in reducing the latitude effect, melanoma mortality rates may have reached levels at which increased exposure of US whites to sunlight has little incremental effect.

  2. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates. PMID:24033718

  3. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates.

  4. A comparison of determinants of infant mortality rate (IMR) between countries with high and low IMR.

    PubMed

    Megawangi, R; Barnett, J B

    1993-06-01

    Weighted least squares regressions and pooled regression models were used to examine the determinants of infant mortality in developing countries. Data were obtained from the UNICEF's "State of the World's Children, 1987" for 87 countries with data on gross national product, percentage of literate females, percentage of low birth weight infants, daily caloric supply per capita as a percentage of the daily requirement, percentage of population with access to drinking water, total fertility rate, and the population to nurses ratio. Data was unavailable on breast feeding practices and government expenditures on health. Weighted procedures were used because of heteroscadascity problems: total fertility rate was associated with the variance in the error term. The results of pooled data showed that the female literacy rate had the strongest impact on infant mortality, followed by access to clean water and the number of population per nursing person. The impact of female literacy was still strong in high infant mortality countries when controls for gross national product were included. Puzzling findings were the negative sign of low birth weight and the insignificant effect of the total fertility rate. The suggestion was that low birth weight may be expressed already in the level of education and availability of health programs. Fertility's lack of wide variations may explain the insignificant effect. Findings showed that infant mortality was 22.19% higher in countries with gross national product under $500. In low infant mortality countries, none of the environmental variables significantly explained infant mortality. Low birth weight increased its impact on infant mortality among these countries but was still not significant. The findings suggested that infant mortality was most affected by low birth weight and amount of population per nurse in more affluent countries. Environmental factors were more important in explaining high levels of infant mortality in less

  5. Mortality rates by occupation in Korea: a nationwide, 13-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kang, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-A

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to identify inequalities in cause-specific mortality across different occupational groups in Korea. Methods The cohort included Korean workers enrolled in the national employment insurance programme between 1995 and 2000. Mortality was determined by matching death between 1995 and 2008 according to a nationwide registry of the Korea National Statistical Office. The cohort was divided into nine occupational groups according to the Korean Standard Occupational Classification (KSOC). Age-standardised mortality rates of each subcohort were calculated. Results The highest age-standardised mortality rate was identified in KSOC 6 (agricultural, forestry and fishery workers; male (M): 563.0 per 100 000, female (F): 206.0 per 100 000), followed by KSOC 9 (elementary occupations; M: 499.0, F: 163.4) and KSOC 8 (plant, machine operators and assemblers; M: 380.3, F: 157.8). The lowest rate occurred in KSOC 2 (professionals and related workers; M: 209.1, F: 93.3). Differences in mortality rates between KSOC 2 and KSOC 9 (M: 289.9, F: 70.1) and the rate ratio of KSCO9 to KSCO2 (M: 2.39, F: 1.75) were higher in men. The most prominent mortality rate difference was observed in external causes of death (M: 96.9, F: 21.6) and liver disease in men (38.3 per 100 000). Mental disease showed the highest rate ratio (M: 6.31, F: 13.00). Conclusions Substantial differences in mortality rates by occupation were identified. Main causes of death were injury, suicide and male liver disease. Development of policies to support occupations linked with a lower socioeconomic position should be prioritised. PMID:26920855

  6. Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of premature mortality variations via standardized expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measures raises questions about suitable modelling for mortality data, especially when developing SEYLL profiles for areas with small populations. Existing fixed effects estimation methods take no account of correlations in mortality levels over ages, causes, socio-ethnic groups or areas. They also do not specify an underlying data generating process, or a likelihood model that can include trends or correlations, and are likely to produce unstable estimates for small-areas. An alternative strategy involves a fully specified data generation process, and a random effects model which "borrows strength" to produce stable SEYLL estimates, allowing for correlations between ages, areas and socio-ethnic groups. The resulting modelling strategy is applied to gender-specific differences in SEYLL rates in small-areas in NE London, and to cause-specific mortality for leading causes of premature mortality in these areas.

  7. Calculating the Rate of Senescence From Mortality Data: An Analysis of Data From the ERA-EDTA Registry.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Rozing, Maarten P; Kramer, Anneke; Abad, José M; Finne, Patrik; Heaf, James G; Hoitsma, Andries J; De Meester, Johan M J; Palsson, Runolfur; Postorino, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-04-01

    The rate of senescence can be inferred from the acceleration by which mortality rates increase over age. Such a senescence rate is generally estimated from parameters of a mathematical model fitted to these mortality rates. However, such models have limitations and underlying assumptions. Notably, they do not fit mortality rates at young and old ages. Therefore, we developed a method to calculate senescence rates from the acceleration of mortality directly without modeling the mortality rates. We applied the different methods to age group-specific mortality data from the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry, including patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis, who are known to suffer from increased senescence rates (n = 302,455), and patients with a functioning kidney transplant (n = 74,490). From age 20 to 70, senescence rates were comparable when calculated with or without a model. However, when using non-modeled mortality rates, senescence rates were yielded at young and old ages that remained concealed when using modeled mortality rates. At young ages senescence rates were negative, while senescence rates declined at old ages. In conclusion, the rate of senescence can be calculated directly from non-modeled mortality rates, overcoming the disadvantages of an indirect estimation based on modeled mortality rates.

  8. Growth rate predicts mortality of Abies concolor in both burned and unburned stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Mutch, Linda S.; Johnson, Veronica G.; Esperanza, Annie M.; Parsons, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Tree mortality is often the result of both long-term and short-term stress. Growth rate, an indicator of long-term stress, is often used to estimate probability of death in unburned stands. In contrast, probability of death in burned stands is modeled as a function of short-term disturbance severity. We sought to narrow this conceptual gap by determining (i) whether growth rate, in addition to crown scorch, is a predictor of mortality in burned stands and (ii) whether a single, simple model could predict tree death in both burned and unburned stands. Observations of 2622 unburned and 688 burned Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) in the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A., indicated that growth rate was a significant predictor of mortality in the unburned stands, while both crown scorch and radial growth were significant predictors of mortality in the burned stands. Applying the burned stand model to unburned stands resulted in an overestimation of the unburned stand mortality rate. While failing to create a general model of tree death for A. concolor, our findings underscore the idea that similar processes may affect mortality in disturbed and undisturbed stands.

  9. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a population based study of premature mortality rates in the mothers.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers' death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44-7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09-0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment.

  10. Geographic disparity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality rates among the Taiwan population.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Chiang, Po-Huang; Su, Ming-Daw; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Liu, Michael Shi-yung

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes a high disease burden among the elderly worldwide. In Taiwan, the long-term temporal trend of COPD mortality is declining, but the geographical disparity of the disease is not yet known. Nationwide COPD age-adjusted mortality at the township level during 1999-2007 is used for elucidating the geographical distribution of the disease. With an ordinary least squares (OLS) model and geographically weighted regression (GWR), the ecologic risk factors such as smoking rate, area deprivation index, tuberculosis exposure, percentage of aborigines, density of health care facilities, air pollution and altitude are all considered in both models to evaluate their effects on mortality. Global and local Moran's I are used for examining their spatial autocorrelation and identifying clusters. During the study period, the COPD age-adjusted mortality rates in males declined from 26.83 to 19.67 per 100,000 population, and those in females declined from 8.98 to 5.70 per 100,000 population. Overall, males' COPD mortality rate was around three times higher than females'. In the results of GWR, the median coefficients of smoking rate, the percentage of aborigines, PM10 and the altitude are positively correlated with COPD mortality in males and females. The median value of density of health care facilities is negatively correlated with COPD mortality. The overall adjusted R-squares are about 20% higher in the GWR model than in the OLS model. The local Moran's I of the GWR's residuals reflected the consistent high-high cluster in southern Taiwan. The findings indicate that geographical disparities in COPD mortality exist. Future epidemiological investigation is required to understand the specific risk factors within the clustering areas.

  11. Trends in under-5 mortality rates and the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Adetunji, J.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adults and mortality rates among under-5-year-olds have increased or stagnated in many countries. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between under-5 mortality trends and the prevalence of HIV among adults and, if so, to assess the magnitude of the effect of adult HIV prevalence on under-5 mortality rates. METHOD: Data from Demographic and Health Surveys were used to establish the trends in under-5 mortality rates for 25 countries for which there are data for at least two points in time. Countries were ranked according to the most recent adult HIV prevalence data and grouped in three categories: those with very high HIV prevalence (> or = 5%); those with moderately high prevalence (1-4.9%); and those with low prevalence (< 1%). A mathematical model was fitted to obtain an estimate of the contribution of HIV/AIDS to the level of under-5 mortality in each country. RESULTS: Under-5 mortality rates showed an increase in most countries with high adult HIV prevalence, but a decrease in almost every country with moderately high or low prevalence. The estimated contribution of adult HIV prevalence to the observed level of under-5 mortality was highest (up to 61%) in Zimbabwe (where HIV prevalence was highest) and tended to decrease with the level of HIV prevalence. DISCUSSION: The contribution of HIV/AIDS to childhood mortality therefore appears to be most noticeable in settings where the epidemic is most severe. PMID:11100615

  12. Geographic Disparity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Mortality Rates among the Taiwan Population

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ta-Chien; Chiang, Po-Huang; Su, Ming-Daw; Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Liu, Michael Shi-yung

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes a high disease burden among the elderly worldwide. In Taiwan, the long-term temporal trend of COPD mortality is declining, but the geographical disparity of the disease is not yet known. Nationwide COPD age-adjusted mortality at the township level during 1999–2007 is used for elucidating the geographical distribution of the disease. With an ordinary least squares (OLS) model and geographically weighted regression (GWR), the ecologic risk factors such as smoking rate, area deprivation index, tuberculosis exposure, percentage of aborigines, density of health care facilities, air pollution and altitude are all considered in both models to evaluate their effects on mortality. Global and local Moran’s I are used for examining their spatial autocorrelation and identifying clusters. During the study period, the COPD age-adjusted mortality rates in males declined from 26.83 to 19.67 per 100,000 population, and those in females declined from 8.98 to 5.70 per 100,000 population. Overall, males’ COPD mortality rate was around three times higher than females’. In the results of GWR, the median coefficients of smoking rate, the percentage of aborigines, PM10 and the altitude are positively correlated with COPD mortality in males and females. The median value of density of health care facilities is negatively correlated with COPD mortality. The overall adjusted R-squares are about 20% higher in the GWR model than in the OLS model. The local Moran’s I of the GWR’s residuals reflected the consistent high-high cluster in southern Taiwan. The findings indicate that geographical disparities in COPD mortality exist. Future epidemiological investigation is required to understand the specific risk factors within the clustering areas. PMID:24845852

  13. Fishing mortality rates of giant clams (Family Tridacnidae) from the Sulu Archipelago and Southern Palawan, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanoy, Cesar L.; Juinio, Antoinette R.; Meñez, Lambert Anthony

    1988-05-01

    Average size frequency distributions of Tridacna squamosa, T. gigas, Hippopus hippopus and H. porcellanus harvested from the Sulu Archipelago and Southern Palawan areas from 1978 1985 were derived from export records and a warehouse inventory of giant clam shells. Average species mortality rates ( Z) were estimated and were used to approximate average fishing mortality rates ( F) over the period 1978 1985. Crude estimates of exploitation rates ( F/Z) indicate that populations of these species are already overexploited. These findings have serious implications in view of the fact that the Sulu Archipelago and Southern Palawan are thought to be the last strongholds of giant clams in Philippine waters.

  14. Judging hospitals by severity-adjusted mortality rates: the influence of the severity-adjustment method.

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, L I; Ash, A S; Shwartz, M; Daley, J; Hughes, J S; Mackiernan, Y D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This research examined whether judgments about a hospital's risk-adjusted mortality performance are affected by the severity-adjustment method. METHODS: Data came from 100 acute care hospitals nationwide and 11880 adults admitted in 1991 for acute myocardial infarction. Ten severity measures were used in separate multivariable logistic models predicting in-hospital death. Observed-to-expected death rates and z scores were calculated with each severity measure for each hospital. RESULTS: Unadjusted mortality rates for the 100 hospitals ranged from 4.8% to 26.4%. For 32 hospitals, observed mortality rates differed significantly from expected rates for 1 or more, but not for all 10, severity measures. Agreement between pairs of severity measures on whether hospitals were flagged as statistical mortality outliers ranged from fair to good. Severity measures based on medical records frequently disagreed with measures based on discharge abstracts. CONCLUSIONS: Although the 10 severity measures agreed about relative hospital performance more often than would be expected by chance, assessments of individual hospital mortality rates varied by different severity-adjustment methods. PMID:8876505

  15. The effect of anatomical factors on mortality rates after endovascular aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Derih, Ay; Burak, Erdolu; Gunduz, Yumun; Yumun, Aydin; Ahmet, Demir; Hakan, Ozkan; Osman, Tiryakioglu; Kamuran, Erkoc

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of anatomical characteristics on mortality rates after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Methods We investigated 56 EVAR procedures for infrarenal aortic aneurysms performed between January 2010 and December 2013, and the data were supplemented with a prospective review. The patients were divided into two groups according to the diameter of the aneurysm. Group I (n = 30): patients with aneurysm diameters less than 6 cm, group II (n = 26): patients with aneurysm diameters larger than 6 cm. The pre-operative anatomical data of the aneurysms were noted and the groups were compared with regard to postoperative results. Results There were no correlations between diameter of aneurysm (p > 0.05), aneurysm neck angle (p > 0.05) and mortality rate. The long-term mortality rate was found to be high in patients in whom an endoleak occurred. Conclusion We found that aneurysm diameter did not have an effect on postoperative mortality rates. An increased EuroSCORE value and the development of endoleaks had an effect on long-term mortality rates. PMID:26207946

  16. In Sickness but Not in Health: Self-Ratings, Identity, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idler, Ellen; Leventhal, Howard; McLaughlin, Julie; Leventhal, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    Self-rated health as a predictor of mortality has been studied primarily in large, representative populations, with relatively little progress toward understanding the information processing that individuals use to arrive at these ratings. With subsamples of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Epidemiologic Follow-up Study…

  17. Differential Neonatal and Postneonatal Infant Mortality Rates across US Counties: The Role of Socioeconomic Conditions and Rurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, P. Johnelle; McLaughlin, Diane K.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine differences in correlates of neonatal and postneonatal infant mortality rates, across counties, by degree of rurality. Methods: Neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates were calculated from the 1998 to 2002 Compressed Mortality Files from the National Center for Health Statistics. Bivariate analyses assessed the relationship…

  18. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  19. Early mortality rate of atomic bomb survivors based on House Reconstruction Survey.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Nakamura, T; Mine, M; Kondo, H; Okumura, Y; Hoel, D G

    1994-02-01

    This paper studies the mortality rate experienced by over 23,000 A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki between September 1945 and 1950 when the RERF-ABCC initiated the follow-up of the large LSS cohort. The study is based on the data of the 10-year House Reconstruction Survey. As expected, these data show an increasing mortality rate with increasing proximity to the hypocenter of the bomb. What was not anticipated was a higher mortality rate in the 1400-1699 m band than in the closer distance interval of 1200-1399 m. This suggests a possible selective survival among A-bomb survivors. Whether this affects the cancer risk estimates has not as yet been determined.

  20. Which is the best deprivation predictor of foetal and infant mortality rates?

    PubMed

    Joyce, R; Webb, R; Peacock, J L; Stirland, H

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates which, if any, population-based indicator of deprivation best predicts foetal and infant mortality rates in England. For the year 1995, the deprivation levels of 364 English Local Authorities were compared; using the three commonly used indicators, Jarman score, Townsend score and percentage unemployed. The predictive value of these for stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality rates was then calculated. The three deprivation indicators were highly inter-correlated (r=0.866-0.924). For each mortality rate, the correlation with deprivation did not differ significantly for the three indicators of deprivation. We conclude, when comparing these outcomes in different areas of England, that any of the three deprivation indicators may be used to adjust for deprivation. PMID:10787021

  1. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia. PMID:1713798

  2. Canadian suicide mortality rates: first-generation immigrants versus Canadian-born.

    PubMed

    Strachan, J; Johansen, H; Nair, C; Nargundkar, M

    1990-01-01

    This article examines suicide mortality rates and trends in Canada for first-generation immigrants and the Canadian-born population. Data are analyzed by age, sex and country of birth. Since 1950, suicide rates worldwide for both men and women have been increasing. In North America and most of Europe, suicide has been one of the major causes of death for many years. In Canada, suicide rates are also rising. However, this increase is due entirely to a rise in the rate for men; the rate for women has remained relatively stable. Several differences are apparent between the rates for the Canadian-born population and those for first-generation immigrants. For example, three times as many Canadian-born men as women commit suicide. For first-generation immigrants, the ratio is two to one. Suicide mortality rates for the Canadian-born are higher than those for first-generation immigrants in every age group except for the 65 and over groups. Canadian born males have higher ASMR than first generation immigrant males. The rates for women show that first-generation immigrant women have higher suicide mortality rates than their Canadian-born counterparts, and that the highest rate for all women is for immigrants born in Asia.

  3. Hypothetical ratings of coronary angiography appropriateness: are they associated with actual angiographic findings, mortality, and revascularisation rate? The ACRE study

    PubMed Central

    Hemingway, H; Crook, A; Banerjee, S; Dawson, J; Feder, G; Magee, P; Wood, A; Philpott, S; Timmis, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether ratings of coronary angiography appropriateness derived by an expert panel on hypothetical patients are associated with actual angiographic findings, mortality, and subsequent revascularisation in the ACRE (appropriateness of coronary revascularisation) study.
DESIGN—Population based, prospective study. The ACRE expert panel rated hypothetical clinical indications as inappropriate, uncertain, or appropriate before recruitment of a cohort of real patients.
SETTING—Royal Hospitals Trust, London, UK.
PARTICIPANTS—3631 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography (no exclusion criteria).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Angiographic findings, mortality (n = 226 deaths), and revascularisation (n = 1556 procedures) over 2.5 years of follow up.
RESULTS—The indications for coronary angiography were rated appropriate in 2253 (62%) patients. 166 (5%) coronary angiograms were performed for indications rated inappropriate, largely for asymptomatic or atypical chest pain presentations. The remaining 1212 (33%) angiograms were rated uncertain, of which 47% were in patients with mild angina and no exercise ECG or in patients with unstable angina controlled by inpatient management. Three vessel disease was more likely among appropriate cases and normal coronaries were more likely among inappropriate cases (p < 0.001). Mortality and revascularisation rates were highest among patients with an appropriate indication, intermediate in those with an uncertain indication, and lowest in the inappropriate group (log rank p = 0.018 and p < 0.0001, respectively).
CONCLUSION—The ACRE ratings of appropriateness for angiography predicted angiographic findings, mortality, and revascularisation rates. These findings support the clinical usefulness of expert panel methods in defining criteria for performing coronary angiography.


Keywords: coronary artery disease; coronary angiography; coronary artery bypass graft

  4. Age-specific transcriptional response to stroke.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Matthias W; Guenther, Madlen; Jaenisch, Nadine; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Kohl, Matthias; Witte, Otto W; Frahm, Christiane

    2014-07-01

    Increased age is a major risk factor for stroke incidence and post-ischemic mortality. To develop age-adjusted therapeutic interventions, a clear understanding of the complexity of age-related post-ischemic mechanisms is essential. Transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery--a model that closely resembles human stroke--was used to induce cerebral infarction in mice of 4 different ages (2, 9, 15, 24 months). By using Illumina cDNA microarrays and quantitative PCR we detected a distinct age-dependent response to stroke involving 350 differentially expressed genes. Our analyses also identified 327 differentially expressed genes that responded to stroke in an age-independent manner. These genes are involved in different aspects of the inflammatory and immune response, oxidative stress, cell cycle activation and/or DNA repair, apoptosis, cytoskeleton reorganization and/or astrogliosis, synaptic plasticity and/or neurotransmission, and depressive disorders and/or dopamine-, serotonin-, GABA-signaling. In agreement with our earlier work, aged brains displayed an attenuated inflammatory and immune response (Sieber et al., 2011) and a reduced impairment of post-stroke synaptic plasticity. Our data also revealed a distinct age-related susceptibility for post-ischemic depression, the most common neuropsychiatric consequence of stroke, which has a major influence on functional outcome.

  5. A model study with light-dependent mortality rates of copepod stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Thomas; Kremp, Christine

    2005-06-01

    This paper is based on an advanced ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea (ERGOM [ J. Mar. Sys. 25 (3-4) (2005) 405]), but with an increased resolution of the zooplankton stage variable [ J. Plankton Res. 23 (2001) 1217; ICES Marine Science 219 (2003) 208]. The model copepods are represented by five stages: eggs, an aggregated variable of nauplii, two aggregated groups of copepodites and adults. The transfer among the stages, i.e., hatching, molting and reproduction, is controlled by food availability and temperature. As usual, the model food web is truncated at the level of zooplankton. The study explores the effects of different parametrization of zooplankton mortality and looks in particular on light-dependent rates. The light climate may serve a proxy for the effects of visual feeding of fish larvae and fish. Different choices of the mortality parameters can result in remarkable differences in abundances and biomass of the model zooplankton and in the timing of its development. It is found that the different choices of mortality affect the development of populations in several ways: Relative small initial differences of abundances at the beginning of the spring bloom are important for the development of the model populations. Higher mortality rates are less important at food rich conditions than at scarce resources. At low phytoplankton levels, the individual development of the copepods through the stages can be faster for elevated mortality rates because then less animals have to share the available food.

  6. Comparison of Turkish and US haemodialysis patient mortality rates: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Asci, Gulay; Marcelli, Daniele; Celtik, Aygul; Grassmann, Aileen; Gunestepe, Kutay; Yaprak, Mustafa; Tamer, Abdulkerim Furkan; Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Ok, Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Background There are significant differences between countries in the mortality rates of haemodialysis (HD) patients. The extent of these differences and possible contributing factors are worthy of investigation. Methods As of March 2009, all patients undergoing HD or haemodiafiltration for >3 months (n = 4041) in the Turkish clinics of the NephroCare network were enrolled. Data were prospectively collected for 2 years through the European Clinical Dialysis Database. Mean age ± standard deviation was 58.7 ± 14.7 years, 45.9% were female and 22.9% were diabetic. Comparison with US data was performed by applying an indirect standardization technique, using specific mortality rates for patients on HD by age, gender, race and primary diagnosis as provided by the 2012 US Renal Data System Annual Data Report as reference. Results The crude mortality rate in Turkey was 95.1 per 1000 patient-years. Compared with the US reference population, the annual mortality rate for Turkey was significantly lower, irrespective of gender, age and diabetes. After adjustments for age, gender and diabetes, the mortality risk in the Turkish cohort was 50% lower than US whites [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46–0.54, P < 0.001], 44% lower than US African-Americans (95% CI 0.52–0.61, P < 0.001) and 20% lower than Asian-Americans (95% CI 0.74–0.86, P < 0.05). Conclusions The annual mortality rate of prevalent HD patients was found to be significantly lower in the studied Turkish cohort compared with that published by the US Renal Data System Annual Data Report. Differences in practice patterns may contribute to the divergence. PMID:27274836

  7. Brazil's conditional cash transfer program associated with declines in infant mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Shei, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Conditional cash transfer programs are innovative social safety-net programs that aim to relieve poverty. They provide a regular source of income to poor families and are "conditional" in that they require poor families to invest in the health and education of their children through greater use of educational and preventive health services. Brazil's Bolsa Família conditional cash transfer program, created in 2003, is the world's largest program of its kind. During the first five years of the program, it was associated with a significant 9.3 percent reduction in overall infant mortality rates, with greater declines in postneonatal mortality rates than in mortality rates at an earlier age and in municipalities with many users of Brazil's Family Health Program than in those with lower use rates. There were also larger effects in municipalities with higher infant mortality rates at baseline. Programs like Bolsa Família can improve child health and reduce long-standing health inequalities. Policy makers should review the adequacy of basic health services to ensure that the services can respond to the increased demand created by such programs. Programs should also target vulnerable groups at greatest risk and include careful monitoring and evaluation. PMID:23836744

  8. High Basal Metabolic Rate Is a Risk Factor for Mortality: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Cherubini, Antonio; Najjar, Samer S.; Ble, Alessandro; Senin, Umberto; Longo, Dan L.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite longstanding controversies from animal studies on the relationship between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and longevity, whether BMR is a risk factor for mortality has never been tested in humans. We evaluate the longitudinal changes in BMR and the relationship between BMR and mortality in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants. Methods BMR and medical information were collected at the study entry and approximately every 2 years in 1227 participants (972 men) over a 40-year follow-up. BMR, expressed as kcal/m2/h, was estimated from the basal O2 consumption and CO2 production measured by open-circuit method. Data on all-cause and specific-cause mortality were also obtained. Result BMR declined with age at a rate that accelerated at older ages. Independent of age, participants who died had a higher BMR compared to those who survived. BMR was a significant risk factor for mortality independent of secular trends in mortality and other well-recognized risk factors for mortality, such as age, body mass index, smoking, white blood cell count, and diabetes. BMR was nonlinearly associated with mortality. The lowest mortality rate was found in the BMR range 31.3–33.9 kcal/m2/h. Participants with BMR in the range 33.9–36.4 kcal/m2/h and above the threshold of 36.4 kcal/m2/h experienced 28% (hazard ratio: 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.61) and 53% (hazard ratio: 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–1.96) higher mortality risk compared to participants with BMR 31.3–33.9 kcal/m2/h. Conclusion We confirm previous findings of an age-related decline of BMR. In our study, a blunted age-related decline in BMR was associated with higher mortality, suggesting that such condition reflects poor health status. PMID:18693224

  9. Partitioning loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats into mortality and emigration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etherington, L.L.; Eggleston, D.B.; Stockhausen, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    Determining how post-settlement processes modify patterns of settlement is vital in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment variability of species with open populations. Generally, either single components of post-settlement loss (mortality or emigration) are examined at a time, or else the total loss is examined without discrimination of mortality and emigration components. The role of mortality in the loss of early juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, has been addressed in a few studies; however, the relative contribution of emigration has received little attention. We conducted mark-recapture experiments to examine the relative contribution of mortality and emigration to total loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats. Loss was partitioned into emigration and mortality components using a modified version of Jackson's (1939) square-within-a-square method. The field experiments assessed the effects of two size classes of early instars (J1-J2, J3-J5), two densities of juveniles (low: 16 m-2, high: 64 m-2), and time of day (day, night) on loss rates. In general, total loss rates of experimental juveniles and colonization rates by unmarked juveniles were extremely high (range = 10-57 crabs m-2/6 h and 17-51 crabs m-2/6 h, for loss and colonization, respectively). Total loss rates were higher at night than during the day, suggesting that juveniles (or potentially their predators) exhibit increased nocturnal activity. While colonization rates did not differ by time of day, J3-J5 juveniles demonstrated higher rates of colonization than J1-J2 crabs. Overall, there was high variability in both mortality and emigration, particularly for emigration. Average probabilities of mortality across all treatment combinations ranged from 0.25-0.67/6 h, while probabilities of emigration ranged from 0.29-0.72/6 h. Although mean mortality rates were greater than emigration rates in most treatments, the proportion of experimental trials

  10. A Hierarchical Distance Sampling Approach to Estimating Mortality Rates from Opportunistic Carcass Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Bellan, Steve E.; Gimenez, Olivier; Choquet, Rémi; Getz, Wayne M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Distance sampling is widely used to estimate the abundance or density of wildlife populations. Methods to estimate wildlife mortality rates have developed largely independently from distance sampling, despite the conceptual similarities between estimation of cumulative mortality and the population density of living animals. Conventional distance sampling analyses rely on the assumption that animals are distributed uniformly with respect to transects and thus require randomized placement of transects during survey design. Because mortality events are rare, however, it is often not possible to obtain precise estimates in this way without infeasible levels of effort. A great deal of wildlife data, including mortality data, is available via road-based surveys. Interpreting these data in a distance sampling framework requires accounting for the non-uniformity sampling. Additionally, analyses of opportunistic mortality data must account for the decline in carcass detectability through time. We develop several extensions to distance sampling theory to address these problems.We build mortality estimators in a hierarchical framework that integrates animal movement data, surveillance effort data, and motion-sensor camera trap data, respectively, to relax the uniformity assumption, account for spatiotemporal variation in surveillance effort, and explicitly model carcass detection and disappearance as competing ongoing processes.Analysis of simulated data showed that our estimators were unbiased and that their confidence intervals had good coverage.We also illustrate our approach on opportunistic carcass surveillance data acquired in 2010 during an anthrax outbreak in the plains zebra of Etosha National Park, Namibia.The methods developed here will allow researchers and managers to infer mortality rates from opportunistic surveillance data. PMID:24224079

  11. Factors Influencing The Six-Month Mortality Rate In Patients With A Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ristic, Branko; Rancic, Nemanja; Bukumiric, Zoran; Zeljko, Stepanovic; Ignjatovic-Ristic, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background There are several potential risk factors in patients with a hip fracture for a higher rate of mortality that include: comorbid disorders, poor general health, age, male gender, poor mobility prior to injury, type of fracture, poor cognitive status, place of residence. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of potential risk factors for six-month mortality in hip fracture patients. Methods The study included all patients with a hip fracture older than 65 who had been admitted to the Clinic for orthopaedic surgery during one year. One hundred and ninety-two patients were included in the study. Results Six months after admission due to a hip fracture, 48 patients had died (6-month mortality rate was 25%). The deceased were statistically older than the patients who had survived. Univariate regression analysis indicated that six variables had a significant effect on hip fracture patients’ survival: age, mobility prior to the fracture, poor cognitive status, activity of daily living, comorbidities and the place where they had fallen. Multivariate regression modelling showed that the following factors were independently associated with mortality at 6 months post fracture: poor cognitive status, poor mobility prior to the fracture, comorbid disease. Conclusion Poor cognitive status appeared to be the strongest mortality predictor. The employment of brief tests for cognitive status evaluation would enable orthopaedists to have good criteria for the choice of treatment for each patient screened. PMID:27284379

  12. Pollution Sources and Mortality Rates across Rural-Urban Areas in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Halverson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an assessment of rural environmental pollution sources and associated population mortality rates. Methods: The design is a secondary analysis of county-level data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Agriculture, National Land Cover Dataset, Energy Information Administration, Centers for Disease Control…

  13. Estimating the out-of-hospital mortality rate using patient discharge data.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Mehdi; Ridder, Geert

    2006-09-01

    This paper explores the hospital quality measures based on routine administrative data such as patient discharge records. Most of the measures used in the literature are based on in-hospital mortality risks rather than post-discharge events. The in-hospital outcomes are sensitive to the hospital's discharge policy, thus could bias the quality estimates. This study aims at identifying out-of-hospital mortality risks and disentangling discharge and re-hospitalization rates from mortality rates using patient discharge data. It is shown that these objectives can be achieved without post-discharge death records. This is an example of the use of public use administrative data for estimating empirical relations when key dependent variables are not available. Using data on the lengths of hospitalizations and out-of-hospital spells, the mortality rates before and after discharge are estimated for a sample of heart-attack patients hospitalized in California between 1992 and 1998. The results suggest that the quality assessments that ignore the variation of discharge rates among hospitals could be misleading.

  14. Changes in U.S. Hospitalization and Mortality Rates following Smoking Bans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shetty, Kanaka D.; DeLeire, Thomas; White, Chapin; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2011-01-01

    U.S. state and local governments have increasingly adopted restrictions on smoking in public places. This paper analyzes nationally representative databases, including the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, to compare short-term changes in mortality and hospitalization rates in smoking-restricted regions with control regions. In contrast with smaller…

  15. A Needs Assessment of Health Issues Related to Maternal Mortality Rates in Afghanistan: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Naim, Ali; Feldman, Robert; Sawyer, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal death rates in Afghanistan were among the highest in the world during the reign of the Taliban. Although these figures have improved, current rates are still alarming. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a needs assessment of the major health issues related to the high maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with managerial midwives, clinical midwives, and mothers. Results of the interviews indicate that the improvement in the maternal mortality rate may be attributed to the increase in the involvement of midwives in the birthing process. However, barriers to decreasing maternal mortality still exist. These include transportation, access to care, and sociocultural factors such as the influence of the husband and mother-in-law in preventing access to midwives. Therefore, any programs to decrease maternal mortality need to address infrastructure issues (making health care more accessible) and sociocultural factors (including husbands and mother-in-laws in maternal health education). However, it should be noted that these findings are based on a small pilot study to help develop a larger scale need assessment.

  16. Estimating mortality rates of adult fish from entrainment through the propellers of river towboats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a method to estimate mortality rates of adult fish caused by entrainment through the propellers of commercial towboats operating in river channels. The method combines trawling while following towboats (to recover a fraction of the kills) and application of a hydrodynamic model of diffusion (to estimate the fraction of the total kills collected in the trawls). The sampling problem is unusual and required quantifying relatively rare events. We first examined key statistical properties of the entrainment mortality rate estimators using Monte Carlo simulation, which demonstrated that a design-based estimator and a new ad hoc estimator are both unbiased and converge to the true value as the sample size becomes large. Next, we estimated the entrainment mortality rates of adult fishes in Pool 26 of the Mississippi River and the Alton Pool of the Illinois River, where we observed kills that we attributed to entrainment. Our estimates of entrainment mortality rates were 2.52 fish/km of towboat travel (80% confidence interval, 1.00-6.09 fish/km) for gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, 0.13 fish/km (0.00-0.41) for skipjack herring Alosa chrysochloris, and 0.53 fish/km (0.00-1.33) for both shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus and smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus. Our approach applies more broadly to commercial vessels operating in confined channels, including other large rivers and intracoastal waterways.

  17. Rates of perinatal mortality and low birth weight among 3367 consecutive births in south of Beirut.

    PubMed

    Bittar, Z

    1998-01-01

    3367 consecutive births were reviewed prospectively. Population belongs mainly to a community with relatively underprivileged living conditions. Perinatal mortality was found at a rate of 22.4/1000 B. Early neonatal mortality formed 6.66/1000 B and stillbirth formed 15.83/1000 B. Low birth weight rate was 5.43% of live birth. Analysis of our findings suggests the need to improve follow-up during gestation to avoid complications resulting in macerated stillbirths, and to review the routine of follow-up and care in the immediate period before delivery, during delivery, in the immediate post partum period including resuscitation procedures, and care in the ICN. The aim is to prevent and appropriately treat intrauterine asphyxia, fetal distress, obstetric complications, and in the post partum period to appropriately resuscitate the newborn and improve ICN procedures. These measures are expected to reduce fresh stillbirth and early neonatal mortality and consequently infant mortality. Lowering rate of low birth weight is of less urgent nature in this population as it is relatively not high, but because a larger portion of early neonatal mortality is among low birth weight infants, with weights below 2000 gms, improving ICN care provided to these neonates is expected to sharply reduce neonatal mortality. In Lebanon we have a growing number of ICN units with wide variability of the quality of medical supervision and facilities. Insufficient number of neonatologists and nurses who are specialized in neonatal intensive care is leaving the chance for sick neonates to be attended by general pediatricians and insufficiently trained nurses. Our medical schools are called to encourage pediatricians to specialize in neonatal intensive care and to create more opportunities for this specialty to meet the national requirement. It is suggested, too, to subject ICN units in Lebanon to standardized requirements concerning attendance and facilities before obtaining official recognition

  18. Rest/Activity Rhythms and Mortality Rates in Older Men: MrOS Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Misti L.; Taylor, Brent C.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L.; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2010-01-01

    Background An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Methods Study population consisted of 2964 men aged 67 and older enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness) and alpha (peak-to-trough width). Results After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (Hazard ratio [HR]=1.57, 95%CI, 1.03–2.39) compared with men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR=2.32, 95%CI, 1.04–5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR=2.84, 95%CI, 1.29–6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta and risk of mortality. Conclusions Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing, have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:20370475

  19. Rest/activity rhythms and mortality rates in older men: MrOS Sleep Study.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent C; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2010-01-01

    An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Our study population consisted of 2964 men aged > or = 67 yrs of age enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness), and alpha (peak-to-trough width). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.03-2.39) than men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR = 2.32, 95% CI, 1.04-5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.29-6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta, and mortality risk. Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:20370475

  20. Wind Speed and Mortality Rate of a Marine Fish, the Northern Anchovy (Engraulis mordax).

    PubMed

    Peterman, R M; Bradford, M J

    1987-01-16

    Large variability in recruitment of marine fishes creates challenging management problems. In northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), there is a significant linear relation between larval mortality rate and the frequency of calm, low wind speed periods during the spawning season, possibly because calm winds permit maintenance of concentrated patches of larval food. Neither cannibalism on larvae nor offshore transport contributed significantly to interannual variation in early larval mortality. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that wind-driven turbulent mixing affects variability in survival of young fish larvae. However, abundance of recruits does not necessarily reflect abundance of larvae surviving through this early stage. PMID:17750387

  1. Associations of Various Health-Ratings with Geriatric Giants, Mortality and Life Satisfaction in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Self-rated health is routinely used in research and practise among general populations. Older people, however, seem to change their health perceptions. To accurately understand these changed perceptions we therefore need to study the correlates of older people’s self-ratings. We examined self-rated, nurse-rated and physician-rated health’s association with common disabilities in older people (the geriatric giants), mortality hazard and life satisfaction. For this, we used an age-representative population of 501 participant aged 85 from a middle-sized city in the Netherlands: the Leiden 85-plus Study. Participants with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded. Participants themselves provided health ratings, as well as a visiting physician and a research nurse. Visual acuity, hearing loss, mobility, stability, urinal and faecal incontinence, cognitive function and mood (depressive symptoms) were included as geriatric giants. Participants provided a score for life satisfaction and were followed up for vital status. Concordance of self-rated health with physician-rated (k = .3 [.0]) and nurse-rated health (k = .2 [.0]) was low. All three ratings were associated with the geriatric giants except for hearing loss (all p < 0.001). Associations were equal in strength, except for depressive symptoms, which showed a stronger association with self-rated health (.8 [.1] versus .4 [.1]). Self-rated health predicted mortality less well than the other ratings. Self-rated health related stronger to life satisfaction than physician’s and nurse’s ratings. We conclude that professionals’ health ratings are more reflective of physical health whereas self-rated health reflects more the older person’s mental health, but all three health ratings are useful in research. PMID:27658060

  2. Disparities in Cervical Cancer Mortality Rates as Determined by the Longitudinal Hyperbolastic Mixed-Effects Type II Model

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Mohammad A.; Kengwoung-Keumo, Jean-Jacques; Eby, Wayne M.; Bae, Sejong; Guemmegne, Juliette T.; Manne, Upender; Fouad, Mona; Partridge, Edward E.; Singh, Karan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main purpose of this study was to model and analyze the dynamics of cervical cancer mortality rates for African American (Black) and White women residing in 13 states located in the eastern half of the United States of America from 1975 through 2010. Methods The cervical cancer mortality rates of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) were used to model and analyze the dynamics of cervical cancer mortality. A longitudinal hyperbolastic mixed-effects type II model was used to model the cervical cancer mortality data and SAS PROC NLMIXED and Mathematica were utilized to perform the computations. Results Despite decreasing trends in cervical cancer mortality rates for both races, racial disparities in mortality rates still exist. In all 13 states, Black women had higher mortality rates at all times. The degree of disparities and pace of decline in mortality rates over time differed among these states. Determining the paces of decline over 36 years showed that Tennessee had the most rapid decline in cervical cancer mortality for Black women, and Mississippi had the most rapid decline for White Women. In contrast, slow declines in cervical cancer mortality were noted for Black women in Florida and for White women in Maryland. Conclusions In all 13 states, cervical cancer mortality rates for both racial groups have fallen. Disparities in the pace of decline in mortality rates in these states may be due to differences in the rates of screening for cervical cancers. Of note, the gap in cervical cancer mortality rates between Black women and White women is narrowing. PMID:25226583

  3. Socio-demographic factors intensifying male mating competition exacerbate male mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J

    2010-05-07

    Sex differences in mortality rates stem from a complex set of genetic, physiological, psychological, and social causes whose influences and interconnections are best understood in an integrative evolutionary life history framework. Although there are multiple levels of mechanisms contributing to sex based disparities in mortality rates, the intensity of male mating competition in a population may have a crucial role in shaping the level of excess male mortality. The degree of variation and skew in male reproductive success may shape the intensity of male mating competition, leading to riskier behavioral and physiological strategies. This study examines three socio-demographic factors related to variation in human male reproductive success; polygyny, economic inequality, and the population ratio of reproductively viable men to women across nations with available data. The degrees of economic inequality and polygyny explained unique portions in the sex difference in mortality rates, these predictors accounted for 53% of the variance. The population ratio of reproductively viable men to women did not explain any additional variance. These results demonstrate the association between social conditions and health outcomes in modern nations, as well as the power of an evolutionary life history framework for understanding important social issues.

  4. Health Human Capital in Sub-Saharan Africa: Conflicting Evidence from Infant Mortality Rates and Adult Heights

    PubMed Central

    Akachi, Yoko; Canning, David

    2011-01-01

    We investigate trends in cohort infant mortality rates and adult heights in 39 developing countries since 1960. In most regions of the world improved nutrition, and reduced childhood exposure to disease, have lead to improvements in both infant mortality and adult stature. In Sub-Saharan Africa, however, despite declining infant mortality rates, adult heights have not increased. We argue that in Sub-Saharan Africa the decline in infant mortality may have been due to interventions that prevent infant deaths rather than improved nutrition and childhood morbidity. Despite declining infant mortality, Sub-Saharan Africa may not be experiencing increases in health human capital. PMID:20634153

  5. An ecological analysis of PM2.5 concentrations and lung cancer mortality rates in China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jingying; Jiang, Dong; Lin, Gang; Liu, Kun; Wang, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between Particulate Matter (PM)2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) and lung cancer mortality rates and to estimate the potential risk of lung cancer mortality related to exposure to high PM2.5 concentrations. Design Geographically weighted regression was performed to evaluate the relation between PM2.5 concentrations and lung cancer mortality for males, females and for both sexes combined, in 2008, based on newly available long-term data. Lung cancer fatalities from long-term exposure to PM2.5 were calculated according to studies by Pope III et al and the WHO air quality guidelines (AQGs). Setting 31 provinces in China. Results PM2.5 was associated with the lung cancer mortality of males, females and both sexes combined, in China, although there were exceptions in several regions, for males and females. The number of lung cancer fatalities calculated by the WHO AQGs ranged from 531 036 to 532 004, whereas the number calculated by the American Cancer Society (ACS) reached 614 860 after long-term (approximately 3–4 years) exposure to PM2.5 concentrations since 2008. Conclusions There is a positive correlation between PM2.5 and lung cancer mortality rate, and the relationship between them varies across the entire country of China. The number of lung cancer fatalities estimated by ACS was closer to the actual data than those of the WHO AQGs. Therefore, the ACS estimate of increased risk of lung cancer mortality from long-term exposure to PM2.5 might be more applicable for evaluating lung cancer fatalities in China than the WHO estimate. PMID:26603253

  6. Rate of Contrast Extravasation on CT Angiography Predicts Hematoma Expansion and Mortality in Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Brouwers, H. Bart; Battey, Thomas W.K.; Musial, Hayley H.; Ciura, Viesha A.; Falcone, Guido J.; Ayres, Alison M.; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin; Viswanathan, Anand; Anderson, Christopher D.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Pomerantz, Stuart R.; Ortiz, Claudia J.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Gonzalez, R. Gilberto; Rosand, Jonathan; Romero, Javier M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the presence of contrast extravasation following CT angiography (CTA), termed the ‘spot sign’, predicts hematoma expansion and mortality. Since the biological underpinnings of the spot sign are not fully understood, we investigated whether the rate of contrast extravasation - which may reflect the rate of bleeding - predicts expansion and mortality beyond the simple presence of the spot sign. Methods Consecutive ICH patients with first-pass CTA followed by a 90-second delayed post-contrast CT (delayed CTA) were included. CTAs were reviewed for spot sign presence by two blinded readers. Spot sign volumes on first-pass and delayed CTA and ICH volumes were measured using semi-automated software. Extravasation rates were calculated and tested for association with hematoma expansion and mortality using uni- and multivariable logistic regression. Results 162 patients were included, 48 (30%) of whom had ≥1 spot sign. Median spot sign volume was 0.04mL on first-pass CTA and 0.4mL on delayed CTA. Median extravasation rate was 0.23mL/min overall, and 0.30mL/min among expanders versus 0.07mL/min in non-expanders. Extravasation rates were also significantly higher in patients who died in hospital: 0.27mL/min versus 0.04mL/min. In multivariable analysis, the extravasation rate was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (OR1.09 [95%CI 1.04–1.18], p=0.004), 90-day mortality (OR1.15 [95%CI 1.08–1.27], p=0.0004), and hematoma expansion (OR1.03 [95%CI 1.01–1.08], p=0.047). Conclusions Contrast extravasation rate, or spot sign growth, further refines the ability to predict hematoma expansion and mortality. Our results support the hypothesis that the spot sign directly measures active bleeding in acute ICH. PMID:26243220

  7. Temporal dynamics of outcrossing and host mortality rates in host-pathogen experimental coevolution.

    PubMed

    Morran, Levi T; Parrish, Raymond C; Gelarden, Ian A; Lively, Curtis M

    2013-07-01

    Cross-fertilization is predicted to facilitate the short-term response and the long-term persistence of host populations engaged in antagonistic coevolutionary interactions. Consistent with this idea, our previous work has shown that coevolving bacterial pathogens (Serratia marcescens) can drive obligately selfing hosts (Caenorhabditis elegans) to extinction, whereas the obligately outcrossing and partially outcrossing populations persisted. We focused the present study on the partially outcrossing (mixed mating) and obligately outcrossing hosts, and analyzed the changes in the host resistance/avoidance (and pathogen infectivity) over time. We found that host mortality rates increased in the mixed mating populations over the first 10 generations of coevolution when outcrossing rates were initially low. However, mortality rates decreased after elevated outcrossing rates evolved during the experiment. In contrast, host mortality rates decreased in the obligately outcrossing populations during the first 10 generations of coevolution, and remained low throughout the experiment. Therefore, predominant selfing reduced the ability of the hosts to respond to coevolving pathogens compared to outcrossing hosts. Thus, we found that host-pathogen coevolution can generate rapid evolutionary change, and that host mating system can influence the outcome of coevolution at a fine temporal scale.

  8. Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vreeland, J.K.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns are important to population management. We quantified cause-specific mortality, survival rates, and habitat characteristics related to fawn survival in a forested landscape and an agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania. We captured and radiocollared neonatal (0.05). Predation accounted for 46.2% (95% Cl = 37.6-56.7%) of 106 mortalities through 34 weeks. We attributed 32.7% (95% Cl = 21.9-48.6%) and 36.7% (95% Cl = 25.5-52.9%) of 49 predation events to black bears (Ursus americanus) and coyotes (Canis latrans], respectively. Natural causes, excluding predation, accounted for 27.4% (95% Cl = 20.1-37.3) of mortalities. Fawn survival in Pennsylvania was comparable to reported survival in forested and agricultural regions in northern portions of the white-tailed deer range. We have no evidence to suggest that the fawn survival rates we observed were preventing population growth. Because white-tailed deer are habitat generalists, home-range-scale habitat characteristics may be unrelated to fawn survival; therefore, future studies should consider landscape-related characteristics on fawn survival.

  9. Mortality Prediction with a Single General Self-Rated Health Question

    PubMed Central

    DeSalvo, Karen B; Bloser, Nicole; Reynolds, Kristi; He, Jiang; Muntner, Paul

    2006-01-01

    objective Health planners and policy makers are increasingly asking for a feasible method to identify vulnerable persons with the greatest health needs. We conducted a systematic review of the association between a single item assessing general self-rated health (GSRH) and mortality. Data Sources Systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE database searches for studies published from January 1966 to September 2003. Review Methods Two investigators independently searched English language prospective, community-based cohort studies that reported (1) all-cause mortality, (2) a question assessing GSRH; and (3) an adjusted relative risk or equivalent. The investigators searched the citations to determine inclusion eligibility and abstracted data by following a standarized protocol. Of the 163 relevant studies identified, 22 cohorts met the inclusion criteria. Using a random effects model, compared with persons reporting “excellent” health status, the relative risk (95% confidence interval) for all-cause mortality was 1.23 [1.09, 1.39], 1.44 [1.21, 1.71], and 1.92 [1.64, 2.25] for those reporting “good,”“fair,” and “poor” health status, respectively. This relationship was robust in sensitivity analyses, limited to studies that adjusted for co-morbid illness, functional status, cognitive status, and depression, and across subgroups defined by gender and country of origin. Conclusions Persons with “poor” self-rated health had a 2-fold higher mortality risk compared with persons with “excellent” self-rated health. Subjects' responses to a simple, single-item GSRH question maintained a strong association with mortality even after adjustment for key covariates such as functional status, depression, and co-morbidity. PMID:16336622

  10. Apparent climatically induced increase of tree mortality rates in a temperate forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    We provide a first detailed analysis of long-term, annual-resolution demographic trends in a temperate forest. After tracking the fates of 21 338 trees in a network of old-growth forest plots in the Sierra Nevada of California, we found that mortality rate, but not the recruitment rate, increased significantly over the 22 years of measurement (1983-2004). Mortality rates increased in both of two dominant taxonomic groups (Abies and Pinus) and in different forest types (different elevational zones). The increase in overall mortality rate resulted from an increase in tree deaths attributed to stress and biotic causes, and coincided with a temperature-driven increase in an index of drought. Our findings suggest that these forests (and by implication, other water-limited forests) may be sensitive to temperature-driven drought stress, and may be poised for die-back if future climates continue to feature rising temperatures without compensating increases in precipitation. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Resting heart rate as a prognostic factor for mortality in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Seho; Lim, Sung Mook; Lee, Mi Kyung; Giovannucci, Edward L; Kim, Joo Heung; Kim, Seung Il; Jeon, Justin Y

    2016-09-01

    Although elevated resting heart rate (RHR) has been shown to be associated with mortality in the general population and patients with certain diseases, no study has examined this association in patients with breast cancer. A total of 4786 patients with stage I-III breast cancer were retrospectively selected from the Severance hospital breast cancer registry in Seoul, Korea. RHR was measured at baseline and the mean follow-up time for all patients was 5.0 ± 2.5 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox regression models. After adjustment for prognostic factors, patients in the highest quintile of RHR (≥85 beat per minute (bpm)) had a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.57; 95 %CI 1.05-2.35), breast cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.69; 95 %CI 1.07-2.68), and cancer recurrence (HR: 1.49; 95 %CI 0.99-2.25), compared to those in the lowest quintile (≤67 bpm). Moreover, every 10 bpm increase in RHR was associated with 15, 22, and 6 % increased risk of all-cause mortality, breast cancer-specific mortality, and cancer recurrence, respectively. However, the association between RHR and cancer recurrence was not statistically significant (p = 0.26). Elevated RHR was associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with breast cancer. The findings from this study suggest that RHR may be used as a prognostic factor for patients with breast cancer in clinical settings. PMID:27544225

  12. Comparison of mortality and rates of cerebral palsy in two populations of very low birthweight infants.

    PubMed Central

    Ens-Dokkum, M H; Johnson, A; Schreuder, A M; Veen, S; Wilkinson, A R; Brand, R; Ruys, J H; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P

    1994-01-01

    Comparisons of mortality and rates of cerebral palsy in different populations can be confusing. This is illustrated by comparing two populations of very low birthweight infants born in the 1980s, one from the Netherlands, the other from the UK (Oxford region). Although a number of biases were controlled for while comparing two large geographically defined populations, by assessing the survivors at similar ages and describing their health status in a standard way, some problems in interpretation of outcome remained. Differences in registration practice of live births at early gestational ages, as well as differences in withholding or withdrawing treatment, which occurred in about half of the cases of neonatal death in the Netherlands and in about one third of those in the Oxford region, may have influenced the incidence of registered live births, neonatal mortality, and the rate of cerebral palsy. PMID:8154921

  13. The Very High Premature Mortality Rate among Active Professional Wrestlers Is Primarily Due to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Christopher W.; Conlon, Anna S. C.; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Burghardt, Andrew R.; McGregor, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, much media attention has been given to the premature deaths in professional wrestlers. Since no formal studies exist that have statistically examined the probability of premature mortality in professional wrestlers, we determined survival estimates for active wresters over the past quarter century to establish the factors contributing to the premature mortality of these individuals. Methods Data including cause of death was obtained from public records and wrestling publications in wrestlers who were active between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 2011. 557 males were considered consistently active wrestlers during this time period. 2007 published mortality rates from the Center for Disease Control were used to compare the general population to the wrestlers by age, BMI, time period, and cause of death. Survival estimates and Cox hazard regression models were fit to determine incident premature deaths and factors associated with lower survival. Cumulative incidence function (CIF) estimates given years wrestled was obtained using a competing risks model for cause of death. Results The mortality for all wrestlers over the 26-year study period was.007 deaths/total person-years or 708 per 100,000 per year, and 16% of deaths occurred below age 50 years. Among wrestlers, the leading cause of deaths based on CIF was cardiovascular-related (38%). For cardiovascular-related deaths, drug overdose-related deaths and cancer deaths, wrestler mortality rates were respectively 15.1, 122.7 and 6.4 times greater than those of males in the general population. Survival estimates from hazard models indicated that BMI is significantly associated with the hazard of death from total time wrestling (p<0.0001). Conclusion Professional wrestlers are more likely to die prematurely from cardiovascular disease compared to the general population and morbidly obese wrestlers are especially at risk. Results from this study may be useful for professional wrestlers, as well as

  14. Ejection Fraction and Mortality Rate of Patients with Isolated Acute Inferior Myocardial Infarction Reperfused by Streptokinase

    PubMed Central

    Beiraghdar, Mozhdeh; Reza Torknezhad, Mohammad; Torkan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to evaluate the effects of streptokinase on left ventricular ejection fraction and mortality rate of patients with inferior acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without right ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI). METHODS Fifty five consecutive patients with the diagnosis of inferior AMI without RVMI in the coronary care unit (CCU) of Shariati Hospital in Isfahan were selected for this study. Patients who had a history and/or electrocardiogram (ECG) evidence of previous myocardial infarction, evidence of bundle branch block, historical or clinical findings of valvular or other non-coronary heart diseases or heart failure were excluded. Participants were divided into two groups. Group one (n=28) had no contraindication for taking thrombolytic therapy and group two (n=27) had at least one contraindication for this treatment. Patients in group one took 1,000,000 units streptokinase for one hour. Three days later, LVEF of all participants was measured by an experienced cardiologist using 2-dimentiona1 echocardiography. Patients were followed up until four weeks to assess the mortality rate. RESULTS One death in the first 24 hours was reported in group one. However, no death was reported in any group until four weeks after discharge. There was no significant difference in mortality rate during the first 24 hours and four weeks after discharge between the two groups. Mean LVEF in the two groups did not show any significant difference (P=0.21). CONCLUSION Probably streptokinase has no effects on one-month mortality rate and LVEF in patients with inferior AMI without RVMI. Therefore, streptokinase side effects must be taken into consideration when being administered for this group of patients. PMID:22577446

  15. Linking leaf veins to growth and mortality rates: an example from a subtropical tree community.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yoshiko; Sun, I-Fang; Price, Charles A; Chen, Chien-Teh; Chen, Zueng-Sang; Chiang, Jyh-Min; Huang, Chun-Lin; Swenson, Nathan G

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental goal in ecology is to link variation in species function to performance, but functional trait-performance investigations have had mixed success. This indicates that less commonly measured functional traits may more clearly elucidate trait-performance relationships. Despite the potential importance of leaf vein traits, which are expected to be related to resource delivery rates and photosynthetic capacity, there are few studies, which examine associations between these traits and demographic performance in communities. Here, we examined the associations between species traits including leaf venation traits and demographic rates (Relative Growth Rate, RGR and mortality) as well as the spatial distributions of traits along soil environment for 54 co-occurring species in a subtropical forest. Size-related changes in demographic rates were estimated using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. Next, Kendall's rank correlations were quantified between traits and estimated demographic rates at a given size and between traits and species-average soil environment. Species with denser venation, smaller areoles, less succulent, or thinner leaves showed higher RGR for a wide range of size classes. Species with leaves of denser veins, larger area, cheaper construction costs or thinner, or low-density wood were associated with high mortality rates only in small size classes. Lastly, contrary to our expectations, acquisitive traits were not related to resource-rich edaphic conditions. This study shows that leaf vein traits are weakly, but significantly related to tree demographic performance together with other species traits. Because leaf traits associated with an acquisitive strategy such as denser venation, less succulence, and thinner leaves showed higher growth rate, but similar leaf traits were not associated with mortality, different pathways may shape species growth and survival. This study suggests that we are still not measuring some of key traits related to

  16. Disentangling effects of vector birth rate, mortality rate, and abundance on spread of a plant pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For insect-transmitted plant pathogens, rates of pathogen spread are a function of vector abundance. While vector abundance is recognized to be important, parameters that govern vector population size receive little attention. For example, epidemiological models often fix vector population size by a...

  17. Unexpected reduction of mortality rates from melanoma in males living in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, E; Carli, Paolo

    2003-04-01

    A registry-based study has been carried out in central Italy to investigate cutaneous melanoma incidence and mortality trends. The incidence of invasive (1492 cases analysed) and in situ (224 cases) cutaneous melanomas increased significantly from 1985 to 1997, in both genders. The increase of invasive tumours was mainly due to 'thin' (rates. From 1985 to 1999, we evidenced a statistically significant decrease in mortality among males, the estimated annual percent change (EAPC) was -3.3%/year (P<=0.012), but this was not observed among females (EAPC=0.2, P=0.896). The stage at diagnosis was worse for males than females at the beginning of the analysed period, therefore the former had more possibilities for improvement than females. This may partially explain this finding since mortality rates among females were also quite low during the late 1980s. However, the stable incidence rates of the thick forms of melanoma make this finding largely unexpected, and difficult to understand assuming that in the last decade no 'clear-cut' improvements in survival have been documented as a result of new treatments in advanced melanomas.

  18. Prevalence and mortality rate of peste des petitis ruminant (PPR): possible association with abortion in goat.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Muhammad; Ali, Qurban; Khan, Haider A

    2008-06-01

    Present study was designed to investigate the prevalence and mortality (%) caused by Peste des Petitis Ruminant (PPR) and its possible association with abortion in goat flocks at different areas of Pakistan. A total of 140 animals were samples in the population of 650 which was having 185 deaths (Mortality rate = 28 %) from three different regions of the country. There were 58 abortions in the 140 pregnant goats of above said population One hundred & ten (110) serum samples from diseased, recovered and apparently healthy animals were tested for the presence of PPR antibodies by competitive ELISA (c ELISA). Eighty-four (84) animals were positive for PPR antibodies whereas in apparently healthy adult goats in the same flock, no PPR antibodies were detected. Twenty-four (24) tissue samples collected from the dead animals and six samples from aborted fetus were tested for the presence of PPR antigen by Immuno-capture ELISA (Ic ELISA). Nineteen (19) out of thirty (30) organ samples mainly from lung, spleen, lymph node were found positive for PPR antigen but negative from lungs of aborted fetus. There was a high rate of abortions (28-45%) in each of the outbreak and it was highest in the outbreak of Golra Sharif, Islamabad (No. = 21 in total population of 100). As the serum samples from the aborted dams were found positive for PPR antibodies so the study provides the possible association of mortality and prevalence of PPR disease with high rate of abortions in goat.

  19. Exacerbation rate, health status and mortality in COPD – a review of potential interventions

    PubMed Central

    Seemungal, Terence AR; Hurst, John R; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2009-01-01

    COPD is prevalent in Western society and its incidence is rising in the developing world. Acute exacerbations of COPD, about 50% of which are unreported, lead to deterioration in quality of life and contribute significantly to disease burden. Quality of life deteriorates with time; thus, most of the health burden occurs in more severe disease. COPD severity and frequent and more severe exacerbations are all related to an increased risk of mortality. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have similar effects on quality of life but ICS/long-acting bronchodilator combinations and the long-acting antimuscarinic tiotropium all improve health status and exacerbation rates and are likely to have an effect on mortality but perhaps only with prolonged use. Erythromycin has been shown to decrease the rate of COPD exacerbations. Pulmonary rehabilitation and regular physical activity are indicated in all severities of COPD and improve quality of life. Noninvasive ventilation is associated with improved quality of life. Long-term oxygen therapy improves mortality but only in hypoxic COPD patients. The choice of an inhaler device is a key component of COPD therapy and this requires more attention from physicians than perhaps we are aware of. Disease management programs, characterized as they are by patient centeredness, improve quality of life and decrease hospitalization rates. Most outcomes in COPD can be modified by interventions and these are well tolerated and have acceptable safety profiles. PMID:19554195

  20. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions....

  1. Reducing high maternal mortality rates in western China: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Gyaltsen Gongque Jianzan, Kunchok; Gyal Li Xianjia, Lhusham; Gipson, Jessica D; Kyi Cai Rangji, Tsering; Pebley, Anne R

    2014-11-01

    Among the Millennium Development Goals, maternal mortality reduction has proven especially difficult to achieve. Unlike many countries, China is on track to meeting these goals on a national level, through a programme of institutionalizing deliveries. Nonetheless, in rural, disadvantaged, and ethnically diverse areas of western China, maternal mortality rates remain high. To reduce maternal mortality in western China, we developed and implemented a three-level approach as part of a collaboration between a regional university, a non-profit organization, and local health authorities. Through formative research, we identified seven barriers to hospital delivery in a rural Tibetan county of Qinghai Province: (1) difficulty in travel to hospitals; (2) hospitals lack accommodation for accompanying families; (3) the cost of hospital delivery; (4) language and cultural barriers; (5) little confidence in western medicine; (6) discrepancy in views of childbirth; and (7) few trained community birth attendants. We implemented a three-level intervention: (a) an innovative Tibetan birth centre, (b) a community midwife programme, and (c) peer education of women. The programme appears to be reaching a broad cross-section of rural women. Multilevel, locally-tailored approaches may be essential to reduce maternal mortality in rural areas of western China and other countries with substantial regional, socioeconomic, and ethnic diversity. PMID:25555773

  2. Reducing high maternal mortality rates in western China: a novel approach.

    PubMed

    Gyaltsen Gongque Jianzan, Kunchok; Gyal Li Xianjia, Lhusham; Gipson, Jessica D; Kyi Cai Rangji, Tsering; Pebley, Anne R

    2014-11-01

    Among the Millennium Development Goals, maternal mortality reduction has proven especially difficult to achieve. Unlike many countries, China is on track to meeting these goals on a national level, through a programme of institutionalizing deliveries. Nonetheless, in rural, disadvantaged, and ethnically diverse areas of western China, maternal mortality rates remain high. To reduce maternal mortality in western China, we developed and implemented a three-level approach as part of a collaboration between a regional university, a non-profit organization, and local health authorities. Through formative research, we identified seven barriers to hospital delivery in a rural Tibetan county of Qinghai Province: (1) difficulty in travel to hospitals; (2) hospitals lack accommodation for accompanying families; (3) the cost of hospital delivery; (4) language and cultural barriers; (5) little confidence in western medicine; (6) discrepancy in views of childbirth; and (7) few trained community birth attendants. We implemented a three-level intervention: (a) an innovative Tibetan birth centre, (b) a community midwife programme, and (c) peer education of women. The programme appears to be reaching a broad cross-section of rural women. Multilevel, locally-tailored approaches may be essential to reduce maternal mortality in rural areas of western China and other countries with substantial regional, socioeconomic, and ethnic diversity.

  3. Reducing high maternal mortality rates in western China: a novel approach

    PubMed Central

    Gyaltsen, Kunchok; Jianzan, Gongque; Gyal, Lhusham; Xianjia, Li; Gipson, Jessica D; Kyi, Tsering; Rangji, Cai; Pebley, Anne R

    2015-01-01

    Among the Millennium Development Goals, maternal mortality reduction has proven especially difficult to achieve. Unlike many countries, China is on track to meeting these goals on a national level, through a programme of institutionalizing deliveries. Nonetheless, in rural, disadvantaged, and ethnically diverse areas of western China, maternal mortality rates remain high. To reduce maternal mortality in western China, we developed and implemented a three-level approach as part of a collaboration between a regional university, a non-profit organization, and local health authorities. Through formative research, we identified seven barriers to hospital delivery in a rural Tibetan county of Qinghai Province: (1) difficulty in travel to hospitals; (2) hospitals lack accommodation for accompanying families; (3) the cost of hospital delivery; (4) language and cultural barriers; (5) little confidence in western medicine; (6) discrepancy in views of childbirth; and (7) few trained community birth attendants. We implemented a three-level intervention: (a) an innovative Tibetan birth centre, (b) a community midwife programme, and (c) peer education of women. The programme appears to be reaching a broad cross-section of rural women. Multilevel, locally-tailored approaches may be essential to reduce maternal mortality in rural areas of western China and other countries with substantial regional, socioeconomic, and ethnic diversity. PMID:25555773

  4. Stochastic variation in sex ratios in infant mortality rates due to small samples in provisioned Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) populations.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in infant mortality in provisioned Japanese macaque populations were examined using 10 data sets from five populations. The results indicate that there was no available data set in which a sex difference in infant mortality was statistically significant. To examine whether the observed sex ratios in infant mortality rates could be the product of stochastic variation in small samples, a correlation between sample size and the magnitude of sex ratios in infant mortality rates was also examined. Notably, the magnitude of sex ratios in infant mortality rates declined significantly as sample sizes increased. These results suggest that previously reported marked sex ratios in infant mortality could be the product of stochastic variation in small samples.

  5. Geomagnetic storms link to the mortality rate in the Smolyan region for the period 1988--2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Siyka G. 1; Georgieva, Radostina C. 2; Dimitrova, Boryana H. 2; Slavcheva, Radka G. 2; Kerimova, Bojena P. 2; Georgiev, Tsvetan B. 34

    We present correlations and trends of 10 parameters of annual mortality rate (1 to common mortality rate, 5 to cardiovascular reasons and 4 to "accidental" reasons (car accidents, suicides, infections)) with respect to 6 parameters of annual solar and geomagnetic activity (Wolf index, number of geomagnetic storms, duration of the storms, amplitude of the storms). During the period of observation, characterized by a 3-4-fold decrease of the mean geomagnetic activity (in terms of the number and the duration of the storms) and with a strong variations of the amplitude of the storms (about an almost constant mean values for the period), there is a 1.3-fold decrease in the urban population, a 1.5-fold increase of the common mortality rate, a 1.8-fold increase of the cardiovascular mortality rate and a 1.1-fold decrease of the "accidental" mortality rates. During the years 2003-2005 we observe about 2-fold temporary increase in the storm amplitudes. During the years 2007-2008, characterized by extremely low geomagnetic activity, we observe a surprising temporary increase of the common and the cardiovascular mortality rates 1.1 and 1.3-fold, respectively (Figures 1-4). We point out 3 main results. (1) The available data shows notable increase in the mortality rates while there is generally a decrease of the solar or geomagnetic activity during the studied period (Figures 5-9). We explain this anti-correlation with the domination of the increasing mortality rates as an effect of the advance in the mean age of the population (due to immigration of young people and decrease of new-borns), hiding an eventual display of the solar and geomagnetic influence on the mortality rates. Using this data we can not reveal influence of the long-time (10-20 years) change of the average solar and geomagnetic activity on the mortality rate. (2) Excluding the unusual years 2007 and 2008, we establish that with respect to the years with low geomagnetic activity (1993, 1995, 1996, 1999), in

  6. Mortality rate estimation for eelgrass Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae) using projections from Leslie matrices.

    PubMed

    Flores Uzeta, Olga; Solana Arellano, Elena; Echavarría Heras, Héctor

    2008-09-01

    The main goal of this study is to provide estimations of mean mortality rate of vegetative shoots of the seagrass Zostera marina in a meadow near Ensenada Baja California, using a technique that minimizes destructive sampling. Using cohorts and Leslie matrices, three life tables were constructed, each representing a season within the period of monthly sampling (April 1999 to April 2000). Ages for the cohorts were established in terms of Plastochrone Interval (PI). The matrices were projected through time to estimate the mean total number of individuals at time t, n(t) as well as mortality. We found no statistical differences between observed and predicted mean values for these variables (t = -0.11, p = 0.92 for n(t) and t = 0.69, p = 0.5 for mean rate of mortality). We found high correlation coefficient values between observed and projected values for monthly number of individuals (r = 0.70, p = 0.007) and monthly mortality rates (r = 0.81, p = 0.001). If at a certain time t a sudden environmental change occurs, and as long as the perturbation does not provoke the killing of all the individuals of a given age i for 0 < or = i < or = x - 1, there will be a prevailing number of individuals of age or stage x at a time t+1. This nondestructive technique reduces the number of field visits and samples needed for the demographic analysis of Z. marina, and therefore decreases the disturbance caused by researches to the ecosystem. PMID:19419024

  7. Mortality rate estimation for eelgrass Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae) using projections from Leslie matrices.

    PubMed

    Flores Uzeta, Olga; Solana Arellano, Elena; Echavarría Heras, Héctor

    2008-09-01

    The main goal of this study is to provide estimations of mean mortality rate of vegetative shoots of the seagrass Zostera marina in a meadow near Ensenada Baja California, using a technique that minimizes destructive sampling. Using cohorts and Leslie matrices, three life tables were constructed, each representing a season within the period of monthly sampling (April 1999 to April 2000). Ages for the cohorts were established in terms of Plastochrone Interval (PI). The matrices were projected through time to estimate the mean total number of individuals at time t, n(t) as well as mortality. We found no statistical differences between observed and predicted mean values for these variables (t = -0.11, p = 0.92 for n(t) and t = 0.69, p = 0.5 for mean rate of mortality). We found high correlation coefficient values between observed and projected values for monthly number of individuals (r = 0.70, p = 0.007) and monthly mortality rates (r = 0.81, p = 0.001). If at a certain time t a sudden environmental change occurs, and as long as the perturbation does not provoke the killing of all the individuals of a given age i for 0 < or = i < or = x - 1, there will be a prevailing number of individuals of age or stage x at a time t+1. This nondestructive technique reduces the number of field visits and samples needed for the demographic analysis of Z. marina, and therefore decreases the disturbance caused by researches to the ecosystem.

  8. CURB-65 score predicted mortality in community-acquired pneumonia better than IDSA/ATS minor criteria in a low-mortality-rate setting.

    PubMed

    Guo, Q; Li, H-Y; Zhou, Y-P; Li, M; Chen, X-K; Liu, H; Peng, H-L; Yu, H-Q; Chen, X; Liu, N; Liang, L-H; Zhao, Q-Z; Jiang, M

    2012-12-01

    The CURB-65 scoring system performs well at identifying patients with pneumonia who have a low risk of death. Whether it predicts mortality in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) better than the 2007 Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) minor criteria in low-mortality-rate settings is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the hypothesis.A total of 1,230 adult inpatients admitted to our hospital from 2005 to 2009 for CAP were reviewed retrospectively.The hospital mortality was 1.3 %. Percentage mortality increased significantly with CURB-65 score and the increasing number of IDSA/ATS minor criteria present. The number of CURB-65 criteria or IDSA/ATS minor criteria present had significant increased odds ratios for mortality of 7.547 and 2.711, respectively. The sensitivities of a CURB-65 score of ≥ 3 and the presence of ≥ 3 minor criteria in predicting mortality was 25 % and 37.5 %, which increased to 75 % and 62.5 %, while the cut-off values reduced to ≥ 2 criteria, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for CURB-65 was greater than the corresponding area for IDSA/ATS minor criteria in predicting hospital mortality (0.915 vs. 0.805, p = 0.0091).CURB-65 score predicted hospital mortality better than IDSA/ATS minor criteria, and a CURB-65 score of ≥ 2 or the presence of ≥ 2 minor criteria might be more valuable cut-off values for "severe" CAP in a low-mortality-rate setting.

  9. Gender Differences in the Self-Rated Health-Mortality Association: Is It Poor Self-Rated Health that Predicts Mortality or Excellent Self-Rated Health that Predicts Survival?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyamini, Yael; Blumstein, Tzvia; Lusky, Ayala; Modan, Baruch

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates gender differences in the association between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality. This association has been well-documented, but findings regarding gender differences are inconsistent. The specific objectives were (a) to examine these differences in a short and a long time frame, (b) to examine these differences…

  10. Effect of marital status on death rates. Part 2: Transient mortality spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-05-01

    We examine what happens in a population when it experiences an abrupt change in surrounding conditions. Several cases of such "abrupt transitions" for both physical and living social systems are analyzed from which it can be seen that all share a common pattern. First, a steep rising death rate followed by a much slower relaxation process during which the death rate decreases as a power law. This leads us to propose a general principle which can be summarized as follows: "Any abrupt change in living conditions generates a mortality spike which acts as a kind of selection process". This we term the Transient Shock conjecture. It provides a qualitative model which leads to testable predictions. For example, marriage certainly brings about a major change in personal and social conditions and according to our conjecture one would expect a mortality spike in the months following marriage. At first sight this may seem an unlikely proposition but we demonstrate (by three different methods) that even here the existence of mortality spikes is supported by solid empirical evidence.

  11. Enrollee health status under Medicare risk contracts: an analysis of mortality rates.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, G; Lubitz, J; Rabey, E

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies comparing the health status of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled under HMO risk contracts to that of Medicare beneficiaries in fee-for-service (FFS) have generally focused on demonstration projects conducted before 1985. This study examines mortality rates in 1987 for approximately 1 million aged Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in 108 HMOs. We estimated adjusted mortality ratios (AMR) for each HMO and across all HMOs, by dividing the actual number of deaths among HMO enrollees by the "expected" number of deaths. The expected number of deaths was based on death rates among local FFS populations, adjusting for age, sex, Medicaid buy-in status, and institutional status. The AMR for all HMO enrollees pooled together was 0.80. For persons newly enrolled in 1987, the AMR was 0.69; in general, AMRs were higher for beneficiaries who had been enrolled for longer periods of time. Among individual HMOs, none exhibited an AMR substantially above 1.00. Regression analysis indicated lower AMRs for staff model HMOs than for either IPA or group models. Low mortality among Medicare HMO enrollees is consistent with favorable selection or with improvements in the health status of enrollees due to better access or quality of care in HMOs. In either case, health status differences between HMO enrollees and FFS beneficiaries have implications for the appropriateness of Medicare's Adjusted Average Per Capita Cost (AAPCC) payment formula for HMOs. PMID:2061054

  12. Mortality rates in the Federal Republic of Germany following previous occupational exposure to asbestos dust.

    PubMed

    Woitowitz, H J; Lange, H J; Beierl, L; Rathgeb, M; Schmidt, K; Ulm, K; Giesen, T; Woitowitz, R H; Pache, L; Rödelsperger, K

    1986-01-01

    In 1972, a procedure was introduced by the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes (Berufsgenossenschaften) of the Federal Republic of Germany, which is to be used by the special occupational health service for employees exposed to asbestos dust. Since 1 January 1972, occupational health examinations are performed when exposure to asbestos dust has been of at least 3 years' duration. On 1 January 1977, a prospective cohort study was started with employees formerly exposed to asbestos dust whilst working for companies manufacturing or using asbestos. Data on these persons are collected in the Central Register of Employees Exposed to Asbestos Dust of the Industrial Injuries Insurance Institutes. A total of 3,070 male and female employees in whom asbestos exposure terminated after 1 January 1972 formed subcohort I of the study. For comparison, 665 persons whose exposure terminated before 1 January 1972 served as subcohort II. In addition to several other inclusion criteria, each individual's permission was required before personal data could be evaluated. Of the subjects in the two subcohorts, 185 and 71, respectively, had died by 31 December 1982. Tumours were more frequently than this cause of death is expected in the general population. In addition to a high incidence of mesothelioma, the standard mortality rate was especially increased for lung cancer. The proportional mortality rates of about 40% for tumours of all sites (with about 17% lung cancer and 8% mesothelioma) especially in subcohort II, seemed to be comparable to the international figures for epidemiological mortality.

  13. The health of nations in a global context: trade, global stratification, and infant mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Moore, Spencer; Teixeira, Ana C; Shiell, Alan

    2006-07-01

    Despite the call for a better understanding of macro-level factors that affect population health, social epidemiological research has tended to focus almost exclusively on national-level factors, such as Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDP/c) or levels of social cohesion. Using a world-systems framework to examine cross-national variations in infant mortality, this paper seeks to emphasize the effects of global trade on national-level population health. Rather than viewing national-level health indicators as autonomous from broader global contexts, the study uses network analysis methods to examine the effects of international trade on infant mortality rates. Network data for countries were derived from international data on the trade of capital-intensive commodities in 2000. Using automorphic equivalence to measure the degree to which actors in a network perform similar roles, countries were assigned into one of six world-system blocks, each with its own pattern of trade. These blocks were dummy-coded and tested using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. A key finding from this analysis is that after controlling for national-level factors, the two blocks with the lowest density in capital-intensive exchange, i.e., the periphery, are significantly and positively associated with national-level infant mortality rates. Results show the effects of peripherality and stratification on population health, and highlight the influence of broader macro-level factors such as trade and globalization on national health.

  14. Infant Stool Color Card Screening Helps Reduce the Hospitalization Rate and Mortality of Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Yang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Jui-Hua; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biliary atresia (BA) is a significant liver disease in children. Since 2004, Taiwan has implemented a national screening program that uses an infant stool color card (SCC) for the early detection of BA. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of BA cases before and after the launch of this screening program. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rates of hospitalization, liver transplantation (LT), and mortality of BA cases before and after the program, and to examine the association between the hospitalization rate and survival outcomes. This was a population-based cohort study. BA cases born during 1997 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Sex, birth date, hospitalization date, LT, and death data were collected and analyzed. The hospitalization rate by 2 years of age (Hosp/2yr) was calculated to evaluate its association with the outcomes of LT or death. Among 513 total BA cases, 457 (89%) underwent the Kasai procedure. Of these, the Hosp/2yr was significantly reduced from 6.0 to 6.9/case in the earlier cohort (1997–2004) to 4.9 to 5.3/case in the later cohort (2005–2010). This hospitalization rate reduction was followed by a reduction in mortality from 26.2% to 15.9% after 2006. The Cox proportional hazards model showed a significant increase in the risk for both LT (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10–1.18) and death (HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01–1.08) for each additional hospitalization. A multivariate logistic regression model found that cases with a Hosp/2yr >6 times had a significantly higher risk for both LT (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.35, 95% CI = 2.82–6.73) and death (aOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.17–2.62). The hospitalization and mortality rates of BA cases in Taiwan were significantly and coincidentally reduced after the launch of the SCC screening program. There was a significant association between the

  15. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and Mortality among Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Xia, Min; Li, Dan; Yang, Yunou; Li, Qing; Liu, Jiaxing; Chen, Xuechen; Hu, Gang; Ling, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    Objective The association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the risk of mortality among patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is complex and still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of eGFR on the risk prediction of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with a long follow-up period among patients with CHD in China. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3276 Chinese patients with CHD. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association of different levels of eGFR with the risks of mortality. Results During a mean follow-up period of 4.9 years, 293 deaths were identified. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios associated with different levels of eGFR (≥90 [reference group], 60–89, 30–59, 15–29 ml/min per 1.73m2) at baseline were 1.00, 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87–1.88), 1.96 (95% CI, 1.31–2.94), and 3.91 (95% CI, 2.15–7.13) (P <0.001) for all-cause mortality, and 1.00, 1.26 (95% CI, 0.78–2.04), 1.94 (95% CI, 1.17–3.20), and 3.77 (95% CI, 1.80–7.89) (P <0.001) for CVD mortality, respectively. After excluding subjects who died during the first 2 years of follow-up (n = 113), the graded associations of eGFR with the risks of all-cause and CVD morality were still present. The addition of eGFR to a model including traditional cardiovascular risk factors resulted in significant improvement in the prediction of all-cause and CVD mortality. Conclusions Reduced eGFR (< 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at baseline is associated with increased risks of all-cause and CVD mortality among Chinese patients with CHD. PMID:27537335

  16. Prediction of Hospital Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure 30-Day Mortality Rates Using Publicly Reported Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, David S.; Bardach, Naomi S.; Lin, Grace A.; Chattopadhyay, Arpita; Goldman, L. Elizabeth; Dudley, R. Adams

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify an approach to summarizing publicly reported hospital performance data for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or heart failure (HF) that best predicts current year hospital mortality rates. Setting A total of 1,868 U.S. hospitals reporting process and outcome measures for AMI and HF to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) from July 2005 to June 2006 (Year 0) and July 2006 to June 2007 (Year 1). Design Observational cohort study measuring the percentage variation in Year 1 hospital 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rate explained by denominator-based weighted composite scores summarizing hospital Year 0 performance. Data Collection Data were prospectively collected from hospitalcompare.gov. Results Percentage variation in Year 1 mortality was best explained by mortality rate alone in Year 0 over other composites including process performance. If only Year 0 mortality rates were reported, and consumers using hospitals in the highest decile of mortality instead chose hospitals in the lowest decile of mortality rate, the number of deaths at 30 days that potentially could have been avoided was 1.31 per 100 patients for AMI and 2.12 for HF (p < .001). Conclusion Public reports focused on 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rate may more directly address policymakers’ goals of facilitating consumer identification of hospitals with better outcomes. PMID:22093186

  17. Maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rate in caesarean section and vaginal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ghahiri, Ataollah; Khosravi, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cesarean section is one of the most common procedures to prevent health-threatening risks to the mother and infant. Increasing rate of cesarean section attracted the attention of professionals and the overall objective of this study was to determine the frequency of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates in the two methods of delivery. Materials and Methods: In a comparative cohort study, 300 cases undergoing caesarean section and 300 cases with vaginal delivery were selected in two main hospitals of Isfahan, Iran during 2013 and 2014. Demographic characteristics and factors related to mortality and morbidity of mothers and infants were studied. Mothers were also recruited 6 weeks after delivery to ask for complications. Mothers and infants mortality and morbidity were studied and analyzed by SPSS 22 software. Results: Follow-up of deliveries up to 1-month after delivery suggested 2 cases of infant death (7%) in vaginal delivery group, while no case of infant death was reported in cesarean delivery group (P = 0.5). Incidence of fever was observed in first 10 days after delivery in 7 cases in the vaginal delivery group and 11 cases in the cesarean delivery group (2.3% vs. 3.7%, P = 0.4). Conclusion: Despite all the benefits of vaginal delivery compared with cesarean section, in many cases, especially in emergency cesarean section delivery can substantially reduce the maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. It is recommended to assess the complications of each method in all pregnant women about to give birth, and then decide on the method of delivery. PMID:26605232

  18. Concordance of effects of medical interventions on hospital admission and readmission rates with effects on mortality

    PubMed Central

    Hemkens, Lars G.; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G.; Ioannidis, John P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many clinical trials examine a composite outcome of admission to hospital and death, or infer a relationship between hospital admission and survival benefit. This assumes concordance of the outcomes “hospital admission” and “death.” However, whether the effects of a treatment on hospital admissions and readmissions correlate to its effect on serious outcomes such as death is unknown. We aimed to assess the correlation and concordance of effects of medical interventions on admission rates and mortality. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from its inception to January 2012 (issue 1, 2012) for systematic reviews of treatment comparisons that included meta-analyses for both admission and mortality outcomes. For each meta-analysis, we synthesized treatment effects on admissions and death, from respective randomized trials reporting those outcomes, using random-effects models. We then measured the concordance of directions of effect sizes and the correlation of summary estimates for the 2 outcomes. Results: We identified 61 meta-analyses including 398 trials reporting mortality and 182 trials reporting admission rates; 125 trials reported both outcomes. In 27.9% of comparisons, the point estimates of treatment effects for the 2 outcomes were in opposite directions; in 8.2% of trials, the 95% confidence intervals did not overlap. We found no significant correlation between effect sizes for admission and death (Pearson r = 0.07, p = 0.6). Our results were similar when we limited our analysis to trials reporting both outcomes. Interpretation: In this metaepidemiological study, admission and mortality outcomes did not correlate, and discordances occurred in about one-third of the treatment comparisons included in our analyses. Both outcomes convey useful information and should be reported separately, but extrapolating the benefits of admission to survival is unreliable and should be avoided. PMID:24144601

  19. Distinct age and self-rated health crossover mortality effects for African Americans: Evidence from a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roth, David L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L

    2016-05-01

    The predictive effects of age and self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality are known to differ across race and ethnic groups. African American adults have higher mortality rates than Whites at younger ages, but this mortality disparity diminishes with advancing age and may "crossover" at about 75-80 years of age, when African Americans may show lower mortality rates. This pattern of findings reflects a lower overall association between age and mortality for African Americans than for Whites, and health-related mechanisms are typically cited as the reason for this age-based crossover mortality effect. However, a lower association between poor SRH and mortality has also been found for African Americans than for Whites, and it is not known if the reduced age and SRH associations with mortality for African Americans reflect independent or overlapping mechanisms. This study examined these two mortality predictors simultaneously in a large epidemiological study of 12,181 African Americans and 17,436 Whites. Participants were 45 or more years of age when they enrolled in the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007. Consistent with previous studies, African Americans had poorer SRH than Whites even after adjusting for demographic and health history covariates. Survival analysis models indicated statistically significant and independent race*age, race*SRH, and age*SRH interaction effects on all-cause mortality over an average 9-year follow-up period. Advanced age and poorer SRH were both weaker mortality risk factors for African Americans than for Whites. These two effects were distinct and presumably tapped different causal mechanisms. This calls into question the health-related explanation for the age-based mortality crossover effect and suggests that other mechanisms, including behavioral, social, and cultural factors, should be considered in efforts to better understand the age-based mortality

  20. Survival rates and risk factors for mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus patients in a Chinese center.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ge; Jia, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Dan; Zhao, Zhanzheng

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to study the survival and risk factors affecting the long-term prognosis of Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We collected clinical data of 1,072 SLE patients at the time of diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival rate, and the Cox proportional hazard regression model for the risk factors affecting prognosis. Of the original 1,072 recruited SLE patients, 665 (570 females and 95 males) were successfully followed up. Mean follow-up was 5.47 ± 4.62 years. Mean age of onset was 29.4 ± 13.4 years. Eighty-one patients did not survive during follow-up; infection, followed by cardiovascular disease, renal failure and SLE disease activity were the leading causes of death. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 91.2 and 79.6 %, respectively. Moreover, the 5-year survival rates of female and male patients were 92.6 and 81.6 % respectively, and the 10-year survival rates were 80.8 and 62.3 %, respectively. Univariate analyses indicated that male gender, older age of onset, hypertension, increased blood creatinine levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at the time of diagnosis of SLE were risk factors for all-cause mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate analysis, male gender, older age of onset, and high SLEDAI scores at the time of diagnosis were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in SLE patients. The long-term survival of Chinese SLE patients is comparable to that of other countries. Older age of onset, high disease activity, and decline in renal function are independent risk factors for mortality in patients with SLE.

  1. Resources, mortality, and disease ecology: Importance of positive feedbacks between host growth rate and pathogen dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Val H.; Holt, Robert D.; Smith, Marilyn S.; Niu, Yafen; Barfield, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Resource theory and metabolic scaling theory suggest that the dynamics of a pathogen within a host should strongly depend upon the rate of host cell metabolism. Once an infection occurs, key ecological interactions occur on or within the host organism that determine whether the pathogen dies out, persists as a chronic infection, or grows to densities that lead to host death. We hypothesize that, in general, conditions favoring rapid host growth rates should amplify the replication and proliferation of both fungal and viral pathogens. If a host population experiences an increase in mortality, to persist it must have a higher growth rate, per host, often reflecting greater resource availability per capita. We hypothesize that this could indirectly foster the pathogen, which also benefits from increased within-host resource turnover. We first bring together in a short review a number of key prior studies which illustrate resource effects on viral and fungal pathogen dynamics. We then report new results from a semi-continuous cell culture experiment with SHIV, demonstrating that higher mortality rates indeed can promote viral proliferation. We develop a simple model that illustrates dynamical consequences of these resource effects, including interesting effects such as alternative stable states and oscillatory dynamics. Our paper contributes to a growing body of literature at the interface of ecology and infectious disease epidemiology, emphasizing that host abundances alone do not drive community dynamics: the physiological state and resource content of infected hosts also strongly influence host-pathogen interactions. PMID:27642269

  2. Long-term effects of wealth on mortality and self-rated health status.

    PubMed

    Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Jay S; Rose, Kathryn M; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Thomas, James C

    2011-01-15

    Epidemiologic studies seldom include wealth as a component of socioeconomic status. The authors investigated the associations between wealth and 2 broad outcome measures: mortality and self-rated general health status. Data from the longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics, collected in a US population between 1984 and 2005, were used to fit marginal structural models and to estimate relative and absolute measures of effect. Wealth was specified as a 6-category variable: those with ≤0 wealth and quintiles of positive wealth. There were a 16%-44% higher risk and 6-18 excess cases of poor/fair health (per 1,000 persons) among the less wealthy relative to the wealthiest quintile. Less wealthy men, women, and whites had higher risk of poor/fair health relative to their wealthy counterparts. The overall wealth-mortality association revealed a 62% increased risk and 4 excess deaths (per 1,000 persons) among the least wealthy. Less wealthy women had between a 24% and a 90% higher risk of death, and the least wealthy men had 6 excess deaths compared with the wealthiest quintile. Overall, there was a strong inverse association between wealth and poor health status and between wealth and mortality.

  3. Mortality, Rehospitalisation and Violent Crime in Forensic Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Hospital: Rates and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Fimińska, Zuzanna; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine rates and risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric services. Method We conducted a historical cohort study of all 6,520 psychiatric patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals between 1973 and 2009 in Sweden. We calculated hazard ratios for mortality, rehospitalisation, and violent crime using Cox regression to investigate the effect of different psychiatric diagnoses and two comorbidities (personality or substance use disorder) on outcomes. Results Over mean follow-up of 15.6 years, 30% of patients died (n = 1,949) after discharge with an average age at death of 52 years. Over two-thirds were rehospitalised (n = 4,472, 69%), and 40% violently offended after discharge (n = 2,613) with a mean time to violent crime of 4.2 years. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and outcome varied—substance use disorder as a primary diagnosis was associated with highest risk of mortality and rehospitalisation, and personality disorder was linked with the highest risk of violent offending. Furthermore comorbid substance use disorder typically increased risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusion Violent offending, premature mortality and rehospitalisation are prevalent in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals. Individualised treatment plans for such patients should take into account primary and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:27196309

  4. Trends in amenable mortality rate in the Mongolian population, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Surenjav, Enkhjin; Sovd, Tugsdelger; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Yamamoto, Eiko; Reyer, Joshua A; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Amenable mortality (AM) is an indicator of medical care quality. This study aimed to assess the trend and magnitude of AM in Mongolia, with the purpose of providing evidence for decisions on resource allocation. This is the first study on AM trends in Mongolia. Retrospective analysis was done on mortality statistics for the period 2007-2014. Causes of death were coded according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Nolte & McKee's classification of AM was used for the estimation of amenable mortality rates (AMRs) in Mongolia. During the study period, a total of 130,402 deaths were registered in Mongolia, of which 44,800 (34.4%) deaths were classified as being amenable. The age-standardized AMR per 100,000 population was highest in 2007 (226.6), and declined continuously until the level of 169.2 in 2014. The rate remained consistently higher in males than in females. Cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, perinatal deaths, influenza/pneumonia/asthma and tuberculosis were the leading causes of AM in the past eight years in Mongolia. The AMR was higher in remote western provinces with harsh weather conditions, high poverty rates, lack of human resources for health, and poor infrastructure. In addition, the provinces where Mongolia's ethnic minorities live tended to have a higher AMR. The government of Mongolia needs to critically look at the regional differences in AM in order to allocate health resources, including human resources, effectively. Further studies are needed to look into the causes of regional disparities in AM, individual-level risk factors to amenable deaths, and validity of death coding in health sector. PMID:27019528

  5. Trends in amenable mortality rate in the Mongolian population, 2007–2014

    PubMed Central

    Surenjav, Enkhjin; Sovd, Tugsdelger; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Yamamoto, Eiko; Reyer, Joshua A.; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Amenable mortality (AM) is an indicator of medical care quality. This study aimed to assess the trend and magnitude of AM in Mongolia, with the purpose of providing evidence for decisions on resource allocation. This is the first study on AM trends in Mongolia. Retrospective analysis was done on mortality statistics for the period 2007–2014. Causes of death were coded according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Nolte & McKee’s classification of AM was used for the estimation of amenable mortality rates (AMRs) in Mongolia. During the study period, a total of 130,402 deaths were registered in Mongolia, of which 44,800 (34.4%) deaths were classified as being amenable. The age-standardized AMR per 100,000 population was highest in 2007 (226.6), and declined continuously until the level of 169.2 in 2014. The rate remained consistently higher in males than in females. Cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, perinatal deaths, influenza/pneumonia/asthma and tuberculosis were the leading causes of AM in the past eight years in Mongolia. The AMR was higher in remote western provinces with harsh weather conditions, high poverty rates, lack of human resources for health, and poor infrastructure. In addition, the provinces where Mongolia’s ethnic minorities live tended to have a higher AMR. The government of Mongolia needs to critically look at the regional differences in AM in order to allocate health resources, including human resources, effectively. Further studies are needed to look into the causes of regional disparities in AM, individual-level risk factors to amenable deaths, and validity of death coding in health sector. PMID:27019528

  6. Decreasing mortality and morbidity rates after the institution of a statewide burn program.

    PubMed

    Clark, D E; Katz, M S; Campbell, S M

    1992-01-01

    During the late 1970s, a statewide system for burn treatment and prevention was developed in Maine; it was assumed that such a system would reduce mortality and morbidity rates. To examine the effect of this intervention and the validity of its underlying hypothesis, data for the period from 1973 to 1988 were collected from burn unit registries inside and outside of the state and from hospital discharge abstracts, death certificates, and published sources. In Maine, the annual number of deaths per million persons that resulted from fire- and burn-related injuries declined from 41 in the years 1973-1980 to 25 in the years 1981-1988, which is a significantly greater decrease than for the United States as a whole (p less than 0.001). This decrease could not be explained by changes in the age or urban and rural distribution of the population. The annual number of hospital admissions for treatment of burns (per million persons) in Maine decreased from 401 to 301 over the same period, and patients with more complicated burns were increasingly referred to more specialized centers within and outside of the state. Since a state system was instituted, hospital mortality rates, when grouped by age and burn area, were not significantly different from those reported by the most prominent burn unit in New England. The population-based methods of data collection and linkage that were developed for this investigation may be useful for other studies of injury epidemiology. A statewide burn program appears to have contributed to a reduction in mortality and morbidity rates, primarily through preventive efforts. PMID:1587928

  7. Resting heart rate and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the general population: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongfeng; Shen, Xiaoli; Qi, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data on resting heart rate and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are inconsistent; the magnitude of associations between resting heart rate and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality varies across studies. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantitatively evaluate the associations in the general population. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and MEDLINE from inception to Jan. 1, 2015. We used a random-effects model to combine study-specific relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used restricted cubic spline functions to assess the dose–response relation. Results: A total of 46 studies were included in the meta-analysis, involving 1 246 203 patients and 78 349 deaths for all-cause mortality, and 848 320 patients and 25 800 deaths for cardiovascular mortality. The relative risk with 10 beats/min increment of resting heart rate was 1.09 (95% CI 1.07–1.12) for all-cause mortality and 1.08 (95% CI 1.06–1.10) for cardiovascular mortality. Compared with the lowest category, patients with a resting heart rate of 60–80 beats/min had a relative risk of 1.12 (95% CI 1.07–1.17) for all-cause mortality and 1.08 (95% CI 0.99–1.17) for cardiovascular mortality, and those with a resting heart rate of greater than 80 beats/min had a relative risk of 1.45 (95% CI 1.34–1.57) for all-cause mortality and 1.33 (95% CI 1.19–1.47) for cardiovascular mortality. Overall, the results did not differ after adjustment for traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Compared with 45 beats/min, the risk of all-cause mortality increased significantly with increasing resting heart rate in a linear relation, but a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular mortality was observed at 90 beats/min. Substantial heterogeneity and publication bias were detected. Interpretation: Higher resting heart rate was independently associated with increased risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This

  8. Enterotomy and Mortality Rates of Laparoscopic Incisional and Ventral Hernia Repair: a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Elieson, Melvin Joseph; Corder, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Laparoscopic incisional and ventral hernia (LVIH) repair is becoming more popular throughout the world. Although individual series have presented their own information, few data have been collected to identify the risk of the most serious complication, enterotomy. A literature review has identified this to occur in 1.78% of patients who undergo this procedure. Large bowel injury represents only 8.3% of these injuries. Eighty-two percent of the time, these injuries will be recognized and repaired. In the majority of published series in which this occurred, the hernia repair was completed with a laparoscopically placed prosthesis, as only 43% were converted to the open procedure. Complications related to this approach are infrequent. The mortality rate of this operation was noted to be 0.05%. However, if an enterotomy occurred, it increased to 2.8%. A recognized enterotomy was associated with a mortality rate of 1.7%, but an unrecognized enterotomy had a rate of 7.7%. Careful technique and close inspection of the intestine at the completion of the adhesiolysis and the herniorrhaphy is recommended. If the hernia repair proceeds as planned following repair of enterotomy, continuation of antibiotics and the placement of an antimicrobial impregnated prosthesis are recommended. More study is necessary before firm recommendations can be made, as the majority of these events are most likely unreported. Safety concerns may require postponement of the hernia repair if an enterotomy occurs. PMID:18237502

  9. Evaluation of a mark-recapture method for estimating mortality and migration rates of stratified populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.; Rago, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    We simulated mark–recapture experiments to evaluate a method for estimating fishing mortality and migration rates of populations stratified at release and recovery. When fish released in two or more strata were recovered from different recapture strata in nearly the same proportions, conditional recapture probabilities were estimated outside the [0, 1] interval. The maximum likelihood estimates tended to be biased and imprecise when the patterns of recaptures produced extremely "flat" likelihood surfaces. Absence of bias was not guaranteed, however, in experiments where recapture rates could be estimated within the [0, 1] interval. Inadequate numbers of tag releases and recoveries also produced biased estimates, although the bias was easily detected by the high sampling variability of the estimates. A stratified tag–recapture experiment with sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) was used to demonstrate procedures for analyzing data that produce biased estimates of recapture probabilities. An estimator was derived to examine the sensitivity of recapture rate estimates to assumed differences in natural and tagging mortality, tag loss, and incomplete reporting of tag recoveries.

  10. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lump Sum Mortality Rates A Appendix A to Part 4022 Labor....001351 20 0.001311 21 0.001267 22 0.001219 23 0.001167 24 0.001149 25 0.001129 26 0.001107 27 0.001083 28....143179 88 0.155147 89 0.168208 90 0.182461 91 0.198030 92 0.215035 93 0.232983 94 0.252545 95 0.273878...

  11. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lump Sum Mortality Rates A Appendix A to Part 4022 Labor....001351 20 0.001311 21 0.001267 22 0.001219 23 0.001167 24 0.001149 25 0.001129 26 0.001107 27 0.001083 28....143179 88 0.155147 89 0.168208 90 0.182461 91 0.198030 92 0.215035 93 0.232983 94 0.252545 95 0.273878...

  12. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 4022 - Lump Sum Mortality Rates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lump Sum Mortality Rates A Appendix A to Part 4022 Labor....001351 20 0.001311 21 0.001267 22 0.001219 23 0.001167 24 0.001149 25 0.001129 26 0.001107 27 0.001083 28....143179 88 0.155147 89 0.168208 90 0.182461 91 0.198030 92 0.215035 93 0.232983 94 0.252545 95 0.273878...

  13. Selection of mortality rates and spatial structure in a host-disease model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socolar, Joshua E. S.; Richards, Shane; Wilson, William

    2000-03-01

    A simple model of population dynamics with evolving hosts and rapidly spreading, fatal diseases is introduced. The model is of interest to ecologists for two reasons: (1) it demonstrates a novel kin selection mechanism that limits evolution towards greater longevity; and (2) spatial organization plays a crucial role in this mechanism. For statistical physicists, the model poses the challenge of accounting for the average mortality rate after many generations. An appropriate mean-field theory has been formulated for a 1-dimensional system, but the problem takes on a very different character in 2D, where numerical results indicate that the system evolves to a critical state.

  14. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Potticary, Ahva L.; Lloyd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  15. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E; Oteyza, Juan C; Mitchell, Adam E; Potticary, Ahva L; Lloyd, Penn

    2015-03-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  16. Modeling Atmospheric Emissions and Calculating Mortality Rates Associated with High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Alyssa

    Emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are a growing pollution concern throughout the global community, as they have been linked to numerous health issues. The freight transportation sector is a large source of these emissions and is expected to continue growing as globalization persists. Within the US, the expanding development of the natural gas industry is helping to support many industries and leading to increased transportation. The process of High Volume Hydraulic Fracturing (HVHF) is one of the newer advanced extraction techniques that is increasing natural gas and oil reserves dramatically within the US, however the technique is very resource intensive. HVHF requires large volumes of water and sand per well, which is primarily transported by trucks in rural areas. Trucks are also used to transport waste away from HVHF well sites. This study focused on the emissions generated from the transportation of HVHF materials to remote well sites, dispersion, and subsequent health impacts. The Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transport (GIFT) model was used in this analysis within ArcGIS to identify roadways with high volume traffic and emissions. High traffic road segments were used as emissions sources to determine the atmospheric dispersion of particulate matter using AERMOD, an EPA model that calculates geographic dispersion and concentrations of pollutants. Output from AERMOD was overlaid with census data to determine which communities may be impacted by increased emissions from HVHF transport. The anticipated number of mortalities within the impacted communities was calculated, and mortality rates from these additional emissions were computed to be 1 in 10 million people for a simulated truck fleet meeting stricter 2007 emission standards, representing a best case scenario. Mortality rates due to increased truck emissions from average, in-use vehicles, which represent a mixed age truck fleet, are expected to be higher (1 death per 341,000 people annually).

  17. Uneven futures of human lifespans: reckonings from Gompertz mortality rates, climate change, and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caleb E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    The past 200 years have enabled remarkable increases in human lifespans through improvements in the living environment that have nearly eliminated infections as a cause of death through improved hygiene, public health, medicine, and nutrition. We argue that the limit to lifespan may be approaching. Since 1997, no one has exceeded Jeanne Calment's record of 122.5 years, despite an exponential increase of centenarians. Moreover, the background mortality may be approaching a lower limit. We calculate from Gompertz coefficients that further increases in longevity to approach a life expectancy of 100 years in 21st century cohorts would require 50% slower mortality rate accelerations, which would be a fundamental change in the rate of human aging. Looking into the 21st century, we see further challenges to health and longevity from the continued burning of fossil fuels that contribute to air pollution as well as global warming. Besides increased heat waves to which elderly are vulnerable, global warming is anticipated to increase ozone levels and facilitate the spread of pathogens. We anticipate continuing socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy.

  18. Uneven Futures of Human Lifespans: Reckonings from Gompertz Mortality Rates, Climate Change, and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caleb E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    The past 200 years have enabled remarkable increases in human lifespans thru improvements of the living environment that have nearly eliminated infections as a cause of death through improved hygiene- public health, medicine, and nutrition. We argue that the limit to lifespan may be approaching. Since 1997, no one has exceeded Jean Calment's record of 122.5 years, despite an exponential increase of centenarians. Moreover, the background mortality may be approaching a lower limit. We calculate from Gompertz coefficients that further increases in longevity to approach a life expectancy of 100 years in 21st C cohorts would require 50% slower mortality rate accelerations, which would be a fundamental change in the rate of human aging. Looking into the 21st C, we see further challenges to health and longevity from the continued burning of fossil fuels that contribute to air pollution, as well as global warming. Besides increased heat waves to which elderly are vulnerable, global warming is anticipated to increase ozone levels and to favor the spread of pathogens. We anticipate continuing socio-economic disparities of life expectancy. PMID:24401556

  19. Uneven futures of human lifespans: reckonings from Gompertz mortality rates, climate change, and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caleb E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2014-01-01

    The past 200 years have enabled remarkable increases in human lifespans through improvements in the living environment that have nearly eliminated infections as a cause of death through improved hygiene, public health, medicine, and nutrition. We argue that the limit to lifespan may be approaching. Since 1997, no one has exceeded Jeanne Calment's record of 122.5 years, despite an exponential increase of centenarians. Moreover, the background mortality may be approaching a lower limit. We calculate from Gompertz coefficients that further increases in longevity to approach a life expectancy of 100 years in 21st century cohorts would require 50% slower mortality rate accelerations, which would be a fundamental change in the rate of human aging. Looking into the 21st century, we see further challenges to health and longevity from the continued burning of fossil fuels that contribute to air pollution as well as global warming. Besides increased heat waves to which elderly are vulnerable, global warming is anticipated to increase ozone levels and facilitate the spread of pathogens. We anticipate continuing socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy. PMID:24401556

  20. The relation of ambulatory heart rate with all-cause mortality among middle-aged men: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Kittel, France; Van Herck, Koen; De Backer, Guy; De Bacquer, Dirk; Holtermann, Andreas; Clays, Els

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate and all-cause mortality, while adjusting for resting clinical heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity as well as classical risk factors. A group of 439 middle-aged male workers free of baseline coronary heart disease from the Belgian Physical Fitness Study was included in the analysis. Data were collected by questionnaires and clinical examinations from 1976 to 1978. All-cause mortality was collected from the national mortality registration with a mean follow-up period of 16.5 years, with a total of 48 events. After adjustment for all before mentioned confounders in a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality was found among the tertile of workers with highest average ambulatory heart rate compared to the tertile with lowest ambulatory heart rate (Hazard ratio = 3.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-8.44). No significant independent association was found between resting clinic heart rate and all-cause mortality. The study indicates that average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality independent from resting clinic heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity and other classical risk factors among healthy middle-aged workers.

  1. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  2. Ambulatory heart rate range predicts mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Cubbon, Richard M; Ruff, Naomi; Groves, David; Eleuteri, Antonio; Denby, Christine; Kearney, Lorraine; Ali, Noman; Walker, Andrew M N; Jamil, Haqeel; Gierula, John; Gale, Chris P; Batin, Phillip D; Nolan, James; Shah, Ajay M; Fox, Keith A A; Sapsford, Robert J; Witte, Klaus K; Kearney, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to define the prognostic value of the heart rate range during a 24 h period in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods Prospective observational cohort study of 791 patients with CHF associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation were linked with ambulatory heart rate range (AHRR; calculated as maximum minus minimum heart rate using 24 h Holter monitor data, including paced and non-sinus complexes) in univariate and multivariate analyses. Findings were then corroborated in a validation cohort of 408 patients with CHF with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Results After a mean 4.1 years of follow-up, increasing AHRR was associated with reduced risk of all-cause, sudden, non-cardiovascular and progressive heart failure death in univariate analyses. After accounting for characteristics that differed between groups above and below median AHRR using multivariate analysis, AHRR remained strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 0.991/bpm increase in AHRR (95% CI 0.999 to 0.982); p=0.046). AHRR was not associated with the risk of any non-elective hospitalisation, but was associated with heart-failure-related hospitalisation. AHRR was modestly associated with the SD of normal-to-normal beats (R2=0.2; p<0.001) and with peak exercise-test heart rate (R2=0.33; p<0.001). Analysis of the validation cohort revealed AHRR to be associated with all-cause and mode-specific death as described in the derivation cohort. Conclusions AHRR is a novel and readily available prognosticator in patients with CHF, which may reflect autonomic tone and exercise capacity. PMID:26674986

  3. Testosterone Deficiency Increases Hospital Readmission and Mortality Rates in Male Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues; Sayegh, Ana Luiza Carrari; Groehs, Raphaela Vilar Ramalho; Fonseca, Guilherme; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Barretto, Antônio Carlos Pereira; Arap, Marco Antônio; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Middlekauff, Holly R.; Alves, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone deficiency in patients with heart failure (HF) is associated with decreased exercise capacity and mortality; however, its impact on hospital readmission rate is uncertain. Furthermore, the relationship between testosterone deficiency and sympathetic activation is unknown. Objective We investigated the role of testosterone level on hospital readmission and mortality rates as well as sympathetic nerve activity in patients with HF. Methods Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in 110 hospitalized male patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction < 45% and New York Heart Association classification IV. The patients were placed into low testosterone (LT; n = 66) and normal testosterone (NT; n = 44) groups. Hypogonadism was defined as TT < 300 ng/dL and FT < 131 pmol/L. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded by microneurography in a subpopulation of 27 patients. Results Length of hospital stay was longer in the LT group compared to in the NT group (37 ± 4 vs. 25 ± 4 days; p = 0.008). Similarly, the cumulative hazard of readmission within 1 year was greater in the LT group compared to in the NT group (44% vs. 22%, p = 0.001). In the single-predictor analysis, TT (hazard ratio [HR], 2.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58–4.85; p = 0.02) predicted hospital readmission within 90 days. In addition, TT (HR, 4.65; 95% CI, 2.67–8.10; p = 0.009) and readmission within 90 days (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.23–8.69; p = 0.02) predicted increased mortality. Neurohumoral activation, as estimated by MSNA, was significantly higher in the LT group compared to in the NT group (65 ± 3 vs. 51 ± 4 bursts/100 heart beats; p < 0.001). Conclusion These results support the concept that LT is an independent risk factor for hospital readmission within 90 days and increased mortality in patients with HF. Furthermore, increased MSNA was observed in patients with LT. PMID:26200897

  4. Impacts of land use on spatial distribution of mortality rates of cancers caused by naturally occurring asbestos.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Jia, Xianjie; Ye, Bixiong; Yu, Jiangping; Zhang, Biao; Zhang, Xiuwu; Lu, Rongan; Dong, Tingrong; Yang, Linsheng

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the spatial distributions of mortality rates of six cancers: mesothelioma, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, liver cancer, and stomach cancer in Dayao using Geographic Information Systems. Relationships between the mortality rates of the six cancers and land use patterns were investigated by Pearson Correlation Coefficients. The results indicated that the mortality rates of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, and mesothelioma were significantly associated with outcropped asbestos. Both the proportions of farmland and urban area were positively related to the mortality rates of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, and mesothelioma, and significant negative correlations were found between the proportion of forestland and nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer and intestinal cancer. It can be concluded that naturally occurring asbestos may significantly elevate the mortality rates of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, intestinal cancer, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Moreover, higher proportions of farmland, urban area, and lower proportions of forested land may elevate the mortality rate of the four cancers.

  5. Health service 'input' and mortality 'output' in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, A L; St Leger, A S; Moore, F

    1978-09-01

    The relationship between age-specific mortality rates and some indices of health facilities and some environmental and dietary factors has been studied in 18 developed couuntries. The indices of health care are not negatively associated with mortality, and there is a marked positive association between the prevalence of doctors and mortality in the younger age groups. No explanation of this doctor anomaly has so far been found. Gross national product per head is the principal variable which shows a consistently strong negative association with mortality.

  6. Effects of local extrinsic mortality rate, crime and sex ratio on preventable death in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Individual investment in health varies greatly within populations and results in significant differences in the risk of preventable death. Life history theory predicts that individuals should alter their investment in health (somatic maintenance) in response to ecological cues that shift the perceived fitness payoffs to such investments. However, previous research has failed to isolate the effects of different ecological factors on preventable death, and has often relied on macro-level data without individual controls. Here, we test some key predictions concerning the local ecology—that higher extrinsic mortality rate (EMR), crime rate and mate-scarcity (male/female-biased sex ratio) at the ward-level—will be associated with a higher risk of preventable death. Methodology: We use census-based data from Northern Ireland (n = 927 150) on preventable death during an 8.7-year period from the 2001 Census and run Cox regressions for (i) accident/suicide or alcohol-related death and (ii) deaths from preventable diseases, for men and women separately, controlling for a wide range of individual variables. Results: We find evidence of ward-level EMR and crime rate being positively associated with preventable death among men, particularly men with low socioeconomic position. There was a tentative relationship between male-biased sex ratio and preventable death among women, but not among men. Conclusion and implications: Both behaviours that might lead to ‘risky’ death and health neglect might be adaptive responses to local ecologies. Efforts to reduce crime might be as effective as those to reduce extrinsic mortality, and both could have positive effects on various health behaviours. PMID:26338679

  7. Declines in stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates in Europe between 2004 and 2010: results from the Euro-Peristat project

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Mortensen, Laust; Cuttini, Marina; Lack, Nicholas; Nijhuis, Jan; Haidinger, Gerald; Blondel, Béatrice; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D

    2016-01-01

    Background Stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates declined in Europe between 2004 and 2010. We hypothesised that declines might be greater for countries with higher mortality in 2004 and disproportionally affect very preterm infants at highest risk. Methods Data about live births, stillbirths and neonatal deaths by gestational age (GA) were collected using a common protocol by the Euro-Peristat project in 2004 and 2010. We analysed stillbirths at ≥28 weeks GA in 22 countries and live births ≥24 weeks GA for neonatal mortality in 18 countries. Per cent changes over time were assessed by calculating risk ratios (RR) for stillbirth, neonatal mortality and preterm birth rates in 2010 vs 2004. We used meta-analysis techniques to derive pooled RR using random-effects models overall, by GA subgroups and by mortality level in 2004. Results Between 2004 and 2010, stillbirths declined by 17% (95% CI 10% to 23%), with a range from 1% to 39% by country. Neonatal mortality declined by 29% (95% CI 23% to 35%) with a range from 9% to 67%. Preterm birth rates did not change: 0% (95% CI −3% to 3%). Mortality declines were of a similar magnitude at all GA; mortality levels in 2004 were not associated with RRs. Conclusions Stillbirths and neonatal deaths declined at all gestational ages in countries with both high and low levels of mortality in 2004. These results raise questions about how low-mortality countries achieve continued declines and highlight the importance of improving care across the GA spectrum. PMID:26719590

  8. Trends in age-specific cerebrovascular disease in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Sun, Wei; Ji, Yue; Shi, Jing; Xuan, Qinkao; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xiao, Junjie; Kong, Xiangqing

    2014-01-01

    Although the mortality of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been steadily declined in the European Union (EU), CVD remains among the major causes of death in EU. As risk factors such asobesity and diabetes mellitus are increasing, the trends of European CVD mortality remains unknown. To understand the variation in CVD mortality of different EU countries, we studied the trends in CVD mortality in EU countries over the last three decades between males and females. Age- and sex-specific mortality rates between 1980 and 2011 were calculated by data from the WHO mortality database. Joinpoint software was used to calculate annual percentage changes and to characterize trends in mortality rates over time. Our study showed that between 1980 and 2011, CVD mortality significantly decreased in both men and women across all age groups. The specific mortality trends varied largely between EU countries. The plateau trend was observed in little regions at different age groups, however, the EU as a whole displayed declined trend CVD mortality. During the last three decades, CVD mortality decreased substantially in the entire population of EU. However, despite this overall decline in CVD mortality, several areas were identified as having no change in their CVD mortality rates at different period. The whole EU needs to establish strict prevention measures toreduce the incidence of CVD risk factors. PMID:25550927

  9. Exogenous heat shock protein 70 mediates sepsis manifestations and decreases the mortality rate in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kustanova, Gul'sara A.; Murashev, Arcady N.; Karpov, Vadim L.; Margulis, Boris A.; Guzhova, Irina V.; Prokhorenko, Izabella R.; Grachev, Sergei V.; Evgen'ev, Michael B.

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria can lead to an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction that can be deadly for the host. We checked whether heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) protein is able to protect animals from the deleterious effects of bacterial LPS by monitoring the effect of exogenous Hsp70 injections before and after LPS administration. Our research with rats demonstrates for the first time that administration of exogeneous Hsp70 before and after LPS challenges can reduce mortality rates and modify several parameters of hemostasis and hemodynamics. Hsp70 isolated from bovine muscles showed significant protective effects against the impaired coagulation and fibrinolytic systems caused by LPS, and reduced the mortality caused by Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium LPS injections significantly. Characteristically, Hsp70 preparations used in the experiments result in different effects when administered before and after an LPS challenge, and the effects of Hsp70 injections also differ significantly depending on the origin of the LPS (E coli vs S typhimurium). Based on our data, mammalian Hsp70 appears to be an attractive target in therapeutic strategies designed to stimulate endogenous protective mechanisms against many deleterious consequences of septic shock by accelerating the functional recovery of susceptible organs in humans. PMID:17009601

  10. Determining the Independent Risk Factors and Mortality Rate of Nosocomial Infections in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aktar, Fesih; Tekin, Recep; Güneş, Ali; Ülgen, Cevat; Tan, İlhan; Ertuğrul, Sabahattin; Köşker, Muhammet; Balık, Hasan; Karabel, Duran; Yolbaş, Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the rate, independent risk factors, and outcomes of healthcare-associated infections in pediatric patients. This study was performed between 2011 and 2014 in pediatric clinic and intensive care unit. 86 patients and 86 control subjects were included in the study. Of 86 patients with nosocomial infections (NIs), there were 100 NIs episodes and 90 culture growths. The median age was 32.0 months. The median duration of hospital stay of the patients was 30.0 days. The most frequent pathogens were Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Candida spp. Unconsciousness, prolonged hospitalization, transfusion, mechanical ventilation, use of central venous catheter, enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube, urinary catheter, and receiving carbapenems and glycopeptides were found to be significantly higher in NIs patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed prolonged hospitalization, neutropenia, and use of central venous catheter and carbapenems as the independent risk factors for NIs. In the univariate analysis, unconsciousness, mechanical ventilation, enteral feeding, use of enteral feeding via a nasogastric tube, H2 receptor blockers, and port and urinary catheter were significantly associated with mortality. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only mechanical ventilation was found as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with NIs. PMID:26981536

  11. Mortality rates among employees potentially exposed to chrysotile asbestos at two automotive parts factories.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M M

    1989-07-15

    A study of the mortality rates among 1657 employees at two Ontario automotive parts factories that manufactured friction materials containing chrysotile asbestos was initiated in response to the workers' concerns about the effects of asbestos on their health. A total of 1194 men and 258 women had had their first potential exposure at least 10 years before the end of the study period; 563 of the men and 138 of the women had had such an exposure at least 20 years before the end of the study period. A significantly increased rate of death from laryngeal cancer and an elevated rate of death from lung cancer were observed in a cohort analysis. One or two deaths might have been due to pleural mesothelioma. There was no increase in the rate of death from gastrointestinal cancer or from nonmalignant respiratory disease. Case-control analysis showed no association between the risk of laryngeal or lung cancer and the total duration of employment (a surrogate for the extent of ambient exposure to asbestos or other workplace toxic substances) or employment in departments where asbestos had been used. An association between risk of death and occupational exposure is uncertain. PMID:2545323

  12. Mortality rates among employees potentially exposed to chrysotile asbestos at two automotive parts factories.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, M M

    1989-01-01

    A study of the mortality rates among 1657 employees at two Ontario automotive parts factories that manufactured friction materials containing chrysotile asbestos was initiated in response to the workers' concerns about the effects of asbestos on their health. A total of 1194 men and 258 women had had their first potential exposure at least 10 years before the end of the study period; 563 of the men and 138 of the women had had such an exposure at least 20 years before the end of the study period. A significantly increased rate of death from laryngeal cancer and an elevated rate of death from lung cancer were observed in a cohort analysis. One or two deaths might have been due to pleural mesothelioma. There was no increase in the rate of death from gastrointestinal cancer or from nonmalignant respiratory disease. Case-control analysis showed no association between the risk of laryngeal or lung cancer and the total duration of employment (a surrogate for the extent of ambient exposure to asbestos or other workplace toxic substances) or employment in departments where asbestos had been used. An association between risk of death and occupational exposure is uncertain. PMID:2545323

  13. Is the United States Maternal Mortality Rate Increasing? Disentangling trends from measurement issues Short title: U.S. Maternal Mortality Trends

    PubMed Central

    Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard; Morton, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background A pregnancy question was added to the U.S. standard death certificate in 2003 to improve ascertainment of maternal deaths. The delayed adoption of this question among states led to data incompatibilities, and impeded accurate trend analysis. Our objectives were to develop methods for trend analysis, and to provide an overview of U.S. maternal mortality trends from 2000–2014. Methods This observational study analyzed vital statistics maternal mortality data from all U.S. states in relation to the format and year-of-adoption of the pregnancy question. Correction factors were developed to adjust data from before the standard pregnancy question was adopted, to promote accurate trend analysis. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze trends for groups of states with similar pregnancy questions. Results The estimated maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) for 48 states and Washington D.C. (excluding California and Texas, analyzed separately) increased by 26.6%, from 18.8 in 2000 to 23.8 in 2014. California showed a declining trend, while Texas had a sudden increase in 2011–2012. Analysis of the measurement change suggests that U.S. rates in the early 2000s were higher than previously reported. Discussion Despite the United Nations Millennium Development Goal for a 75% reduction in maternal mortality by 2015, the estimated maternal mortality rate for 48 states and Washington D.C. increased from 2000–2014, while the international trend was in the opposite direction. There is a need to redouble efforts to prevent maternal deaths and improve maternity care for the 4 million U.S. women giving birth each year. PMID:27500333

  14. Basis for the ICRP`s age-specific biokinetic model for uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.

    1994-12-01

    In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is developing age-specific biokinetic models and dose coefficients for environmentally important radionuclides. This paper describes the ICRP`s age-specific biokinetic model for uranium. The model is constructed within a physiologically based framework originally developed for application to the alkaline earth elements but sufficiently general to apply to the larger class of bone-volume-seeking elements. Transfer rates for a reference adult are based mainly on: (1) measurements of uranium in blood and excreta of several human subjects who were intravenously injected with uranium; (2) postmortem measurements of uranium in tissues of some of those subjects; (3) postmortem measurements of uranium in tissues of occupationally and non-occupationally exposed subjects; (4) data on baboons, dogs, and smaller laboratory animals exposed to uranium for experimental purposes; and (5) consideration of the physiological processes thought to control retention and translocation of uranium in the body. Transfer rates for the adult are extended to children by application of a set of generic assumptions applied by the ICRP to calcium-like elements. These assumptions were derived mainly from observations of the age-specific biokinetics of the alkaline earth elements and lead in humans and laboratory animals but are consistent with available age-specific biokinetic data on uranium. 82 refs., 17 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. High mortality rates occur in copper deficient rats exposed to a normally nonlethal endotoxin treatment

    SciTech Connect

    DiSilvestro, R.; Joseph, E.; Yang, F.L. )

    1991-03-15

    Endotoxin hepatotoxicity is proposed to occur by processes which could be retarded by 3 copper enzymes: ceruloplasmin, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), and extracellular (EC) SOD. Weanling rats fed low copper for 40 days showed low activity levels of these enzymes, and a very high mortality rate 20 h after endotoxin injection. No rats fed adequate copper died from this treatment. In addition, serum transaminase activities, indicators of liver damage, were elevated by 3 h to a greater extent in the deficient rats than in the adequates. The high susceptibility to endotoxemia in the deficient rats was not associated with low hepatic glutathione, high liver malondialedhyde, nor restricted metallothionein induction 3 h after endotoxin injection. Endotoxin reduced serum EC SOD activities in adequate and deficient rats, but final values were lower in the latter. Studies on roles of specific copper enzymes in resistance to endotoxemia are currently underway.

  16. Case fatality ratio and mortality rate trends of community-onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Tom, S; Galbraith, J C; Valiquette, L; Jacobsson, G; Collignon, P; Schønheyder, H C; Søgaard, M; Kennedy, K J; Knudsen, J D; Ostergaard, C; Lyytikäinen, O; Laupland, K B

    2014-10-01

    Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100 000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Australia, Sweden and Denmark to evaluate 30-day CFR and MR trends between 2000 and 2008. The CFR was 20.3% (MSSA 20.2%, MRSA 22.3%) and MR was 3.4 (MSSA 3.1, MRSA 0.3) per 100 000 per year. Although MSSA CFR was stable the MSSA MR increased; MRSA CFR decreased while its MR remained low during the study. Community-onset S. aureus bacteraemia, particularly MSSA, is associated with major disease burden. This study highlights complementary information provided by evaluating both CFR and MR.

  17. Longitudinal Changes in Vascular Risk Markers and Mortality Rates among a Latino Population with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pflederer, Matthew C.; Long, Carlin S.; Beaty, Brenda; Havranek, Edward P.; Mehler, Philip S.; Keniston, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Vascular markers such as pulse-wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) might improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease beyond traditional risk factors. These vascular markers have not been well characterized in minority populations and might be more useful than inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study among hypertensive patients in an urban safety-net hospital. We evaluated inflammatory biomarkers, arterial pulse-wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. The primary outcome variable was CIMT. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between CIMT and predictive variables accounting for the correlation of multiple measurements within subjects over time. For our secondary outcome, we used administrative and National Death Index data to determine all-cause death, and univariate relationships were evaluated. Among 175 subjects, 117 were Latino (67%) and 117 were female (67%). Pulse-wave velocity and CIMT regressed over time (both P <0.001) and were highly correlated (P <0.001). Only pulse-wave velocity (P=0.002) and total cholesterol (P=0.03) were associated with CIMT in time-varying covariate analysis. At a median follow-up period of 80 months, 17 of 175 subjects had died (10%). Higher baseline CIMT and pulse-wave velocity were associated with increased mortality rates (both P <0.01). No serum inflammatory marker was significantly correlated with longitudinal changes in CIMT or death. In conclusion, both arterial stiffness and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis were associated with increased mortality rates and might be useful risk-stratification markers among this minority population. PMID:27127427

  18. Longitudinal Changes in Vascular Risk Markers and Mortality Rates among a Latino Population with Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pflederer, Matthew C; Long, Carlin S; Beaty, Brenda; Havranek, Edward P; Mehler, Philip S; Keniston, Angela; Krantz, Mori J

    2016-04-01

    Vascular markers such as pulse-wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) might improve the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease beyond traditional risk factors. These vascular markers have not been well characterized in minority populations and might be more useful than inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study among hypertensive patients in an urban safety-net hospital. We evaluated inflammatory biomarkers, arterial pulse-wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. The primary outcome variable was CIMT. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate associations between CIMT and predictive variables accounting for the correlation of multiple measurements within subjects over time. For our secondary outcome, we used administrative and National Death Index data to determine all-cause death, and univariate relationships were evaluated. Among 175 subjects, 117 were Latino (67%) and 117 were female (67%). Pulse-wave velocity and CIMT regressed over time (both P <0.001) and were highly correlated (P <0.001). Only pulse-wave velocity (P=0.002) and total cholesterol (P=0.03) were associated with CIMT in time-varying covariate analysis. At a median follow-up period of 80 months, 17 of 175 subjects had died (10%). Higher baseline CIMT and pulse-wave velocity were associated with increased mortality rates (both P <0.01). No serum inflammatory marker was significantly correlated with longitudinal changes in CIMT or death. In conclusion, both arterial stiffness and preclinical carotid atherosclerosis were associated with increased mortality rates and might be useful risk-stratification markers among this minority population.

  19. Mortality rates of 0-group plaice ( Platessa platessa L.), dab ( Limanda limanda L.) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) in European waters . III. Density dependence of mortality rates of 0-group plaice and some demographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beverton, R. J. H.; Iles, T. C.

    This last of our three linked contributions on the dynamics of North Sea plaice is concerned with the detection and measurement from demographic data of the density-dependence of mortality rate during the early demersal phase of the life history. A mathematical expression is developed for the survival trajectory of a cohort subject to an instantaneous relative mortality rate which is a linear function of the algorithm of its density. This is used to analyse three independent data sets; a. pairs of densities at or soon after settlement in the Wadden Sea, b. estimates of seasonal mortality rates (M̊ d -1) and initial density of 0-group plaice cohorts derived by linear regression and c. autumn estimates 0- and 1-group fish from the ICES Young Fish Surveys. After correcting for various sources of bias, these each gave statistically significant estimates of the density-dependent mortality coefficient μ2 of 0.015, 0.0044 and 0.0010 per day, respectively. The same theoretical treatment of density-dependent mortality is used to develop an equation predicting the progressive 'damping' of the extremes of inter-year-class variation with age. The above three estimates of the density-dependent mortality coefficient μ2 applied in sequence provide more than sufficient 'damping' to explain the very low variability of recruitment and long-term stability which is characteristic of the North Sea plaice stock.

  20. [Epidemiological analysis of the dynamics and structure of population mortality rate from malignant neoplasms in the city of Tomsk].

    PubMed

    Meshkov, N A

    2014-01-01

    There was revealed the tendency of reduction of cancer mortality in the city of Tomsk. Average indices of the time series of total mortality (absolute growth and growth rate) in 1998-2003 outstripped the similar indices in 2004-2010 respectively 5.3 times and 1.6 times over. Mortality from cancer neoplasmas on localization decreased by 2 orders of magnitude. Mortality from cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung in the structure of total oncomortality is on the 1st place, on the 2nd--the death rate from cancer of the stomach, on the 3rd place in 1998-2003, mortality rate of colorectal cancer in 2004-2010. There was found the relationship of mortality of cancer of separate localizations with industrial emissions (leukemia), motor vehicles (cancer of the lips, mouth, pharynx, and colon) and stationary sources (cancer of the urinary organs). The air pollution with formaldehyde and particulate matter were established to affect the death rate for cancer of lips, mouth and throat, and other digestive organs and larynx.

  1. Digoxin Use to Control Ventricular Rate in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure Is Not Associated with Increased Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Dominic, Paari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Digoxin is used to control ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation (AF). There is conflicting evidence regarding safety of digoxin. We aimed to evaluate the risk of mortality with digoxin use in patients with AF using meta-analyses. Methods. PubMed was searched for studies comparing outcomes of patients with AF taking digoxin versus no digoxin, with or without heart failure (HF). Studies were excluded if they reported only a point estimate of mortality, duplicated patient populations, and/or did not report adjusted hazard ratios (HR). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Adjusted HRs were combined using generic inverse variance and log hazard ratios. A multivariate metaregression model was used to explore heterogeneity in studies. Results. Twelve studies with 321,944 patients were included in the meta-analysis. In all AF patients, irrespective of heart failure status, digoxin is associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR [1.23], 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–1.31). However, digoxin is not associated with increased mortality in patients with AF and HF (HR [1.08], 95% CI 0.99–1.18). In AF patients without HF digoxin is associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR [1.38], 95% CI 1.12–1.71). Conclusion. In patients with AF and HF, digoxin use is not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality when used for rate control. PMID:26788401

  2. Mortality rates between treated post-traumatic stress disorder Israeli male veterans compared to non-diagnosed veterans.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Joseph; Fostick, Leah

    2014-01-01

    The literature suggests that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased mortality. However, to date, mortality rates amongst veterans diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder have not been reported for Israeli veterans, who bear a different profile than veterans from other countries. This study aims to evaluate age-adjusted mortality rates amongst Israeli Defense Forces veterans with and without PTSD diagnosis. The study was carried out in a paired sample design with 2457 male veterans with treated PTSD and 2457 matched male veterans without a PTSD diagnosis. Data on PTSD and non-PTSD veterans was collected from the Rehabilitation Division of the Israeli Ministry of Defense (MOD) and the Israeli Defense Forces' (IDF) special unit for treatment of combat stress reaction. Mortality data were collected from the Ministry of the Interior (MOI) computerized database. Comparison of mortality rates between PTSD and non-PTSD veterans was done using paired observations survival analysis by applying a proportional hazards regression model. Overall no statistically significant difference in mortality rates was found between veterans with treated PTSD and veterans without PTSD. These findings hold even when excluding veterans who died in battle and including non-PTSD veterans who died before their matched PTSD veteran was diagnosed. However, among pairs with similar military jobs PTSD group had significantly less mortality. The results of this large national cohort suggest that treated PTSD is not associated with increased mortality. We submit that the lack of this association represents the "net" pathophysiology of PTSD due to the unique characteristics of the sample.

  3. EVALUATION OF THE MORTALITY RATE ONE YEAR AFTER HIP FRACTURE AND FACTORS RELATING TO DIMINISHED SURVIVAL AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Guilherme; Longaray, Maurício Portal; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Neto, Ary da Silva Ungaretti; Manente, Marislei; Barbosa, Luíza Barbosa Horta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate after one year and correlated preoperative factors, among patients with hip fractures. Methods: We prospectively studied 202 out of a total of 376 patients with a diagnosis of hip fracture who were admitted to the Hospital Cristo Redentor, between October 2007 and March 2009. The database with the epidemiological analysis was set up during their hospitalization, and follow–up data were obtained preferentially by phone. Results: The overall mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7% or 58 deaths, among which 11 (5.45%) occurred during hospitalization. Fractures were more prevalent among women (71.3%) and rare among blacks (5%). Among the comorbidities, dementia and depression showed a statistically significant reduction in survival (p = 0.018 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusion: The mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7%. Dementia and depression increased this rate. PMID:27042638

  4. Mortality rates of 0-group plaice ( pleuronectes platessa L.) dab ( limanda limanda L.) and turbot ( scophthalmus maximus L.) in European waters . II. Comparison of mortality rates and construction of life table for 0-group plaice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beverton, R. J. H.; Iles, T. C.

    This paper collates and compares the available published and unpublished estimates of mortality rates of demersal 0-group plaice, dab and turbot on their nursery grounds of the North Sea and adjacent coastal waters. Seasonal and spatial variations account for some but not all of the observed differences. The consolidated phase mortality rates throughout the first year from hatching onwards are then checked against independent data of the total egg-production and numbers of age 1 recruits for the 1986, 1987 and 1988 year-classes of plaice. From this analysis a revised life-table for the first year of life of North Sea plaice is constructed. The mortality rate of dab from mid-summer to the end of the first year is well correlated with that of plaice in the same location at the same time, suggesting that the main causes of mortality during this phase of the life-history are the same in both species. The only available estimate of the mortality rate of demersal 0-group turbot is within the upper part of the range for plaice. The demographic implications of these findings are examined and significant gaps identified in the present knowledge of the quantitative early life-history of these species.

  5. Quality Indicators but Not Admission Volumes of Neonatal Intensive Care Units Are Effective in Reducing Mortality Rates of Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rochow, Niels; Lee, Sauyoung; Schünemann, Holger; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate how two different strategies to form larger neonatal intensive care units (NICU) impact neonatal mortality rates. Methods Cross-sectional study modeling admission volumes and mortality rates of 177,086 VLBW infants aggregated into 862 NICUs. Cumulative 3-year data was abstracted from Vermont Oxford Network. The model simulated a reduction in number of NICUs by stepwise exclusion using either admission volume (VOL) or quality (QUAL) cut-offs. After randomly redirecting infants of excluded to remaining NICUs resulting system mortality rates were calculated with and without adjusting for effects of experience levels (EL) using published data to reflect effects of different team-to-patient exposure. Results The quality-based strategy is more effective in reducing mortality; while VOL alone was not able to reduce system mortality, QUAL already achieved a 5% improvement after reducing 8% of NICUs and redirecting 6% of infants. Including “EL”, a 5% improvement of mortality was achieved by reducing 77% (VOL) vs. 7% (QUAL) of NICUs and redirecting 54% (VOL) vs. 5% (QUAL) of VLBW infants, respectively. Conclusion While a critical number of admissions is needed to maintain skills this study emphasizes the importance of including quality parameters to restructure neonatal care. The findings can be generalized to other medical fields. PMID:27508499

  6. Ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia: how does season modify the association?

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Samoli, Evangelia; Yang, Xin; Kan, Haidong

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies in East Asia have revealed that the short-term associations between tropospheric ozone and daily mortality rate were strongest in winter, which is opposite to the findings in North America and Western Europe. Therefore, we investigated the season-varying association between ozone and daily mortality rate in 21 cities of East Asia from 1979 to 2010. Time-series Poisson regression models were used to analyze the association between ozone and daily nonaccidental mortality rate in each city, testing for different temperature lags. The best-fitting model was obtained after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. Bayesian hierarchical models were applied to pool the city-specific estimates. An interquartile-range increase of the moving average concentrations of same-day and previous-day ozone was associated with an increase of 1.44% (95% posterior interval (PI): 1.08%, 1.80%) in daily total mortality rate after adjustment for temperature in the previous 2 weeks. The corresponding increases were 0.62% (95% PI: 0.08%, 1.16%) in winter, 1.46% (95% PI: 0.89%, 2.03%) in spring, 1.60% (95% PI: 1.03%, 2.17%) in summer, and 1.12% (95% PI: 0.73%, 1.51%) in fall. We found significant associations between short-term exposure to ozone and higher mortality rate in East Asia that varied considerably from season to season with a significant trough in winter.

  7. Agricultural adjuvants: acute mortality and effects on population growth rate of Daphnia pulex after chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Stark, John D; Walthall, William K

    2003-12-01

    Acute and chronic toxicity of eight agricultural adjuvants (Bond, Kinetic, Plyac, R-11, Silwet L-77, Sylgard 309, X-77, and WaterMaxx) to Daphnia pulex were evaluated with 48-h acute lethal concentration estimates (LC50) and a 10-d population growth-rate measurement, the instantaneous rate of increase (r1). Based on LC50, the order of toxicity was R-11 > X-77 = Sylgard 309 = Silwet L-77 > Kinetic > Bond > Plyac > WaterMaxx; all LC50 estimates were higher than the expected environmental concentration (EEC) of 0.79 mg/L, indicating that none of these adjuvants should cause high levels of mortality in wild D. pulex populations. Extinction, defined as negative population growth rate, occurred after exposure to 0.9 mg/L R-11, 13 mg/L X-77, 25 mg/L Kinetic, 28 mg/L Silwet, 18 mg/L Sylgard, 450 mg/L Bond, 610 mg/L Plyac, and 1,600 mg/L WaterMaxx. Concentrations that caused extinction were substantially below the acute LC50 for R-11, Kinetic, Plyac, X-77, and Bond. The no-observable-effects concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effects concentration (LOEC) for the number of offspring per surviving female after exposure to R-11 were 0.5 and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. The NOEC and LOEC for population size after exposure to R-11 were (1.25 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Both of these values were lower than the EEC, indicating that R-11 does have the potential to cause damage to D. pulex populations after application at recommended field rates. The wide range of concentrations causing extinction makes it difficult to generalize about the potential impacts that agricultural adjuvants might have on aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, additional studies that examine effects on other nontarget organisms and determine residues in aquatic ecosystems may be warranted.

  8. Salivary Immunoglobulin A Secretion Rate Is Negatively Associated with Cancer Mortality: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anna C; Carroll, Douglas; Drayson, Mark T; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are essential for combating infectious disease although very high levels can indicate underlying pathology. The present study examined associations between secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and mortality rates in the general population. Participants were 639 adults from the eldest cohort of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study aged 63 years at the time of saliva sampling in 1995. From unstimulated 2-minute saliva samples, saliva volume and S-IgA concentration were measured, and S-IgA secretion rate determined as their product. Mortality data were tracked for 19 years. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from sIgA secretion rate. Associations were adjusted for gender, assay batch, household occupational group, smoking, medication usage, and self-reported health. There was a negative association between log sIgA secretion rate and all-cause mortality, HR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.73-0.91, p < .001. Further analysis of specific causes of mortality revealed that the all-cause association was due to an underlying association with cancer mortality and in particular with cancers other than lung cancer. The HR for non-lung cancer was 0.68 (95%CI = 0.54 to 0.85) implying a 32% reduction in mortality risk per standard deviation rise in log sIgA secretion rate. Effects were stronger for men than women. For deaths from respiratory diseases, sIgA secretion had a non-linear relationship with mortality risk whereby only the very lowest levels of secretion were associated with elevated risk. SIgA concentration revealed a similar but weaker pattern of association. In the present study, higher secretion rates of sIgA were associated with a decreased risk of death from cancer, specifically non-lung cancer, as well as from respiratory disease. Thus, it appears that sIgA plays a protective role among older adults, and could serve as a marker of mortality risk, specifically cancer mortality. PMID:26699127

  9. Salivary Immunoglobulin A Secretion Rate Is Negatively Associated with Cancer Mortality: The West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Douglas; Drayson, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins are essential for combating infectious disease although very high levels can indicate underlying pathology. The present study examined associations between secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in saliva and mortality rates in the general population. Participants were 639 adults from the eldest cohort of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study aged 63 years at the time of saliva sampling in 1995. From unstimulated 2-minute saliva samples, saliva volume and S-IgA concentration were measured, and S-IgA secretion rate determined as their product. Mortality data were tracked for 19 years. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from sIgA secretion rate. Associations were adjusted for gender, assay batch, household occupational group, smoking, medication usage, and self-reported health. There was a negative association between log sIgA secretion rate and all-cause mortality, HR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.73–0.91, p < .001. Further analysis of specific causes of mortality revealed that the all-cause association was due to an underlying association with cancer mortality and in particular with cancers other than lung cancer. The HR for non-lung cancer was 0.68 (95%CI = 0.54 to 0.85) implying a 32% reduction in mortality risk per standard deviation rise in log sIgA secretion rate. Effects were stronger for men than women. For deaths from respiratory diseases, sIgA secretion had a non-linear relationship with mortality risk whereby only the very lowest levels of secretion were associated with elevated risk. SIgA concentration revealed a similar but weaker pattern of association. In the present study, higher secretion rates of sIgA were associated with a decreased risk of death from cancer, specifically non-lung cancer, as well as from respiratory disease. Thus, it appears that sIgA plays a protective role among older adults, and could serve as a marker of mortality risk, specifically cancer mortality. PMID:26699127

  10. Delayed Effects of Obese and Overweight Population Conditions on All-Cause Adult Mortality Rate in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Okunade, Albert A.; Rubin, Rose M.; Okunade, Adeyinka K.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMIs) to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia, estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) rates to the all-cause deaths rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid) from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage) provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic, and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed) effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation) to slow premature mortality linked with unhealthy BMIs. PMID:27734013

  11. Hospitalization Rates and Post-Operative Mortality for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Italy over the Period 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Sensi, Luigi; Tedesco, Dario; Mimmi, Stefano; Rucci, Paola; Pisano, Emilio; Pedrini, Luciano; McDonald, Kathryn M.; Fantini, Maria Pia

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have reported declines in incidence, prevalence and mortality for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in various countries, but evidence from Mediterranean countries is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine the trend of hospitalization and post-operative mortality rates for AAAs in Italy during the period 2000–2011, taking into account the introduction of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in 1990s. Methods This retrospective cohort study was carried out in Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with 4.5 million inhabitants. A total of 19,673 patients hospitalized for AAAs between 2000 and 2011, were identified from the hospital discharge records (HDR) database. Hospitalization rates, percentage of OSR and EVAR and 30-day mortality rates were calculated for unruptured (uAAAs) and ruptured AAAs (rAAAs). Results Adjusted hospitalization rates decreased on average by 2.9% per year for uAAAs and 3.2% for rAAAs (p<0.001). The temporal trend of 30-day mortality rates remained stable for both groups. The percentage of EVAR for uAAAs increased significantly from 2006 to 2011 (42.7 versus 60.9% respectively, mean change of 3.9% per year, p<0.001). No significant difference in mortality was found between OSR and EVAR for uAAAs and rAAAs. Conclusions The incidence and trend of hospitalization rates for rAAAs and uAAAs decreased significantly in the last decade, while 30-day mortality rates in operated patients remained stable. OSR continued to be the most common surgery in rAAAs, although the gap between OSR and EVAR recently declined. The EVAR technique became the preferred surgery for uAAAs since 2008. PMID:24386294

  12. Heart Rate-Corrected QT Interval Helps Predict Mortality after Intentional Organophosphate Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shou-Hsuan; Lin, Ja-Liang; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Yang, Huang-Yu; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Huang, Wen-Hung; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we investigated the outcomes for patients with intentional organophosphate poisoning. Previous reports indicate that in contrast to normal heart rate-corrected QT intervals (QTc), QTc prolongation might be indicative of a poor prognosis for patients exposed to organophosphates. Methods We analyzed the records of 118 patients who were referred to Chang Gung Memorial Hospital for management of organophosphate poisoning between 2000 and 2011. Patients were grouped according to their initial QTc interval, i.e., normal (<0.44 s) or prolonged (>0.44 s). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis. Results The incidence of hypotension in patients with prolonged QTc intervals was higher than that in the patients with normal QTc intervals (P = 0.019). By the end of the study, 18 of 118 (15.2%) patients had died, including 3 of 75 (4.0%) patients with normal QTc intervals and 15 of 43 (34.9%) patients with prolonged QTc intervals. Using multivariate-Cox-regression analysis, we found that hypotension (OR = 10.930, 95% CI = 2.961–40.345, P = 0.000), respiratory failure (OR = 4.867, 95% CI = 1.062–22.301, P = 0.042), coma (OR = 3.482, 95% CI = 1.184–10.238, P = 0.023), and QTc prolongation (OR = 7.459, 95% CI = 2.053–27.099, P = 0.002) were significant risk factors for mortality. Furthermore, it was revealed that non-survivors not only had longer QTc interval (503.00±41.56 versus 432.71±51.21 ms, P = 0.002), but also suffered higher incidences of hypotension (83.3 versus 12.0%, P = 0.000), shortness of breath (64 versus 94.4%, P = 0.010), bronchorrhea (55 versus 94.4%, P = 0.002), bronchospasm (50.0 versus 94.4%, P = 0.000), respiratory failure (94.4 versus 43.0%, P = 0.000) and coma (66.7 versus 11.0%, P = 0.000) than survivors. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that cumulative mortality was higher among patients

  13. Differences in age-standardized mortality rates for avoidable deaths based on urbanization levels in Taiwan, 1971-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Brian K; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-02-05

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result.

  14. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  15. [Growth, mortality and exploitation rate of Priacanthus arenatus (Perciformes: Priacanthidae), in the trawl fisheries of northeast Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Toledo, J; Mendoza, J; Marcano, L

    2000-12-01

    We analyzed growth, mortality and exploitation rate of Priacanhus arenatus, captured by the shrimp trawling fishery (1989-1996), in northeastern Venezuela. The growth coefficient (K) and the asymptotic length (L8) were estimated by length-frequency data using the Battacharya method and other routines of the FISAT program. Total mortality (Z) and exploitation (E) rates were obtained by length-converted catch curve analysis, based on length-frequency data, and the Berverton and Holt's yield per recruit model, respectively. The mean growth parameters L and K were estimated as 474.7 mm and 0.69 year(-1), respectively. Mean total mortality was 4.03 and the exploitation rate range was 0.70-0.80. Results indicated that the population is overexploited. PMID:15272462

  16. Differential mortality and transplantation rates among Asians and Pacific Islanders with ESRD.

    PubMed

    Hall, Yoshio N; Sugihara, Jared G; Go, Alan S; Chertow, Glenn M

    2005-12-01

    Few studies in patients with ESRD have examined outcomes in Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups compared with white individuals. The objective of this study was to assess ethnic disparities in mortality and kidney transplantation among a multiethnic cohort of incident dialysis patients. A total of 24,963 patients who initiated dialysis within the TransPacific Renal Network (Network 17) between April 1, 1995, and September 30, 2001, were studied to ascertain death and kidney transplantation through September 30, 2002. Overall, 12,902 deaths and 2258 kidney transplantations were observed during 59,075 person-years of follow-up. Mortality on dialysis among Asians and Pacific Islanders (except Chamorros) was lower than that of white individuals after controlling for differences in sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, and other risk factors for death (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] versus white individuals: Japanese 0.64 [0.57 to 0.72], Chinese 0.64 [0.52 to 0.78], Filipino 0.64 [0.57 to 0.72], Native Hawaiian 0.84 [0.72 to 0.96], Samoan 0.62 [0.48 to 0.82], and Chamorro 0.96 [0.84 to 1.20]). In contrast, Asians and Pacific Islanders were much less likely to undergo kidney transplantation (adjusted rate ratio [95% confidence interval] versus white individuals: Japanese 0.34 [0.24 to 0.46], Chinese 0.54 [0.30 to 0.88], Filipino 0.32 [0.26 to 0.47], Native Hawaiian 0.17 [0.10 to 0.30], Samoan 0.17 [0.07 to 0.38], and Chamorro 0.04 [0.01 to 0.14]). Despite wide variations in primary cause of ESRD, clinical characteristics, and body size at dialysis initiation, Asians and Pacific Islanders experience better survival but substantially lower transplantation rates compared with white individuals. Strategies that are aimed at improving access to transplantation in Asian and Pacific Islander communities may further enhance survival among Asians and Pacific Islanders with ESRD.

  17. Age-specific survival and philopatry in three species of European ducks: a long-term study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Mednis, A.; Bauga, I.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Capture-recapture and band recovery models were used to estimate age-specific survival probabilities for female Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata), Common Pochards (Aythya ferina), and Tufted Ducks (Aythya.fuligula) at Engure Marsh, Latvia, in 1964-1993. We banded more than 65,100 day-old ducklings of both sexes and captured 10,211 incubating females (3,713 new bandings and 6,498 recaptures). We developed a set of 3-age capture-recapture models to estimate annual survival rates for female ducklings, yearlings (SY), and adults (ASY) using programs SURGE and SURVIV and selected parsimonious models using a method developed bv Akaike (1973). Survival rates of SY and ASY females were highest-for Tufted Ducks intermediate for Common Pochards, and lowest for Northern Shovelers. Survival rates of SY and ASY females varied in parallel for shovelers and pochards. We believe that much of the difference in survival estimates between SY and ASY birds was caused by mortality rather than permanent emigration. Estimates of day-old duckling survival, reflecting both mortality and permanent emigration, were 0.12 for shoveler, 0.06 for pochard, and 0.03 for Tufted Duck. For all species, duckling survival varied over years, but the pattern of variation was not similar to that of the other age classes. Estimates of survival using band recovery data for SY + ASY female pochards and Tufted Ducks were similar to the capture-recapturee stimates, suggestingt hat surviving females returned to the breeding marsh with probabilities approaching 1.

  18. Increasing multiple myeloma mortality among the elderly: a manifestation of aging and differential survival.

    PubMed

    Riggs, J E

    1995-01-13

    Increasing multiple myeloma incidence and mortality among the elderly in industrialized nations has been attributed to associated environmental carcinogens. Age-specific multiple myeloma mortality rates in the United States from 1968 to 1989 were analyzed using the Strehler-Mildvan modification of the Gompertz relationship between aging and mortality. The results suggest that worsening environmental influences are not responsible for increasing multiple myeloma mortality among the elderly. Differential survival, a concept originally popularized by Charles Darwin, and its effect upon the surviving gene pool in an aging population is an alternative explanation for increasing multiple myeloma incidence and mortality in the elderly.

  19. Variation in bird-window collision mortality and scavenging rates within an urban landscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    Annual avian mortality from collisions with windows and buildings is estimated to range from a million to a billion birds in the United States alone. However, estimates of mortality based on carcass counts suffer from bias due to imperfect detection and carcass scavenging. We stu...

  20. Maternal use of cigarettes, pipes, and smokeless tobacco associated with higher infant mortality rates in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramil N; Eng, Carlin; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S; Kanal, Koum

    2013-09-01

    In the Western Pacific Region, rural women use loose tobacco in betel quid chewing and pipe smoking. We examined the relation between maternal use of tobacco and infant mortality (IM) in a national sample of 24 296 birth outcomes in adult women (n = 6013) in Cambodia. We found that (1) age-adjusted odds of IM were higher for maternal use of any tobacco (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-2.26); (2) age-adjusted odds of IM were higher for cigarette use (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.54- 4.1), use of pipes (OR = 3.09; [95% CI = 1.86-5.11]), and betel quid chewing (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.10-2.17); and (3) these associations remained after multivariable adjustment for environmental tobacco smoke, malnutrition, ethnicity, religion, marital status, education, income, occupation, and urban/rural dwelling. In addition to finding the established association with cigarettes, we also found that maternal use of smokeless tobacco and pipes was associated with higher rates of infant death in Cambodia.

  1. High Neonatal Mortality Rates in Rural India: What Options to Explore?

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Yadav, Kapil; Sinha, Smita; Rizwan, S. A.; Daral, Shailaja; Chellaiyan, Vinoth G.; Silan, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    The neonatal mortality rate in India is amongst the highest in the world and skewed towards rural areas. Nonavailability of trained manpower along with poor healthcare infrastructure is one of the major hurdles in ensuring quality neonatal care. We reviewed case studies and relevant literature from low and middle income countries and documented alternative strategies that have proved to be favourable in improving neonatal health. The authors reiterate the fact that recruiting and retaining trained manpower in rural areas by all means is essential to improve the quality of neonatal care services. Besides this, other strategies such as training of local rural healthcare providers and traditional midwives, promoting home-based newborn care, and creating community awareness and mobilization also hold enough potential to influence the neonatal health positively and efforts should be made to implement them on a larger scale. More research is demanded for innovations such as “m-health” and public-private partnerships as they have been shown to offer potential in terms of improving the standards of care. The above proposed strategy is likely to reduce morbidity among neonatal survivors as well. PMID:23213561

  2. Development of more erratic heart rate patterns is associated with mortality post-myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Stein, Phyllis K; Le, QuyChi; Domitrovich, Peter P

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac patients often have sinus arrhythmia of nonrespiratory origin (erratic sinus rhythm [ESR]). ESR was quantified using hourly Poincaré and power spectral heart rate variability plots from normal-to-normal interbeat intervals and hourly values of the short-term fractal scaling exponent and correlations of normal-to-normal intervals in n = 60 nonsurvivors and n = 66 randomly selected survivors in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial. Hours were coded (ABN) as normal (0), borderline (0.5), or ESR (1). t Tests compared ABN for n = 2413 paired hours at baseline and on therapy. ABN was higher in nonsurvivors (0.38 +/- 0.44 vs 0.28 +/- 0.40, baseline, and 0.51 +/- 0.45 vs 0.34 +/- 0.43, on therapy, P < .001). Increased ABN with treatment were greater in nonsurvivors. Normal hours at baseline (relative risk = 0.77; 095% confidence interval, 0.62-0.96, P = .018) and on treatment (relative risk = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.58) were significantly associated with decreased mortality compared with ESR. Quantification of ESR may identify more vulnerable patients or help monitor the effects of pharmacologic treatment.

  3. Prediction of hospital mortality by changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

    PubMed

    Berzan, E; Mellotte, G; Silke, B

    2015-03-01

    Deterioration of physiological or laboratory variables may provide important prognostic information. We have studied whether a change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) value calculated using the (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula) over the hospital admission, would have predictive value. An analysis was performed on all emergency medical hospital episodes (N = 61964) admitted between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2011. A stepwise logistic regression model examined the relationship between mortality and change in renal function from admission to discharge. The fully adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for 5 classes of GFR deterioration showed a stepwise increased risk of 30-day death with OR's of 1.42 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), 1.59 (1.27, 1.99), 2.71 (2.24, 3.27), 5.56 (4.54, 6.81) and 11.9 (9.0, 15.6) respectively. The change in eGFR during a clinical episode, following an emergency medical admission, powerfully predicts the outcome. PMID:25876302

  4. An Ecological Study of the Determinants of Differences in 2009 Pandemic Influenza Mortality Rates between Countries in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Bagos, Pantelis; Lytras, Theodoros; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2011-01-01

    Background Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 mortality rates varied widely from one country to another. Our aim was to identify potential socioeconomic determinants of pandemic mortality and explain between-country variation. Methodology Based on data from a total of 30 European countries, we applied random-effects Poisson regression models to study the relationship between pandemic mortality rates (May 2009 to May 2010) and a set of representative environmental, health care-associated, economic and demographic country-level parameters. The study was completed by June 2010. Principal Findings Most regression approaches indicated a consistent, statistically significant inverse association between pandemic influenza-related mortality and per capita government expenditure on health. The findings were similar in univariable [coefficient: –0.00028, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): –0.00046, –0.00010, p = 0.002] and multivariable analyses (including all covariates, coefficient: –0.00107, 95% CI: –0.00196, –0.00018, p = 0.018). The estimate was barely insignificant when the multivariable model included only significant covariates from the univariate step (coefficient: –0.00046, 95% CI: –0.00095, 0.00003, p = 0.063). Conclusions Our findings imply a significant inverse association between public spending on health and pandemic influenza mortality. In an attempt to interpret the estimated coefficient (–0.00028) for the per capita government expenditure on health, we observed that a rise of 100 international dollars was associated with a reduction in the pandemic influenza mortality rate by approximately 2.8%. However, further work needs to be done to unravel the mechanisms by which reduced government spending on health may have affected the 2009 pandemic influenza mortality. PMID:21589928

  5. Does higher income inequality adversely influence infant mortality rates? Reconciling descriptive patterns and recent research findings.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2015-04-01

    As the struggle continues to explain the relatively high rates of infant mortality (IMR) exhibited in the United States, a renewed emphasis is being placed on the role of possible 'contextual' determinants. Cross-sectional and short time-series studies have found that higher income inequality is associated with higher IMR at the state level. Yet, descriptively, the longer-term trends in income inequality and in IMR seem to call such results into question. To assess whether, over the period 1990-2007, state-level income inequality is associated with state-level IMR; to examine whether the overall effect of income inequality on IMR over this period varies by state; to test whether the association between income inequality and IMR varies across this time period. IMR data--number of deaths per 1000 live births in a given state and year--were obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Wonder database. Income inequality was measured using the Gini coefficient, which varies from zero (complete equality) to 100 (complete inequality). Covariates included state-level poverty rate, median income, and proportion of high school graduates. Fixed and random effects regressions were conducted to test hypotheses. Fixed effects models suggested that, overall, during the period 1990-2007, income inequality was inversely associated with IMR (β = -0.07, SE (0.01)). Random effects models suggested that when the relationship was allowed to vary at the state-level, it remained inverse (β = -0.05, SE (0.01)). However, an interaction between income inequality and time suggested that, as time increased, the effect of income inequality had an increasingly positive association with total IMR (β = 0.009, SE (0.002)). The influence of state income inequality on IMR is dependent on time, which may proxy for time-dependent aspects of societal context.

  6. Trends in Mortality Rate from Cardiovascular Disease in Brazil, 1980-2012

    PubMed Central

    Mansur, Antonio de Padua; Favarato, Desidério

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have questioned the downward trend in mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Brazil in recent years. Objective to analyze recent trends in mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in the Brazilian population. Methods Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and the Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by the direct method, using as reference the world population of 2000. We analyzed trends in mortality from CVD, IHD and stroke in women and men in the periods of 1980-2006 and 2007-2012. Results there was a decrease in CVD mortality and stroke in women and men for both periods (p < 0.001). Annual mortality variations for periods 1980-2006 and 2007-2012 were, respectively: CVD (total): -1.5% and -0.8%; CVD men: -1.4% and -0.6%; CVD women: -1.7% and -1.0%; DIC (men): -1.1% and 0.1%; stroke (men): -1.7% and -1.4%; DIC (women): -1.5% and 0.4%; stroke (women): -2.0% and -1.9%. From 1980 to 2006, there was a decrease in IHD mortality in men and women (p < 0.001), but from 2007 to 2012, changes in IHD mortality were not significant in men [y = 151 + 0.04 (R2 = 0.02; p = 0.779)] and women [y = 88-0.54 (R2 = 0.24; p = 0.320). Conclusion Trend in mortality from IHD stopped falling in Brazil from 2007 to 2012. PMID:27223642

  7. Interactions between hatch dates, growth rates, and mortality of Age-0 native Rainbow Smelt and nonnative Alewife in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, Donna; Simonin, Paul W.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Pientka, Bernard; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Timing of hatch in fish populations can be critical for first-year survival and, therefore, year-class strength and subsequent species interactions. We compared hatch timing, growth rates, and subsequent mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax and Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, two common open-water fish species of northern North America. In our study site, Lake Champlain, Rainbow Smelt hatched (beginning May 26) almost a month earlier than Alewives (June 20). Abundance in the sampling area was highest in July for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and August for age-0 Alewives. Late-hatching individuals of both species grew faster than those hatching earlier (0.6 mm/d versus 0.4 for Rainbow Smelt; 0.7 mm/d versus 0.6 for Alewives). Mean mortality rate during the first 45 d of life was 3.4%/d for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and was 5.5%/d for age-0 Alewives. Alewife mortality rates did not differ with hatch timing but daily mortality rates of Rainbow Smelt were highest for early-hatching fish. Cannibalism is probably the primary mortality source for age-0 Rainbow Smelt in this lake. Therefore, hatching earlier may not be advantageous because the overlap of adult and age-0 Rainbow Smelt is highest earlier in the season. However, Alewives, first documented in Lake Champlain in 2003, may increase the mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt in the summer, which should favor selection for earlier hatching.

  8. Body growth considerations in age-specific dosimetry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1993-09-30

    This report describes the manner in which the age-specific dosimetric calculations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) addressed changes in organ size that occur with age. The approach involves an interpolation of dosimetric information derived for six reference individuals using the inverse of the total body mass as the interpolation variable. An alternative formulation is investigated that employs a functional representation of the organ mass as a function of age in conjunction with an explicit formulation of the dosimetric factors in terms of organ mass. Using an exponential-logistic growth function as suggested by Walker, this report demonstrates, through application to the dosimetry of radioiodines in the thyroid, that the alternative formulation can be formulated and implemented. Although either approach provides a workable basis for age-specific dosimetry, it is clear that the functional representation of organ growth has some attractive features. However, without question, the major difficulty is the quality and quantity of data available to address the age- and gender-specific parameters in the dosimetric formulations.

  9. Decline in hospital mortality rate after the use of the World Health Organization protocol for management of severe malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Falbo, Ana Rodrigues; Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Batista Filho, Malaquias; de Fátima Costa Caminha, Maria; Cabral-Filho, José Eulálio

    2009-04-01

    We studied the implementation of the World Health Organization protocol for the treatment of malnourished children at the largest maternal and infant hospital in the northeast of Brazil. The implementation of the protocol resulted in a reduction in the mortality rate from 38.0% to 16.2%.

  10. Association of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with cancer mortality rates, a town-scale ecological study in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Liao, Qi Lin; Ma, Zong Wei; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals and arsenic are well-known carcinogens. However, few studies have examined whether soil heavy metals and arsenic concentrations associate with cancer in the general population. In this ecological study, we aimed to evaluate the association of heavy metals and arsenic in soil with cancer mortality rates during 2005-2010 in Suzhou, China, after controlling for education and smoking prevalence. In 2005, a total of 1683 soil samples with a sampling density of one sample every 4 km(2) were analyzed. Generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson regression was applied to evaluate the association between town-scale cancer mortality rates and soil heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that soil arsenic exposure had a significant relationship with colon, gastric, kidney, lung, and nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates and soil nickel exposure was significantly associated with liver and lung cancer. The associations of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with colon, gastric, kidney, and liver cancer in male were higher than those in female. The observed associations of soil arsenic and nickel with cancer mortality rates were less sensitive to alternative exposure metrics. Our findings would contribute to the understanding of the carcinogenic effect of soil arsenic and nickel exposure in general population. PMID:25410308

  11. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  12. Association of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with cancer mortality rates, a town-scale ecological study in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Liao, Qi Lin; Ma, Zong Wei; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals and arsenic are well-known carcinogens. However, few studies have examined whether soil heavy metals and arsenic concentrations associate with cancer in the general population. In this ecological study, we aimed to evaluate the association of heavy metals and arsenic in soil with cancer mortality rates during 2005-2010 in Suzhou, China, after controlling for education and smoking prevalence. In 2005, a total of 1683 soil samples with a sampling density of one sample every 4 km(2) were analyzed. Generalized linear model with a quasi-Poisson regression was applied to evaluate the association between town-scale cancer mortality rates and soil heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that soil arsenic exposure had a significant relationship with colon, gastric, kidney, lung, and nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates and soil nickel exposure was significantly associated with liver and lung cancer. The associations of soil arsenic and nickel exposure with colon, gastric, kidney, and liver cancer in male were higher than those in female. The observed associations of soil arsenic and nickel with cancer mortality rates were less sensitive to alternative exposure metrics. Our findings would contribute to the understanding of the carcinogenic effect of soil arsenic and nickel exposure in general population.

  13. A Study of the Gender-Specific Mortality Rates in Korea and Japan for the Formation of Health Promotion Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Eun-Woo; Song, Yea-Li-A

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study attempts to provide fundamental information to help with the development of health policy and health services by looking at the trends of the gender-specific mortality rates in Korea and Japan. Design: The death statistics of Korea and Japan over the 21-year period from 1983 to 2003 are analyzed. Setting: We used the death…

  14. Misery Loves Company? A Meta-Regression Examining Aggregate Unemployment Rates and the Unemployment-Mortality Association

    PubMed Central

    Roelfs, David J.; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. METHODS We use 6 meta-regression models (each utilizing a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). RESULTS We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (p = 0.27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (p = 0.46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (p = 0.87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (p = 0.73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; p = 0.61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (p < .001), supporting the use of the random effects model. CONCLUSIONS We found no strong evidence to suggest that unemployment experiences change when macro-economic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macro-economic conditions. PMID:25795225

  15. Income inequality, mortality, and self rated health: meta-analysis of multilevel studies

    PubMed Central

    Sembajwe, Grace; Kawachi, Ichiro; van Dam, Rob M; Subramanian, S V; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide quantitative evaluations on the association between income inequality and health. Design Random effects meta-analyses, calculating the overall relative risk for subsequent mortality among prospective cohort studies and the overall odds ratio for poor self rated health among cross sectional studies. Data sources PubMed, the ISI Web of Science, and the National Bureau for Economic Research database. Review methods Peer reviewed papers with multilevel data. Results The meta-analysis included 59 509 857 subjects in nine cohort studies and 1 280 211 subjects in 19 cross sectional studies. The overall cohort relative risk and cross sectional odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) per 0.05 unit increase in Gini coefficient, a measure of income inequality, was 1.08 (1.06 to 1.10) and 1.04 (1.02 to 1.06), respectively. Meta-regressions showed stronger associations between income inequality and the health outcomes among studies with higher Gini (≥0.3), conducted with data after 1990, with longer duration of follow-up (>7 years), and incorporating time lags between income inequality and outcomes. By contrast, analyses accounting for unmeasured regional characteristics showed a weaker association between income inequality and health. Conclusions The results suggest a modest adverse effect of income inequality on health, although the population impact might be larger if the association is truly causal. The results also support the threshold effect hypothesis, which posits the existence of a threshold of income inequality beyond which adverse impacts on health begin to emerge. The findings need to be interpreted with caution given the heterogeneity between studies, as well as the attenuation of the risk estimates in analyses that attempted to control for the unmeasured characteristics of areas with high levels of income inequality. PMID:19903981

  16. A comparison of trends in melanoma mortality in New Zealand and Australia: the two countries with the highest melanoma incidence and mortality in the world

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background New Zealand and Australia have the highest incidence and mortality rates from cutaneous melanoma in the world. The predominantly fair-skinned New Zealanders and Australians both enjoy sun, tanned skin and the outdoors, and differences in these activities among generations have been important determinants of trends in melanoma mortality. We examined whether New Zealand trends in melanoma mortality mirror those in Australia, through detailed comparison of the trends in both countries from 1968 to 2007. Methods Five-year age-specific and age-standardised mortality rates were calculated for each country for 5-year time periods. Tests for trends in age-specific rates were performed using the Mantel-Haenszel extension chi-square test. The age-adjusted mortality rate ratios for New Zealand/Australia were plotted against period of death to show relative changes in mortality over time. Age-specific mortality rates were plotted against period and the median year of birth to illustrate age-group and birth cohort effects. To compare the mortality of birth cohorts, age-adjusted melanoma mortality rate ratios were calculated for the birth cohorts in the quin-quennial tables of mortality rates. Results The age-standardised mortality rate for melanoma increased in both sexes in New Zealand and Australia from 1968 to 2007, but the increase was greater in New Zealanders and women in particular. There was evidence of recent significant decreases in mortality in younger Australians and less so in New Zealand women aged under 45 years. Mortality from melanoma increased in successive generations born from about 1893 to 1918. In Australia, a decline in mortality started for generations born from about 1958 but in New Zealand there is possibly a decrease only in generations born since 1968. Conclusions Mortality trends in New Zealand and Australia are discrepant. It is too early to know if the pattern in mortality rates in New Zealand is simply a delayed response to melanoma

  17. Girl child marriage and its association with national rates of HIV, maternal health, and infant mortality across 97 countries.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to assess associations between national rates of girl child marriage and national rates of HIV and maternal and child health (MCH) concerns, using national indicator data from 2009 United Nations reports. Current analyses were limited to the N = 97 nations (of 188 nations) for which girl child marriage data were available. Regression analyses adjusted for development and world region demonstrate that nations with higher rates of girl child marriage are significantly more likely to contend with higher rates of maternal and infant mortality and nonutilization of maternal health services, but not HIV.

  18. Country- and age-specific optimal allocation of dengue vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ndeffo Mbah, Martial L; Durham, David P; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P

    2014-02-01

    Several dengue vaccines are under development, and some are expected to become available imminently. Concomitant with the anticipated release of these vaccines, vaccine allocation strategies for dengue-endemic countries in Southeast Asia and Latin America are currently under development. We developed a model of dengue transmission that incorporates the age-specific distributions of dengue burden corresponding to those in Thailand and Brazil, respectively, to determine vaccine allocations that minimize the incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever, taking into account limited availability of vaccine doses in the initial phase of production. We showed that optimal vaccine allocation strategies vary significantly with the demographic burden of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Consequently, the strategy that is optimal for one country may be sub-optimal for another country. More specifically, we showed that, during the first years following introduction of a dengue vaccine, it is optimal to target children for dengue mass vaccination in Thailand, whereas young adults should be targeted in Brazil.

  19. Associated influence of hypertension and heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute on mortality rate in patients with anterior wall STEMI

    PubMed Central

    Davidovic, Goran; Iric-Cupic, Violeta; Milanov, Srdjan

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction as a form of coronary heart disease is characterized by permanent damage/loss of anatomical and functional cardiac tissue. Diagnosis of STEMI includes data on anginal pain and persistent ST-segment elavation. According to the numerous epidemiological studies, arterial blood pressure and heart rate are offten increased especially during the first hours of pain due to domination of sympathetic response. We wanted to investigate the associated influence of heart rate greater than 80 beats per minute and hypertension on the mortality in patients with anterior wall STEMI. Research included 140 patients treated in Coronary Unit, Clinical Center Kragujevac form January 2001 to June 2006. Heart rate was calculated as the mean value of baseline and heart rate in the first 30 minutes after admission, recorded on monitor and electrocardiogram. Data for history of hypertension were collected and blood pressure levels were measured in a lying position after 5 minutes of rest, and classified according to the VII JNC recommendations as confirmation of hypertension. Collected data were analyzed in SPSS 13.0 for Windows. Heart rate greater than 80 bpm influences the hospital mortality. Systolic blood pressure levels were higher in the survivors, while for the diastolic there was no difference. History of hypertension was singled out as a significant predictor of mortality without difference between the respondents with heart rate greater and lower than 80 bpm in the survivors and fatal. Increased heart rate and hypertension at admission are significant predictors of mortality in patients with anterior wall STEMI. PMID:23724155

  20. Structural modeling of age specific fertility curves in Peninsular Malaysia: An approach of Lee Carter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafiah, Hazlenah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the study of fertility has been getting a lot of attention among research abroad following fear of deterioration of fertility led by the rapid economy development. Hence, this study examines the feasibility of developing fertility forecasts based on age structure. Lee Carter model (1992) is applied in this study as it is an established and widely used model in analysing demographic aspects. A singular value decomposition approach is incorporated with an ARIMA model to estimate age specific fertility rates in Peninsular Malaysia over the period 1958-2007. Residual plots is used to measure the goodness of fit of the model. Fertility index forecast using random walk drift is then utilised to predict the future age specific fertility. Results indicate that the proposed model provides a relatively good and reasonable data fitting. In addition, there is an apparent and continuous decline in age specific fertility curves in the next 10 years, particularly among mothers' in their early 20's and 40's. The study on the fertility is vital in order to maintain a balance between the population growth and the provision of facilities related resources.

  1. Peptic ulcers: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R

    1991-01-01

    This study analyzes data on peptic ulcer disease based on deaths for 1951-1988 and hospital separations for 1969-1988. The source of the data are mortality and morbidity statistics provided to Statistics Canada by the provinces. The age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for peptic ulcer disease decreased from 1951 to 1988 by 69.4% for men (8.5 to 2.6 per 100,000 population), and 31.8% for women (2.2 to 1.5). Separation rates from hospitals during 1969-1988 for peptic ulcer disease also decreased by 59.8% for men (242.7 to 97.6 per 100,000 population) and 35.6% for women (103.2 to 66.5). Age-specific rates for both mortality and hospital separations increased with age. Epidemiological studies indicate that the incidence of peptic ulcer disease is declining in the general population. The downward trends in mortality and hospitalization rates for peptic ulcer disease reflect this change in incidence, but additional factors probably contribute as well to this decline. Male rates for both mortality and hospital separations were much higher than female rates at the beginning of the study period; but toward the end, the gap between the sexes narrowed considerably, mainly because the male rates declined substantially while the female rates decline moderately. The slower decline in the rates for women may be related to such factors as the increasing labour force participation among women and the slower decline in the population of female smokers. PMID:1801957

  2. Peptic ulcers: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R

    1991-01-01

    This study analyzes data on peptic ulcer disease based on deaths for 1951-1988 and hospital separations for 1969-1988. The source of the data are mortality and morbidity statistics provided to Statistics Canada by the provinces. The age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for peptic ulcer disease decreased from 1951 to 1988 by 69.4% for men (8.5 to 2.6 per 100,000 population), and 31.8% for women (2.2 to 1.5). Separation rates from hospitals during 1969-1988 for peptic ulcer disease also decreased by 59.8% for men (242.7 to 97.6 per 100,000 population) and 35.6% for women (103.2 to 66.5). Age-specific rates for both mortality and hospital separations increased with age. Epidemiological studies indicate that the incidence of peptic ulcer disease is declining in the general population. The downward trends in mortality and hospitalization rates for peptic ulcer disease reflect this change in incidence, but additional factors probably contribute as well to this decline. Male rates for both mortality and hospital separations were much higher than female rates at the beginning of the study period; but toward the end, the gap between the sexes narrowed considerably, mainly because the male rates declined substantially while the female rates decline moderately. The slower decline in the rates for women may be related to such factors as the increasing labour force participation among women and the slower decline in the population of female smokers.

  3. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls. PMID:27578601

  4. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls. PMID:27578601

  5. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-08-31

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls.

  6. Mortality rates of males who commit parricide or other violent offense against a parent.

    PubMed

    Liettu, Anu; Mikkola, Liisa; Säävälä, Hannu; Räsänen, Pirkko; Joukamaa, Matti; Hakko, Helinä

    2010-01-01

    Clinical information on parricidal offenders has accumulated in recent decades. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the mortality of matricidal and patricidal offenders in detail by using a comprehensive national data set with follow-up ranging from 3 to 24 years. The sample included forensic psychiatric examination statements and mortality data of 99 matricidal, 113 patricidal, and 111 control male violent offenders evaluated in a forensic psychiatric examination from 1973 to 2004 in Finland. The Standardized Mortality Ratio among parricidal offenders 25 to 49 years of age was increased compared with that of the general population. One-third of deaths among parricidal offenders were attributable to suicide. The matricidal males who committed suicide had a significantly shorter survival time after the offense than did the patricidal and control offenders who died by suicide. The results of the present study are compared with the previous study findings on parricidal offenders and offenders in general.

  7. A combined telemetry - tag return approach to estimate fishing and natural mortality rates of an estuarine fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Paramore, L.M.; Pollock, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    A joint analysis of tag return and telemetry data should improve estimates of mortality rates for exploited fishes; however, the combined approach has thus far only been tested in terrestrial systems. We tagged subadult red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) with conventional tags and ultrasonic transmitters over 3 years in coastal North Carolina, USA, to test the efficacy of the combined telemetry - tag return approach. There was a strong seasonal pattern to monthly fishing mortality rate (F) estimates from both conventional and telemetry tags; highest F values occurred in fall months and lowest levels occurred during winter. Although monthly F values were similar in pattern and magnitude between conventional tagging and telemetry, information on F in the combined model came primarily from conventional tags. The estimated natural mortality rate (M) in the combined model was low (estimated annual rate ?? standard error: 0.04 ?? 0.04) and was based primarily upon the telemetry approach. Using high-reward tagging, we estimated different tag reporting rates for state agency and university tagging programs. The combined telemetry - tag return approach can be an effective approach for estimating F and M as long as several key assumptions of the model are met.

  8. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, and 4.1/6.2, in the U.S., respectively. Japanese had the best BW-SMRs of all birth weight groups compared to the Koreans and the U.S. The U.S. BWD was unfavorable with very low birth weight (< 1,500 g) rate of 1.4%, compared to 0.6% in Korea, and 0.8% in Japan. If Koreans and Japanese had the same BWD as in the U.S., their crude NMR/IMR would be 3.9/6.1 for the Koreans and 1.5/2.5 for the Japanese. If both Koreans and Japanese had the same BW-SMRs as in the U.S., the crude NMR/IMR would be 2.0/3.8 for the Koreans and 2.7/5.0 for the Japanese. In conclusion, compared to the U.S., lower crude NMR or IMR in Japan is mainly attributable to its better BW-SMRs. Koreans had lower crude NMR and IMR, primarily from its favorable BWD. Comparing crude NMR or IMR among different countries should include further exploration of its two determinants, BW-SMRs reflecting medical care, and BWD reflecting socio-demographic conditions. PMID:27510390

  9. Estimating the net effect of HIV on child mortality in African populations affected by generalized HIV epidemics.

    PubMed

    Marston, Milly; Zaba, Basia; Salomon, Joshua A; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Bagenda, Danstan

    2005-02-01

    For a given prevalence, HIV has a relatively higher impact on child mortality when mortality from other causes is low. To project the effect of the epidemic on child mortality, it is necessary to estimate a realistic schedule of "net" age-specific mortality rates that would operate if HIV were the only cause of child death observable. We assume that this net pattern would be independent of mortality from other causes. We used African studies that measured the survival of HIV-infected children (direct data) or survival of children of HIV-infected mothers (indirect data). We developed a mathematic procedure to estimate the mortality of infected children from indirect data sources and obtained net HIV mortality patterns for each study population. The net age-specific HIV mortality pattern for infected children can be described by a double Weibull curve fitted to empiric data; this gives a functional representation of age-specific mortality rates that decline after infancy and rise in the preteens. The fitted curve that we would expect if HIV were the only effective cause of death shows 67% net survival at 1 year and 39% at 5 years. The curve also predicts 13% net survival at 10 years using constraints based on survival of infected adults.

  10. Estimating the net effect of HIV on child mortality in African populations affected by generalized HIV epidemics.

    PubMed

    Marston, Milly; Zaba, Basia; Salomon, Joshua A; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Bagenda, Danstan

    2005-02-01

    For a given prevalence, HIV has a relatively higher impact on child mortality when mortality from other causes is low. To project the effect of the epidemic on child mortality, it is necessary to estimate a realistic schedule of "net" age-specific mortality rates that would operate if HIV were the only cause of child death observable. We assume that this net pattern would be independent of mortality from other causes. We used African studies that measured the survival of HIV-infected children (direct data) or survival of children of HIV-infected mothers (indirect data). We developed a mathematic procedure to estimate the mortality of infected children from indirect data sources and obtained net HIV mortality patterns for each study population. The net age-specific HIV mortality pattern for infected children can be described by a double Weibull curve fitted to empiric data; this gives a functional representation of age-specific mortality rates that decline after infancy and rise in the preteens. The fitted curve that we would expect if HIV were the only effective cause of death shows 67% net survival at 1 year and 39% at 5 years. The curve also predicts 13% net survival at 10 years using constraints based on survival of infected adults. PMID:15671809

  11. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the current cancer burden in Korea, cancer incidence and mortality were projected for the year 2011. Materials and Methods The cancer incidence data from 1999-2008 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and the cancer mortality data from 1993-2009 were obtained from the Korea National Statistics Office. Cancer incident cases and rates in 2011 were projected from fitting a linear regression model on observed age-specific cancer incidence rates against observed years, then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. For cancer mortality, a similar procedure was applied for projection except that a Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend significantly changed. Results A total of 216,809 new cancer cases and 71,036 cancer deaths are projected to occur in Korea in 2011. For all sites combined, the crude incidence rates are projected to be 437.9 and 420.5 and the age-standardized incidence rates are projected to be 336.5 and 279.7 per 100,000 for men and women, respectively. Conclusion Cancer has become an important public health concern in Korea, and as Korea becomes an aged society, the cancer burden will continue to increase. PMID:21509158

  12. Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, B.A.; Krementz, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    Age structure proportions (proportion of harvested individuals within each age class) are commonly used as support for regulatory restrictions and input for deer population models. Such use requires critical evaluation when harvest regulations force hunters to selectively harvest specific age classes, due to impact on the underlying population age structure. We used a stochastic population simulation model to evaluate the impact of using harvest proportions to evaluate changes in population age structure under a selective harvest management program at two scales. Using harvest proportions to parameterize the age-specific harvest segment of the model for the local scale showed that predictions of post-harvest age structure did not vary dependent upon whether selective harvest criteria were in use or not. At the county scale, yearling frequency in the post-harvest population increased, but model predictions indicated that post-harvest population size of 2.5 years old males would decline below levels found before implementation of the antler restriction, reducing the number of individuals recruited into older age classes. Across the range of age-specific harvest rates modeled, our simulation predicted that underestimation of age-specific harvest rates has considerable influence on predictions of post-harvest population age structure. We found that the consequence of uncertainty in harvest rates corresponds to uncertainty in predictions of residual population structure, and this correspondence is proportional to scale. Our simulations also indicate that regardless of use of harvest proportions or harvest rates, at either the local or county scale the modeled SHC had a high probability (>0.60 and >0.75, respectively) of eliminating recruitment into >2.5 years old age classes. Although frequently used to increase population age structure, our modeling indicated that selective harvest criteria can decrease or eliminate the number of white-tailed deer recruited into older

  13. A single measure of cancer burden combining incidence with mortality rates for worldwide application.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Lim; Cho, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol; Cho, Woo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We attempted to develop an indicator combining incidence and mortality (summary indicator of cancer burden, SMCB) and to compare the magnitudes of cancer burden by world region. The SMCB was used to measure the size of cancer burden summarizing the incidence and mortality. The incidence and mortality were divided in equivalent forms and were split. The criteria dividing the size of cancer burden were used as the maximum incidence and mortality by men and women according to the world database, and the value corresponding to 10% of each maximum was set as the cut-off value. In SMCB, the size of cancer burden was highest for men with lung cancer (SMCB=18) and for women with breast cancer (SMCB=14) in MDR (more developed regions) compared to the size of burden in LDR (lower developed regions) (lung, SMCB=11, breast, SMCB=8). For men, the size of cancer burden by region was highest in EURO (SMCB=18, lung), followed by WPRO (SMCB=16, lung), PAHO (SMCB=14, prostate), AFRO (SMCB=8, prostate) and SEARO (SMCB=7, lung). Moreover, for women, the size of cancer burden was greatest in EURO (SMCB=14, breast), followed by PAHO (SMCB=13, breast), AFRO (SMCB=11, cervix uteri), EMRO (SMCB=9, breast) or SEARO (SMCB=8, cervix uteri) and WPRO (SMCB=7, lung). The summary indicator will help to provide a priority setting for reducing cancer burden in health policy.

  14. Why do child mortality rates fall? An analysis of the Nicaraguan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, P; Morales, P; Gorter, A; Coyle, E; Smith, G D

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive review of available sources of mortality data was undertaken to document the changes that have occurred in infant mortality in Nicaragua over the last three decades. It was found that a rapid fall in infant mortality commenced in the early 1970s and has continued steadily since. Trends in several different factors which might have led to this breakthrough were examined including: income, nutrition, breastfeeding practices, maternal education, immunizations, access to health services, provision of water supplies and sanitation, and anti-malarial programs. Of these, improved access to health services appears to have been the most important factor. At a time when the number of hospital beds per capita was dropping, increasing numbers of health care professionals, particularly nurses, were becoming available to staff primary health care facilities built in the 1960s. These were provided at least partly in response to the growing political turmoil enveloping the nation at that time. Certain Nicaraguan cultural attributes may have added to the impact of the reforms. Efforts in the field of public health made since the 1979 insurrection appear to have maintained the decline in child mortality. PMID:1983913

  15. Indirectly estimated absolute lung cancer mortality rates by smoking status and histological type based on a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background National smoking-specific lung cancer mortality rates are unavailable, and studies presenting estimates are limited, particularly by histology. This hinders interpretation. We attempted to rectify this by deriving estimates indirectly, combining data from national rates and epidemiological studies. Methods We estimated study-specific absolute mortality rates and variances by histology and smoking habit (never/ever/current/former) based on relative risk estimates derived from studies published in the 20th century, coupled with WHO mortality data for age 70–74 for the relevant country and period. Studies with populations grossly unrepresentative nationally were excluded. 70–74 was chosen based on analyses of large cohort studies presenting rates by smoking and age. Variations by sex, period and region were assessed by meta-analysis and meta-regression. Results 148 studies provided estimates (Europe 59, America 54, China 22, other Asia 13), 54 providing estimates by histology (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma). For all smoking habits and lung cancer types, mortality rates were higher in males, the excess less evident for never smokers. Never smoker rates were clearly highest in China, and showed some increasing time trend, particularly for adenocarcinoma. Ever smoker rates were higher in parts of Europe and America than in China, with the time trend very clear, especially for adenocarcinoma. Variations by time trend and continent were clear for current smokers (rates being higher in Europe and America than Asia), but less clear for former smokers. Models involving continent and trend explained much variability, but non-linearity was sometimes seen (with rates lower in 1991–99 than 1981–90), and there was regional variation within continent (with rates in Europe often high in UK and low in Scandinavia, and higher in North than South America). Conclusions The indirect method may be questioned, because of variations in definition of smoking and

  16. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  17. A simple risk stratification model that predicts 1-year postoperative mortality rate in patients with solid-organ cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Wen-Chi; Wang, Frank; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Chen, Miao-Fen; Lu, Chang-Hsien; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Lin, Yung-Chang; Yeh, Ta-Sen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to construct a scoring system developed exclusively from the preoperative data that predicts 1-year postoperative mortality in patients with solid cancers. A total of 20,632 patients who had a curative resection for solid-organ cancers between 2007 and 2012 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center were included in the derivation cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to develop a risk model that predicts 1-year postoperative mortality. Patients were then stratified into four risk groups (low-, intermediate-, high-, and very high-risk) according to the total score (0–43) form mortality risk analysis. An independent cohort of 16,656 patients who underwent curative cancer surgeries at three other hospitals during the same study period (validation cohort) was enrolled to verify the risk model. Age, gender, cancer site, history of previous cancer, tumor stage, Charlson comorbidity index, American Society of Anesthesiologist score, admission type, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status were independently predictive of 1-year postoperative mortality. The 1-year postoperative mortality rates were 0.5%, 3.8%, 14.6%, and 33.8%, respectively, among the four risk groups in the derivation cohort (c-statistic, 0.80), compared with 0.9%, 4.2%, 14.6%, and 32.6%, respectively, in the validation cohort (c-statistic, 0.78). The risk stratification model also demonstrated good discrimination of long-term survival outcome of the four-tier risk groups (P < 0.01 for both cohorts). The risk stratification model not only predicts 1-year postoperative mortality but also differentiates long-term survival outcome between the risk groups. PMID:26311149

  18. A simple risk stratification model that predicts 1-year postoperative mortality rate in patients with solid-organ cancer.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Chi; Wang, Frank; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Chen, Miao-Fen; Lu, Chang-Hsien; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Lin, Yung-Chang; Yeh, Ta-Sen

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to construct a scoring system developed exclusively from the preoperative data that predicts 1-year postoperative mortality in patients with solid cancers. A total of 20,632 patients who had a curative resection for solid-organ cancers between 2007 and 2012 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center were included in the derivation cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to develop a risk model that predicts 1-year postoperative mortality. Patients were then stratified into four risk groups (low-, intermediate-, high-, and very high-risk) according to the total score (0-43) form mortality risk analysis. An independent cohort of 16,656 patients who underwent curative cancer surgeries at three other hospitals during the same study period (validation cohort) was enrolled to verify the risk model. Age, gender, cancer site, history of previous cancer, tumor stage, Charlson comorbidity index, American Society of Anesthesiologist score, admission type, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status were independently predictive of 1-year postoperative mortality. The 1-year postoperative mortality rates were 0.5%, 3.8%, 14.6%, and 33.8%, respectively, among the four risk groups in the derivation cohort (c-statistic, 0.80), compared with 0.9%, 4.2%, 14.6%, and 32.6%, respectively, in the validation cohort (c-statistic, 0.78). The risk stratification model also demonstrated good discrimination of long-term survival outcome of the four-tier risk groups (P < 0.01 for both cohorts). The risk stratification model not only predicts 1-year postoperative mortality but also differentiates long-term survival outcome between the risk groups.

  19. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Design Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Setting and participants Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts—Cohort I 1890–1919; Cohort II 1920–1959—and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Results Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). Conclusions This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. PMID:27091824

  20. Decadal-scale rates of reef erosion following El Niño-related mass coral mortality.

    PubMed

    Roff, George; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    As the frequency and intensity of coral mortality events increase under climate change, understanding how declines in coral cover may affect the bioerosion of reef frameworks is of increasing importance. Here, we explore decadal-scale rates of bioerosion of the framework building coral Orbicella annularis by grazing parrotfish following the 1997/1998 El Niño-related mass mortality event at Long Cay, Belize. Using high-precision U-Th dating and CT scan analysis, we quantified in situ rates of external bioerosion over a 13-year period (1998-2011). Based upon the error-weighted average U-Th age of dead O. annularis skeletons, we estimate the average external bioerosion between 1998 and 2011 as 0.92 ± 0.55 cm depth. Empirical observations of herbivore foraging, and a nonlinear numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability, were used to create a model of external bioerosion at Long Cay. Model estimates of external bioerosion were in close agreement with U-Th estimates (0.85 ± 0.09 cm). The model was then used to quantify how rates of external bioerosion changed across a gradient of coral mortality (i.e., from few corals experiencing mortality following coral bleaching to complete mortality). Our results indicate that external bioerosion is remarkably robust to declines in coral cover, with no significant relationship predicted between the rate of external bioerosion and the proportion of O. annularis that died in the 1998 bleaching event. The outcome was robust because the reduction in grazing intensity that follows coral mortality was compensated for by a positive numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability. Our model estimates further indicate that for an O. annularis-dominated reef to maintain a positive state of reef accretion, a necessity for sustained ecosystem function, live cover of O. annularis must not drop below a ~5-10% threshold of cover.

  1. Decadal-scale rates of reef erosion following El Niño-related mass coral mortality.

    PubMed

    Roff, George; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    As the frequency and intensity of coral mortality events increase under climate change, understanding how declines in coral cover may affect the bioerosion of reef frameworks is of increasing importance. Here, we explore decadal-scale rates of bioerosion of the framework building coral Orbicella annularis by grazing parrotfish following the 1997/1998 El Niño-related mass mortality event at Long Cay, Belize. Using high-precision U-Th dating and CT scan analysis, we quantified in situ rates of external bioerosion over a 13-year period (1998-2011). Based upon the error-weighted average U-Th age of dead O. annularis skeletons, we estimate the average external bioerosion between 1998 and 2011 as 0.92 ± 0.55 cm depth. Empirical observations of herbivore foraging, and a nonlinear numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability, were used to create a model of external bioerosion at Long Cay. Model estimates of external bioerosion were in close agreement with U-Th estimates (0.85 ± 0.09 cm). The model was then used to quantify how rates of external bioerosion changed across a gradient of coral mortality (i.e., from few corals experiencing mortality following coral bleaching to complete mortality). Our results indicate that external bioerosion is remarkably robust to declines in coral cover, with no significant relationship predicted between the rate of external bioerosion and the proportion of O. annularis that died in the 1998 bleaching event. The outcome was robust because the reduction in grazing intensity that follows coral mortality was compensated for by a positive numerical response of parrotfish to an increase in food availability. Our model estimates further indicate that for an O. annularis-dominated reef to maintain a positive state of reef accretion, a necessity for sustained ecosystem function, live cover of O. annularis must not drop below a ~5-10% threshold of cover. PMID:26113199

  2. Dampening effects of long-term experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of a Holm oak forest.

    PubMed

    Barbeta, Adrià; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-10-01

    Forests respond to increasing intensities and frequencies of drought by reducing growth and with higher tree mortality rates. Little is known, however, about the long-term consequences of generally drier conditions and more frequent extreme droughts. A Holm oak forest was exposed to experimental rainfall manipulation for 13 years to study the effect of increasing drought on growth and mortality of the dominant species Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo. The drought treatment reduced stem growth of A. unedo (-66.5%) and Q. ilex (-17.5%), whereas P. latifolia remained unaffected. Higher stem mortality rates were noticeable in Q. ilex (+42.3%), but not in the other two species. Stem growth was a function of the drought index of early spring in the three species. Stem mortality rates depended on the drought index of winter and spring for Q. ilex and in spring and summer for P. latifolia, but showed no relation to climate in A. unedo. Following a long and intense drought (2005-2006), stem growth of Q. ilex and P. latifolia increased, whereas it decreased in A. unedo. Q. ilex also enhanced its survival after this period. Furthermore, the effect of drought treatment on stem growth in Q. ilex and A. unedo was attenuated as the study progressed. These results highlight the different vulnerabilities of Mediterranean species to more frequent and intense droughts, which may lead to partial species substitution and changes in forest structure and thus in carbon uptake. The response to drought, however, changed over time. Decreased intra- and interspecific competition after extreme events with high mortality, together with probable morphological and physiological acclimation to drought during the study period, may, at least in the short term, buffer forests against drier conditions. The long-term effects of drought consequently deserve more attention, because the ecosystemic responses are unlikely to be stable over time.Nontechnical summaryIn this study, we

  3. Dampening effects of long-term experimental drought on growth and mortality rates of a Holm oak forest.

    PubMed

    Barbeta, Adrià; Ogaya, Romà; Peñuelas, Josep

    2013-10-01

    Forests respond to increasing intensities and frequencies of drought by reducing growth and with higher tree mortality rates. Little is known, however, about the long-term consequences of generally drier conditions and more frequent extreme droughts. A Holm oak forest was exposed to experimental rainfall manipulation for 13 years to study the effect of increasing drought on growth and mortality of the dominant species Quercus ilex, Phillyrea latifolia, and Arbutus unedo. The drought treatment reduced stem growth of A. unedo (-66.5%) and Q. ilex (-17.5%), whereas P. latifolia remained unaffected. Higher stem mortality rates were noticeable in Q. ilex (+42.3%), but not in the other two species. Stem growth was a function of the drought index of early spring in the three species. Stem mortality rates depended on the drought index of winter and spring for Q. ilex and in spring and summer for P. latifolia, but showed no relation to climate in A. unedo. Following a long and intense drought (2005-2006), stem growth of Q. ilex and P. latifolia increased, whereas it decreased in A. unedo. Q. ilex also enhanced its survival after this period. Furthermore, the effect of drought treatment on stem growth in Q. ilex and A. unedo was attenuated as the study progressed. These results highlight the different vulnerabilities of Mediterranean species to more frequent and intense droughts, which may lead to partial species substitution and changes in forest structure and thus in carbon uptake. The response to drought, however, changed over time. Decreased intra- and interspecific competition after extreme events with high mortality, together with probable morphological and physiological acclimation to drought during the study period, may, at least in the short term, buffer forests against drier conditions. The long-term effects of drought consequently deserve more attention, because the ecosystemic responses are unlikely to be stable over time.Nontechnical summaryIn this study, we

  4. A New Metric of Inclusive Fitness Predicts the Human Mortality Profile

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Saul J.; Easteal, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Biological species have evolved characteristic patterns of age-specific mortality across their life spans. If these mortality profiles are shaped by natural selection they should reflect underlying variation in the fitness effect of mortality with age. Direct fitness models, however, do not accurately predict the mortality profiles of many species. For several species, including humans, mortality rates vary considerably before and after reproductive ages, during life-stages when no variation in direct fitness is possible. Variation in mortality rates at these ages may reflect indirect effects of natural selection acting through kin. To test this possibility we developed a new two-variable measure of inclusive fitness, which we term the extended genomic output or EGO. Using EGO, we estimate the inclusive fitness effect of mortality at different ages in a small hunter-gatherer population with a typical human mortality profile. EGO in this population predicts 90% of the variation in age-specific mortality. This result represents the first empirical measurement of inclusive fitness of a trait in any species. It shows that the pattern of human survival can largely be explained by variation in the inclusive fitness cost of mortality at different ages. More generally, our approach can be used to estimate the inclusive fitness of any trait or genotype from population data on birth dates and relatedness. PMID:25607654

  5. Chemical characterization of indoor air of homes from communes in Xuan Wei, China, with high lung cancer mortality rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, J. C.; Cao, S. R.; Xian, Y. L.; Harris, D. B.; Mumford, J. L.

    In a rural county, Xuan Wei, China, the lung cancer mortality rate is among China's highest, especially in women. This mortality rate is more associated with indoor air burning of smoky coal, as opposed to smokeless coal or wood, for cooking and heating under unvented conditions. Homes using different fuels from communes with high and low lung cancer mortality rates were sampled for particulate matter (< 10 μm) and semivolatile organics. The fine particles obtained from homes using smoky coal contained highest concentrations of organic matter (> 70%), including PAH, followed by homes using wood and smokeless coal. The major components present in the smoky coal filter samples were PAH and alkylated PAH. The smokeless coal filter samples exhibited profiles which were similar to the smoky coal samples except that some sulfur compounds were found. The estimated concentration levels of PAH in the smokeless coal samples were about one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of the smoky coal samples. In addition to PAH, aliphatic compounds and fatty acids were the major components found in the wood samples. Selected sample extracts from homes using smoky coal were fractionated into four fractions, and the results showed that the PAH and polar fractions have high mutagenic activity. Chemical characterization of the PAH fraction indicated that concentrations of some alkylated PAH were higher than those of their parent compounds. Chemical characterization of the polar fractions showed that nitrogen heterocyclic compounds are present.

  6. [Mortality rates by causes of deaths in the area aggregated by dyeing factories in Kyoto (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sugita, M; Yoshida, O; Miyakawa, M; Okada, Y; Oshiro, K; Yamaguchi, N; Tsuchiya, K

    1980-01-01

    In 1971 and 1973, Yoshida, et al. reported a higher relative risk of urinary bladder cancer among the workers of dyeing factories in Kyoto city. In order to confirm this, death certificates in Kyoto city from 1969 to 1972 were retrospectively investigated. Kyoto city was devided into three areas, that is, areas with high, medium and low clusterings of dyeing factories, and the differences of the mortality rates of all causes of deaths among these three areas were examined. As a result of this study, a statistically significant difference of the mortality rate of bladder cancer could not be found for males. But, the relative risk of bladder cancer in the areas with high and medium clusterings of dyeing factories compared to the area with low was found to be 1.45. Therefore, the relationship between dyeing work and bladder cancer could not necessarily be denied. It is, thus, necessary to carry out a prospective study, by which a more precise result can be obtained. In addition, our study revealed a significantly high mortality rate of skin cancer among the areas with high and medium clusterings of dyeing factories for males, observing a relative risk of 3.88. The observed association between skin cancer and dyeing work should be further studied.

  7. Mortality in the 2011 Tsunami in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction On 11 March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake caused a huge tsunami that struck Northeast Japan, resulting in nearly 20 000 deaths. We investigated mortality patterns by age, sex, and region in the 3 most severely affected prefectures. Methods Using police data on earthquake victims in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, mortality rates by sex, age group, and region were calculated, and regional variability in mortality rates across age groups was compared using rate ratios (RRs), with the rates in Iwate as the reference. Results In all regions, age-specific mortality showed a tendency to increase with age; there were no sex differences. Among residents of Iwate, mortality was markedly lower among school-aged children as compared with other age groups. In northern Miyagi and the southern part of the study area, RRs were higher among school-aged children than among other age groups. Conclusions The present study could not address the reasons for the observed mortality patterns and regional differences. To improve preparedness policies, future research should investigate the reasons for regional differences. PMID:23089585

  8. Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Morin, Randall S; Randolph, KaDonna C; Steinman, Jim

    2015-03-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the suite of FIA crown condition variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to develop models for predicting tree survival. Results of the regression analyses indicated that crown dieback was the most important crown condition variable for predicting tree survival for all species combined and for many of the 15 individual species in the study. The logistic models were generally successful in representing recent tree mortality responses to multiyear infestations of beech bark disease and hemlock woolly adelgid. Although our models are only applicable to trees growing in a forest setting, the utility of models that predict impending tree mortality goes beyond forest inventory or traditional forestry growth and yield models and includes any application where managers need to assess tree health or predict tree mortality including urban forest, recreation, wildlife, and pest management.

  9. Heart Rate Variability Change Before and After Hemodialysis is Associated with Overall and Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Hsiu-Chin Mai, R. N.; Jui-Hsin Chen, R. N.; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) has been recognized to correlate with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. It has been reported that HRV might be improved after HD, but whether the improved HRV after HD predicts a better CV prognosis remains to be determined. This study examined the ability of the change in HRV before and after HD in predicting overall and CV mortality in HD patients. This study enrolled 182 patients under maintenance HD. HRV was examined to assess changes before and after HD. The change in HRV (ΔHRV) was defined as post-HD HRV minus pre-HD HRV. During a median follow-up period of 35.2 months, 29 deaths (15.9%) were recorded. Multivariate analysis showed that decreased ΔLF% was associated with increased overall (hazard ratios [HR], 0.978; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.961–0.996; p = 0.019) and CV mortality (HR, 0.941; 95% CI, 0.914–0.970; p < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, adding ΔLF% to a clinical model provided an additional benefit in the prediction of overall (p = 0.002) and CV mortality (p < 0.001). HRV change before and after HD (ΔHRV) is an useful clinical marker, and it is stronger than HRV before HD in predicting overall and CV mortality. PMID:26854202

  10. Inequality in income and mortality in the United States: analysis of mortality and potential pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, G. A.; Pamuk, E. R.; Lynch, J. W.; Cohen, R. D.; Balfour, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between health outcomes and the equality with which income is distributed in the United States. DESIGN--The degree of income inequality, defined as the percentage of total household income received by the less well off 50% of households, and changes in income inequality were calculated for the 50 states in 1980 and 1990. These measures were then examined in relation to all cause mortality adjusted for age for each state, age specific deaths, changes in mortalities, and other health outcomes and potential pathways for 1980, 1990, and 1989-91. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Age adjusted mortality from all causes. RESULTS--There was a significant correlation (r = -0.62 [corrected], P < 0.001) between the percentage of total household income received by the less well off 50% in each state and all cause mortality, unaffected by adjustment for state median incomes. Income inequality was also significantly associated with age specific mortalities and rates of low birth weight, homicide, violent crime, work disability, expenditures on medical care and police protection, smoking, and sedentary activity. Rates of unemployment, imprisonment, recipients of income assistance and food stamps, lack of medical insurance, and educational outcomes were also worse as income inequality increased. Income inequality was also associated with mortality trends, and there was a suggestion of an impact of inequality trends on mortality trends. CONCLUSION--Variations between states in the inequality of the distribution of income are significantly associated with variations between states in a large number of health outcomes and social indicators and with mortality trends. These differences parallel relative investments in human and social capital. Economic policies that influence income and wealth inequality may have an important impact on the health of countries. PMID:8616393

  11. The effects of dosage and the routes of administrations of streptozotocin and alloxan on induction rate of type1 diabetes mellitus and mortality rate in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavinia, Ataroalsadat; Amini, Abdodlah; Ghorishi, Seyed Kamran; Pouriran, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    The approach and novelty of this scientific work was to formulate the appropriate Streptozotocin (STZ) and Alloxan dosage in different routes of administration to imply minimum mortality rate and high incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the rat experiment model. Rats were randomly divided into STZ, Alloxan and control groups. 1-Alloxan group was divided into two subgroups: intraperitoneal (ip) subgroups which received a single dose of, 140, 120, 100 and 80 mg/kg; and the subcutaneous (sc) subgroups which received a single dose of, 120, 110, 100, 90, and 80 mg/kg. 2-STZ group was divided into four subgroups of ip route. The ip subgroup which received intraperitoneally a single dose of, 30, 35, 40 and 50 mg/kg. 3-The control group: This group received solo distilled water. The injection day was considered as the day zero. Blood glucose levels and mortality rate were recorded. Subsequently, 30 days after, the logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate the effect of the explanatory variables, the dose levels, and route approaches, on the probability of DM incidence, and mortality. According to the statistical logistic analysis for Alloxan, it is concluded that the minimum dosage needed to induce DM was 120 mg/kg by sc method (probability 0.712). In addition, the logistic analysis for STZ showed that the optimal dose-level for STZ was 40 mg/kg with ip with approximate induction of DM probability 0.764. Based on the data, male Wistar rats in which received a single dosage of Alloxan by sc injection at dose of 120 mg/kg showed the most desirable result of induction of type I DM; furthermore, those in which received STZ by ip injection at the dose of 40 mg/kg developed a persistent and optimal DM state characterized by high rate of DM induction and low- level of mortality. PMID:27729932

  12. Elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Is Predictive of Interstitial Lung Disease and Mortality in Dermatomyositis: a Korean Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a major cause of death in patients with dermatomyositis (DM). This study was aimed to examine the utility of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) as a predictor of ILD and prognostic marker of mortality in patients with DM. One hundred-and-fourteen patients with DM were examined, including 28 with clinically amyopathic DM (CADM). A diagnosis of ILD was made based on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. The association between elevated ESR and pulmonary impairment and mortality was then examined. ILD was diagnosed in 53 (46.5%) of 114 DM patients. Cancer was diagnosed in 2 (3.8%) of 53 DM patients with ILD and in 24 (92.3%) of those without ILD (P < 0.001). The median ESR (50.0 mm/hour) in patients with ILD was significantly higher than that in patients without ILD (29.0 mm/hour; P < 0.001). ESR was inversely correlated with forced vital capacity (Spearman ρ = - 0.303; P = 0.007) and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (ρ = - 0.319; P = 0.006). DM patients with baseline ESR ≥ 30 mm/hour had significantly higher mortality than those with ESR < 30 mm/hour (P = 0.002, log-rank test). Patients with a persistently high ESR despite immunosuppressive therapy was associated with higher mortality than those with a normalized ESR (P = 0.039, log-rank test). Elevated ESR is associated with increased mortality in patients with DM due to respiratory failure. Thus, monitoring ESR should be an integral part of the clinical care of DM patients. PMID:26955239

  13. Fine Root Mortality Rates in a Temperate Forest: Estimates using Radiocarbon Data and Numerical Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, William J.; Gaudinski, Julia B.; Torn, Margaret S.; JoslinJr., John D.; Hanson, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Carbon (C) fluxes through roots are the most uncertain of all C exchanges between the atmosphere, plants, and soil. Yet the three dominant methods to characterize root C fluxes (minirhizotron, sequential coring, and isotopes) yield significantly different estimates of temperate forest root mortality turnover times. We contend that these discrepancies result from limitations in interpreting these very distinct types of observations. In this study we used a whole-ecosystem 14C label to develop, parameterize, and test a model (Radix1.0) of fine-root mortality and decomposition. Radix simulates two live roots pools (one with structural and non-structural C components), two dead root pools, non-normally distributed root mortality turnover times, a stored C pool, seasonal growth and respiration patterns, a best-fit to measurements approach to estimate model parameters, and Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. We applied Radix at a temperate forest in Oak Ridge Tennessee using 14C measurements from two root size classes (<0.5 mm and 0.5−2.0 mm) and three soil depth increments (O horizon, 0−15, and 30−60 cm). Predicted root lifetimes were 0.1-0.9 y and 11-14 y for fast and slow live root pools respectively, and 0.1-4 y and 11-14 y for fast and slow dead root pool decomposition turnover times, respectively. We estimated that C fluxes through fine roots <2 mm diameter are ~40, 220, and 90 g C m-2 y 1 in the O horizon, 0−15 cm, and 30−60 cm depth intervals, respectively. We conclude that accurate characterization of C flows through fine roots required a model with two live fine-root pools, two dead fine-root pools, and root respiration. Further, root turnover times on the order of a decade imply different response times in biomass and growth than are currently predicted by models with a single annual turnover pool.

  14. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  15. Multi-scale heart rate dynamics detected by phase-rectified signal averaging predicts mortality after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kisohara, Masaya; Stein, Phyllis K.; Yoshida, Yutaka; Suzuki, Mari; Iizuka, Narushi; Carney, Robert M.; Watkins, Lana L.; Freedland, Kenneth E.; Blumenthal, James A.; Hayano, Junichiro

    2013-01-01

    Aims Acceleration and deceleration capacity (AC and DC) for beat-to-beat short-term heart rate dynamics are powerful predictors of mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We examined if AC and DC for minute-order long-term heart rate dynamics also have independent predictive value. Methods and results We studied 24-hr Holter electrcardiograms in 708 post-AMI patients who were followed up for up to 30 months thereafter. Acceleration capacity and DC was calculated with the time scales of T (window size defining heart rate) and s (wavelet scale) from 1 to 500 s and compared their prognostic values with conventional measures (ACconv and DCconv) that were calculated with (T,s) = [1,2 (beat)]. During the follow-up, 47 patients died. Both increased ACconv and decreased DCconv predicted mortality (C statistic, 0.792 and 0.797). Concordantly, sharp peaks of C statistics were observed at (T,s) = [2,7 (sec)] for both increased AC and decreased DC (0.762 and 0.768), but there were larger peaks of C statistics at around [30,60 (sec)] for both (0.783 and 0.796). The C statistic was greater for DC than AC at (30,60) (P = 0.0012). Deceleration capacity at (30,60) was a significant predictor even after adjusted for ACconv (P = 0.020) and DCconv (P = 0.028), but the predictive power of AC at (30,60) was no longer significant. Conclusion A decrease in DC for minute-order long-term heart rate dynamics is a strong predictor for post-AMI mortality and the predictive power is independent of ACconv and DCconv for beat-to-beat short-term heart rate dynamics. PMID:23248218

  16. What is self-rated health and why does it predict mortality? Towards a unified conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Jylhä, Marja

    2009-08-01

    The association of self-rated health with mortality is well established but poorly understood. This paper provides new insights into self-rated health that help integrate information from different disciplines, both social and biological, into one unified conceptual framework. It proposes, first, a model describing the health assessment process to show how self-rated health can reflect the states of the human body and mind. Here, an analytic distinction is made between the different types of information on which people base their health assessments and the contextual frameworks in which this information is evaluated and summarized. The model helps us understand why self-ratings of health may be modified by age or culture, but still be a valid measure of health status. Second, based on the proposed model, the paper examines the association of self-rated health with mortality. The key question is, what do people know and how do they know what they know that makes self-rated health such an inclusive and universal predictor of the most absolute biological event, death. The focus is on the social and biological pathways that mediate information from the human organism to individual consciousness, thus incorporating that information into self-ratings of health. A unique source of information is provided by the bodily sensations that are directly available only to the individual him- or herself. According to recent findings in human biology, these sensations may reflect important physiological dysregulations, such as inflammatory processes. Third, the paper discusses the advantages and limitations of self-rated health as a measure of health in research and clinical practice. Future research should investigate both the logics that govern people's reasoning about their health and the physiological processes that underlie bodily feelings and sensations. Self-rated health lies at the cross-roads of culture and biology, therefore a collaborative effort between different

  17. Tag return models allowing for harvest and catch and release: Evidence of environmental and management impacts on striped bass fishing and natural mortality rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, H.; Pollock, K.H.; Brownie, C.; Hoenig, J.M.; Latour, R.J.; Wells, B.K.; Hightower, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Catch-and-release fisheries have become very important in the management of overexploited recreational fish stocks. Tag return studies, where the tag is removed regardless of fish disposition, have been used to assess the effectiveness of restoration efforts for these fisheries. We extend the instantaneous rate formulation of tag return models to allow for catch and release as well as harvest. The key point of our methods is that, given an estimate of the tag reporting rate, the fishing mortality rate (F) is separated into two components: the mortality on harvested fish and the "mortality" on tags (because the lags are removed) of fish released alive. The total fishing mortality rate for untagged fish is the sum of the Fs due to harvest and hooking mortality suffered by fish released alive. Natural mortality rates can also be estimated. Both age-independent models and age-dependent models are constructed, and the age-dependent models are illustrated by application to data from a study of striped bass Morone saxatilis in Chesapeake Bay from 1991 to 2003 by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. By fitting models of the natural mortality rate with limited age and year dependence, we demonstrate an overall decrease in natural mortality rates as fish age and provide evidence of an increase in natural mortality beginning in the late 1990s, when an outbreak of the disease mycobacteriosis is thought to have begun. Our results indicate that fishing mortality is age dependent; selectivity increases up to age 6, when fish appear to be fully recruited to the fishery. There is also evidence of an increase in fishing mortality since 1995, when regulations were relaxed. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  18. Restructuring fundamental predator-prey models by recognising prey-dependent conversion efficiency and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiqiu; Montagnes, David J S

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating protozoa into population models (from simple predator-prey explorations to complex food web simulations) is of conceptual, ecological, and economic importance. From theoretical and empirical perspectives, we expose unappreciated complexity in the traditional predator-prey model structure and provide a parsimonious solution, especially for protistologists. We focus on how prey abundance alters two key components of models: predator conversion efficiency (e, the proportion of prey converted to predator, before mortality loss) and predator mortality (δ, the portion of the population lost though death). Using a well-established model system (Paramecium and Didinium), we collect data to parameterize a range of existing and novel population models that differ in the functional forms of e and δ. We then compare model simulations to an empirically obtained time-series of predator-prey population dynamics. The analysis indicates that prey-dependent e and δ should be considered when structuring population models and that both prey and predator biomass also vary with prey abundance. Both of these impact the ability of the model to predict population dynamics and, therefore, should be included in theoretical model evaluations and assessment of ecosystem dynamics associated with biomass flux. PMID:25819465

  19. Restructuring fundamental predator-prey models by recognising prey-dependent conversion efficiency and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiqiu; Montagnes, David J S

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating protozoa into population models (from simple predator-prey explorations to complex food web simulations) is of conceptual, ecological, and economic importance. From theoretical and empirical perspectives, we expose unappreciated complexity in the traditional predator-prey model structure and provide a parsimonious solution, especially for protistologists. We focus on how prey abundance alters two key components of models: predator conversion efficiency (e, the proportion of prey converted to predator, before mortality loss) and predator mortality (δ, the portion of the population lost though death). Using a well-established model system (Paramecium and Didinium), we collect data to parameterize a range of existing and novel population models that differ in the functional forms of e and δ. We then compare model simulations to an empirically obtained time-series of predator-prey population dynamics. The analysis indicates that prey-dependent e and δ should be considered when structuring population models and that both prey and predator biomass also vary with prey abundance. Both of these impact the ability of the model to predict population dynamics and, therefore, should be included in theoretical model evaluations and assessment of ecosystem dynamics associated with biomass flux.

  20. Assessing and mapping spatial associations among oral cancer mortality rates, concentrations of heavy metals in soil, and land use types based on multiple scale data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Lin, Yu-Pin; Wang, Yung-Chieh; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2014-02-21

    In this study, a deconvolution procedure was used to create a variogram of oral cancer (OC) rates. Based on the variogram, area-to-point (ATP) Poisson kriging and p-field simulation were used to downscale and simulate, respectively, the OC rate data for Taiwan from the district scale to a 1 km × 1 km grid scale. Local cluster analysis (LCA) of OC mortality rates was then performed to identify OC mortality rate hot spots based on the downscaled and the p-field-simulated OC mortality maps. The relationship between OC mortality and land use was studied by overlapping the maps of the downscaled OC mortality, the LCA results, and the land uses. One thousand simulations were performed to quantify local and spatial uncertainties in the LCA to identify OC mortality hot spots. The scatter plots and Spearman's rank correlation yielded the relationship between OC mortality and concentrations of the seven metals in the 1 km cell grid. The correlation analysis results for the 1 km scale revealed a weak correlation between OC mortality rate and concentrations of the seven studied heavy metals in soil. Accordingly, the heavy metal concentrations in soil are not major determinants of OC mortality rates at the 1 km scale at which soils were sampled. The LCA statistical results for local indicator of spatial association (LISA) revealed that the sites with high probability of high-high (high value surrounded by high values) OC mortality at the 1 km grid scale were clustered in southern, eastern, and mid-western Taiwan. The number of such sites was also significantly higher on agricultural land and in urban regions than on land with other uses. The proposed approach can be used to downscale and evaluate uncertainty in mortality data from a coarse scale to a fine scale at which useful additional information can be obtained for assessing and managing land use and risk.

  1. Assessing and Mapping Spatial Associations among Oral Cancer Mortality Rates, Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Soil, and Land Use Types Based on Multiple Scale Data

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Chih; Lin, Yu-Pin; Wang, Yung-Chieh; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a deconvolution procedure was used to create a variogram of oral cancer (OC) rates. Based on the variogram, area-to-point (ATP) Poisson kriging and p-field simulation were used to downscale and simulate, respectively, the OC rate data for Taiwan from the district scale to a 1 km × 1 km grid scale. Local cluster analysis (LCA) of OC mortality rates was then performed to identify OC mortality rate hot spots based on the downscaled and the p-field-simulated OC mortality maps. The relationship between OC mortality and land use was studied by overlapping the maps of the downscaled OC mortality, the LCA results, and the land uses. One thousand simulations were performed to quantify local and spatial uncertainties in the LCA to identify OC mortality hot spots. The scatter plots and Spearman’s rank correlation yielded the relationship between OC mortality and concentrations of the seven metals in the 1 km cell grid. The correlation analysis results for the 1 km scale revealed a weak correlation between OC mortality rate and concentrations of the seven studied heavy metals in soil. Accordingly, the heavy metal concentrations in soil are not major determinants of OC mortality rates at the 1 km scale at which soils were sampled. The LCA statistical results for local indicator of spatial association (LISA) revealed that the sites with high probability of high-high (high value surrounded by high values) OC mortality at the 1 km grid scale were clustered in southern, eastern, and mid-western Taiwan. The number of such sites was also significantly higher on agricultural land and in urban regions than on land with other uses. The proposed approach can be used to downscale and evaluate uncertainty in mortality data from a coarse scale to a fine scale at which useful additional information can be obtained for assessing and managing land use and risk. PMID:24566045

  2. An Atypical Age-Specific Pattern of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Peru: A Threat for Andean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Loli, Sebastian; Moura, Julien; Zimic, Mirko; Deharo, Eric; Ruiz, Eloy

    2013-01-01

    Background In South America, the highest incidence of primary liver cancer is observed in Peru. However, national estimations on hepatocellular carcinoma incidence and mortality are approximated using aggregated data from surrounding countries. Thus, there is a lack of tangible information from Peru that impairs an accurate description of the local incidence, presentation, and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study attempts to fill this gap and assesses the clinical epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in this country. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analysing the medical charts of 1,541 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma admitted between 1997 and 2010 at the Peruvian national institute for cancer. The medical records including liver function, serologic status, and tumor pathology and stage were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed in order to characterize tumor presentation according to demographic features, risk factors, and regional origin. Results Surprisingly, the age distribution of the patient population displayed bimodality corresponding to two distinct age-based subpopulations. While an older group was in keeping with the age range observed for hepatocellular carcinoma around the world, a younger population displayed an abnormally juvenile mean age of 25.5 years old. In addition, each subpopulation displayed age-specific pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. Conclusions The analysis suggests two different age-specific natural histories of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Peruvian patient population. This otherwise unusual tumor process that is ongoing in younger patients leads to the hypothesis that there may be a Peru-endemic risk factor driving hepatocarcinogenesis in the local population. PMID:23840771

  3. Association of electronic fetal monitoring during labor with cesarean section rate and with neonatal morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, J; Harris, D R; Hosmer, D W

    1988-01-01

    Data from the 1980 National Natality Survey by the National Center for Health Statistics were used to assess the relation of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) during labor with cesarean section rates and neonatal morbidity and mortality. In univariate analyses, EFM was associated with higher cesarean section rates, lower five-minute Apgar scores, and a higher rate of respiratory distress. Logistic regression analysis controlling for other risk factors for poor neonatal outcome indicated that the association of EFM with higher cesarean section rates persisted (odds ratio 1.45, 95% CI 1.16, 1.81), except in certain pregnancies at very high risk for cesarean section. EFM was associated with an Apgar score less than 6 at five minutes only if delivery was by cesarean section. EFM was not found to be independently associated with respiratory distress. Neither univariate nor multivariate analyses found an association of EFM with neonatal mortality. These results suggest that EFM may identify hypoxic infants, who are frequently delivered by cesarean section. The lack of association of EFM with beneficial neonatal outcomes is consistent either with lack of effect of EFM or with uncontrolled selection bias. PMID:3407813

  4. Using the Gompertz-Strehler model of aging and mortality to explain mortality trends in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Riggs, J E; Millecchia, R J

    1992-09-01

    Mortality trends in industrialized countries are characterized by declines in vascular disease (ischemic heart disease and stroke) and rises in cancers and degenerative diseases. These trends are typically analyzed by examining each disorder in isolation using the perspective of genetic and environmental influences. However, longitudinal Gompertzian analysis and the Gompertz-Strehler model of aging and mortality as modified by Lestienne suggest that age-specific mortality rates, for both general and disease-specific mortality, are an interrelated deterministic function of aggregate genetic, environmental and competitive influences. Consequently, evolving mortality trends and patterns appear to be influenced by three factors (with deterministic competition being the third factor), rather than just two factors (genetic and environmental) as commonly depicted. PMID:1434950

  5. A Stochastic Version of the Brass PF Ratio Adjustment of Age-Specific Fertility Schedules

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Jack; Alcantara, Adélamar; Ruan, Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of age-specific fertility rates based on survey data are known to suffer down-bias associated with incomplete reporting. Previously, William Brass (1964, 1965, 1968) proposed a series of adjustments of such data to reflect more appropriate levels of fertility through comparison with data on children-ever-born by age, a measure of cohort-specific cumulative fertility. His now widely-used Parity/Fertility or PF ratio method makes a number of strong assumptions, which have been the focus of an extended discussion in the literature on indirect estimation. However, while it is clear that the measures used in making adjusted age-specific fertility estimates with this method are captured with statistical uncertainty, little discussion of the nature of this uncertainty around PF-ratio based estimates of fertility has been entertained in the literature. Since both age-specific risk of childbearing and cumulative parity (children ever born) are measured with statistical uncertainty, an unknown credibility interval must surround every PF ratio-based estimate. Using the standard approach, this is unknown, limiting the ability to make statistical comparisons of fertility between groups or to understand stochasticity in population dynamics. This paper makes use of approaches applied to similar problems in engineering, the natural sciences, and decision analysis—often discussed under the title of uncertainty analysis or stochastic modeling—to characterize this uncertainty and to present a new method for making PF ratio-based fertility estimates with 95 percent uncertainty intervals. The implications for demographic analysis, between-group comparisons of fertility, and the field of statistical demography are explored. PMID:21829718

  6. Mortality, Recurrence, and Dependency Rates Are Higher after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Compared to Younger Patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Xue; Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenjuan; Ning, Xianjia; Li, Bin; Wang, Jinghua; An, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on the elderly than on younger patients. However, the long-term outcomes associated with stroke among elderly patients with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to assess the differences in long-term outcomes between young and elderly stroke patients with diabetes. A total of 3,615 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited for this study between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes at 12 and 36 months after stroke (including mortality, recurrence, and dependency) were compared between younger (age <75 years) and elderly (age ≥75 years) patients. The elderly group included 692 patients (19.1%) overall. Elderly patients were more likely than younger patients to have a Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification of stroke due to cardioembolism, moderate and severe stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have hypertension and dyslipidemia, current smokers, and alcohol consumers. Mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 months after stroke were 19.0, 48.5, and 20.9% in the elderly group and 7.4, 30.9, and 15.4% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.05). Corresponding rates at 36 months after stroke were 35.4, 78.7, and 53.8% in the elderly group and 13.7, 61.7, and 43.0% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.001). The mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 and 36 months after stroke were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the younger group after adjusting for stroke subtypes, stroke severity, and risk factors. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) at 12 and 36 months after stroke were 2.18 (1.64-2.89) and 3.10 (2.35-4.08), respectively, for mortality, all P < 0.001; 1.81 (1.49-2.20) and 2.04 (1.57-2.34), respectively, for dependency, all P < 0.001; and 1.37 (1.06-1.76) and 1.40 (1.07-1.85), respectively, for recurrence, P = 0.016. The findings from this study suggest that management and secondary prevention should be emphasized in elderly patients with diabetes in

  7. Mortality, Recurrence, and Dependency Rates Are Higher after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Compared to Younger Patients

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xue; Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenjuan; Ning, Xianjia; Li, Bin; Wang, Jinghua; An, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on the elderly than on younger patients. However, the long-term outcomes associated with stroke among elderly patients with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to assess the differences in long-term outcomes between young and elderly stroke patients with diabetes. A total of 3,615 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited for this study between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes at 12 and 36 months after stroke (including mortality, recurrence, and dependency) were compared between younger (age <75 years) and elderly (age ≥75 years) patients. The elderly group included 692 patients (19.1%) overall. Elderly patients were more likely than younger patients to have a Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification of stroke due to cardioembolism, moderate and severe stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have hypertension and dyslipidemia, current smokers, and alcohol consumers. Mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 months after stroke were 19.0, 48.5, and 20.9% in the elderly group and 7.4, 30.9, and 15.4% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.05). Corresponding rates at 36 months after stroke were 35.4, 78.7, and 53.8% in the elderly group and 13.7, 61.7, and 43.0% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.001). The mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 and 36 months after stroke were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the younger group after adjusting for stroke subtypes, stroke severity, and risk factors. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) at 12 and 36 months after stroke were 2.18 (1.64–2.89) and 3.10 (2.35–4.08), respectively, for mortality, all P < 0.001; 1.81 (1.49–2.20) and 2.04 (1.57–2.34), respectively, for dependency, all P < 0.001; and 1.37 (1.06–1.76) and 1.40 (1.07–1.85), respectively, for recurrence, P = 0.016. The findings from this study suggest that management and secondary prevention should be emphasized in elderly patients with

  8. Mortality, Recurrence, and Dependency Rates Are Higher after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Compared to Younger Patients.

    PubMed

    Long, Xue; Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenjuan; Ning, Xianjia; Li, Bin; Wang, Jinghua; An, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on the elderly than on younger patients. However, the long-term outcomes associated with stroke among elderly patients with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to assess the differences in long-term outcomes between young and elderly stroke patients with diabetes. A total of 3,615 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited for this study between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes at 12 and 36 months after stroke (including mortality, recurrence, and dependency) were compared between younger (age <75 years) and elderly (age ≥75 years) patients. The elderly group included 692 patients (19.1%) overall. Elderly patients were more likely than younger patients to have a Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification of stroke due to cardioembolism, moderate and severe stroke, and atrial fibrillation, but less likely to have hypertension and dyslipidemia, current smokers, and alcohol consumers. Mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 months after stroke were 19.0, 48.5, and 20.9% in the elderly group and 7.4, 30.9, and 15.4% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.05). Corresponding rates at 36 months after stroke were 35.4, 78.7, and 53.8% in the elderly group and 13.7, 61.7, and 43.0% in the younger group, respectively (all P < 0.001). The mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 and 36 months after stroke were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the younger group after adjusting for stroke subtypes, stroke severity, and risk factors. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) at 12 and 36 months after stroke were 2.18 (1.64-2.89) and 3.10 (2.35-4.08), respectively, for mortality, all P < 0.001; 1.81 (1.49-2.20) and 2.04 (1.57-2.34), respectively, for dependency, all P < 0.001; and 1.37 (1.06-1.76) and 1.40 (1.07-1.85), respectively, for recurrence, P = 0.016. The findings from this study suggest that management and secondary prevention should be emphasized in elderly patients with diabetes in

  9. Adverse Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality among Young New Yorkers, Particularly Young Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Maduro, Gil A.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Chen, Yu; Reynolds, Harmony R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality has been on the decline in the United States for decades. However, declines in IHD mortality have been slower in certain groups, including young women and black individuals. Hypothesis Trends in IHD vary by age, sex, and race in New York City (NYC). Young female minorities are a vulnerable group that may warrant renewed efforts to reduce IHD. Methods IHD mortality trends were assessed in NYC 1980–2008. NYC Vital Statistics data were obtained for analysis. Age-specific IHD mortality rates and confidence bounds were estimated. Trends in IHD mortality were compared by age and race/ethnicity using linear regression of log-transformed mortality rates. Rates and trends in IHD mortality rates were compared between subgroups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity. Results The decline in IHD mortality rates slowed in 1999 among individuals aged 35–54 years but not ≥55. IHD mortality rates were higher among young men than women age 35–54, but annual declines in IHD mortality were slower for women. Black women age 35–54 had higher IHD mortality rates and slower declines in IHD mortality than women of other race/ethnicity groups. IHD mortality trends were similar in black and white men age 35–54. Conclusions The decline in IHD mortality rates has slowed in recent years among younger, but not older, individuals in NYC. There was an association between sex and race/ethnicity on IHD mortality rates and trends. Young black women may benefit from targeted medical and public health interventions to reduce IHD mortality. PMID:26882207

  10. Disparities in rates of inpatient mortality and adverse events: race/ethnicity and language as independent contributors.

    PubMed

    Hines, Anika L; Andrews, Roxanne M; Moy, Ernest; Barrett, Marguerite; Coffey, Rosanna M

    2014-12-01

    Patients with limited English proficiency have known limitations accessing health care, but differences in hospital outcomes once access is obtained are unknown.We investigate inpatient mortality rates and obstetric trauma for self-reported speakers of English, Spanish, and languages of Asia and the Pacific Islands (API) and compare quality of care by language with patterns by race/ethnicity. Data were from the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project,2009 State Inpatient Databases for California. There were 3,757,218 records. Speaking a non-English principal language and having a non-White race/ethnicity did not place patients at higher risk for inpatient mortality; the exception was significantly higher stroke mortality for Japanese-speaking patients. Patients who spoke API languages or had API race/ethnicity had higher risk for obstetric trauma than English-speaking White patients.Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients had more obstetric trauma than English-speaking Hispanic patients. The influence of language on obstetric trauma and the potential effects of interpretation services on inpatient care are discussed. The broader context of policy implications for collection and reporting of language data is also presented. Results from other countries with and without English as a primary language are needed for the broadest interpretation and generalization of outcomes.

  11. Disparities in Rates of Inpatient Mortality and Adverse Events: Race/Ethnicity and Language as Independent Contributors

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Anika L.; Andrews, Roxanne M.; Moy, Ernest; Barrett, Marguerite L.; Coffey, Rosanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with limited English proficiency have known limitations accessing health care, but differences in hospital outcomes once access is obtained are unknown. We investigate inpatient mortality rates and obstetric trauma for self-reported speakers of English, Spanish, and languages of Asia and the Pacific Islands (API) and compare quality of care by language with patterns by race/ethnicity. Data were from the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 2009 State Inpatient Databases for California. There were 3,757,218 records. Speaking a non-English principal language and having a non-White race/ethnicity did not place patients at higher risk for inpatient mortality; the exception was significantly higher stroke mortality for Japanese-speaking patients. Patients who spoke API languages or had API race/ethnicity had higher risk for obstetric trauma than English-speaking White patients. Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients had more obstetric trauma than English-speaking Hispanic patients. The influence of language on obstetric trauma and the potential effects of interpretation services on inpatient care are discussed. The broader context of policy implications for collection and reporting of language data is also presented. Results from other countries with and without English as a primary language are needed for the broadest interpretation and generalization of outcomes. PMID:25514153

  12. Desiccation as a mitigation tool to manage biofouling risks: trials on temperate taxa to elucidate factors influencing mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Grant A; Prince, Madeleine; Cahill, Patrick L; Fletcher, Lauren M; Atalah, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The desiccation tolerance of biofouling taxa (adults and early life-stages) was determined under both controlled and 'realistic' field conditions. Adults of the ascidian Ciona spp. died within 24 h. Mortality in the adult blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis occurred within 11 d under controlled conditions, compared with 7 d when held outside. The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was the most desiccation-tolerant taxon tested (up to 34 d under controlled conditions). Biofouling orientated to direct sunlight showed faster mortality rates for all the taxa tested. Mortality in Mytilus juveniles took up to 24 h, compared with 8 h for Ciona, with greater survival at the higher temperature (18.5°C) and humidity (~95% RH) treatment combination. This study demonstrated that desiccation can be an effective mitigation method for a broad range of fouling taxa, especially their early life-stages. Further work is necessary to assess risks from other high-risk species such as algae and cyst forming species. PMID:26691450

  13. Disparities in rates of inpatient mortality and adverse events: race/ethnicity and language as independent contributors.

    PubMed

    Hines, Anika L; Andrews, Roxanne M; Moy, Ernest; Barrett, Marguerite L; Coffey, Rosanna M

    2014-01-01

    Patients with limited English proficiency have known limitations accessing health care, but differences in hospital outcomes once access is obtained are unknown. We investigate inpatient mortality rates and obstetric trauma for self-reported speakers of English, Spanish, and languages of Asia and the Pacific Islands (API) and compare quality of care by language with patterns by race/ethnicity. Data were from the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 2009 State Inpatient Databases for California. There were 3,757,218 records. Speaking a non-English principal language and having a non-White race/ethnicity did not place patients at higher risk for inpatient mortality; the exception was significantly higher stroke mortality for Japanese-speaking patients. Patients who spoke API languages or had API race/ethnicity had higher risk for obstetric trauma than English-speaking White patients. Spanish-speaking Hispanic patients had more obstetric trauma than English-speaking Hispanic patients. The influence of language on obstetric trauma and the potential effects of interpretation services on inpatient care are discussed. The broader context of policy implications for collection and reporting of language data is also presented. Results from other countries with and without English as a primary language are needed for the broadest interpretation and generalization of outcomes.

  14. Desiccation as a mitigation tool to manage biofouling risks: trials on temperate taxa to elucidate factors influencing mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Grant A; Prince, Madeleine; Cahill, Patrick L; Fletcher, Lauren M; Atalah, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The desiccation tolerance of biofouling taxa (adults and early life-stages) was determined under both controlled and 'realistic' field conditions. Adults of the ascidian Ciona spp. died within 24 h. Mortality in the adult blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis occurred within 11 d under controlled conditions, compared with 7 d when held outside. The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was the most desiccation-tolerant taxon tested (up to 34 d under controlled conditions). Biofouling orientated to direct sunlight showed faster mortality rates for all the taxa tested. Mortality in Mytilus juveniles took up to 24 h, compared with 8 h for Ciona, with greater survival at the higher temperature (18.5°C) and humidity (~95% RH) treatment combination. This study demonstrated that desiccation can be an effective mitigation method for a broad range of fouling taxa, especially their early life-stages. Further work is necessary to assess risks from other high-risk species such as algae and cyst forming species.

  15. Trends in the Attack Rates, Incidence, and Mortality of Stroke during 1986–2012: Data of Kaunas (Lithuania) Stroke Registry

    PubMed Central

    Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Milinaviciene, Egle; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Luksiene, Dalia; Milasauskiene, Zemyna; Sopagiene, Diana; Rastenyte, Daiva

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a lack of reliable epidemiological data on longitudinal trends in stroke attack rates, incidence, and mortality in the countries of the Baltic region. Aims The aim of the present study was to explore the longitudinal trends of stroke in middle-aged urban population of Lithuania during the period of 1986 through 2012. Methods All stroke events in the studied population were ascertained and validated according to the standardized criteria outlined by the WHO MONICA Project. The study included all patients in Kaunas (Lithuania) city aged 25 to 64 years who experienced a stroke between 1986 and 2012. Estimates of time-trends of the annual percentage change in stroke attack rates, incidence of stroke, and mortality from this condition were made by applying the Joinpoint regression analysis. Results During the study period, 9,992 stroke events were registered. The overall proportion of recurrent events was 25.7%. Overall, 18.9% of the events (20.0% in men, and 17.4% in women) were fatal within 28 days. During the period of 1986 to 2012, a flat trend in the incidence of stroke was observed among both male and female middle-aged inhabitants of Kaunas city, while attack rates were increasing due to the increase in recurrent strokes. Both mortality and 28-day case fatality of stroke declined significantly over the study period in both sexes. Conclusions An increase both in the incidence and recurrence of stroke among middle-aged men residing in Kaunas city and in the recurrence of stroke among women denotes the inefficiency of measures applied both for primary and secondary prevention of stroke in Lithuania. The revision of current prevention strategies and the introduction of new ones are of paramount importance in order to fight the epidemic of stroke. PMID:27124412

  16. Trends in Pneumonia Mortality Rates and Hospitalizations by Organism, United States, 2002–20111

    PubMed Central

    Wuerth, Brandon A.; Bonnewell, John P.; Wiemken, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    Because the epidemiology of pneumonia is changing, we performed an updated, population-based analysis of hospitalization and case-fatality rates for pneumonia patients in the United States. From 2002 to 2011, hospitalization rates decreased significantly for pneumonia caused by pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae but increased significantly for Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and influenza virus. PMID:27532154

  17. Association of resting heart rate and hypertension stages on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among elderly Koreans: the Kangwha Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Mikyung; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Kimm, Heejin; Nam, Chung Mo; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated resting heart rate and hypertension independently increase the risk of mortality. However, their combined effect on mortality in stages of hypertension according to updated clinical guidelines among elderly population is unclear. Methods We followed a cohort of 6100 residents (2600 males and 3500 females) of Kangwha County, Korea, ranging from 55 to 99 year-olds as of March 1985, for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality for 20.8 years until December 31, 2005. Mortality data were collected through telephone calls and visits (to 1991), and were confirmed by death record matching with the National Statistical Office (1992−2005). Hazard ratios were calculated for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by resting heart rate and hypertension defined by Eighth Joint National Committee criteria using the Cox proportional hazard model after controlling for confounding factors. Results The hazard ratios associated with resting heart rate > 80 beats/min were higher in hypertensive men compared with normotensives with heart rate of 61–79 beats/min, with hazard ratios values of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.00−1.92) on all-cause mortality for prehypertension, 3.01 (95% CI: 1.07–8.28) on cardiovascular mortality for prehypertension, and 8.34 (95% CI: 2.52−28.19) for stage 2 hypertension. Increased risk (HR: 3.54, 95% CI: 1.16–9.21) was observed among those with both a resting heart rate ≥ 80 beats/min and prehypertension on cardiovascular mortality in women. Conclusions Individuals with coexisting elevated resting heart rate and hypertension, even in prehypertension, have a greater risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared to those with elevated resting heart rate or hypertension alone. These findings suggest that elevated resting heart rate should not be regarded as a less serious risk factor in elderly hypertensive patients. PMID:27605937

  18. Fine-root mortality rates in a temperate forest: Estimates using radiocarbon data and numerical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.J.; Gaudinski, J.B.; Torn, M.S.; Joslin, J.D.; Hanson, P.J.

    2009-09-01

    We used an inadvertent whole-ecosystem {sup 14}C label at a temperate forest in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA to develop a model (Radix1.0) of fine-root dynamics. Radix simulates two live-root pools, two dead-root pools, non-normally distributed root mortality turnover times, a stored carbon (C) pool, and seasonal growth and respiration patterns. We applied Radix to analyze measurements from two root size classes (< 0.5 and 0.5-2.0 mm diameter) and three soil-depth increments (O horizon, 0-15 cm and 30-60 cm). Predicted live-root turnover times were < 1 yr and 10 yr for short- and long-lived pools, respectively. Dead-root pools had decomposition turnover times of 2 yr and 10 yr. Realistic characterization of C flows through fine roots requires a model with two live fine-root populations, two dead fine-root pools, and root respiration. These are the first fine-root turnover time estimates that take into account respiration, storage, seasonal growth patterns, and non-normal turnover time distributions. The presence of a root population with decadal turnover times implies a lower amount of belowground net primary production used to grow fine-root tissue than is currently predicted by models with a single annual turnover pool.

  19. Brugada syndrome in a family with a high mortality rate: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Brugada syndrome is a hereditary arrhythmia characterized by a specific electrocardiographic pattern and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, with an apparent absence of structural abnormalities or ischemic heart disease. To date, mutations in the sodium channel, voltage-gated, type V, alpha subunit gene and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1-like gene are estimated to account for approximately 28% of Brugada syndrome probands. Case presentation We report the case of a 32-year-old mixed-race Brazilian man who is sodium channel, voltage-gated, type V, alpha subunit gene and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1-like gene mutation-negative with a type 1 Brugada electrocardiographic pattern and a history of high family mortality, including five sudden deaths among relatives of whom four were first-degree relatives. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient who has Brugada syndrome and a history of sudden death in four first-degree family members. This case report reinforces the evidence that genetic studies are of limited use while determining risk but remain helpful for diagnosis, and that diagnosis via electrocardiography is of great importance in preventing adverse events and stratifying risk. Although there are several technologically advanced diagnostic tools, they might not be accessible in small towns and hospitals; however, a basic diagnostic tool like electrocardiography is easily accessible. PMID:23506330

  20. The historical development of suicide mortality in Russia, 1870-2007.

    PubMed

    Jukkala, Tanya; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Stickley, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Russia has one of the highest suicide mortality rates in the world. This study investigates the development of Russian suicide mortality over a longer time period in order to provide a context within which the contemporary high level might be better understood. Annual sex- and age-specific suicide-mortality data for Russia for the period 1870-2007 were studied, where available. Russian suicide mortality increased 11-fold over the period. Trends in male and female suicide developed similarly, although male suicide rates were consistently much higher. From the 1990s suicide has increased in a relative sense among the young (15-34), while the high suicide mortality among middle-aged males has reduced. Changes in Russian suicide mortality over the study period may be attributable to modernization processes.

  1. The Effect of Application Rate of GF-120 (Spinosad) and Malathion on the Mortality of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Foragers.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Marín, Nina Vanessa; Liedo, Pablo; Sánchez, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial organisms like the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), are heavily affected by pest control practices that incorporate insecticides. Safer alternatives as the spinosad-based formulation GF-120 have been developed to overcome this issue. Though both the low concentration of spinosad and the ultra-low-volume application rate of GF-120 are supposed to have a low acute toxicity in honey bee foragers, to our knowledge such claims have not been explicitly proven. We thus carried out a series of experiments to assess the effect of GF-120, malathion, and Spintor (spinosad) on honey bee foragers when applied at two concentrations (80 and 1,500 ppm) and two application rates (low density rate [LDR]—80 drops of 5 mm diameter per square meter; high density rate [HDR]—thousands of 200 -µm-diameter droplets per square meter). Interestingly, the three pesticides caused low mortality on foragers when applied at LDR-80, LDR-1,500, or HDR-80. However, HDR-1,500 caused a very high mortality. Based upon these results, we developed a computer program to estimate the average number of foragers that are exposed at LDR and HDR. We found that more foragers receive a lethal dose when exposed at HDR than at the other rates. Our results support the hypothesis that the impact of GF-120 and malathion upon honey bees is minimal when applied at LDR and that computer simulation can help greatly in understanding the effects of pesticides upon nontarget species. PMID:26739308

  2. Do deficits in cardiac care influence high mortality rates in schizophrenia? A systematic review and pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Alex J; Lord, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    We have previously documented inequalities in the quality of medical care provided to those with mental ill health but the implications for mortality are unclear. We aimed to test whether disparities in medical treatment of cardiovascular conditions, specifically receipt of medical procedures and receipt of prescribed medication, are linked with elevated rates of mortality in people with schizophrenia and severe mental illness. We undertook a systematic review of studies that examined medical procedures and a pooled analysis of prescribed medication in those with and without comorbid mental illness, focusing on those which recruited individuals with schizophrenia and measured mortality as an outcome. From 17 studies of treatment adequacy in cardiovascular conditions, eight examined cardiac procedures and nine examined adequacy of prescribed cardiac medication. Six of eight studies examining the adequacy of cardiac procedures found lower than average provision of medical care and two studies found no difference. Meta-analytic pooling of nine medication studies showed lower than average rates of prescribing evident for the following individual classes of medication; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (n = 6, aOR = 0.779, 95% CI = 0.638–0.950, p = 0.0137), beta-blockers (n = 9, aOR = 0.844, 95% CI = 0.690–1.03, p = 0.1036) and statins (n = 5, aOR = 0.604, 95% CI = 0.408–0.89, p = 0.0117). No inequality was evident for aspirin (n = 7, aOR = 0.986, 95% CI = 0.7955–1.02, p = 0.382). Interestingly higher than expected prescribing was found for older non-statin cholesterol-lowering agents (n = 4, aOR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.04–2.32, p = 0.0312). A search for outcomes in this sample revealed ten studies linking poor quality of care and possible effects on mortality in specialist settings. In half of the studies there was significantly higher mortality in those with mental ill health

  3. A trait-based trade-off between growth and mortality: evidence from 15 tropical tree species using size-specific relative growth rates.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Christopher D; Dent, Daisy H; O'Brien, Michael J; Chamagne, Juliette; Dzulkifli, Dzaeman; Nilus, Reuben; Philips, Sam; Reynolds, Glen; Saner, Philippe; Hector, Andy

    2014-09-01

    A life-history trade-off between low mortality in the dark and rapid growth in the light is one of the most widely accepted mechanisms underlying plant ecological strategies in tropical forests. Differences in plant functional traits are thought to underlie these distinct ecological strategies; however, very few studies have shown relationships between functional traits and demographic rates within a functional group. We present 8 years of growth and mortality data from saplings of 15 species of Dipterocarpaceae planted into logged-over forest in Malaysian Borneo, and the relationships between these demographic rates and four key functional traits: wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), seed mass, and leaf C:N ratio. Species-specific differences in growth rates were separated from seedling size effects by fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models, to repeated measurements taken on individuals at multiple time points. Mortality data were analyzed using binary logistic regressions in a mixed-effects models framework. Growth increased and mortality decreased with increasing light availability. Species differed in both their growth and mortality rates, yet there was little evidence for a statistical interaction between species and light for either response. There was a positive relationship between growth rate and the predicted probability of mortality regardless of light environment, suggesting that this relationship may be driven by a general trade-off between traits that maximize growth and traits that minimize mortality, rather than through differential species responses to light. Our results indicate that wood density is an important trait that indicates both the ability of species to grow and resistance to mortality, but no other trait was correlated with either growth or mortality. Therefore, the growth mortality trade-off among species of dipterocarp appears to be general in being independent of species crossovers in performance in different light environments.

  4. A trait-based trade-off between growth and mortality: evidence from 15 tropical tree species using size-specific relative growth rates

    PubMed Central

    Philipson, Christopher D; Dent, Daisy H; O’Brien, Michael J; Chamagne, Juliette; Dzulkifli, Dzaeman; Nilus, Reuben; Philips, Sam; Reynolds, Glen; Saner, Philippe; Hector, Andy

    2014-01-01

    A life-history trade-off between low mortality in the dark and rapid growth in the light is one of the most widely accepted mechanisms underlying plant ecological strategies in tropical forests. Differences in plant functional traits are thought to underlie these distinct ecological strategies; however, very few studies have shown relationships between functional traits and demographic rates within a functional group. We present 8 years of growth and mortality data from saplings of 15 species of Dipterocarpaceae planted into logged-over forest in Malaysian Borneo, and the relationships between these demographic rates and four key functional traits: wood density, specific leaf area (SLA), seed mass, and leaf C:N ratio. Species-specific differences in growth rates were separated from seedling size effects by fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models, to repeated measurements taken on individuals at multiple time points. Mortality data were analyzed using binary logistic regressions in a mixed-effects models framework. Growth increased and mortality decreased with increasing light availability. Species differed in both their growth and mortality rates, yet there was little evidence for a statistical interaction between species and light for either response. There was a positive relationship between growth rate and the predicted probability of mortality regardless of light environment, suggesting that this relationship may be driven by a general trade-off between traits that maximize growth and traits that minimize mortality, rather than through differential species responses to light. Our results indicate that wood density is an important trait that indicates both the ability of species to grow and resistance to mortality, but no other trait was correlated with either growth or mortality. Therefore, the growth mortality trade-off among species of dipterocarp appears to be general in being independent of species crossovers in performance in different light environments

  5. High Emergency Lung Transplantation: dramatic decrease of waiting list death rate without relevant higher post-transplant mortality.

    PubMed

    Roux, Antoine; Beaumont-Azuar, Laurence; Hamid, Abdul Monem; De Miranda, Sandra; Grenet, Dominique; Briend, Guillaume; Bonnette, Pierre; Puyo, Philippe; Parquin, François; Devaquet, Jerome; Trebbia, Gregoire; Cuquemelle, Elise; Douvry, Benoit; Picard, Clément; Le Guen, Morgan; Chapelier, Alain; Stern, Marc; Sage, Edouard

    2015-09-01

    Many candidates for lung transplantation (LT) die on the waiting list, raising the question of graft availability and strategy for organ allocation. We report the experience of the new organ allocation program, "High Emergency Lung Transplantation" (HELT), since its implementation in our center in 2007. Retrospective analysis of 201 lung transplant patients, of whom 37 received HELT from 1st July 2007 to 31th May 2012. HELT candidates had a higher impairment grade on respiratory status and higher Lung Allocation Score (LAS). HELT patients had increased incidence of perioperative complications (e.g., perioperative bleeding) and extracorporeal circulatory assistance (75% vs. 36.6%, P = 0.0005). No significant difference was observed between HELT and non-HELT patients in mechanical ventilation duration (15.5 days vs. 11 days, P = 0.27), intensive care unit length of stay (15 days vs. 10 days, P = 0.22) or survival rate at 12 (81% vs. 80%), and 24 months post-LT (72.9% vs. 75.0%). Lastly, mortality on the waiting list was spectacularly reduced from 19% to 2% when compared to the non-HELT 2004-2007 group. Despite a more severe clinical status of patients on the waiting list, HELT provided similar results to conventional LT. These results were associated with a dramatic reduction in the mortality rate of patients on the waiting list.

  6. Factors associated with declining under-five mortality rates from 2000 to 2013: an ecological analysis of 46 African countries

    PubMed Central

    Kipp, Aaron M; Blevins, Meridith; Haley, Connie A; Mwinga, Kasonde; Habimana, Phanuel; Shepherd, Bryan E; Aliyu, Muktar H; Ketsela, Tigest; Vermund, Sten H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Inadequate overall progress has been made towards the 4th Millennium Development Goal of reducing under-five mortality rates by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Progress has been variable across African countries. We examined health, economic and social factors potentially associated with reductions in under-five mortality (U5M) from 2000 to 2013. Setting Ecological analysis using publicly available data from the 46 nations within the WHO African Region. Outcome measures We assessed the annual rate of change (ARC) of 70 different factors and their association with the annual rate of reduction (ARR) of U5M rates using robust linear regression models. Results Most factors improved over the study period for most countries, with the largest increases seen for economic or technological development and external financing factors. The median (IQR) U5M ARR was 3.6% (2.8 to 5.1%). Only 4 of 70 factors demonstrated a strong and significant association with U5M ARRs, adjusting for potential confounders. Higher ARRs were associated with more rapidly increasing coverage of seeking treatment for acute respiratory infection (β=0.22 (ie, a 1% increase in the ARC was associated with a 0.22% increase in ARR); 90% CI 0.09 to 0.35; p=0.01), increasing health expenditure relative to gross domestic product (β=0.26; 95% CI 0.11 to 0.41; p=0.02), increasing fertility rate (β=0.54; 95% CI 0.07 to 1.02; p=0.07) and decreasing maternal mortality ratio (β=−0.47; 95% CI −0.69 to −0.24; p<0.01). The majority of factors showed no association or raised validity concerns due to missing data from a large number of countries. Conclusions Improvements in sociodemographic, maternal health and governance and financing factors were more likely associated with U5M ARR. These underscore the essential role of contextual factors facilitating child health interventions and services. Surveillance of these factors could help monitor which countries need additional support in reducing U5M

  7. Trends in mortality rates from coronary heart disease in Belgrade (Serbia) during the period 1990–2010: a joinpoint regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) causes an estimated 7 million deaths worldwide each year. In the last few decades, mortality from CHD has been decreasing in many countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends of mortality from CHD and myocardial infarction (MI) in the population of Belgrade during the period 1990–2010. Methods Mortality data for CHD and MI were obtained from the Municipal Institute of Statistics in Belgrade and used to calculate age- and sex-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to estimate annual percent changes (APCs) in mortality and to identify points in time where significant changes in trend occur. Results Trends in CHD mortality rates showed significant decline in men during the period studied (APC -0.5%, no joinpoints detected), but no significant change among women (APC +0.4%, no joinpoints detected). While we observed significant declines in CHD mortality in men aged 35–44, 55–64 and 65–74 and women aged 55–64, there was a significant increase in mortality in men aged ≥85 and women aged 75–84 and ≥85. Trends in MI mortality rates showed similar patterns in both genders, with a significant decline from the mid-1990s. Significant decline in MI mortality was observed in almost all age groups, except the two oldest (75–84 and ≥85) in women population. Conclusions Given that CHD and MI mortality trends showed different patterns during the period studied, especially in women, our results imply that further observation of trend is needed. PMID:24320937

  8. Adolescent Inpatient Psychiatric Admission Rates and Subsequent One-Year Mortality in England: 1998-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Anthony; Clacey, Joe; Seagroatt, Valerie; Goldacre, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time of very rapid change not only in physical but also psychological development. During the teenage years there is a reported rise in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate age- and sex-specific National Health Service (NHS) hospital inpatient admission rates for psychiatric…

  9. Nuclear cardiology and CVD in the developing world: Are we applying our scarce resources appropriately? Why is our mortality rate so high?

    PubMed

    Vitola, João V

    2016-10-01

    While mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases have progressively decreased in developed nations, this has not been observed to the same extent in the developing world. Nuclear Cardiology utilization remains low or non-existent for most of those living in the low-to-middle-income countries. How much of the decline in mortality observed in the developed world has to do with advanced cardiac imaging? Are we applying our scarce resources appropriately for myocardial perfusion imaging? Are myocardial revascularizations being guided by appropriate use criteria? Is more imaging necessary to reduce the mortality rates further in the developing world?

  10. Measurement of a drowning incidence rate combining direct observation of an exposed population with mortality statistics.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Damian; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Drowning risk factors may be identified by comparing drowning incidence rates for comparable at-risk populations but precise methods are lacking. To address this knowledge gap, an ecological study extrapolated crude time-duration exposure to water for a specified at-risk sample of surf bathers to estimate the bather population for all wave-dominated beaches in Victoria, Australia, over a four-year summer season period. An incidence rate was calculated using surf bather drowning deaths frequencies matched for time and location. For the sample, 47,341 hours of surf bathing were estimated from 177,528 bathing episodes. Generalising these results to Victoria, the crude drowning deaths incidence rate in the summer season was 0.41 per 1,000,000 person-hours of surf bathing (95% CI 0.37-0.45). Further application of the method, particularly in open water settings, may be used to identify candidate drowning risk factors to advance drowning prevention strategies.

  11. Estimation of fine-root production using rates of diameter-dependent root mortality, decomposition and thickening in forests.

    PubMed

    Van Do, Tran; Osawa, Akira; Sato, Tamotsu

    2016-04-01

    Current studies indicate that fine roots of different diameter classes show different rates of decomposition. This study developed a new method to estimate fine-root production by considering the difference in the production of fine roots of two size classes, fine roots thinner than 1 mm and those between 1 and 2 mm, and their corresponding rates of decomposition. A litter bag experiment was used to estimate the decomposition rates, while the sequential soil core technique was used to identify mass values of live roots and dead roots at a given period of observation. The continuous inflow method was applied to estimate the amount of root decomposition, mortality and production with a framework of two diameter classes of fine roots and for quantification of the amount of mass transfer from the thicker fine-root class to the coarser root category (>2 mm). The results indicated that the estimate of fine-root production was greater when two size classes of fine roots were distinguished. Using a framework of two size classes developed in this study resulted in 21.3% higher fine-root production than a method that did not recognize fine-root size classes or mass transfer to the category of coarse roots. In addition, using shorter collection intervals led to higher production estimates than longer intervals. The production estimate with a 1-month interval was 21.4% higher than that with a 6-month interval. We consider that the use of the sequential soil core technique with continuous inflow estimate method by differentiating size classes of fine roots is likely to minimize the underestimation of the parameters of fine-root dynamics by accounting for decomposition and mortality of fine roots more appropriately.

  12. Changes in Post-Operative Complication and Mortality Rates after Lung Cancer Resection in the 20-Year Period 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Shigeki; Suehisa, Hiroshi; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Yamashita, Motohiro

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed post-operative complication and mortality rates from 1995 through 2014 and evaluated the changes in those rates across that 20-year period. Two thousand and three hundred sixteen patients with lung cancer underwent resection at our institution between 1995 and 2014. This timespan was divided into four 5-year periods. Each patient's age, Charlson comorbidity index score, and extent of surgery in each 5-year period were summarized, and the changes in these factors over the 20-year span were evaluated. The complication and mortality rates were calculated for each 5-year period, and the changes in those rates over the 20-years were evaluated. The number of patients with higher Charlson comorbidity index scores increased during the 20-year period. Of the 455 patients who developed complications, 97 developed life-threating complications. There were 16 post-operative deaths and 23 in-hospital deaths. There were no significant changes in the complication rate or mortality rate during the 20-year period. Both rates were significantly correlated with the extent of resection. Although the number of patients with comorbidities increased in the 20-year period, the post-operative complication and mortality rates, as well as in-hospital mortality, did not change significantly.

  13. A 6-year comparative economic evaluation of healthcare costs and mortality rates of Dutch patients from conventional and CAM GPs

    PubMed Central

    Baars, Erik W; Kooreman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare healthcare costs and mortality rates of Dutch patients with a conventional (CON) general practitioner (GP) and patients with a GP who has additionally completed training in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design Comparative economic evaluation. Setting Database from the Dutch insurance company Agis. Participants 1 521 773 patients (98.8%) from a CON practice and 18 862 patients (1.2%) from a CAM practice. Main outcome measures Annual information on five types of healthcare costs for the years 2006–2011: care by GP, hospital care, pharmaceutical care, paramedic care and care covered by supplementary insurance. Healthcare costs in the last year of life. Mortality rates. Results The mean annual compulsory and supplementary healthcare costs of CON patients are respectively €1821 (95% CI 1813 to 1828) and €75.3 (95% CI 75.1 to 75.5). Compulsory healthcare costs of CAM patients are €225 (95% CI 169 to 281; p<0.001; 12.4%) lower and result mainly from lower hospital care costs (€165; 95% CI 118 to 212; p<0.001) and lower pharmaceutical care costs (€58; 95% CI 41 to 75; p<0.001), especially in the age categories 25–49 and 50–74 years. The costs in the last year of life of patients with CAM, GPs are €1161 (95% CI −138 to 2461; p<0.1) lower. This difference is entirely due to lower hospital costs (€1250; 95% CI 19 to 2481; p<0.05). The mean annual supplementary costs of CAM patients are €33 (95% CI 30 to 37; p<0.001; 44%) higher. CAM patients do not have lower or higher mortality rates than CON patients. Conclusions Dutch patients whose GP additionally completed training in CAM on average have €192 (10.1%) lower annual total compulsory and supplementary healthcare costs and do not live longer or shorter than CON patients. PMID:25164536

  14. Age, differential growth and mortality rates in unexploited populations of Florida gar, an apex predator in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murie, D.J.; Parkyn, D.C.; Nico, L.G.; Herod, J.J.; Loftus, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Florida gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus DeKay, were sampled in two canal systems in south Florida during 2000-2001 to estimate age, growth and mortality as part of the Everglades ecosystem-restoration effort. Tamiami (C-4) and L-31W canal systems had direct connections to natural wetlands of the Everglades and harboured large Florida gar populations. Of 476 fish aged, maximum ages were 19 and 10years for females and males, respectively. Maximum sizes were also larger for females compared with males (817 vs 602 mm total length). Overall, female Florida gar from both Tamiami and L-31W were larger at age than males from L-31W that, in turn, were larger at any given age than males from Tamiami. Females also had lower rates of annual mortality (Z = 0.21) than males from L-31W (Z = 0.31) or males from Tamiami (Z = 0.54). As a large and long-lived apex predator in the Everglades, Florida gar may structure lower trophic levels. Regional- and sex-specific population parameters for Florida gar will contribute to the simulation models designed to evaluate Everglades restoration alternatives. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Impact of Starting an Emergency Medicine Residency Program on Overall Mortality Rate in a Regional Trauma Center

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Blow, Osbert; Herrick, John; Richman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background CHRISTUS Spohn Hospital Corpus Christi - Memorial began an Emergency Medicine Residency Program in March 2007. During each of the three years of their residency, residents are required to complete a trauma surgery rotation. These emergency medicine residents are the only residents participating on this rotation as there is no surgical residency. The Department of Acute Care Surgery, Trauma and Surgical Critical Care analyzed the impact of the residents on trauma patient care outcomes with the hypothesis that there were no differences. Methods Data including length of stay in the hospital, length of stay in the intensive care unit, time spent in the emergency department (ED), morbidities and mortalities were compiled from the trauma registry for patients from the year before the residents began (March 1, 2006 to February 28, 2007) and compared with patients from the first year the residents began their trauma rotations (March 1, 2007 to February 29, 2008). T-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare continuous variables and a Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical variable (mortality). Linear and logistic regression analyses were also performed in order to adjust for potential confounding factors. Results Trauma patient admission rates were 1,316 before and 1,391 after the residents began. No statistically significant differences were found among all of the outcome variables during the two time periods except for time spent in the ED (P = 0.00), which increased during the year the residents began (236.83 ± 4.53 minutes in 2006 compared to 297.40 ± 5.55 minutes in 2007). Linear and logistic regression analyses confirmed these results with the exception of a statistically significant decrease in mortality with the residents on the trauma service (2.8% in 2006 and 2.1% in 2007, P = 0.00) after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Conclusion The addition of emergency medicine residents to the trauma care service did increase

  16. [Light pollution increases morbidity and mortality rate from different causes in male rats].

    PubMed

    Bukalev, A V; Vinogradova, I A; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A; Semenchenko, A V; Anisimov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of different light regimes (constant light--LL; constant darkness--DD; standard light regime--LD, 12 hours light 12 hours darkness; natural lightening of the North-West of Russia--NL) on the dynamics of life's morbidity rate, spontaneous tumorigenesis and frequency of some kinds of non-tumor pathology revealed at the post-mortem examination of male rats was studied. It was found out that the maintenance of animals at LL and NL conditions led to the increase of the number of infectious diseases, substantially faster development of spontaneous tumors and the increase of non-tumor diseases in comparison with the animals kept at LD (standard light) regime. Light deprivation (DD) led to substantial reduction of development of new growth, of non-tumor and infectious diseases in comparison with the similar parameters in standard light regime.

  17. Premature mortality in active convulsive epilepsy in rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, Christian; Fegan, Gregory; Chengo, Eddie; Odhiambo, Rachael; Bauni, Evasius; Neville, Brian; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Sander, Josemir W.; Newton, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We estimated premature mortality and identified causes of death and associated factors in people with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) in rural Kenya. Methods: In this prospective population-based study, people with ACE were identified in a cross-sectional survey and followed up regularly for 3 years, during which information on deaths and associated factors was collected. We used a validated verbal autopsy tool to establish putative causes of death. Age-specific rate ratios and standardized mortality ratios were estimated. Poisson regression was used to identify mortality risk factors. Results: There were 61 deaths among 754 people with ACE, yielding a rate of 33.3/1,000 persons/year. Overall standardized mortality ratio was 6.5. Mortality was higher across all ACE age groups. Nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 3.37), cognitive impairment (aRR 4.55), and age (50+ years) (rate ratio 4.56) were risk factors for premature mortality. Most deaths (56%) were directly related to epilepsy, with prolonged seizures/possible status epilepticus (38%) most frequently associated with death; some of these may have been due to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Possible SUDEP was the likely cause in another 7%. Conclusion: Mortality in people with ACE was more than 6-fold greater than expected. This may be reduced by improving treatment adherence and prompt management of prolonged seizures and supporting those with cognitive impairment. PMID:24443454

  18. Phycocyanobilin accelerates liver regeneration and reduces mortality rate in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Yu, Li-Ming; Liu, Bin; Li, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Run-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effects of phycocyanobilin (PCB) in reducing hepatic injury and accelerating hepatocyte proliferation following carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were orally administered PCB 100 mg/kg for 4 d after CCl4 injection, and then the serum and liver tissue of the mice were collected at days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after CCl4 treatment. A series of evaluations were performed to identify the curative effects on liver injury and recovery. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected to indirectly assess the anti-inflammatory effects of PCB. Meanwhile, we detected the expressions of hepatocyte growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), the factors which are associated with inflammation and liver regeneration. The protein expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TNF-α and cytochrome C were detected by western blot. Furthermore, the survival rates were analyzed of mice which were administered a lethal dose of CCl4 (2.6 mg/kg) with or without PCB. RESULTS: In our research, PCB showed a strongly anti-inflammatory effect on CCl4-induced liver injury in mice. The ALT was significantly decreased after CCl4 treatment from day 1 (P < 0.01) and the AST was significantly decreased from day 2 (P < 0.001). Both albumin and liver SOD were increased from day 2 (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01), but serum SOD levels did not show a significant increase (P > 0.05). PCB protected the structure of liver from the injury by CCl4. TUNEL assay showed that PCB dramatically reduced the number of apoptotic cells after CCl4 treatment compared to the control (101.0 ± 25.4 vs 25.7 ± 6.4, P < 0.01). The result of western blotting showed that PCB could increase PCNA expression, decrease TNF-α and cytochrome C expression. Furthermore, data shows that PCB could improve the

  19. Religious attendance and mortality: implications for the black-white mortality crossover.

    PubMed

    Dupre, Matthew E; Franzese, Alexis T; Parrado, Emilio A

    2006-02-01

    This study investigates the relationships among religious attendance, mortality, and the black-white mortality crossover. We build on prior research by examining the link between attendance and mortality while testing whether religious involvement captures an important source of population heterogeneity that contributes to a crossover Using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, we find a strong negative association between attendance and mortality. Our results also show evidence of a racial crossover in mortality rates for both men and women. When religious attendance is modeled in terms of differential frailty, clear gender differences emerge. For women, the effect of attendance is race- and age-dependent, modifying the age at crossover by 10 years. For men, however; the effect of attendance is not related to race and does not alter the crossover pattern. When other health risks are modeled in terms of differential frailty, wefind neither race nor age-related effects. Overall, the results highlight the importance of considering religious attendance when examining racial and gender differences in age-specific mortality rates.

  20. Chemical exposure of embryos during the preimplantation stages of pregnancy: mortality rate and intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Fabro, S; McLachlan, J A; Dames, N M

    1984-04-01

    Exposure of CD-1 mouse embryos at the eight- to 16-cell stage for 1 hour to methylmethanesulfonate (MMS; 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) produced DNA breakage and interfered with embryonic development in a dose-related manner. MMS-exposed blastocysts were transferred to oviducts of untreated recipient female mice, and the conceptuses were allowed to develop to term. MMS exposure resulted in an increased intrauterine death rate, although the number of implantation sites was not decreased. Surviving MMS-treated offspring showed intrauterine growth retardation, but there was no increase in the incidence of gross abnormalities. Intrauterine growth retardation, without an increase in gross abnormalities, was also observed in the offspring of pregnant New Zealand White rabbits dosed during the preimplantation stages of pregnancy with an "environmental cocktail" composed of ethanol, nicotine, caffeine, sodium salicylate, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT). When the compounds were tested individually, nicotine and DDT were the only two that produced intrauterine growth retardation. DDT-treated 8-day rabbit conceptuses were smaller than controls and showed abnormal persistence of preimplantation proteins in the yolk sac fluid. These results suggest that exposure to chemicals during the preimplantation stages of pregnancy may result in a cessation of growth and development before implantation or during later intrauterine development. Damage can be repaired but it may result in offspring that show intrauterine growth retardation without gross abnormalities. PMID:6711631

  1. [Differences between neonatal mortality and stillbirth rates in Brazil: a study based on the Unified Health System (SIH/SUS) Hospital Information System].

    PubMed

    de Andrade Schramm, J M; Szwarcwald, C L

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to estimate stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates in Brazilian States based upon the country's Hospital Information System. Analysis of 1995 data reveals contrasting rates between the various regions of the country. In order to elucidate the States' different rates, we focused on the association between indicators of coverage, utilization, and access to the Unified Health System (SUS). The results for the neonatal period mostly showed higher early neonatal mortality rates when compared to late neonatal mortality rates, higher neonatal mortality rates in the States comprising the South and Southeast regions, less variable rates between those States, and extremely low rates in some States of the North, Central-West, and Northeast regions. The limited supply of SUS services and low access to same are relevant constraints on health care for the population in the North and Northeast. Aspects related to quality of childbirth and neonatal care are also reflected in the rates studied. The findings suggest that spatial and temporal monitoring of these rates could provide analytical support for organizing the Maternal and Child Health Program. PMID:11175526

  2. Not just smoking and high-tech medicine: socioeconomic inequities in US mortality rates, overall and by race/ethnicity, 1960–2006

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Nancy; Chen, Jarvis T.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on the post-1980 widening of US socioeconomic mortality inequalities has emphasized the contribution of smoking and high-tech medicine, with some studies treating the growing inequalities as effectively inevitable. No studies, however, have analyzed long-term trends in US mortality rates and inequities unrelated to smoking or due to lack of basic medical care, even as a handful have shown that US socioeconomic inequalities in overall mortality shrank between the mid-1960s and 1980. We accordingly analyzed US mortality data for 1960–2006, stratified by county income quintile and race/ethnicity, for mortality unrelated to smoking and preventable by 1960s standards of medical care. Key findings were that relative and absolute socioeconomic inequalities in US mortality unrelated to smoking and preventable by 1960s medical care standards shrank between the 1960s and 1980 and then increased and stagnated, with absolute rates on par with several leading causes of death, and with the burden worst for US populations of color. None of these findings can be attributed to trends in smoking-related deaths and access to high-tech medicine, and they also demonstrate that socioeconomic inequities in mortality can shrink and need not inevitably rise. PMID:22611656

  3. Evolution of inequalities in mortality in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 1991/2006.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Shirley Andrade; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out with the aim of analyzing the evolution of inequalities in mortality in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, between 1991 and 2006. The city was divided into four social strata from 95 geographic Information Zones. The variables used for social stratification were education level and income of heads of households. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates, age specific mortality rates, proportional Infant mortality and the proportional mortality ratio, were calculated for each zone and social strata. Data was obtained from Death Certificates and the Populational Census. Although differences between strata were smaller in 2000 than in 1991, they persist and are still high, ranging from 28.7% to 65.5%. The differences between Information Zones were as much as 575%. The authors discuss the shortcomings of information systems, recommending that health indicators should be estimated by social classes and pointing out the limits and possibilities of the methodology used here.

  4. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013): an analysis of population-based data in relation to socioeconomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Tomasz; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Nieweglowska, Dorota; Ludwin, Artur; Czerw, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC), corpus uteri cancer (CUC), and ovarian cancer (OC) in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes. Materials and methods Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013) were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013) were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Results A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21), with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93) was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74). After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49), as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). Conclusion After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in mortality rate was observed for BC and OC predominantly at the end of the study period, while for CUC, after a long decreasing mortality trend, a significant increase was observed.

  5. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013): an analysis of population-based data in relation to socioeconomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Tomasz; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Nieweglowska, Dorota; Ludwin, Artur; Czerw, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC), corpus uteri cancer (CUC), and ovarian cancer (OC) in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes. Materials and methods Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013) were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013) were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Results A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21), with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93) was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74). After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49), as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). Conclusion After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in mortality rate was observed for BC and OC predominantly at the end of the study period, while for CUC, after a long decreasing mortality trend, a significant increase was observed. PMID:27660470

  6. Estimating natural mortality rates and simulating fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico red grouper (Epinephelus morio) using the ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüss, Arnaud; Schirripa, Michael J.; Chagaris, David; Velez, Laure; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Verley, Philippe; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Ainsworth, Cameron H.

    2016-02-01

    The ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS was employed to evaluate natural mortality rates and fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico (GOM) red grouper (Epinephelus morio). OSMOSE-WFS represents major high trophic level (HTL) groups of species of the West Florida Shelf, is forced by the biomass of plankton and benthos groups, and has a monthly time step. The present application of the model uses a recently developed 'stochastic mortality algorithm' to resolve the mortality processes of HTL groups. OSMOSE-WFS predictions suggest that the natural mortality rate of juveniles of GOM red grouper is high and essentially due to predation, while the bulk of the natural mortality of adult red grouper results from causes not represented in OSMOSE-WFS such as, presumably, red tides. These results were communicated to GOM red grouper stock assessments. Moreover, OSMOSE-WFS indicate that altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have no global impact on the biomass of the major prey of red grouper, due to the high complexity and high redundancy of the modeled system. By contrast, altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have a large impact on the biomass of its major competitors. Increasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would increase the biomass of major competitors, due to reduced competition for food. Conversely, decreasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would diminish the biomass of major competitors, due to increased predation pressure on the juveniles of the major competitors by red grouper. The fishing scenarios that we evaluated may have slightly different impacts in the real world, due to some discrepancies between the diets of red grouper and its major competitors predicted by OSMOSE-WFS and the observed ones. Modifications in OSMOSE-WFS are suggested to reduce these discrepancies.

  7. Lower mortality rates at cardiac specialty hospitals traceable to healthier patients and to doctors' performing more procedures.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Liam; Hartz, Arthur J

    2012-04-01

    Physician-owned cardiac specialty hospitals advertise that they have outstanding physicians and results. To test this assertion, we examined who gets referred to these hospitals, as well as whether different results occur when specialty physicians split their caseloads among specialty and general hospitals in the same markets. Using data on 210,135 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary interventions in Texas during 2004-07, we found that the risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality rate for patients treated at specialty hospitals was significantly below the rate for all hospitals in the state (0.68 percent versus 1.50 percent). However, the rate was significantly higher when physicians who owned cardiac specialty hospitals treated patients in general hospitals (2.27 percent versus 1.50 percent). In addition, several patient characteristics were associated with a lower likelihood of being admitted to a cardiac hospital for cardiac care, such as being African American or Hispanic and having Medicaid or no health insurance. After adjustment for patient severity and number of procedures performed, the overall outcomes for cardiologists who owned specialty hospitals were not significantly different from the "average outcomes" obtained at noncardiac hospitals. In contrast to previous studies, patient outcomes were found to be highly dependent on the type of hospital where the procedure was performed. To remove a potential source of bias and achieve a more balanced comparison, the quality statistics reported by physician-owned cardiac hospitals should be adjusted to incorporate the high rates of poor outcomes for the many procedures done by their cardiologists at nearby noncardiac hospitals. PMID:22492898

  8. Gender differences in the predictive role of self-rated health on short-term risk of mortality among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the well-established association between self-rated health and mortality, research findings have been inconsistent regarding how men and women differ on this link. Using a national sample in the United States, this study compared American male and female older adults for the predictive role of baseline self-rated health on the short-term risk of mortality. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 1500 older adults (573 men (38.2%) and 927 women (61.8%)) aged 66 years or older for 3 years from 2001 to 2004. The main predictor of interest was self-rated health, which was measured using a single item in 2001. The outcome was the risk of all-cause mortality during the 3-year follow-up period. Demographic factors (race and age), socio-economic factors (education and marital status), and health behaviors (smoking and drinking) were covariates. Gender was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regression models in the pooled sample and also stratified by gender, with self-rated health treated as either nominal variables, poor compared to other levels (i.e. fair, good, or excellent) or excellent compared to other levels (i.e. good, fair, or poor), or an ordinal variable. Results: In the pooled sample, baseline self-rated health predicted mortality risk, regardless of how the variable was treated. We found a significant interaction between gender and poor self-rated health, indicating a stronger effect of poor self-rated health on mortality risk for men compared to women. Gender did not interact with excellent self-rated health on mortality. Conclusion: Perceived poor self-rated health better reflects risk of mortality over a short period of time for older men compared to older women. Clinicians may need to take poor self-rated health of older men very seriously. Future research should test whether the differential predictive validity of self-rated health based on gender is due to a different meaning of poor self-rated health for older men and women

  9. Gender differences in the predictive role of self-rated health on short-term risk of mortality among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the well-established association between self-rated health and mortality, research findings have been inconsistent regarding how men and women differ on this link. Using a national sample in the United States, this study compared American male and female older adults for the predictive role of baseline self-rated health on the short-term risk of mortality. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 1500 older adults (573 men (38.2%) and 927 women (61.8%)) aged 66 years or older for 3 years from 2001 to 2004. The main predictor of interest was self-rated health, which was measured using a single item in 2001. The outcome was the risk of all-cause mortality during the 3-year follow-up period. Demographic factors (race and age), socio-economic factors (education and marital status), and health behaviors (smoking and drinking) were covariates. Gender was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regression models in the pooled sample and also stratified by gender, with self-rated health treated as either nominal variables, poor compared to other levels (i.e. fair, good, or excellent) or excellent compared to other levels (i.e. good, fair, or poor), or an ordinal variable. Results: In the pooled sample, baseline self-rated health predicted mortality risk, regardless of how the variable was treated. We found a significant interaction between gender and poor self-rated health, indicating a stronger effect of poor self-rated health on mortality risk for men compared to women. Gender did not interact with excellent self-rated health on mortality. Conclusion: Perceived poor self-rated health better reflects risk of mortality over a short period of time for older men compared to older women. Clinicians may need to take poor self-rated health of older men very seriously. Future research should test whether the differential predictive validity of self-rated health based on gender is due to a different meaning of poor self-rated health for older men and women

  10. Widening social inequalities in mortality: the case of Barcelona, a southern European city.

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, C; Plasència, A; Pasarin, I; Ortún, V

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in mortality inequalities in Barcelona between 1983 and 1994 by comparing rates in those electoral wards with a low socioeconomic level and rates in the remaining wards. DESIGN: Mortality trends study. SETTING: The city of Barcelona (Spain). SUBJECTS: The study included all deaths among residents of the two groups of city wards. Details were obtained from death certificates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age standardised mortality rates, age standardised rates of years of potential life lost, and age specific mortality rates in relation to cause of death, sex, and year were computed as well as the comparative mortality figure and the ratio of standardised rates of years of potential life lost. RESULTS: Rates of premature mortality increased from 5691.2 years of potential life lost per 100,000 inhabitants aged 1 to 70 years in 1983 to 7606.2 in 1994 in the low socioeconomic level wards, and from 3731.2 to 4236.9 in the other wards, showing an increase in inequalities over the 12 years, mostly due to AIDS and drug overdose as causes of death. Conversely, cerebrovascular disease showed a reduction in inequality over the same period. Overall mortality in the 15-44 age group widened the gap between both groups of wards. CONCLUSION: AIDS and drug overdose are emerging as the causes of death that are contributing to a substantial increase in social inequality in terms of premature mortality, an unreported observation in European urban areas. PMID:9519129

  11. [Significance of trends in infant mortality rates in the municipality of São Paulo, SP (Brazil) in the last 30 years (1950-1979)].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, C A

    1982-02-01

    The possible correlations between infant mortality statistics and those statistics related to the real value of the legal minimum salary and those on the extent of the public water supply system for the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil over the last 3 decades were studied with a view to determining the relationship between the historical trends in infant mortality rates and in the quality of life. The abovementioned factors, salary and water supply, are taken as factors of lesser and greater relevance for the overall picture of the living conditions among this population. The mortality decline in the 1950s and the increase in the 1960s were found significantly related to the trends in the real value of the legal minimum salary. However, the trend in mortality in the 1970s, with a notable fall from 1974, was found to be specifically related to the trends in water supply extension. One might conclude that during the 1950-79 period the implications relating to the quality of life to be drawn from infant mortality trends are diverse. It would seem erroneous to affirm that the reversal in high mortality from 1974 might signify an identical reversal of the deterioration of living conditions which led to the increase of mortality in the preceding period. (author's modified)

  12. Recanalization and Mortality Rates of Thrombectomy With Stent-Retrievers in Octogenarian Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Parrilla, G.; Carreón, E.; Zamarro, J.; Espinosa de Rueda, M.; García-Villalba, B.; Marín, F.; Hernández-Fernández, F.; Morales, A.; Fernández-Vivas, M.; Núñez, R.; Moreno, A.

    2015-04-15

    BackgroundOur objective was to evaluate the effect of treatment with stent-retrievers in octogenarians suffering an acute ischemic stroke.MethodsA total of 150 consecutive patients with acute stroke who were treated with stent-retrievers between April 2010 and June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into those <80 years old (n = 116) and those ≥80 (n = 34). Baseline characteristics, procedure data, and endpoints (postprocedural NIHSS, death, and mRS at 3 months) were compared.ResultsHigh blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and anticoagulation were more frequent in octogenarians (p = 0.01, 0.003, and 0.04 respectively). There were no differences between both groups regarding previous intravenous thrombolysis (32.4 vs. 48.3 %, p = 0.1), preprocedural NIHSS (18.1 vs. 16.8, p = 0.3), procedure time (74.5 (40–114) min vs. 63 (38–92) min, p = 0.2), revascularization time (380.5 (298–526.3) min vs. 350 (296.3–452.8), p = 0.3), TICI ≥ 2B (88.2 vs. 93.9 %, p = 0.1), and symptomatic haemorrhage (5.9 vs. 2.6 %, p = 0.3). Discharge NIHSS was higher in octogenarians (9.7 vs. 6.5, p = 0.03). Death and 3-month mRS ≥3 were more frequent in octogenarians (35.3 vs. 17.2 %, p = 0.02 and 73.5 vs. 37.1 %, p = 0.02). ICA-involvement and prolonged revascularization involved higher mortality (66.7 vs. 27.6 %, p = 0.03) and worse mRS (50 vs. 24.4 %, p = 0.06) in octogenarians.ConclusionsIn our series, treatment with stent-retrievers in octogenarians with acute ischemic stroke achieved good rates of recanalization but with a high mortality rate. ICA involvement and revascularization times beyond 6 hours associated to a worse prognosis. These data might be of value in the design of prospective studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of the endovascular treatments in octogenarians.

  13. Inclusion of non-viable neonates in the birth record and its impact on infant mortality rates in Shelby County, Tennessee, USA

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bryan L.; Magsumbol, Melina S.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of infant death are one of the most common indicators of a population's overall health status. Infant mortality rates (IMRs) are used to make broad inferences about the quality of health care, effects of health policies and even environmental quality. The purpose of our study was threefold: i) to examine the characteristics of births in the area in relation to gestational age and birthweight; ii) to estimate infant mortality using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth, and iii) to calculate proportional mortality ratios for each cause of death using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all Shelby County resident-linked birth and infant death certificates during the years 1999 to 2004. Descriptive test statistics were used to examine infant mortality rates in relation to specific maternal and infant risk factors. Through careful examination of 1999–2004 resident-linked birth and infant death data sets, we observed a disproportionate number of non-viable live births (≤20 weeks gestation or ≤350 grams) in Shelby County. Issuance of birth certificates to these non-viable neonates is a factor that contributes to an inflated IMR. Our study demonstrates the complexity and the appropriateness of comparing infant mortality rates in smaller geographic units, given the unique characteristics of live births in Shelby County. The disproportionate number of pre-viable infants born in Shelby County greatly obfuscates neonatal mortality and de-emphasizes the importance of post-neonatal mortality. PMID:21589834

  14. Age-specific fitness components and their temporal variation in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Altwegg, Res; Schaub, Michael; Roulin, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts that temporal variability plays an important role in the evolution of life histories, but empirical studies evaluating this prediction are rare. In constant environments, fitness can be measured by the population growth rate lambda, and the sensitivity of lambda to changes in fitness components estimates selection on these traits. In variable environments, fitness is measured by the stochastic growth rate lambda(S), and stochastic sensitivities estimate selection pressure. Here we examine age-specific schedules for reproduction and survival in a barn owl population (Tyto alba). We estimated how temporal variability affected fitness and selection, accounting for sampling variance. Despite large sample sizes of old individuals, we found no strong evidence for senescence. The most variable fitness components were associated with reproduction. Survival was less variable. Stochastic simulations showed that the observed variation decreased fitness by about 30%, but the sensitivities of lambda and lambda(S) to changes in all fitness components were almost equal, suggesting that temporal variation had negligible effects on selection. We obtained these results despite high observed variability in the fitness components and relatively short generation time of the study organism, a situation in which temporal variability should be particularly important for natural selection and early senescence is expected. PMID:17206584

  15. Markov models of breast tumor progression: some age-specific results.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S W; Day, N E; Tabár, L; Chen, H H; Smith, T C

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have noted that mammographic screening has a reduced effect on breast cancer mortality in women in their forties compared to older women. Explanations for this include poorer sensitivity in younger women due to denser breast tissue, as well as more rapid tumor progression, giving a shorter mean sojourn time (the average duration of the preclinical screen-detectable period). To test these hypotheses, we developed a series of Markov-chain models to estimate tumor progression rates and sensitivity. Parameters were estimated using tumor data from the Swedish two-county trial of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The mean sojourn time was shorter in women aged 40-49 compared to women aged 50-59 and 60-69 (2.44, 3.70, and 4.17 years, respectively). Sensitivity was lower in the 40-49 age group compared to the two older groups (83%, 100%, and 100%, respectively). Thus, both rapid progression and poorer sensitivity are associated with the 40-49 age group. We also modeled tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade together with subsequent breast cancer mortality and found that, to achieve a reduction in mortality commensurate with that in women over 50, the interscreening interval for women in their forties should be less than two years. We conclude that Markov models and the use of tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade as surrogates for mortality can be useful in design and analysis of future studies of breast cancer screening.

  16. Markov models of breast tumor progression: some age-specific results.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S W; Day, N E; Tabár, L; Chen, H H; Smith, T C

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have noted that mammographic screening has a reduced effect on breast cancer mortality in women in their forties compared to older women. Explanations for this include poorer sensitivity in younger women due to denser breast tissue, as well as more rapid tumor progression, giving a shorter mean sojourn time (the average duration of the preclinical screen-detectable period). To test these hypotheses, we developed a series of Markov-chain models to estimate tumor progression rates and sensitivity. Parameters were estimated using tumor data from the Swedish two-county trial of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The mean sojourn time was shorter in women aged 40-49 compared to women aged 50-59 and 60-69 (2.44, 3.70, and 4.17 years, respectively). Sensitivity was lower in the 40-49 age group compared to the two older groups (83%, 100%, and 100%, respectively). Thus, both rapid progression and poorer sensitivity are associated with the 40-49 age group. We also modeled tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade together with subsequent breast cancer mortality and found that, to achieve a reduction in mortality commensurate with that in women over 50, the interscreening interval for women in their forties should be less than two years. We conclude that Markov models and the use of tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade as surrogates for mortality can be useful in design and analysis of future studies of breast cancer screening. PMID:9709283

  17. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations.

  18. Mortality and F1 progeny of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F), on wheat treated with diatomaceous earth: effects of rate, exposure period and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Ferizli, Ahmet G; Beris, Gulay

    2005-11-01

    A series of experiments at 25 (+/-1) degrees C were conducted in which different application rates of diatomaceous earth (DE) formulation Protect-It at two levels of relative humidity, 40 and 55%, and at three exposure periods were evaluated for control of Rhyzopertha dominica (F). Test insects were placed in vials containing 40 g of soft winter wheat mixed with 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50 and 2.00 g DE kg(-1). At all rates except 0.25 g kg(-1), mortality was significantly different from that in the control at the relevant exposure period. After each exposure interval, dead and live insects were counted and removed, and the vial containing wheat was then returned to the appropriate humidity chamber for 8 weeks until F(1) adults emerged. F(1) progeny production was significantly different from the control group at all rates. Mortalities for 1, 2 and 3 weeks exposure were found to be 47 (+/-5)%. Despite the fact that mortality increased with increasing rate, total mortality was not achieved even at the highest rate of DE. F(1) progeny production decreased with increasing rate for both RH conditions, and containment of population for both RH conditions was achieved at 1.00 g DE kg(-1). For each exposure period, F(1) progeny production of R dominica decreased with increasing rate of DE, and population suppression was achieved at 1.00 g DE kg(-1) for all exposure intervals. In summary, Protect-It resulted in reduced F(1) adult progeny and containment of population was achieved at 1.00 g DE kg(-1) at which rate mortality was 77%.

  19. A biological approach to the interspecies prediction of radiation-induced mortality risk

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D.; Olshansky, S.J.

    1997-08-01

    Evolutionary explanations for why sexually reproducing organisms grow old suggest that the forces of natural selection affect the ages when diseases occur that are subject to a genetic influence (referred to here as intrinsic diseases). When extended to the population level for a species, this logic leads to the general prediction that age-specific death rates from intrinsic causes should begin to rise as the force of selection wanes once the characteristic age of sexual maturity is attained. Results consistent with these predictions have been found for laboratory mice, beagles, and humans where, after adjusting for differences in life span, it was demonstrated that these species share a common age pattern of mortality for intrinsic causes of death. In quantitative models used to predict radiation-induced mortality, risks are often expressed as multiples of those observed in a control population. A control population, however, is an aging population. As such, mortality risks related to exposure must be interpreted relative to the age-specific risk of death associated with aging. Given the previous success in making interspecies predictions of age-related mortality, the purpose of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced mortality observed in one species could also be predicted quantitatively from a model used to describe the mortality consequences of exposure to radiation in a different species. Mortality data for B6CF{sub 1} mice and beagles exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays for the duration of life were used for analysis.

  20. Low protein catabolic rate and serum albumin correlate with increased mortality and abdominal complications in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Germain, M; Harlow, P; Mulhern, J; Lipkowitz, G; Braden, G

    1992-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 167 consecutive peritoneal dialysis patients with regard to serum albumin (Alb), mortality and abdominal complications. In addition, 25 patients were studied with serial measurements of urea kinetics. The patients were divided into four groups based on their dialysis index (DI) and normalized protein catabolic rate (NPCR) (Table I). 12/167 patients were identified with abdominal catastrophes. Before these complications occurred, the M Alb in this group was 2.67 + 0.24 (compared to age, sex and disease matched controls of 3.55 + .11 P < .05). Six of these patients died from abdominal complications. In the 26 patients with serial urea kinetic studies, 4/11 patients in group IV died (low NPCR and low DI) (P < .05 compared to Group I, II or III). We conclude that urea kinetic modeling is predictive of outcome in those patients with presumed poor nutrition and inadequate dialysis and that abdominal catastrophes are more common in those patients with poor nutrition. Prospective interventional studies should be designed in an attempt to improve the poor outcome in this group of patients.

  1. The logic of comparative life history studies for estimating key parameters, with a focus on natural mortality rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoenig, John M; Then, Amy Y.-H.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.; Hesp, Sybrand A.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate parameter and life history correlates is examined over a wide variety of species in order to develop predictive equations. The form of these equations may be derived from life history theory or simply be suggested by exploratory data analysis. Similarly, population characteristics such as potential yield can be estimated by making use of a relationship between the population parameter and bio-chemico–physical characteristics of the ecosystem. Surprisingly, little work has been done to evaluate how well these indirect estimators work and, in fact, there is little guidance on how to conduct comparative life history studies and how to evaluate them. We consider five issues arising in such studies: (i) the parameters of interest may be ill-defined idealizations of the real world, (ii) true values of the parameters are not known for any species, (iii) selecting data based on the quality of the estimates can introduce a host of problems, (iv) the estimates that are available for comparison constitute a non-random sample of species from an ill-defined population of species of interest, and (v) the hierarchical nature of the data (e.g. stocks within species within genera within families, etc., with multiple observations at each level) warrants consideration. We discuss how these issues can be handled and how they shape the kinds of questions that can be asked of a database of life history studies.

  2. The effect of excess fluid balance on the mortality rate of surgical patients: a multicenter prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In some studies including small populations of patients undergoing specific surgery, an intraoperative liberal infusion of fluids was associated with increasing morbidity when compared to restrictive strategies. Therefore, to evaluate the role of excessive fluid infusion in a general population with high-risk surgery is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intraoperative fluid balance on the postoperative organ dysfunction, infection and mortality rate. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study during one year in four ICUs from three tertiary hospitals, which included patients aged 18 years or more who required postoperative ICU after undergoing major surgery. Patients who underwent palliative surgery and whose fluid balance could change in outcome were excluded. The calculation of fluid balance was based on preoperative fasting, insensible losses from surgeries and urine output minus fluid replacement intraoperatively. Results The study included 479 patients. Mean age was 61.2 ± 17.0 years and 8.8% of patients died at the hospital during the study. The median duration of surgery was 4.0 (3.2 to 5.5) h and the value of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3 score was 41.8 ± 14.5. Comparing survivors and non-survivors, the intraoperative fluid balance from non-survivors was higher (1,950 (1,400 to 3,400) mL vs. 1,400 (1,000 to 1,600) mL, P <0.001). Patients with fluid balance above 2,000 mL intraoperatively had a longer ICU stay (4.0 (3.0 to 8.0) vs. 3.0 (2.0 to 6.0), P <0.001) and higher incidence of infectious (41.9% vs. 25.9%, P = 0.001), neurological (46.2% vs. 13.2%, P <0.001), cardiovascular (63.2% vs. 39.6%, P <0.001) and respiratory complications (34.3% vs. 11.6%, P <0.001). In multivariate analysis, the fluid balance was an independent factor for death (OR per 100 mL = 1.024; P = 0.006; 95% CI 1.007 to 1.041). Conclusions Patients with excessive intraoperative fluid balance have more ICU

  3. Does absorption of ultraviolet B by stratospheric ozone and urban aerosols influence colon and breast cancer mortality rates? Contributions from NASA and NOAA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Edward D.; Garland, Frank C.; Mohr, Sharif B.; Grant, William B.; Garland, Cedric F.

    2005-08-01

    Although most ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is absorbed by stratospheric ozone, dense anthropogenic sulfate aerosols in the troposphere may further attenuate UVB in some regions. Mortality rates from colon and breast cancer tend to be much higher in areas with low levels of UVB radiation. These high rates may be due in part to inadequate cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D. Satellite data on atmospheric aerosols, stratospheric ozone, and cloud cover were obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These data were combined with age-adjusted mortality rates from 175 countries reporting to the World Health Organization. Regression was used to assess the relationship of stratospheric ozone thickness, aerosol optical depth, cloud cover, solar UVB irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, average skin exposure, and a dietary factor with colon and breast cancer mortality rates. Solar UVB irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, total cloud cover, and atmospheric aerosols had the strongest associations with mortality rates, apart from a strong influence of diet. Since 95% of circulating vitamin D is derived from current or stored products of photosynthesis, which may be nonexistent or minimal much of the year above 37°N or below 37°S, attenuation of UVB by atmospheric aerosols and clouds may have a greater than expected adverse effect on human health.

  4. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985. PMID:2491351

  5. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985.

  6. Lung cancer mortality among U. S. uranium miners: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; McMillan, A.

    1983-09-01

    This report examines lung cancer mortality among a cohort of white underground uranium miners in the Colorado plateau and is based on mortality follow-up through December 31, 1977. The analytic methods represent a miner's annual age-specific lung cancer mortality rate as the (unspecified) rate among nonsmoking men born at the same time and with no mining history, multiplied by the relative risk factor R. This factor depends on the miner's total exposures to radon daughters (in working level months (WLM) and to cigarettes (in packs), accumulated from start of exposure until 10 years before his current age. Among those examined, the relative risk function giving the highest likelihood of the data was R . (1 + 0.31 X 10(-/sup 2/) WLM)(1 + 0.51 X 10(-/sup 3/) packs). This multiplicative function specifies that ratios of mortality rates for miners versus nonminers with similar age and smoking characteristics do not depend on smoking status. By contrast, differences between miners' and nonminers' mortality rates are substantially higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. The data rejected (P . .01) several additive functions for R that specify relative risk as a sum of components due to radiation and to cigarette smoking. Cumulative exposures to both radiation and cigarettes gave better fits to the data than did average annual exposure rates. Age at start of underground mining had no effect on risk, after controlling for age at lung cancer death, year of birth, and cumulative radiation and smoking exposures.

  7. Contrasting patterns of larval mortality in two sympatric riverine fish species: a test of the critical period hypothesis.

    PubMed

    McCasker, Nicole; Humphries, Paul; Meredith, Shaun; Klomp, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the causal mechanisms that determine recruitment success is critical to the effective conservation of wild fish populations. Although recruitment strength is likely determined during early life when mortality is greatest, few studies have documented age-specific mortality rates for fish during this period. We investigated age-specific mortality of individual cohorts of two species of riverine fish from yolksac larvae to juveniles, assaying for the presence of a "critical period": A time when mortality is unusually high. Early life stages of carp gudgeons (Hypseleotris spp.) and unspecked hardyhead (Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum fulvus)-two fishes that differ in fecundity, egg size and overlap between endogenous and exogenous feeding-were collected every second day for four months. We fitted survivorship curves to 22 carp gudgeon and 15 unspecked hardyhead four-day cohorts and tested several mortality functions. Mortality rates declined with age for carp gudgeon, with mean instantaneous mortality rates (-Z) ranging from 1.40-0.03. In contrast, mortality rates for unspecked hardyhead were constant across the larval period, with a mean -Z of 0.15. There was strong evidence of a critical period for carp gudgeon larvae from hatch until 6 days old, and no evidence of a critical period for unspecked hardyhead. Total larval mortality for carp gudgeon and unspecked hardyhead up to 24 days of age was estimated to be 97.8 and 94.3%, respectively. We hypothesise that life history strategy may play an important role in shaping overall mortality and the pattern of mortality during early life in these two fishes.

  8. Contrasting Patterns of Larval Mortality in Two Sympatric Riverine Fish Species: A Test of the Critical Period Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    McCasker, Nicole; Humphries, Paul; Meredith, Shaun; Klomp, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the causal mechanisms that determine recruitment success is critical to the effective conservation of wild fish populations. Although recruitment strength is likely determined during early life when mortality is greatest, few studies have documented age-specific mortality rates for fish during this period. We investigated age-specific mortality of individual cohorts of two species of riverine fish from yolksac larvae to juveniles, assaying for the presence of a “critical period”: A time when mortality is unusually high. Early life stages of carp gudgeons (Hypseleotris spp.) and unspecked hardyhead (Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum fulvus)—two fishes that differ in fecundity, egg size and overlap between endogenous and exogenous feeding—were collected every second day for four months. We fitted survivorship curves to 22 carp gudgeon and 15 unspecked hardyhead four-day cohorts and tested several mortality functions. Mortality rates declined with age for carp gudgeon, with mean instantaneous mortality rates (-Z) ranging from 1.40–0.03. In contrast, mortality rates for unspecked hardyhead were constant across the larval period, with a mean -Z of 0.15. There was strong evidence of a critical period for carp gudgeon larvae from hatch until 6 days old, and no evidence of a critical period for unspecked hardyhead. Total larval mortality for carp gudgeon and unspecked hardyhead up to 24 days of age was estimated to be 97.8 and 94.3%, respectively. We hypothesise that life history strategy may play an important role in shaping overall mortality and the pattern of mortality during early life in these two fishes. PMID:25299441

  9. The effects of strong shock waves on mortality rates and percentages of pulmonary lesions in rats as a function of the number of exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassout, P.; Parmentier, G.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the study reveal that with regard to the pulmonary lesions, twice the number of exposures is compensated for by quartering the overpressure of the wave crest. With regard to the mortality rates, it reveals that halving the overpressure of the wave crest is offset by a 20-fold increase in the number of exposures.

  10. Are Gender Differences in the Relationship between Self-Rated Health and Mortality Enduring? Results from Three Birth Cohorts in Melton Mowbray, United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiers, Nicola; Jagger, Carol; Clarke, Michael; Arthur, Antony

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is an enduring gender difference in the ability of self-rated health to predict mortality and investigate whether self-reported physical health problems account for this difference. Design and Methods: Cox models for 4-year survival were fitted to data from successive cohorts aged…

  11. REGIONAL TRENDS IN THE WORKING-AGE POPULATION MORTALITY RATE IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA) IN 1990-2012.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A A; Kakorina, E P; Timofeev, L F; Potapov, A F; Aprosimov, L A

    2015-01-01

    Regions of the Russian Federation differ in climatic-geographic, medical-demographic and social-economic situations. One of the regions with distinct peculiarities is the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Ranking first by the territory (3,103.2 thousand sq x km), Yakutia is on the 81th place by the population density among regions of the Russian Federation (0.3 people per 1 km2).Yakutia is one of the most isolated and inaccessible regions of the world: 90% of the territory lacks all-the-year-round transportation. Regions of the republic, as well, differ significantly in the climatic conditions and the levels of social-economic development, which influences the population health indicators, including mortality. This survey aimed to study the trends of mortality in the working-age population in different groups of regions. To do this, basing on the statistical data, we compared the levels, trends and structure of mortality in 1990-2012. It was established that the different groups of regions show a significant variation in the working-age population mortality, depending on the social-economic conditions. Since 2000, the Arctic group of regions has demonstrated higher mortality in working-age men and women, especially of cardiovascular and digestive system diseases, and external causes. Lying beyond the Arctic Circle, these regions have severe conditions and a relatively low level of social-economic development. As for the rural regions, despite the relatively favourabe situation, they also show a high level of mortality of external causes. The industrial regions are characterized by higher social-economic development, better transport infrastructure, a satisfactory material base of medical institutions. They also have sufficient resources of health institutions, including the staff and modern equipment for treatment and diagnostics, as well as, which is critical, the full range of medical specialists. Thus, these regions demonstrate lower population mortality; however

  12. Suicide mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and females in Japan for the years 1953-96: time series analysis for the effects of unemployment, female labour force, young and aged population, primary industry and population density.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Araki, Shunichi; Sakai, Ryoji; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Voorhees, A Scott

    2008-12-01

    Effects of nine social life indicators on age-adjusted and age-specific annual suicide mortality of male and female Japanese population in the years 1953-96 were investigated by multiple regression analysis on time series data. Unemployment rate was significantly related to the age-adjusted mortality in both males and females. Also, female labour force participation was positively related to the male mortality; persons and 65 and above was inversely related to the male mortality. Results on the age-specific mortality indicated that: during the 44 yr, (1) unemployment significantly related with the mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and young females; (2) female labour force participation significantly related with the mortality of young and elderly males and young females; aged population significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males; (4) young population significantly related with the mortality of young and middle-aged males and females; (5) divorce significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males and young males and females; (6) persons employed in primary industries significantly related with the mortality in middle-aged males and young males and females; and (7) population density significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged males and young females.

  13. Evaluating the predictive performance of empirical estimators of natural mortality rate using information on over 200 fish species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Then, Amy Y.; Hoenig, John M; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been developed in the last 70 years to predict the natural mortality rate, M, of a stock based on empirical evidence from comparative life history studies. These indirect or empirical methods are used in most stock assessments to (i) obtain estimates of M in the absence of direct information, (ii) check on the reasonableness of a direct estimate of M, (iii) examine the range of plausible M estimates for the stock under consideration, and (iv) define prior distributions for Bayesian analyses. The two most cited empirical methods have appeared in the literature over 2500 times to date. Despite the importance of these methods, there is no consensus in the literature on how well these methods work in terms of prediction error or how their performance may be ranked. We evaluate estimators based on various combinations of maximum age (tmax), growth parameters, and water temperature by seeing how well they reproduce >200 independent, direct estimates of M. We use tenfold cross-validation to estimate the prediction error of the estimators and to rank their performance. With updated and carefully reviewed data, we conclude that a tmax-based estimator performs the best among all estimators evaluated. The tmax-based estimators in turn perform better than the Alverson–Carney method based on tmax and the von Bertalanffy K coefficient, Pauly's method based on growth parameters and water temperature and methods based just on K. It is possible to combine two independent methods by computing a weighted mean but the improvement over the tmax-based methods is slight. Based on cross-validation prediction error, model residual patterns, model parsimony, and biological considerations, we recommend the use of a tmax-based estimator (M=4.899t−0.916max, prediction error = 0.32) when possible and a growth-based method (M=4.118K0.73L−0.33∞ , prediction error = 0.6) otherwise.

  14. Mortality rates at 10 years are higher in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients with chronic lower extremity peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Thomas; Hinterreiter, Franz; Poelz, Werner; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Dieplinger, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) have a substantially increased risk for mortality as compared to healthy individuals. We aimed to evaluate the risk for all-cause mortality in PAD patients and in healthy controls during a 10-year follow-up period. Our hypothesis was that the mortality rates at 10 years would differ in diabetic and non-diabetic PAD patients. Our study group consisted of 331 consecutive patients with symptomatic PAD <75 years of age admitted to a tertiary care hospital, including 216 patients without diabetes and 115 with diabetes. Control subjects without atherosclerotic disease were matched to the patients in a 1:1 design by sex, age, and diabetes mellitus status. The outcome measure was all-cause mortality at 10 years. Mortality rates at 10 years were 29% in non-diabetic PAD patients versus 14% in age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls (risk ratio (RR), 2.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.54–3.47; p<0.001), and 58% in diabetic PAD patients versus 19% in age- and sex-matched diabetic controls (RR, 4.06; 95% CI, 2.67–6.18; p<0.001). Further, PAD patients with diabetes had a significantly increased risk for death within 10 years than did the non-diabetic PAD patients (RR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.72–3.66; p<0.001). Diabetes was independently associated with outcome, and was the strongest predictor of death in multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression. We conclude that mortality rates at 10 years differ in PAD patients <75 years old with and without diabetes. Our findings suggest that future studies should apply distinct risk assessment strategies in the two PAD subgroups. PMID:27067137

  15. Mortality Trajectories at Extreme Old Ages: A Comparative Study of Different Data Sources on U.S. Old-Age Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilova, Natalia S.; Gavrilov, Leonid A.

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of individuals living beyond age 80 underscores the need for accurate measurement of mortality at advanced ages. Our earlier published study challenged the common view that the exponential growth of mortality with age (Gompertz law) is followed by a period of deceleration, with slower rates of mortality increase (Gavrilov and Gavrilova 2011). This refutation of mortality deceleration was made using records from the U.S. Social Security Administration’s Death Master File (DMF). Taking into account the significance of this finding for actuarial theory and practice, we tested these earlier observations using additional independent datasets and alternative statistical approaches. In particular, the following data sources for U.S. mortality at advanced ages were analyzed: (1) data from the Human Mortality Database (HMD) on age-specific death rates for 1890–99 U.S. birth cohorts, (2) recent extinct birth cohorts of U.S. men and women based on DMF data, and (3) mortality data for railroad retirees. In the case of HMD data, the analyses were conducted for 1890–99 birth cohorts in the age range 80–106. Mortality was fitted by the Gompertz and logistic (Kannisto) models using weighted nonlinear regression and Akaike information criterion as the goodness-of-fit measure. All analyses were conducted separately for men and women. It was found that for all studied HMD birth cohorts, the Gompertz model demonstrated better fit of mortality data than the Kannisto model in the studied age interval. Similar results were obtained for U.S. men and women born in 1890–99 and railroad retirees born in 1895–99 using the full DMF file (obtained from the National Technical Information Service, or NTIS). It was also found that mortality estimates obtained from the DMF records are close to estimates obtained using the HMD cohort data. An alternative approach for studying mortality patterns at advanced ages is based on calculating the age-specific rate of mortality

  16. Association of Age, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate with Adult Morbidity and Mortality after Urgent Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Hart, James; Woodruff, Michael; Joy, Elizabeth; Dalto, Joseph; Snow, Gregory; Srivastava, Rajendu; Isaacson, Brad; Allen, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little data exists to help urgent care (UC) clinicians predict morbidity and mortality risk. Age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) are easily obtainable and have been used in other settings to predict short-term risk of deterioration. We hypothesized that there is a relationship between advancing age, SBP, HR, and short-term health outcomes in the UC setting. Methods We collected retrospective data from 28 UC clinics and 22 hospitals in the Intermountain Healthcare system between years 2008–2013. Adult patients (≥18 years) were included if they had a unique UC visit and HR or SBP data. Three endpoints following UC visit were assessed: emergency department (ED) visit within three days, hospitalization within three days, and death within seven days. We analyzed associations between age, SBP, HR and endpoints using local regression with a binomial likelihood. Five age groups were chosen from previously published national surveys. Vital sign (VS) distributions were determined for each age group, and the central tendency was compared against previously published norms (90–120mmHg for SBP and 60–100bpm for HR.) Results A total of 1,720,207 encounters (714,339 unique patients) met the inclusion criteria; 51,446 encounters (2.99%) had ED visit within three days; 12,397 (0.72%) experienced hospitalization within three days; 302 (0.02%) died within seven days of UC visit. Heart rate and SBP combined with advanced age predicted the probability of ED visit (p<0.0001) and hospitalization (p<0.0001) following UC visit. Significant associations between advancing age and death (p<0.0001), and VS and death (p<0.0001) were observed. Odds ratios of risk were highest for elderly patients with lower SBP or higher HR. Observed distributions of SBP were higher than published normal ranges for all age groups. Conclusion Among adults seeking care in the UC, associations between HR and SBP and likelihood of ED visits and hospitalization were more

  17. Association of Age, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate with Adult Morbidity and Mortality after Urgent Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Hart, James; Woodruff, Michael; Joy, Elizabeth; Dalto, Joseph; Snow, Gregory; Srivastava, Rajendu; Isaacson, Brad; Allen, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little data exists to help urgent care (UC) clinicians predict morbidity and mortality risk. Age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) are easily obtainable and have been used in other settings to predict short-term risk of deterioration. We hypothesized that there is a relationship between advancing age, SBP, HR, and short-term health outcomes in the UC setting. Methods We collected retrospective data from 28 UC clinics and 22 hospitals in the Intermountain Healthcare system between years 2008–2013. Adult patients (≥18 years) were included if they had a unique UC visit and HR or SBP data. Three endpoints following UC visit were assessed: emergency department (ED) visit within three days, hospitalization within three days, and death within seven days. We analyzed associations between age, SBP, HR and endpoints using local regression with a binomial likelihood. Five age groups were chosen from previously published national surveys. Vital sign (VS) distributions were determined for each age group, and the central tendency was compared against previously published norms (90–120mmHg for SBP and 60–100bpm for HR.) Results A total of 1,720,207 encounters (714,339 unique patients) met the inclusion criteria; 51,446 encounters (2.99%) had ED visit within three days; 12,397 (0.72%) experienced hospitalization within three days; 302 (0.02%) died within seven days of UC visit. Heart rate and SBP combined with advanced age predicted the probability of ED visit (p<0.0001) and hospitalization (p<0.0001) following UC visit. Significant associations between advancing age and death (p<0.0001), and VS and death (p<0.0001) were observed. Odds ratios of risk were highest for elderly patients with lower SBP or higher HR. Observed distributions of SBP were higher than published normal ranges for all age groups. Conclusion Among adults seeking care in the UC, associations between HR and SBP and likelihood of ED visits and hospitalization were more

  18. Hepatitis A virus age-specific sero-prevalence and risk factors among Jordanian children.

    PubMed

    Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Faouri, Samir

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) has been a significant cause of infections among the children and adolescents of Jordan. Availability of safe vaccines made it necessary to identify the ill-defined temporal immunity trends for HAV and possible age-specific prevalence transitions. This community-based cross sectional study was conducted during the period July-August 2008 on 3,066 recruited subjects from the 12 governorates of Jordan, with pre-defined criteria. Several households were chosen at random within each selected block to enroll the subjects. They were interviewed and data were collected. Their sera were tested for total antibodies against HAV. A multivariate model was then performed to identify the possible risk factors. The HAV sero-prevalence rates among the age categories-second year, 2-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, 15-19 years, and those above 20 years were 26%, 32%, 44%, 63%, 78%, and 94%, respectively. The model revealed the association of several risk factors for higher HAV sero-prevalence rates: (i) older age groups; (ii) lower maternal education levels; (iii) residing in certain governorates; (iv) using public net drinking water; and (v) avoiding use of public net sewage system. This study provided strong evidence for continuous transition of HAV epidemiology towards intermediate endemicity in Jordan, with more susceptible adolescents and adults. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for countries with intermediate endemicity, large-scale hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for children in Jordan. This is strengthened by the availability of effective and safe HAV vaccines, improving the socio-economic status of the Jordanians, and increasing life expectancy among Jordanians.

  19. A theory of the cancer age-specific incidence data based on extreme value distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P.

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of cancers varies with age, if normalized this is called the age-specific incidence. A mathematical model that describes this variation should provide a better understanding of how cancers develop. We suggest that the age-specific incidence should follow an extreme value distribution, based on three widely accepted assumptions: (1) a tumor develops from a single cell, (2) many potential tumor progenitor cells exist in a tissue, and (3) cancer is diagnosed when the first of these many potential tumor cells develops into a tumor. We tested this by comparing the predicted distribution to the age-specific incidence data for colon and prostate carcinomas collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results network of 17 cancer registries. We found that colon carcinoma age-specific incidence data is consistent with an extreme value distribution, while prostate carcinomas age-specific incidence data generally follows the distribution. This model indicates that both colon and prostate carcinomas only occur in a subset of the population (22% for prostate and 13.5% for colon.) Because of their very general nature, extreme value distributions might be applicable to understanding other chronic human diseases.

  20. Improving size, lymph node metastatic rate, breast conservation, and mortality of invasive breast cancer in Rhode Island women, a well-screened population.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Natalie G; Cady, Blake; Fulton, John P; Law, Calvin; Chung, Maureen A

    2012-10-01

    The beneficial impact of screening mammography on breast cancer outcome continues to be debated as demonstrated by guidelines published by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. A previous report from Rhode Island, which has a very high rate of mammographic screening, demonstrated significant improvements in invasive breast cancer presentation and mortality through 2001. This report updates data through 2008 to determine whether previous favorable trends continued. Rhode Island Cancer Registry data regarding invasive breast cancer presentation and mortality in 17,522 female residents diagnosed between 1987 and 2008, inclusive, were analyzed for demographic and pathological factors. Data were analyzed by four time periods: 1987-1992, 1993-1998, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008 and overall. Statistically significant improvements occurred over the four successive time periods, in mean cancer size (23.7, 20.9, 19.6, and 19.3 mm, p < 0.0001), pathologic grade (Grade I: 12, 15, 19, and 17 %; Grade III 57, 41, 36, and 35 %, p < 0.0001), breast conserving surgery (38, 56, 67, and 71 %, p < 0.0001) and mortality (37.3, 31.4, 25.1, and 22.6 per 100,000/year, p < 0.0001). The results showed that high screening rates favorably impacted presentation of and mortality from invasive breast cancer in Rhode Island. From 1987 to 2008, there has been a 39 % decline in breast cancer mortality considering 5 year periods (37.3 vs. 22.6 deaths per 100,000) and 41 % comparing the period from 1990 to 2008, which may exceed the goal of 50 % mortality reduction by 2015 established by the American Cancer Society.

  1. Association between self-rated health and mortality: 10 years follow-up to the Pró-Saúde cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality is well documented in the literature, but studies on the subject among young adults in Latin America are rare, as are those evaluating this association using repeated SRH measures, beyond the baseline measurement. This study aims to evaluate the association between SRH evaluated at three data collection stages and mortality. Methods Cox regression models were used to examine the association between SRH (Very good, Good, Fair/Poor) varying over time and mortality, over a 10 year period, in a cohort of non-faculty civil servants at a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study, n = 4009, men = 44.4%). Results About 40% of the population changed their self-rating over the course of follow-up. After adjustment for self-reported physician-diagnosed chronic diseases and other covariates, men who reported “Fair/Poor” SRH showed relative hazard of death of 2.13 (CI95% 1.03-4.40) and women, 3.43 (CI95% 1.23-9.59), as compared with those who reported “Very good” SRH. Conclusions In a population of young adults, our findings reinforce the role of SRH as a predictor of mortality, even controlling for objective measures of health. PMID:22905737

  2. Age-specific breeding success in a wild mammalian population: selection, constraint, restraint and senescence.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Hannah L; Pope, Lisa C; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Burke, Terry

    2011-08-01

    The Selection, Constraint, Restraint and Senescence Hypotheses predict how breeding success should vary with age. The Selection Hypothesis predicts between-individual variation arising from quality differences; the other hypotheses predict within-individual variation due to differing skills or physiological condition (Constraint), residual reproductive lifespan (Restraint), or somatic and reproductive investment (Senescence). Studies tend to focus on either the initial increase in breeding success or later decrease; however, both require consideration when unravelling the underlying evolutionary processes. Additionally, few studies present genetic fitness measures and rarely for both sexes. We therefore test these four hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive, in a high-density population of European badgers Meles meles. Using an 18-year data set (including 22 microsatellite loci), we show an initial improvement in breeding success with age, followed by a later and steeper rate of reproductive senescence in male than in female badgers. Breeding success was skewed within age-classes, indicating the influence of factors other than age-class. This was partly attributable to selective appearance and disappearance of badgers (Selection Hypothesis). Individuals with a late age of last breeding showed a concave-down relationship between breeding success and experience (Constraint Hypothesis). There was no evidence of abrupt terminal effects; rather, individuals showed a concave-down relationship between breeding success and residual reproductive lifespan (Restraint Hypothesis), with an interaction with age of first breeding only in female badgers. Our results demonstrate the importance of investigating a comprehensive suite of factors in age-specific breeding success analyses, in both sexes, to fully understand evolutionary and population dynamics. PMID:21714821

  3. Contribution of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to explain age- and sex-related differences in traffic-related cyclist mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to quantify the percent contribution of exposure, risk of collision and fatality rate to the association of age and sex with the mortality rates among cyclists in Spain, and to track the changes in these contributions with time. Data were analyzed for 50,042 cyclists involved in road crashes in Spain from 1993 to 2011, and also for a subset of 13,119 non-infractor cyclists involved in collisions with a vehicle whose driver committed an infraction (used as a proxy sample of all cyclists on the road). We used decomposition and quasi-induced exposure methods to obtain the percent contributions of these three components to the mortality rate ratios for each age and sex group compared to males aged 25-34 years. Death rates increased with age, and the main component of this increase was fatality (around 70%). Among younger cyclists, however, the main component of increased death rates was risk of a collision. Males had higher death rates than females in every age group: this rate increased from 6.4 in the 5-14 year old group to 18.8 in the 65-79 year old group. Exposure, the main component of this increase, ranged between 70% and 90% in all age categories, although the fatality component also contributed to this increase. The contributions of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to cyclist death rates were strongly associated with age and sex. Young male cyclists were a high-risk group because all three components tended to increase their mortality rate. PMID:25658669

  4. Sources and rates of mortality of the San Joaquin kit fox, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California, 1980-1986. [Vulpes macrotis mutica

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.H.; Scrivner, J.H.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Harris, C.E.; Kato, T.T.; McCue, P.M.

    1987-03-01

    Sources and rates of mortality of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) were studied from 1980 to 1986. Of 270 foxes radiocollared, 225 were recovered dead. Of the 225 recovered dead 53.8% (121) were killed by predators, 10.7% (24) were killed by vehicles, 4.4% (10) died from causes other than predation, and 31.1% (70) died from unknown causes. Contingency-table analysis was used to assess the relationship between cause of death and sex, age class (juvenile and adult), habitat type (undeveloped and developed), and year of death (1980-1986). More adults in undeveloped habitat were killed by vehicles than were juveniles; more female juveniles in developed habitat were killed by vehicles than female adults; more juveniles were killed by vehicles in developed habitat than in undeveloped habitat; and more adults in developed habitat were killed by predators in later years of the study than in early years. Over 90% of the foxes collared as juveniles were recovered in their first or second year. Fourteen mortality rates based on age class and year of death were estimated using maximum-likelihood estimation. Mortality rates were higher for juvenile foxes (x-bar = 0.74) than for adult foxes (x-bar = 0.52). For foxes collared as juveniles, there was no significant difference in survival between the two habitat types or between the sexes. Mortality of adults increased between 1980 and 1986. Because coyote predation was a major cause of kit fox mortality the coyote control program implemented in 1985 should be continued and its effectiveness should be evaluated by continued monitoring of kit fox, coyote, and prey populations.

  5. Basis and implications of the CAP88 age-specific dose coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Scofield, Patricia A; Eckerman, Keith F

    2013-01-01

    Recent versions of CAP88 incorporate age-specific dose coefficients based on biokinetic and dosimetric models applied in Federal Guidance Report 13, Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides (EPA 1999). With a few exceptions the models are those recommended in a series of reports by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on estimation of doses to the public from environmental radionuclides. This paper describes the basis for the ICRP s age-specific biokinetic and dosimetric models and examines differences with age in the derived dose coefficients and in estimates of dose per unit exposure based on those coefficients.

  6. Efficiency of Intergeneric Recombinants Between Bacillus Thuringiensis and Bacillus Subtilis for Increasing Mortality Rate in Cotten Leaf Worm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlOtaibi, Saad Aied

    2012-12-01

    In this study , two strains of Bacillus belonging to two serotypes and four of their transconjugants were screened with respect to their toxicity against lepidopterous cotton pest. . Bacterial transconjugants isolated from conjugation between both strains were evaluated for their transconjugant efficiency caused mortality in Spodoptera littoralis larvae . Two groups of bioinsecticides ; crystals , crystals and spores have been isolated from Bacillusstrains and their transconjugants . Insecticidal crystal protein ( ICP ) was specific for lepidopteran insects because of the toxin sufficient both for insect specificity and toxicity . The toxicities of these two groups against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis was expressed as transconjugant efficiency , which related to the mean number of larvae died expressed as mortality percentage . The results showed transconjugant efficiency in reducing the mean number of Spodoptera littoralis larvae feeding on leaves of Ricinus communis sprayed with bioinsecticides of Bt transconjugants. Most values of positive transconjugant efficiency related to increasing mortality percentage are due to toxicological effects appeared in response to the treatments with crystals + endospores than that of crystals alone .This indicated that crystals + endospores was more effective for increasing mortality percentage than that resulted by crystals . Higher positive transconjugant efficiency in relation to the mid parents and better parent was appeared at 168 h of treatment . The results indicated that recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis are important control agents for lepidopteran pests , as well as , susceptibility decreased with larval development . The results also suggested a potential for the deployment of these recominant entomopathogens in the management of Spodoptera. littoralis larvae .

  7. Mortality Rates in the General Irish Population Compared to Those with an Intellectual Disability from 2003 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Mary; Carroll, Rachael; Kelly, Caraiosa; McCallion, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background:Historically, there has been higher and earlier mortality among people with intellectual disability as compared to the general population, but there have also been methodological problems and differences in the available studies. Method: Data were drawn from the 2012 National Intellectual Disability Database and the Census in Ireland. A…

  8. Determination of florfenicol dose rate in feed for control of mortality in nile tilapia Oreochromis nilotica infected with streptococcus iniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dose titration study was conducted to determine the dosage of florfenicol (FFC) in feed to control Streptococcus iniae-associated mortality in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Six tanks were assigned to each of five treatments: (1) not challenged with S. iniae and fed unmedicated feed; (2) chal...

  9. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  10. Age-specific survival estimates of King Eiders derived from satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.

    2010-01-01

    Age- and sex-specific survival and dispersal are important components in the dynamics and genetic structure of bird populations. For many avian taxa survival rates at the adult and juvenile life stages differ, but in long-lived species juveniles' survival is logistically challenging to study. We present the first estimates of hatch-year annual survival rates for a sea duck, the King Eider (Somateria spectabilis), estimated from satellite telemetry. From 2006 to 2008 we equipped pre-fiedging King Eiders with satellite transmitters on breeding grounds in Alaska and estimated annual survival rates during their first 2 years of life with known-fate models. We compared those estimates to survival rates of adults marked in the same area from 2002 to 2008. Hatch-year survival varied by season during the first year of life, and model-averaged annual survival rate was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.48–0.80). We did not record any mortality during the second year and were therefore unable to estimate second-year survival rate. Adults' survival rate was constant through the year (0.94, 95% CI: 0.86–0.97). No birds appeared to breed during their second summer. While 88% of females with an active transmitter (n = 9) returned to their natal area at the age of 2 years, none of the 2-year old males (n = 3) did. This pattern indicates that females' natal philopatry is high and suggests that males' higher rates of dispersal may account for sex-specific differences in apparent survival rates of juvenile sea ducks when estimated with mark—recapture methods.

  11. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality

    PubMed Central

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Methods Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost – YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p ≤ 0.05. Results According to the mortality pattern, Serbia was similar to EURO B, but with a lower average YLL per death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. Conclusion With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and diabetes mellitus. The results

  12. Lung cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 after exposure to fractionated moderate-dose-rate ionizing radiation in the Canadian fluoroscopy cohort study and a comparison with lung cancer mortality in the atomic bomb survivors study

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    Current lung cancer risk estimates after exposure to low-linear energy transfer radiation such as X rays are based on studies of people exposed to such radiation at high dose rates, for example the atomic bomb survivors. Radiobiology and animal experiments suggest that risks from exposure at low to moderate dose rates, for example medical diagnostic procedures, may be overestimated by such risk models, but data for humans to examine this issue are limited. In this paper we report on lung cancer mortality between 1950 and 1987 in a cohort of 64,172 Canadian tuberculosis patients, of whom 39% were exposed to highly fractionated multiple chest fluoroscopies leading to a mean lung radiation dose of 1.02 Sv received at moderate dose rates. These data have been used to estimate the excess relative risk per sievert of lung cancer mortality, and this is compared directly to estimates derived from 75,991 atomic bomb survivors. Based on 1,178 lung cancer deaths in the fluoroscopy study, there was no evidence of any positive association between risk and dose, with the relative risk at 1 Sv being 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.94, 1.07), which contrasts with that based on the atomic bomb survivors, 1.60 (1.27, 1.99). The difference in effect between the two studies almost certainly did not arise by chance (P = 0.0001). This study provides strong support from data for humans for a substantial fractionation/dose-rate effect for low-linear energy transfer radiation and lung cancer risk. This implies that lung cancer risk from exposures to such radiation at present-day dose rates is likely to be lower than would be predicted by current radiation risk models based on studies of high-dose-rate exposures. 25 refs., 8 tabs.

  13. An index of unhealthy lifestyle is associated with coronary heart disease mortality rates for small areas in England after adjustment for deprivation.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, P; Allender, S; Rayner, M; Goldacre, M

    2011-03-01

    Indices of socio-economic deprivation are often used as a proxy for differences in the health behaviours of populations within small areas, but these indices are a measure of the economic environment rather than the health environment. Sets of synthetic estimates of the ward-level prevalence of low fruit and vegetable consumption, obesity, raised blood pressure, raised cholesterol and smoking were combined to develop an index of unhealthy lifestyle. Multi-level regression models showed that this index described about 50% of the large-scale geographic variation in CHD mortality rates in England, and substantially adds to the ability of an index of deprivation to explain geographic variations in CHD mortality rates.

  14. Mortality and pituitary disease.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Paul M; Sherlock, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Outcome data from large series confirm increased mortality of patients with pituitary tumours, predominantly due to vascular disease. Control of cortisol secretion and growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion (together with cardiovascular risk factor reduction) is key in the normalisation of mortality rates in patients with Cushing's disease and acromegaly, respectively, though some excess mortality may persist even in "cured" patients.

  15. A meta-analysis comparing the effect of PCV2 vaccines on average daily weight gain and mortality rate in pigs from weaning to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne; Baadsgaard, Niels Peter; Toft, Nils

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was, through a meta-analysis, to review the published literature concerning the effect of PCV2 vaccination on the average daily weight gain (ADG) and on the mortality rate in pigs from weaning to slaughter. The review was restricted to studies investigating the effect of vaccines against PCV2 published from 2006 to 2008, identified using computerised literature databases. Only studies that met the following criteria were included: commercial vaccines were used, pigs or pens were assigned randomly to vaccination versus control groups in herds naturally infected with PCV2, and vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs were housed together. Furthermore, it was a requirement that sample size, age at vaccination, and production period were stated. The levels of ADG and mortality rate had to be comparable to those seen in modern intensive swine production. In total, 107 studies were identified; 70 were excluded because they did not fulfil the inclusion criteria and 13 were identical to results published elsewhere. A significant effect of PCV2 vaccination on ADG was found for pigs in all production phases. The largest increase in ADG was found for finishing pigs (41.5g) and nursery-finishing pigs (33.6g) with only 10.6g increase in the nursery pigs. Mortality rate was significantly reduced for finishing pigs (4.4%) and nursery-finishing pigs (5.4%), but not for nursery pigs (0.25%). Herds negative for PRRS had a significantly larger increase in ADG compared to herds positive for PRRS. The PRRS status had no effect on mortality rate.

  16. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  17. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  18. Contrasted patterns of age-specific reproduction in long-lived seabirds.

    PubMed

    Berman, M; Gaillard, J-M; Weimerskirch, H

    2009-01-22

    While the number of studies providing evidence of actuarial senescence is increasing, and covers a wide range of taxa, the process of reproductive senescence remains poorly understood. In fact, quite high reproductive output until the last years of life has been reported in several vertebrate species, so that whether or not reproductive senescence is widespread remains unknown. We compared age-specific changes of reproductive parameters between two closely related species of long-lived seabirds: the small-sized snow petrel Pagodroma nivea, and the medium-sized southern fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides. Both are sympatric in Antarctica. We used an exceptional dataset collected over more than 40 years to assess age-specific variations of both breeding probability and breeding success. We found contrasted age-specific reproductive patterns between the two species. Reproductive senescence clearly occurred from 21 years of age onwards in the southern fulmar, in both breeding probability and success, whereas we did not report any decline in the breeding success of the snow petrel, although a very late decrease in the proportion of breeders occurred at 34 years. Such a contrasted age-specific reproductive pattern was rather unexpected. Differences in life history including size or migratory behaviour are the most likely candidates to account for the difference we reported in reproductive senescence between these sympatric seabird species. PMID:18832060

  19. Senescence and age-specific trade-offs between reproduction and survival in female Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew R; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-03-01

    Although studies on laboratory species and natural populations of vertebrates have shown reproduction to impair later performance, little is known of the age-specific associations between reproduction and survival, and how such findings apply to the ageing of large, long-lived species. Herein we develop a framework to examine population-level patterns of reproduction and survival across lifespan in long-lived organisms, and decompose those changes into individual-level effects, and the effects of age-specific trade-offs between fitness components. We apply this to an extensive longitudinal dataset on female semi-captive Asian timber elephants (Elephas maximus) and report the first evidence of age-specific fitness declines that are driven by age-specific associations between fitness components in a long-lived mammal. Associations between reproduction and survival are positive in early life, but negative in later life with up to 71% of later-life survival declines associated with investing in the production of offspring within this population of this critically endangered species.

  20. Delayed effects of A-bomb radiation: a review of recent mortality rates and risk estimates for five-year survivors.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A M

    1982-06-01

    A review of published data relating to A-bomb survivors has led to the conclusion that since they were based on the mortality experiences of five year survivors estimates of radiation effects should have been controlled for two opposing forces-namely, selective survival of exceptionally fit individuals during the period of heavy acute mortality and residual disabilities. Both effects were dose-related and beyond question, and the disabilities probably included the effects of incomplete repair of bone marrow damage. Therefore, in addition to differences between high and low dose being largely obliterated, there was probably distortion of cancer effects. The two opposing forces are clearly the reason why the change from the high mortality rates of 1945-6 to the low rates of the 1950s was not accompanied by a change from a position to a negative association with dose, and imperviousness to the residual disabilities is probably the reason why sudden deaths of previously healthy individuals (exemplified by suicides) were an exception to this rule. Finally, impairment of bone marrow function probably accounts for the early epidemic of myeloid leukaemia; the apparent absence of other cancers at this time, and the relatively high dose-related death rates for blood diseases other than leukaemia.

  1. Temperature, Not Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5), is Causally Associated with Short-Term Acute Daily Mortality Rates: Results from One Hundred United States Cities

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Tony; Popken, Douglas; Ricci, Paolo F

    2013-01-01

    Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air (C) have been suspected of contributing causally to increased acute (e.g., same-day or next-day) human mortality rates (R). We tested this causal hypothesis in 100 United States cities using the publicly available NMMAPS database. Although a significant, approximately linear, statistical C-R association exists in simple statistical models, closer analysis suggests that it is not causal. Surprisingly, conditioning on other variables that have been extensively considered in previous analyses (usually using splines or other smoothers to approximate their effects), such as month of the year and mean daily temperature, suggests that they create strong, nonlinear confounding that explains the statistical association between PM2.5 and mortality rates in this data set. As this finding disagrees with conventional wisdom, we apply several different techniques to examine it. Conditional independence tests for potential causation, non-parametric classification tree analysis, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), and Granger-Sims causality testing, show no evidence that PM2.5 concentrations have any causal impact on increasing mortality rates. This apparent absence of a causal C-R relation, despite their statistical association, has potentially important implications for managing and communicating the uncertain health risks associated with, but not necessarily caused by, PM2.5 exposures. PMID:23983662

  2. Ten-years of bariatric surgery in Brazil: in-hospital mortality rates for patients assisted by universal health system or a health maintenance organization

    PubMed Central

    KELLES, Silvana Márcia Bruschi; MACHADO, Carla Jorge; BARRETO, Sandhi Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is an option for sustained weight loss for the morbidly obese patient. In Brazil coexists the Unified Health System (SUS) with universal coverage and from which depend 150 million Brazilians and supplemental health security, predominantly private, with 50 million beneficiaries. Aim To compare access, in-hospital mortality, length of stay and costs for patients undergoing bariatric surgery, assisted in one or another system. Methods Data from DATASUS and IBGE were used for SUS patients' and database from one health plan of southeastern Brazil for the health insurance patients. Results Between 2001 and 2010 there were 24,342 and 4,356 surgeries performed in SUS and in the health insurance company, respectively. The coverage rates for surgeries performed in 2010 were 5.3 and 91/100.000 individuals in SUS and health insurance respectively. The rate of in-hospital mortality in SUS, considering the entire country, was 0.55 %, 0.44 % considering SUS Southeast, and 0.30 % for the health insurance. The costs of surgery in the SUS and in the health insurance trend to equalization over the years. Conclusion Despite differences in access and characteristics that may compromise the outcome of bariatric surgery, patients treated at the Southeast SUS had similar rate of in-hospital mortality compared to the health insurance patients. PMID:25626935

  3. Impact of Janani Suraksha Yojana on institutional delivery rate and maternal morbidity and mortality: an observational study in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjeev K; Pal, Dinesh K; Tiwari, Rajesh; Garg, Rajesh; Shrivastava, Ashish K; Sarawagi, Radha; Patil, Rajkumar; Agarwal, Lokesh; Gupta, Prashant; Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2012-12-01

    The Government of India initiated a cash incentive scheme--Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)--to promote institutional deliveries with an aim to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR). An observational study was conducted in a tertiary-care hospital of Madhya Pradesh, India, before and after implementation of JSY, with a sample of women presenting for institutional delivery. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the total number of institutional deliveries before and after implementation of JSY, (ii) determine the MMR, and (iii) compare factors associated with maternal mortality and morbidity. The data were analyzed for two years before implementation of JSY (2003-2005) and compared with two years following implementation of JSY (2005-2007). Overall, institutional deliveries increased by 42.6% after implementation, including those among rural, illiterate and primary-literate persons of lower socioeconomic strata. The main causes of maternal mortality were eclampsia, pre-eclampsia and severe anaemia both before and after implementation of JSY. Anaemia was the most common morbidity factor observed in this study. Among those who had institutional deliveries, there were significant increases in cases of eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, antepartum haemorrhage (APH), postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), and malaria after implementation of JSY. The scheme appeared to increase institutional delivery by at-risk mothers, which has the potential to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, improve child survival, and ensure equity in maternal healthcare in India. The lessons from this study and other available sources should be utilized to improve the performance and implementation of JSY scheme in India. PMID:23304913

  4. In Hospital and 3-Month Mortality and Functional Recovery Rate in Patients Treated for Hip Fracture by a Multidisciplinary Team

    PubMed Central

    Rostagno, Carlo; Buzzi, Roberto; Campanacci, Domenico; Boccacini, Alberto; Cartei, Alessandro; Virgili, Gianni; Belardinelli, Andrea; Matarrese, Daniela; Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Gusinu, Roberto; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Medical comorbidities affect outcome in elderly patients with hip fracture. This study was designed to preliminarily evaluate the usefulness of a hip-fracture unit led by an internal medicine specialist. Methods In-hospital and 3-month outcomes in patients with hip fracture were prospectively evaluated in 121 consecutive patients assessed before and followed after surgery by a multidisciplinary team led by internal medicine specialist; 337 consecutive patients were recalled from ICD-9 discharge records and considered for comparison regarding in-hospital mortality. Results In the intervention period, patients treated within 48 hours were 54% vs. 26% in the historical cohort (P<0.0001). In-hospital mortality remained stable at about 2.3 per 1000 person-days. At 3 months, 10.3% of discharged patients had died, though less than 8% of patients developed postoperative complications (mainly pneumonia and respiratory failure). The presence of more than 2 major comorbidities and the loss of 3 or more BADL were independent predictors of death. 50/105 patients recovered previous functional capacity, but no independent predictor of functional recovery could be identified. Mean length of hospital stay significantly decreased in comparison to the historical cohort (13.6± 4.7 vs 17 ± 5 days, p = 0.0001). Combined end-point of mortality and length of hospitalization < 12 days was significantly lower in study period (27 vs 34%, p <0.0132). Conclusions Identification and stabilization of concomitant clinical problems by internal medicine specialists may safely decrease time to surgery in frail subjects with hip fracture. Moreover, integrated perioperative clinical management may shorten hospital stay with no apparent increase in in-hospital mortality and ultimately improve the outcome. These results are to be confirmed by a larger study presently ongoing at our institution. PMID:27389193

  5. Medical innovation and age-specific trends in health care utilization: findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Albert; Wouterse, Bram; Slobbe, Laurentius C J; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Polder, Johan J

    2012-01-01

    Health care utilization is expected to rise in the coming decades. Not only will the aggregate need for health care grow by changing demographics, so too will per capita utilization. It has been suggested that trends in health care utilization may be age-specific. In this paper, age-specific trends in health care utilization are presented for different health care sectors in the Netherlands, for the period 1981-2009. For the hospital sector we also explore the link between these trends and the state of medical technology. Using aggregated data from a Dutch health survey and a nationwide hospital register, regression analysis was used to examine age-specific trends in the probability of utilizing health care. To determine the influence of medical technology, the growth in age-specific probabilities of hospital care was regressed on the number of medical patents while adjusting for confounders related to demographics, health status, supply and institutional factors. The findings suggest that for most health care sectors, the trend in the probability of health care utilization is highest for ages 65 and up. Larger advances in medical technology are found to be significantly associated with a higher growth of hospitalization probability, particularly for the higher ages. Age-specific trends will raise questions on the sustainability of intergenerational solidarity in health care, as solidarity will not only be strained by the ageing population, but also might find itself under additional pressure as the gap in health care utilization between elderly and non-elderly grows over time. For hospital care utilization, this process might well be accelerated by advances in medical technology.

  6. Climatic variation and age-specific survival in Asian elephants from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Mumby, Hannah S; Courtiol, Alexandre; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-05-01

    Concern about climate change has intensified interest in understanding how climatic variability affects animal life histories. Despite such effects being potentially most dramatic in large, long-lived, and slowly reproducing terrestrial mammals, little is known of the effects of climatic variation on survival in those species. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) are endangered across their distribution, and inhabit regions characterized by high seasonality of temperature and rainfall. We investigated the effects of monthly climatic variation on survival and causes of death in Asian elephants using a unique demographic data set of 1024 semi-captive, longitudinally monitored elephants from four sites in Myanmar between 1965 and 2000. Temperature had a significant effect on survival in both sexes and across all ages. For elephants between 1 month and 17 years of age, maximal survival was reached at -24 degrees C, and any departures from this temperature increased mortality, whereas neonates and mature elephants had maximal survival at even lower temperatures. Although males experienced higher mortality overall, sex differences in these optimal temperatures were small. Because the elephants spent more time during a year in temperatures above 24 degrees C than in temperatures below it, most deaths occurred at hot (temperatures>24 degrees C) rather than cold periods. Decreased survival at higher temperatures resulted partially from increased deaths from infectious disease and heat stroke, whereas the lower survival in the coldest months was associated with an increase in noninfectious diseases and poor health in general. Survival was also related to rainfall, with the highest survival rates during the wettest months for all ages and sexes. Our results show that even the normal-range monsoon variation in climate can exert a large impact on elephant survival in Myanmar, leading to extensive absolute differences in mortality; switching from favorable to unfavorable climatic

  7. Climatic variation and age-specific survival in Asian elephants from Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Mumby, Hannah S; Courtiol, Alexandre; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-05-01

    Concern about climate change has intensified interest in understanding how climatic variability affects animal life histories. Despite such effects being potentially most dramatic in large, long-lived, and slowly reproducing terrestrial mammals, little is known of the effects of climatic variation on survival in those species. Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) are endangered across their distribution, and inhabit regions characterized by high seasonality of temperature and rainfall. We investigated the effects of monthly climatic variation on survival and causes of death in Asian elephants using a unique demographic data set of 1024 semi-captive, longitudinally monitored elephants from four sites in Myanmar between 1965 and 2000. Temperature had a significant effect on survival in both sexes and across all ages. For elephants between 1 month and 17 years of age, maximal survival was reached at -24 degrees C, and any departures from this temperature increased mortality, whereas neonates and mature elephants had maximal survival at even lower temperatures. Although males experienced higher mortality overall, sex differences in these optimal temperatures were small. Because the elephants spent more time during a year in temperatures above 24 degrees C than in temperatures below it, most deaths occurred at hot (temperatures>24 degrees C) rather than cold periods. Decreased survival at higher temperatures resulted partially from increased deaths from infectious disease and heat stroke, whereas the lower survival in the coldest months was associated with an increase in noninfectious diseases and poor health in general. Survival was also related to rainfall, with the highest survival rates during the wettest months for all ages and sexes. Our results show that even the normal-range monsoon variation in climate can exert a large impact on elephant survival in Myanmar, leading to extensive absolute differences in mortality; switching from favorable to unfavorable climatic

  8. Influenza-Related Mortality Trends in Japanese and American Seniors: Evidence for the Indirect Mortality Benefits of Vaccinating Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Charu, Vivek; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Chowell, Gerardo; Miller, Mark; Sugaya, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Background The historical Japanese influenza vaccination program targeted at schoolchildren provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the indirect benefits of vaccinating high-transmitter groups to mitigate disease burden among seniors. Here we characterize the indirect mortality benefits of vaccinating schoolchildren based on data from Japan and the US. Methods We compared age-specific influenza-related excess mortality rates in Japanese seniors aged ≥65 years during the schoolchildren vaccination program (1978–1994) and after the program was discontinued (1995–2006). Indirect vaccine benefits were adjusted for demographic changes, socioeconomics and dominant influenza subtype; US mortality data were used as a control. Results We estimate that the schoolchildren vaccination program conferred a 36% adjusted mortality reduction among Japanese seniors (95%CI: 17–51%), corresponding to ∼1,000 senior deaths averted by vaccination annually (95%CI: 400–1,800). In contrast, influenza-related mortality did not change among US seniors, despite increasing vaccine coverage in this population. Conclusions The Japanese schoolchildren vaccination program was associated with substantial indirect mortality benefits in seniors. PMID:22087226

  9. Comparing UK and 20 Western countries' efficiency in reducing adult (55–74) cancer and total mortality rates 1989–2010: Cause for cautious celebration? A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hickish, Tamas; Rosenorn-Lanng, Emily; Wallace, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective Every Western nation expends vast sums on health, especially for cancer; thus, the question is how efficient is the UK in reducing adult (55–74) cancer mortality rates and total mortality rates (TMR) compared to the other Western nations in the context of economic-input to health, the percentage of Gross-Domestic-Product-expenditure-on-Health. Design WHO mortality rates for baseline 3 years 1989–1991 and 2008–2010 were analysed, and confidence intervals determine any significant differences between the UK and other countries in reducing the mortalities. Efficiency ratios are calculated by dividing reduced mortality over the period by the average % of national income. Setting Twenty-one similar socio-economic Western countries. Participants The 21 countries’ general population. Main outcome measures Cancer mortality rates, total mortality rates Gross Domestic Product and Efficiency Ratios. Results Economic Input: In 1980, UK national income was 5.6% and the European average was 7.1%. By 2010, UK national income was 9.4% being equal 17th of 21 averaging 7.1% over the period. Europe’s 1980–2010 average of 8.4% yields a UK to Europe ratio of 1:1.18. Clinical output 1989–2010: UK Cancer Mortality Rates was the sixth highest, but equal sixth biggest fall, significantly greater than 14 other countries. UK Total Mortality Rates was the fifth highest but third biggest decline, significantly greater than 17 countries. UK’s cancer Efficiency Ratios is largest at 1:301 and second biggest for Total Mortality Rates at 1.1341; the USA ratios were 1:152 and 1:525, respectively. Conclusions UK reduced mortalities indicate that the NHS achieves proportionally more with relatively less, but UK needs to match European average Gross-Domestic-Product-expenditure-on-Health to meet future challenges. PMID:27293774

  10. Income inequality and mortality in metropolitan areas of the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, J W; Kaplan, G A; Pamuk, E R; Cohen, R D; Heck, K E; Balfour, J L; Yen, I H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between income inequality and mortality in 282 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: Income inequality measures were calculated from the 1990 US Census. Mortality was calculated from National Center for Health Statistics data and modeled with weighted linear regressions of the log age-adjusted rate. RESULTS: Excess mortality between metropolitan areas with high and low income inequality ranged from 64.7 to 95.8 deaths per 100,000 depending on the inequality measure. In age-specific analyses, income inequality was most evident for infant mortality and for mortality between ages 15 and 64. CONCLUSIONS: Higher income inequality is associated with increased mortality at all per capita income levels. Areas with high income inequality and low average income had excess mortality of 139.8 deaths per 100,000 compared with areas with low inequality and high income. The magnitude of this mortality difference is comparable to the combined loss of life from lung cancer, diabetes, motor vehicle crashes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, suicide, and homicide in 1995. Given the mortality burden associated with income inequality, public and private sector initiatives to reduce economic inequalities should be a high priority. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9663157

  11. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  12. Acute large-dose exposure to organophosphates in patients with and without diabetes mellitus: analysis of mortality rate and new-onset diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the mortality rates of patients with and without diabetes mellitus after acute large-dose exposure to organophosphate insecticides. All patients without diabetes mellitus were traced to examine the long-term risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. Previous reports indicated that organophosphate exposure might increase the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. Methods We analyzed the records of 118 patients referred to Chang Gung Memorial Hospital for management of intentional organophosphate poisoning between 2000 and 2011. Patients were stratified by diabetes mellitus status. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and mortality data were analyzed. Results Most patients were middle aged (53.45 ± 16.20 years) and male (65.3%) and were referred to our hospital after a relatively short amount of time had elapsed since poisoning (median 3.0 hours). 18 (15.2%) of 118 patients died, including 15 (13.8%) of 109 patients without diabetes mellitus and 3 (33.3%) of 9 with diabetes mellitus. There was no significant difference in mortality between these groups (P = 0.117). In a multivariate Cox regression model, hypotension (P = 0.000), respiratory failure (P = 0.042), coma (P = 0.023), and corrected QT interval prolongation (P = 0.002) were significant risk factors for mortality. Conversely, diabetes mellitus status was not a significant variable in this model. At routine outpatient follow up a median of 1.25 months post exposure, random blood glucose measurements gave no evidence of new-onset diabetes in patients without pre-existing diabetes. Conclusions Diabetes mellitus status might not increase mortality risk following acute large-dose exposure to organophosphates, and the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus also might be minimal in the short term. Larger prospective studies with formal testing for diabetes at later times post-exposure are required. PMID:24597539

  13. Relation of resting heart rate to risk for all-cause mortality by gender after considering exercise capacity (the Henry Ford exercise testing project).

    PubMed

    Aladin, Amer I; Whelton, Seamus P; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Blaha, Michael J; Keteyian, Steven J; Juraschek, Stephen P; Rubin, Jonathan; Brawner, Clinton A; Michos, Erin D

    2014-12-01

    Whether resting heart rate (RHR) predicts mortality independent of fitness is not well established, particularly among women. We analyzed data from 56,634 subjects (49% women) without known coronary artery disease or atrial fibrillation who underwent a clinically indicated exercise stress test. Baseline RHR was divided into 5 groups with <60 beats/min as reference. The Social Security Death Index was used to ascertain vital status. Cox hazard models were performed to determine the association of RHR with all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, or revascularization after sequential adjustment for demographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, medications, and fitness (metabolic equivalents). The mean age was 53 ± 12 years and mean RHR was 73 ± 12 beats/min. More than half of the participants were referred for chest pain; 81% completed an adequate stress test and mean metabolic equivalents achieved was 9.2 ± 3. There were 6,255 deaths over 11.0-year mean follow-up. There was an increased risk of all-cause mortality with increasing RHR (p trend <0.001). Compared with the lowest RHR group, participants with an RHR ≥90 beats/min had a significantly increased risk of mortality even after adjustment for fitness (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.35). This relationship remained significant for men, but not significant for women after adjustment for fitness (p interaction <0.001). No significant associations were seen for men or women with major adverse cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, or revascularization after accounting for fitness. In conclusion, after adjustment for fitness, elevated RHR was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in men but not women, suggesting gender differences in the utility of RHR for risk stratification. PMID:25439450

  14. Infant Stool Color Card Screening Helps Reduce the Hospitalization Rate and Mortality of Biliary Atresia: A 14-Year Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Yang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Jui-Hua; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2016-03-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a significant liver disease in children. Since 2004, Taiwan has implemented a national screening program that uses an infant stool color card (SCC) for the early detection of BA. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of BA cases before and after the launch of this screening program. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rates of hospitalization, liver transplantation (LT), and mortality of BA cases before and after the program, and to examine the association between the hospitalization rate and survival outcomes.This was a population-based cohort study. BA cases born during 1997 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Sex, birth date, hospitalization date, LT, and death data were collected and analyzed. The hospitalization rate by 2 years of age (Hosp/2yr) was calculated to evaluate its association with the outcomes of LT or death.Among 513 total BA cases, 457 (89%) underwent the Kasai procedure. Of these, the Hosp/2yr was significantly reduced from 6.0 to 6.9/case in the earlier cohort (1997-2004) to 4.9 to 5.3/case in the later cohort (2005-2010). This hospitalization rate reduction was followed by a reduction in mortality from 26.2% to 15.9% after 2006. The Cox proportional hazards model showed a significant increase in the risk for both LT (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-1.18) and death (HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08) for each additional hospitalization. A multivariate logistic regression model found that cases with a Hosp/2yr >6 times had a significantly higher risk for both LT (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.35, 95% CI = 2.82-6.73) and death (aOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.17-2.62).The hospitalization and mortality rates of BA cases in Taiwan were significantly and coincidentally reduced after the launch of the SCC screening program. There was a significant association between the hospitalization rate and final

  15. Infant Stool Color Card Screening Helps Reduce the Hospitalization Rate and Mortality of Biliary Atresia: A 14-Year Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Yang, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Jui-Hua; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2016-03-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a significant liver disease in children. Since 2004, Taiwan has implemented a national screening program that uses an infant stool color card (SCC) for the early detection of BA. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of BA cases before and after the launch of this screening program. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the rates of hospitalization, liver transplantation (LT), and mortality of BA cases before and after the program, and to examine the association between the hospitalization rate and survival outcomes.This was a population-based cohort study. BA cases born during 1997 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Sex, birth date, hospitalization date, LT, and death data were collected and analyzed. The hospitalization rate by 2 years of age (Hosp/2yr) was calculated to evaluate its association with the outcomes of LT or death.Among 513 total BA cases, 457 (89%) underwent the Kasai procedure. Of these, the Hosp/2yr was significantly reduced from 6.0 to 6.9/case in the earlier cohort (1997-2004) to 4.9 to 5.3/case in the later cohort (2005-2010). This hospitalization rate reduction was followed by a reduction in mortality from 26.2% to 15.9% after 2006. The Cox proportional hazards model showed a significant increase in the risk for both LT (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-1.18) and death (HR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08) for each additional hospitalization. A multivariate logistic regression model found that cases with a Hosp/2yr >6 times had a significantly higher risk for both LT (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.35, 95% CI = 2.82-6.73) and death (aOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.17-2.62).The hospitalization and mortality rates of BA cases in Taiwan were significantly and coincidentally reduced after the launch of the SCC screening program. There was a significant association between the hospitalization rate and final

  16. Age-Specific Peculiarities of Modulation of Blood Aldo-Keto Reductase Isoenzyme Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Davydov, V V

    2015-12-01

    The aldo-keto reductase spectrum of the blood was studied at different stages of ontogeny to elucidate the role of reduction pathway in utilization of the carbonyl products of free radical oxidation in modulation of organism sensitivity to the damaging effect of stress during ontogeny. The studies revealed the age-specific changes in aldo-keto reductase spectrum in the blood. An analogy of the aldo-keto reductase spectrum structure in animals of early maturity and in old rats was found. The appearance of age specificity of the aldo-keto reductase spectrum in the blood creates metabolic prerequisites for changes in the efficiency of utilization of carbonyl products of free radical oxidation via their reductive transformation.

  17. Growing Fixed With Age: Lay Theories of Malleability Are Target Age-Specific.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Lassetter, Bethany

    2015-11-01

    Beliefs about whether people can change ("lay theories" of malleability) are known to have wide-ranging effects on social motivation, cognition, and judgment. Yet rather than holding an overarching belief that people can or cannot change, perceivers may hold independent beliefs about whether different people are malleable-that is, lay theories may be target-specific. Seven studies demonstrate that lay theories are target-specific with respect to age: Perceivers hold distinct, uncorrelated lay theories of people at different ages, and younger targets are considered to be more malleable than older targets. Both forms of target-specificity are consequential, as target age-specific lay theories predict policy support for learning-based senior services and the rehabilitation of old and young drug users. The implications of target age-specific lay theories for a number of psychological processes, the social psychology of aging, and theoretical frameworks of malleability beliefs are discussed.

  18. Ethnic differences in mortality from acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease in New Mexico, 1958-1982.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, T M; Wiggins, C L; Key, C R; Samet, J M

    1989-01-01

    To examine time trends and differences in mortality rates from acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease in New Mexico's Hispanic, American Indian, and non-Hispanic white populations, we analyzed vital records data for 1958 through 1982. Age-adjusted mortality rates for acute rheumatic fever were low and showed no consistent temporal trends among the three ethnic groups over the study period. Age-adjusted and age-specific mortality rates for chronic rheumatic heart disease in Hispanic and non-Hispanic whites decreased over the 25-year period, although rates were higher among Hispanics than among non-Hispanics during most of the time period. In American Indians, age-adjusted mortality rates for chronic rheumatic heart disease increased between 1968 and 1977 to twice the non-Indian mortality rates during the same period. Despite this increase in mortality from chronic rheumatic heart disease among New Mexico's American Indians from 1968 to 1977, the New Mexico data generally reflect national trends of decreasing mortality from chronic rheumatic heart disease. PMID:2735024

  19. Automated tissue classification of pediatric brains from magnetic resonance images using age-specific atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Andrew; Benavides, Amanda; Nopoulos, Peg; Magnotta, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop two age appropriate atlases (neonatal and one year old) that account for the rapid growth and maturational changes that occur during early development. Tissue maps from this age group were initially created by manually correcting the resulting tissue maps after applying an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and an adult atlas to pediatric subjects. The EM algorithm classified each voxel into one of ten possible tissue types including several subcortical structures. This was followed by a novel level set segmentation designed to improve differentiation between distal cortical gray matter and white matter. To minimize the req uired manual corrections, the adult atlas was registered to the pediatric scans using high -dimensional, symmetric image normalization (SyN) registration. The subject images were then mapped to an age specific atlas space, again using SyN registration, and the resulting transformation applied to the manually corrected tissue maps. The individual maps were averaged in the age specific atlas space and blurred to generate the age appropriate anatomical priors. The resulting anatomical priors were then used by the EM algorithm to re-segment the initial training set as well as an independent testing set. The results from the adult and age-specific anatomical priors were compared to the manually corrected results. The age appropriate atlas provided superior results as compared to the adult atlas. The image analysis pipeline used in this work was built using the open source software package BRAINSTools.

  20. [Infant mortality in Peru].

    PubMed

    Ramos Padilla, M A

    1987-01-01

    Bolivia, Haiti, and Peru have infant mortality levels as high as those of the developed countries a century ago. The decline of general and especially infant mortality experienced in Latin America beginning in the 1940s was uneven throughout the continent. Cuba's infant mortality rate declined by 86% between 1940-80, but Peru's declined by only 48% despite its higher initial level. In 1984, 34% of all deaths in Peru were to children under 1 year and about 21% were to children 1-5 years old. Socioeconomic factors are the major explanation of Peru's poor infant mortality levels. Regional and social disparities in access to housing, food, urban infrastructure, and other vital goods and services are reflected in infant mortality statistics. Infant mortality has declined in both rural and urban areas, but the magnitude of the decline was much greater in urban areas. Between 1960-75, the infant mortality rate declined from 133 to 80/1000 live births in urban areas, but only from 180 to 150/1000 in rural areas. Investment in the infrastructure and services of the cities during the 1950s and 60s was not matched by any significant investment in rural infrastructure. Rural-urban mortality differentials are not as profound in countries which distribute public investment more evenly between rural and urban areas. Cuba's rural infant mortality rate is only 16% greater than its urban rate, while Peru's rural rate is 47% higher. The rural-urban differential in Peru hides a steep gap between the metropolitan zone of Lima-Callao, which has an infant mortality rate of 55/1000, and that of all cities, which have a rate 45% higher. Metropolitan Lima has the highest levels of living in Peru, including the highest incomes and best housing and service infrastructure. A majority of Peru's economic and industrial development has been concentrated in Lima. Peru's infant mortality differentials are also striking at the departmental level. The 5 departments with the highest infant mortality

  1. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate with all‐cause and cardiovascular mortality: the role of malnutrition–inflammation–cachexia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Shuo‐Ming; Chen, Yung‐Tai; Hung, Szu‐Chun; Shih, Chia‐Jen; Lin, Chi‐Hung; Chiang, Chih‐Kang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that high estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is paradoxically associated with an increased risk of mortality, and the association becomes more predominant in older people. However, the role of malnutrition–inflammation–cachexia syndrome (MICS) in the association between eGFR and mortality has never been explored. Methods We conducted a community‐based cohort study using data from the Taipei City Elderly Health Examination Database, collected during the period 2001–10. All participants aged ≥65 years were included and stratified by the absence or presence of MICS, which is defined as the presence of at least one of the following markers: body mass index <22 kg/m2, serum albumin <3.0 mg/dL, or Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) <98. The study endpoints were all‐cause and cardiovascular mortality. Results A total of 131 354 participants were identified and categorized according to the chronic kidney disease stage based on eGFR. Compared with the reference eGFR of 60–89 mL/min/1.73 m2, the overall and cardiovascular mortality risks were markedly high in the groups with eGFR of <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [overall: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72–2.00; cardiovascular: aHR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.60–2.19] and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (overall: aHR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13–1.34; cardiovascular: aHR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.06–1.54). In the absence of MICS, high eGFR was associated with lower mortality risk (aHR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.62–0.80), and the U‐shaped relationship disappeared. Subgroup analyses produced consistent results. Conclusions MICS could influence the association observed between high eGFR and mortality in older people, particularly in those with low body mass index, albumin level, GNRI, and very low serum creatinine level. PMID:27493868

  2. Modal analysis of the deep-water solitary scleractinian, Desmophyllum dianthus, on SW Pacific seamounts: inferred recruitment periodicity, growth, and mortality rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thresher, R. E.; Adkins, J.; Thiagarajan, N.

    2011-12-01

    Little is known about the demography of corals inhabiting deep-sea features due to the logistical difficulties of working at the extreme depths they inhabit. To obtain basic information about growth, mortality, and recruitment dynamics for such a coral, we applied modal analysis to the size frequency distributions of live-caught and sub-fossil specimens of the widely distributed solitary cup coral, Desmophyllum dianthus, collected on SW Pacific seamounts. Comparison of live-caught material collected in 1997 and 2007-2009 indicated modal progression over time and an implied maximum age of approximately 190 years, which is similar to ages determined previously for D. dianthus using radiometric techniques. A log-linear decline in the number of individuals with increasing size further implies a constant adult mortality rate, of 15.1% per annum in 1997 and 9.2% per annum in 2007-2009. The spacing of size modes in the 2007-2009 samples suggests regularly episodic recruitment events, at 22- to 32-year intervals, which may relate to periodic variability in large-scale Southern Ocean circulation. Preliminary analyses of size frequency distributions of the sub-fossil material suggest that the trophodynamics, growth, and adult mortality schedules of D. dianthus in the SW Pacific have remained basically similar throughout the Holocene.

  3. Sexual selection has minimal impact on effective population sizes in species with high rates of random offspring mortality: an empirical demonstration using fitness distributions

    PubMed Central

    Pischedda, Alison; Friberg, Urban; Stewart, Andrew D.; Miller, Paige M.; Rice, William R.

    2015-01-01

    The effective population size (Ne) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that influences the rate of loss of genetic diversity. Sexual selection has the potential to reduce Ne by causing the sex-specific distributions of individuals that successfully reproduce to diverge. To empirically estimate the effect of sexual selection on Ne, we obtained fitness distributions for males and females from an outbred, laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We observed strong sexual selection in this population (the variance in male reproductive success was ∼14 times higher than that for females), but found that sexual selection had only a modest effect on Ne, which was 75% of the census size. This occurs because the substantial random offspring mortality in this population diminishes the effects of sexual selection on Ne, a result that necessarily applies to other high fecundity species. The inclusion of this random offspring mortality creates a scaling effect that reduces the variance/mean ratios for male and female reproductive success and causes them to converge. Our results demonstrate that measuring reproductive success without considering offspring mortality can underestimate Ne and overestimate the genetic consequences of sexual selection. Similarly, comparing genetic diversity among different genomic components may fail to detect strong sexual selection. PMID:26374275

  4. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries. PMID:27165207

  5. Mortality rates at 10 years after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing compared with total hip replacement in England: retrospective cohort analysis of hospital episode statistics

    PubMed Central

    Kendal, Adrian R; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Arden, Nigel K; Judge, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare 10 year mortality rates among patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing and total hip replacement in England. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting English hospital episode statistics database linked to mortality records from the Office for National Statistics. Population All adults who underwent primary elective hip replacement for osteoarthritis from April 1999 to March 2012. The exposure of interest was prosthesis type: cemented total hip replacement, uncemented total hip replacement, and metal-on-metal hip resurfacing. Confounding variables included age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, rurality, area deprivation, surgical volume, and year of operation. Main outcome measures All cause mortality. Propensity score matching was used to minimise confounding by indication. Kaplan-Meier plots estimated the probability of survival up to 10 years after surgery. Multilevel Cox regression modelling, stratified on matched sets, described the association between prosthesis type and time to death, accounting for variation across hospital trusts. Results 7437 patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing were matched to 22 311 undergoing cemented total hip replacement; 8101 patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing were matched to 24 303 undergoing uncemented total hip replacement. 10 year rates of cumulative mortality were 271 (3.6%) for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing versus 1363 (6.1%) for cemented total hip replacement, and 239 (3.0%) for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing versus 999 (4.1%) for uncemented total hip replacement. Patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing had an increased survival probability (hazard ratio 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.59) for cemented hip replacement; 0.55 (0.47 to 0.65) for uncemented hip replacement). There was no evidence for an interaction with age or sex. Conclusions Patients with hip osteoarthritis undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing have reduced mortality in

  6. Observing temporal trends in cardiac rehabilitation from 1996 to 2010 in Ontario: characteristics of referred patients, programme participation and mortality rates

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Sherry L; Oh, Paul I; Marzolini, Susan; Colella, Tracey; Tan, Yongyao; Alter, David A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to describe temporal trends in the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of participants referred to cardiac rehabilitation (CR), and its effect on programme participation and all-cause mortality over 14 years. Setting A large CR centre in Toronto, Canada. Participants Consecutive patients between 1996 and 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Referrals received were deterministically linked to administrative data, to complement referral form abstraction. Out-of-hospital deaths were identified using vital statistics. Patients were tracked until 2012, and mortality was ascertained. Percentage attendance at prescribed sessions was also assessed. Results There were 29 171 referrals received, of which 28 767 (98.6%) were successfully linked, of whom 22 795 (79.2%) attended an intake assessment. The age of the referred population steadily increased, with more females, less affluent and more single patients referred over time (p<0.001). More patients were referred following percutaneous coronary intervention and less following coronary artery bypass graft surgery (p<0.001). The number of comorbidities decreased (p<0.001). Hypertension increased over time (p<0.001), yet the control of cholesterol steadily improved over time. The proportion of smokers decreased over time (p<0.001). Participation in CR significantly declined, and there were no significant changes in mortality. 3-year mortality rates were less than 5%. Conclusions Characteristics of referred patients tended to reflect broader trends in risk factors and cardiovascular disease burden. Physicians appear to be referring more sociodemographically diverse patients to CR; however, programmes may need to better adapt to engage these patients to fully participate. More complex patients should be referred, using explicit criteria-based referral processes. PMID:26537501

  7. Fractal analysis of heart rate dynamics as a predictor of mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE Investigators. TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makikallio, T. H.; Hoiber, S.; Kober, L.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Peng, C. K.; Goldberger, A. L.; Huikuri, H. V.

    1999-01-01

    A number of new methods have been recently developed to quantify complex heart rate (HR) dynamics based on nonlinear and fractal analysis, but their value in risk stratification has not been evaluated. This study was designed to determine whether selected new dynamic analysis methods of HR variability predict mortality in patients with depressed left ventricular (LV) function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Traditional time- and frequency-domain HR variability indexes along with short-term fractal-like correlation properties of RR intervals (exponent alpha) and power-law scaling (exponent beta) were studied in 159 patients with depressed LV function (ejection fraction <35%) after an AMI. By the end of 4-year follow-up, 72 patients (45%) had died and 87 (55%) were still alive. Short-term scaling exponent alpha (1.07 +/- 0.26 vs 0.90 +/- 0.26, p <0.001) and power-law slope beta (-1.35 +/- 0.23 vs -1.44 +/- 0.25, p <0.05) differed between survivors and those who died, but none of the traditional HR variability measures differed between these groups. Among all analyzed variables, reduced scaling exponent alpha (<0.85) was the best univariable predictor of mortality (relative risk 3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.96 to 5.15, p <0.0001), with positive and negative predictive accuracies of 65% and 86%, respectively. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, mortality was independently predicted by the reduced exponent alpha (p <0.001) after adjustment for several clinical variables and LV function. A short-term fractal-like scaling exponent was the most powerful HR variability index in predicting mortality in patients with depressed LV function. Reduction in fractal correlation properties implies more random short-term HR dynamics in patients with increased risk of death after AMI.

  8. [Map of infant mortality].

    PubMed

    Ramos, H

    1988-06-01

    The heterogeneous economic development of Peru and its relationship to the developed countries have determined that the advances of medical science and their influence on infant mortality rates have been unevenly distributed in Peru. Around 1986, the average infant mortality rate was 14/1000 live births in Europe, 118/1000 in Africa, 86/1000 in Asia, 10/1000 in North America, and 62/1000 in Latin America. The unequal development achieved in different countries is the main reason for the different infant mortality rates. The infant mortality rate for each of Peru's provinces around 1981 was estimated using a program for personal computers from the Latin American Demographic Center, which applied the Coale and Trussell variant of the Brass method to information from Peru's 1981 census. The national average infant mortality rate in 1981 was 101.0/1000 live births. 84 provinces, 55%, had high or very high infant mortality rates ranging from 101.0 to 184.0/1000. All were located in the highlands or jungle where the level of poverty is significantly greater than the national average. 28 provinces (18%) had infant mortality rates of 48-80/1000, considered low in Peru. They were almost all in the more developed coastal region. The remaining 41 provinces (27%) with medium infant mortality levels of 81-100/1000 live births were mostly the sites of provincial capitals of departments or other centers with some significant economic activity that attracted health, educational, and other investments. PMID:12315514

  9. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence, Mortality, and Survival Trends in the United States From 1975 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Altekruse, Sean F.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Reichman, Marsha E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Incidence rates are increasing in the United States. Monitoring incidence, survival, and mortality rates within at-risk populations can facilitate control efforts. Methods Age-adjusted incidence trends for HCC were examined in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries from 1975 to 2005. Age-specific rates were examined for birth cohorts born between 1900 and 1959. Age-adjusted incidence and cause-specific survival rates from 1992 to 2005 were examined in the SEER 13 registries by race/ethnicity, stage, and treatment. United States liver cancer mortality rates were also examined. Results Age-adjusted HCC incidence rates tripled between 1975 and 2005. Incidence rates increased in each 10-year birth cohort from 1900 through the 1950s. Asians/Pacific Islanders had higher incidence and mortality rates than other racial/ethnic groups, but experienced a significant decrease in mortality rates over time. From 2000 to 2005, marked increases in incidence rates occurred among Hispanic, black, and white middle-aged men. Between 1992 and 2004, 2- to 4-year HCC survival rates doubled, as more patients were diagnosed with localized and regional HCC and prognosis improved, particularly for patients with reported treatment. Recent 1-year survival rates remained, however, less than 50%. Conclusion HCC incidence and mortality rates continue to increase, particularly among middle-aged black, Hispanic, and white men. Screening of at-risk groups and treatment of localized-stage tumors may contribute to increasing HCC survival rates in the United States. More progress is needed. PMID:19224838

  10. Age-specific Parkinson disease risk in GBA mutation carriers: information for genetic counseling

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Huma Q.; Balwani, Manisha; Bier, Louise; Alcalay, Roy N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We sought to estimate age-specific risk of Parkinson disease in relatives of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligate carriers of GBA mutations and who were not ascertained by family history of Parkinson disease. Methods A validated family history of Parkinson disease questionnaire was administered to 119 patients with Gaucher disease who were evaluated at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine from 2009 to 2012; the ages of their parents, siblings, and children, history of Parkinson disease, age at onset of Parkinson disease, and ethnic background were obtained. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to estimate age-specific Parkinson disease penetrance among parents of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligatory GBA mutation carriers. Results Two participants with Gaucher disease were affected by Parkinson disease (5.4% of those who were 60 years or older). Of the 224 informative parents of patients with Gaucher disease, 11 had Parkinson disease (4.9%). Among the parents (obligatory carriers), cumulative risk of Parkinson disease by ages 65 and 85 was estimated to be 2.2% ±2.1% and 10.9% ±7.2%, respectively. Conclusion We provide useful age-specific estimates of Parkinson disease penetrance in patients with Gaucher disease and GBA heterozygous carriers for genetic counseling. Although GBA mutations may increase the risk for PD, the vast majority of patients with Gaucher disease and heterozygotes may not develop the disease. Further studies are needed to identify what modifies the risk of Parkinson disease in GBA mutation carriers. PMID:22935721

  11. Response of Argentine ants and red imported fire ants to permethrin-impregnated plastic strips: foraging rates, colonization of potted soil, and differential mortality.

    PubMed

    Costa, Heather S; Greenberg, Les; Klotz, John; Rust, Michael K

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of the permethrin-impregnated plastic on ant mortality and foraging rates, and tested its potential for preventing ants from colonizing potted soil. Direct exposure to the plastic for as short as 1 min caused significant mortality of both red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr); however, red imported fire ants were more susceptible than Argentine ants. Knockdown of virtually all ants initially occurred within 15 min after exposure. However, some moribund ants recovered from the effects within 24 h. For example, after 1 min of direct exposure to the permethrin-impregnated plastic, 70% of Argentine ants and 5% of red imported fire ants recovered from the treatment. In established colonies of Argentine ants, significantly fewer ants foraged for food up posts treated with the plastic compared with untreated posts. In addition, colonies responded to introduction of the treatment by significantly reducing their overall foraging rates, even on untreated posts. When pots filled with moistened soil were introduced into established ant colonies, 82% of Argentine ants and 99% of red imported fire ants moved into the soil. In contrast, when a 1-cm-wide coil of the plastic was placed under the pot, no ants moved into the soil. The potential for use of these materials in nursery production is discussed. PMID:16539136

  12. The black/white mortality crossover: investigation in a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; Manton, K G; Stallard, E; Hames, C G; Tryoler, H A

    1985-01-01

    The black/white mortality crossover at about age 75, a result of lower white mortality rates at younger ages and lower black rates at the oldest ages, has been observed in U.S. vital statistics since 1900. Though a persistant observation in such data, its validity has been challenged by questions about census enumeration and age reporting on death certificates. Analyses of 20 years experience of all-cause mortality in the community-based Evans County Study using a Weibull model of age specific mortality rates showed a statistically significant black/white mortality crossover for both men (at age 73) and women (at age 85). The finding of a crossover in this longitudinally followed population is significant because the age reporting for both survivors and age at death for nonsurvivors were obtained in the study protocol and did not rely on age reporting either in census data or on the death certificate. Differences in the age and sex patterns of mortality between two populations living in the same geographic region are relevant to questions about the etiology of the major age-related chronic diseases as well as to topics of current interest in health care policy.

  13. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Roscoe, R.J.; Steenland, K.; Halperin, W.E.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.

    1989-08-04

    Radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, are a continuing cause for concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the US Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of US veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality ratio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled.

  14. Effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of Ghungroo piglets in Indian sub-tropical climate

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Hemanta; Hazorika, Mousumi; Rajkhowa, Dipjyoti; Datta, Mrinmoy; Haldar, Avijit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to explore the effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of indigenous Ghungroo piglets in sub-tropical cold and humid climatic conditions of Tripura, a state of the north eastern hill (NEH) region of India. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 38 indigenous Ghungroo piglets from birth up to 60 days of age. Among the 38 piglets, 19 piglets were provided with supplemental heat ranging between 17.0°C and 21.1°C for the period of the first 30 days and thereafter between 24.1°C and 29.9°C for the next 30 days. The other 19 piglets were exposed to natural environmental minimum temperatures ranging between 7.2°C and 15.0°C during the first 30 days and then between 18.5°C and 25.5°C for the next 30 days. Results: The supplemental heat resulted in 10.6% reduction of piglet mortality from the 2nd till the 7th day of age. These beneficial effects could be related with the lower (p<0.05) plasma glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and cortisol levels and higher (p<0.05) plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in heat supplemented group compared to control group. Plasma AP, GPT, glucose, triiodothyronine, and luteinizing hormone concentrations decreased (p<0.05) gradually with the advancement of age in both control and supplemental heat treated piglets. Conclusion: Supplemental heat could be beneficial since it is related to a reduction of piglet mortality during the first week of life under farm management system in the sub-tropical climate of NEH region of India. PMID:27182136

  15. Infant Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Mortality Infant Mortality: What is CDC Doing? Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Teen Pregnancy Contraception CDC Contraceptive Guidance for ... and low birth weight Maternal complications of pregnancy Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Injuries (e.g., suffocation). The top ...

  16. War and Children's Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Houston, Paula; Hamill, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of war on young children's mortality in 137 countries. Finds that years recently at war (1990-5) interact with years previously at war (1946-89) to elevate mortality rates. Religious composition interacts with years recently at war to reduce effect. Controlling for women's literacy and access to safe water eliminates effect for…

  17. Effects of low doses and low dose rates of external ionizing radiation: Cancer mortality among nuclear industry workers in three countries

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.; Kato, I.; Lave, C.; Gilbert, E.S.; Fix., J.; Carpenter, L.; Howe, D.; Armstrong, B.K.; Bereal, V.

    1995-05-01

    Studies of the mortality among nuclear industry workforces have been carried out, and nationally combined analyses performed, in the U.S., the UK and Canada. This paper presents the results of internationally combined analyses of mortality data on 95,673 workers (85.4% men) monitored for external exposure to ionizing radiation and employed for 6 months or longer in the nuclear industry of one of the three countries. These analyses were undertaken to obtain a more precise direct assessment of the carcinogenic effects of protracted low-level exposure to external, predominantly {gamma}, radiation. The combination of the data from the various studies increases the power to study associations between radiation dose and mortality from all causes or from all cancers. Mortality from leukemia, excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-the cause of death most strongly and consistently related to radiation dose in studies of atomic bomb survivors and other populations exposed at high dose rates-was significantly associated with cumulative external radiation dose (one-sided P value = 0.046; 119 deaths). Among the 31 other specific types of cancer studied, a significant association was observed only for multiple myeloma (one-sided P value = 0.037; 44 deaths), and this was attributable primarily to the associations reported previously between this disease and radiation dose in the Hanford (U.S.) and Sellafield (UK) cohorts. The excess relative risk (ERR) estimates for all cancers excluding leukemia, and leukemia excluding CLL, the two main groupings of causes of death for which risk estimates have been derived from studies of atomic bomb survivors, were -0.07 per Sv [90% confidence interval (CI):-0.4,0.3] and 2.18 per Sv (90% CI:0.1,5.7), respectively. These values correspond to a relative risk of 0.99 for all cancers excluding leukemia and 1.22 for leukemia excluding CLL for a cumulative protracted dose of 100 mSv compared to O mSv. 53 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  18. Effects of pressure reductions in a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on mortality rates of juvenile American shad and blueback herring. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, J.M.; Schilt, C.R.; Jones, D.P.

    1998-09-01

    This report presents results of studies to predict the mortality rate of juvenile blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) and American shad (A. sapidissima) associated with reduced pressure as they pass downstream through a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina. The primary function of the siphon is to increase attracting flow to better guide upstream migrating adult herring of both species into the existing fish lift for upstream passage. The US Army Engineer District, Charleston, wishes to consider the siphon as an alternative bypass route through the dam for downstream migrating juvenile and adult herring. A pressure-reduction testing system that emulates some of the pressure characteristics of the siphon was used to determine the approximate percentage of juvenile fishes that could be reasonably expected to be killed passing through the reduced pressures anticipated for the siphon water lift system. The testing system could duplicate the range of pressure change anticipated for the siphon lift system but could not obtain pressures lower than 4.1 psi, whereas pressures for some design alternatives may approach the theoretical minimum pressure of 0.0 psi. Study results indicate that the mortality rate is probably about 20 percent. Power analysis indicates that mortality rate above 30 percent is unlikely. Conducting additional mortality studies is recommended to refine predicted mortality rates. Measures should be taken to prevent juvenile fish from entering the siphon lift system if excessive mortality rates are observed.

  19. Adjuvant-induced Human Monocyte Secretome Profiles Reveal Adjuvant- and Age-specific Protein Signatures.

    PubMed

    Oh, Djin-Ye; Dowling, David J; Ahmed, Saima; Choi, Hyungwon; Brightman, Spencer; Bergelson, Ilana; Berger, Sebastian T; Sauld, John F; Pettengill, Matthew; Kho, Alvin T; Pollack, Henry J; Steen, Hanno; Levy, Ofer

    2016-06-01

    Adjuvants boost vaccine responses, enhancing protective immunity against infections that are most common among the very young. Many adjuvants activate innate immunity, some via Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), whose activities varies with age. Accordingly, characterization of age-specific adjuvant-induced immune responses may inform rational adjuvant design targeting vulnerable populations. In this study, we employed proteomics to characterize the adjuvant-induced changes of secretomes from human newborn and adult monocytes in response to Alum, the most commonly used adjuvant in licensed vaccines; Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4-activating adjuvant component of a licensed Human Papilloma Virus vaccine; and R848 an imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 agonist that is a candidate adjuvant for early life vaccines. Monocytes were incubated in vitro for 24 h with vehicle, Alum, MPLA, or R848 and supernatants collected for proteomic analysis employing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) (data available via ProteomeXchange, ID PXD003534). 1894 non-redundant proteins were identified, of which ∼30 - 40% were common to all treatment conditions and ∼5% were treatment-specific. Adjuvant-stimulated secretome profiles, as identified by cluster analyses of over-represented proteins, varied with age and adjuvant type. Adjuvants, especially Alum, activated multiple innate immune pathways as assessed by functional enrichment analyses. Release of lactoferrin, pentraxin 3, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was confirmed in newborn and adult whole blood and blood monocytes stimulated with adjuvants alone or adjuvanted licensed vaccines with distinct clinical reactogenicity profiles. MPLA-induced adult monocyte secretome profiles correlated in silico with transcriptome profiles induced in adults immunized with the MPLA-adjuvanted RTS,S malaria vaccine (Mosquirix™). Overall, adjuvants such as Alum, MPLA and R848 give rise to distinct and age-specific monocyte secretome profiles

  20. Adjuvant-induced Human Monocyte Secretome Profiles Reveal Adjuvant- and Age-specific Protein Signatures*

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Djin-Ye; Dowling, David J.; Ahmed, Saima; Choi, Hyungwon; Brightman, Spencer; Bergelson, Ilana; Berger, Sebastian T.; Sauld, John F.; Pettengill, Matthew; Kho, Alvin T.; Pollack, Henry J.; Steen, Hanno; Levy, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants boost vaccine responses, enhancing protective immunity against infections that are most common among the very young. Many adjuvants activate innate immunity, some via Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), whose activities varies with age. Accordingly, characterization of age-specific adjuvant-induced immune responses may inform rational adjuvant design targeting vulnerable populations. In this study, we employed proteomics to characterize the adjuvant-induced changes of secretomes from human newborn and adult monocytes in response to Alum, the most commonly used adjuvant in licensed vaccines; Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4-activating adjuvant component of a licensed Human Papilloma Virus vaccine; and R848 an imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 agonist that is a candidate adjuvant for early life vaccines. Monocytes were incubated in vitro for 24 h with vehicle, Alum, MPLA, or R848 and supernatants collected for proteomic analysis employing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) (data available via ProteomeXchange, ID PXD003534). 1894 non-redundant proteins were identified, of which ∼30 - 40% were common to all treatment conditions and ∼5% were treatment-specific. Adjuvant-stimulated secretome profiles, as identified by cluster analyses of over-represented proteins, varied with age and adjuvant type. Adjuvants, especially Alum, activated multiple innate immune pathways as assessed by functional enrichment analyses. Release of lactoferrin, pentraxin 3, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was confirmed in newborn and adult whole blood and blood monocytes stimulated with adjuvants alone or adjuvanted licensed vaccines with distinct clinical reactogenicity profiles. MPLA-induced adult monocyte secretome profiles correlated in silico with transcriptome profiles induced in adults immunized with the MPLA-adjuvanted RTS,S malaria vaccine (Mosquirix™). Overall, adjuvants such as Alum, MPLA and R848 give rise to distinct and age-specific monocyte secretome profiles

  1. Age-specific discrimination of blood plasma samples of healthy and ovarian cancer prone mice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikechi, Noureddine; Markushin, Yuri; Connolly, Denise C.; Lasue, Jeremie; Ewusi-Annan, Ebo; Makrogiannis, Sokratis

    2016-09-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mortality rates are strongly correlated with the stage at which it is diagnosed. Detection of EOC prior to its dissemination from the site of origin is known to significantly improve the patient outcome. However, there are currently no effective methods for early detection of the most common and lethal subtype of EOC. We sought to determine whether laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and classification techniques such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and random forest (RF) could classify and differentiate blood plasma specimens from transgenic mice with ovarian carcinoma and wild type control mice. Herein we report results using this approach to distinguish blood plasma samples obtained from serially bled (at 8, 12, and 16 weeks) tumor-bearing TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic and wild type cancer-free littermate control mice. We have calculated the age-specific accuracy of classification using 18,000 laser-induced breakdown spectra of the blood plasma samples from tumor-bearing mice and wild type controls. When the analysis is performed in the spectral range 250 nm to 680 nm using LDA, these are 76.7 (± 2.6)%, 71.2 (± 1.3)%, and 73.1 (± 1.4)%, for the 8, 12 and 16 weeks. When the RF classifier is used, we obtain values of 78.5 (± 2.3)%, 76.9 (± 2.1)% and 75.4 (± 2.0)% in the spectral range of 250 nm to 680 nm, and 81.0 (± 1.8)%, 80.4 (± 2.1)% and 79.6 (± 3.5)% in 220 nm to 850 nm. In addition, we report, the positive and negative predictive values of the classification of the two classes of blood plasma samples. The approach used in this study is rapid, requires only 5 μL of blood plasma, and is based on the use of unsupervised and widely accepted multivariate analysis algorithms. These findings suggest that LIBS and multivariate analysis may be a novel approach for detecting EOC.

  2. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from south-central Alaska: analysis of reproductive tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Lensink, C.

    1993-01-01

    We estimated age at sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from south-central Alaska, Primarily from western Prince William Sound, as a result of the T/V Exxon Valdez oit spill in 1989. We found 65% of our sample to be sexually mature. Sexual maturity was first attained at age 2. The proportion of sexually mature animals increased from 30% at age 2 to 100% at age 5. Annual reproductive rates increased from 22% at age 2 to 78% at age 5 and remained relatively stable (75-88%) through to age 15. the sex ratio (female:male) of 49 fetal sea otters was 18:37 and differed significantly from parity. Females younger than 8 tended to produce more female fetuses, while older mothers did not. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts wre similiar to those reported in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  3. Estimation of age-specific per capita home-produced food intake among populations that garden, farm, or raise animals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Linda; Moya, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Intake of home-produced foods may be a concern in areas where chemical contamination exists. Estimating exposure to contaminants in home-produced foods requires knowledge of the amount of these foods consumed. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Exposure Factors Handbook provides data on consumption of home-produced foods based on the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS), the most recent national food survey that contains the information necessary to estimate home-produced consumption. These data represent "consumer-only" intake rate distributions for various age and demographic categories. "Consumers-only" information is also provided for households who garden, farm, and raise animals for all age groups combined. However, these "consumer-only" values may not always be appropriate when assessing chronic exposures. Furthermore, data for all ages combined may not be useful for estimating exposure among age groups that may be of particular concern. This paper provides age-specific "per capita" intake rate distributions of home-produced foods specifically for the populations that garden, farm, and raise animals, using data from EPA's Exposure Factors Handbook. PMID:21522189

  4. Estimation of age-specific per capita home-produced food intake among populations that garden, farm, or raise animals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Linda; Moya, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Intake of home-produced foods may be a concern in areas where chemical contamination exists. Estimating exposure to contaminants in home-produced foods requires knowledge of the amount of these foods consumed. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Exposure Factors Handbook provides data on consumption of home-produced foods based on the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS), the most recent national food survey that contains the information necessary to estimate home-produced consumption. These data represent "consumer-only" intake rate distributions for various age and demographic categories. "Consumers-only" information is also provided for households who garden, farm, and raise animals for all age groups combined. However, these "consumer-only" values may not always be appropriate when assessing chronic exposures. Furthermore, data for all ages combined may not be useful for estimating exposure among age groups that may be of particular concern. This paper provides age-specific "per capita" intake rate distributions of home-produced foods specifically for the populations that garden, farm, and raise animals, using data from EPA's Exposure Factors Handbook.

  5. Has the Rate of Reduction in Infant Mortality Increased in India Since the Launch of National Rural Health Mission? Analysis of Time Trends 2000-2009 with Projection to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Narwal, Rajesh; Gram, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) - India was launched in 2005 to tackle urban-rural health inequalities, especially in maternal and child health. We examined national and state level trends in Infant Mortality Rates (IMR) from 2000 through 2009 to: 1) assess whether the NRHM had increased the average annual reduction rate (AARR) of IMR 2) evaluate state-wise progress towards Millennium Development Goals (MDG4) and estimate required AARRs for ‘off track’ states. Methods: Log-linear regression models were applied to national and state IMR data collated from the Sample Registration System (SRS)-India to estimate average annual reduction rates and compare AAARs before and after introduction of NRHM. The log-linear trend of infant mortality rates was also projected forward to 2015. Results: The infant mortality rate in rural India declined from 74 to 55/1000 live births between 2000 and 2009, with AARR of 3.0% (95% CI=2.6%-3.4%) and the urban-rural gap in infant mortality narrowed (p =0.036). However there was no evidence (p=0.49) that AARR in rural India increased post NRHM (3.4%, 95% CI 2.0-4.7%) compared to pre NRHM (2.8%, 95% CI 2.1%-3.5%). States varied widely in rates of infant mortality reduction. Projections of infant mortality rates suggested that only eight states might be on track to help India achieve MDG4 by 2015. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Despite a narrowing urban-rural gap and high AARRs in some states, there was no evidence that the rate of reduction in infant mortality has increased in rural India post NRHM introduction. India appears unlikely to achieve child survival-related NRHM and millennium development goals. Government should revisit the child survival related NRHM strategies and ensure equitable access to health services. More robust monitoring and evaluation mechanisms must be inbuilt for following years. PMID:27621967

  6. Age-specific inhalation radiation dose commitment factors for selected radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-08-01

    Inhalation dose commitment factors are presented for selected radionuclides for exposure of individuals in four age groups: infant, child, teen and adult. Radionuclides considered are /sup 35/S, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 45/Ca, /sup 67/Ga, /sup 75/Se, /sup 85/Sr, /sup 109/Cd, /sup 113/Sn, /sup 125/I, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 170/Tm, /sup 169/Yb, /sup 182/Ta, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 198/Au, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 204/Tl, and /sup 236/Pu. The calculational method is based on the human metabolic model of ICRP as defined in Publication 2 (ICRP 1959) and as used in previous age-specific dose factor calculations by Hoenes and Soldat (1977). Dose commitment factors are presented for the following organs of reference: total body, bone, liver, kidney, thyroid, lung and lower large intestine.

  7. [Age-specific effects at the beginning of in-/out-/day patient welfare measures].

    PubMed

    Rücker, Stefan; Büttner, Peter; Petermann, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2014-01-01

    The study presented examines age-specific differences in emotional and behaviour problems as well as resources at the beginning of in-, out- and day-patient youth welfare measures. Additionally, parenting-skills were investigated. A sample of N = 126 was divided by the median (10.1 years) thus leading to two groups: ages six to ten (version for parents) versus eleven to sixteen (self-completion). Children and adolescents were evaluated with the SDQ, parenting skills with the DEAPQ-EL-GS. Values of both groups were compared cross-sectionally with multivariate, one-factorial variance analysis. Parents of younger children achieve significantly better results for parenting-skills. Compared to the older ones, younger children show significantly greater behaviour problems. Younger children belong to the group especially affected in youth welfare measures. Therefore, measures should be specifically adapted for this group to reduce symptoms. PMID:24693805

  8. Incorporating Age-Specific Plans of Care to Achieve Optimal Perioperative Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mower, Juliana

    2015-10-01

    When developing a nursing plan of care, a perioperative nurse identifies nursing diagnoses during the preoperative patient assessment. The ability to identify age-specific outcomes (ie, infant/child, adolescent, adult, elderly adult) in addition to those that are universally applicable is a major responsibility of the perioperative RN. Having an individualized plan of care is one of the best ways to determine whether desired patient outcomes have been successfully attained. Nursing care plans address intraoperative and postoperative risks and allow for a smooth transfer of care throughout the perioperative experience. A good nursing care plan also includes education for the patient and his or her caregiver. Within an overall plan of care, the use of methods such as a concept or mind map can visually demonstrate the relationships between systems, nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions, and desirable outcomes.

  9. [The age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects].

    PubMed

    Teplov, K V; Bozhchenko, A P; Tolmachev, I A; Moiseenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article was designed to consider the congenital age-specific features of palm dermatoglyphics in the adults subjects (including the type of the papillary patterns, axial tri-radii, the termini of palmar main lines, the rudiments of palmar lines, the dermatoglyphic ridge count between the stable anatomical structures). The objective of the study was to look for the new diagnostic markers of the biological age. It included the identification of the palm prints obtained from 180 Caucasoid men and 120 women at the age varying from 16 to 80 years. The results of the mathematical and statistical analysis provided the basis for drawing up the list of 18 attributes of palm dermatoglyphics significantly (p<0.05) differing in the frequency of occurrence between the representatives of individual age groups. The methods are proposed allowing to use these findings for the expert evaluation of the age of unknown subjects.

  10. Race-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US children.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Vijay; Hampl, Jeffrey S; Betts, Nancy M

    2003-11-01

    Race-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of 1- to 10-year-old US children were evaluated. Three-day, dietary intakes from the US Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were evaluated. Data from 1895 children (967 males, 928 females; 1,540 Whites, 355 Blacks) who resided in the 48 conterminous states were analyzed. Micronutrient intakes, intakes as percent of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and percent of children who consumed < or =67% of the RDA were computed. Black males compared with White males, Black females compared with White females and White females compared with White males had significantly lower dietary intakes for several micronutrients. More Black males than White males had intakes < or =67% of the RDA for vitamin E, calcium and zinc. Blacks and female children were at a greater risk for vitamin A, vitamin E, calcium, iron and zinc deficiency. PMID:14522694

  11. An Examination of Urban Versus Rural Mortality in China Using Community and Individual Data

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Zachary; Kaneda, Toshiko; Spess, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Urban/rural residence is a critical health determinant and one researchers have historically found to distinguish health experiences. In this study, we investigated variations in older adult mortality across urban and rural areas of China and assessed mechanisms driving an urban advantage through a series of socioeconomic and health service covariates measured at individual and community levels. Methods We employed 15 years of mortality data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. We calculated average annual age-specific death rates and used combinations of covariates to examine Cox proportional hazards models. We employed the 2000 Chinese Census and the 2002 Demographic Yearbook descriptively to assess reliability and provide an alternative source for mortality variation. Results Hazard ratios and standardized death rates showed rural mortality to be about 30% higher than urban mortality. Cadre status, amenities within the community, and average wage within the community are important determinants of mortality, and adjusting for these covariates reduced the urban advantage. Discussion There is great differentiation in economic and social life between urban and rural China, and this appears to be negatively influencing survival chances of older adults in rural areas. The policy implications are fairly clear: Investment in rural China is needed to reduce health inequalities. PMID:17906179

  12. Comparative study of two anesthesia methods according to postoperative complications and one month mortality rate in the candidates of hip surgery

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Saied Morteza; Soltani, Hasanali; Hashemi, Saied Jalal; Talakoub, Reihanak; Soleimani, Bahram

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgery for hip fractures can be done under general or neuraxial anesthesia. This study aimed to compare these two methods concerning their postoperative complications, duration of operation, hospitalization and the mortality rate within a period of one month after surgery. METHODS: 400 patients aged more than 30 years old and scheduled for elective operative fixation of fractured hip, randomly enrolled in two equal groups of general (GA) and neuraxial (NA) anesthesia. Hemoglobin level was measured before and 6 hours, 2, 3 and 5 days after the surgery. The intra and postoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, the severity of pain at the time of discharge from recovery and at the 2nd, 3rd and 5th postoperative days were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 12.0 by Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and t tests. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Both groups were similar regarding age, weight, and gender ratio. There was no significant difference in baseline hemoglobin, duration of surgery, length of hospitalization before surgery and the type of surgery. The mean of intraoperative blood loss and visual analogue score (VAS) in recovery and at the 3rd postoperative day, and also the length of hospitalization after surgery were significantly less in neuraxial anesthesia group. Both groups showed a significant decrease in hemoglobin values on the 2nd and 3rd postoperative days comparing to the baseline (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The morbidity and mortality rates of patients undergoing hip surgery were similar in both methods of anesthesia, but postoperative pain, blood loss, and duration of hospitalization were more in patients undergoing general anesthesia. PMID:22091252

  13. Mortality among sulfide ore miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlman, K.; Koskela, R.S.; Kuikka, P.; Koponen, M.; Annanmaeki, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains.

  14. Relationship between Kidney Dysfunction and Ischemic Stroke Outcomes: Albuminuria, but Not Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, Is Associated with the Risk of Further Vascular Events and Mortality after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Geun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria are known to be associated with ischemic stroke outcomes. In this study, we investigated the longitudinal relationships of the two markers with mortality, vascular events and functional outcomes in a stroke cohort. Methods A total of 295 patients with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively recruited in a single center between May 2012 and February 2015. Renal dysfunction was defined as a decreased eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) or albuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g). Good functional outcome at 6 months was defined as a modified Rankin scale score ≤ 2, and the occurrence of major vascular events (stroke, acute coronary syndrome or peripheral artery occlusion) or death was monitored. The associations between renal dysfunction and mortality, major vascular events, and 6-month functional outcome were evaluated by the Cox proportional hazards model and logistic regression analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazards ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained. A Kaplan–Meier survival curve for composite adverse events (major vascular events or death) was also computed according to the presence or absence of albuminuria. Results Albuminuria, not eGFR, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.028; HR 2.15; 95% CI 1.09–4.25) and major vascular events (P = 0.044; HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.02–4.94) in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, alcohol history, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and eGFR. In addition, albuminuria was negatively associated with 6-month functional outcome in the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, alcohol history and eGFR (P = 0.001; OR 0.36; 95% CI 0

  15. Differing first year mortality rates of term births to White, African-American, and Mexican-American US-born and foreign-born mothers.