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Sample records for age-specific reference values

  1. Age-specific reference values for serum prostate-specific antigen in a community-based population of healthy Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Löfman, O; Lindahl, T; Varenhorst, E

    1997-05-01

    To establish normal reference values for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a Swedish population we investigated 878 healthy men, 56-75 years of age. They were randomly selected from a population of 9171 males in this group. Cancer of the prostate was excluded by digital rectal examination. When digital rectal examination was suspicious for carcinoma of the prostate and/or serum PSA > 4 micrograms l-1, fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed. Central values, values of variance and reference limits were defined by a non-parametric method in four age groups. A strong positive correlation between PSA values and age was found and the variance increased with age. The relationship between PSA value and age was non-linear. For the age group 56-60 the upper reference limit (95th percentile) was 4.6 micrograms l-1 (confidence interval, CI: 3.9-5.5). For the age groups 61-65, 66-70 and 71-75 the corresponding values were 4.4 (3.8-5.2), 7.6 (6.5-8.9) and 8.4 micrograms l-1 (7.2-9.8) respectively. For the age groups studied the increment over time of the PSA value was 2-8% per year depending on age, with an average increment per year over 15 years of 4.3%. Overall, 11% of our reference sample had a serum PSA level > 4 micrograms l-1. We consider our study population to be representative for a normal Swedish male population in these age groups. PMID:9238758

  2. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks' gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks' gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks' gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks' gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  3. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks’ gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks’ gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks’ gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks’ gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  4. A theory of the cancer age-specific incidence data based on extreme value distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto-Ortiz, Luis; Brody, James P.

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of cancers varies with age, if normalized this is called the age-specific incidence. A mathematical model that describes this variation should provide a better understanding of how cancers develop. We suggest that the age-specific incidence should follow an extreme value distribution, based on three widely accepted assumptions: (1) a tumor develops from a single cell, (2) many potential tumor progenitor cells exist in a tissue, and (3) cancer is diagnosed when the first of these many potential tumor cells develops into a tumor. We tested this by comparing the predicted distribution to the age-specific incidence data for colon and prostate carcinomas collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results network of 17 cancer registries. We found that colon carcinoma age-specific incidence data is consistent with an extreme value distribution, while prostate carcinomas age-specific incidence data generally follows the distribution. This model indicates that both colon and prostate carcinomas only occur in a subset of the population (22% for prostate and 13.5% for colon.) Because of their very general nature, extreme value distributions might be applicable to understanding other chronic human diseases.

  5. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  6. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won

    2015-01-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, P<0.001), whereas the diagnosis rate was 5% in all GA with the use of a GA-specific cut-off value (P=0.995). Therefore, GA-specific criteria might be more appropriate for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:26339172

  7. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-09-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, P<0.001), whereas the diagnosis rate was 5% in all GA with the use of a GA-specific cut-off value (P=0.995). Therefore, GA-specific criteria might be more appropriate for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:26339172

  8. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Rosita; Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima Dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were studied; results were compared according to diabetes treatment and with persons without diabetes. TSH, FT4, antithyroperoxidase, fasting glucose, and HbA1c were measured. Results and Discussion. 6.4% of patients with diabetes had hypothyroidism, a higher prevalence compared with persons without diabetes (5.1%), but lower than observed in many studies. The use of age-specific TSH reference interval (RI) could explain this difference. Patients taking metformin (MTF) had TSH (showed in medians) slightly lower (2.8 mU/L) than those not on MTF (3.3 mU/L), p < 0.05. MTF doses influenced TSH levels. Conclusions. The use of specific TSH RI could avoid the misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly with diabetes. Patients in use of MTF as single drug had lower TSH than those using other medications and persons without diabetes. PMID:27403442

  9. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were studied; results were compared according to diabetes treatment and with persons without diabetes. TSH, FT4, antithyroperoxidase, fasting glucose, and HbA1c were measured. Results and Discussion. 6.4% of patients with diabetes had hypothyroidism, a higher prevalence compared with persons without diabetes (5.1%), but lower than observed in many studies. The use of age-specific TSH reference interval (RI) could explain this difference. Patients taking metformin (MTF) had TSH (showed in medians) slightly lower (2.8 mU/L) than those not on MTF (3.3 mU/L), p < 0.05. MTF doses influenced TSH levels. Conclusions. The use of specific TSH RI could avoid the misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly with diabetes. Patients in use of MTF as single drug had lower TSH than those using other medications and persons without diabetes. PMID:27403442

  10. Revised reference values for selenium intake.

    PubMed

    Kipp, A P; Strohm, D; Brigelius-Flohé, R; Schomburg, L; Bechthold, A; Leschik-Bonnet, E; Heseker, H

    2015-10-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of selenium and published them in February 2015. The saturation of selenoprotein P (SePP) in plasma is used as a criterion for the derivation of reference values for selenium intake in adults. For persons from selenium-deficient regions (China) SePP saturation was achieved with a daily intake of 49μg of selenium. When using the reference body weights the D-A-CH reference values are based upon, the resulting estimated value for selenium intake is 70μg/day for men and 60μg/day for women. The estimated value for selenium intake for children and adolescents is extrapolated using the estimated value for adults in relation to body weight. For infants aged 0 to under 4 months the estimated value of 10μg/day was derived from the basis of selenium intake via breast milk. For infants aged 4 to under 12 months this estimated value was used and taking into account the differences regarding body weight an estimated value of 15μg/day was derived. For lactating women compared to non-lactating women a higher reference value of 75μg/day is indicated due to the release of selenium with breast milk. The additional selenium requirement for pregnant women is negligible, so that no increased reference value is indicated. PMID:26302929

  11. A study of the effects of cause specific death rates on age-specific death rates with special reference to Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Navaneethan, K

    1983-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of cause specific death rates on age specific death rates for Tamil Nadu rural females during the period 1970-75 in various age groups. 2 regression lines have been fitted. The age specific death rates were taken as dependent variables and time as an independent variable; the age-cause specific death rates were dependent variables and time was an independent variable. In the analysis, the ratio of regression coefficients of 2 regression lines gives the effect of age specific death rates due to the j-th cause in the i-th group. The trend of mortality in the age groups (0-4) and (5-14) declines over the period 1970-75 and increases in the age groups (15-34), (34-54) and 55 and older. The causes of declining mortality in the 0-4 age group are cough, fever, other clear symptoms and other causes. The %s of contribution for this decline are respectively 14%, 41%, 21% and 72% to the overall decline in that age group. The cause group violence and injury, digestive disorders and causes peculiar to infancy have contributed to increase in the 0-4 age group death rates. Digestive disorders, coughs and other causes have contributed to declining mortality in the 5-14 age group. The cause group accidents and injury, digestive disorders, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy and other causes are promoted to increase the mortality of the 15-34 age group. The causes contributing to the increasing trend of mortality in the 35-54 age group are violence and injury, digestive disorders, coughs, other clear symptoms, child births and pregnancy. Digestive disorders and other causes contributed to the mortality increase in the over 55 age group. PMID:12266915

  12. Standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, W; Schmidt, H; Schicke, B; Gromnica-Ihle, E

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography in healthy adults. Methods: Ultrasonography was performed on 204 shoulders, elbows, hands, hips, knees, and feet of 102 healthy volunteers (mean age 38.4 years; range 20–60; 54 women) with a linear probe (10–5 MHz; Esaote Technos MP). Diameters of tendons, bursae, cartilage, erosions, hypoechoic rims around tendons and at joints were measured with regard to established standard scans. Mean, minimum, and maximum values, as well as two standard deviations (2 SD) were determined. Mean values ±2 SD were defined as standard reference values. Results: Hypoechoic rims were normally present in joints and tendon sheaths owing to physiological synovial fluid and/or cartilage. Similarly, fluid was found in the subdeltoid bursa in 173/204 (85%), at the long biceps tendon in 56 (27%), in the suprapatellar recess in 158 (77%), in the popliteal bursae in 32 (16%), and in the retrocalcaneal bursa in 49 (24%). Erosions of >1 mm were seen at the humeral head in 47 (23%). Values for important intervals were determined. The correlation between two investigators was 0.96 (0.78–0.99). The reliability of follow up investigations was 0.83 (0.52–0.99). Conclusions: Fluid in bursae as well as hypoechoic rims within joints and around tendons are common findings in healthy people. This study defines standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography to prevent misinterpretation of normal fluid as an anatomical abnormality. PMID:15249327

  13. Lymphocytes subsets reference values in childhood.

    PubMed

    Tosato, F; Bucciol, G; Pantano, G; Putti, M C; Sanzari, M C; Basso, G; Plebani, M

    2015-01-01

    Immunophenotyping of blood lymphocyte subsets and activation markers is a basic tool in the diagnostic process of primary immunodeficiency diseases, its use becoming more and more widespread as the knowledge about these illnesses increases. However, the availability of reliable reference values, which need to be age-matched for the pediatric population, is a pre-requisite for the reliable interpretation of immunophenotyping data. Aim of this study is to analyze the lymphocyte subsets and activation markers distribution in children aged 0-18 years referring to the University Hospital of Padova and to create age-matched reference values expressed by percentiles, thus providing a valuable guideline for the interpretation of the immunophenotype. PMID:25132325

  14. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  15. Plasma chemistry references values in psittaciformes.

    PubMed

    Lumeij, J T; Overduin, L M

    1990-04-01

    Reference values for 17 plasma chemical variables in African greys. Amazons, cockatoos and macaws were established for use in avian clinical practice. The inner limits are given for the percentiles P(2.5) and P(97.5) with a probability of 90%. The following variables were studied: urea, creatinine, uric acid, urea/uric acid ratio, osmolality, sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, bile acids, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio. Differences between methods used and values found in this study and those reported previously are discussed. PMID:18679934

  16. Determination of age specific ¹³¹I S-factor values for thyroid using anthropomorphic phantom in Geant4 simulations.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ziaur; Ahmad, Syed Bilal; Mirza, Sikander M; Arshed, Waheed; Mirza, Nasir M; Ahmed, Waheed

    2014-08-01

    Using anthropomorphic phantom in Geant4, determination of β- and γ-absorbed fractions and energy absorbed per event due to (131)I activity in thyroid of individuals of various age groups and geometrical models, have been carried out. In the case of (131)I β-particles, the values of the absorbed fraction increased from 0.88 to 0.97 with fetus age. The maximum difference in absorbed energy per decay for soft tissue and water is 7.2% for γ-rays and 0.4% for β-particles. The new mathematical MIRD embedded in Geant4 (MEG) and two-lobe ellipsoidal models developed in this work have 4.3% and 2.9% lower value of S-factor as compared with the ORNL data. PMID:24681428

  17. The Neurobiology of Reference-Dependent Value Computation

    PubMed Central

    De Martino, Benedetto; Kumaran, Dharshan; Holt, Beatrice; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    A key focus of current research in neuroeconomics concerns how the human brain computes value. Although, value has generally been viewed as an absolute measure (e.g., expected value, reward magnitude), much evidence suggests that value is more often computed with respect to a changing reference point, rather than in isolation. Here, we present the results of a study aimed to dissociate brain regions involved in reference-independent (i.e., “absolute”) value computations, from those involved in value computations relative to a reference point. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects acted as buyers and sellers during a market exchange of lottery tickets. At a behavioral level, we demonstrate that subjects systematically accorded a higher value to objects they owned relative to those they did not, an effect that results from a shift in reference point (i.e., status quo bias or endowment effect). Our results show that activity in orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum track parameters such as the expected value of lottery tickets indicating the computation of reference-independent value. In contrast, activity in ventral striatum indexed the degree to which stated prices, at a within-subjects and between-subjects level, were distorted with respect to a reference point. The findings speak to the neurobiological underpinnings of reference dependency during real market value computations. PMID:19321780

  18. Ethics in Reference Service: Codes, Case Studies, or Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Gregory E.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the development of codes of ethics for library reference service and the deficiencies of the code approach; surveys published case studies and hypothetical situations on the issue of unbiased service; and proposes a value-based approach that clarifies the real conflicts and leads to personal decision-making. (34 references) (LRW)

  19. The theory of reference values: an unfinished symphony.

    PubMed

    Siest, Gerard; Henny, Joseph; Gräsbeck, Ralph; Wilding, Peter; Petitclerc, Claude; Queraltó, Josep M; Hyltoft Petersen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The history of the theory of reference values can be written as an unfinished symphony. The first movement, allegro con fuoco, played from 1960 to 1980: a mix of themes devoted to the study of biological variability (intra-, inter-individual, short- and long-term), preanalytical conditions, standardization of analytical methods, quality control, statistical tools for deriving reference limits, all of them complex variations developed on a central melody: the new concept of reference values that would replace the notion of normality whose definition was unclear. Additional contributions (multivariate reference values, use of reference limits from broad sets of patient data, drug interferences) conclude the movement on the variability of laboratory tests. The second movement, adagio, from 1980 to 2000, slowly develops and implements initial works. International and national recommendations were published by the IFCC-LM (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine) and scientific societies [French (SFBC), Spanish (SEQC), Scandinavian societies…]. Reference values are now topics of many textbooks and of several congresses, workshops, and round tables that are organized all over the world. Nowadays, reference values are part of current practice in all clinical laboratories, but not without difficulties, particularly for some laboratories to produce their own reference values and the unsuitability of the concept with respect to new technologies such as HPLC, GCMS, and PCR assays. Clinicians through consensus groups and practice guidelines have introduced their own tools, the decision limits, likelihood ratios and Reference Change Value (RCV), creating confusion among laboratorians and clinicians in substituting reference values and decision limits in laboratory reports. The rapid development of personalized medicine will eventually call for the use of individual reference values. The beginning of the second millennium is played allegro ma non

  20. The Need for a Value-Based Reference Policy: John Rawls at the Reference Desk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for a value-based reference policy and suggests one based on John Rawls' system in "A Theory of Justice" that provides equitable service to all members of an academic community while permitting the librarian to uphold the ideal of freedom of access to information. (11 references) (LRW)

  1. Mn and Btex Reference Value Arrays (Final Reports)

    EPA Science Inventory

    These final reports are a summary of reference value arrays with critical supporting documentation for the chemicals manganese, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. Each chemical is covered in a separate document, and each is a statement of the status of the available inha...

  2. The Value of Chat Reference Services: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, JoAnn; Ward, David; Avery, Susan; Marcyk, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores student, instructor, and librarian perceptions of chat reference in the context of an introductory composition course. Participants in a mixed-method study responded to an anonymized chat transcript. While student respondents valued speed and efficiency, they were willing to receive instruction and open to questions that…

  3. Establishing Normative Reference Values for Handgrip among Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Karsai, István; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine age- and sex-related variation in handgrip strength and to determine reference values for the Hungarian population. Method: A sample of 1,086 Hungary youth (aged 11-18 years old; 654 boys and 432 girls) completed a handgrip strength assessment using a handheld dynamometer. Quantile regression was…

  4. Children's Perceived Competence Scale: Reference values in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yukiyo; Nomura, Kayo; Nagata, Masako; Ohgi, Shohei; Iwasa, Mitsuji

    2015-12-01

    To support children with chronic diseases, reference values to measure developmental changes in self-perception and self-esteem are considered a useful yardstick. To develop reference values to measure self-perceived competence and self-esteem in Japanese children, the Children's Perceived Competence Scale (CPCS) was administered to 768 children of elementary school grade 1 (6 years) to grade 6 (11 years) at four public schools in Japan, from November to December 2012. After excluding 74 with chronic diseases and/or incomplete responses, 694 children were included. CPCS measures children's self-perceived competence in cognitive, social, physical domains, and general self-worth, namely self-esteem. There was a tendency for scores of cognitive and general self-worth to decrease with increasing grade. Scores among grade 5 respondents were significantly lower than those among grade 4 respondents for both social and physical domains. Scores among boys and girls differed significantly, with boys scoring higher for physical domain in grades 3 and 6 and for general self-worth domain in grade 6. The CPCS reference values to measure self-perceived competence and self-esteem in Japanese children were developed in this study. These reference values are useful to inform practitioners supporting children with psychological or psychiatric problems or those with chronic diseases. PMID:24500846

  5. [The concept of reference change values (RCV). Will it supersede reference intervals?].

    PubMed

    Walz, Brigitte; Fierz, Walter

    2015-02-01

    Reference values are generally used to allow a decision on whether a laboratory value is in the normal range or if it mirrors a pathological process. This decision is especially difficult to take, when the pathological process is just starting and the values are relatively close to the normal range. Particularly in this phase, the decision is extremely important. Harris and later on Fraser have realized that there are two variables that contribute to the credibility and significance of a measured analyte. 1. The imprecision of the measurement itself. These values have become relatively low in recent years: they amount to values between 1 and 5 %. 2. The within person biological variability, which can be 100 % or more. Both variables combined yield the "reference change value" (RCV) to define the minimal significant difference between two measurements at different time points. When using this concept, differences between two measurements can be detected before the normal range is exceeded. For any given patient the reference values of a population is actually not of primary concern. It is important to know that his personal data exceed his personal normal range, which is dependent on RCV. For many analytes in clinical chemistry and hematology the use of RCV rather than the normal range as reference improves the decision making process in a clinical setting. PMID:25630296

  6. [Reference values of urinary mercury in the Italian population].

    PubMed

    Soleo, L; Elia, G; Russo, A; Schiavulli, N; Lasorsa, G; Mangili, A; Gilberti, E; Ronchi, A; Balducci, C; Minoia, C; Aprea, C; Sciarra, G F; Valente, T; Fenga, C

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a polycentric study performed to assess the reference values of urinary mercury (U-Hg) in Italian population. 374 subjects from four Italian cities (Bari, Brescia, Genova e Siena) have been examined. A questionnaire on life style, dietary habits, occupational or environmental exposure to Hg and clinical history has been administered to every participant and number and surface of dental amalgams have been verified for all subjects. The determination of U-Hg has been performed on urinary extemporary samples by hydride generation atomic absorption method (HG-AAS); urinary creatinine has been determinated to reduce the intraindividual variability. U-Hg reference values were: 0.21-3.20 micrograms/g creat (5 degrees and 95 degrees percentile) and 0.12-6.04 micrograms/g creat (range). Moreover study results have shown that number and surface of dental amalgams, dietary fish intake and body mass index (BMI) influenced significatively U-Hg excretion. U-Hg reference values from this polycentric study resulted comparable to those assessed in other European countries, whereas the mean U-Hg observed in the referent Italian population was lower. PMID:12696492

  7. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  8. Reference Values of Maximal Oxygen Uptake for Polish Rowers

    PubMed Central

    Klusiewicz, Andrzej; Starczewski, Michał; Ładyga, Maria; Długołęcka, Barbara; Braksator, Wojciech; Mamcarz, Artur; Sitkowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes in maximal oxygen uptake over several years and to elaborate current reference values of this index based on determinations carried out in large and representative groups of top Polish rowers. For this study 81 female and 159 male rowers from the sub-junior to senior categories were recruited from the Polish National Team and its direct backup. All the subjects performed an incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. During the test maximal oxygen uptake was measured with the BxB method. The calculated reference values for elite Polish junior and U23 rowers allowed to evaluate the athletes’ fitness level against the respective reference group and may aid the coach in controlling the training process. Mean values of VO2max achieved by members of the top Polish rowing crews who over the last five years competed in the Olympic Games or World Championships were also presented. The results of the research on the “trainability” of the maximal oxygen uptake may lead to a conclusion that the growth rate of the index is larger in case of high-level athletes and that the index (in absolute values) increases significantly between the age of 19–22 years (U23 category). PMID:25713672

  9. Reference values of maximal oxygen uptake for polish rowers.

    PubMed

    Klusiewicz, Andrzej; Starczewski, Michał; Ładyga, Maria; Długołęcka, Barbara; Braksator, Wojciech; Mamcarz, Artur; Sitkowski, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize changes in maximal oxygen uptake over several years and to elaborate current reference values of this index based on determinations carried out in large and representative groups of top Polish rowers. For this study 81 female and 159 male rowers from the sub-junior to senior categories were recruited from the Polish National Team and its direct backup. All the subjects performed an incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. During the test maximal oxygen uptake was measured with the BxB method. The calculated reference values for elite Polish junior and U23 rowers allowed to evaluate the athletes' fitness level against the respective reference group and may aid the coach in controlling the training process. Mean values of VO2max achieved by members of the top Polish rowing crews who over the last five years competed in the Olympic Games or World Championships were also presented. The results of the research on the "trainability" of the maximal oxygen uptake may lead to a conclusion that the growth rate of the index is larger in case of high-level athletes and that the index (in absolute values) increases significantly between the age of 19-22 years (U23 category). PMID:25713672

  10. Age-specific migration and regional diversity.

    PubMed

    Morrill, R

    1994-11-01

    "This author examines patterns of age-specific migration between 1980 and 1990 for a small, growing region, the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A., with the purpose of assessing the degree of geographic diversity in experience. A simple typology of the expected spatial and structural pattern of age-specific migration is proposed. Cluster analysis is used to group counties on the basis of age-specific rates of net migration. Even this fairly small region is found to exemplify most of the patterns that might be expected to occur in the nation as a whole." PMID:12288335

  11. Reference value developed for mechanical integrity of storage caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Crotogino, F.

    1996-10-28

    A reference value to verify the mechanical integrity of salt-cavern wells used in hydrocarbon storage has been developed. Salt caverns play important roles in large-scale storage of hydrocarbon gases and liquids. Required for safe and economical operation of these storage caverns is verification of the external mechanical integrity of the access (injection and withdrawal) wells. This study had the following goals: Provision of an overview of current practice; and Development of a reference for external well mechanical-integrity testing with respect to performance, data evaluation, and assessment. The storage cavern operators expected to gain the following: Comparability between method and assessments; Aid in influencing the movement towards standardization by regulators; and A firm technical base for use in litigation between the operator and other parties.

  12. Auditory evoked potential P300 in adults: reference values

    PubMed Central

    Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Garcia, Michele Vargas; Oppitz, Sheila Jacques; da Silva, Thalisson Francisco Finamôr; dos Santos, Sinéia Neujahr; Bruno, Rúbia Soares; Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins dos Santos; Cóser, Pedro Luis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To establish reference intervals for cognitive potential P300 latency using tone burst stimuli. Methods This study involved 28 participants aged between 18 and 59 years. P300 recordings were performed using a two-channel device (Masbe, Contronic). Electrode placement was as follows: Fpz (ground electrode), Cz (active electrode), M1 and M2 (reference electrodes). Intensity corresponded to 80 dB HL and frequent and rare stimulus frequencies to 1,000Hz and 2,000Hz, respectively. Stimuli were delivered binaurally. Results Mean age of participants was 35 years. Average P300 latency was 305ms. Conclusion Maximum acceptable P300 latency values of 362.5ms (305 + 2SD 28.75) were determined for adults aged 18 to 59 years using the protocol described. PMID:27462895

  13. Reference Values for Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Chinese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Hong; Ran, Xingwu; Yang, Wenying; Li, Qiang; Peng, Yongde; Li, Yanbing; Gao, Xin; Luan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weiqing; Jia, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The widespread clinical application of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is limited by the lack of generally accepted reference values. This multicenter study aims to establish preliminary normal reference values for CGM parameters in a sample of healthy Chinese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 434 healthy individuals with normal glucose regulation completed a 3-day period of glucose monitoring using a CGM system. The 24-h mean blood glucose (24-h MBG) and the percentage of time that subjects' blood glucose levels were ≥140 mg/dl (PT140) and ≤70 mg/dl (PT70) within 24 h were analyzed. RESULTS There was excellent compliance of finger stick blood glucose values with CGM measurements for subjects. Among the 434 subjects, the daily blood glucose varied from 76.9 ± 11.3 to 144.2 ± 23.2 mg/dl. The 24-h MBG, PT140, and PT70 were 104 ± 10 mg/dl, 4.1 ± 5.8%, and 2.4 ± 5.3%, respectively. As for these parameters, no significant differences were found between men and women. The 95th percentile values were adopted as the upper limits of CGM parameters, which revealed 119 mg/dl (6.6 mmol/l) for 24-h MBG, 17.1% for PT140, and 11.7% for PT70. CONCLUSIONS We recommend a 24-h MBG value <119 mg/dl, PT140 <17% (4 h), and PT70 <12% (3 h) as normal ranges for the Chinese population. PMID:19389816

  14. A conventional value for the geoid reference potential W0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, L.; Čunderlík, R.; Dayoub, N.; Mikula, K.; Minarechová, Z.; Šíma, Z.; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2016-05-01

    W0 is defined as the potential value of a particular level surface of the Earth's gravity field called the geoid. Since the most accepted definition of the geoid is understood to be the equipotential surface that coincides with the worldwide mean ocean surface, a usual approximation of W0 is the averaged potential value WS at the mean sea surface. In this way, the value of W0 depends not only on the Earth's gravity field modelling, but also on the conventions defining the mean sea surface. W0 computations performed since 2005 demonstrate that current published estimations differ by up to -2.6 m2 s^{-2} (corresponding to a level difference of about 27 cm), which could be caused by the differences in the treatment of the input data. The main objective of this study is to perform a new W0 estimation relying on the newest gravity field and sea surface models and applying standardised data and procedures. This also includes a detailed description of the processing procedure to ensure the reproducibility of the results. The following aspects are analysed in this paper: (1) sensitivity of the W0 estimation to the Earth's gravity field model (especially omission and commission errors and time-dependent Earth's gravity field changes); (2) sensitivity of the W0 estimation to the mean sea surface model (e.g., geographical coverage, time-dependent sea surface variations, accuracy of the mean sea surface heights); (3) dependence of the W0 empirical estimation on the tide system; and (4) weighted computation of the W0 value based on the input data quality. Main conclusions indicate that the satellite-only component (n = 200) of a static (quasi-stationary) global gravity model is sufficient for the computation of W0 . This model should, however, be based on a combination of, at least, satellite laser ranging (SLR), GRACE and GOCE data. The mean sea surface modelling should be based on mean sea surface heights referring to a certain epoch and derived from a standardised multi

  15. Reference value of semen quality in Chinese young men.

    PubMed

    Junqing, Wu; Qiuying, Yang; Jianguo, Tao; Wei, Yuan; Liwei, Bo; Yuxian, Li; Yumei, Zhou; Kangshou, Yao; Weiqun, Lu; Lu, Chen; Ersheng, Gao

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate semen quality in young Chinese men and to establish reference values. Normal healthy young men from seven geographical areas were enrolled. The study showed that the mean sperm volume was 2.61 mL, and mean percent of sperm with forward progression was 59.89, while median of semen viability was 79.0%, and geometric mean of semen density was 55.45 x 10(6)/mL. Proportion of routine semen indexes that met World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were as follows: 81.9% for semen volume, 91.1% for liquefaction time, 93.4% for viscosity, 90.8% for pH, 81.3% for sperm with forward progression, 65.3% for sperm viability, 93.8% for semen density, 98.8% for normal sperm morphology, and 89.1% for total sperm count. Participants whose sperm met all WHO standard parameters accounted for 42.3%. Because the infertility rate in China is about 10-15%, the fifteenth percentile of semen parameters might be used as the lower limit of reference values, which may be more appropriate for young Chinese men. The fifteenth percentiles of parameters in this study were as follows: 1.5 mL for semen volume, 7.2 for pH value, 45% for proportion of sperm with forward progression, 68% for sperm viability, 30 x 10(6)/mL for semen density, 68% for proportion of sperm with normal morphology, and 50 x 10(6) for total sperm count. PMID:12057790

  16. Electrocardiogram reference values for the buzzard in Spain.

    PubMed

    Espino, L; Suárez, M L; López-Beceiro, A; Santamarina, G

    2001-10-01

    Electrocardiographic reference values were established on apparently healthy buzzards (Buteo buteo) in Lugo (Spain) from March 1997 to June 1999. All birds were anesthetized with isofluorane and placed in dorsal recumbence. The standard and augmented unipolar limb leads electrocardiograms were recorded in 65 buzzards. The wave forms were analyzed in lead II at 50 mm/sec and at 1 cm = 1 mV to determine P, PR, QRS, T and QT durations and P, QRS and T amplitudes. The polarity of each wave form was tabulated in all leads. The mean electrical axis (MEA) for the frontal plane was calculated using leads II and III. The mean heart rate was 325.2 +/- 52.9 beats/min. In lead II, the P wave was positive, the dominant pattern of QRS complex was QS and the T wave was always positive. The average value of the MEA was -99.2 +/- 7.7 degrees. Establishment of normal electrocardiogram (EKG) values will facilitate a better understanding of EKG changes seen in many diseases of these birds. PMID:11763731

  17. Echocardiographic reference values in healthy cats sedated with ketamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Fox, P R; Bond, B R; Peterson, M E

    1985-07-01

    An M-mode echocardiographic examination was performed in a consistent manner in 30 clinically healthy cats under light ketamine hydrochloride sedation. There was a significant linear relationship between increasing body size and increasing cardiac dimensions for several echocardiographic values. Positive correlation existed between body weight and body surface area with aortic root, left ventricular caudal wall thickness (LVCW), interventricular septal thickness (IVS), IVS/LVCW, and mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (Vcf); there was a negative correlation between body weight and body surface area with left ventricular ejection time (LVET). Body surface area also correlated positively with percentage of ventricular minor axis dimensional change (% delta D). Positive correlations were recorded between left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) and left ventricular endsystolic dimension (LVESD), LVESD and LVET, LVCW and IVS, LVET (calculated by LVCW motion) and LVET (calculated by aortic valve motion), % delta D and Vcf, heart rate and Vcf, and Vcf (calculated using aortic valve motion to compute LVET) and Vcf (using LVCW motion to compute LVET). There were negative correlations between LVEDD and % delta D, LVEDD and Vcf, LVESD and Vcf, LVET and Vcf, LVET and heart rate, LVET and % delta D. Significant differences were recorded between means of echocardiographic reference values generated in this and other studies, except for LVESD. PMID:4026030

  18. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in five standard reference materials and six reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Gill, L M

    2000-01-01

    A number of food-matrix reference materials (RMs) are available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from Agriculture Canada through NIST. Most of these materials were originally value-assigned for their elemental composition (major, minor, and trace elements), but no additional nutritional information was provided. Two of the materials were certified for selected organic constituents. Ten of these materials (Standard Reference Material [SRM] 1,563 Cholesterol and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Coconut Oil [Natural and Fortified], SRM 1,566b Oyster Tissue, SRM 1,570a Spinach Leaves, SRM 1,974a Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis), RM 8,415 Whole Egg Powder, RM 8,418 Wheat Gluten, RM 8,432 Corn Starch, RM 8,433 Corn Bran, RM 8,435 Whole Milk Powder, and RM 8,436 Durum Wheat Flour) were recently distributed by NIST to 4 laboratories with expertise in food analysis for the measurement of proximates (solids, fat, protein, etc.), calories, and total dietary fiber, as appropriate. SRM 1846 Infant Formula was distributed as a quality control sample for the proximates and for analysis for individual fatty acids. Two of the materials (Whole Egg Powder and Whole Milk Powder) were distributed in an earlier interlaboratory comparison exercise in which they were analyzed for several vitamins. Value assignment of analyte concentrations in these 11 SRMs and RMs, based on analyses by the collaborating laboratories, is described in this paper. These materials are intended primarily for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of nutrients in foods of similar composition (based on AOAC INTERNATIONAL's fat-protein-carbohydrate triangle). They may also be used as "primary control materials" in the value assignment of in-house control materials of similar composition. The addition of proximate information for 10 existing reference materials means that RMs are now available from NIST with assigned values for proximates in 6 of the 9 sectors of

  19. Quality reference values of trace elements in Brazilian organosols.

    PubMed

    Lima, Erica Souto Abreu; do Amaral Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; de Paiva, Filipe Soares Diniz; Coutinho, Izabella Bezerra; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Zonta, Everaldo

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the natural background levels of trace elements in organosols and the proposal of quality reference values (QRVs) for these elements are essential for monitoring these soils because they are fragile and subject to change more intensely and rapidly than other soil classes. Given the above information, the objectives of this study were to determine the QRVs of trace elements for organosols and to correlate some soil properties with the occurrence of these elements. Forty organic soil horizon samples from different regions of Brazil were selected to determine the pseudo-total content of trace elements. The samples were separated into three groups according to a cluster analysis. The soil variable Fe and C contents had the strongest influence on the trace element contents in the organosols and were therefore used in the group classification functions. QRVs were proposed according to the 75th percentiles of the groups. The classification functions are a suitable tool for the allocation of new samples into previously established groups and may potentially be used to estimate the degree of organosol degradation. PMID:27317053

  20. Meeting the nutrient reference values on a vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Reid, Michelle A; Marsh, Kate A; Zeuschner, Carol L; Saunders, Angela V; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    Surveys over the past 10 years have shown that Australians are increasingly consuming more plant-based vegetarian meals. Many studies demonstrate the health benefits of vegetarian diets. As with any type of eating plan, vegetarian diets must be well planned to ensure nutritional needs are being met. This clinical focus project shows that well planned vegetarian diets can meet almost all the nutritional needs of children and adults of all ages. Sample single-day lacto-ovo-vegetarian meal plans were developed to comply with the nutrient reference values - including the increased requirements for iron and zinc at 180% and 150%, respectively, for vegetarians - for both sexes and all age groups set by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council and the New Zealand Ministry of Health. With the exception of vitamin D, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and extended iron requirements in pregnancy for vegetarians, the meal plans meet key requirements with respect to energy; protein; carbohydrate; total fat; saturated, poly- and monounsaturated fats; α-linolenic acid; fibre; iron; zinc; calcium; folate; and vitamins A, C, E and B₁₂. PMID:25369927

  1. EURRECA-Estimating zinc requirements for deriving dietary reference values.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Nicola M; Dykes, Fiona C; Skinner, Anna-Louise; Patel, Sujata; Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Decsi, Tamás; Fekete, Katalin; Souverein, Olga W; Dullemeijer, Carla; Cavelaars, Adriënne E; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Nissensohn, Mariela; Bel, Silvia; Moreno, Luis A; Hermoso, Maria; Vollhardt, Christiane; Berti, Cristiana; Cetin, Irene; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Novakovic, Romana; Harvey, Linda J; Collings, Rachel; Hall-Moran, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Zinc was selected as a priority micronutrient for EURRECA, because there is significant heterogeneity in the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) across Europe. In addition, the prevalence of inadequate zinc intakes was thought to be high among all population groups worldwide, and the public health concern is considerable. In accordance with the EURRECA consortium principles and protocols, a series of literature reviews were undertaken in order to develop best practice guidelines for assessing dietary zinc intake and zinc status. These were incorporated into subsequent literature search strategies and protocols for studies investigating the relationships between zinc intake, status and health, as well as studies relating to the factorial approach (including bioavailability) for setting dietary recommendations. EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane Library CENTRAL, and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were searched for studies published up to February 2010 and collated into a series of Endnote databases that are available for the use of future DRV panels. Meta-analyses of data extracted from these publications were performed where possible in order to address specific questions relating to factors affecting dietary recommendations. This review has highlighted the need for more high quality studies to address gaps in current knowledge, in particular the continued search for a reliable biomarker of zinc status and the influence of genetic polymorphisms on individual dietary requirements. In addition, there is a need to further develop models of the effect of dietary inhibitors of zinc absorption and their impact on population dietary zinc requirements. PMID:23952091

  2. Reference values and improvement of aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists.

    PubMed

    García-López, Juan; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José Antonio; Juneau, Carl-Etienne; Peleteiro, José; Martínez, Alfredo Córdova; Villa, José Gerardo

    2008-02-01

    The aims of this study were to measure the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists, to obtain aerodynamic drag reference values in static and effort positions, to improve the cyclists' aerodynamic drag by modifying their position and cycle equipment, and to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these modifications. The study was performed in a wind tunnel with five professional cyclists. Four positions were assessed with a time-trial bike and one position with a standard racing bike. In all positions, aerodynamic drag and kinematic variables were recorded. The drag area for the time-trial bike was 31% higher in the effort than static position, and lower than for the standard racing bike. Changes in the cyclists' position decreased the aerodynamic drag by 14%. The aero-helmet was not favourable for all cyclists. The reliability of aerodynamic drag measures in the wind tunnel was high (r > 0.96, coefficient of variation < 2%). In conclusion, we measured and improved the aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists. Our results were better than those of other researchers who did not assess aerodynamic drag during effort at race pace and who employed different wheels. The efficiency of the aero-helmet, and the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the wind tunnel and aerodynamic field testing were addressed. PMID:17943597

  3. Rethinking Reference: Consistent Values, New Methods, and Different Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Kaetrena Davis

    2011-01-01

    The core duties of the reference librarian inherently mandate that the work environment is not unlike a kaleidoscope: Students and faculty revolve within and around the library, and reference and public services workers do the same; every move temporarily redesigning the library, its collections, and even its very role on campus into something…

  4. Age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    I studied the frequency with which Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) of known age were observed breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. No one- or two-year old geese were observed on nests. Three-year old geese bred at a lower rate than four-year old geese. These data suggest that patterns of age-specific breeding in Emperor Geese are similar to other sympatrically nesting, large bodied geese [Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons)] but delayed relative to smaller bodied geese [Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) and Pacific Black Brant (B. bernicla nigricans)].

  5. Value Preferences of College Students with Reference to Environmental Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Frank; Dunlop, David L.

    1976-01-01

    This study designed the Environmental Chemistry Value Preference (ECVP) instrument to assess the value preferences of college non-science majors with respect to certain aspects of environmental chemistry and used the instrument to obtain the value preferences of various groups of non-science majors who had completed some chemistry courses. (BT)

  6. Body growth considerations in age-specific dosimetry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.

    1993-09-30

    This report describes the manner in which the age-specific dosimetric calculations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) addressed changes in organ size that occur with age. The approach involves an interpolation of dosimetric information derived for six reference individuals using the inverse of the total body mass as the interpolation variable. An alternative formulation is investigated that employs a functional representation of the organ mass as a function of age in conjunction with an explicit formulation of the dosimetric factors in terms of organ mass. Using an exponential-logistic growth function as suggested by Walker, this report demonstrates, through application to the dosimetry of radioiodines in the thyroid, that the alternative formulation can be formulated and implemented. Although either approach provides a workable basis for age-specific dosimetry, it is clear that the functional representation of organ growth has some attractive features. However, without question, the major difficulty is the quality and quantity of data available to address the age- and gender-specific parameters in the dosimetric formulations.

  7. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process. The IOM issues the Dietary Reference Intake values (DR...

  8. Reference values for spirometry – report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies

    PubMed Central

    Backman, Helena; Lindberg, Anne; Odén, Anders; Ekerljung, Linda; Hedman, Linnéa; Kainu, Annette; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormal lung function is commonly identified by comparing observed spirometric values to corresponding reference values. It is recommended that such reference values for spirometry are evaluated and updated frequently. The aim of this study was to estimate new reference values for Swedish adults by fitting a multivariable regression model to a healthy non-smoking general population sample from northern Sweden. Further aims were to evaluate the external validity of the obtained reference values on a contemporary sample from south-western Sweden, and to compare them to the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference values. Method Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to the spirometric data of n=501 healthy non-smoking adults aged 22–91 years, with age and height as predictors. The models were extended to allow the scatter around the outcome variable to depend on age, and age-dependent spline functions were incorporated into the models to provide a smooth fit over the entire age range. Mean values and lower limits of normal, defined as the lower 5th percentiles, were derived. Result This modelling approach resulted in unbiased estimates of the spirometric outcomes, and the obtained estimates were appropriate not only for the northern Sweden sample but also for the south-western Sweden sample. On average, the GLI reference values for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and, in particular, forced expiratory vital capacity (FVC) were lower than both the observed values and the new reference values, but higher for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion The evaluation based on the sample of healthy non-smokers from northern Sweden show that the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden reference values are valid. Furthermore, the evaluation based on the south-western Sweden sample indicates a high external validity. The comparison with GLI brought further evidence to the consensus that, when available, appropriate local

  9. Selenium and glutathione peroxidase reference values in whole blood and plasma of a reference population living in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Alegría, A; Barberá, R; Clemente, G; Farré, R; García, M J; Lagarda, M J

    1996-12-01

    In order to assess the reference values for selenium nutritional status, adequate indicators (selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity) were determined in whole blood and blood derivates of a healthy population (n = 287) from the province of Valencia, Spain. The reference population was selected by applying preestablished criteria. Selenium in whole blood and plasma was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), with a deuterium correction, after addition of Pd/Mg(NO3)2 as the matrix modifier and appropriate dilution. Accuracy was checked by means of a reference material (Seronorm Trace Metals serum and whole blood). The population's reference intervals for selenium content at a 95% confidence level were: 53.03-108.96 and 66.71-119.4 mg/L for plasma and whole blood selenium concentration respectively. GPX activity was measured using a modification of the Paglia and Valentine method, and the reference intervals obtained ranged from 196 to 477 U/L in plasma, from 49 to 93 U/gHb in erythrocytes and from 52 to 96 U/gHb in whole blood. The only statistically significant differences detected between men and women are for to the GPX activity in whole blood. The results obtained are in the range of values found by others authors in healthy populations residing in different European countries. PMID:9021673

  10. Acquisition of improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected NIST reference materials.

    PubMed

    Parr, R M; Kawamura, H; Iyengar, G V

    1999-01-01

    As part of a study on the ingestion and organ content of some trace elements of importance in radiological protection, additional work has been undertaken to acquire improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in four selected reference materials provided by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. The materials are SRM-1548 Total Diet, SRM-1548a Typical Diet, SRM-1486 Bone Meal, and RM-8414 Bovine Muscle. A coordinated study was undertaken with the help of seven selected laboratories in five countries. Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were the analytical main techniques used. PMID:10676473

  11. Polynomial estimation of the smoothing splines for the new Finnish reference values for spirometry.

    PubMed

    Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi

    2016-07-01

    Background Discontinuity of spirometry reference values from childhood into adulthood has been a problem with traditional reference values, thus modern modelling approaches using smoothing spline functions to better depict the transition during growth and ageing have been recently introduced. Following the publication of the new international Global Lung Initiative (GLI2012) reference values also new national Finnish reference values have been calculated using similar GAMLSS-modelling, with spline estimates for mean (Mspline) and standard deviation (Sspline) provided in tables. The aim of this study was to produce polynomial estimates for these spline functions to use in lieu of lookup tables and to assess their validity in the reference population of healthy non-smokers. Methods Linear regression modelling was used to approximate the estimated values for Mspline and Sspline using similar polynomial functions as in the international GLI2012 reference values. Estimated values were compared to original calculations in absolute values, the derived predicted mean and individually calculated z-scores using both values. Results Polynomial functions were estimated for all 10 spirometry variables. The agreement between original lookup table-produced values and polynomial estimates was very good, with no significant differences found. The variation slightly increased in larger predicted volumes, but a range of -0.018 to +0.022 litres of FEV1 representing ± 0.4% of maximum difference in predicted mean. Conclusions Polynomial approximations were very close to the original lookup tables and are recommended for use in clinical practice to facilitate the use of new reference values. PMID:27071737

  12. Graphical Arrays of Chemical-Specific Health Effect Reference Values for Inhalation Exposures (2009 Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides graphical arrays and tables of key information on the derivation of human inhalation health effect reference values for specific chemicals, allowing comparisons across durations, populations, and intended use. A number of program offices within the Agency, ...

  13. Reference values for total blood volume and cardiac output in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.R.

    1994-09-01

    Much research has been devoted to measurement of total blood volume (TBV) and cardiac output (CO) in humans but not enough effort has been devoted to collection and reduction of results for the purpose of deriving typical or {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} values. Identification of normal values for TBV and CO is needed not only for clinical evaluations but also for the development of biokinetic models for ultra-short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (Leggett and Williams 1989). The purpose of this report is to offer reference values for TBV and CO, along with estimates of the associated uncertainties that arise from intra- and inter-subject variation, errors in measurement techniques, and other sources. Reference values are derived for basal supine CO and TBV in reference adult humans, and differences associated with age, sex, body size, body position, exercise, and other circumstances are discussed.

  14. Energy and nutrient dietary reference values for children in Europe: methodological approaches and current nutritional recommendations.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Ann; Branca, Francesco; Decsi, Tamás; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Fletcher, Reg J; Guesry, Pierre; Manz, Friedrich; Vidailhet, Michel; Pannemans, Daphne; Samartín, Sonia

    2004-10-01

    The Expert Group on the Methodological Approaches and Current Nutritional Recommendations in Children and Adolescents was convened to consider the current situation across Europe with regard to dietary recommendations and reference values for children aged 2-18 years. Information was obtained for twenty-nine of the thirty-nine countries in Europe and a comprehensive compilation was made of the dietary recommendations current up to September 2002. This report presents a review of the concepts of dietary reference values and a comparison of the methodological approaches used in each country. Attention is drawn to the special considerations that are needed for establishing dietary reference values for children and adolescents. Tables are provided of the current dietary reference values for energy and for the macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, trace elements and water. Brief critiques are included to indicate the scientific foundations of the reference values for children and to offer, where possible, an explanation for the wide differences that exist between countries. This compilation demonstrated that there are considerable disparities in the perceived nutritional requirements of European children and adolescents. Although some of this diversity can be attributed to real physiological and environmental differences, most is due to differences in philosophy about the best methodological approach to use and in the way the theoretical approaches are applied. The report highlights the main methodological and technological issues that will need to be resolved before harmonization can be fully considered. Solving these issues may help to improve the quality and consistency of dietary reference values across Europe. However, there are also considerable scientific and political barriers that will need to be overcome and the question of whether harmonization of dietary reference values for children and adolescents is a desirable or achievable goal for Europe requires further

  15. Reference values and clinical application of magnetic peripheral nerve stimulation in cats.

    PubMed

    Van Soens, Iris; Struys, Michel M R F; Bhatti, Sofie F M; Van Ham, Luc M L

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic stimulation of radial (RN) and sciatic (SN) nerves was performed bilaterally in 40 healthy cats. Reference values for onset latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of magnetic motor evoked potentials (MMEPs) were obtained and compared with values of electric motor evoked potentials (EMEPs) in 10/40 cats. Onset latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes of the MMEPs of three cats with polyneuropathy (PNP) were compared to the reference values. Magnetic motor evoked responses were easily recorded in all normal cats. Significant differences were found in onset latencies between MMEPs and EMEPs, but peak-to-peak amplitudes were equal. The MMEPs of three cats with PNP can be seen as outliers in comparison to the reference values. MMEPs from the RN and SN were easily obtained and reproducible in normal cats. The technique could represent a useful adjunct in the assessment of peripheral nerve disorders. PMID:22070914

  16. Defining laboratory reference values and decision limits: populations, intervals, and interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of various approaches that may be utilized for the analysis of human semen test results. Reference intervals are the most widely used tool for the interpretation of clinical laboratory results. Reference interval development has classically relied on concepts elaborated by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Expert Panel on Reference Values during the 1980s. These guidelines involve obtaining and classifying samples from a healthy population of at least 120 individuals and then identifying the outermost 5% of observations to use in defining limits for two-sided or one-sided reference intervals. More recently, decision limits based on epidemiological outcome analysis have also been introduced to aid in test interpretation. The reference population must be carefully defined on the basis of the intended clinical use of the underlying test. To determine appropriate reference intervals for use in male fertility assessment, a reference population of men with documented time to pregnancy of < 12 months would be most suitable. However, for epidemiological assessment of semen testing results, a reference population made up of unselected healthy men would be preferred. Although reference and decision limits derived for individual semen analysis test results will undoubtedly be the interpretational tools of choice in the near future, in the long term, multivariate methods for the interpretation of semen analysis alone or in combination with information from the female partner seem to represent better means for assessing the likelihood of achieving a successful pregnancy in a subfertile couple. PMID:20111086

  17. The role of observational reference data for climate downscaling: Insights from the VALUE COST Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlarski, Sven; Gutiérrez, José M.; Boberg, Fredrik; Bosshard, Thomas; Cardoso, Rita M.; Herrera, Sixto; Maraun, Douglas; Mezghani, Abdelkader; Pagé, Christian; Räty, Olle; Stepanek, Petr; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Szabo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research (http://www.value-cost.eu). A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of downscaling methods. Such assessments can be expected to crucially depend on the existence of accurate and reliable observational reference data. In dynamical downscaling, observational data can influence model development itself and, later on, model evaluation, parameter calibration and added value assessment. In empirical-statistical downscaling, observations serve as predictand data and directly influence model calibration with corresponding effects on downscaled climate change projections. We here present a comprehensive assessment of the influence of uncertainties in observational reference data and of scale-related issues on several of the above-mentioned aspects. First, temperature and precipitation characteristics as simulated by a set of reanalysis-driven EURO-CORDEX RCM experiments are validated against three different gridded reference data products, namely (1) the EOBS dataset (2) the recently developed EURO4M-MESAN regional re-analysis, and (3) several national high-resolution and quality-controlled gridded datasets that recently became available. The analysis reveals a considerable influence of the choice of the reference data on the evaluation results, especially for precipitation. It is also illustrated how differences between the reference data sets influence the ranking of RCMs according to a comprehensive set of performance measures.

  18. Measuring Negative Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity in the German Population – Psychometric Properties and Reference Values for the German Short Version of the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Ruzanska, Ulrike; Sikorski, Claudia; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Obese individuals are often stigmatized and the psychosocial consequences of overweight and obesity are the subject of current research. To detect stigmatizing attitudes towards obese people, the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS) was developed in the USA in the early nineties. In addition, the 14-item short form of the FPS was constructed. The FPS belongs to the most commonly used instruments for measuring negative attitudes towards obese people because of its good psychometric properties. For the recently developed German short form of the FPS, however, the comprehensive investigation of the psychometric properties and the determination of reference values are still pending. Thus, the main objectives of this study were the evaluation of the psychometric quality of the scale as well as the calculation of reference values. Methods The study was based on a representative survey in the German general population. A sample of 1,657 subjects (18–94 years) was assessed via structured telephone interviews including the 14-item German version of the FPS. Descriptive statistics and inference-statistical analyses were conducted. Reference values in terms of percentage ranks were calculated. Results Substantial evidence for the reliability and validity of the German short version of the FPS was found. This study, for the first time in Germany, provides age-specific reference values for the German short form of the FPS allowing the interpretation of individual test scores. Conclusion Facing the far-reaching consequences of experienced stigmatization of obese individuals, these study results provide an important basis for further studies aiming at the investigation of negative attitudes towards overweight and obesity. PMID:25474195

  19. Age effects in monetary valuation of reduced mortality risks: the relevance of age-specific hazard rates.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Andrea M

    2011-08-01

    This paper highlights the relevance of age-specific hazard rates in explaining the age variation in "value of statistical life" (VSL) figures. The analysis-which refers to a stated preference framework-contributes to the ongoing discussion of whether benefits resulting from reduced mortality risk should be valued differently depending on the age of the beneficiaries. By focussing on a life-threatening environmental phenomenon I show that the consideration of the individual's age-specific hazard rate is important. If a particular risk affects all individuals regardless of their age so that their hazard rate is age-independent, VSL is rather constant for people at different age; if hazard rate varies with age, VSL estimates are sensitive to age. The results provide an explanation for the mixed outcomes in empirical studies and illustrate in which cases an adjustment to age may or may not be justified. Efficient provision of live-saving measures requires that such differences to be taken into account. PMID:20376521

  20. Spirometry in preschool children: time has come for new reference values.

    PubMed

    Kalhoff, H; Breidenbach, R; Smith, H J; Marek, W

    2009-11-01

    Lung function measurements play an essential role in early diagnosis and monitoring of bronchial asthma in children. For clinical evaluation, measurements are commonly compared to reference values. However, these reference values are calculated based on measurements performed in groups of mostly older children and young adults two or three decades ago. In the present, cross-sectional study, lung function measurements were performed in 518 children (241 boys and 277 girls; mean age 6.0+/-0.3 years) at a regular medical check prior to school enrollment. Spirometry was done using the MasterScreen IOS (Cardinal Health, Wurzburg). We recorded forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), maximal expiratory flow (PEF), and maximal expiratory flow at 75, 50, and 25% of vital capacity (MEF(75), MEF(50), MEF(25)). We found that FEV(1) and FVC corresponded to reference values (101.0+/-14.9% and 95.4+/-13.6%, in boys and girls, respectively). In maneuvers satisfying ATS/ERS criteria (T(E) >1 sec), forced expiratory (parameters (PEF, MEF(50)) reached only 68.9+/-13.6 and 75.9+/-26.6% of reference values, in boys and girls, respectively). There was no significant correlation of lung function parameters to BMI. In conclusion, the hitherto reference values largely overestimate the maximal flow rates of preschool children performing a forced spirometry with T(E) >1 sec. At the age of 6, forced expiratory flow values are not (yet) impaired by an increased BMI. Standardized spirometry starting in preschool children allows closely evaluating the individual development of lung function during follow-up measurements. PMID:20134042

  1. Normalized mean shapes and reference index values for computerized quantitative assessment indices of chest wall deformities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho Chul; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Seong Keon; Nam, Ki Chang; Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Min Gi; Song, Jae-Jun; Choi, Hyuk

    2015-11-01

    We previously proposed a computerized index (eccentricity index [EI]) for chest-wall deformity measurements, such as pectus excavatum. We sought to define mean shapes based on normal chest walls and to propose for computerized index reference values of that are used in the quantitative analysis of the severity of chest-wall deformities. A total of 584 patients were classified into 18 groups, and a database of their chest-wall computed tomography (CT) scan images was constructed. The boundaries of the chest wall were extracted by using a segmentation algorithm, and the mean shapes were subsequently developed. The reference index values were calculated from the developed mean shapes. Reference index values for the EI were compared with a conventional index, the Haller index (HI). A close association has been shown between the two indices in multiple subjects (r = 0.974, P < 0.001). The newly developed mean shapes and reference index values supply both reliability and objectivity to the diagnosis, analysis, and treatment of chest-wall deformities. They promise to be highly useful in clinical settings.

  2. Reference Values for Anaerobic Performance and Agility in Ambulatory Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuren, Olaf; Bloemen, Manon; Kruitwagen, Cas; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to provide reference values of anaerobic performance and agility in a group of children and adolescents with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A total of 300 children (184 males, 116 females) with spastic CP were recruited from 26 rehabilitation centres in six different countries. Of these, 215 were classified at…

  3. New reference values for routine blood samples and human neutrophilic lipocalin during third-trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Edelstam, G; Löwbeer, C; Kral, G; Gustafsson, S A; Venge, P

    2001-01-01

    Reference values are usually based on blood samples from healthy men or non-pregnant women. Blood samples from pregnant women may be compared with these reference values. Correct references for pregnancy can be extremely important for clinical decisions such as ablatio placentae, appendicitis, premature rupture of membranes and preeclampsia. Previous studies of normal variations during third-trimester pregnancy are incomplete. Blood samples during pregnancy weeks 33, 36 and 39 as well as 1-3 h postpartum were collected from pregnant women with dietary iron supplement and at least one previous pregancy without a history of hypertension or preeclampsia. When the sampled values were compared with the present reference values from men and non-pregnant women, the following differences were found during normal pregnancy: Haemoglobin and ferritin were reduced, CRP was slightly elevated, WBC (white blood cell count) and HNL (human neutrophilic lipocalin) were elevated during pregnancy and significantly increased postpartum. Albumin was reduced. ALT and AST were slightly elevated and GGT was unchanged during pregnancy. ALP, D-dimer and fibrinogen were elevated. Uric acid increased during the third trimester and thrombocyte count decreased. Separate reference values for pregnant women are essential for correct diagnostic decisions during third-trimester pregnancy. Elevated levels of D-dimer do not necessarily indicate ablatio placentae. A diagnosis of progressive preeclampsia cannot be based on increasing uric acid levels and reduced platelet count in a stable clinical condition. HNL signals activation of neutrophilic granulocytes and can thereby offer a helpful tool for diagnosing infection during pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:11768317

  4. Hand-Held Dynamometry Isometric Torque Reference Values for Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Maltais, Désirée B.; Lepage, Céline; Saulnier, Joanne; Crête, Mélanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To establish hand-held dynamometry (HHD) maximal isometric muscle torque (MIT) reference values for children and adolescents who are developing typically. Methods: The MIT of 10 upper and lower limb muscle groups was assessed in 351 Caucasian youth (4 years 2 months to 17 years) using a standardized HHD protocol, previously shown to be feasible, valid, and reliable. Results: The mean MIT and 95% confidence interval of the mean for all muscle groups, for each of the 14 age groups (1 year age span for each group), and for each sex, were reported in both absolute (Nm) and normalized (Nm/kg) values. Conclusion: These HHD reference values may be helpful in the identification of muscle strength impairments in several pediatric populations, especially when bilateral impairments are present. PMID:26397089

  5. [Determination of full blood count normal reference values for adults in France].

    PubMed

    Troussard, Xavier; Vol, Sylviane; Cornet, Edouard; Bardet, Valérie; Couaillac, Jean-Paul; Fossat, Chantal; Luce, Jean-Charles; Maldonado, Eric; Siguret, Virginie; Tichet, Jean; Lantieri, Olivier; Corberand, Joël

    2014-01-01

    The full blood count (FBC) is the most prescribed laboratory test in France. Due to the lack of data, there is a great variability in reference values of the FBC, between medical laboratories. The aim of this work was to provide normal reference values for FBC in adults. These normal values were defined in a population of 33 258 healthy adults, 19 612 men and 13 646 women. These values were determined after excluding subjects having conditions in order to modify, either directly or indirectly, FBC parameters. For each parameter, we provide results for values of standard parameters, by sex and age, from 16 to 69 years. In addition, we present FBC values from a population of 339 subjects aged over 69 years with no comorbidities. These normal values are proposed to be used in everyday practice. They make it possible to distinguish, without ambiguity, a normal situation from a pathological situation. Moreover, they can be applied to the entire metropolitan France. PMID:25336130

  6. Statistical Interpretation of Key Comparison Reference Value and Degrees of Equivalence

    PubMed Central

    Kacker, R. N.; Datla, R. U.; Parr, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    Key comparisons carried out by the Consultative Committees (CCs) of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM) or the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) are referred to as CIPM key comparisons. The outputs of a statistical analysis of the data from a CIPM key comparison are the key comparison reference value, the degrees of equivalence, and their associated uncertainties. The BIPM publications do not discuss statistical interpretation of these outputs. We discuss their interpretation under the following three statistical models: nonexistent laboratory-effects model, random laboratory-effects model, and systematic laboratory-effects model.

  7. Basis for the ICRP`s age-specific biokinetic model for uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.

    1994-12-01

    In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is developing age-specific biokinetic models and dose coefficients for environmentally important radionuclides. This paper describes the ICRP`s age-specific biokinetic model for uranium. The model is constructed within a physiologically based framework originally developed for application to the alkaline earth elements but sufficiently general to apply to the larger class of bone-volume-seeking elements. Transfer rates for a reference adult are based mainly on: (1) measurements of uranium in blood and excreta of several human subjects who were intravenously injected with uranium; (2) postmortem measurements of uranium in tissues of some of those subjects; (3) postmortem measurements of uranium in tissues of occupationally and non-occupationally exposed subjects; (4) data on baboons, dogs, and smaller laboratory animals exposed to uranium for experimental purposes; and (5) consideration of the physiological processes thought to control retention and translocation of uranium in the body. Transfer rates for the adult are extended to children by application of a set of generic assumptions applied by the ICRP to calcium-like elements. These assumptions were derived mainly from observations of the age-specific biokinetics of the alkaline earth elements and lead in humans and laboratory animals but are consistent with available age-specific biokinetic data on uranium. 82 refs., 17 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Blood lead reference values: the results of an Italian polycentric study.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, P; Baj, A; Bavazzano, P; Ganzi, A; Neri, G; Ronchi, A; Soleo, L; Di, Lorenzo L; Spinelli, P; Valente, T; Minoia, C

    2002-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a polycentric study carried out in seven different areas, organized by the Italian Society of Reference Values (SIVR) for assessing reference values of lead in blood (B-Pb) at the current doses of the metal to general population. The estimated arithmetic mean for B-Pb in males was of 45.1 microg/l and 30.6 microg/l in females; the 95th centile was 100 and 60 for males and females, respectively. The main variables influencing B-Pb levels were gender, age, BMI, outside sport practice, alcohol consumption and smoking habits, while the geographic area and the urban residence did not affect the metal concentration in blood. PMID:11883751

  9. Age specific fecundity of Lygus hesperus in high, fluctuating temperatures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have simulated hourly temperatures to examine Lygus response to hot summers in the San Joaquin Valley. Constant temperature of 33C quickly killed Lygus and SJV temperatures routinely surpass this level. Average hourly temperatures were tested for the months May, July, and September. Age specific ...

  10. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in standard reference material 2384 baking chocolate.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Brown Thomas, Jeanice; Nelson, Bryant C; Phinney, Curtis S; Sieber, John R; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Howell, Daniel W

    2002-11-20

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) Baking Chocolate was recently issued, and the process used for value assignment of nutrient concentrations is reported herein. SRM 2384 is intended for use as a primary control material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, and elements in chocolate and similar high-fat matrices. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 2384 provides assigned values for concentrations of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, elements, and total dietary fiber, for which product labeling is required by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, as well as for catechins, caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. These assigned values were based on measurements by NIST and/or collaborating laboratories. PMID:12428961

  11. Methods for evaluating the reference value in laboratory intercomparisons of dimensional measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack A.

    2005-08-01

    A number of methods have been proposed to evaluate the reference value for intercomparisons of laboratory measurements. Methods for establishing the reference value include the arithmetic mean, weighted mean (with weights proportional to the reciprocals of the squared uncertainties), median, and total median. In addition, it has been suggested that it might be possible to modify the weighted mean, using iterative approaches to automatically eliminate outliers or to modify the weights in light of the results of the intercomparison. No single one of the analysis methods is best for all circumstances, nor can the efficiency of any method be determined without making assumptions about the underlying nature of the intercomparison. (How well do the participants evaluate their uncertainties? What is the underlying distribution of errors, including outliers? Are the errors correlated between one laboratory and the next?) Although there is considerable divergence of opinion as to what constitutes realistic assumptions, completed international comparisons can begin to provide at least rough guidance for constructing models. In this paper, I will try to construct models that are consistent with what we have learned thus far from CCL (Consultative Committee for Length) key comparisons in the field of dimensional metrology. Based on such models, I have explored various methods for establishing a reference value, to determine which methods are likely to produce a reference value with a low uncertainty. As would be expected, there is no single method that is always superior; results depend on both the underlying assumptions and on the spread and distribution of claimed uncertainties of the participating laboratories.

  12. Bayesian Approach to Assessing Uncertainty and Calculating a Reference Value in Key Comparison Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Toman, Blaza

    2005-01-01

    International experiments called Key Comparisons pose an interesting statistical problem, the estimation of a quantity called a Reference Value. There are many possible forms that this estimator can take. Recently, this topic has received much international attention. In this paper, it is argued that a fully Bayesian approach to this problem is compatible with the current practice of metrology, and can easily be used to create statistical models which satisfy the varied properties and assumptions of these experiments. PMID:27308182

  13. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for myocardial perfusion and diastolic function—reference control values for women

    PubMed Central

    Bakir, May; Wei, Janet; Nelson, Michael D.; Mehta, Puja K.; Haftbaradaran, Afsaneh; Jones, Erika; Gill, Edward; Sharif, Behzad; Slomka, Piotr J.; Li, Debiao; Shufelt, Chrisandra L.; Minissian, Margo; Berman, Daniel S.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel

    2016-01-01

    Angina, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are more common in women and are associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is established for assessment of left ventricular (LV) morphology and systolic function and is increasingly used to assess myocardial perfusion and diastolic function. Indeed, stress CMRI allows measurement of myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) using semi-quantitative techniques, and quantification of LV volumetric filling patterns provides valuable insight into LV diastolic function. The utility of these two techniques remains limited, because reference control values for MPRI and LV diastolic function in asymptomatic middle-aged, women have not previously been established. To address this limitation, we recruited twenty women, without clinical cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, with normal maximal Bruce protocol exercise treadmill testing. Subjects underwent CMRI (1.5 tesla) using a standardized protocol of adenosine stress and rest perfusion and LV cinematic imaging. Commercially available with automated CMRI segmentation was used for calculation of MPRI, LV filling profiles, and ejection fraction. Mean age was 54±9 years and mean body mass index was 25±4 kg/m3. The exercise treadmill testing results demonstrated a normotensive group with normal functional capacity and hemodynamic response. We report reference control values for semi-quantitative MPRI as well as measures of LV systolic and diastolic function including ejection fraction, stroke volume, peak filling rate (PFR), PFR adjusted for end-diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke volume, time to PFR, and EDV index. The data herein provide reference values for MPRI and diastolic function in a cohort of healthy, middle-aged of women. These reference values may be used for comparison with a variety

  14. The Reference Value of Skeletal Muscle Mass Index for Defining the Sarcopenia of Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyoung-Joon; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is considering important disease entity in elderly. Several study groups define the sum of the muscle masses of the four limbs as appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) to calculate skeletal muscle index (SMI). The purpose of this study was to determine cut point of SMI for sarcopenia in Korean women. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and V. A whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan were performed on individuals of ≥10 years old from July 2008 to May 2011. In the analysis, 11,633 women were included. ASM was calculated and SMI was obtained as ASM/height2. Cutoff value was defined two standard deviations below mean values for young reference group. Results Of 11,633 women aged 10 to 97 years, mean and standard deviation of year was 46.73±18.54 years. The highest level of height was noted in 20's and the highest total sum of skeletal mass was seen 14.87 kg in 40's. The highest value of SMI was noted in 60's in Korean women. Cutoff value as mean value of young women was decided with SMI of 30's and 40's that have peak ASM. Mean and standard deviation of SMI in those ages was 5.9±0.7 kg/m2. A SMI of two standard deviations below the mean SMI of reference groups was 4.4 kg/m2 as cutoff value. Conclusions This study shows that 4.4 kg/m2 of SMI in Korean women was cutoff value of sarcopenia. Further study is clearly required to decide cutoff value of SMI for sarcopenia, especially for Korean women. PMID:26082916

  15. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    PubMed Central

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-01-01

    This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 °C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 °C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 °C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of −20 °C, 0 °C, 6 °C and 24 °C upon storage for one year. PMID:19609396

  16. Opportunities and challenges in conducting systematic reviews to support development of nutrient reference values: vitamin A as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient reference values have significant public health and policy implications. Given the importance of defining reliable nutrient reference values, there is a need for an explicit, objective, and transparent process to set these values. The Tufts Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center asse...

  17. Nutrient reference value: non-communicable disease endpoints--a conference report.

    PubMed

    Lupton, J R; Blumberg, J B; L'Abbe, M; LeDoux, M; Rice, H B; von Schacky, C; Yaktine, A; Griffiths, J C

    2016-03-01

    Nutrition is complex-and seemingly getting more complicated. Most consumers are familiar with "essential nutrients," e.g., vitamins and minerals, and more recently protein and important amino acids. These essential nutrients have nutrient reference values, referred to as dietary reference intakes (DRIs) developed by consensus committees of scientific experts convened by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and carried out by the Food and Nutrition Board. The DRIs comprise a set of four nutrient-based reverence values, the estimated average requirements, the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs), the adequate intakes and the tolerable upper intake levels for micronutrient intakes and an acceptable macronutrient distribution range for macronutrient intakes. From the RDA, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) derives a labeling value called the daily value (DV), which appears on the nutrition label of all foods for sale in the US. The DRI reports do not make recommendations about whether the DV labeling values can be set only for what have been defined to date as "essential nutrients." For example, the FDA set a labeling value for "dietary fiber" without having the DV. Nutrient reference values-requirements are set by Codex Alimentarius for essential nutrients, and regulatory bodies in many countries use these Codex values in setting national policy for recommended dietary intakes. However, the focus of this conference is not on essential nutrients, but on the "nonessential nutrients," also termed dietary bioactive components. They can be defined as "Constituents in foods or dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic human nutritional needs, which are responsible for changes in health status (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of Public Health and Science, Department of Health and Human Services in Fed Regist 69:55821-55822, 2004)." Substantial and often persuasive

  18. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

    PubMed

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values. PMID:26584469

  19. Echocardiographic measurements in the Irish wolfhound: reference values for the breed.

    PubMed

    Vollmar, A C

    1999-01-01

    Out of 400 Irish wolfhounds cardiologically examined, echocardiographic measurements of 262 normal dogs were analyzed to obtain reference values for the breed. Based on regression analysis, several echocardiographic parameters showed significant linear correlation with body weight and with age, but coefficients of determination were low. Therefore, due to a high individual variability of echocardiographic measurements in adult Irish wolfhounds, the predictive value of body weight for echocardiographic measurements was clinically not relevant. Sex had no influence on echocardiographic values. For the estimation of myocardial function, end-systolic volume index (ESVI) (mean, 29.0 ml/m2 +/- standard deviation [SD], 5.9 ml/m2) was determined for the group of 262 normal dogs. PMID:10416769

  20. Fitting age-specific fertility with the Makeham curve.

    PubMed

    Luther, N Y

    1984-01-01

    The Makeham curve has long been recognized for its empirically good fit of adult mortality experience. However, it has never been seriously used in fertility estimation. This paper aims to show that the Makeham curve provides a very good fit of cumulative age-specific fertility over the full range of the fertility experience. Presented here is a simple linearization procedure, easily executed by hand calcualtor, for the estimation of cumulative age-specific fertility per woman (or parity) ar exact age x. The procedure provides a check for the fit of the Makeham curve to cumulative age-specific fertility, locally or globally--that is, the fit to local ratios over any range of ages. The procedure also determines the parameters of optimum fit over any range of ages. To carry out the procedure, one must simply check the linearity of points in each of 2 data plots and determine the Makeham curve from the slopes and intercepts of the fitted straight lines. The mathematical methodology for the procedure is presented and the global goodness of fit studied. Because it is of a local nature, and since it elicits an explicit analytic formula for the fitted Makeham curve, the procedure is conducive to interpolation and extrapolation applications, including the completion of incomplete schedules of age-specific fertility rates at the tails of the reproductive age span. The use of the procedure for extrapolation purposes is illustrated with data from the 1968 Population Growth Survey of Pakistan. It suggests results that, for the most part, are consistent with the thesis of general age exaggeration of reporting women. However, further evidence is needed to be conclusive. PMID:12313262

  1. Incremental shuttle walk test: Reference values and predictive equation for healthy Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Bela; Shah, Monal; Andhare, Nilesh; Mullerpatan, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Physical inactivity in Indians is leading to an increase in noncommunicable disorders at an early age in life. Early identification and quantification of the lack of physical activity using simple and reliable exercise testing is the need of the hour. The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is an externally paced walk test widely used for the evaluation of exercise capacity. Currently the normative values available for clinical reference are generated from Western populations. Hence, the study was conducted to find normative values for the ISWT in healthy Indian adults (17-75 years). Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 862 subjects was recruited after ethical approval was obtained. All subjects were divided into groups as per age and gender. For age, the grouping was as follows: Group 1: Young adulthood (17-40 years), group 2: Middle adulthood (40-65 years), and group 3: Old adulthood (>65 years). The ISWT was performed as per standard protocol by Sally Singh. Results: The average distance walked were 709.2m,556.4m and 441.3m in females and 807.9 m, 639.6 m and 478.2 m in males in the three respective age groups. Stepwise regression analysis revealed age and gender as key variables correlating with incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD). The derived predictive equations for males and females may be given as follows: 740.351 - (5.676 × age) + (99.007 × gender). Conclusion: Reference values were generated for healthy Indian adults. Physiological response to the ISWT was shown to be affected by gender and increasing age. Easily measurable variables explained 68% of the variance seen in the test, making the reference equation a relevant part of the evaluation of the ISWT. PMID:26933305

  2. Assessment of reference values for mercury in urine: the results of an Italian polycentric study.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, P; Cortesi, I; Mangili, A; Elia, G; Drago, I; Gagliardi, T; Soleo, L; Valente, T; Sciarra, G F; Aprea, C; Ronchi, A; Minoia, C

    2002-04-22

    The results of a polycentric study to assess the reference values of urinary mercury (U-Hg) in four Italian cities are presented. A total of 383 subjects were selected on the basis of standardised criteria by a questionnaire on personal habits, lifestyle, occupational or non-occupational exposure to Hg, medical history, number and area of dental amalgams. U-Hg was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption method (HG-AAS), with a detection limit of 0.5 microg/l and by flow injection (FI) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with a detection limit of 0.03 microg/l. The median value of U-Hg, determined by HG-AAS, was 0.78 microg/g creatinine (0.75 for males and 0.83 for females), with 5 degrees and 95 degrees percentiles, respectively, of 0.17 and 3.66 microg/g creatinine. When determined by FI ICP-MS, the median value was 0.79 microg/g creatinine (0.77 for males and 0.79 for females) with 5 degrees and 95 degrees percentiles of, respectively, 0.12 and 5.02 microg/g creatinine. Among the independent variables, city of origin, area of dental amalgams, fish intake and tobacco smoking significantly influenced the U-Hg levels. The U-Hg reference values from this survey are lower than those from other recent investigations, probably due to characteristics and selection of the examined individuals and to the strict control of pre-analytical and analytical factors of variability. PMID:12049389

  3. Spirometry reference values for Navajo children ages 6-14 years.

    PubMed

    Arnall, David A; Kanuho, Verdell; Interpreter, Christina; Nelson, Arnold G; Coast, J Richard; Eisenmann, Joey C; Enright, Paul L

    2009-05-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Since respiratory disease is the single greatest cause for morbidity and mortality on the Navajo Nation, the purpose of this study was to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Navajo children. Five hundred fifty-eight healthy children, ages 6-14 years, attending Navajo Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry to develop population-specific and tribe-specific nomograms for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), and FEV1 Ratio (FEV1/FVC). Spirometry tests from 284 girls and 274 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. Lung function values, except for FEV1/FVC, all increased with height. The lower limit of the normal range for FEV1/FVC was 80%. The spirometry reference equations from the healthy boys and girls were developed. Height and the natural log of height were significant predictors of FEV1, FVC, and FEF(25-75%) in the gender-specific models. The resulting population-specific spirometry reference equations should be used when testing Navajo children ages 6-14 years. However, the use of the NHANES III spirometry reference equations for Caucasian children may not result in significant misclassification in clinical settings providing that a maximal effort is given by the Navajo child being tested. PMID:19360844

  4. Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, L.; Botwicz, M.; Zolek, N.; Kacprzak, M.; Milej, D.; Sawosz, P.; Liebert, A.; Weigel, U.; Durduran, T.; Foschum, F.; Kienle, A.; Baribeau, F.; Leclair, S.; Bouchard, J.-P.; Noiseux, I.; Gallant, P.; Mermut, O.; Farina, A.; Pifferi, A.; Torricelli, A.; Cubeddu, R.; Ho, H.-C.; Mazurenka, M.; Wabnitz, H.; Klauenberg, K.; Bodnar, O.; Elster, C.; Bénazech-Lavoué, M.; Bérubé-Lauzière, Y.; Lesage, F.; Khoptyar, D.; Subash, A. A.; Andersson-Engels, S.; Di Ninni, P.; Martelli, F.; Zaccanti, G.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-center study has been set up to accurately characterize the optical properties of diffusive liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Nine research laboratories from six countries adopting different measurement techniques, instrumental set-ups, and data analysis methods determined at their best the optical properties and relative uncertainties of diffusive dilutions prepared with common samples of the two compounds. By exploiting a suitable statistical model, comprehensive reference values at three NIR wavelengths for the intrinsic absorption coefficient of India ink and the intrinsic reduced scattering coefficient of Intralipid-20% were determined with an uncertainty of about 2% or better, depending on the wavelength considered, and 1%, respectively. Even if in this study we focused on particular batches of India ink and Intralipid, the reference values determined here represent a solid and useful starting point for preparing diffusive liquid phantoms with accurately defined optical properties. Furthermore, due to the ready availability, low cost, long-term stability and batch-to-batch reproducibility of these compounds, they provide a unique fundamental tool for the calibration and performance assessment of diffuse optical spectroscopy instrumentation intended to be used in laboratory or clinical environment. Finally, the collaborative work presented here demonstrates that the accuracy level attained in this work for optical properties of diffusive phantoms is reliable. PMID:25071947

  5. Reference Values of Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy People from an Urban and Rural Argentinean Population

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alejandro; Galli, Cintia; Tringler, Matías; Ramírez, Agustín; Cabrera Fischer, Edmundo Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    In medical practice the reference values of arterial stiffness came from multicenter registries obtained in Asia, USA, Australia and Europe. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the gold standard method for arterial stiffness quantification; however, in South America, there are few population-based studies. In this research PWV was measured in healthy asymptomatic and normotensive subjects without history of hypertension in first-degree relatives. Normal PWV and the 95% confidence intervals values were obtained in 780 subjects (39.8 ± 18.5 years) divided into 7 age groups (10–98 years). The mean PWV found was 6.84 m/s ± 1.65. PWV increases linearly with aging with a high degree of correlation (r2 = 0.61; P < 0.05) with low dispersion in younger subjects. PWV progressively increases 6–8% with each decade of life; this tendency is more pronounced after 50 years. A significant increase of PWV over 50 years was demonstrated. This is the first population-based study from urban and rural people of Argentina that provides normal values of the PWV in healthy, normotensive subjects without family history of hypertension. Moreover, the age dependence of PWV values was confirmed. PMID:25215227

  6. Reference values of hematology, biochemistry, and blood type in cynomolgus monkeys from cambodia origin

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kangmoo; Chang, Jaejin; Lee, Min-Jae; Wang, Seungsu; In, Kimhong; Galano-tan, Wilhelm C; Jun, Sanghun; Cho, Kahee; Hwang, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys as nonhuman primates are valuable animal models because they have a high level of human gene homology. There are many reference values for hematology and biochemistry of Cynomolgus monkeys that are needed for proper clinical diagnosis and biomedical research conduct. The body weight information and blood type are also key success factors in allogeneic or xenogeneic models. Moreover, the biological parameters could be different according to the origin of the Cynomolgus monkey. However, there are limited references provided, especially of Cambodia origin. In this study, we measured average body weight of 2,518 Cynomolgus monkeys and analyzed hematology and serum biochemistry using 119 males, and determined blood types in 642 monkeys with Cambodia origin. The average body weight of male Cynomolgus monkeys were 2.56±0.345 kg and female group was 2.43±0.330 kg at the age from 2 to 3 years. The male group showed relatively sharp increased average body weight from the 3 to 4 age period compared to the female group. In hematology and biochemistry, it was found that most of the data was similar when compared to other references even though some results showed differences. The ABO blood type result showed that type A, B, AB, and O was approximately 15.6, 33.3, 44.2, and 6.9%, respectively. The main blood type in this facility was B and AB. These biological background references of Cambodia origin could be used to provide important information to researchers who are using them in their biomedical research. PMID:27051442

  7. Toxicity reference values for chlorophacinone and their application for assessing anticoagulant rodenticide risk to raptors.

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; Horak, Katherine E; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Schultz, Sandra L; Knowles, Susan; Abbo, Benjamin G; Volker, Steven F

    2015-05-01

    Despite widespread use and benefit, there are growing concerns regarding hazards of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides to non-target wildlife which may result in expanded use of first-generation compounds, including chlorophacinone (CPN). The toxicity of CPN over a 7-day exposure period was investigated in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed either rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, tissue from rats fed Rozol(®) bait (biologically-incorporated CPN), or control diets (tissue from untreated rats or commercial bird of prey diet) ad libitum. Nominal CPN concentrations in the formulated diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and measured concentrations averaged 94 % of target values. Kestrel food consumption was similar among groups and body weight varied by less than 6 %. Overt signs of intoxication, liver CPN residues, and changes in prothrombin time (PT), Russell's viper venom time (RVVT) and hematocrit, were generally dose-dependent. Histological evidence of hemorrhage was present at all CPN dose levels, and most frequently observed in pectoral muscle and heart. There were no apparent differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diet formulations. Dietary-based toxicity reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50 % of the kestrels were 79.2 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for PT and 39.1 µg/kg body weight-day for RVVT. Based upon daily food consumption of kestrels and previously reported CPN concentrations found in small mammals following field baiting trials, these toxicity reference values might be exceeded by free-ranging raptors consuming such exposed prey. Tissue-based toxicity reference values for coagulopathy in 50 % of exposed birds were 0.107 µg CPN/g liver wet weight for PT and 0.076 µg/g liver for RVVT, and are below the range of residue levels reported in raptor mortality incidents attributed to CPN exposure. Sublethal responses associated

  8. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p < 0.001) and the agreement was weaker (κ = 0.76). The abdominal obesity prevalence estimates were significant different according to the two systems both in boys and girls, although the agreement reached to 0.88, which represented an

  9. Toxicity reference values for chlorophacinone and their application for assessing anticoagulant rodenticide risk to raptors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Horak, Katherine E.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Schultz, Sandra; Knowles, Susan N.; Abbo, B.G.; Volker, Steven F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread use and benefit, there are growing concerns regarding hazards of second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides to non-target wildlife which may result in expanded use of first-generation compounds, including chlorophacinone (CPN). The toxicity of CPN over a 7-day exposure period was investigated in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed either rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, tissue from rats fed Rozol® bait (biologically-incorporated CPN), or control diets (tissue from untreated rats or commercial bird of prey diet) ad libitum. Nominal CPN concentrations in the formulated diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and measured concentrations averaged 94 % of target values. Kestrel food consumption was similar among groups and body weight varied by less than 6 %. Overt signs of intoxication, liver CPN residues, and changes in prothrombin time (PT), Russell's viper venom time (RVVT) and hematocrit, were generally dose-dependent. Histological evidence of hemorrhage was present at all CPN dose levels, and most frequently observed in pectoral muscle and heart. There were no apparent differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diet formulations. Dietary-based toxicity reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50 % of the kestrels were 79.2 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for PT and 39.1 µg/kg body weight-day for RVVT. Based upon daily food consumption of kestrels and previously reported CPN concentrations found in small mammals following field baiting trials, these toxicity reference values might be exceeded by free-ranging raptors consuming such exposed prey. Tissue-based toxicity reference values for coagulopathy in 50 % of exposed birds were 0.107 µg CPN/g liver wet weight for PT and 0.076 µg/g liver for RVVT, and are below the range of residue levels reported in raptor mortality incidents attributed to CPN exposure. Sublethal responses associated with exposure

  10. Reference Value Provision Schemes for Attenuation Correction of Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanner Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, K.; Blaskow, R.; Stelling, N.; Maas, H.-G.

    2015-08-01

    The characterization of the vertical forest structure is highly relevant for ecological research and for better understanding forest ecosystems. Full-waveform airborne laser scanner systems providing a complete time-resolved digitization of every laser pulse echo may deliver very valuable information on the biophysical structure in forest stands. To exploit the great potential offered by full-waveform airborne laser scanning data, the development of suitable voxel based data analysis methods is straightforward. Beyond extracting additional 3D points, it is very promising to derive voxel attributes from the digitized waveform directly. However, the 'history' of each laser pulse echo is characterized by attenuation effects caused by reflections in higher regions of the crown. As a result, the received waveform signals within the canopy have a lower amplitude than it would be observed for an identical structure without the previous canopy structure interactions (Romanczyk et al., 2012). To achieve a radiometrically correct voxel space representation, the loss of signal strength caused by partial reflections on the path of a laser pulse through the canopy has to be compensated by applying suitable attenuation correction models. The basic idea of the correction procedure is to enhance the waveform intensity values in lower parts of the canopy for portions of the pulse intensity, which have been reflected in higher parts of the canopy. To estimate the enhancement factor an appropriate reference value has to be derived from the data itself. Based on pulse history correction schemes presented in previous publications, the paper will discuss several approaches for reference value estimation. Furthermore, the results of experiments with two different data sets (leaf-on/leaf-off) are presented.

  11. 4-Second Exercise Test: Reference Values for Ages 18–81 Years

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Castro, Claudia Lucia Barros; Franca, João Felipe; Ramos, Plínio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. Objective To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. Methods After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. Results CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p < 0.01), and the intercepts and slopes of the linear regressions between CVI and age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18–30, 31–40, 41–45, 46–50, 51–55, 56–60, 61–65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. Conclusion The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. PMID:25830712

  12. Assessment of potential risk levels associated with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference values.

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Rosemary; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) generally uses reference doses (RfDs) or reference concentrations (RfCs) to assess risks from exposure to toxic substances for noncancer health end points. RfDs and RfCs are supposed to represent lifetime inhalation or ingestion exposure with minimal appreciable risk, but they do not include information about the estimated risk from exposures equal to the RfD/RfC. We used results from benchmark dose modeling approaches recently adopted for use in developing RfDs/RfCs to estimate the risk levels associated with exposures at the RfD/RfC. We searched the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database and identified 11 chemicals with oral RfDs and 12 chemicals with inhalation RfCs that used benchmark dose modeling. For assessments with sufficient model information, we found that 16 of 21 (76%) of the dose-response models were linear or supralinear. We estimated the risk from exposures at the established RfDs and RfCs for these chemicals using a linear dose-response curve to characterize risk below the observed data. Risk estimates ranged from 1 in 10,000 to 5 in 1,000 for exposures at the RfDs, and from 1 in 10,000 to 3 in 1,000 for exposures at the RfCs. Risk estimates for exposures at the RfD/RfC values derived from sublinear dose-response curves ranged from 3 in 1,000,000,000 to 8 in 10,000. Twenty-four percent of reference values corresponded to estimated risk levels greater than 1 in 1,000; 10 of 14 assessments had points of departure greater than the no-observed-adverse-effect levels. For policy development regarding management of cancer risks, the U.S. EPA often uses 1 in 1,000,000 as a de minimis risk level. Although noncancer outcomes may in some instances be reversible and considered less severe than cancer, our findings call into question the assumption that established RfD and RfC values represent negligibly small risk levels. PMID:12896853

  13. Reference Values of Impulse Oscillometric Lung Function Indices in Adults of Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Holger; Flexeder, Claudia; Behr, Jürgen; Heier, Margit; Holle, Rolf; Huber, Rudolf M.; Jörres, Rudolf A.; Nowak, Dennis; Peters, Annette; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim; Karrasch, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a non-demanding lung function test. Its diagnostic use may be particularly useful in patients of advanced age with physical or mental limitations unable to perform spirometry. Only few reference equations are available for Caucasians, none of them covering the old age. Here, we provide reference equations up to advanced age and compare them with currently available equations. Methods IOS was performed in a population-based sample of 1990 subjects, aged 45–91 years, from KORA cohorts (Augsburg, Germany). From those, 397 never-smoking, lung healthy subjects with normal spirometry were identified and sex-specific quantile regression models with age, height and body weight as predictors for respiratory system impedance, resistance, reactance, and other parameters of IOS applied. Results Women (n = 243) showed higher resistance values than men (n = 154), while reactance at low frequencies (up to 20 Hz) was lower (p<0.05). A significant age dependency was observed for the difference between resistance values at 5 Hz and 20 Hz (R5–R20), the integrated area of low-frequency reactance (AX), and resonant frequency (Fres) in both sexes whereas reactance at 5 Hz (X5) was age dependent only in females. In the healthy subjects (n = 397), mean differences between observed values and predictions for resistance (5 Hz and 20 Hz) and reactance (5 Hz) ranged between −1% and 5% when using the present model. In contrast, differences based on the currently applied equations (Vogel & Smidt 1994) ranged between −34% and 76%. Regarding our equations the indices were beyond the limits of normal in 8.1% to 18.6% of the entire KORA cohort (n = 1990), and in 0.7% to 9.4% with the currently applied equations. Conclusions Our study provides up-to-date reference equations for IOS in Caucasians aged 45 to 85 years. We suggest the use of the present equations particularly in advanced age in order to detect airway dysfunction. PMID

  14. Thera-band® elastic band tension: reference values for physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Marco Carlos; Nishida, Márcio Makoto; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Moritani, Toshio; Arai, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this technical note was to report significant differences in the tension forces of the different-sized Thera-band® elastic bands (Hygenic Corp.) determined by us versus the manufacturer. [Subjects] Two trained observers performed all measurements. [Methods] The tension force (kilogram-force units) of eight color-coded elastic bands (tan, yellow, red, green, blue, black, silver, and gold) with different resistance levels was measured at 10 different percentages of elongation (25% to 250% with 25% increments) using an electronic elongation gauge tensiometer. [Results] There were significant differences in the tension force of the elastic bands of different colors when compared in pairs (excepting the tan/yellow pair) at 100% and 200% elongation, as determined via one-way analysis of variance. There were no differences in the slopes for the tan versus yellow and green versus blue bands, as determined via linear regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Comparison of the tension force values obtained in our study with the reference values of the manufacturer (the t-test applied to the slopes) showed significant differences for five colors (yellow, green, blue, silver, and gold). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that the tension force values for Thera-Band elastic bands provided by the manufacturer are overestimates. PMID:27190465

  15. Thera-band(®) elastic band tension: reference values for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Marco Carlos; Nishida, Márcio Makoto; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Moritani, Toshio; Arai, Hidenori

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this technical note was to report significant differences in the tension forces of the different-sized Thera-band(®) elastic bands (Hygenic Corp.) determined by us versus the manufacturer. [Subjects] Two trained observers performed all measurements. [Methods] The tension force (kilogram-force units) of eight color-coded elastic bands (tan, yellow, red, green, blue, black, silver, and gold) with different resistance levels was measured at 10 different percentages of elongation (25% to 250% with 25% increments) using an electronic elongation gauge tensiometer. [Results] There were significant differences in the tension force of the elastic bands of different colors when compared in pairs (excepting the tan/yellow pair) at 100% and 200% elongation, as determined via one-way analysis of variance. There were no differences in the slopes for the tan versus yellow and green versus blue bands, as determined via linear regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Comparison of the tension force values obtained in our study with the reference values of the manufacturer (the t-test applied to the slopes) showed significant differences for five colors (yellow, green, blue, silver, and gold). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that the tension force values for Thera-Band elastic bands provided by the manufacturer are overestimates. PMID:27190465

  16. Arterial blood gas reference values for sea level and an altitude of 1,400 meters.

    PubMed

    Crapo, R O; Jensen, R L; Hegewald, M; Tashkin, D P

    1999-11-01

    Blood gas measurements were collected on healthy lifetime nonsmokers at sea level (n = 96) and at an altitude of 1,400 meters (n = 243) to establish reference equations. At each study site, arterial blood samples were analyzed in duplicate on two separate blood gas analyzers and CO-oximeters. Arterial blood gas variables included Pa(O(2)), Pa(CO(2)), pH, and calculated alveolar-arterial PO(2) difference (AaPO(2)). CO-oximeter variables were Hb, COHb, MetHb, and Sa(O(2)). Subjects were 18 to 81 yr of age with 166 male and 173 female. Outlier data were excluded from multiple regression analysis, and reference equations were fitted to the data in two ways: (1) best fit using linear, squared, and cross-product terms; (2) simple equations, including only the variables that explained at least 3% of the variance. Two sets of equations were created: (1) using only the sea level data and (2) using the combined data with barometric pressure as an independent variable. Comparisons with earlier studies revealed small but significant differences; the decline in Pa(O(2)) with age at each altitude was consistent with most previous studies. At sea level, the equation that included barometric pressure predicted Pa(O(2)) slightly better than the sea level specific equation. The inclusion of barometric pressure in the equations allows better prediction of blood gas reference values at sea level and at altitudes as high as 1,400 meters. PMID:10556115

  17. Implications of the New Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Blood Lead Reference Value

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Mackenzie S.; Gerstenberger, Shawn L.

    2014-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently established a new reference value (≥ 5 μg/dL) as the standard for identifying children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLs). At present, 535 000 US children aged 1 to 5 years (2.6%) are estimated to have EBLs according to the new standard, versus 0.8% according to the previous standard (≥ 10 μg/dL). Because EBLs signify the threshold for public health intervention, this new definition increases demands on lead poisoning prevention efforts. Primary prevention has been proven to reduce lead poisoning cases and is also cost effective; however, federal budget cuts threaten the existence of such programs. Protection for the highest-risk children necessitates a reinstatement of federal funding to previous levels. PMID:24825227

  18. Implications of the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention blood lead reference value.

    PubMed

    Burns, Mackenzie S; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2014-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently established a new reference value (≥ 5 μg/dL) as the standard for identifying children with elevated blood lead levels (EBLs). At present, 535,000 US children aged 1 to 5 years (2.6%) are estimated to have EBLs according to the new standard, versus 0.8% according to the previous standard (≥ 10 μg/dL). Because EBLs signify the threshold for public health intervention, this new definition increases demands on lead poisoning prevention efforts. Primary prevention has been proven to reduce lead poisoning cases and is also cost effective; however, federal budget cuts threaten the existence of such programs. Protection for the highest-risk children necessitates a reinstatement of federal funding to previous levels. PMID:24825227

  19. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kenneth L.; Peck, Karen Y.; Thompson, Brandon S.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Owens, Brett D.; Marshall, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. Objective: To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. Results: The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ2 = 13.22, df = 1, P < 0.001) with no prior history of knee ligament injury. In contrast, there was no significant difference in median MARS scores between men and women (χ2 = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ2 = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex

  20. Structural modeling of age specific fertility curves in Peninsular Malaysia: An approach of Lee Carter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafiah, Hazlenah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the study of fertility has been getting a lot of attention among research abroad following fear of deterioration of fertility led by the rapid economy development. Hence, this study examines the feasibility of developing fertility forecasts based on age structure. Lee Carter model (1992) is applied in this study as it is an established and widely used model in analysing demographic aspects. A singular value decomposition approach is incorporated with an ARIMA model to estimate age specific fertility rates in Peninsular Malaysia over the period 1958-2007. Residual plots is used to measure the goodness of fit of the model. Fertility index forecast using random walk drift is then utilised to predict the future age specific fertility. Results indicate that the proposed model provides a relatively good and reasonable data fitting. In addition, there is an apparent and continuous decline in age specific fertility curves in the next 10 years, particularly among mothers' in their early 20's and 40's. The study on the fertility is vital in order to maintain a balance between the population growth and the provision of facilities related resources.

  1. Serum biochemistry and electrophoretic patterns in the Eurasian Buzzard (Buteo buteo): reference values.

    PubMed

    Gelli, D; Ferrari, V; Franceschini, F; Lai, O; Laricchiuta, P; Zanella, A; Bernardini, D; Romagnoli, S

    2009-07-01

    In avian medicine, hematologic and biochemical laboratory investigations are still in their infancy, because of the difficulty involved in collecting data. This has led to a lack of reference values and a nonstandardized approach to specimens obtained in critical conditions. The Eurasian Buzzard (Buteo buteo) is one of the most common raptors in Italy, yet little is known about the physiologic blood parameters of this species. Serum biochemistry and electrophoretic investigations were performed in 40 healthy Eurasian Buzzards in different Italian wildlife rescue centers waiting to be released after recovering from trauma injuries. Mean values for biochemistry parameters were pancreatic amylase 626.9 IU/l, uric acid 7.5 mg/dl, aspartate aminotransferase 330.9 IU/l, glucose 375.1 mg/dl, lipase 26.3 IU/ l, total protein 38.4 g/l, total bilirubin 0.04 mg/ dl, lactate dehydrogenase 2,008.4 IU/l, creatinine kinase 1,604.1 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase 40.4 IU/l, alkaline phosphatase 89.8 IU/l, magnesium 2.3 mg/dl, calcium 10.2 mg/dl, phosphorus 2.02 mg/dl, cholesterol 192.2 mg/ dl, triglyceride 116.4 mg/dl, albumin 14.5 g/l, creatinine 0.1 mg/dl. Mean electrophoretic values were prealbumin 1.4 g/l, albumin 14.2 g/l, alpha 1 globulin 5.9 g/l, alpha 2 globulin 4.7 g/l, beta globulin 7.5 g/l, gamma globulin 3.6 g/l, albumin/globulins ratio 0.8 g/l. PMID:19617496

  2. delta 15N and non-carbonate delta 13C values for two petroleum source rock reference materials and a marine sediment reference material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Johnson, Craig A.; Otter, Marshall L.; Silva, Steven R.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of United States Geological Survey (USGS) Certified Reference Materials USGS Devonian Ohio Shale (SDO-1), and USGS Eocene Green River Shale (SGR-1), and National Research Council Canada (NRCC) Certified Marine Sediment Reference Material (PACS-2), were sent for analysis to four separate analytical laboratories as blind controls for organic rich sedimentary rock samples being analyzed from the Red Dog mine area in Alaska. The samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of carbon (delta13Cncc) and nitrogen (delta15N), percent non-carbonate carbon (Wt % Cncc) and percent nitrogen (Wt % N). SDO-1, collected from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, near Morehead, Kentucky, and SGR-1, collected from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation are petroleum source rocks used as reference materials for chemical analyses of sedimentary rocks. PACS-2 is modern marine sediment collected from the Esquimalt, British Columbia harbor. The results presented in this study are, with the exceptions noted below, the first published for these reference materials. There are published information values for the elemental concentrations of 'organic' carbon (Wt % Corg measured range is 8.98 - 10.4) and nitrogen (Wt % Ntot 0.347 with SD 0.043) only for SDO-1. The suggested values presented here should be considered 'information values' as defined by the NRCC Institute for National Measurement Reference Materials and should be useful for the analysis of 13C, 15N, C and N in organic material in sedimentary rocks.

  3. REFERENCE VALUES FOR FISH EXPOSURE TO PAH CONTAMINANTS: COMPARISON OF OHIO AND THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reference values for exposure of wildlife to contaminants are needed to cost effectively determine if a site is contaminated and to rank sites that are above background levels. Epidemiological techniques originally developed for clinical chemistry and for determining exposures t...

  4. Bayesian methods for uncertainty factor application for derivation of reference values.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ted W; Zhu, Yiliang; Dourson, Michael L; Beck, Nancy B

    2016-10-01

    In 2014, the National Research Council (NRC) published Review of EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Process that considers methods EPA uses for developing toxicity criteria for non-carcinogens. These criteria are the Reference Dose (RfD) for oral exposure and Reference Concentration (RfC) for inhalation exposure. The NRC Review suggested using Bayesian methods for application of uncertainty factors (UFs) to adjust the point of departure dose or concentration to a level considered to be without adverse effects for the human population. The NRC foresaw Bayesian methods would be potentially useful for combining toxicity data from disparate sources-high throughput assays, animal testing, and observational epidemiology. UFs represent five distinct areas for which both adjustment and consideration of uncertainty may be needed. NRC suggested UFs could be represented as Bayesian prior distributions, illustrated the use of a log-normal distribution to represent the composite UF, and combined this distribution with a log-normal distribution representing uncertainty in the point of departure (POD) to reflect the overall uncertainty. Here, we explore these suggestions and present a refinement of the methodology suggested by NRC that considers each individual UF as a distribution. From an examination of 24 evaluations from EPA's IRIS program, when individual UFs were represented using this approach, the geometric mean fold change in the value of the RfD or RfC increased from 3 to over 30, depending on the number of individual UFs used and the sophistication of the assessment. We present example calculations and recommendations for implementing the refined NRC methodology. PMID:27211295

  5. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference - Find Nutrient Value of Common Foods by Nutrient

    MedlinePlus

    ... Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28 NDL Home Food ... Sort by: Measure by: * required field ​ National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28 slightly revised May, ...

  6. Reference values of M-mode echocardiographic parameters and indices in conscious Labrador Retriever dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gugjoo, M. B.; Hoque, M.; Saxena, A. C.; Shamsuz Zama, M. M.; Dey, S.

    2014-01-01

    Breed-wise standard echocardiographic values in dogs have been reported as there is variation in body and chest conformation which limits the application of data of one breed for other breed. Labrador Retrievers being originated from hunting dogs, might have different echocardiographic values from standard normal range of other dog breeds. So, the present study was aimed to determine the M-mode echocardiographic reference ranges in Labrador Retriever dogs and to evaluate the effect of body weight and gender on these parameters. The data obtained were also compared with that of the other dog breeds. Conscious clinically healthy Labrador Retriever dogs (n=24) of both sexes were made the subject of the study. All the measurements were made from a right parasternal long axis left ventricular outflow tract view and the parameters measured were: left ventricular dimensions, left ventricular function, left ventricular volumes, left atrial and aortic root diameter and mitral valve parameters. Data obtained were also compared with that available for other dog breeds. Significant correlation (P<0.05) with body weight was obtained for some of the left ventricular, atrial and mitral valve parameters, being strong for LAD, AOD, LVIDd, LVIDs, IVSd and IVSs (r>0.5); moderate for LVPWd, LVPWs, EPSS, EF Slope and SV (r=0.3 to 0.5); weak for EDV and ESV (r<0.3). Non-significant effect of gender was seen on all the echocardiographic parameters. However, some of the parameters had a significant breed effect. It is expected that the obtained data will be valuable for the progress of studies on small animal cardiology. PMID:27175128

  7. Exposure limits for nanoparticles: report of an international workshop on nano reference values.

    PubMed

    van Broekhuizen, Pieter; van Veelen, Wim; Streekstra, Willem-Henk; Schulte, Paul; Reijnders, Lucas

    2012-07-01

    This article summarizes the outcome of the discussions at the international workshop on nano reference values (NRVs), which was organized by the Dutch trade unions and employers' organizations and hosted by the Social Economic Council in The Hague in September 2011. It reflects the discussions of 80 international participants representing small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), large companies, trade unions, governmental authorities, research institutions, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) from many European countries, USA, India, and Brazil. Issues that were discussed concerned the usefulness and acceptability of precaution-based NRVs as a substitute for health-based occupational exposure limits (OELs) and derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for manufactured nanoparticles (NPs). Topics concerned the metrics for measuring NPs, the combined exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) and process-generated NPs, the use of the precautionary principle, the lack of information about the presence of nanomaterials, and the appropriateness of soft regulation for exposure control. The workshop concluded that the NRV, as an 8-h time-weighted average, is a comprehensible and useful instrument for risk management of professional use of MNMs with a dispersible character. The question remains whether NRVs, as advised for risk management by the Dutch employers' organization and trade unions, should be under soft regulation or that a more binding regulation is preferable. PMID:22752096

  8. Slaughterhouse workers exposed to cold: proposal of reference thermography values for hands.

    PubMed

    Buzanello, Márcia Rosângela; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The cold environment is an indispensable for slaughtering and processing in the poultry industry In field studies it was observed that a large percentage of workers of this sector have hand contact with the cold chicken and / or frozen, have high complaints prevalence of pain and discomfort, mostly in the hands. The contact of human skin with a cold surface may cause pain, numbness and risk of skin damage. Currently, although the use of infrared thermal imaging has been useful in identifying normal and abnormal patterns of heat distribution on the surface of the body. However your use for work tasks and to assess the potential development of injuries related to it has been limited. Based on the physiological responses can be objectively evaluate the effects of the task demands of work and thus contribute to the development of effective strategies for ergonomic intervention. The methodology will be used to evaluate the subjective thermal sensation with analogue scale of ASHRAE and the infrared thermography in the dorsal and palmar hands. Thus the objective of this research is to propose reference values for thermographic hands within limits of comfort. PMID:22317155

  9. EURRECA-Estimating vitamin D requirements for deriving dietary reference values.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead

    2013-01-01

    The time course of the EURRECA from 2008 to 2012, overlapped considerably with the timeframe of the process undertaken by the North American Institute of Medicine (IOM) to revise dietary reference intakes for vitamin D and calcium (published November 2010). Therefore the aims of the vitamin D-related activities in EURRECA were formulated to address knowledge requirements that would complement the activities undertaken by the IOM and provide additional resources for risk assessors and risk management agencies charged with the task of setting dietary reference values for vitamin D. A total of three systematic reviews were carried out. The first, which pre-dated the IOM review process, identified and evaluated existing and novel biomarkers of vitamin D status and confirmed that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations is a robust and reliable marker of vitamin D status. The second systematic review conducted a meta-analysis of the dose-response of serum 25(OH)D to vitamin D intake from randomized controlled trials (RCT) among adults to explore the most appropriate model of the vitamin D intake-serum 25(OH)D) relationship to estimate requirements. The third review also carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate evidence of efficacy from RCT using foods fortified with vitamin D, and found they increased circulating 25(OH)D concentrations in a dose-dependent manner but identified a need for stronger data on the efficacy of vitamin D-fortified food on deficiency prevention and potential health outcomes, including adverse effects. Finally, narrative reviews provided estimates of the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamin D in adults and children from international dietary surveys, as well as a compilation of research requirements for vitamin D to inform current and future assessments of vitamin D requirements. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's onilne edition of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrion for

  10. Reference values for heavy metals in soils of the Brazilian agricultural frontier in Southwestern Amazônia.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Sabrina Novaes; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2013-07-01

    Guideline values are used to identify polluted or contaminated areas based on background values. Brazilian law establishes three guideline values for pollutants: a quality reference value (QRV), a prevention value, and an intervention value. Reference values refer to the natural concentration of an element or a substance in soils that have not been modified by anthropogenic impacts. These values inform assessments of soil quality and are used to establish maximum permissible limits. The objective of this study was to determine the natural levels and reference values for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in samples from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of 19 representative soils of the states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia, on Brazil's agricultural frontier. Pseudo-total metal concentrations were obtained following microwave-assisted digestion using the aqua regia and EPA3051 methods. QRVs were calculated for each element as the 75th and 90th percentiles of the frequency distribution of the data. Natural levels of heavy metals in the soil samples followed the order: Cr > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Ni > and Cd (aqua regia) and Cr > Co > Cu > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cd (EPA3051). These values are generally lower than those reported in the Brazilian and international literature, which highlights the importance of establishing reference values for each state or for each soil type, taking into account the geomorphological, pedological, and geological diversity of the region under study. PMID:23138418

  11. Malnutrition and age-specific nutritional management in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dodge, J A

    1992-10-01

    Malnutrition is recognised as a major prognostic factor adversely affecting survival in cystic fibrosis (CF) and is the result of an unfavourable energy balance in these patients. A high resting energy expenditure, dependent on the patient's genotype, in addition to pulmonary infection play an important role in producing anorexia and weight loss. Nutritional management with the aim to gain weight and catch up with growth is age-specific. It is important to repair nutritional status as early as possible after diagnosis. In infancy breast feeding is advised with, if necessary, supplemental feeding with predigested formulae such as Pregestimil. In childhood nutritional management must be aimed towards a normal weight gain and growth velocity. The latter is the best guide of nutritional adequacy. If weight gain falters the first principle is to treat any associated respiratory infection, the second is to ensure adequate enzyme therapy and control of steatorrhoea, and only then should dietary energy supplements be introduced. When oral hypernutrition fails, nocturnal naso-gastric tube feeding of a non-elemental formula may be considered. Parenteral nutrition is rarely indicated and should be reserved as a last solution for CF-patients. PMID:1470282

  12. Development of head injury assessment reference values based on NASA injury modeling.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jeffrey T; Granderson, Bradley; Melvin, John W; Tabiei, Ala; Lawrence, Charles; Feiveson, Alan; Gernhardt, Michael; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Patalak, John

    2011-11-01

    NASA is developing a new crewed vehicle and desires a lower risk of injury compared to automotive or commercial aviation. Through an agreement with the National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc. (NASCAR®), an analysis of NASCAR impacts was performed to develop new injury assessment reference values (IARV) that may be more relevant to NASA's context of vehicle landing operations. Head IARVs associated with race car impacts were investigated by analyzing all NASCAR recorded impact data for the 2002-2008 race seasons. From the 4015 impact files, 274 impacts were selected for numerical simulation using a custom NASCAR restraint system and Hybrid III 50th percentile male Finite Element Model (FEM) in LS-DYNA. Head injury occurred in 27 of the 274 selected impacts, and all of the head injuries were mild concussions with or without brief loss of consciousness. The 247 noninjury impacts selected were representative of the range of crash dynamics present in the total set of impacts. The probability of head injury was estimated for each metric using an ordered probit regression analysis. Four metrics had good correlation with the head injury data: head resultant acceleration, head change in velocity, HIC 15, and HIC 36. For a 5% risk of AIS≥1/AIS≥2 head injuries, the following IARVs were found: 121.3/133.2 G (head resultant acceleration), 20.3/22.0 m/s (head change in velocity), 1,156/1,347 (HIC 15), and 1,152/1,342 (HIC 36) respectively. Based on the results of this study, further analysis of additional datasets is recommended before applying these results to future NASA vehicles. PMID:22869304

  13. Critical perspectives on mercury toxicity reference values for protection of fish.

    PubMed

    Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Henning, Miranda H; Sorensen, Mary T; Brown, Lauren E; Bock, Michael J; Beals, Carla D; Lyndall, Jennifer L; Magar, Victor S

    2016-03-01

    Environmental management decisions at mercury-contaminated sediment sites are predicated on the understanding of risks to various receptors, including fish. Toxicity reference values (TRVs) for interpreting risks to fish have been developed to assess mercury concentrations in fish or fish prey. These TRVs were systematically evaluated based on several lines of evidence. First, their conceptual basis and specific derivation were evaluated, including a close review of underlying toxicity studies. Second, case studies were reviewed to investigate whether TRVs are predictive of effects on fish populations in the field. Third, TRVs were compared with available information regarding preindustrial and present-day background concentrations of mercury in fish. The findings show that existing TRVs are highly uncertain, because they were developed using limited data from studies not designed for TRV derivation. Although field studies also entail uncertainty, several case studies indicate no evidence of adverse effects despite mercury exposures that exceed the available TRVs. Some TRVs also fall within the range of background mercury concentrations in predatory or prey fish. Lack of information on the selenium status of mercury-exposed fish is a critical confounding factor, and the form of methylmercury used in toxicity testing may also contribute to differences between TRV-based predictions and field observations of mercury effects on fish. On balance, the available information indicates that several of the TRVs reviewed are lower than necessary to protect fish populations. The 20% effect concentration from a previously published dose-response analysis appears closer to an effect threshold, based on available laboratory data. Additional research is needed to provide a stronger basis to establish dose-response relationships for mercury effects on fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:529-549. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26923857

  14. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  15. Reference values for the Y Balance Test and the lower extremity functional scale in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Alnahdi, Ali H; Alderaa, Asma A; Aldali, Ali Z; Alsobayel, Hana

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish gender-specific reference values for the Y Balance Test (YBT) and the Arabic version of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS-Ar) in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia, and to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Subjects and Methods] Healthy young adults (31 females, 30 males) completed the YBT and LEFS-Ar in 1 test session. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval) was used to compute the YBT and LEFS-Ar reference values. Independent t-tests were used to examine gender differences in the YBT and LEFS-Ar values. [Results] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the right, left, dominant, and non-dominant leg as well as for the average performance of both the legs. males showed greater YBT normalized reach distances than females did in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; furthermore, males showed higher YBT composite scores than females did. However, the LEFS-Ar values did not differ between males and females. [Conclusion] Gender-specific reference values were obtained for the YBT and LEFS-Ar in healthy young adults in Saudi Arabia. males performed better than females did in the YBT. However, no gender differences were noted in LEFS-Ar. PMID:26834380

  16. Reference States and Relative Values of Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Entropy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses two reference states (pure chemical compounds and pure elements at specified condition of temperature and pressure) and the relation between these reference states for internal energy and enthalpy. Problem 5.11 from Modell and Reid's "Thermodynamics and its Applications" (p. 141) is used to apply the ideas discussed. (JN)

  17. Development of Head Injury Assessment Reference Values Based on NASA Injury Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Jeffrey T.; Melvin, John W.; Tabiei, Ala; Lawrence, Charles; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Granderson, Bradley; Feiveson, Alan; Gernhardt, Michael; Patalak, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a new capsule-based, crewed vehicle that will land in the ocean, and the space agency desires to reduce the risk of injury from impact during these landings. Because landing impact occurs for each flight and the crew might need to perform egress tasks, current injury assessment reference values (IARV) were deemed insufficient. Because NASCAR occupant restraint systems are more effective than the systems used to determine the current IARVs and are similar to NASA s proposed restraint system, an analysis of NASCAR impacts was performed to develop new IARVs that may be more relevant to NASA s context of vehicle landing operations. Head IARVs associated with race car impacts were investigated by completing a detailed analysis of all of the 2002-2008 NASCAR impact data. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select 4071 impacts from the 4015 recorder files provided (each file could contain multiple impact events). Of the 4071 accepted impacts, 274 were selected for numerical simulation using a custom NASCAR restraint system and Humanetics Hybrid-III 50th percentile numerical dummy model in LS-DYNA. Injury had occurred in 32 of the 274 selected impacts, and 27 of those injuries involved the head. A majority of the head injuries were mild concussions with or without brief loss of consciousness. The 242 non-injury impacts were randomly selected and representative of the range of crash dynamics present in the total set of 4071 impacts. Head dynamics data (head translational acceleration, translational change in velocity, rotational acceleration, rotational velocity, HIC-15, HIC-36, and the Head 3ms clip) were filtered according to SAE J211 specifications and then transformed to a log scale. The probability of head injury was estimated using a separate logistic regression analysis for each log-transformed predictor candidate. Using the log transformation constrains the estimated probability of injury to become negligible as IARVs approach

  18. Best use of the recommended IFCC reference method, material and values in HbA1C analyses.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, I M; Halonen, T; Punnonen, K; Tiikkainen, U

    2005-01-01

    The results of Finnish HbA(1C) surveys (Labquality Ltd.) during the past 10 years have undergone continuous improvement with smaller overall coefficients of variation for the HbA(1C) mean values of all methods (from 7.5 to 5.4% for normal and from 8.9 to 4.7% for diabetic samples). Most of the HbA(1C) methods are certified for traceability to the Diabetes Control and Complication Trial (DCCT) designated comparison method, which originally was a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (Bio-Rex 70, Bio-Rad) but is no longer in routine use. It was therefore important that the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) had prepared both reference preparations and method for the determination of HbA(1C). However, the very demanding reference method is not realistic for use in clinical laboratories. According to the present study, the mean HbA(1C) values of the Labquality Ltd. showed significant correlations to the HbA(1C) values of The European Reference Laboratory for Glycohemoglobin (r = 0.999) and to the values using the IFCC method (r = 0.999). The reference values of the IFCC method (mainly those of the manufacturer) range from 2.85 to 3.81%, being significantly lower than the present DCCT values (4.0-6.1%). Since it may take some time before consumers are ready to accept the new IFCC reference values for general use, we propose that the IFCC reference materials and method should be used for calibration of the present methods to the well-known DCCT levels. PMID:16179278

  19. Automatic and improved radiometric correction of Landsat imagery using reference values from MODIS surface reflectance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, X.; Pesquer, L.; Cristóbal, J.; González-Guerrero, O.

    2014-12-01

    Radiometric correction is a prerequisite for generating high-quality scientific data, making it possible to discriminate between product artefacts and real changes in Earth processes as well as accurately produce land cover maps and detect changes. This work contributes to the automatic generation of surface reflectance products for Landsat satellite series. Surface reflectances are generated by a new approach developed from a previous simplified radiometric (atmospheric + topographic) correction model. The proposed model keeps the core of the old model (incidence angles and cast-shadows through a digital elevation model [DEM], Earth-Sun distance, etc.) and adds new characteristics to enhance and automatize ground reflectance retrieval. The new model includes the following new features: (1) A fitting model based on reference values from pseudoinvariant areas that have been automatically extracted from existing reflectance products (Terra MODIS MOD09GA) that were selected also automatically by applying quality criteria that include a geostatistical pattern model. This guarantees the consistency of the internal and external series, making it unnecessary to provide extra atmospheric data for the acquisition date and time, dark objects or dense vegetation. (2) A spatial model for atmospheric optical depth that uses detailed DEM and MODTRAN simulations. (3) It is designed so that large time-series of images can be processed automatically to produce consistent Landsat surface reflectance time-series. (4) The approach can handle most images, acquired now or in the past, regardless of the processing system, with the exception of those with extremely high cloud coverage. The new methodology has been successfully applied to a series of near 300 images of the same area including MSS, TM and ETM+ imagery as well as to different formats and processing systems (LPGS and NLAPS from the USGS; CEOS from ESA) for different degrees of cloud coverage (up to 60%) and SLC

  20. The analysis of a reference value for baroreflex sensitivity and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy prevalence in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is rapidly growing in all populations worldwide. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is easily applied as a diagnostic test to a large number of individuals in the general population. However, no study has reported the normal reference values of BRS for the CAN diagnostic test in a Chinese population. The aim of this study was to estimate the normative reference value of BRS, and assess CAN prevalence in our cross-sectional dataset. Methods We conducted a large-scale, community-based, cross-sectional study in a Chinese population. We performed data analysis on 2,092 subjects. Cardiovascular autonomic function was assessed using spontaneous BRS. A total of 349 healthy subjects were used to perform analysis for the reference value for BRS. The CAN prevalence was calculated in the overall sample, and in patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with hypertension and patients with metabolic syndrome. Results In the overall sample, the reference value for total power (TP.brs) was more than 1.96 ms/mmHg. The cut-off points of 1.74 ms/mmHg and 2.53 ms/mmHg were set as high frequency (HF.brs) and low frequency (LF.brs), respectively. CAN diagnostic tests based on the reference value were performed. The estimated CAN prevalence in the overall sample was 20.41% using the BRS test. CAN prevalence was 33.18%, 28.69% and 28.57% in patients with diabetes mellitus, patients with hypertension and patients with metabolic syndrome, respectively. Conclusions Our findings provided reference values for BRS. Estimated CAN prevalence was high in this Chinese population, which has become a major public health problem in China. PMID:24521230

  1. Age-specific inhalation radiation dose commitment factors for selected radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-08-01

    Inhalation dose commitment factors are presented for selected radionuclides for exposure of individuals in four age groups: infant, child, teen and adult. Radionuclides considered are /sup 35/S, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 45/Ca, /sup 67/Ga, /sup 75/Se, /sup 85/Sr, /sup 109/Cd, /sup 113/Sn, /sup 125/I, /sup 133/Ba, /sup 170/Tm, /sup 169/Yb, /sup 182/Ta, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 198/Au, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 204/Tl, and /sup 236/Pu. The calculational method is based on the human metabolic model of ICRP as defined in Publication 2 (ICRP 1959) and as used in previous age-specific dose factor calculations by Hoenes and Soldat (1977). Dose commitment factors are presented for the following organs of reference: total body, bone, liver, kidney, thyroid, lung and lower large intestine.

  2. Modeling age-specific cancer incidences using logistic growth equations: implications for data collection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xing-Rong; Feng, Rui; Chai, Jing; Cheng, Jing; Wang, De-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Large scale secular registry or surveillance systems have been accumulating vast data that allow mathematical modeling of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Most contemporary models in this regard use time series and APC (age-period-cohort) methods and focus primarily on predicting or analyzing cancer epidemiology with little attention being paid to implications for designing cancer registry, surveillance or evaluation initiatives. This research models age-specific cancer incidence rates using logistic growth equations and explores their performance under different scenarios of data completeness in the hope of deriving clues for reshaping relevant data collection. The study used China Cancer Registry Report 2012 as the data source. It employed 3-parameter logistic growth equations and modeled the age-specific incidence rates of all and the top 10 cancers presented in the registry report. The study performed 3 types of modeling, namely full age-span by fitting, multiple 5-year- segment fitting and single-segment fitting. Measurement of model performance adopted adjusted goodness of fit that combines sum of squred residuals and relative errors. Both model simulation and performance evalation utilized self-developed algorithms programed using C# languade and MS Visual Studio 2008. For models built upon full age-span data, predicted age-specific cancer incidence rates fitted very well with observed values for most (except cervical and breast) cancers with estimated goodness of fit (Rs) being over 0.96. When a given cancer is concerned, the R valuae of the logistic growth model derived using observed data from urban residents was greater than or at least equal to that of the same model built on data from rural people. For models based on multiple-5-year-segment data, the Rs remained fairly high (over 0.89) until 3-fourths of the data segments were excluded. For models using a fixed length single-segment of observed data, the older the age covered by the corresponding

  3. The Value of Coordinated Services with Court-Referred Clients and Their Families: An Outcome Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Stewart, Roger A.; Morse, Renee; Moe, Amber

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of building partnerships with community resources and systems for court-referred clients and their families through a participant outcome evaluation. Specific variables studied included change in substance abuse patterns, family well-being, child safety, and recidivism. Results from pre-post testing revealed…

  4. Reference values of clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) used in preclinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Kyu; Cho, Jae-Woo; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Park, Heejin; Han, Ji-Seok; Yang, Mi-Jin; Im, Wan-Jung; Park, Do-Yong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Han, Su-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are increasingly used in biomedical research since they are highly homologous to humans compared to other rodent animals. However, there is limited reliable reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys, and in particular, only some coagulation and urinalysis parameters have been reported. Here, we reported the reference data of clinical chemical, hematological, blood coagulation, and urinalysis parameters in cynomolgus monkeys. The role of sex differences was analyzed and several parameters (including hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cell, blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine kinase, gamma-glutamyl tranferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) significantly differed between male and female subjects. In addition, compared to previous study results, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase showed significant variation. Interstudy differences could be affected by several factors, including age, sex, geographic origin, presence/absence of anesthetics, fasting state, and the analytical methods used. Therefore, it is important to deliberate with the overall reference indices. In conclusion, the current study provides a comprehensive and updated reference data of the clinical pathology parameters in cynomolgus monkeys and provides improved assessment criteria for evaluating preclinical studies or biomedical research. PMID:27382375

  5. An Assessment of Value Preferences of College Students with Reference to Environmental Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Frank; Dunlop, David L.

    The main objective of this study was to design an instrument to assess the value preferences of college non-science majors with respect to certain aspects of environmental chemistry. A second objective was to obtain measures of the value preferences of various groups of non-science majors who had completed some chemistry courses. The early…

  6. Salivary cortisol monitoring: determination of reference values in healthy children and application in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Arita, Masahiko; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Shigeta, Makoto; Wada, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Hiraba, Kazumi; Fukuda, Norimasa

    2012-01-01

    Venipuncture testing of adrenocortical function in asthmatic infants and young children receiving inhaled corticosteroids can raise cortisol levels and mask physiological responses. This study aimed to establish reference ranges for salivary cortisol levels and evaluate the safety and effects of jet-nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension (BIS) on salivary cortisol levels and patient outcomes in infants and young children with mild or persistent asthma. Reference salivary cortisol levels were determined in healthy children aged 6 months to 4 years old. A 12-week multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label study was performed involving 53 age-matched asthmatic children who received either 0.5 mg/day of BIS or 40-60 mg/day of cromolyn sodium inhalation suspension (CIS) via compressor nebulizer. The effective measuring range of salivary cortisol concentration in asthmatic children was 0.12-3.00 micrograms/dL. The upper and lower limits of the reference range were 0.827 and 0.076 micrograms/dL, respectively. No significant difference was seen from baseline through week 12 in the CIS and BIS groups. BIS was safe in these patients, with no inhibitory effects on adrenocortical function. Salivary cortisol measurement offers a useful and accurate tool for testing adrenocortical function in infants and young children. Longer-term studies that incorporate testing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:22856637

  7. Ratiometric electrochemical immunoassay based on internal reference value for reproducible and sensitive detection of tumor marker.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaohui; Weng, Shaohuang; Guo, Rubin; Lin, Liqing; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Zongfu; Huang, Zhengjun; Lin, Xinhua

    2016-07-15

    A ratiometric assay in an electrochemical immunosensor for tumor marker, herein carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was chosen as a model analyte, was developed to improve simplicity and accuracy. The immunosensor was fabricated via the simple expedient way of using Polythionine-gold (PTh-Au) as electrode modified material to be an internal reference signal and K3[Fe(CN)6] in electrolyte as an indicator signal. When the CEA was fixed on the modified electrode via immunoreaction, only the indicator signal sensitively altered; by contrast, the internal reference signal of PTh-Au remained constant at a suitable pH of the electrolyte. The ratio between the alterations of the indicator signal of K3[Fe(CN)6] and the constant internal reference signal can be used to monitor the concentration of CEA reliably, reproducibly, and sensitively. The prepared ratiometric electrochemical immunosensor could detect CEA with good specificity within a wide linear range from 0.005ng/ml to 40ng/ml with a detection limit of 2.2pg/ml. Additionally, experimental results confirm that our proposed method is practical. Thus, this method can expand to recognize and test other protein markers. PMID:26945184

  8. Hematology and chemistry reference values for free-ranging harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and the effects of hemolysis on chemistry values of captive harbor seals.

    PubMed

    Morgan, L; Kumaresan, S; Thomas, C; MacWilliams, P

    1998-12-01

    Most reported laboratory reference values for harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) are derived from captive seals, or stranded seals that have recovered from disease in marine mammal centers. This study established hematology and serum chemistry reference values for free-ranging harbor seals, using methods and that are current and readily available, and determined the effects of hemolysis on serum chemistry values of captive harbor seals. Blood samples were collected for hematologic and serum chemistry measurements from 14 clinically normal, adult male and female harbor seals and two juvenile harbor seals (approximate age 6 mo) captured in saltwater sloughs and estuaries near Moss Landing, California, USA. Values for amylase, globulin, and differential leukocyte count, not previously reported, were determined. In general, hematology and chemistry values in adults were similar to those reported for free-ranging and captive harbor seals, except for glucose, urea nitrogen, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) values, which were higher than those reported previously. Red blood cell counts in the two juveniles were higher than in adults and in young harbor seals studied previously. To determine the effects of hemolysis on serum chemistry values, two intensities of hemolysis were generated experimentally in blood collected from 11 harbor seals recovering from injuries or stranding at the Marine Mammal Center (Sausalito, California 94965, USA). Moderate hemolysis (++, 1 g/L hemoglobin, red-tinged) significantly increased LDH activity, whereas severe hemolysis ( , 2 g/L hemoglobin, cherry red) significantly increased total protein, albumin, calculated globulin, LDH, and total bilirubin and significantly decreased creatinine. The effects of hemolysis must be considered when chemistry results of harbor seals are interpreted. PMID:10065846

  9. The influence of television on cultural values -- with special reference to Third World countries.

    PubMed

    Goonasekera, A

    1987-01-01

    In focusing on the influence of television on cultural values, particularly in third world countries, the discussion covers the impact of the technology of communication on cultural values, the impact of existing, that is traditional, cultural values on television, and the impact of television programs on cultural values. It is not a problem to set up a television transmitting station in any third world country; the hardware is manufactured in developed countries and assembled in a third world country by technicians of the television manufacturing company. The key question is whether the third world country that has acquired this modern piece of technology can put it into operation run it. The operation of a modern television station calls for 3 types of professionals: engineers and technicians, television journalists and producers, and managers and administrators. Consequently, if the host country is to benefit from this transfer of technology it needs to have a community of modern professionals. Also, for a culture to successfully utilize television, it is helpful if the other media of communication are developed. In sum, at the time of the introduction of television in third world countries, such countries should possess an advanced sector of education and mass media which could form the basis for initiating the multiplier effect for which television has the potential. When introducing television to a third world country, one further needs to be aware of the impact that traditional values may have on the utilization of this medium. It can work to entrench traditional inequities in social relationships in the name of cultural uniqueness, and from the perspective of disadvantaged minority groups it could be a form of "cultural imperialism." Thus, when introducing television, the governments of these countries need to consider fostering a set of values and norms that could assist in the modernization of these countries. These should be values that promote human

  10. [Risk and value of conventional myelography with reference to the radiation burden of the patient].

    PubMed

    Hentschel, F

    1989-01-01

    To estimate the effective equivalent dosage with reference to the area under examination and the foils employed, fifty patients underwent conventional diagnostic myelography, after which, by means of thermoluminescence surface dosimetry, the mean organ dosage was ascertained from the radiation field size, using a computer program ORDOS. Effective equivalent dosage can be used to determine the inherent risk of radiation injury involved. The risk-benefit ratios obtained would suggest that conventional myelography, prospectively in the form of digital myelography, and spinal computer tomography are not opposing but complementary approaches to spinal diagnosis. Spinal magnetic resonance (MR) merits discussion not from the aspect of exposure to radiation but that of availability. PMID:2704768

  11. Reference values of hair toxic trace elements content in occupationally non-exposed Russian population.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Demidov, Vasily A; Lobanova, Yulia N; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Berezkina, Elena S; Gryazeva, Irina V; Skalny, Andrey A; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-07-01

    A total of 5908 occupationally non-exposed adults (4384 women and 1524 men) living in Moscow and Moscow region were involved in the current investigation. Hair Al, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Hg, Li, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Sr content was estimated by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry using NexION 300D. Men are characterized by significantly higher hair Al, As, Cd, Hg, Li, and Pb content. At the same time, hair levels of Bi, Ni, Sn, and Sr were significantly higher in women. Consequently, the reference ranges were estimated for male, female, and general cohort as coverage intervals in accordance with IUPAC recommendations. PMID:26056973

  12. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellio scaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment. PMID:25561844

  13. Measuring skill acquisition and retention with an ATM simulator: the need for age-specific training.

    PubMed

    Mead, S; Fisk, A D

    1998-09-01

    The present study focused on the type of information presented during training and its effects on initial and retention performance of older and younger adults interacting with computerized, new technology. The effects of emphasizing concepts versus actions during training on performance immediately after training and after a 1-month retention interval were examined. Younger and older adults completed either action or concept training for operating a virtual automatic teller machine (ATM). Overall, action training was associated with faster and more accurate performance immediately after training and better retention performance for older adults. For older adults, value of type of training interacted with type of task component. These findings are applicable to the development of age-specific training materials for computerized tasks. PMID:9849109

  14. Reference values of fetal erythrocytes in maternal blood during pregnancy established using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Harry; Nabbe, Karin C A M; Kooren, Jurgen A; Adriaansen, Henk J; Roelandse-Koop, Elianne A; Schuitemaker, Joost H N; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2011-10-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the fetal RBC count in maternal blood during uncomplicated pregnancies from 26 weeks onward. We used a flow cytometric method specifically designed for use in a routine hematology analyzer. Pregnant women were recruited through midwives. The participating laboratories used the FMH QuikQuant method (Trillium Diagnostics, Brewer, ME) in a CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA). The method is based on a monoclonal antibody to hemoglobin F. Flow cytometric data were analyzed by 2 independent observers. The 95th percentile reference range was estimated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 236 samples were statistically analyzed. Gestational ages ranged from 21.6 to 41 weeks (mean, 32.0 weeks), and the fetal RBC count in maternal blood ranged from 0.00% to 0.50% (median, 0.025%). The fetal RBC count in maternal blood shows no correlation with gestational age. The established reference range during normal pregnancy is less than 0.125%. PMID:21917687

  15. Age and gender leucocytes variances and references values generated using the standardized ONE-Study protocol.

    PubMed

    Kverneland, Anders H; Streitz, Mathias; Geissler, Edward; Hutchinson, James; Vogt, Katrin; Boës, David; Niemann, Nadja; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Schlickeiser, Stephan; Sawitzki, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Flow cytometry is now accepted as an ideal technology to reveal changes in immune cell composition and function. However, it is also an error-prone and variable technology, which makes it difficult to reproduce findings across laboratories. We have recently developed a strategy to standardize whole blood flow cytometry. The performance of our protocols was challenged here by profiling samples from healthy volunteers to reveal age- and gender-dependent differences and to establish a standardized reference cohort for use in clinical trials. Whole blood samples from two different cohorts were analyzed (first cohort: n = 52, second cohort: n = 46, both 20-84 years with equal gender distribution). The second cohort was run as a validation cohort by a different operator. The "ONE Study" panels were applied to analyze expression of >30 different surface markers to enumerate proportional and absolute numbers of >50 leucocyte subsets. Indeed, analysis of the first cohort revealed significant age-dependent changes in subsets e.g. increased activated and differentiated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets, acquisition of a memory phenotype for Tregs as well as decreased MDC2 and Marginal Zone B cells. Males and females showed different dynamics in age-dependent T cell activation and differentiation, indicating faster immunosenescence in males. Importantly, although both cohorts consisted of a small sample size, our standardized approach enabled validation of age-dependent changes with the second cohort. Thus, we have proven the utility of our strategy and generated reproducible reference ranges accounting for age- and gender-dependent differences, which are crucial for a better patient monitoring and individualized therapy. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27144459

  16. Determination of urinary coenzyme Q10 by HPLC with electrochemical detection: Reference values for a paediatric population.

    PubMed

    Yubero, Dèlia; Montero, Raquel; Ramos, Maria; Neergheen, Viruna; Navas, Plácido; Artuch, Rafael; Hargreaves, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction is being increasingly associated with mitochondrial diseases and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) deficiency. The assessment of CoQ status requires the biochemical determination of CoQ in biological fluids and different cell types, but no methods have been developed as yet for the analysis of CoQ in excretory systems. The aim of this study was to standardize a new procedure for urinary CoQ determination and to establish reference values for a paediatric population. Urinary CoQ was analyzed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Reference values (n = 43) were stratified into two age groups (2-10 years: range 24-109 nmol CoQ/gram of pellet protein; 11-17 years: range 43-139 nmol CoQ/gram of pellet protein). In conclusion, urinary CoQ analysis is a noninvasive, reliable, and reproducible method to determine urinary tract CoQ status. PMID:26768296

  17. Establishing Normative Reference Values for Standing Broad Jump among Hungarian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Kaj, Mónika; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine age and sex trends in anaerobic power assessed by a standing broad jump and to determine norm-referenced values for youth in Hungary. Method: A sample of 2,427 Hungarian youth (1,360 boys and 1,067 girls) completed the standing broad jump twice, and the highest distance score was recorded. Quantile…

  18. Reference values for quantitative sensory testing in children and adolescents: developmental and gender differences of somatosensory perception.

    PubMed

    Blankenburg, M; Boekens, H; Hechler, T; Maier, C; Krumova, E; Scherens, A; Magerl, W; Aksu, F; Zernikow, B

    2010-04-01

    The Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST) protocol of the German research network on neuropathic pain (DFNS) encompassing all somatosensory modalities assesses the functioning of different nerve fibers and of central pathways. The aim of our study was: (1) to explore, whether this QST protocol is feasible for children, (2) to detect distribution properties of QST data and the impact of body site, age and gender and (3) to establish reference values for QST in children and adolescents. The QST protocol of the DFNS with modification of instructions and pain rating was used in 176 children aged 6.12-16.12years for six body sites. QST was feasible for children over 5years of age. ANOVAs revealed developmental, gender and body site differences of somatosensory functions similar to adults. The face was more sensitive than the hand and/or foot. Younger children (6-8years) were generally less sensitive to all thermal and mechanical detection stimuli but more sensitive to all pain stimuli than older (9-12years) children, whereas there were little differences between older children and adolescents (13-17years). Girls were more sensitive to thermal detection and pain stimuli, but not to mechanical detection and pain stimuli. Reference values differ from adults, but distribution properties (range, variance, and side differences) were similar and plausible for statistical factors. Our results demonstrate that the full QST protocol is feasible and valid for children over 5years of age with their own reference values. PMID:20138430

  19. Physical Fitness in Spanish Schoolchildren Aged 6-12 Years: Reference Values of the Battery EUROFIT and Associated Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulías-González, Roberto; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Olivas-Bravo, Ángel; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is considered an important indicator of health in children. The aims of this study were to (1) provide sex- and age-specific EUROFIT battery levels of fitness in Spanish children; (2) compare Spanish children's fitness levels with those of children from other countries; and (3) determine the percentage of Spanish…

  20. Spirometric reference values for Malagasy adults aged 18-73 years.

    PubMed

    Ratomaharo, Julia; Linares Perdomo, Olinto; Collingridge, Dave S; Andriamihaja, Rabezanahary; Hegewald, Matthew; Jensen, Robert L; Hankinson, John; Morris, Alan H

    2015-04-01

    The American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) recommend that spirometry prediction equations be derived from samples of similar race/ethnicity. Malagasy prediction equations do not exist. The objectives of this study were to establish prediction equations for healthy Malagasy adults, and then compare Malagasy measurements with published prediction equations. We enrolled 2491 healthy Malagasy subjects aged 18-73 years (1428 males) from June 2006 to April 2008. The subjects attempted to meet the ATS/ERS 2005 guidelines when performing forced expiratory spirograms. We compared Malagasy measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC with predictions from the European Community for Steel and Coal (ECSC), the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the ERS Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) 2012 study. A linear model for the entire population, using age and height as independent variables, best predicted all spirometry parameters for sea level and highland subjects. FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were most accurately predicted by NHANES III African-American male and female, and by GLI 2012 black male and black and South East Asian female equations. ECSC-predicted FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were poorly matched to Malagasy measurements. We provide the first spirometry reference equations for a healthy adult Malagasy population, and the first comparison of Malagasy population measurements with ECSC, NHANES III and GLI 2012 prediction equations. PMID:25395033

  1. No-reference video quality measurement: added value of machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocanu, Decebal Constantin; Pokhrel, Jeevan; Garella, Juan Pablo; Seppänen, Janne; Liotou, Eirini; Narwaria, Manish

    2015-11-01

    Video quality measurement is an important component in the end-to-end video delivery chain. Video quality is, however, subjective, and thus, there will always be interobserver differences in the subjective opinion about the visual quality of the same video. Despite this, most existing works on objective quality measurement typically focus only on predicting a single score and evaluate their prediction accuracies based on how close it is to the mean opinion scores (or similar average based ratings). Clearly, such an approach ignores the underlying diversities in the subjective scoring process and, as a result, does not allow further analysis on how reliable the objective prediction is in terms of subjective variability. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to analyze this issue and present a machine-learning based solution to address it. We demonstrate the utility of our ideas by considering the practical scenario of video broadcast transmissions with focus on digital terrestrial television (DTT) and proposing a no-reference objective video quality estimator for such application. We conducted meaningful verification studies on different video content (including video clips recorded from real DTT broadcast transmissions) in order to verify the performance of the proposed solution.

  2. Ultrasonographic reference values for assessing normal radial nerve ultrasonography in the normal population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Wu, Shan; Ren, Jun

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution ultrasound has been used recently to characterize median and ulnar nerves, but is seldom used to characterize radial nerves. The radial nerve is more frequently involved in entrapment syndromes than the ulnar and median nerves. However, the reference standard for normal radial nerves has not been established. Thus, this study measured the cross-sectional areas of radial nerves of 200 healthy male or female volunteers, aged 18 to 75, using high-resolution ultrasound. The results showed that mean cross-sectional areas of radial nerves at 4 cm upon the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and mid-humerus (midpoint between the elbow crease and axilla) were 5.14 ± 1.24 and 5.08 ± 1.23 mm2, respectively. The age and the dominant side did not affect the results, but the above-mentioned cross-sectional areas were larger in males (5.31 ± 1.25 and 5.19 ± 1.23 mm2) than in females (4.93 ± 1.21 and 4.93 ± 1.23 mm2, respectively). In addition, the cross-sectional areas of radial nerves were positively correlated with height and weight (r = 0.38, 0.36, respectively, both P < 0.05). These data provide basic clinical data for the use of high-resolution ultrasound for the future diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic evaluation of peripheral neuropathies. PMID:25422648

  3. Reference values and repeatability of buccal mucosal bleeding time in healthy sedated cats.

    PubMed

    Alatzas, Dimitrios G; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Kazakos, Giorgos M; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2014-02-01

    Bleeding time is a screening test for the evaluation of primary haemostasis. As there is currently limited information on the reference interval (RI) and repeatability of the test in the cat compared with the dog, the purpose of the study was to establish the RI of buccal mucosa bleeding time (BMBT) in healthy cats and to investigate the intra-observer repeatability of the test. Fifty-six cats were prospectively enrolled in the study. The animals were deemed to be healthy based on history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and negative serological testing for feline leukaemia and immunodeficiency viruses. All cats were sedated with ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine, and the BMBT was sequentially measured in the left and right exposed buccal mucosa following a standardised incision made by a commercially available, disposable, bleeding time device. The mean BMBT was 58.6 s and the RIs ranged from 34 to 105 s (Bootstrap estimation). The intra-observer repeatability was up to 87 s (Bland-Altman plot). The results of this study imply that the combination of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine is a safe and useful sedative protocol allowing for the reliable measurement of BMBT in the cat. The RI of feline BMBT may range from 34 to 105 s and the BMBT may differ by up to 87 s for any two consecutive readings for an individual cat. PMID:23985755

  4. Direction distributions of neutrons and reference values of the personal dose equivalent in workplace fields.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T; Boschung, M; Coeck, M; Curzio, G; d'Errico, F; Fiechtner, A; Lacoste, V; Lindborg, L; Reginatto, M; Schuhmacher, H; Tanner, R; Vanhavere, F

    2007-01-01

    Within the EC project EVIDOS, double-differential (energy and direction) fluence spectra were determined by means of novel direction spectrometers. By folding the spectra with fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficients, contributions to H*(10) for 14 directions, and values of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) and the effective dose E for 6 directions of a person's orientation in the field were determined. The results of the measurements and calculations obtained within the EVIDOS project in workplace fields in nuclear installations in Europe, i.e., at Krümmel (boiling water reactor and transport cask), at Mol (Venus research reactor and fuel facility Belgonucléaire) and at Ringhals (pressurised reactor and transport cask) are presented. PMID:17369265

  5. Modern Tests of Vestibular Function, with Special Reference to their Value in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dix, M. R.

    1969-01-01

    The many vestibular tests now available provide the means of accurate localization of lesions at all levels of the vestibular pathways. The value of the test procedures described has been well established in the examination of very many patients over the past twenty years, and though other forms of tests are available only those have been included which have proved to give consistently useful information. Most of these tests can be undertaken by the clinician without the use of any costly equipment, and together with a careful history and examination the diagnosis can in most cases be arrived at. Recognition of the highly important role of optic fixation and ocular deviations on vestibular nystagmus, together with recent facilities to demonstrate this electronystagmographically, may provide additional valuable and more precise information. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 14 PMID:5800340

  6. Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values in Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    PubMed

    Samour, Jaime; Naldo, Jesus; Rahman, Habeeb; Sakkir, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive, adult, clinically normal Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for hematologic and plasma biochemical analyses. Hematologic parameters investigated were total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, fibrinogen, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, and thrombocyte count. Plasma biochemical parameters investigated were alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, bile acids, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, iron, phosphorus, and uric acid, as well as plasma protein electrophoresis. Results were compared with values from studies done in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), kori bustards (Ardeotis kori), stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus), and taxonomically related species, including ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), Kashmir native fowl (Kashmirfavorella), and Bangladesh native, Fayoumi, and Assil fowl (Gallus domesticus). PMID:20806654

  7. Biochemical and hematologic reference values for free-ranging, chemically immobilized wild norwegian reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) during early winter.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrea L; Evans, Alina L; Os, Øystein; Arnemo, Jon M

    2013-04-01

    Hematologic and serum biochemistry values were evaluated in free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) as part of a reintroduction program in southwestern Norway in November 1995 and 1996. Animals were immobilized with medetomidine-ketamine by dart from a helicopter. Blood was drawn for serum chemistry from 31 adults (nine males and 22 females) and for hematology from 29 adults (eight males and 21 females). Significant differences (P<0.05) were found between male and female results for alkaline phosphatase, selenium, and zinc. Although there was a significant difference between male and female gamma-globulin values and the total albumin:globulin ratio, the overall values are much lower than those reported for other Rangifer species. Sexual differences should be interpreted with caution due to the low number of males compared to females. References ranges are presented combining male and female results for hematology and serum chemistry and separately for males and females for serum electrophoresis. No correlation was found between induction time and aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, glucose, cortisol, or total protein. Blood values were generally similar to those published for semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), but the effect of capture drugs, stress, season, and sample size should be considered with interpretation. This paper provides the first report of baseline hematologic and serum biochemistry reference ranges for free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer during early winter. PMID:23568897

  8. Age-specific changes in electrocardiographic parameters in bipolar limb leads of conscious female native cats of Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Subhashree; Mahapatra, A. P. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Kundu, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study and compare the age-specific changes in electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters in bipolar limb leads of conscious female native cats of Odisha. Materials and Methods: 20 healthy female native cats aged between 4 and 36 months of age were selected for the study. These queens were divided into two groups of 10 animals each. Group 1 constituted the queens aged 4-10 months (before puberty) with a mean weight of 2.28 kg (±0.4 standard error [SE]), and those aged 11-36 months (after puberty) with a mean weight of 3.72 kg (±0.6 SE) were in Group 2. The ECG was recorded with a 12-lead standard ECG recorder, Cardiart 108 T-MK VII-BPL (India) in the Leads I, II, and III. Results: The mean heart rates were 160.73 (±7.83) beats/min and 139.09 (±2.72) beats/min in the cats aged 4-10 months and 11-36 months, respectively. Significant differences existed among Q- and R-wave amplitudes and duration of QT-interval in Lead I. In Lead II, duration of QT and RR intervals, duration of ST-segment and amplitudes of P- and R-waves varied significantly. Significant differences were also observed in the P- and R-wave amplitudes in Lead III. The mean electrical axis was 63.11 (±1.98°) and 50.03 (±4.86°) in the cats aged 4-10 months and 11-36 months, respectively. Conclusion: Since the ECG studies on conscious cats are scanty, and the number of native cats being presented in veterinary hospitals and clinics has increased drastically, there is a need to establish the reference values for ECG parameters in conscious native cats so that the cardiovascular abnormalities can be predicted. PMID:27051200

  9. [Reference values of calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride for the Venezuelan population].

    PubMed

    Macías-Tomei, Coromoto; Palacios, Cristina; Mariño Elizondo, Mariana; Carías, Diamela; Noguera, Dalmacia; Chávez Pérez, José Félix

    2013-12-01

    The following micronutrients were considered together for their role in bone health: calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride. Calcium: not enough is known to change current recommendations. In adolescents and adults, limited data suggest that consuming the recommended level is associated with normal bone mass. In older adults, the limited data reported low consumption and a high rate of fractures but there is no information on whether the current values are adequate. Vitamin D: the limited data reported high deficiency in older adults, which was related to osteoporosis. Given the recent increase in North American recommendation for their contribution to bone health, we proposed to increase the recommendation to 400-600 IU/d for Venezuela. Phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride: the lack of local data does not support changing the latest recommendations. Therefore, it highlights the lack of local studies to assess current recommendations. Studies are needed to estimate the intake of these micronutrients in the population and evaluate their interaction and their relation to bone and overall health. Information of the adequacy of these nutrients in human milk for infants is needed. Alto, it is necessary to implement an effective nutrition surveillance system and implement interventions that maximize bone health from an early stage, including the design and implementation of a dairy policy that leads to an increase in production and consumption by the population. PMID:25924466

  10. Urinary parameters of Trichechus inunguis (Mammalia, Sirenia): reference values for the Amazonian Manatee.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, T M A; Da Rosas, F C W; Dos Silva, V M F; Santos, A M F

    2010-08-01

    The Amazonian manatee, Trichechus inunguis (Natterer 1883) is endemic to the Amazon Basin and is currently considered a vulnerable species. In order to establish normality ranges of urinary parameters to help monitor the health of this species in captivity, chemical urinalyses were performed on twelve males and nine females of various age groups. Urine was collected once a month for twelve months in the tanks just after being drained, by placing stainless steel containers under the genital slit of females and applying abdominal massages to males in order to stimulate urination. Quantitative data of glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid and amylase levels were obtained using colorimetric spectrophotometry. Dip strips were also useful for routine analyses, despite only providing qualitative results. Normal range to glucose levels, regardless of sex or age class, was 3.0 to 3.6 mgxdL-1, coinciding with qualitative values of glucose measured by dip strips. Statistical differences observed in some parameter levels suggest that some urine parameters analysed must take into consideration the sex and the age class of the animal studied, being these differences less remarkable in creatinine and amylase levels. To this last one, statistical difference was detected only in the calve's urine (7.0 to 11.5 mgxdL-1) compared to other age classes samples (4.1 to 5.3 mgxdL-1). The results presented here may be used as comparative data in future research on urinalysis in related species. PMID:20730348

  11. King-Devick test normative reference values for professional male ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, M V; Holm, A; Peltonen, K; Luoto, T M; Iverson, G L; Hokkanen, L

    2015-06-01

    The King-Devick (K-D) test, a measure of processing speed, visual tracking, and saccadic eye movements, has shown promise as a supplemental screening test following concussion. However, limited normative data for this test have been published.The K-D test was administered to 185 professional ice hockey players as a preseason baseline test in seasons 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. Their average age was 23.8 years (median = 22.0 years, range = 16-40 years). The average K-D score was 40.0 s (SD = 6.1 s, range = 24.0-65.7 s). K-D test performance showed no association with age, education, or the number of self-reported previous concussions in this sample. The association between trials 1 and 2 of the K-D test was good (ICC = 0.92, Pearson = 0.93). Normative values of the K-D test for professional male ice hockey players are reported. K-D test performance did not vary by age, education, or concussion history in this study. PMID:25138698

  12. [Selenium and health; reference values and current status of Spanish population].

    PubMed

    López-Bellido Garrido, Francisco Javier; López Bellido, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has gone, in a few years, from being considered only a toxic element to attribute it remarkable benefits for the human health: from antioxidant and hormonal regulations of thyroid functions to established anti-carcinogen effects. The Se is an essential microelement for humans and livestock, but not for plants, which extract it from soil incidentally. Therefore the population Se status of a area ultimately depends on its presence in soil. In the last two decades have shown that the individual Se requirements are higher than the values referenced given for Official Organism, and that should be considered not only the direct effects of deficiency, but adequate to achieve optimal health through maximize/ optimize the Se-proteins. In Spain, the few studies on healthy people show low Se levels in blood. This fact is corroborated by the low Se concentration on the main food groups. The cereals, more specifically wheat and derivative products, is one of main groups that provide greater Se contribution to the diet. However, the wheat Se concentrations in Spain are low, partly explaining the low blood levels found in the Spanish population. It would need to involve the National Public Organizations to increase the number of studies of this subject, in order to elucidate the extent of Se deficiencies in Spanish population and to evaluate possible solutions. PMID:24160192

  13. Downstream hydraulic geometry relationships: Gathering reference reach-scale width values from LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, G.; Tarolli, P.; Cazorzi, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the ability of LiDAR topography to provide reach-scale width values for the analysis of downstream hydraulic geometry relationships along some streams in the Dolomites (northern Italy). Multiple reach-scale dimensions can provide representative geometries and statistics characterising the longitudinal variability in the channel, improving the understanding of geomorphic processes across networks. Starting from the minimum curvature derived from a LiDAR DTM, the proposed algorithm uses a statistical approach for the identification of the scale of analysis, and for the automatic characterisation of reach-scale bankfull widths. The downstream adjustment in channel morphology is then related to flow parameters (drainage area and stream power). With the correct planning of a LiDAR survey, uncertainties in the procedure are principally due to the resolution of the DTM. The outputs are in general comparable in quality to field survey measurements, and the procedure allows the quick comparison among different watersheds. The proposed automatic approach could improve knowledge about river systems with highly variable widths, and about systems in areas covered by vegetation or inaccessible to field surveys. With proven effectiveness, this research could offer an interesting starting point for the analysis of differences between watersheds, and to improve knowledge about downstream channel adjustment in relation, for example, to scale and landscape forcing (e.g. sediment transport, tectonics, lithology, climate, geomorphology, and anthropic pressure).

  14. Age Dependency of GLI Reference Values Compared with Paediatric Lung Function Data in Two German Studies (GINIplus and LUNOKID)

    PubMed Central

    Hüls, Anke; Krämer, Ursula; Gappa, Monika; Müller-Brandes, Christine; Schikowski, Tamara; von Berg, Andrea; Hoffmann, Barbara; Schuster, Antje; Wisbauer, Matthias; Flexeder, Claudia; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger; Berdel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of the newly published GLI (Global Lungs Initiative) spirometric reference values is their "all-age" (3-95yr) predictive power, accomplished by incorporating non-linear age dependencies into modelling parameters. This modelling strategy is especially promising for the age range of puberty; however, the performance of GLI-values for adolescents is currently unknown. We calculated GLI-based z-scores for children/adolescents without apparent respiratory diseases from two different German studies, LUNOKID (N = 1943, 4–19 years) and GINIplus (N = 1042, 15 years) and determined the goodness of fit for specific age groups. We defined fit sufficient if the absolute mean of z-scores was <0.5. For children (<10yr) the mean GLI-based z-scores for FEV1 and FVC reached a good fit with mean z-scores for FEV1 between -0.11 and 0.01 and mean z-scores for FVC between 0.01 and 0.16, but larger deviations were observed in adolescents, especially boys (mean z-score -0.58 for FEV1 and -0.57 for FVC in GINIplus). The fit for FEV1/FVC was sufficient. GLI reference values provided reasonable estimates for the individuals enrolled in our studies, which span the age range of lung growth and development. However, we found that GLI-predictions overestimated lung volumes, especially those for German adolescent boys, which may, left unrecognised, lead to erroneous diagnosis of lung disease. Caution should be taken when applying these reference values to epidemiologic studies. PMID:27438002

  15. Age-specific Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Ranges Among Apparently Healthy Nigerian Men Without Clinical Evidence of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ikuerowo, SO; Ajala, MO; Abolarinwa, AA; Omisanjo, OA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels increase with age and varies among different races and communities. The study was aimed at defining the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA in our environment. Methods: We evaluated the relationship between age and serum PSA levels and the age-specific reference ranges of serum PSA among civil servants in Lagos, who underwent routine medical checkups. Criteria for inclusion were men who have no lower urinary tract symptoms, normal digital rectal examination and serum PSA ≤ 20 ng/ml. SPSS Statistic 21 was used for data evaluation and the mean, median, 95th percentile PSA levels were estimated. Pearson's correlation was used to examine the relationship, and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 4032 men met the criteria for inclusion in the evaluation. The mean age was 51.6 (range 40–70) years, and there was a strong correlation between serum PSA levels and age (r = 0.097, P < 0.001). PSA ranges of 0–2.5, >2.5–4.0, >4.0–10, and >10 ng/ml were found in 3218 (80%), 481 (12%), 284 (7%), and 52 (1%) men, respectively. The mean, median and the 95th percentile PSA for the overall group were 1.84, 1.33, and 5.2 ng/ml respectively. However the 95th percentile PSA levels for men aged 40–49, 50–59, and 60–70 years were 4.78, 5.47, and 8.93 ng/ml respectively. Conclusion: The age-specific PSA levels among Nigerian men for each age group is higher than what was described for men in the Western world. These reference ranges of serum PSA should be considered for men aged ≥40 years in our environment. PMID:27013850

  16. Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine the reference value of blood lead levels (BLL) in a sample of blood donors of Rio Branco, the capital city of Acre, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and (2) explore factors influencing lead (Pb) exposure levels. Between 2010 and 2011, blood samples were collected from universal blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco with a total number of 1196. Information on characteristics of 1183 donors was obtained through questionnaires. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with detection limit of 0.003 μg/L. Association between BLL and participant characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values of BLL were calculated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile. Reference values of BLL were 109.5 μg/L for men, 70.7 μg/L for women, 88.9 μg/L for younger individuals (18-29 yr), 115.3 μg/L for older ones (≥30 yr), 94.2 μg/L for nonsmokers, and 164.5 μg/L for smokers. Levels of BLL were significantly higher in males, subjects older than 29 yr, non-whites, smokers, regular consumers of manioc flour, and donors practicing any activity related to paints, ceramics, pottery, fishing, or firearms. Subjects with higher education, higher income, vitamin intake use, and drinkers of bottled water displayed lower BLL. In general, BLL in men and women from Rio Branco were higher than those described in other adult populations. Prevention of exposure of this population to local sources of Pb needs to be addressed. PMID:24627997

  17. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    SciTech Connect

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm{sup 2} for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm{sup 2} for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm{sup 2} for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm{sup 2} for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm{sup 2}/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there

  18. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure. PMID:27060750

  19. King-Devick Test reference values and associations with balance measures in high school American football players.

    PubMed

    Alsalaheen, B; Haines, J; Yorke, A; Diebold, J

    2016-02-01

    The King-Devick test appears to be a promising tool in screening for concussions. However, limited evidence exists on the baseline associations between the K-D test and age and baseline screening tools used after concussion. Additionally, there are no published reference values for the K-D test in high school football players. The K-D test, the Balance Error Scoring System, and the Limits of Stability (LOS) test were administered to 157 high school football players. Additionally, a subsample of 62 participants completed the test twice to examine the reliability of K-D test. There was no relationship between the K-D test and the BESS, or the reaction time and directional control of LOS test. Students aged between 16 and 18 years demonstrated faster K-D test performance compared to students between 13 and 15 years of age. However, there was no association between K-D test and history of concussion. The reliability of the K-D test was (ICC2,1 = 0.89), and the minimal detectable change was 6.10 s. Normative reference values for high school football players are presented in this study. PMID:26648587

  20. [THE MARKERS OF BONE TISSUE METABOLISM. THE REFERENCE VALUES FOR THE KHANTY-MANSI AUTONOMOUS OKRUG-YUGRA].

    PubMed

    Kutchin, R V; Nenenko, N D; Tchernitsina, N V; Maksimova, T A

    2016-03-01

    The article defines reference values of particular markers of metabolism of bone tissue common to residents of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to analyze blood serum of 86 patients (43 males, 43 females) detecting concentration of C-tailed telopeptide of collagen type I, osteocalcin, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone and 1.25(OH)2 vitamin D. The following reference values were derived. The C-tailed telopeptide (ng/ml): 0.111 (0.071-0.162) for females and 0.146 (0.066-0.255) for males. The osteocalcin (ng/ml): 20.6 (12.9-33.0) for females and 27.6 (12.0-61.9) for males. Calcitonin (pg/ml) - 2.55 (1.90-3.76); parathyroid hormone (pg/ml) - 39 (13-88); 1.25(OH)2 vitamin D (pg/ml) - 10.5 (3.9-46.4). It was also noted that decreasing of average indicators of vitamin D level and increasing of level of parathyroid hormone among residents of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra can cause increasing of intensity of accumulation of minerals in bone tissue as compared with residents of middle latitudes. PMID:27506104

  1. Addressing Issues in the Development and Use of the Composite International Reference Values as Rorschach Norms for Adults.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregory J; Shaffer, Thomas W; Erdberg, Philip; Horn, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    This article describes 3 studies evaluating normative reference data for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003, 2007), with a particular focus on the viability of the Composite International Reference Values (CIRVs) that were compiled from 21 adult studies by Meyer, Erdberg, and Shaffer (2007). Study 1 documented how the CIRV norms are virtually identical when organized into 3 groups differentiated by the quality of their data collection effort, including an optimal group of 4 samples that relied on multiple experienced examiners and provided ongoing quality control over administration and coding. Analyses also showed that relative to the group of more optimal samples, the group of less optimal samples did not produce more variability in summary scores within or across samples or lower interrater reliability for coding. Study 2 used the existing CS reference norms to generate T scores for the CIRV means and documented how the CS norms make other samples of healthy nonpatients look psychologically impaired in multiple domains. Study 3 documented with examples from 4 different countries how 2 sets of within-country local norms produced notably different results on some variables, which compromises the ability of local norms to be used instead of the CIRVs. Taken together, the 3 studies provide support for the use of CIRVs in clinical practice as norms that are generalizable across samples, settings, languages, and cultures and that account for the natural variability that is present when clinicians and researchers contend with the ambiguity contained in the standard CS reference materials concerning the proper ways to administer and code. We conclude by urging CS users to rely on the CIRVs when making clinical inferences and to adopt alternative methods of ensuring they are following cohesively standardized administration and coding guidelines. PMID:25297806

  2. Contribution for the Derivation of a Soil Screening Value (SSV) for Uranium, Using a Natural Reference Soil

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Ana Luisa; Marques, Catarina R.; Gavina, Ana; Carvalho, Fernando; Gonçalves, Fernando; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Pereira, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In order to regulate the management of contaminated land, many countries have been deriving soil screening values (SSV). However, the ecotoxicological data available for uranium is still insufficient and incapable to generate SSVs for European soils. In this sense, and so as to make up for this shortcoming, a battery of ecotoxicological assays focusing on soil functions and organisms, and a wide range of endpoints was carried out, using a natural soil artificially spiked with uranium. In terrestrial ecotoxicology, it is widely recognized that soils have different properties that can influence the bioavailability and the toxicity of chemicals. In this context, SSVs derived for artificial soils or for other types of natural soils, may lead to unfeasible environmental risk assessment. Hence, the use of natural regional representative soils is of great importance in the derivation of SSVs. A Portuguese natural reference soil PTRS1, from a granitic region, was thereby applied as test substrate. This study allowed the determination of NOEC, LOEC, EC20 and EC50 values for uranium. Dehydrogenase and urease enzymes displayed the lowest values (34.9 and <134.5 mg U Kg, respectively). Eisenia andrei and Enchytraeus crypticus revealed to be more sensitive to uranium than Folsomia candida. EC50 values of 631.00, 518.65 and 851.64 mg U Kg were recorded for the three species, respectively. Concerning plants, only Lactuca sativa was affected by U at concentrations up to 1000 mg U kg1. The outcomes of the study may in part be constrained by physical and chemical characteristics of soils, hence contributing to the discrepancy between the toxicity data generated in this study and that available in the literature. Following the assessment factor method, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) value of 15.5 mg kg−1dw was obtained for U. This PNEC value is proposed as a SSV for soils similar to the PTRS1. PMID:25353962

  3. Contribution for the derivation of a soil screening value (SSV) for uranium, using a natural reference soil.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Ana Luisa; Marques, Catarina R; Gavina, Ana; Carvalho, Fernando; Gonçalves, Fernando; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Pereira, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In order to regulate the management of contaminated land, many countries have been deriving soil screening values (SSV). However, the ecotoxicological data available for uranium is still insufficient and incapable to generate SSVs for European soils. In this sense, and so as to make up for this shortcoming, a battery of ecotoxicological assays focusing on soil functions and organisms, and a wide range of endpoints was carried out, using a natural soil artificially spiked with uranium. In terrestrial ecotoxicology, it is widely recognized that soils have different properties that can influence the bioavailability and the toxicity of chemicals. In this context, SSVs derived for artificial soils or for other types of natural soils, may lead to unfeasible environmental risk assessment. Hence, the use of natural regional representative soils is of great importance in the derivation of SSVs. A Portuguese natural reference soil PTRS1, from a granitic region, was thereby applied as test substrate. This study allowed the determination of NOEC, LOEC, EC20 and EC50 values for uranium. Dehydrogenase and urease enzymes displayed the lowest values (34.9 and <134.5 mg U Kg, respectively). Eisenia andrei and Enchytraeus crypticus revealed to be more sensitive to uranium than Folsomia candida. EC50 values of 631.00, 518.65 and 851.64 mg U Kg were recorded for the three species, respectively. Concerning plants, only Lactuca sativa was affected by U at concentrations up to 1000 mg U kg(1). The outcomes of the study may in part be constrained by physical and chemical characteristics of soils, hence contributing to the discrepancy between the toxicity data generated in this study and that available in the literature. Following the assessment factor method, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) value of 15.5 mg kg-1dw was obtained for U. This PNEC value is proposed as a SSV for soils similar to the PTRS1. PMID:25353962

  4. Development of dietary-based toxic reference values to assess the risk of chlorophacinone to non-target raptorial birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca; Shultz, S. L.; Horak, Katherine E.; Abbo, B.G.; Volker, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory changes in the use of some second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides in parts of North America may result in expanded use of first-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs). Recent toxicological studies with captive raptors have demonstrated that these species are considerably more sensitive to the FGAR diphacinone than traditional avian wildlife test species (mallard, bobwhite). We have now examined the toxicity of the FGAR chlorophacinone (CPN) to American kestrels fed rat tissue mechanically-amended with CPN, or rat tissue containing biologically-incorporated CPN, for 7 days. Nominal CPN concentrations in these diets were 0.15, 0.75 and 1.5 µg/g food wet weight, and actual CPN concentration in diets were analytically verified as being close to target values. Food intake was consistent among groups, body weight fluctuated by less than 6%, exposure and adverse effects were generally dose-dependent, and there were no dramatic differences in toxicity between mechanically-amended and biologically-incorporated CPN diets. Using benchmark dose statistical methods, toxic reference values at which clotting times were prolonged in 50% of the kestrels was estimated to be about 80 µg CPN consumed/kg body weight-day for prothrombin time and 40 µg CPN/kg body weight-day for Russell's viper venom time. Based upon carcass CPN residues reported in rodents from field baiting studies, empirical measures of food consumption in kestrels, and dietary-based toxic reference values derived from the 7-day exposure scenario, some free-ranging raptors consuming CPN exposed prey might exhibit coagulopathy and hemorrhage. These sublethal responses associated with exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of CPN could compromise survival of exposed birds.

  5. An age-specific kinetic model of lead metabolism in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, R W

    1993-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in recent years in reducing human exposures to lead, the potential for high intake of this contaminant still exists in millions of homes and in many occupational settings. Moreover, there is growing evidence that levels of lead intake considered inconsequential just a few years ago can result in subtle, adverse health effects, particularly in children. Consequently, there have been increased efforts by health protection agencies to develop credible, versatile methods for relating levels of lead in environmental media to levels in blood and tissues of exposed humans of all ages. In a parallel effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is assembling a set of age-specific biokinetic models for calculating radiation doses from environmentally important radionuclides, including radioisotopes of lead. This paper describes a new age-specific biokinetic model for lead originally developed for the ICRP but expanded to include additional features that are useful for consideration of lead as a chemical toxin. The model is developed within a generic, physiologically motivated framework designed to address a class of calciumlike elements. This framework provides a useful setting in which to synthesize experimental, occupational, and environmental data on lead and exploit common physiological properties of lead and the alkaline earth elements. The modular design is intended to allow researchers to modify specific parameter values or model components to address special problems in lead toxicology or to incorporate new information. Transport of lead between compartments is assumed to follow linear, first-order kinetics provided the concentration in red blood cells remains below a nonlinear threshold level, but a nonlinear relation between plasma lead and red blood cell lead is modeled for concentrations above that level. The model is shown to be consistent

  6. Copper toxicity in a natural reference soil: ecotoxicological data for the derivation of preliminary soil screening values.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Ana Luísa; Marques, Catarina Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Fernando; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Pereira, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The risk assessment of contaminated soils is conventionally done with the support of soil screening values (SSVs). Since SSVs are still unavailable for many European countries, including Portugal, standardized toxicity tests are urgently claimed for their derivation. Hence, this work aimed the generation of toxicity values for copper (Cu) in a natural reference soil (PTRS1) targeting different terrestrial species, endpoints and soil functions, as to derive a preliminary Cu SSV. For this, the Assessment Factor approach was applied, which allowed calculating predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for Cu that will be the basis for SSV proposal. In order to increase the reliability of the PNEC, and hence of the SSV, a lab/field factor was applied to correct the toxicity values used for PNEC determination. Cu affected urease, cellulase and nitrogen mineralization activities. The EC50 values calculated for the invertebrates reproduction were 130.9, 165.1 and 191.6 mg Cu Kg(-1) soildw for Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida, respectively. Cu inhibited seed germination mainly for Lactuca sativa, whilst it was toxic for the growth of different plant species (EC50s between 89 and 290.5 mg Cu Kg(-1) soildw). Based on the outcomes gathered, we proposed SSVs for Cu ranging between 26.3 and 31.8 mg Kg(-1) soildw, which is above the background values reported and below all the EC20s recorded for the species and endpoints herein analyzed. Overall, this work describes a procedure that could be easily followed by other European countries wishing to derive SSVs adjusted to their soils. PMID:26520436

  7. Advances in the Metrology of Absolute Value Assignments to Isotopic Reference Materials: Consequences from the Avogadro Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, Robert; Rabb, Savelas

    2015-04-01

    All isotope amount ratios (hereafter referred to as isotope ratios) produced and measured on any mass spectrometer are biased. This unfortunate situation results mainly from the physical processes in the source area where ions are produced. Because the ionized atoms in poly-isotopic elements have different masses, such processes are typically mass dependent and lead to what is commonly referred to as mass fractionation (for thermal ionization and electron impact sources) and mass bias (for inductively coupled plasma sources.) This biasing process produces a measured isotope ratio that is either larger or smaller than the "true" ratio in the sample. This has led to the development of numerous fractionation "laws" that seek to correct for these effects, many of which are not based on the physical processes giving rise to the biases. The search for tighter and reproducible precisions has led to two isotope ratio measurement systems that exist side-by-side. One still seeks to measure "absolute" isotope ratios while the other utilizes an artifact based measurement system called a delta-scale. The common element between these two measurement systems is the utilization of isotope reference materials (iRMs). These iRMs are used to validate a fractionation "law" in the former case and function as a scale anchor in the latter. Many value assignments of iRMs are based on "best measurements" by the original groups producing the reference material, a not entirely satisfactory approach. Other iRMs, with absolute isotope ratio values, have been produced by calibrated measurements following the Atomic Weight approach (AW) pioneered by NBS nearly 50 years ago. Unfortunately, the AW is not capable of calibrating the new generation of iRMs to sufficient precision. So how do we get iRMs with isotope ratios of sufficient precision and without bias? Such a focus is not to denigrate the extremely precise delta-scale measurements presently being made on non-traditional and tradition

  8. Carotid artery intima-media thickness and distensibility in children and adolescents: reference values and role of body dimensions.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Anke; Kracht, Daniela; Bayazit, Aysun K; Deveci, Murat; Duzova, Ali; Krmar, Rafael T; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Niemirska, Anna; Oguz, Berna; Schmidt, Bernhard M W; Sözeri, Betul; Querfeld, Uwe; Melk, Anette; Schaefer, Franz; Wühl, Elke

    2013-09-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid artery distensibility are reliable screening methods for vascular alterations and the assessment of cardiovascular risk in adult and pediatric cohorts. We sought to establish an international reference data set for the childhood and adolescence period and explore the impact of developmental changes in body dimensions and blood pressure (BP) on carotid wall thickness and elasticity. cIMT, the distensibility coefficient, the incremental modulus of elasticity, and the stiffness index β were assessed in 1155 children aged 6 to 18 years and sex-specific reference charts normalized to age or height were constructed from 1051 nonobese and nonhypertensive children. The role of body dimensions, BP, and family history, as well as the association between cIMT and distensibility, was investigated. cIMT increased and distensibility decreased with age, height, body mass index, and BP. A significant sex difference was apparent from the age of 15 years. Age- and height-normalized cIMT and distensibility values differed in children who are short or tall for their age. By stepwise multivariate analysis, standardized systolic BP and body mass index were independently positively associated with cIMT SD scores (SDS). Systolic BP SDS independently predicted all distensibility measures. Distensibility coefficient SDS was negatively and β SDS positively associated with cIMT SDS, whereas incremental modulus of elasticity was independent of cIMT. Morphological and functional aspects of the common carotid artery are particularly influenced by age, body dimensions, and BP. The reference charts established in this study allow to accurately compare vascular phenotypes of children with chronic conditions with those of healthy children. PMID:23817494

  9. Age-specific MRI brain and head templates for healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Paul T.; Phillips-Meek, Michelle C.; Richards, John E.

    2015-01-01

    This study created and tested a database of adult, age-specific MRI brain and head templates. The participants included healthy adults from 20 through 89 years of age. The templates were done in five-year, 10-year, and multi-year intervals from 20 through 89 years, and consist of average T1W for the head and brain, and segmenting priors for gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It was found that age-appropriate templates provided less biased tissue classification estimates than age-inappropriate reference data and reference data based on young adult templates. This database is available for use by other investigators and clinicians for their MRI studies, as well as other types of neuroimaging and electrophysiological research.1 PMID:25904864

  10. The Impact of R-Optimized Administration Modeling Procedures on Brazilian Normative Reference Values for Rorschach Scores.

    PubMed

    Pianowski, Giselle; Meyer, Gregory J; Villemor-Amaral, Anna Elisa de

    2016-01-01

    To generate normative reference data for the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS), modeling procedures were developed to convert the distribution of responses (R) in protocols obtained using Comprehensive System (CS; Exner 2003 ) administration guidelines to match the distribution of R in protocols obtained using R-Optimized Administration (Meyer, Viglione, Mihura, Erard, & Erdberg, 2011 ). This study replicates the R-PAS study, examining the impact of modeling R-Optimized Administration on Brazilian normative reference values by comparing a sample of 746 CS administered protocols to its counterpart sample of 343 records modeled to match R-Optimized Administration. The results were strongly consistent with the R-PAS findings, showing the modeled records had a slightly higher mean R and, secondarily, slightly higher means for Complexity and V-Comp, as well as smaller standard deviations for R, Complexity, and R8910%. We also observed 5 other small differences not observed in the R-PAS study. However, when comparing effect sizes for the differences in means and standard deviations observed in this study to the differences found in the R-PAS study, the results were virtually identical. These findings suggest that using R-Optimized Administration in Brazil might produce normative results that are similar to traditional CS norms for Brazil and similar to the international norms used in R-PAS. PMID:27003633

  11. Applicability of the Global Lung Initiative 2012 Reference Values for Spirometry for Longitudinal Data of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Hüls, Anke; Krämer, Ursula; Stolz, Sabine; Hennig, Frauke; Hoffmann, Barbara; Ickstadt, Katja; Vierkötter, Andrea; Schikowski, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Lung function depends nonlinearly on age and height, so that the use of age and height specific reference values is required. The widely used age and height specific GLI (Global Lung Initiative) z-scores derived from cross-sectional data, however, have not been proven for validity in an elderly population or for longitudinal data. Therefore, we aimed to test their validity in a population of elderly women followed prospectively for more than 20 years. Methods We used spirometric data (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC) from the SALIA cohort of German women (baseline: 1985–1994 (aged 55 years), follow-up: 2008/2009 and 2012/2013). We calculated GLI-z-scores for baseline and follow-up examination separately (cross-sectional evaluation) and individual differences in z-scores between baseline and follow-up (longitudinal evaluation) for healthy never-smoking women. Results GLI reference values for FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC were cross-sectionally and longitudinally equivalent with our SALIA data. The mean change in z-scores between baseline and follow-up was 0.33 for FEV1, 0.38 for FVC and -0.10 for FEV1/FVC. Conclusions In conclusion, GLI z-scores fit cross-sectionally and longitudinally with FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC measured in women from Germany which indicates that they can be used in longitudinal association analyses. PMID:27310365

  12. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values. A report of age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. ICRP Publication 89.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    This report presents detailed information on age- and gender-related differences in the anatomical and physiological characteristics of reference individuals. These reference values provide needed input to prospective dosimetry calculations for radiation protection purposes for both workers and members of the general public. The purpose of this report is to consolidate and unify in one publication, important new information on reference anatomical and physiological values that has become available since Publication 23 was published by the ICRP in 1975. There are two aspects of this work. The first is to revise and extend the information in Publication 23 as appropriate. The second is to provide additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, race, or other factors. This publication collects, unifies, and expands the updated ICRP reference values for the purpose of providing a comprehensive and consistent set of age- and gender-specific reference values for anatomical and physiological features of the human body pertinent to radiation dosimetry. The reference values given in this report are based on: (a) anatomical and physiological information not published before by the ICRP; (b) recent ICRP publications containing reference value information; and (c) information in Publication 23 that is still considered valid and appropriate for radiation protection purposes. Moving from the past emphasis on 'Reference Man', the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages: newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years, and adult. In selecting reference values, the Commission has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to antomy, body composition, and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian populations

  13. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Fecundity and its genetic covariance with age-specific mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, M.; Promislow, D.E.L.; Khazaeli, A.A.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Under the mutation accumulation model of senescence, it was predicted that the additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits will increase with age. We measured age-specific mortality and fecundity from 65,134 Drosophila melanogaster and estimated genetic variance components, based on reciprocal crosses of extracted second chromosome lines. Elsewhere we report the results for mortality. Here, for fecundity, we report a biomodal pattern for V{sub A} with peaks at 3 days and at 17-31 days. Under the antagonistic pleiotropy model of senescence, it was predicted that negative correlations will exist between early and late life history traits. For fecundity itself we find positive genetic correlations among age classes >3 days but negative nonsignificant correlations between fecundity at 3 days and at older age classes. For fecundity vs. age-specific mortality, we find positive fitness correlations (negative genetic correlations) among the traits at all ages >3 days but a negative fitness correlation between fecundity at 3 days and mortality at the oldest ages (positive genetic correlations). For age-specific mortality itself we find overwhelmingly positive genetic correlations among all age classes. The data suggest that mutation accumulation may be a major source of standing genetic variance for senescence. 75 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Age-Specific Patterns of Genetic Variance in Drosophila Melanogaster. II. Fecundity and Its Genetic Covariance with Age-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, M.; Promislow, DEL.; Khazaeli, A. A.; Curtsinger, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Under the mutation accumulation model of senescence, it was predicted that the additive genetic variance (V(A)) for fitness traits will increase with age. We measured age-specific mortality and fecundity from 65,134 Drosophila melanogaster and estimated genetic variance components, based on reciprocal crosses of extracted second chromosome lines. Elsewhere we report the results for mortality. Here, for fecundity, we report a bimodal pattern for V(A) with peaks at 3 days and at 17-31 days. Under the antagonistic pleiotropy model of senescence, it was predicted that negative correlations will exist between early and late life history traits. For fecundity itself we find positive genetic correlations among age classes >3 days but negative nonsignificant correlations between fecundity at 3 days and at older age classes. For fecundity vs. age-specific mortality, we find positive fitness correlations (negative genetic correlations) among the traits at all ages >3 days but a negative fitness correlation between fecundity at 3 days and mortality at the oldest ages (positive genetic correlations). For age-specific mortality itself we find overwhelmingly positive genetic correlations among all age classes. The data suggest that mutation accumulation may be a major source of standing genetic variance for senescence. PMID:8725233

  15. Centile curves and reference values for height, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference of Peruvian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4-17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  16. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  17. Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values

    PubMed Central

    Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight–normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014

  18. Problems in estimating age-specific survival rates from recovery data of birds ringed as young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    (1) The life table model is frequently employed in the analysis of ringer samples of young in bird populations. The basic model is biologically unrealistic and of little use in making inferences concerning age-specific survival probabilities. (2) This model rests on a number of restrictive assumptions, the failure of which causes serious biases. Several important assumptions are not met with real data and the estimators of age-specific survival are not robust enough to these failures. (3) Five major problems in the use of the life table method are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate several of the problems involved in using this method in making inferences about survival rates and its age-specific nature. (4) We conclude that this is an invalid procedure and it should not be used. Furthermore, ringing studies involving only young birds are pointless as regards survival estimation because no valid method exists for estimating age-specific or time-specific survival rates from such data. (5) In our view, inferences about age-specific survival rates are possible only if both young and adult (or young, subadult and adult) age classes are ringed each year for k years (k ≥ 2).

  19. Using auditory pre-information to solve the cocktail-party problem: electrophysiological evidence for age-specific differences

    PubMed Central

    Getzmann, Stephan; Lewald, Jörg; Falkenstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Speech understanding in complex and dynamic listening environments requires (a) auditory scene analysis, namely auditory object formation and segregation, and (b) allocation of the attentional focus to the talker of interest. There is evidence that pre-information is actively used to facilitate these two aspects of the so-called “cocktail-party” problem. Here, a simulated multi-talker scenario was combined with electroencephalography to study scene analysis and allocation of attention in young and middle-aged adults. Sequences of short words (combinations of brief company names and stock-price values) from four talkers at different locations were simultaneously presented, and the detection of target names and the discrimination between critical target values were assessed. Immediately prior to speech sequences, auditory pre-information was provided via cues that either prepared auditory scene analysis or attentional focusing, or non-specific pre-information was given. While performance was generally better in younger than older participants, both age groups benefited from auditory pre-information. The analysis of the cue-related event-related potentials revealed age-specific differences in the use of pre-cues: Younger adults showed a pronounced N2 component, suggesting early inhibition of concurrent speech stimuli; older adults exhibited a stronger late P3 component, suggesting increased resource allocation to process the pre-information. In sum, the results argue for an age-specific utilization of auditory pre-information to improve listening in complex dynamic auditory environments. PMID:25540608

  20. The ICRP age-specific biokinetic model for lead: validations, empirical comparisons, and explorations.

    PubMed Central

    Pounds, J G; Leggett, R W

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to provide a description of the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) model and a comparison to other models (the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic [IEUBK] and O'Flaherty models), including the software used with the models, and a comparison of the model predictions for selected situations. The ICRP biokinetic model for Pb is a multicompartmental model for Pb uptake and disposition in children and in adults. The model describes deposition and retention of absorbed Pb in numerous tissues, removal from tissues to plasma, and movement along various routes of excretion. Long-term skeletal behavior of Pb is described in terms of age-specific rates of restructuring of compact and trabecular bone. The ICRP model is more flexible and has wider applicability than the IEUBK model. The major disadvantages are that application of the computer model requires some basic computer skills, and the user must convert the Pb concentrations in food, air, soil, dust, paint, or other media to the amount of Pb ingested or inhaled per day. Direct comparisons between the ICRP model and the IEUBK model are provided by modeling blood Pb levels using the IEUBK v0.99d default Pb uptakes and intake values. The model is used to simulate occupational exposure cases and a controlled Pb inhalation experiment in adult humans. Finally, use of the model to explore situations with limited data is illustrated by simulating the kinetics and disposition of Pb during acute Pb poisoning and chelation therapy in a child. PMID:9860909

  1. High-throughput transcriptomic analysis nominates proteasomal genes as age-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, S G; Jackson, W C; Kothari, V; Schipper, M J; Erho, N; Evans, J R; Speers, C; Hamstra, D A; Niknafs, Y S; Nguyen, P L; Schaeffer, E M; Ross, A E; Den, R B; Klein, E A; Jenkins, R B; Davicioni, E; Feng, F Y

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although prostate cancer (PCa) is hypothesized to differ in nature between younger versus older patients, the underlying molecular distinctions are poorly understood. We hypothesized that high-throughput transcriptomic analysis would elucidate biological differences in PCas arising in younger versus older men, and would nominate potential age-specific biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Methods: The high-density Affymetrix GeneChip platform, encompassing >1 million genomic loci, was utilized to assess gene expression in 1090 radical prostatectomy samples from patients with long-term follow-up. We identified genes associated with metastatic progression by 10 years post-treatment in younger (age<65) versus older (age⩾65) patients, and ranked these genes by their prognostic value. We performed Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) to nominate biological concepts that demonstrated age-specific effects, and validated a target by treating with a clinically available drug in three PCa cell lines derived from younger men. Results: Over 80% of the top 1000 prognostic genes in younger and older men were specific to that age group. GSEA nominated the proteasome pathway as the most differentially prognostic in younger versus older patients. High expression of proteasomal genes conferred worse prognosis in younger but not older men on univariate and multivariate analysis. Bortezomib, a Food and Drug Administration approved proteasome inhibitor, decreased proliferation in three PCa cell lines derived from younger patients. Conclusions: Our data show significant global differences in prognostic genes between older versus younger men. We nominate proteasomeal gene expression as an age-specific biomarker and potential therapeutic target specifically in younger men. Limitations of our study include clinical differences between cohorts, and increased comorbidities and lower survival in older patients. These intriguing findings suggest that current models of PCa biology do

  2. Basis and implications of the CAP88 age-specific dose coefficients.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Richard; Scofield, Patricia; Eckerman, Keith

    2013-08-01

    Recent versions of CAP88 incorporate age-specific dose coefficients based on biokinetic and dosimetric models applied in Federal Guidance Report 13, "Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides." With a few exceptions the models are those recommended in a series of reports by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on estimation of doses to the public from environmental radionuclides. This paper describes the basis for the ICRP's age-specific biokinetic and dosimetric models and examines differences with age in dose coefficients derived from those models. PMID:23803668

  3. Opportunities and challenges in conducting systematic reviews to support the development of nutrient reference values: vitamin A as an example1234

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Robert; Chung, Mei; Balk, Ethan M; Atkinson, Stephanie; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ip, Stanley; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Mayne, Susan Taylor; Raman, Gowri; Ross, A Catharine; Trikalinos, Thomas A; West, Keith P; Lau, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Nutrient reference values have significant public health and policy implications. Given the importance of defining reliable nutrient reference values, there is a need for an explicit, objective, and transparent process to set these values. The Tufts Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center assembled a group of nutrition experts from academic institutions and federal government agencies, led participants in discussions, conducted exercises in formulating questions and evidence review criteria that would be amenable to systematic reviews of the scientific literature, performed a literature search on the questions to identify potentially relevant publications, and identified challenges and limitations of applying this method to support the development of nutrient reference values using vitamin A as an example. The workgroup concluded that the systematic review approach could be productively used to inform the development of reference values. Challenges identified in this exercise include prioritizing and defining research questions when the volume of literature is large, relying on intermediate (surrogate) outcomes when few or no studies directly linking nutrient intake with clinical outcomes are available, and determining reliable nutrient biomarkers. Ultimately, an objective, unbiased systematic review of a defined question could be useful, not only in helping to set nutrient reference values, but also for increasing the transparency of the decision making process. PMID:19176732

  4. Stereotypes of Ageing: Messages Promoted by Age-Specific Paper Birthday Cards Available in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Shannon R.; Morrison, Todd G.

    2005-01-01

    Birthday cards are a ceremonial token that may purposefully or unintentionally transmit stereotypes about the ageing process. In the current study, the authors examined 150 age-specific paper birthday cards sold in retail outlets located in a small metropolitan area. Results suggest that a greater proportion of the cards' textual messages…

  5. Contrasted patterns of age-specific reproduction in long-lived seabirds.

    PubMed

    Berman, M; Gaillard, J-M; Weimerskirch, H

    2009-01-22

    While the number of studies providing evidence of actuarial senescence is increasing, and covers a wide range of taxa, the process of reproductive senescence remains poorly understood. In fact, quite high reproductive output until the last years of life has been reported in several vertebrate species, so that whether or not reproductive senescence is widespread remains unknown. We compared age-specific changes of reproductive parameters between two closely related species of long-lived seabirds: the small-sized snow petrel Pagodroma nivea, and the medium-sized southern fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides. Both are sympatric in Antarctica. We used an exceptional dataset collected over more than 40 years to assess age-specific variations of both breeding probability and breeding success. We found contrasted age-specific reproductive patterns between the two species. Reproductive senescence clearly occurred from 21 years of age onwards in the southern fulmar, in both breeding probability and success, whereas we did not report any decline in the breeding success of the snow petrel, although a very late decrease in the proportion of breeders occurred at 34 years. Such a contrasted age-specific reproductive pattern was rather unexpected. Differences in life history including size or migratory behaviour are the most likely candidates to account for the difference we reported in reproductive senescence between these sympatric seabird species. PMID:18832060

  6. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  7. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  8. Growing Fixed With Age: Lay Theories of Malleability Are Target Age-Specific.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Lassetter, Bethany

    2015-11-01

    Beliefs about whether people can change ("lay theories" of malleability) are known to have wide-ranging effects on social motivation, cognition, and judgment. Yet rather than holding an overarching belief that people can or cannot change, perceivers may hold independent beliefs about whether different people are malleable-that is, lay theories may be target-specific. Seven studies demonstrate that lay theories are target-specific with respect to age: Perceivers hold distinct, uncorrelated lay theories of people at different ages, and younger targets are considered to be more malleable than older targets. Both forms of target-specificity are consequential, as target age-specific lay theories predict policy support for learning-based senior services and the rehabilitation of old and young drug users. The implications of target age-specific lay theories for a number of psychological processes, the social psychology of aging, and theoretical frameworks of malleability beliefs are discussed. PMID:26351273

  9. Age-specific reproductive success and cost in female Alpine ibex.

    PubMed

    Rughetti, Marco; Dematteis, Andrea; Meneguz, Pier Giuseppe; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2015-05-01

    In female mammals, reproduction requires high energy expenditure because of gestation and lactation, possibly leading to a fitness cost. Several studies, however, failed to find the expected negative correlation between current and future reproductive success, likely because of individual heterogeneity in reproductive potential. We compared reproductive performance and costs of reproduction for 40 female Alpine ibex in one established population with 29 females translocated from the same population to a new colony. We investigate factors affecting pregnancy, fecundity and overwinter survival of juveniles, after accounting for individual heterogeneity. In both populations, prime-aged females experienced a strong reproductive cost. Senescent females, however, showed no evidence of reproductive costs. The colonizing population showed lower reproductive cost and better age-specific reproductive performance than the established population. We found a general pattern of low age-specific fecundity and reproductive success that was affected by environmental constraints. Age-specific reproductive success was unrelated to longevity. Although about 84% of adult females appeared to conceive, independently of environmental constraints, energy was allocated to reproduction in a highly conservative manner, leading to low age-specific fecundity (only 36 and 21% of prime-aged and senescent females were seen with a kid) but high kid survival (100% to weaning and 92% to 1 year). Our results suggest that females embarked on lactation only if they had a very high probability of raising their offspring. Our study highlights how reproductive performance and costs in this species vary with age and environment, and are the result of a highly conservative reproductive tactic. PMID:25543851

  10. Age-specific forced polymorphism: implications of ontogenetic changes in morphology for male mating tactics.

    PubMed

    Irschick, Duncan J; Lailvaux, Simon P

    2006-01-01

    Age-specific forced polymorphism is the presence of two or more distinct phenotypes (here we consider only males) that occur in separate sexually mature age groups (e.g., horns in older males but not younger males). The life-stage morph maturation hypothesis posits that all younger males that possess a particular structure can transform into older males with a different structure, most likely via the influence of hormones. The life-stage morph selection hypothesis posits that polymorphism is due to intense selection resulting in a highly nonrandom sample of younger males surviving to become older males, thus leading to different mean phenotypes in different age groups. We conducted an extensive review of literature from the past 20 years (1983-2003) for cases of age-specific forced polymorphism. Overall, we found only a few cases that fit our criteria of age-specific forced polymorphism, and we argue that most (e.g., orangutans, elephant seals) have likely arisen via the life-stage morph maturation mechanism, but we also present several examples (e.g., green anole lizards) that appear to be candidates for life-stage morph selection. However, none of the reviewed studies provided enough information (e.g., age of morphs, growth patterns of the morphological structure) to definitively invoke either of the two mechanisms. We suggest that age-specific forced polymorphism is more common than reflected in this review and that future studies should gather demographic and laboratory data that will directly compare the life-stage morph maturation and life-stage morph selection hypotheses. PMID:16380929

  11. Age-Specificity of Clinical Dengue during Primary and Secondary Infections

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Khoa T. D.; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Hoang, Phuong Lan; Tran, Nga Thanh Thi; Phan, Giao Trong; Le, Hung Quoc; Tran, Binh Quang; Nguyen, Nam Van; de Vries, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aims to estimate the age-specific risks of clinical dengue attack (i.e., the risk of symptomatic dengue among the total number of dengue virus (DENV) infections) during primary and secondary infections. Methods We analyzed two pieces of epidemiological information in Binh Thuan province, southern Vietnam, i.e., age-specific seroprevalence and a community-wide longitudinal study of clinical dengue attack. The latter data set stratified febrile patients with DENV infection by age as well as infection parity. A simple modeling approach was employed to estimate the age-specific risks of clinical dengue attack during primary and secondary infections. Results Using the seroprevalence data, the force of infection was estimated to be 11.7% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 10.8–12.7) per year. Median age (and the 25–75 percentiles) of dengue fever patients during primary and secondary infections were 12 (9–20) and 20 (14–31) years, respectively. The estimated age-specific risk of clinical dengue increases as a function of age for both primary and secondary infections; the estimated proportion of symptomatic patients among the total number of infected individuals was estimated to be <7% for those aged <10 years for both primary and secondary infections, but increased as patients become older, reaching to 8–11% by the age of 20 years. Conclusions/Significance For both primary and secondary infections, higher age at DENV infection was shown to result in higher risk of clinical attack. Age as an important modulator of clinical dengue explains recent increase in dengue notifications in ageing countries in Southeast Asia, and moreover, poses a paradoxical problem of an increase in adult patients resulting from a decline in the force of infection, which may be caused by various factors including time-dependent variations in epidemiological, ecological and demographic dynamics. PMID:21713018

  12. Automated tissue classification of pediatric brains from magnetic resonance images using age-specific atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Andrew; Benavides, Amanda; Nopoulos, Peg; Magnotta, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this project was to develop two age appropriate atlases (neonatal and one year old) that account for the rapid growth and maturational changes that occur during early development. Tissue maps from this age group were initially created by manually correcting the resulting tissue maps after applying an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and an adult atlas to pediatric subjects. The EM algorithm classified each voxel into one of ten possible tissue types including several subcortical structures. This was followed by a novel level set segmentation designed to improve differentiation between distal cortical gray matter and white matter. To minimize the req uired manual corrections, the adult atlas was registered to the pediatric scans using high -dimensional, symmetric image normalization (SyN) registration. The subject images were then mapped to an age specific atlas space, again using SyN registration, and the resulting transformation applied to the manually corrected tissue maps. The individual maps were averaged in the age specific atlas space and blurred to generate the age appropriate anatomical priors. The resulting anatomical priors were then used by the EM algorithm to re-segment the initial training set as well as an independent testing set. The results from the adult and age-specific anatomical priors were compared to the manually corrected results. The age appropriate atlas provided superior results as compared to the adult atlas. The image analysis pipeline used in this work was built using the open source software package BRAINSTools.

  13. Dynamic soil property reference values and soil resilience: Keys to developing innovative, sustainable solutions for American agriculture?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers, ranchers, conservationists and other land managers can benefit from four types of soil information when developing new management systems and deciding where to apply currently available systems: (1) values for relatively static soil properties and relationships to plant growth, (2) values f...

  14. Reference values of serum calcitonin with calcium stimulation tests by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay before/after total thyroidectomy in Japanese patients with thyroid diseases other than medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Minoru; Miyauchi, Akira; Kudo, Takumi; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miya, Akihiro

    2016-07-30

    Calcitonin is a very sensitive tumor marker of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). MTC patients usually have very high values of serum calcitonin that can be used to diagnose the disease. To improve the diagnostic sensitivity in family members with small MTCs and to evaluate the postoperative biochemical cure status, a calcium stimulation test is widely used. Serum calcitonin has been measured using several methods, but in Japan, only an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) is currently performed to determine serum calcitonin. Reference values for the calcium stimulation test using an ECLIA have not been reported. Here we conducted a calcium stimulation tests in 26 patients without MTC before and after total thyroidectomy. Preoperatively, the basal calcitonin values of all patients were within normal limits and increased to a mean of 14.4 pg/mL after calcium stimulation. We transformed the peak values before total thyroidectomy to a logarithmic distribution and calculated the normalized mean ± 1.96× standard deviation; the reference upper limit was thus expressed. In the female patients with non-MTC, the reference upper limit was 67.6 pg/mL. In all patients, the calcium stimulation test results after total thyroidectomy showed undetectable basal and stimulated calcitonin values (<0.5 pg/mL). This is the first study to determine reference values to be used for the calcium stimulation test along with an ECLIA in non-MTC patients. We propose that female patients are regarded as biochemically cured or normal when the stimulated calcitonin values by ECLIA are <67.6 pg/mL before surgery and <0.5 pg/mL after total thyroidectomy. PMID:27097651

  15. Reference values for echocardiographic parameters and indexes of left ventricular function in healthy, young adult sheep used in translational research: comparison with standardized values in humans

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli, Paola; Olea, Fernanda D; Lorenzi, Andrea De; Salmo, Fabián; Janavel, Gustavo L Vera; Hnatiuk, Anna P; Guevara, Eduardo; Crottogini, Alberto J

    2011-01-01

    Ovine models of ischemic heart disease and cardiac failure are increasingly used in translational research. However, reliable extrapolation of the results to the clinical setting requires knowing if ovine normal left ventricular (LV) function is comparable to that of humans. We thus assessed for echocardiographic LV dimensions and indexes in a large normal adult sheep population and compared them with standardized values in normal human adults. Bidimensional and tissue Doppler echocardiograms were performed in 69 young adult Corriedale sheep under light sedation. LV dimensions and indexes of systolic and diastolic function were measured. Absolute and body surface areanormalized values were compared to those for normal adult humans and their statistical distribution was assessed. Normalized dimensions (except for end diastolic diameter) as well as ejection fraction and fractional shortening fell within the ranges established by the American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Echocardiography for normal adult humans. Normalized end diastolic diameter exceeded the upper normal limit but got close to it when correcting for the higher heart mass/body surface area ratio of sheep with respect to humans. Diastolic parameters also fell within normal human ranges except for a slightly lower mitral deceleration time. All values exhibited a Gaussian distribution. We conclude that echocardiographic parameters of systolic and diastolic LV performance in young adult sheep can be reliably extrapolated to the adult human, thus supporting the use of ovine models of human heart disease in translational research. PMID:22140597

  16. Extrapolation-Based References Improve Motion and Eddy-Current Correction of High B-Value DWI Data: Application in Parkinson’s Disease Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Markus; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; van Westen, Danielle; Hansson, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Conventional motion and eddy-current correction, where each diffusion-weighted volume is registered to a non diffusion-weighted reference, suffers from poor accuracy for high b-value data. An alternative approach is to extrapolate reference volumes from low b-value data. We aim to compare the performance of conventional and extrapolation-based correction of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) data, and to demonstrate the impact of the correction approach on group comparison studies. Methods DKI was performed in patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD), and healthy age-matched controls, using b-values of up to 2750 s/mm2. The accuracy of conventional and extrapolation-based correction methods was investigated. Parameters from DTI and DKI were compared between patients and controls in the cingulum and the anterior thalamic projection tract. Results Conventional correction resulted in systematic registration errors for high b-value data. The extrapolation-based methods did not exhibit such errors, yielding more accurate tractography and up to 50% lower standard deviation in DKI metrics. Statistically significant differences were found between patients and controls when using the extrapolation-based motion correction that were not detected when using the conventional method. Conclusion We recommend that conventional motion and eddy-current correction should be abandoned for high b-value data in favour of more accurate methods using extrapolation-based references. PMID:26528541

  17. [THE REFERENCE VALUES OF AGGREGATION OF PLATELETS IN ADULT POPULATION OF THE ASTRAKHAN OBLAST USING AGGREGOMETER MULTIPLATE].

    PubMed

    Petrova, O V; Shashin, S A; Tarasov, D G; Jukova, E R; Panova, E V; Gracheva, N P

    2016-01-01

    The modern international standards recommend each laboratory to develop or to confirm available in literature the reference intervalsfor every laboratory indicator In the Astrakhanskaia oblast, sampling of128 healthy males andfemales were examinedfor aggregation function of thrombocytes using impedance technique and applying aggregometer Multiplate ("Verum Diagnostica", Germany). The study used as inductors peptide activating receptor of thrombin; arachidonic and adenosine diphosphoric acids. The reference range of aggregation of thrombocytes with peptide activating receptor of thrombin, at aggregometer Multiplate, in healthy population of theAstrakhanskaia oblast made up to 815.2-1498.4 AU/min, with arachidonic acid--660-1341 AU/min. with adenosine diphosphoric acid--598-1120 AU/min. PMID:27183729

  18. Comparison between reference values for FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio in White adults in Brazil and those suggested by the Global Lung Function Initiative 2012*

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Duarte, Andrezza Araujo Oliveira; Gimenez, Andrea; Soares, Maria Raquel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the spirometry values predicted by the 2012 Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) equations, which are recommended for international use, in comparison with those obtained for a sample of White adults used for the establishment of reference equations for spirometry in Brazil. METHODS: The sample comprised 270 and 373 healthy males and females, respectively. The mean differences between the values found in this sample and the predicted values calculated from the GLI equations for FVC, FEV1, and VEF1/FVC, as well as their lower limits, were compared by paired t-test. The predicted values by each pair of equations were compared in various combinations of age and height. RESULTS: For the males in our study sample, the values obtained for all of the variables studied were significantly higher than those predicted by the GLI equations (p < 0.01 for all). These differences become more evident in subjects who were shorter in stature and older. For the females in our study sample, only the lower limit of the FEV1/FVC ratio was significantly higher than that predicted by the GLI equation. CONCLUSIONS: The predicted values suggested by the GLI equations for White adults were significantly lower than those used as reference values for males in Brazil. For both genders, the lower limit of the FEV1/FVC ratio is significantly lower than that predicted by the GLI equations. PMID:25210962

  19. A proficiency test system to improve performance of milk analysis methods and produce reference values for component calibration samples for infrared milk analysis.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of combining proficiency testing, analytical method quality-assurance system, and production of reference samples for calibration of infrared milk analyzers to achieve a more efficient use of resources and reduce costs while maximizing analytical accuracy within and among milk payment-testing laboratories. To achieve this, we developed and demonstrated a multilaboratory combined proficiency testing and analytical method quality-assurance system as an approach to evaluate and improve the analytical performance of methods. A set of modified milks was developed and optimized to serve multiple purposes (i.e., proficiency testing, quality-assurance and method improvement, and to provide reference materials for calibration of secondary testing methods). Over a period of years, the approach has enabled the group of laboratories to document improved analytical performance (i.e., reduced within- and between-laboratory variation) of chemical reference methods used as the primary reference for calibration of high-speed electronic milk-testing equipment. An annual meeting of the laboratory technicians allows for review of results and discussion of each method and provides a forum for communication of experience and techniques that are of value to new analysts in the group. The monthly proficiency testing sample exchanges have the added benefit of producing all-laboratory mean reference values for a set of 14 milks that can be used for calibration, evaluation, and troubleshooting of calibration adjustment issues on infrared milk analyzers. PMID:27209129

  20. Age-specific Parkinson disease risk in GBA mutation carriers: information for genetic counseling

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Huma Q.; Balwani, Manisha; Bier, Louise; Alcalay, Roy N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We sought to estimate age-specific risk of Parkinson disease in relatives of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligate carriers of GBA mutations and who were not ascertained by family history of Parkinson disease. Methods A validated family history of Parkinson disease questionnaire was administered to 119 patients with Gaucher disease who were evaluated at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine from 2009 to 2012; the ages of their parents, siblings, and children, history of Parkinson disease, age at onset of Parkinson disease, and ethnic background were obtained. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were used to estimate age-specific Parkinson disease penetrance among parents of patients with Gaucher disease, who are obligatory GBA mutation carriers. Results Two participants with Gaucher disease were affected by Parkinson disease (5.4% of those who were 60 years or older). Of the 224 informative parents of patients with Gaucher disease, 11 had Parkinson disease (4.9%). Among the parents (obligatory carriers), cumulative risk of Parkinson disease by ages 65 and 85 was estimated to be 2.2% ±2.1% and 10.9% ±7.2%, respectively. Conclusion We provide useful age-specific estimates of Parkinson disease penetrance in patients with Gaucher disease and GBA heterozygous carriers for genetic counseling. Although GBA mutations may increase the risk for PD, the vast majority of patients with Gaucher disease and heterozygotes may not develop the disease. Further studies are needed to identify what modifies the risk of Parkinson disease in GBA mutation carriers. PMID:22935721

  1. Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, B.A.; Krementz, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    Age structure proportions (proportion of harvested individuals within each age class) are commonly used as support for regulatory restrictions and input for deer population models. Such use requires critical evaluation when harvest regulations force hunters to selectively harvest specific age classes, due to impact on the underlying population age structure. We used a stochastic population simulation model to evaluate the impact of using harvest proportions to evaluate changes in population age structure under a selective harvest management program at two scales. Using harvest proportions to parameterize the age-specific harvest segment of the model for the local scale showed that predictions of post-harvest age structure did not vary dependent upon whether selective harvest criteria were in use or not. At the county scale, yearling frequency in the post-harvest population increased, but model predictions indicated that post-harvest population size of 2.5 years old males would decline below levels found before implementation of the antler restriction, reducing the number of individuals recruited into older age classes. Across the range of age-specific harvest rates modeled, our simulation predicted that underestimation of age-specific harvest rates has considerable influence on predictions of post-harvest population age structure. We found that the consequence of uncertainty in harvest rates corresponds to uncertainty in predictions of residual population structure, and this correspondence is proportional to scale. Our simulations also indicate that regardless of use of harvest proportions or harvest rates, at either the local or county scale the modeled SHC had a high probability (>0.60 and >0.75, respectively) of eliminating recruitment into >2.5 years old age classes. Although frequently used to increase population age structure, our modeling indicated that selective harvest criteria can decrease or eliminate the number of white-tailed deer recruited into older

  2. The age-specific force of natural selection and biodemographic walls of death

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Kenneth W.; Evans, Steven N.; Steinsaltz, David

    2013-01-01

    W. D. Hamilton’s celebrated formula for the age-specific force of natural selection furnishes predictions for senescent mortality due to mutation accumulation, at the price of reliance on a linear approximation. Applying to Hamilton’s setting the full nonlinear demographic model for mutation accumulation recently developed by Evans, Steinsaltz, and Wachter, we find surprising differences. Nonlinear interactions cause the collapse of Hamilton-style predictions in the most commonly studied case, refine predictions in other cases, and allow walls of death at ages before the end of reproduction. Haldane’s principle for genetic load has an exact but unfamiliar generalization. PMID:23657010

  3. A comparison of clinical laboratory data for assigning a consensus value for manganese in a caprine blood reference material

    PubMed Central

    Praamsma, Meredith L.; Jones, Deanna R.; Jarrett, Jeffrey M.; Dumas, Pierre; Cirtiu, Ciprian Mihai; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Biomonitoring for manganese (Mn) exposure is important due to its potential to cause adverse health effects. In this study, we investigate how different sample preparation methods (simple dilution, digestion, volumetric, gravimetric), calibration protocols (aqueous, blood-based, standard additions), and instrumental techniques affect Mn method bias and analytical imprecision. The techniques used included graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS), and sector field (SF-) ICP-MS. We analyzed NIST SRM 1643e Trace Elements in Water and SRM 1598a Inorganic Constituents in Animal Serum (both certified for Mn), and SRM 955c Toxic Metals in Caprine Blood – Level 1 (not certified for Mn). Various matrix effects in ICP-MS produced inaccurate results for SRM 1643e and discrepant results for SRM 955c. In the absence of a certified value for Mn in SRM 955c, we assigned a “consensus” value by combining data from the New York State Department of Health (NYS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Centre de toxicologie du Québec (CTQ). With this interlaboratory approach, we established an “all-lab” consensus value of 16.3 ± 0.8 μg L−1 based on data from DRC-ICP-MS with simple dilution sample preparation and blood-based calibration. We also assigned an “all-method” consensus value of 16.3 ± 0.9 μg L−1 based on GFAAS and SF-ICP-MS data from the NYS lab and the DRC-ICP-MS all-lab consensus value. Although the expanded uncertainty (U) calculated for the consensus values may not fully account for all sources of uncertainty, it does show the relative variation that might be expected from one study to the next for the determination of Mn in blood. PMID:26290619

  4. The composite dynamic method as evidence for age-specific waterfowl mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; Anderson, David R.

    1979-01-01

    For the past 25 years estimation of mortality rates for waterfowl has been based almost entirely on the composite dynamic life table. We examined the specific assumptions for this method and derived a valid goodness of fit test. We performed this test on 45 data sets representing a cross section of banded sampled for various waterfowl species, geographic areas, banding periods, and age/sex classes. We found that: (1) the composite dynamic method was rejected (P <0.001) in 37 of the 45 data sets (in fact, 29 were rejected at P <0.00001) and (2) recovery and harvest rates are year-specific (a critical violation of the necessary assumptions). We conclude that the restrictive assumptions required for the composite dynamic method to produce valid estimates of mortality rates are not met in waterfowl data. Also we demonstrate that even when the required assumptions are met, the method produces very biased estimates of age-specific mortality rates. We believe the composite dynamic method should not be used in the analysis of waterfowl banding data. Furthermore, the composite dynamic method does not provide valid evidence for age-specific mortality rates in waterfowl.

  5. Age-specific epidemic waves of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in a subtropical city.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Chan, Kwok Hung; Suen, Lorna K P; Chan, King Pan; Wang, Xiling; Cao, Peihua; He, Daihai; Peiris, J S Malik; Wong, Chit Ming

    2015-01-01

    Both influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are active throughout the year in subtropical or tropical regions, but few studies have reported on age-specific seasonal patterns of these viruses. We examined the age-specific epidemic curves of laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza A (subtyped into seasonal A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and pandemic virus A(H1N1)pdm09), influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), in subtropical city Hong Kong from 2004 to 2013. We found that different types and subtypes of influenza showed similar two-peak patterns across age groups, with one peak in winter and another in spring/summer. Age differences were found in epidemic onset time and duration, but none could reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Age synchrony was found in epidemic peak time for both cool and warm seasons. RSV showed less clear seasonal patterns and non-synchronized epidemic curves across age. In conclusion, age synchrony was found in influenza seasonal epidemics and the 2009 pandemic, but not in RSV. None of the age groups consistently appear as the driving force for seasonal epidemics of influenza and RSV in Hong Kong. PMID:25981824

  6. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago. PMID:25865777

  7. Evolutionary demography and quantitative genetics: age-specific survival as a threshold trait

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers must understand how mutations affect survival at various ages to understand how ageing evolves. Many models linking mutation to age-specific survival have been proposed but there is little evidence to indicate which model is most appropriate. This is a serious problem because the predicted evolutionary endpoints of ageing depend upon the details of the specific model. We apply an explicitly quantitative genetic perspective to the problem. To determine the inheritance of dichotomous traits (such as survival), quantitative genetics has long employed a threshold model. Beginning from first principles, we show how this is the most defensible mutational model for age-specific survival and how this, relative to the standard model, predicts delayed senescence and mortality deceleration at late age. These are commonly observed patterns of ageing that heretofore have required more complicated survival models. We also show how this model can be developed further to unify quantitative genetics and evolutionary demography into a more complete conceptual framework for understanding the evolution of ageing. PMID:20659934

  8. Two new organic reference materials for δ13C and δ15N measurements and a new value for the δ13C of NBS 22 oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.; Geilmann, Heike; Brand, Willi A.; Bohlke, John Karl

    2003-01-01

    Analytical grade L-glutamic acid is chemically stable and has a C/N mole ratio of 5, which is close to that of many of natural biological materials, such as blood and animal tissue. Two L-glutamic acid reference materials with substantially different 13C and 15N abundances have been prepared for use as organic reference materials for C and N isotopic measurements. USGS40 is analytical grade L-glutamic acid and has a δ13C value of −26.24‰ relative to VPDB and a δ15N value of −4.52‰ relative to N2 in air. USGS41 was prepared by dissolving analytical grade L-glutamic acid with L-glutamic acid enriched in 13C and 15N. USGS41 has a δ13C value of +37.76‰ and a δ15N value of +47.57‰. The δ13C and δ15N values of both materials were measured against the international reference materials NBS 19 calcium carbonate (δ13C = +1.95‰), L-SVEC lithium carbonate (δ13C = −46.48‰), IAEA-N-1 ammonium sulfate (δ15N = 0.43‰), and USGS32 potassium nitrate (δ15N = 180‰) by on-line combustion continuous-flow and off-line dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Both USGS40 and USGS41 are isotopically homogeneous; reproducibility of δ13C is better than 0.13‰, and that of δ15N is better than 0.13‰ in 100-μg amounts. These two isotopic reference materials can be used for (i) calibrating local laboratory reference materials, and (ii) quantifying drift with time, mass-dependent fractionations, and isotope-ratio-scale contraction in the isotopic analysis of various biological materials. Isotopic results presented in this paper yield a δ13C value for NBS 22 oil of −29.91‰, in contrast to the commonly accepted value of −29.78‰ for which off-line blank corrections probably have not been quantified satisfactorily.

  9. The age-specific prevalence of human parvovirus immunity in Victoria, Australia compared with other parts of the world.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, H. A.; Siebert, D.; Hammond, R.; Leydon, J.; Kiely, P.; Maskill, W.

    2000-01-01

    The age-specific immunity to human parvovirus infection was estimated in Victoria, Australia using prospectively collected samples from the Royal Children's Hospital, the Royal Women's Hospital and the Australian Red Cross Blood Service and from sera stored at the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL). All testing was performed at VIDRL using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Biotrin). Of the 824 sera tested, 28% of those drawn from people aged 0-9 years contained protective antibodies to human parvovirus. This rose to 51% in the next decade of life. There was then a slow rise to about 78% immunity over 50 years of age. An analysis of all requests for parvovirus serology at VIDRL from 1992 to 1998 suggested that parvovirus tended to occur in 4-year cycles, with 2 epidemic years followed by 2 endemic years. A review of published reports of parvovirus immunity suggested that parvovirus infection may be more common, with a correspondingly higher proportion of the community immune, in temperate as opposed to tropical countries. PMID:10982069

  10. Age-specific patterns of factors related to fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: focus on young and elderly drivers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Fraser, S; Lindsay, J; Clarke, K; Mao, Y

    1998-09-01

    This population-based study examines patterns of fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) by age group (16-24, 25-64, 65+) among Canadian drivers. The Canadian Traffic Accident Information Databank (TRAID) provided information about fata MVTCs between 1984 and 1993. Distribution of risk factors was compared by age group. Crude odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated for both young and elderly drivers compared with middle-aged drivers. The middle-age group was selected as reference population since it demonstrates the lowest risk of fatality. Compared to the middle-aged group, young drivers demonstrated excess risk for (1) risk-taking behaviours and conditions, specifically alcohol and illicit drug use, speeding, non use of seat belts, fatigue and falling asleep, and inexperience; (2) crashes during the summer, during weekends and at night; and (3) single-vehicle collisions and on performing overtaking manoeuvres. Excess risk among elderly drivers was noted for (1) medical and physical conditions, inattention and inexperience; (2) driver actions, for example, improper turning, failure to yield right-to-way; (3) occurrence on weekdays and during the day; and (4) collisions at intersection and vehicle--vehicle sideswipes. The results show notable differences in risk factors by age group and confirm the need for preventive efforts that incorporate age-specific strategies. PMID:9807923

  11. Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys).

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean +/- SD values were 306 +/- 7, 327 +/- 7, and 304 +/- 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required. PMID:21877445

  12. Reference values of cadmium, arsenic and manganese in blood and factors associated with exposure levels among adult population of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution and factors influencing blood levels of Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), and Manganese (Mn), and to determine their reference values in a sample of blood donors residing in Rio Branco, capital city of Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from all blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco between 2010 and 2011. Among these, 1183 donors (98.9%) answered to a questionnaire on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Blood metal concentrations were determined by atomic spectrometry. Association between Cd, As and Mn levels and donors' characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values were estimated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile of metal levels. References values were 0.87 μg L(-1) for Cd, 9.87 μg L(-1) for As, and 29.32 μg L(-1) for Mn. Reference values of Cd and As in smokers were 2.66 and 10.86 μg L(-1), respectively. Factors contributing to increase Cd levels were smoking, ethnicity (non-white), and lower education, whereas drinking tea and non-bottled water were associated with lower Cd. Lower levels of As were associated with higher household income, living near industrial facilities, working in a glass factory, a compost plant or in metal mining activities. Risk factors for Mn exposure were not identified. In general, blood Cd concentrations were in the range of exposure levels reported for other people from the general population, whereas levels of As and Mn were higher than in other non-occupationally exposed populations elsewhere. PMID:25655821

  13. Adjuvant-induced Human Monocyte Secretome Profiles Reveal Adjuvant- and Age-specific Protein Signatures.

    PubMed

    Oh, Djin-Ye; Dowling, David J; Ahmed, Saima; Choi, Hyungwon; Brightman, Spencer; Bergelson, Ilana; Berger, Sebastian T; Sauld, John F; Pettengill, Matthew; Kho, Alvin T; Pollack, Henry J; Steen, Hanno; Levy, Ofer

    2016-06-01

    Adjuvants boost vaccine responses, enhancing protective immunity against infections that are most common among the very young. Many adjuvants activate innate immunity, some via Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), whose activities varies with age. Accordingly, characterization of age-specific adjuvant-induced immune responses may inform rational adjuvant design targeting vulnerable populations. In this study, we employed proteomics to characterize the adjuvant-induced changes of secretomes from human newborn and adult monocytes in response to Alum, the most commonly used adjuvant in licensed vaccines; Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4-activating adjuvant component of a licensed Human Papilloma Virus vaccine; and R848 an imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 agonist that is a candidate adjuvant for early life vaccines. Monocytes were incubated in vitro for 24 h with vehicle, Alum, MPLA, or R848 and supernatants collected for proteomic analysis employing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) (data available via ProteomeXchange, ID PXD003534). 1894 non-redundant proteins were identified, of which ∼30 - 40% were common to all treatment conditions and ∼5% were treatment-specific. Adjuvant-stimulated secretome profiles, as identified by cluster analyses of over-represented proteins, varied with age and adjuvant type. Adjuvants, especially Alum, activated multiple innate immune pathways as assessed by functional enrichment analyses. Release of lactoferrin, pentraxin 3, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was confirmed in newborn and adult whole blood and blood monocytes stimulated with adjuvants alone or adjuvanted licensed vaccines with distinct clinical reactogenicity profiles. MPLA-induced adult monocyte secretome profiles correlated in silico with transcriptome profiles induced in adults immunized with the MPLA-adjuvanted RTS,S malaria vaccine (Mosquirix™). Overall, adjuvants such as Alum, MPLA and R848 give rise to distinct and age-specific monocyte secretome profiles

  14. Age-specific response of a migratory bird to an experimental alteration of its habitat.

    PubMed

    Haché, Samuel; Villard, Marc-André

    2010-07-01

    1. Recruitment, i.e. the influx of new breeding individuals into a population, is an important demographic parameter, especially in species with a short life span. Few studies have measured this parameter in solitary-breeding animal populations even though it may yield critical information on habitat suitability and functional connectivity. 2. Using a before-after, control-impact pairs (BACIP) experimental design, we measured: (i) the return rate and apparent survival rate of individually marked territorial males of a neotropical migrant bird species, the Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla Linnaeus and (ii) the age-specific recruitment rate. Study plots (n = 10) were paired: one was treated through single-tree selection harvesting (30-40% basal area removal) and the other acted as a control. We hypothesized that experienced males would out-compete inexperienced ones and tend to avoid settling in lower-quality, treated stands. 3. In the first year post-harvest, the mean density of territorial males was significantly lower in treated plots (-41%) than in controls and the difference remained relatively stable thereafter. This lower density mainly reflected a lower recruitment rate compared to controls (17.9 vs. 49.0% of males present), itself driven by a lower recruitment rate of experienced males (2.8 vs. 22.8%). Return rate was similar between controls and treated plots in the first year post-harvest (59 vs. 55%, respectively) but it decreased in treated plots during the second (-15.8% relative to controls) and third (-12.7%) year post-harvest. The trend was even stronger when considering only experienced males. The treatment was followed by a major expansion in mean territory size in treated plots (+49% relative to controls, 3rd year post-treatment). 4. Neither apparent survival rate nor recruitment rate varied as predicted. There was a strong year effect but no treatment effect on apparent survival rate, whereas male recruitment patterns were both year- and age-specific

  15. Water quality: Historic values and impact of drilling activities during FY 1988 at the reference repository location in southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, P.A.; Teel, S.S.; Raymond, J.R.; Bierschenk, W.H.

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring Program was to monitor the characterization activities related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at boreholes DC-24CX and DC-25CX and document any environmental impacts as a result of these activities including contamination and/or degradation of the aquifer water quality from the invasion of drilling fluids into the formation and surface contamination from the disposal of drilling fluid at the land surface. The first phase of this program involved describing the baseline water quality at the Reference Repository Location (RRL) including data for spring and surface waters, and both the unconfined and confined aquifers. The second phase involved the collection and analysis of samples collected during drilling operations at wells DC-24CX and DC-25CX. Five surface water and 25 spring sampling sites were designated for chemical and radiological background data collection for BWIP. Chemical and radiological background data from 61 wells that obtain water from the unconfined aquifers indicate that the chemistry of these aquifers is similar to the spring and surface water samples. However, some of the wells show contamination from existing operations and past operations of various facilities on the Hanford Site. These contaminants are both chemical and radiological in nature with nitrate as the primary chemical constituent and tritium as the major radiological constituent. 20 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: a cross-sectional study of reference values and the discriminative validity of aging

    PubMed Central

    Corbellini, Camilo; Trevisan, Cristiane Brenner Eilert; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Doval da Costa, Alexandre; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate pre-extubation variables and check the discriminative validity of age as well as its correlation with weaning failure in elderly patients. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred thirty-nine consecutive patients (48% female) who were on mechanical ventilation and had undergone orotracheal intubation were divided into four subgroups according to their age: <59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and >80 years old. The expiratory volume (VE), respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), and respiratory frequency/tidal volume ratio (f/VT) were used to examine differences in weaning parameters between the four subgroups, and age was correlated with weaning failure. [Results] The rate of weaning failure was 27.8% in patients aged >80 years and 22.1% in patients aged <60 years old. Elderly patients presented higher f/VT and f values and lower VT values. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for f/VT ratio were smaller than those published previously. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that aging influences weaning criteria without causing an increase in weaning failure. PMID:26180354

  17. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: a cross-sectional study of reference values and the discriminative validity of aging.

    PubMed

    Corbellini, Camilo; Trevisan, Cristiane Brenner Eilert; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Doval da Costa, Alexandre; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate pre-extubation variables and check the discriminative validity of age as well as its correlation with weaning failure in elderly patients. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred thirty-nine consecutive patients (48% female) who were on mechanical ventilation and had undergone orotracheal intubation were divided into four subgroups according to their age: <59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and >80 years old. The expiratory volume (VE), respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), and respiratory frequency/tidal volume ratio (f/VT) were used to examine differences in weaning parameters between the four subgroups, and age was correlated with weaning failure. [Results] The rate of weaning failure was 27.8% in patients aged >80 years and 22.1% in patients aged <60 years old. Elderly patients presented higher f/VT and f values and lower VT values. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for f/VT ratio were smaller than those published previously. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that aging influences weaning criteria without causing an increase in weaning failure. PMID:26180354

  18. Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyayula, Pavan; Chen, Robert Y.; Chooljian, Marc S.; Li, Ju; Kung, Sunny; Jiang, Kevin P.; Conboy, Irina M.

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle declines with age. Previous studies suggest that this process can be reversed by exposure to young circulation, but systemic age-specific factors responsible for this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here we report that oxytocin- a hormone best known for its role in lactation, parturition, and social behaviors - is required for proper muscle tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and that plasma levels of oxytocin decline with age. Inhibition of oxytocin signaling in young animals reduces muscle regeneration, whereas systemic administration of oxytocin rapidly improves muscle regeneration by enhancing aged muscle stem cell activation/proliferation throughactivation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway. We further show that the genetic lack of oxytocin does not cause a developmental defect in muscle, but instead leads to premature sarcopenia. Considering that oxytocin is an FDA approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent skeletal muscle aging. PMID:24915299

  19. Oxytocin is an age-specific circulating hormone that is necessary for muscle maintenance and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Elabd, Christian; Cousin, Wendy; Upadhyayula, Pavan; Chen, Robert Y; Chooljian, Marc S; Li, Ju; Kung, Sunny; Jiang, Kevin P; Conboy, Irina M

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle declines with age. Previous studies suggest that this process can be reversed by exposure to young circulation; however, systemic age-specific factors responsible for this phenomenon are largely unknown. Here we report that oxytocin--a hormone best known for its role in lactation, parturition and social behaviours--is required for proper muscle tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and that plasma levels of oxytocin decline with age. Inhibition of oxytocin signalling in young animals reduces muscle regeneration, whereas systemic administration of oxytocin rapidly improves muscle regeneration by enhancing aged muscle stem cell activation/proliferation through activation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway. We further show that the genetic lack of oxytocin does not cause a developmental defect in muscle but instead leads to premature sarcopenia. Considering that oxytocin is an FDA-approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent skeletal muscle ageing. PMID:24915299

  20. An Atypical Age-Specific Pattern of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Peru: A Threat for Andean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Loli, Sebastian; Moura, Julien; Zimic, Mirko; Deharo, Eric; Ruiz, Eloy

    2013-01-01

    Background In South America, the highest incidence of primary liver cancer is observed in Peru. However, national estimations on hepatocellular carcinoma incidence and mortality are approximated using aggregated data from surrounding countries. Thus, there is a lack of tangible information from Peru that impairs an accurate description of the local incidence, presentation, and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study attempts to fill this gap and assesses the clinical epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in this country. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analysing the medical charts of 1,541 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma admitted between 1997 and 2010 at the Peruvian national institute for cancer. The medical records including liver function, serologic status, and tumor pathology and stage were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed in order to characterize tumor presentation according to demographic features, risk factors, and regional origin. Results Surprisingly, the age distribution of the patient population displayed bimodality corresponding to two distinct age-based subpopulations. While an older group was in keeping with the age range observed for hepatocellular carcinoma around the world, a younger population displayed an abnormally juvenile mean age of 25.5 years old. In addition, each subpopulation displayed age-specific pathophysiological and clinical characteristics. Conclusions The analysis suggests two different age-specific natural histories of hepatocellular carcinoma in the Peruvian patient population. This otherwise unusual tumor process that is ongoing in younger patients leads to the hypothesis that there may be a Peru-endemic risk factor driving hepatocarcinogenesis in the local population. PMID:23840771

  1. Trimodal age-specific incidence patterns for Burkitt lymphoma in the United States, 1973-2005.

    PubMed

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Anderson, William F; Bhatia, Kishor; Rosenberg, Philip S; Linet, Martha S; Devesa, Susan S

    2010-04-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a unique B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with 3 established clinical-epidemiological variants: endemic, sporadic and AIDS-related BL. BL variants show characteristic dysregulation of MYC gene, but the causes of MYC dysregulation or BL arising at different ages are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined population-based BL incidence patterns in the United States to determine age-related risk. BL case and population data were obtained from the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Databases (1973-2005). Standard cross-sectional age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates were stratified by sex and race and supplemented with age-period-cohort models. We analyzed 3,058 BL cases diagnosed during 1,160,300,297 person-years of observation. Age-standardized incidence rates rose 6.8% per year (95% CI 4.5-9.1) for males and 7.1% (95% CI 3.2-11.1) for females during the study period. The rate among males was 3.2 times that among females, and among Whites 1.3 times that among Blacks. Male-to-female incidence rate ratios did not differ by race, but were 4.2 for pediatric (0-19 years), 4.1 for adult (20-59 years) and 2.0 for geriatric (> or = 60 years) BL. Cross-sectional age-specific rates showed 2 separate peaks among males and females, near ages 10 and 75 years, and a 3rd peak near age 40 years among males. The tri/bimodal incidence pattern was present in sensitivity analyses excluding registries with many HIV/AIDS cases and in period-specific, cohort-specific analyses. To our knowledge, tri/bimodal incidence patterns have not previously been reported for BL. Trimodal/bimodal BL suggests heterogeneity in etiology or biology of BL diagnosed at different ages in males and females. PMID:19810101

  2. Cuticular structures and epidermal glands of Echinoderes cantabricus and E. hispanicus (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) with special reference to their taxonomic value.

    PubMed

    GaOrdóñez, D; Pardos, F; Benito, J

    2000-12-01

    The body wall of two species of kinorhynchs, Echinoderes cantabricus and E. hispanicus, was examined with transmission and scanning electron microscopy, to determine accurately the nature, arrangement, and consistency of characters used for taxonomic purposes. Structural details of cuticular hairs, pectinate fringes, spines, tubules, and different cuticular scars are described and discussed. Two kinds of epidermal glands, types 1 and 2, are characterized according to the nature of their secretory products, their exact location and distribution in the trunk segments, and their possible value as taxonomic characters. The generally assumed function of tubules for the release of secretory product is analyzed and finally rejected in light of the different distribution of tubules and glands along the trunk and because of the absence of a clear anatomic relation between both structures. The cuticular features studied can be useful for taxonomic purposes because of their consistency, but some of them are difficult to access and evaluate and therefore must be used with caution. PMID:11077429

  3. Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among Korean adolescents: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Gyu; Park, Mi-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the reference values and factors influencing blood lead levels among Korean adolescents. Methods The study population consisted of 1,585 adolescents (801 males, 784 females; aged 10-19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013. We analyzed blood lead concentrations in relation to demographic/lifestyle characteristics for all participants. "Reference values" of blood lead levels were calculated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile. Results The average "reference value" for blood lead concentrations among Korean adolescents was 2.25 µg/dL (2.49 µg/dL for males, 2.07 µg/dL for females), and the geometric mean of the blood lead concentrations was 1.34 µg/dL. Males had higher blood lead concentrations than females (male, 1.48 µg/dL; female, 1.19 µg/dL; P<0.001). Elementary school students had higher blood lead concentrations than junior and senior high school students (1.44 µg/dL vs. 1.31 µg/dL, P<0.001). Participants living in detached houses had higher blood lead concentrations than those living in apartments (P<0.001) and current smokers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers or participants with secondhand smoke exposure (P<0.05). Additionally, participants with excessive alcohol consumption had higher levels than non-drinkers (P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides national reference data on blood lead concentrations stratified by demographic and lifestyle factors among Korean adolescents. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between increased lead exposure and demographic factors including type of housing. PMID:27186217

  4. Diagnosis of 21-hydroxylase deficiency by urinary metabolite ratios using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis: Reference values for neonates and infants.

    PubMed

    Kamrath, Clemens; Hartmann, Michaela F; Boettcher, Claudia; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Wudy, Stefan A

    2016-02-01

    One major issue of newborn screening programs for 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) is the high rate of false-positive results, especially in preterm neonates. Urinary steroid metabolite analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is suitable as a confirmatory diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to analyze retrospectively diagnostic metabolite ratios in neonates and infants with and without 21OHD using GC-MS with emphasis on glucocorticoid metabolism, and to develop reference values for the steroid metabolite ratios for the diagnosis of 21OHD. We retrospectively analyzed urinary steroid hormone metabolites determined by GC-MS of 95 untreated neonates and infants with 21OHD (1-148 days), and 261 neonates and infants (100 preterms) without 21OHD (0-217 days). Metabolites of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone showed specificities below 98%, whereas the 21-deoxycortisol metabolite pregnanetriolone clearly separated 21OHD from non-21OHD subjects. The best diagnostic ratio for 21OHD was pregnanetriolone to 6α-hydroxy-tetrahydrocortisone. The lowest value of this ratio in the 21OHD group (0.47) was at least eight times higher than the highest values in the non-21OHD group (0.055). We have given appropriate reference values for steroid metabolite ratios in the largest 21OHD cohort so far described. Consideration of glucocorticoid metabolism, especially the use of typical neonatal 6α-hydroxylates metabolites, leads to improvement of diagnostic metabolite ratios. PMID:26493852

  5. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. PMID:25287794

  6. Reference values for salivary testosterone in adolescent boys and girls determined using Isotope-Dilution Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Büttler, Rahel M; Peper, Jiska S; Crone, Eveline A; Lentjes, Eef G W; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2016-05-01

    The measurement of testosterone in saliva is an attractive alternative to serum analysis due to the simple and non-invasive sample collection. In children and adolescents salivary testosterone is mainly measured to investigate whether puberty has started or not. This study aimed to establish reference values for salivary testosterone during puberty in boys and girls. We measured salivary testosterone using ID-LC-MS/MS in a cohort of 131 girls and 123 boys of whom each had salivary testosterone measured at two time points during puberty. Salivary testosterone concentrations start to increase with the start of puberty around eight years and continuously increase up to adult concentrations in the following ten years. Reference values were calculated using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS)-curve fitting method and provided per year from 8 to 26years of age in boys and girls. These reference ranges may help clinicians and researchers to interpret salivary testosterone results in both individual patients and study subjects. PMID:26920638

  7. Estimation of age-specific per capita home-produced food intake among populations that garden, farm, or raise animals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Linda; Moya, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Intake of home-produced foods may be a concern in areas where chemical contamination exists. Estimating exposure to contaminants in home-produced foods requires knowledge of the amount of these foods consumed. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Exposure Factors Handbook provides data on consumption of home-produced foods based on the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS), the most recent national food survey that contains the information necessary to estimate home-produced consumption. These data represent "consumer-only" intake rate distributions for various age and demographic categories. "Consumers-only" information is also provided for households who garden, farm, and raise animals for all age groups combined. However, these "consumer-only" values may not always be appropriate when assessing chronic exposures. Furthermore, data for all ages combined may not be useful for estimating exposure among age groups that may be of particular concern. This paper provides age-specific "per capita" intake rate distributions of home-produced foods specifically for the populations that garden, farm, and raise animals, using data from EPA's Exposure Factors Handbook. PMID:21522189

  8. Cadmium background concentrations to establish reference quality values for soils of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Vinicius Henrique; de Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Coelho, Ricardo Marques; Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo

    2014-03-01

    Proper assessment of soil cadmium (Cd) concentrations is essential to establish legislative limits. The present study aimed to assess background Cd concentrations in soils from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to correlate such concentrations with several soil attributes. The topsoil samples (n = 191) were assessed for total Cd contents and for other metals using the USEPA 3051A method. The background concentration was determined according to the third quartile (75th). Principal component analysis, Spearman correlation, and multiple regressions between Cd contents and other soil attributes (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay content, sum of bases, organic matter, and total Fe, Al, Zn, and Pb levels) were performed. The mean Cd concentration of all 191 samples was 0.4 mg kg(-1), and the background concentration was 0.5 mg kg(-1). After the samples were grouped by parent material (rock origin) and soil type, the background Cd content varied, i.e., soils from igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks harbored 1.5, 0.4, and 0.2 mg kg(-1) of Cd, respectively. The background Cd content in Oxisols (0.8 mg kg(-1)) was higher than in Ultisols (0.3 mg kg(-1)). Multiple regression demonstrated that Fe was primarily attributed to the natural Cd contents in the soils (R (2) = 0.79). Instead of a single Cd background concentration value representing all São Paulo soils, we propose that the concentrations should be specific for at least Oxisols and Ultisols, which are the primary soil types. PMID:24135921

  9. Cancer mode of action, weight of evidence, and proposed cancer reference value for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Okolica, Michelle R; Gut, Chester P; Gargas, Michael L

    2012-11-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, CAS No. 121-82-4) is a component of munitions formulations, and has been detected in groundwater samples collected at various US military sites. Clean up target levels for RDX may be derived based on consideration of acceptable cumulative human exposure as expressed in toxicity reference values. Evaluations of the cancer weight of evidence and possible modes of action (MOA) for RDX-induced cancer were conducted. It was concluded that the available data provide suggestive evidence of human carcinogenic potential for RDX. While a mutagenic/genotoxic MOA for RDX is unlikely, no alterative MOA is strongly supported by the available data. A nonlinear (threshold) approach to the assessment of human cancer risk was recommended, and a recommended chronic cancer reference dose of 0.08mg/kg/day was derived. For comparison only, computations using a linear approach were also conducted, yielding a cancer risk specific dose of 0.000235mg/kg/day for 1 in 10(5) risk; this value is 2.6-fold higher the current US EPA risk specific dose for 1 in 10(5) risk. Thus, cleanup standards based on human health risk from RDX exposure could potentially depend on the willingness of risk managers to accept a nonlinear MOA and nonlinear toxicity risk value derivation. PMID:22841928

  10. Comparison of Reference Values in Whole Blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J Mice Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Suzuki, M. F.; Júnior, C. R. B.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2011-08-01

    The Br, Ca, Cl, K, Na and S concentrations in whole blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J mice were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Reference values obtained from twenty one whole blood samples of these strains were analyzed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (São Paulo, Brasil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood as well as to evaluate the performance of treatments in muscular dystrophy.

  11. ISCORS Catalog of References to Parameter Values and Distributions Used in Environmental Pathway Modeling for Cleanup of Sites Contaminated with Radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Wolbarst, Anthony B; Biwer, Bruce M; Cady, Ralph; Chen, Shih-Yew; Domotor, Stephen; Egidi, Philip; LePoire, David J; Mo, Tin; Peterson, Julie; Walker, Stuart

    2005-11-01

    Federal and state regulatory agencies that are concerned with issues of environmental management have adopted approaches toward policy-making that are dose- and risk-informed. To that end they (and others) have developed environmental models and computer codes to mimic the transport of contaminants along air, water, food-chain, and related pathways for estimating potential exposures, doses, and risks to individuals, populations, and ecosystems. Their calculations commonly find application in the planning of remediation, and thereafter in the demonstration of compliance with federal and state cleanup standards. As the models and codes have become more sophisticated, so also have requirements on the accuracy and level of detail of the numerical point values and probability distributions of environmental transfer factors and other parameters that serve as input parameters to them. In response to this growing need, the federal Interagency Steering Committee On Radiation Standards (ISCORS) and the Argonne National Laboratory have developed an on-line, national repository of information on parameter values and distributions of known provenance and demonstrated utility. The ISCORS Catalog of References to Parameter Values and Distributions Used in Environmental Pathway Modeling for Cleanup of Sites Contaminated with Radioactivity is a web-based, indexed compilation of references, compendia, databases, and other sources of peer-reviewed information on parameters. It does not itself contain numerical point values or distributions for any particular parameter, but rather it provides links or directions to sites or other published materials where such information can be obtained. Designed to be user-friendly, easily searchable, and readily up-dateable, the Catalog is being filled, after some initial priming, mainly through on-line submissions of proposed references by the Catalog users themselves. The relevant information on a proposed reference is submitted to ISCORS in a

  12. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River.

    PubMed

    Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Veselov, Alexey E; Efremov, Denis A; Nemova, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  13. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  14. Development of age-specific Japanese head phantoms for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Fujii, K; Akahane, K; Yamauchi, M; Narai, K; Aoyama, T; Katsu, T; Obara, S; Imai, K; Ikeda, M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the authors developed age-specific physical head phantoms simulating the physique of Japanese children for dose evaluation in paediatric head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Anatomical structures at 99 places in 0-, 0.5-, 1- and 3-y-old Japanese patients were measured using DICOM viewer software from CT images, and the head phantom of each age was designed. For trial manufacture, a 3-y-old head phantom consisting of acrylic resin and gypsum was produced by machine processing. Radiation doses for the head phantom were measured with radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters and Si-pin photodiode dosemeters. To investigate whether the phantom shape was suitable for dose evaluation, organ doses in the same scan protocol were compared between the 3-y-old head and commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms having approximately the same head size. The doses of organs in both phantoms were equivalent. The authors' designed paediatric head phantom will be useful for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations. PMID:24821932

  15. Age-specific incidence of neutralization antibodies of Herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed Central

    Terzin, A. L.; Masic, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Sera of 1255 individuals from Novi Sad, varying in age from less than 1 month to 69 years, have been tested for neutralization antibodies to Herpes implex virus type 1. The eight newborns tested and 97% of the 507 adults were positive, with titres ranging from 1/4 to 1/256. The titres in newborns were significantly lower than the titres in adults. After birth the maternal antibodies declined rapidly and 94% of infants at the age of greater than 6 months and less than 2 years were negative. After the first year infants in Novi Sad start to acquire herpes-neutralizing antibodies actively, reaching a 50% incidence of positives between the 2nd and 3rd year of age. Age-specific incidence rates of herpes positives found in Novi Sad have been compared with those reported from Edinburgh, Freiburg i. Br. and Louisiana. Possible influences of several circumstances upon the incidence rate of positives detected by the neutralization test are discussed. PMID:185287

  16. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Promislow, D.E.L.; Tatar, M.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Peter Medawar proposed that senescence arises from an age-related decline in the force of selection, which allows late-acting deleterious mutations to accumulate. Subsequent workers have suggested that mutation accumulation could produce an age-related increase in additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits, as recently found in Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report results from a genetic analysis of mortality in 65,134 D. melanogaster. Additive genetic variance for female mortality rates increases from 0.007 in the first week of life to 0.325 by the third week, and then declines to 0.002 by the seventh week. Males show a similar pattern, though total variance is lower than in females. In contrast to a predicted divergence in mortality curves, mortality curves of different genotypes are roughly parallel. Using a three-parameter model, we find significant V{sub A} for the slope and constant term of the curve describing age-specific mortality rates, and also for the rate at which mortality decelerates late in life. These results fail to support a prediction derived from Medawar`s {open_quotes}mutation accumulation{close_quotes} theory for the evolution of senescence. However, our results could be consistent with alternative interpretations of evolutionary models of aging. 65 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    PubMed Central

    Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Veselov, Alexey E.; Efremov, Denis A.; Nemova, Nina N.

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  18. Age-specific survival of reintroduced swift fox in Badlands National Park and surrounding lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasmal, Indrani; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Schroeder, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a reintroduction program was initiated at Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, USA, with swift foxes (Vulpes velox) translocated from Colorado and Wyoming, USA, as part of a restoration effort to recover declining swift fox populations throughout its historical range. Estimates of age-specific survival are necessary to evaluate the potential for population growth of reintroduced populations. We used 7 years (2003–2009) of capture–recapture data of 243 pups, 29 yearlings, and 69 adult swift foxes at BNP and the surrounding area to construct Cormack–Jolly–Seber model estimates of apparent survival within a capture–mark–recapture framework using Program MARK. The best model for estimating recapture probabilities included no differences among age classes, greater recapture probabilities during early years of the monitoring effort than later years, and variation among spring, winter, and summer. Our top ranked survival model indicated pup survival differed from that of yearlings and adults and varied by month and year. The apparent annual survival probability of pups (0.47, SE = 0.10) in our study area was greater than the apparent annual survival probability of yearlings and adults (0.27, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate low survival probabilities for a reintroduced population of swift foxes in the BNP and surrounding areas. Management of reintroduced populations and future reintroductions of swift foxes should consider the effects of relative low annual survival on population demography.

  19. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-11-01

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age.

  20. Characterization of water quality in selected tributaries of the Alamosa River, southwestern Colorado, including comparisons to instream water-quality standards and toxicological reference values, 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Roderick F.; Ferguson, Sheryl A.

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive water-quality sampling network was implemented by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1995 through 1997 at 12 tributary sites to the Alamosa River. The network was designed to address data gaps identified in the initial ecological risk assessment of the Summitville Superfund site. Tributaries draining hydrothermally altered areas had higher median values for nearly all measured properties and constituents than tributaries draining unaltered areas. Colorado instream standards for pH, copper, iron, and zinc were in attainment at most tributary sites. Instream standards for pH and chronic aquatic-life standards for iron were not attained in Jasper Creek. Toxicological reference values were most often exceeded at Iron Creek, Alum Creek, Bitter Creek, Wightman Fork, and Burnt Creek. These tributaries all drain hydrothermally altered areas.

  1. Pedo-geochemical baseline content levels and soil quality reference values of trace elements in soils from the Mediterranean (Castilla La Mancha, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesta, Raimundo; Bueno, Paz; Rubi, Juan; Giménez, Rosario

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate trace element soil contamination, geochemical baseline contents and reference values need to be established. Pedo-geochemical baseline levels of trace elements in 72 soil samples of 24 soil profiles from the Mediterranean, Castilla La Mancha, are assessed and soil quality reference values are calculated. Reference value contents (in mg kg-1) were: Sc 50.8; V 123.2; Cr 113.4; Co 20.8; Ni 42.6; Cu 27.0; Zn 86.5; Ga 26.7; Ge 1.3; As 16.7; Se 1.4; Br 20.1; Rb 234.7; Sr 1868.4; Y 38.3; Zr 413.1; Nb 18.7; Mo 2.0; Ag 7.8; Cd 4.4; Sn 8.7; Sb 5.7; I 25.4; Cs 14.2; Ba 1049.3; La 348.4; Ce 97.9; Nd 40.1; Sm 10.7; Yb 4.2; Hf 10.0; Ta 4.0; W 5.5; Tl 2.3; Pb 44.2; Bi 2.2; Th 21.6; U 10.3. The contents obtained for some elements are below or close to the detection limit: Co, Ge, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Tl and Bi. The element content ranges (the maximum value minus the minimum value) are: Sc 55.0, V 196.0, Cr 346.0, Co 64.4, Ni 188.7, Cu 49.5, Zn 102.3, Ga 28.7, Ge 1.5, As 26.4, Se 0.9, Br 33.0 Rb 432.7, Sr 3372.6, Y 39.8, Zr 523.2, Nb 59.7, Mo 3.9, Ag 10.1, Cd 1.8, Sn 75.2, Sb 9.9, I 68.0, Cs 17.6, Ba 1394.9, La 51.3, Ce 93.5, Nd 52.5, Sm 11.2, Yb 4.2, Hf 11.3, Ta 6.3, W 5.2, Tl 2.1, Pb 96.4, Bi 3.0, Th 24.4, U 16.4 (in mg kg-1). The spatial distribution of the elements was affected mainly by the nature of the bedrock and by pedological processes. The upper limit of expected background variation for each trace element in the soil is documented, as is its range as a criterion for evaluating which sites may require decontamination.

  2. Comparing results from two continental geochemical surveys to world soil composition and deriving Predicted Empirical Global Soil (PEGS2) reference values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Caritat, Patrice; Reimann, Clemens; Bastrakov, E.; Bowbridge, D.; Boyle, P.; Briggs, S.; Brown, D.; Brown, M.; Brownlie, K.; Burrows, P.; Burton, G.; Byass, J.; de Caritat, P.; Chanthapanya, N.; Cooper, M.; Cranfield, L.; Curtis, S.; Denaro, T.; Dhnaram, C.; Dhu, T.; Diprose, G.; Fabris, A.; Fairclough, M.; Fanning, S.; Fidler, R.; Fitzell, M.; Flitcroft, P.; Fricke, C.; Fulton, D.; Furlonger, J.; Gordon, G.; Green, A.; Green, G.; Greenfield, J.; Harley, J.; Heawood, S.; Hegvold, T.; Henderson, K.; House, E.; Husain, Z.; Krsteska, B.; Lam, J.; Langford, R.; Lavigne, T.; Linehan, B.; Livingstone, M.; Lukss, A.; Maier, R.; Makuei, A.; McCabe, L.; McDonald, P.; McIlroy, D.; McIntyre, D.; Morris, P.; O'Connell, G.; Pappas, B.; Parsons, J.; Petrick, C.; Poignand, B.; Roberts, R.; Ryle, J.; Seymon, A.; Sherry, K.; Skinner, J.; Smith, M.; Strickland, C.; Sutton, S.; Swindell, R.; Tait, H.; Tang, J.; Thomson, A.; Thun, C.; Uppill, B.; Wall, K.; Watkins, J.; Watson, T.; Webber, L.; Whiting, A.; Wilford, J.; Wilson, T.; Wygralak, A.; Albanese, S.; Andersson, M.; Arnoldussen, A.; Baritz, R.; Batista, M. J.; Bel-lan, A.; Birke, M.; Cicchella, C.; Demetriades, A.; Dinelli, E.; De Vivo, B.; De Vos, W.; Duris, M.; Dusza-Dobek, A.; Eggen, O. A.; Eklund, M.; Ernstsen, V.; Filzmoser, P.; Finne, T. E.; Flight, D.; Forrester, S.; Fuchs, M.; Fugedi, U.; Gilucis, A.; Gosar, M.; Gregorauskiene, V.; Gulan, A.; Halamić, J.; Haslinger, E.; Hayoz, P.; Hobiger, G.; Hoffmann, R.; Hoogewerff, J.; Hrvatovic, H.; Husnjak, S.; Janik, L.; Johnson, C. C.; Jordan, G.; Kirby, J.; Kivisilla, J.; Klos, V.; Krone, F.; Kwecko, P.; Kuti, L.; Ladenberger, A.; Lima, A.; Locutura, J.; Lucivjansky, P.; Mackovych, D.; Malyuk, B. I.; Maquil, R.; McLaughlin, M.; Meuli, R. G.; Miosic, N.; Mol, G.; Négrel, P.; O'Connor, P.; Oorts, K.; Ottesen, R. T.; Pasieczna, A.; Petersell, V.; Pfleiderer, S.; Poňavič, M.; Prazeres, C.; Rauch, U.; Reimann, C.; Salpeteur, I.; Schedl, A.; Scheib, A.; Schoeters, I.; Sefcik, P.; Sellersjö, E.; Skopljak, F.; Slaninka, I.; Šorša, A.; Srvkota, R.; Stafilov, T.; Tarvainen, T.; Trendavilov, V.; Valera, P.; Verougstraete, V.; Vidojević, D.; Zissimos, A. M.; Zomeni, Z.

    2012-02-01

    Analytical data for 10 major oxides (Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, P2O5, SiO2 and TiO2), 16 total trace elements (As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Ga, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn and Zr), 14 aqua regia extracted elements (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo and Pb), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH from 3526 soil samples from two continents (Australia and Europe) are presented and compared to (1) the composition of the upper continental crust, (2) published world soil average values, and (3) data from other continental-scale soil surveys. It can be demonstrated that average upper continental crust values do not provide reliable estimates for natural concentrations of elements in soils. For many elements there exist substantial differences between published world soil averages and the median concentrations observed on two continents. Direct comparison with other continental datasets is hampered by the fact that often mean, instead of the statistically more robust median, is reported. Using a database of the worldwide distribution of lithological units, it can be demonstrated that lithology is a poor predictor of soil chemistry. Climate-related processes such as glaciation and weathering are strong modifiers of the geochemical signature inherited from bedrock during pedogenesis. To overcome existing shortcomings of predicted global or world soil geochemical reference values, we propose Preliminary Empirical Global Soil reference values based on analytical results of a representative number of soil samples from two continents (PEGS2).

  3. Development of a new sodium diclofenac certified reference material using the mass balance approach and ¹H qNMR to determine the certified property value.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Raquel; Garrido, Bruno C; Borges, Ricardo M; Silva, Gisele E B; Queiroz, Suzane M; Cunha, Valnei S

    2013-02-14

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential tools to guarantee the metrological traceability of measurement results to the International System of Units (SI), which means the accuracy and comparability of results over time and space. In the pharmaceutical area, only a few CRMs are available and the use of (non-certified) reference materials is a much more common practice. In this paper, the studies on a new candidate CRM of sodium diclofenac based on the ISO Guides 34:2009 and 35:2005 are described. The project steps included characterization, homogeneity test, stability studies, and uncertainties estimation. In the characterization, the mass fractions of organic, inorganic, and volatile impurities were determined, and the results were cross-checked by independent reference methods or interlaboratorial study. The API mass fraction was calculated by mass balance and cross-checked by quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H qNMR). The paper also presents a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the measurement uncertainty as an approach to validate the GUM results in ¹H qNMR. The homogeneity between batch units was verified, and the candidate CRM stability under transport and storage conditions was evaluated in short- and long-term stability studies. The CRM certified property value and corresponding expanded uncertainty, obtained from the combined standard uncertainty multiplied by the coverage factor (k=2), for a confidence level of 95%, was (999.76+0.10) mg g⁻¹. PMID:23220339

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Plutonium Content in Particles Collected from a Certified Reference Material by Total Nuclear Reaction Energy (Q Value) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croce, M. P.; Hoover, A. S.; Rabin, M. W.; Bond, E. M.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2016-08-01

    Microcalorimeters with embedded radioisotopes are an emerging category of sensor with advantages over existing methods for isotopic analysis of trace-level nuclear materials. For each nuclear decay, the energy of all decay products captured by the absorber (alpha particles, gamma rays, X-rays, electrons, daughter nuclei, etc.) is measured in one pulse. For alpha-decaying isotopes, this gives a measurement of the total nuclear reaction energy (Q value) and the spectra consist of well-separated, narrow peaks. We have demonstrated a simple mechanical alloying process to create an absorber structure consisting of a gold matrix with small inclusions of a radioactive sample. This absorber structure provides an optimized energy thermalization environment, resulting in high-resolution spectra with minimal tailing. We have applied this process to the analysis of particles collected from the surface of a plutonium metal certified reference material (CRM-126A from New Brunswick Laboratory) and demonstrated isotopic analysis by microcalorimeter Q value spectroscopy. Energy resolution from the Gaussian component of a Bortels function fit was 1.3 keV FWHM at 5244 keV. The collected particles were integrated directly into the detector absorber without any chemical processing. The ^{238}Pu/^{239}Pu and ^{240}Pu/^{239}Pu mass ratios were measured and the results confirmed against the certificate of analysis for the reference material. We also demonstrated inter-element analysis capability by measuring the ^{241}Am/^{239}Pu mass ratio.

  5. Reference values for the cervical length measurement in the second trimester of pregnancy using the transvaginal ultrasound in a large Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Alberto Borges; da Cunha Caldas, Taciana Mara Rodrigues; Alamy, Ana Helena Bittencourt; Martins, Wellington P.; Bruns, Rafael Frederico

    2016-01-01

    To establish reference values for the cervical length (CL) measurement by transvaginal ultrasound between 20 and 24+6 weeks of gestation in a large Brazilian population. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed with 996 singleton pregnancies. The CL measurement (mm) using the transvaginal ultrasound was obtained in a sagittal view and the calipers positioned to measure the linear distance between the triangular area of echodensity at the external os and the internal os. The median±standard deviation and ranges for the CL measurement (mm) was 37.0±10.7 (range, 8 to 51). CL measurement did not modify significantly with gestational age. The observed percentiles for the CL measurement (mm) considering all number case were the following: 5th, 28 mm; 50th, 37 mm; and 95th, 45 mm. Reference values for the CL measurement by transvaginal ultrasound between 20 and 24+6 weeks of gestation in a large heterogeneous Brazilian population were established. PMID:27462597

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Plutonium Content in Particles Collected from a Certified Reference Material by Total Nuclear Reaction Energy (Q Value) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croce, M. P.; Hoover, A. S.; Rabin, M. W.; Bond, E. M.; Wolfsberg, L. E.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2016-03-01

    Microcalorimeters with embedded radioisotopes are an emerging category of sensor with advantages over existing methods for isotopic analysis of trace-level nuclear materials. For each nuclear decay, the energy of all decay products captured by the absorber (alpha particles, gamma rays, X-rays, electrons, daughter nuclei, etc.) is measured in one pulse. For alpha-decaying isotopes, this gives a measurement of the total nuclear reaction energy (Q value) and the spectra consist of well-separated, narrow peaks. We have demonstrated a simple mechanical alloying process to create an absorber structure consisting of a gold matrix with small inclusions of a radioactive sample. This absorber structure provides an optimized energy thermalization environment, resulting in high-resolution spectra with minimal tailing. We have applied this process to the analysis of particles collected from the surface of a plutonium metal certified reference material (CRM-126A from New Brunswick Laboratory) and demonstrated isotopic analysis by microcalorimeter Q value spectroscopy. Energy resolution from the Gaussian component of a Bortels function fit was 1.3 keV FWHM at 5244 keV. The collected particles were integrated directly into the detector absorber without any chemical processing. The ^{238} Pu/^{239} Pu and ^{240} Pu/^{239} Pu mass ratios were measured and the results confirmed against the certificate of analysis for the reference material. We also demonstrated inter-element analysis capability by measuring the ^{241} Am/^{239} Pu mass ratio.

  7. OPHTHALMIC REFERENCE VALUES AND LESIONS IN TWO CAPTIVE POPULATIONS OF NORTHERN OWLS: GREAT GREY OWLS (STRIX NEBULOSA) AND SNOWY OWLS (BUBO SCANDIACUS).

    PubMed

    Wills, Sarah; Pinard, Chantale; Nykamp, Stephanie; Beaufrère, Hugues

    2016-03-01

    This study established ophthalmic reference values and characterized ocular lesions in two captive populations of boreal owls, including 46 eyes of 23 great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) and 38 eyes from 19 snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus). A complete ophthalmologic exam was conducted, including neuro-ophthalmic reflexes, Schirmer tear test I (STT-I), intraocular pressure (IOP) using rebound tonometry, fluorescein staining, horizontal corneal measurements using Jameson calipers, direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, and ocular ultrasound biometry. Eyes with an STT of <5 mm/min, outliers, and eyes with severe diseases were excluded from reference value analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between right or left eyes in either species or among individuals in different age groups and sexes. Mean intraocular pressures and Schirmer tear tests were also not statistically significantly different between great grey owls and snowy owls (IOP: 9.6 ± 2.6 mm Hg and 9.1 ± 1.9 mm Hg, respectively, and STT-I: 9.8 ± 2.8 mm/min and 9.8 ± 2.4 mm/min, respectively). However, snowy owls overall had a significantly larger eye than did great grey owls, reflected in corneal diameters (23.4 ± 1 vs. 20.0 ± 0.8 mm, respectively) and sonographic biometry. In both species, the most common ocular lesions included keratitis, cataracts, chorioretinal lesions, and abnormal pecten. Establishment of reference ocular parameters will help wildlife veterinarians and rehabilitators determine an appropriate treatment plan and will aid in correctly identifying the presence of ocular disease. PMID:27010284

  8. Molecular mechanism of age-specific hepatic lipid accumulation in PPARalpha (+/-):LDLR (+/-) mice, an obese mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yufeng; Sugiyama, Eiko; Yokoyama, Shin; Jiang, Lingling; Tanaka, Naoki; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms of age-specific hepatic lipid accumulation accompanying hyperinsulinemia in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) (+/-):low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (+/-) mouse line. The hepatic fat content, protein amounts, and mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were analyzed in 25-, 50-, 75- and 100-week-old mice. Severe fatty liver was confirmed only in 50- and 75-week-old mice. The hepatic expression of proteins that function in lipid transport and catabolism did not differ among the groups. In contrast, the mRNA levels and protein amounts of lipogenic enzymes, including acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-1, fatty acid synthase, and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, enhanced in the mice with fatty liver. Elevated mRNA and protein levels of lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid translocase, which are involved in hepatic lipid uptake, were also detected in mice with fatty liver. Moreover, both protein and mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), a transcription factor regulating lipid synthesis, had age-specific patterns similar to those of the proteins described above. Therefore, the age-specific fatty liver found in the PPARalpha (+/-):LDLR (+/-) mouse line is probably caused by age-specific expression of SREBP-1 and its downstream lipogenic genes, coordinated by the increased uptake of lipids. All of these factors might be affected by age-specific changes in serum insulin concentration. PMID:18335269

  9. Assessment of Local Dose Reference Values for Recanalization of Chronic Total Occlusions and Other Occlusions in a High-Volume Catheterization Center.

    PubMed

    Maccia, Carlo; Malchair, Françoise; Gobert, Isabelle; Louvard, Yves; Lefevre, Thierry

    2015-10-15

    The increasing number and complexity of these procedures have led to a higher number of patients at risk for tissue reactions like skin injuries. Monitoring of their dose indicators is essential in recognizing these patients. The aim of this work was to determine local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for recanalization of chronic total occlusion (CTO) and other occlusions procedures. All data from patients who underwent cardiac procedures were reviewed and classified according to their complexity. Dose indicators such as fluoroscopy time (FT), dose area product (DAP), and air kerma at patient entrance reference point (AKr) were recorded. Correlations with patient's body mass index, operators, procedure strategy, and complexity were studied. For CTO, the mean DAP, AKr, and FT were 252 ± 234 Gycm(2), 3,985 ± 3,579 mGy, and 47 ± 36 minutes, respectively. To better reflect the non-Gaussian distribution of data, the median and the 75th percentile values were also reported: median DAP, 172 Gycm(2); 75th percentile DAP, 350 Gycm(2); median AKr, 2,714 mGy; and 75th percentile AKr, 5,921 mGy. A tentative new set of values were suggested to take into account the complexity difference in recanalization of total occlusions according to their antegrade or retrograde approach. These approach-specific DRLs for total occlusions were mean DAP (120 ± 114 Gycm(2)), mean AKr (1,789 ± 1,933 mGy), and mean FT (22 ± 18 minutes) for antegrade approach and mean DAP (459 ± 304 Gycm(2)), mean AKr (6,881 ± 4,243 mGy), and mean FT (82 ± 40 minutes) for retrograde approach. The other significant values were median DAP (84 Gycm(2)), 75th percentile DAP (147 Gycm(2)), median AKr (1,160 mGy), and 75th percentile AKr (2,176 mGy) for antegrade approach and median DAP (422 Gycm(2)), 75th percentile DAP (552 Gycm(2)), median AKr (6,295 mGy), and 75th percentile AKr (8,064 mGy) for retrograde approach. In conclusion, a set of local DRL values from a large center were assessed

  10. Prevalence of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus in Tehran: An Age-Specific Serological Study

    PubMed Central

    Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Salehi-Vaziri, Mostafa; Mohajel, Nasir; Keyvani, Hossein; Nasimi, Maryam; Esghaei, Maryam; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Several new types of polyomavirus have been discovered in recent years mainly because of the recent state-of-the-art detection technologies. Among the polyomaviruses, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has attracted the most attention because of its possible role in the etiology of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but lethal form of skin cancer. Objectives This study aimed to determine age-specific seroprevalence of MCPyV in Tehran. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we collected 440 serum samples from healthy individuals 2 to 78 years of age who visited the Pasteur Institute’s clinic in Tehran, Iran, using a convenience sampling strategy. We developed a virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that uses VP1, the major capsid protein of MCPyV, to detect and quantitate serum antibodies to MCPyV. We compared the prevalence of MCPyV between males and females and across eight age groups. Results A total of 255 (57.9%) of the serum samples were MCPyV positive. The seroprevalence in children under 10 years of age was 25%. The seroprevalence increased to 56% over the next decade of life (10 - 19 years of age). The seroprevalence rate in males and females was 56.1% and 59.7% respectively, and a binary logistic regression showed no significant difference between males and females (P = 0.77). However, the prevalence of MCPyV increased with age (P = 0.012). Conclusions Our results suggest that human exposure to MCPyV occurs throughout life. The MCPyV antibody levels remained high among older adults in our population, consistent with reports from other populations. PMID:27437129

  11. Spatially adapted augmentation of age-specific atlas-based segmentation using patch-based priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mengyuan; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Harrylock, Lisa; Kitsch, Averi; Miller, Steven; Chau, Van; Poskitt, Kenneth; Rousseau, Francois; Studholme, Colin

    2014-03-01

    One of the most common approaches to MRI brain tissue segmentation is to employ an atlas prior to initialize an Expectation- Maximization (EM) image labeling scheme using a statistical model of MRI intensities. This prior is commonly derived from a set of manually segmented training data from the population of interest. However, in cases where subject anatomy varies significantly from the prior anatomical average model (for example in the case where extreme developmental abnormalities or brain injuries occur), the prior tissue map does not provide adequate information about the observed MRI intensities to ensure the EM algorithm converges to an anatomically accurate labeling of the MRI. In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatic segmentation of such cases. This approach augments the atlas-based EM segmentation by exploring methods to build a hybrid tissue segmentation scheme that seeks to learn where an atlas prior fails (due to inadequate representation of anatomical variation in the statistical atlas) and utilize an alternative prior derived from a patch driven search of the atlas data. We describe a framework for incorporating this patch-based augmentation of EM (PBAEM) into a 4D age-specific atlas-based segmentation of developing brain anatomy. The proposed approach was evaluated on a set of MRI brain scans of premature neonates with ages ranging from 27.29 to 46.43 gestational weeks (GWs). Results indicated superior performance compared to the conventional atlas-based segmentation method, providing improved segmentation accuracy for gray matter, white matter, ventricles and sulcal CSF regions.

  12. Reference Values of Skeletal Muscle Mass for Korean Children and Adolescents Using Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2011

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) plays a crucial role in systemic glucose metabolism. Objective To obtain reference data on absolute and relative values of SMM for Korean children and adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional results from 1919 children and adolescents (1024 boys) aged 10–18 years that underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) during the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2011 were analyzed. SMMs were evaluated as follows; absolute SMM (appendicular skeletal muscle mass [ASM]) and relative SMMs, namely, height-adjusted skeletal muscle index (SMI; ASM/height2), %SMM (ASM/weight x 100), and skeletal muscle-to-body fat ratio (MFR; ASM/body fat mass). Results Percentile curves illustrated the developmental patterns of the SMMs of Korean children and adolescents. ASM and SMI increased with age in both genders, and increased from age 10 throughout adolescence in boys, whereas in girls, they increased until age 13 and then stabilized. In boys, %SMM and MFR were highest at age 15 and then slowly stabilized or decreased, whereas in girls, they peaked at age 10 to 11 and then decreased through adolescence. Cut-off values for low MFR were identified and a significant association was found between a low MFR and high risk of metabolic syndrome. However, this association was found to be dependent on gender and the level of BMI. Conclusion This study provides reference values of absolute and relative SMM for Korean children and adolescents. Detailed body composition analyses including skeletal muscle and fat mass might provide improved measures of metabolic risk. PMID:27073844

  13. Instantaneous and daily values of the surface energy balance over agricultural fields using remote sensing and a reference field in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Jackson, R. D.; Gay, L.W.; Duell, L.F.W.; Kunkel, K.E.; Matthias, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperature and reflectance in the visible and near infrared wavebands along with ancilliary meteorological data provide the capability of computing three of the four surface energy balance components (i.e., net radiation, soil heat flux, and sensible heat flux) at different spatial and temporal scales. As a result, under nonadvective conditions, this enables the estimation of the remaining term (i.e., the latent heat flux). One of the practical applications with this approach is to produce evapotranspiration (ET) maps for agricultural regions which consist of an array of fields containing different crops at varying stages of growth and soil moisture conditions. Such a situation exists in the semiarid southwest at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center, south of Phoenix. For one day (14 June 1987), surface temperature and reflectance measurements from an aircraft 150 m above ground level (agl) were acquired over fields from zero to nearly full cover at four times between 1000 MST and 1130 MST. The diurnal pattern of the surface energy balance was measured over four fields, which included alfalfa at 60% cover, furrowed cotton at 20% and 30% cover, and partially plowed what stubble. Instantaneous and daily values of ET were estimated for a representative area around each flux site with an energy balance model that relies on a reference ET. This reference value was determined with remotely sensed data and several meteorological inputs. The reference ET was adjusted to account for the different surface conditions in the other fields using only remotely sensed variables. A comparison with the flux measurements suggests the model has difficulties with partial canopy conditions, especially related to the estimation of the sensible heat flux. The resulting errors for instantaneous ET were on the order of 100 W m-2 and for daily values of order 2 mm day-1. These findings suggest future research should involve development of methods to

  14. Forced oscillation technique. Reference values for resistance and reactance over a frequency spectrum of 2-26 Hz in healthy children aged 2.3-12.5 years.

    PubMed

    Duiverman, E J; Clément, J; van de Woestijne, K P; Neijens, H J; van den Bergh, A C; Kerrebijn, K F

    1985-01-01

    The forced pseudo-random noise oscillation technique is a method by which total respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) can be measured simultaneously at various frequencies by means of complex oscillations, superimposed at the mouth during spontaneous quiet breathing. Reference values were obtained in 255 healthy Caucasian children of Dutch descent aged 2.3-12.5 years. Rrs and Xrs vs frequency (f) curves are mainly determined by the child's sex, age, height and weight. Taking complete Rrs and Xrs-f curves into account, we found that Rrs values were significantly higher in young boys than in young girls. They were equal at about 8 years, but at about 12 years of age Rrs values were again significantly higher in boys than in girls. Frequency dependence of Rrs was found in healthy boys up to about 5 years of age, but not in girls of the same age or in older children. These data suggest differences in airway diameter between boys and girls. At all ages Xrs was significantly lower in boys than in girls. This suggests differences in bronchial patency of peripheral airways, boys being at a disadvantage. It is concluded that multiple frequency oscillometry is a method which is ideal for children from the age of about 3 years. The possibility of measuring Rrs as well as frequency dependence of Rrs and Xrs simultaneously is the major advantage over other oscillation devices. PMID:3995199

  15. Age-specific models for evaluating dose and risk from internal exposures to radionuclides: Report of current work of the Metabolism and Dosimetry Research Group, July 1, 1985-June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Warren, B.P.

    1987-09-01

    A projection of the health risk to a population internally exposed to a radionuclide requires explicit or implicit use of demographic, biokinetic, dosimetric, and dose-response models. Exposure guidelines have been based on models for a reference adult with a fixed life span. In this report, we describe recent efforts to develop a comprehensive methodology for estimation of radiogenic risk to individuals and to heterogeneous populations. Emphasis is on age-dependent biokinetics and dosimetry for internal emitters, but consideration also is given to conversion of age-specific doses to estimates of risk using realistic, site-specific demographic models and best available age-specific dose-response functions. We discuss how the methods described here may also improve estimates for the reference adult usually considered in radiation protection. 159 refs.

  16. Hybrid M-mode-like OCT imaging of three-dimensional microvasculature in vivo using reference-free processing of complex valued B-scans.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Lev A; Zaitsev, Vladimir Yu; Gelikonov, Grigory V; Matveyev, Alexandr L; Moiseev, Alexander A; Ksenofontov, Sergey Yu; Gelikonov, Valentin M; Sirotkina, Marina A; Gladkova, Natalia D; Demidov, Valentin; Vitkin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    We propose a novel OCT-based method for visualizing microvasculature in three-dimension using reference-free processing of individual complex valued B-scans with highly overlapped A-scans. In the lateral direction of such a B-scan, the amplitude and phase of speckles corresponding to vessel regions exhibit faster variability and, thus, can be detected without comparison with other B-scans recorded in the same plane. This method combines elements of several existing OCT angiographic approaches and exhibits: (1) enhanced robustness with respect to bulk tissue motion with frequencies up to tens of Hz, (2) resolution of microcirculation images equal to that of structural images, and (3) possibility of quantifying the vessels in terms of their decorrelation rates. PMID:25831362

  17. Age-specificity of black-capped chickadee survival rates: Analysis of capture-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loery, G.; Pollock, K.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The ornithological literature indicates a widespread belief in two generalizations about the age-specificity of avian survival rates: (1) survival rates of young birds for some period following fledging are lower than those of adults, and (2) after reaching adulthood survival rates are constant for birds of all ages. There is a growing body of evidence in support of the first generalization, although little is known about how long the survival difference between young and adults lasts. This latter question can be addressed with capture-recapture or band recovery studies based on birds marked in the winter, but the inability to determine age in many species during winter has prevented the use of standard methods. There is very little evidence supporting the second generalization, and we are in need of methods and actual analyses that address this question. In the present paper we restate the two generalizations as hypotheses and test them using data from a wintering Black-capped Chickadee (Parus atricapillus) population in Connecticut, which has been studied by Loery for 26 yr. We use a cohort-based Jolly-Seber approach, which should be useful in other investigations of this nature. We found strong evidence of lower survival rates in 1st-yr birds than in adults, but could not determine whether this was the result of higher mortality rates, higher emigration rates, or a combination of the two. We also found evidence that survival rates of adult birds were not constant with age but decreased at a rate of ? 3.5%/yr. As adult birds are very faithful to their wintering areas, we believe that almost all this decrease can be attributed to an increase in mortality with age. Simulation results suggest that heterogeneity of capture probabilities could not explain the magnitude of the decrease in survival with age. Age-dependent tag loss is also discussed as an alternative explanation, but is dismissed as very unlikely in this situation. This analysis thus provides some of the

  18. The feasibility of age-specific travel restrictions during influenza pandemics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that imposing travel restrictions to prevent or delay an influenza pandemic may not be feasible. To delay an epidemic substantially, an extremely high proportion of trips (~99%) would have to be restricted in a homogeneously mixing population. Influenza is, however, strongly influenced by age-dependent transmission dynamics, and the effectiveness of age-specific travel restrictions, such as the selective restriction of travel by children, has yet to be examined. Methods A simple stochastic model was developed to describe the importation of infectious cases into a population and to model local chains of transmission seeded by imported cases. The probability of a local epidemic, and the time period until a major epidemic takes off, were used as outcome measures, and travel restriction policies in which children or adults were preferentially restricted were compared to age-blind restriction policies using an age-dependent next generation matrix parameterized for influenza H1N1-2009. Results Restricting children from travelling would yield greater reductions to the short-term risk of the epidemic being established locally than other policy options considered, and potentially could delay an epidemic for a few weeks. However, given a scenario with a total of 500 imported cases over a period of a few months, a substantial reduction in the probability of an epidemic in this time period is possible only if the transmission potential were low and assortativity (i.e. the proportion of contacts within-group) were unrealistically high. In all other scenarios considered, age-structured travel restrictions would not prevent an epidemic and would not delay the epidemic for longer than a few weeks. Conclusions Selectively restricting children from traveling overseas during a pandemic may potentially delay its arrival for a few weeks, depending on the characteristics of the pandemic strain, but could have less of an impact on the economy

  19. Age-specific association of migraine with cryptogenic TIA and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linxin; Schulz, Ursula G.; Kuker, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an association between previous migraine and cryptogenic TIA or ischemic stroke at older ages. Methods: We determined the age-specific associations of history of migraine and Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) subtype of TIA and ischemic stroke in a population-based cohort study (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002–2012). Results: Among 1,810 eligible patients with TIA or ischemic stroke, 668 (36.9%) had cryptogenic events, of whom 187 (28.0%) had previous migraine. Migraine was more commonly associated with cryptogenic events than with those of known etiology (odds ratio [OR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38–2.16, p < 0.0001; cardioembolic 2.00, 1.50–2.66, p < 0.0001; large artery 1.75, 1.20–2.53, p = 0.003; small vessel 1.32, 0.95–1.83, p = 0.096). The association of migraine with cryptogenic events was independent of age, sex, and all measured vascular risk factors (RFs) (adjusted OR 1.68, 1.33–2.13, p < 0.0001) and was strongest at older ages (<55 years, OR 1.11, 0.55–2.23; 55–64 years, 1.48, 0.83–2.63; ≥65 years, 1.81, 1.39–2.36) and in patients without vascular RFs (0 RFs OR 2.62, 1.33–5.15; 1 RF 2.01, 1.35–3.01; 2 RFs 1.80, 1.21–2.68; 3 RFs 1.21, 0.71–2.07; 4 RFs 0.92, 0.28–2.99). Results were consistent for migraine with or without aura and for analyses excluding TIA or stratified by sex or vascular territory of event. Conclusions: In this population-based study of stroke etiology stratified by age, migraine was most strongly associated with cryptogenic TIA and ischemic stroke, particularly at older ages, suggesting a causal role or a shared etiology. PMID:26423431

  20. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC(50) values of other test models.

    PubMed

    Khangarot, B S; Das, Sangita

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48h of 50% of immobilization (EC(50)) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC(50) values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r(2)) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC(50)s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK(sp)), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC(50)s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC(50)s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems. PMID:19683870

  1. Asymmetric Aneuploidy in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Detected by In Situ Karyotyping and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization: Suggestions for Reference Values for Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon Young; Im, Kyongok; Park, Si Nae; Kwon, Jiseok; Kim, Jung-Ah; Choi, Qute; Hwang, Sang Mee; Han, Sung-Hee; Kwon, Sunghoon; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic testing is important to ensure patient safety before therapeutic application of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, the standardized methods and criteria for the screening of chromosomal abnormalities of MSCs have not yet been determined. We investigated the frequency of cytogenetic aberrations in MSCs using G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and suggest reference values for aneuploidy in MSCs. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 103 consecutive cultures from 68 MSCs (25 adipose-origin, 20 bone marrow-origin, 18 cord blood-origin, and 5 neural stem cells; 8 from adipose tissue of patients with breast cancer and 60 from healthy donors). We compared the MSC aneuploidy patterns with those of hematological malignancies and benign hematological diseases. Interphase FISH showed variable aneuploid clone proportions (1%–20%) in 68 MSCs. The aneuploidy patterns were asymmetric, and aneuploidy of chromosomes 16, 17, 18, and X occurred most frequently. Clones with polysomy were significantly more abundant than those with monosomy. The cutoff value of maximum polysomy rates (upper 95th percentile value) was 13.0%. By G-banding, 5 of the 61 MSCs presented clonal chromosomal aberrations. Aneuploidy was asymmetric in the malignant hematological diseases, while it was symmetric in the benign hematological diseases. We suggest an aneuploidy cutoff value of 13%, and FISH for aneuploidy of chromosomes 16, 17, 18, and X would be informative to evaluate the genetic stability of MSCs. Although it is unclear whether the aneuploid clones might represent the senescent cell population or transformed cells, more attention should be focused on the safety of MSCs, and G-banding combined with FISH should be performed. PMID:25019198

  2. A Method to Teach Age-Specific Demography with Field Grown Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Martin G.; Terrana, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that rapid cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants) can be used in inquiry-based, student ecological fieldwork. We are the first to describe age-specific survival for field-grown Fast Plants and identify life history traits associated with individual survival. This experiment can be adapted by educators as a…

  3. The eye of the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia): reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, morphologic and biometric observations

    PubMed Central

    Fornazari, G.A.; Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Filho, I.R. de Barros; Somma, A.T.; Moore, B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ocular anatomy and establish reference values for ophthalmic tests in the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Aoudad eyes are large and laterally positioned in the head with several specialized anatomic features attributed to evolutionary adaptations for grazing. Normal values for commonly used ophthalmic tests were established, Schirmer tear test (STT) - 27.22 ± 3.6 mm/min; Predominant ocular surface bacterial microbiota - Staphylococcus sp.; Corneal esthesiometry- 1.3 ± 0.4 cm; Intraocular pressure by rebound tonometry- 19.47 ± 3.9 mmHg; Corneal thickness- 630.07 ± 20.67 µm, B-mode ultrasonography of the globe-axial eye globe length 29.94 ± 0.96 mm, anterior chamber depth 5.03 ± 0.17 mm, lens thickness 9.4 ± 0.33 mm, vitreous chamber depth 14.1 ± 0.53 mm; Corneal diameter-horizontal corneal diameter 25.05 ± 2.18 mm, vertical corneal diameter 17.95 ± 1.68 mm; Horizontal palpebral fissure length- 34.8 ± 3.12 mm. Knowledge of these normal anatomic variations, biometric findings and normal parameters for ocular diagnostic tests may assist veterinary ophthalmologists in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in this and other similar species. PMID:27419103

  4. Time-series analysis of monthly age-specific numbers of newly registered cases of active tuberculosis in Japan from 1998 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Kohei, Y; Sumi, A; Kobayashi, N

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the seasonality of age-specific tuberculosis (TB) in Japan. To allow the development of TB control strategies for different age groups we used a time-series analysis, including a spectral analysis and least squares method, to analyse the monthly age-specific numbers of newly registered cases of all forms of active TB in Japan from January 1998 to December 2013. The time-series data are reported in 10-year age groups: 0-9, 10-19, …, 70-79, and ⩾80 years. We defined the contribution ratio of the 1-year cycle, Q 1, as the contribution of the amplitude of a 1-year cycle to the whole amplitude of the time-series data. The Q 1 values in the age groups corresponding to adolescence and middle life (10-39 years) and old age (⩾70 years) were high. The peaks in the active TB epidemics for the ⩾70 years age group occurred in August and September, 1-2 months behind the peaks for the 10-39 years age group (June and July). An active TB epidemic might be attributable to travel by public transport and irregular employment in the 10-39 years age group and immune system suppression by low winter temperatures in the ⩾70 years age group. PMID:26979927

  5. Human biomonitoring of metals in adults living near a waste-to-energy incinerator in ante-operam phase: Focus on reference values and health-based assessments.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Beatrice; Bena, Antonella; Pino, Anna; D'Aversa, Jenny; Orengia, Manuela; Farina, Elena; Salamina, Giuseppe; Procopio, Enrico; Chiusolo, Monica; Gandini, Martina; Cadum, Ennio; Musmeci, Loredana; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The human biomonitoring (HBM) of metals is a part of the ongoing project SPoTT for the longitudinal health surveillance of the population living near a waste-to-energy (WTE) incinerator (Turin, Italy). The HBM of metals in the SPoTT population aimed to evaluate: i) reference values (RVs) before the WTE incinerator started operation; ii) differences in exposure by variables; iii) variations respect to other HBM studies; iv) exposure that exceeds the available health-based benchmarks as the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) for urine Cd and Human Biomonitoring (HBM-I and HBM-II) values for urine Hg, Tl, and blood Pb; v) risk assessment by generating hazard quotients (HQs) for the single metal and hazard index (HI) for the co-occurrence of metals. Eighteen metals in urine and Pb in blood were determined by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Metal concentrations were comparable with RVs reported in other countries, except for slightly higher As, Be, Ir, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Tl levels. Smoking was associated with Cd; age with Pb; drinking bottled water with As and Cd; consumption of fish with As and Hg; amalgams with Hg and Sn; dental restorations with Pd and Pt; use of jewelry with Co and Rh, and piercing with Ni. While HQs for urine Cd, Hg, Tl and blood Pb suggested that adverse effects were unlikely, the HQ value raised the question of whether additive interactions of these metals could produce health concern. The obtained HBM data can be an early warning for accumulations of metals and identification of subgroups at risk. PMID:27107710

  6. Patient radiation doses in interventional cardiology in the U.S.: Advisory data sets and possible initial values for U.S. reference levels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Donald L.; Hilohi, C. Michael; Spelic, David C.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine patient radiation doses from interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S and to suggest possible initial values for U.S. benchmarks for patient radiation dose from selected interventional cardiology procedures [fluoroscopically guided diagnostic cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)]. Methods: Patient radiation dose metrics were derived from analysis of data from the 2008 to 2009 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey of cardiac catheterization. This analysis used deidentified data and did not require review by an IRB. Data from 171 facilities in 30 states were analyzed. The distributions (percentiles) of radiation dose metrics were determined for diagnostic cardiac catheterizations, PCI, and combined diagnostic and PCI procedures. Confidence intervals for these dose distributions were determined using bootstrap resampling. Results: Percentile distributions (advisory data sets) and possible preliminary U.S. reference levels (based on the 75th percentile of the dose distributions) are provided for cumulative air kerma at the reference point (K{sub a,r}), cumulative air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}), fluoroscopy time, and number of cine runs. Dose distributions are sufficiently detailed to permit dose audits as described in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 168. Fluoroscopy times are consistent with those observed in European studies, but P{sub KA} is higher in the U.S. Conclusions: Sufficient data exist to suggest possible initial benchmarks for patient radiation dose for certain interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S. Our data suggest that patient radiation dose in these procedures is not optimized in U.S. practice.

  7. Reference Values and Age and Sex Differences in Physical Performance Measures for Community-Dwelling Older Japanese: A Pooled Analysis of Six Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seino, Satoshi; Shinkai, Shoji; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Obuchi, Shuichi; Yoshida, Hideyo; Hirano, Hirohiko; Kim, Hun Kyung; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine age- and sex-specific reference values for six physical performance measures, i.e. hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, and gait speed and step length at both usual and maximum paces, and to investigate age and sex differences in these measures among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. Methods We conducted a pooled analysis of data from six cohort studies collected between 2002 and 2011 as part of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology-Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4683 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older (2168 men, 2515 women; mean age: 74.0 years in men and 73.9 years in women). Results Unweighted simple mean (standard deviation) hand-grip strength, one-legged stance, usual gait speed, usual gait step length, maximum gait speed, and maximum gait step length were 31.7 (6.7) kg, 39.3 (23.0) s, 1.29 (0.25) m/s, 67.7 (10.0) cm, 1.94 (0.38) m/s, and 82.3 (11.6) cm, respectively, in men and 20.4 (5.0) kg, 36.8 (23.4) s, 1.25 (0.27) m/s, 60.8 (10.0) cm, 1.73 (0.36) m/s, and 69.7 (10.8) cm, respectively, in women. All physical performance measures showed significant decreasing trends with advancing age in both sexes (all P<0.001 for trend). We also constructed age- and sex-specific appraisal standards according to quintiles. With increasing age, the sex difference in hand-grip strength decreased significantly (P<0.001 for age and sex interaction). In contrast, sex differences significantly increased in all other measures (all P<0.05 for interactions) except step length at maximum pace. Conclusion Our pooled analysis yielded inclusive age- and sex-specific reference values and appraisal standards for major physical performance measures in nondisabled, community-dwelling, older Japanese adults. The characteristics of age-related decline in physical performance measures differed between sexes. PMID:24923425

  8. A longitudinal study of age-specific reproductive output and body condition among male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Fred B; Widdig, Anja; Trefilov, Andrea; Kessler, Matt J; Berard, John D; Schmidtke, Jörg; Nürnberg, Peter; Krawczak, Michael

    2003-07-01

    In many mammalian species, male reproductive success appears to climb sharply at young adulthood, form a brief plateau during prime ages, and decline among older animals, a pattern often attributed to reduced physical condition with ageing. However, solid evidence to either substantiate or refute this profile among nonhuman primates is lacking. Here, we combine a decade of genetic analysis of paternity among free-ranging rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, with information about body condition in order to evaluate how changes in morphology might govern age-specific reproduction among males. We show that age-specific reproductive success traverses the same life history profile as found in other mammals, but reductions in reproductive output with advanced age were associated with reduced chances of survivorship rather than accompanied by diminished body condition. We demonstrate that variance in male age at onset of reproduction is three times greater than variance in female age at onset of reproduction. We provide the first evidence from primates that age-specific reproductive output among males is not a consequence of age-related changes in body condition, but reflects social and demographic factors. PMID:12883773

  9. Age-specific prevalence of HPV16/18 genotypes in cervical cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Anne; Rositch, Anne; Qeadan, Fares; Gravitt, Patti E; Blaakaer, Jan

    2016-06-15

    The prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer has been reported to decline with age in some papers. However, whether this decline in proportion of cancers positive for HPV16/18 is consistently observed across studies remains to be elucidated. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify papers reporting data on age-specific prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer and to summarize the results. We employed MEDLINE and Embase for a systematic literature search and thereby identified a total of 644 papers published in the period 1999-2015, of which 15 papers, reporting cross-sectional data, were included for review (11,526 cervical cancers). The prevalence of HPV16/18 in cervical cancer declined significantly with age (ρ = -0.83, p = 0.04) from 74.8% (95% CI 67.6-80.8) in women aged 30-39 years to 56.8% (95% CI 43.9-68.8) in women aged ≥70 years. As the HPV16/18 positive cancers are prevented in fully vaccinated cohorts, the age-specific epidemiology of cervical cancer is anticipated to change, with a shift in peak incidence rate to older ages. It will be important for integrated vaccination and screening strategies to consider predicted change in the age-specific epidemiology of cervical cancer. PMID:26661889

  10. Age related reference values for urine creatine and guanidinoacetic acid concentration in children and adolescents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Valongo, Carla; Cardoso, Maria Luís; Domingues, Pedro; Almeida, Lígia; Verhoeven, Nanda; Salomons, Gajja; Jakobs, Cornelis; Vilarinho, Laura

    2004-10-01

    A new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for routine quantification of urine creatine and guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) has been developed to provide a fast, reliable and inexpensive metabolic screening. Our method uses a two-step derivatization procedure which involves a reaction with hexafluoroacetylacetone followed by a reaction with mono-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide. The standard curves showed linearity over a range of 43-4269 micromol/l for GAA and 38-7325 micromol/l for creatine, which covers the range of GAA and creatine normally found in urine. The lower detection limit is 1.54 micromol/l for GAA and 1.22 micromol/l for creatine, whereas the lower quantification limit is 5.04 micromol/l for GAA and 4.19 micromol/l for creatine. This method was also employed to establish reference values for GAA and creatine in healthy infants, children and adolescents based on the analysis of 169 urine samples. Although no sex differences were observed, normal GAA urinary levels and creatine excretion are distinct in age-related subgroups. We identified a statistically significant age difference in two major groups for GAA (children under 4 years, 18-159 micromol/mmol creatinine; and subjects of 5-16 years, 18-130 micromol/mmol creatinine) whereas three groups were discriminated for creatine (children under 4 years, 0.04-1.51 mmol/mmol creatinine; subjects of 5-11 years, 0.04-1.07 mmol/mmol creatinine; and subjects of 12-16 years, 0.04-0.56 mmol/mmol creatinine). PMID:15369749

  11. Use of In Vivo and In Vitro Data to Derive a Chronic Reference Value for Crotonaldehyde Based on Relative Potency to Acrolein

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Roberta L.; Jenkins, Allison F.

    2015-01-01

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) conducted a chronic inhalation noncancer toxicity assessment for crotonaldehyde (CRO). Since there were limited toxicity data for CRO, a reference value (ReV) was derived using a relative potency factor (RPF) approach with acrolein as the index chemical. Both CRO and acrolein are α,β-unsaturated carbonyls and share common steps in their mode of action (MOA). Only studies that investigated the effects of CRO and acrolein in the same study were used to calculate a CRO:acrolein RPF. In vivo findings measuring both 50% respiratory depression in rats and two species of mice and subcutaneous 50% lethality in rats and mice were used to calculate an RPF of 3 (rounded to one significant figure). In vitro data were useful to compare the MOA of CRO and acrolein and to support the RPF determined using in vivo data. In vitro cell culture studies investigating cytotoxicity in normal human lung fibroblast cultures using the propidium iodide cytotoxicity assay and in mouse lymphocyte cultures using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay were used to calculate an in vitro RPF of 3, which supports the in vivo RPF. The chronic ReV for acrolein of 1.2 ppb derived by TCEQ was multiplied by the RPF of 3 to calculate the ReV for CRO of 3.6 ppb (10 μg/m3). The ReV for CRO was developed to protect the general public from adverse health effects from chronic exposure to CRO in ambient air. PMID:26580244

  12. [Detection by flow cytometry of T cell subsets secreting IL-2 and UFNy(Gamma): optimalisation for the technic and the establishment of reference values].

    PubMed

    Kallel, C; Masy, E; Duthilleul, P

    2007-06-01

    A dysregulation in Th1/Th2 balance has been described for different pathological situations. Knowing the cytokine profile in a given pathology could assist in understanding the disease mechanism and in choosing an immune intervention most effective for the management of this condition. In this work, the production of two Th1 cytokines, IL-2 and IFN- gamma, was analyzed for different T-cell subsets from 20 normal subjects (mean age 33.5 years) and reference values were defined using the flow cytometric analyses. The optimum operating conditions were set as following: mononuclear cells were stimulated with PMA (20 ng/ml) and ionomycin (1 uM) for 6 h in the presence of brefeldin A (10 ug/ml). Cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and then dually stained, with anti-CD3 or anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 for the membrane and with anticytokine antibody for the intracytoplasma after being permeabilized with 0.5% saponine solution. The frequency determination of cells that produce IL-2 or IFN-gamma revealed large 95% confidence intervals: (CD3-IL-2: 4.60-10.67%, CD8-IL-2: 1.47-23%, CD3-IFN-gamma: 2,97-32,49%, CD4-IFN-gamma: 2.83-21%, CD8-IFN-gamma: 4.60-35.28%). CD4+ lymphocytes produce the majority of IL-2 (85 vs 13% for CD8+). For IFN-gamma, the situation is more balanced, but the CD4+ lymphocytes remain the predominant producer cells (63 vs. 41%). PMID:16678358

  13. Paediatric CT optimisation utilising Catphan® 600 and age-specific anthropomorphic phantoms.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joana; Batista, Maria do Carmo; Foley, Shane; Paulo, Graciano; McEntee, Mark F; Rainford, Louise

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to perform phantom-based optimisation of paediatric computed tomography (CT) protocols and quantify the impact upon radiation dose and image noise levels. The study involved three Portuguese paediatric centres. Currently employed scanning protocols for head and chest examinations and combinations of exposure parameters were applied to a Catphan(®)600 phantom to review the CT dose impact. Contrast-noise ratio (CNR) was quantified using Radia Diagnostic(®) tool. Imaging parameters, returning similar CNRs (<1) and dose savings were applied to three paediatric anthropomorphic phantoms. OsiriX software based on standard deviation pixel values facilitated image noise analysis. Currently employed protocols and age categorisation varied between centres. Manipulation of exposure parameters facilitated mean dose reductions of 33 and 28 % for paediatric head and chest CT examinations, respectively. The majority of the optimised CT examinations resulted in image noise similar to currently employed protocols. Dose reductions of up to 33 % were achieved with image quality maintained. PMID:24567497

  14. Vulnerability to nicotine self-administration in adolescent mice correlates with age-specific expression of α4* nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Renda, Anthony; Penty, Nora; Komal, Pragya; Nashmi, Raad

    2016-09-01

    The majority of smokers begin during adolescence, a developmental period with a high susceptibility to substance abuse. Adolescents are affected differently by nicotine compared to adults, with adolescents being more vulnerable to nicotine's rewarding properties. It is unknown if the age-dependent molecular composition of a younger brain contributes to a heightened susceptibility to nicotine addiction. Nicotine, the principle pharmacological component of tobacco, binds and activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. The most prevalent is the widely expressed α4-containing (α4*) subtype which mediates reward and is strongly implicated in nicotine dependence. Exposing different age groups of mice, postnatal day (P) 44-86 days old, to a two bottle-choice oral nicotine self-administration paradigm for five days yielded age-specific consumption levels. Nicotine self-administration was elevated in the P44 group, peaked at P54-60 and was drastically lower in the P66 through P86 groups. We also quantified α4* nAChR expression via spectral confocal imaging of brain slices from α4YFP knock-in mice, in which the α4 nAChR subunit is tagged with a yellow fluorescent protein. Quantitative fluorescence revealed age-specific α4* nAChR expression in dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area. Receptor expression showed a strong positive correlation with daily nicotine dose, suggesting that α4* nAChR expression levels are age-specific and may contribute to the propensity to self-administer nicotine. PMID:27102349

  15. Calculating summary statistics for population chemical biomonitoring in women of childbearing age with adjustment for age-specific natality.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Cohen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chemical exposures during pregnancy on children's health have been an increasing focus of environmental health research in recent years, leading to greater interest in biomonitoring of chemicals in women of childbearing age in the general population. Measurements of mercury in blood from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey are frequently reported for "women of childbearing age," defined to be of ages 16-49 years. The intent is to represent prenatal chemical exposure, but blood mercury levels increase with age. Furthermore, women of different ages have different probabilities of giving birth. We evaluated options to address potential bias in biomonitoring summary statistics for women of childbearing age by accounting for age-specific probabilities of giving birth. We calculated median and 95th percentile levels of mercury, PCBs, and cotinine using these approaches: option 1: women aged 16-49 years without natality adjustment; option 2: women aged 16-39 years without natality adjustment; option 3: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age; option 4: women aged 16-49 years, adjusted for natality by age and race/ethnicity. Among the three chemicals examined, the choice of option has the greatest impact on estimated levels of serum PCBs, which are strongly associated with age. Serum cotinine levels among Black non-Hispanic women of childbearing age are understated when age-specific natality is not considered. For characterizing in utero exposures, adjustment using age-specific natality provides a substantial improvement in estimation of biomonitoring summary statistics. PMID:21035114

  16. Age-specific risk factor profiles of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus: A pooled analysis from the international BEACON consortium.

    PubMed

    Drahos, Jennifer; Xiao, Qian; Risch, Harvey A; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Anderson, Lesley A; Bernstein, Leslie; Brown, Linda; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gammon, Marilie D; Kamangar, Farin; Liao, Linda M; Murray, Liam J; Ward, Mary H; Ye, Weimin; Wu, Anna H; Vaughan, Thomas L; Whiteman, David C; Cook, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal (EA) and esophagogastric junction (EGJA) adenocarcinoma have been steadily increasing in frequency in younger people; however, the etiology of these cancers is poorly understood. We therefore investigated associations of body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to age-specific risks of EA and EGJA. We pooled individual participant data from eight population-based, case-control studies within the international Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON). The analysis included 1,363 EA patients, 1,472 EGJA patients and 5,728 control participants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age-specific (<50, 50-59, 60-69, ≥70 years) cancer outcomes, as well as interactions by age. BMI, smoking status and pack-years, recurrent gastroesophageal reflux and frequency of gastroesophageal reflux were positively associated with EA and EGJA in each age group. Early-onset EA (<50 years) had stronger associations with recurrent gastroesophageal reflux (OR = 8.06, 95% CI: 4.52, 14.37; peffect modification  = 0.01) and BMI (ORBMI ≥ 30 vs . <25  = 4.19, 95% CI: 2.23, 7.87; peffect modification  = 0.04), relative to older age groups. In contrast, inverse associations of NSAID use were strongest in the oldest age group (≥70 years), although this apparent difference was not statistically significant. Age-specific associations with EGJA showed similar, but slightly weaker patterns and no statistically significant differences by age were observed. Our study provides evidence that associations between obesity and gastroesophageal reflux are stronger among earlier onset EA cancers. PMID:26175109

  17. INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON 'ARTEMIA'. XXVI. FOOD VALUE OF NAUPLII FROM REFERENCE 'ARTEMIA' CYSTS AND FOUR GEOGRAPHICAL COLLECTIONS OF 'ARTEMIA' FOR MUD CRAB LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nauplii from 4 commercially available geographical collections of Artemia and nauplii hatched from the Reference Artemia Cysts were compared for their effects on survival and growth of Rhithropanopeus harrisii larvae. In addition, nauplii from these sources were analyzed for thei...

  18. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to address nonlinear kinetics and changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation in deriving reference values for propylene glycol methyl ether and propylene glycol methyl ether acetate.

    SciTech Connect

    Kirman, C R.; Sweeney, Lisa M.; Corley, Rick A.; Gargas, M L.

    2005-04-01

    Reference values, including an oral reference dose (RfD) and an inhalation reference concentration (RfC), were derived for propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), and an oral RfD was derived for its acetate (PGMEA). These values were based upon transient sedation observed in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice during a two-year inhalation study. The dose-response relationship for sedation was characterized using internal dose measures as predicted by a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for PGME and its acetate. PBPK modeling was used to account for changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation, based on data collected during weeks 1, 2, 26, 52, and 78 of a chronic inhalation study. The peak concentration of PGME in richly perfused tissues was selected as the most appropriate internal dose measure based upon a consideration of the mode of action for sedation and similarities in tissue partitioning between brain and other richly perfused tissues. Internal doses (peak tissue concentrations of PGME) were designated as either no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs) based upon the presence or absence of sedation at each time-point, species, and sex in the two year study. Distributions of the NOAEL and LOAEL values expressed in terms of internal dose were characterized using an arithmetic mean and standard deviation, with the mean internal NOAEL serving as the basis for the reference values, which was then divided by appropriate uncertainty factors. Where data were permitting, chemical-specific adjustment factors were derived to replace default uncertainty factor values of ten. Nonlinear kinetics are were predicted by the model in all species at PGME concentrations exceeding 100 ppm, which complicates interspecies and low-dose extrapolations. To address this complication, reference values were derived using two approaches which differ with respect to the order in which these extrapolations

  19. Cellular consequences in the brain and liver of age-specific selection for rate of development in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Atchley, W R; Wei, R; Crenshaw, P

    2000-01-01

    Changes in cell number (hyperplasia) and cell size (hypertrophy) in the brain and liver are described for mice subjected to 24 generations of age-specific restricted index selection for rate of development in body weight. One selection treatment (E) altered rate of development between birth and 10 days of age, another treatment (L) involved changes in rate of development between 28 and 56 days of age, while a third control treatment (C) involved random selection. Each selection treatment was replicated three times. These age-specific selection treatments focused on intervals during ontogeny when different developmental processes (hypertrophy or hyperplasia) were more predominant in the control of growth. Significant changes in brain and liver weight occurred at both 28 and 70 days of age. Early selection (E) generated significant changes in the number of cells in the brain while later selection (L) had no effect since the brain had stopped growth before selection was initiated. For the liver, early and late selection produced significant effects on both cell number and cell size. These results describe the dynamic and multidimensional aspects of selection in terms of its ability to alter different cellular and developmental components of complex morphological traits. PMID:10880493

  20. Effective number of breeding adults in Bufo bufo estimated from age-specific variation at minisatellite loci

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Arntzen, J.W.; Burke, T.

    1997-01-01

    Estimates of the effective number of breeding adults were derived for three semi-isolated populations of the common toad Bufo bufo based on temporal (i.e. adult-progeny) variance in allele frequency for three highly polymorphic minisatellite loci. Estimates of spatial variance in allele frequency among populations and of age-specific measures of genetic variability are also described. Each population was characterized by a low effective adult breeding number (N(b)) based on a large age-specific variance in minisatellite allele frequency. Estimates of N(b) (range 21-46 for population means across three loci) were ??? 55-230-fold lower than estimates of total adult census size. The implications of low effective breeding numbers for long-term maintenance of genetic variability and population viability are discussed relative to the species' reproductive ecology, current land-use practices, and present and historical habitat modification and loss. The utility of indirect measures of population parameters such as N(b) and N(e) based on time-series data of minisatellite allele frequencies is discussed relative to similar measures estimated from commonly used genetic markers such as protein allozymes.

  1. Age-Specific Regulation of Drug-Processing Genes in Mouse Liver by Ligands of Xenobiotic-Sensing Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Li, Cindy Yanfei; Renaud, Helen J; Klaassen, Curtis D; Cui, Julia Yue

    2016-07-01

    The xenobiotic-sensing transcription factors (xeno-sensors) AhR, CAR, and PXR upregulate the expression of many drug-processing genes (DPGs) in liver. Previous studies have unveiled profound changes in the basal expression of DPGs during development; however, knowledge on the ontogeny of the inducibility of DPGs in response to pharmacological activation of xeno-sensors is still limited. The goal of this study was to investigate the age-specific regulation of DPGs by prototypical xeno-sensor ligands: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) for AhR; 1,4-bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) for CAR; and pregnane-16α-carbonitrile (PCN) for PXR during mouse liver development. The basal mRNAs of most DPGs were low during neonatal age, but gradually increased to adult levels, whereas some DPGs (Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, Gstm2, Gstm3, Papss2, and Oatp1a4) exhibited an adolescent-predominant expression pattern. The inducibility of DPGs was age-specific: 1) during neonatal age, the highest fold increase in the mRNA expression was observed for Cyp1a2, Sult5a1, and Ugt1a9 by TCDD; Cyp3a11 and Mrp2 by TCPOBOP; as well as Gstm2 and Gstm3 by PCN; 2) during adolescent age, the highest fold increase in the mRNA expression was observed for Ugt1a6 and Mrp4 by TCDD, Cyp2b10, Ugt2b34, and Ugt2b35 by TCPOBOP, as well as Gsta1, Gsta4, Sult1e1, Ugt1a1, Mrp3, and Mrp4 by PCN; 3) in adults, the highest fold increase in the mRNA expression was observed for Aldh1a1, Aldh1a7, and Ugt2b36 by TCPOBOP, as well as Papss2 and Oatp1a4 by PCN. In conclusion, the inducibility of hepatic DPGs following the pharmacological activation of xeno-sensors is age specific. PMID:26577535

  2. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Norovirus in the Community and Presenting to Primary Healthcare Facilities in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah J; Donaldson, Anna L; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Tam, Clarence C

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study and a study of primary-healthcare consultations, we had a rare opportunity to estimate age-specific rates of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in the United Kingdom. Rates in children aged <5 years were significantly higher than those for other age groups in the community (142.6 cases per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval {CI}, 99.8-203.9] vs 37.6 [95% CI, 31.5-44.7]) and those for individuals presenting to primary healthcare (14.4 cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 8.5-24.5] vs 1.4 [95% CI, .9-2.0]). Robust incidence estimates are crucial for vaccination policy makers. This study emphasises the impact of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease, especially in children aged <5 years. PMID:26744427

  3. Association of Seasonal Climate Variability and Age-Specific Mortality in Northern Sweden before the Onset of Industrialization

    PubMed Central

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Edvinsson, Sören; Arnqvist, Per; de Luna, Sara Sjöstedt; Schumann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Little is known about health impacts of climate in pre-industrial societies. We used historical data to investigate the association of temperature and precipitation with total and age-specific mortality in Skellefteå, northern Sweden, between 1749 and 1859. Methods: We retrieved digitized aggregated population data of the Skellefteå parish, and monthly temperature and precipitation measures. A generalized linear model was established for year to year variability in deaths by annual and seasonal average temperature and cumulative precipitation using a negative binomial function, accounting for long-term trends in population size. The final full model included temperature and precipitation of all four seasons simultaneously. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for total, sex- and age-specific mortality. Results: In the full model, only autumn precipitation proved statistically significant (RR 1.02; CI 1.00–1.03, per 1cm increase of autumn precipitation), while winter temperature (RR 0.98; CI 0.95–1.00, per 1 °C increase in temperature) and spring precipitation (RR 0.98; CI 0.97–1.00 per 1 cm increase in precipitation) approached significance. Similar effects were observed for men and women. The impact of climate variability on mortality was strongest in children aged 3–9, and partly also in older children. Infants, on the other hand, appeared to be less affected by unfavourable climate conditions. Conclusions: In this pre-industrial rural region in northern Sweden, higher levels of rain during the autumn increased the annual number of deaths. Harvest quality might be one critical factor in the causal pathway, affecting nutritional status and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Autumn rain probably also contributed to the spread of air-borne diseases in crowded living conditions. Children beyond infancy appeared most vulnerable to climate impacts. PMID:25003551

  4. Using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to address nonlinear kinetics and changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation in deriving reference values for propylene glycol methyl ether and propylene glycol methyl ether acetate.

    PubMed

    Kirman, C R; Sweeney, L M; Corley, R; Gargas, M L

    2005-04-01

    Reference values, including an oral reference dose (RfD) and an inhalation reference concentration (RfC), were derived for propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), and an oral RfD was derived for its acetate (PGMEA). These values were based on transient sedation observed in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice during a two-year inhalation study. The dose-response relationship for sedation was characterized using internal dose measures as predicted by a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for PGME and its acetate. PBPK modeling was used to account for changes in rodent physiology and metabolism due to aging and adaptation, based on data collected during Weeks 1, 2, 26, 52, and 78 of a chronic inhalation study. The peak concentration of PGME in richly perfused tissues (i.e., brain) was selected as the most appropriate internal dose measure based on a consideration of the mode of action for sedation and similarities in tissue partitioning between brain and other richly perfused tissues. Internal doses (peak tissue concentrations of PGME) were designated as either no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) or lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs) based on the presence or the absence of sedation at each time point, species, and sex in the two-year study. Distributions of the NOAEL and LOAEL values expressed in terms of internal dose were characterized using an arithmetic mean and standard deviation, with the mean internal NOAEL serving as the basis for the reference values, which was then divided by appropriate uncertainty factors. Where data were permitting, chemical-specific adjustment factors were derived to replace default uncertainty factor values of 10. Nonlinear kinetics, which was predicted by the model in all species at PGME concentrations exceeding 100 ppm, complicate interspecies, and low-dose extrapolations. To address this complication, reference values were derived using two approaches that differ with respect to the order in which these

  5. Age-specific genetic and antigenic variations of influenza A viruses in Hong Kong, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Peihua; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Wang, Xiling; Chan, King-Pan; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Poon, Leo Lit-Man; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Age-specific genetic and antigenic variations of influenza viruses have not been documented in tropical and subtropical regions. We implemented a systematic surveillance program in two tertiary hospitals in Hong Kong Island, to collect 112 A(H1N1)pdm09 and 254 A(H3N2) positive specimens from 2013 to 2014. Of these, 56 and 72 were identified as genetic variants of the WHO recommended vaccine composition strains, respectively. A subset of these genetic variants was selected for hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests, but none appeared to be antigenic variants of the vaccine composition strains. We also found that genetic and antigenicity variations were similar across sex and age groups of ≤18 yrs, 18 to 65 yrs, and ≥65 yrs. Our findings suggest that none of the age groups led other age groups in genetic evolution of influenza virus A strains. Future studies from different regions and longer study periods are needed to further investigate the age and sex heterogeneity of influenza viruses. PMID:27453320

  6. Age-specific genetic and antigenic variations of influenza A viruses in Hong Kong, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Cao, Peihua; Wong, Chit-Ming; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Wang, Xiling; Chan, King-Pan; Peiris, Joseph Sriyal Malik; Poon, Leo Lit-Man; Yang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Age-specific genetic and antigenic variations of influenza viruses have not been documented in tropical and subtropical regions. We implemented a systematic surveillance program in two tertiary hospitals in Hong Kong Island, to collect 112 A(H1N1)pdm09 and 254 A(H3N2) positive specimens from 2013 to 2014. Of these, 56 and 72 were identified as genetic variants of the WHO recommended vaccine composition strains, respectively. A subset of these genetic variants was selected for hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests, but none appeared to be antigenic variants of the vaccine composition strains. We also found that genetic and antigenicity variations were similar across sex and age groups of ≤18 yrs, 18 to 65 yrs, and ≥65 yrs. Our findings suggest that none of the age groups led other age groups in genetic evolution of influenza virus A strains. Future studies from different regions and longer study periods are needed to further investigate the age and sex heterogeneity of influenza viruses. PMID:27453320

  7. Age-specific functional epigenetic changes in p21 and p16 in injury-activated satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ju; Han, Suhyoun; Cousin, Wendy; Conboy, Irina M

    2015-03-01

    The regenerative capacity of muscle dramatically decreases with age because old muscle stem cells fail to proliferate in response to tissue damage. Here, we uncover key age-specific differences underlying this proliferative decline: namely, the genetic loci of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CDKIs) p21 and p16 are more epigenetically silenced in young muscle stem cells, as compared to old, both in quiescent cells and those responding to tissue injury. Interestingly, phosphorylated ERK (pERK) induced in these cells by ectopic FGF2 is found in association with p21 and p16 promoters, and moreover, only in the old cells. Importantly, in the old satellite cells, FGF2/pERK silences p21 epigenetically and transcriptionally, which leads to reduced p21 protein levels and enhanced cell proliferation. In agreement with the epigenetic silencing of the loci, young muscle stem cells do not depend as much as old on ectopic FGF/pERK for their myogenic proliferation. In addition, other CDKIs, such asp15(INK4B) and p27(KIP1) , become elevated in satellite cells with age, confirming and explaining the profound regenerative defect of old muscle. This work enhances our understanding of tissue aging, promoting strategies for combating age-imposed tissue degeneration. PMID:25447026

  8. Age-specific functional epigenetic changes in p21 and p16 in injury-activated satellite cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ju; Han, Suhyoun; Cousin, Wendy; Conboy, Irina M.

    2014-01-01

    The regenerative capacity of muscle dramatically decreases with age because old muscle stem cells fail to proliferate in response to tissue damage. Here we uncover key age-specific differences underlying this proliferative decline: namely, the genetic loci of CDK inhibitors (CDKI) p21 and p16 are more epigenetically silenced in young muscle stem cells, as compared to old, both in quiescent cells and those responding to tissue injury. Interestingly, phosphorylated ERK (pERK) induced in these cells by ectopic FGF-2 is found in association with p21 and p16 promoters, and moreover, only in the old cells. Importantly, in the old satellite cells FGF-2/pERK silences p21 epigenetically and transcriptionally, which leads to reduced p21 protein levels and enhanced cell proliferation. In agreement with the epigenetic silencing of the loci, young muscle stem cells do not depend as much as old on ectopic FGF/pERK for their myogenic proliferation. In addition, other CDKIs, such asp15INK4B and p27KIP1, become elevated in satellite cells with age, confirming and explaining the profound regenerative defect of old muscle. This work enhances our understanding of tissue aging, promoting strategies for combating age-imposed tissue degeneration. PMID:25447026

  9. Haploinsufficiency in the PPAR{alpha} and LDL receptor genes leads to gender- and age-specific obesity and hyperinsulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Eiko . E-mail: eikoyoko@nagano-kentan.ac.jp; Tanaka, Naoki; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijo, Yuji; Yokoyama, Shin; Li Yufeng; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2006-11-17

    When preparing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}:low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (-/-) double knockout mice, we unexpectedly found a unique gender- and age-specific obesity in the F1 generation, PPAR{alpha} (+/-):LDLR (+/-), even in mice fed standard chow. Body weights of the male heterozygous mice increased up to about 60 g at 75 weeks of age, then decreased by about 30 g at 100 weeks of age. More than 95% of the heterozygous mice between 35- and 75-week-olds were overweight. Of interest, the obese heterozygous mice also exhibited hyperinsulinemia correlating with moderate insulin resistance. Hepatic gene expression of LDLR was lower than expected in the heterozygous mice, particularly at 50 and 75 weeks of age. In contrast, the hepatic expression of PPAR{alpha} was higher than expected in obese heterozygous mice, but decreased in non-obese older heterozygous mice. Modulated expression of these genes may be partially associated with the onset of the hyperinsulinemia.

  10. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from south-central Alaska: analysis of reproductive tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Lensink, C.

    1993-01-01

    We estimated age at sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from south-central Alaska, Primarily from western Prince William Sound, as a result of the T/V Exxon Valdez oit spill in 1989. We found 65% of our sample to be sexually mature. Sexual maturity was first attained at age 2. The proportion of sexually mature animals increased from 30% at age 2 to 100% at age 5. Annual reproductive rates increased from 22% at age 2 to 78% at age 5 and remained relatively stable (75-88%) through to age 15. the sex ratio (female:male) of 49 fetal sea otters was 18:37 and differed significantly from parity. Females younger than 8 tended to produce more female fetuses, while older mothers did not. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts wre similiar to those reported in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  11. Age-specific vibrissae growth rates: a tool for determining the timing of ecologically important events in Steller sea lions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rea, L.D.; Christ, A.M.; Hayden, A.B.; Stegall, V.K.; Farley, S.D.; Stricker, Craig A.; Mellish, J.E.; Maniscalco, J.M.; Waite, J.N.; Burkanov, V.N.; Pitcher, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) grow their vibrissae continually, providing a multiyear record suitable for ecological and physiological studies based on stable isotopes. An accurate age-specific vibrissae growth rate is essential for registering a chronology along the length of the record, and for interpreting the timing of ecologically important events. We utilized four methods to estimate the growth rate of vibrissae in fetal, rookery pup, young-of-the-year (YOY), yearling, subadult, and adult SSL. The majority of vibrissae were collected from SSL live-captured in Alaska and Russia between 2000 and 2013 (n = 1,115), however, vibrissae were also collected from six adult SSL found dead on haul-outs and rookeries during field excursions to increase the sample size of this underrepresented age group. Growth rates of vibrissae were generally slower in adult (0.44 ± 0.15 cm/mo) and subadult (0.61 ± 0.10 cm/mo) SSL than in YOY (0.87 ± 0.28 cm/mo) and fetal (0.73 ± 0.05 cm/mo) animals, but there was high individual variability in these growth rates within each age group. Some variability in vibrissae growth rates was attributed to the somatic growth rate of YOY sea lions between capture events (P = 0.014, r2 = 0.206, n = 29).

  12. Age specific trends in asthma mortality in England and Wales, 1983-95: results of an observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. J.; Cogman, G. R.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in asthma mortality by age group in England and Wales during 1983-95. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: All deaths classified as having an underlying cause of asthma registered from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time trends for age specific asthma deaths. RESULTS: Deaths in the age group 5-14 years showed an irregular downward trend during 1983-95; deaths in the age groups 15-44, 45-64, and 65-74 years peaked before 1989 and then showed a downward trend; and deaths in the age group 75-84 years peaked between 1988 and 1993 and subsequently dropped. Trends were: age group 5-14 years, 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%); 15-44 years, 6% (5% to 7%); 45-64 years, 5% (4% to 6%); 65-74 years, 2% (1% to 3%). Deaths in the 75-84 and 85 and over categories plateaued. CONCLUSIONS: There are downward trends in asthma mortality in Britain, which may be due to increased use of prophylactic treatment. PMID:9167558

  13. Reference dosimetry at the Australian Synchrotron's imaging and medical beamline using free-air ionization chamber measurements and theoretical predictions of air kerma rate and half value layer

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, Peter A. W.; Stevenson, Andrew W.; Hall, Christopher J.; Lye, Jessica E.; Nordstroem, Terese; Midgley, Stewart M.; Lewis, Robert A.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Novel, preclinical radiotherapy modalities are being developed at synchrotrons around the world, most notably stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy and microbeam radiotherapy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France. The imaging and medical beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron has recently become available for preclinical radiotherapy and imaging research with clinical trials, a distinct possibility in the coming years. The aim of this present study was to accurately characterize the synchrotron-generated x-ray beam for the purposes of air kerma-based absolute dosimetry. Methods: The authors used a theoretical model of the energy spectrum from the wiggler source and validated this model by comparing the transmission through copper absorbers (0.1-3.0 mm) against real measurements conducted at the beamline. The authors used a low energy free air ionization chamber (LEFAC) from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency and a commercially available free air chamber (ADC-105) for the measurements. The dimensions of these two chambers are different from one another requiring careful consideration of correction factors. Results: Measured and calculated half value layer (HVL) and air kerma rates differed by less than 3% for the LEFAC when the ion chamber readings were corrected for electron energy loss and ion recombination. The agreement between measured and predicted air kerma rates was less satisfactory for the ADC-105 chamber, however. The LEFAC and ADC measurements produced a first half value layer of 0.405 {+-} 0.015 and 0.412 {+-} 0.016 mm Cu, respectively, compared to the theoretical prediction of 0.427 {+-} 0.012 mm Cu. The theoretical model based upon a spectrum calculator derived a mean beam energy of 61.4 keV with a first half value layer of approximately 30 mm in water. Conclusions: The authors showed in this study their ability to verify the predicted air kerma rate and x-ray attenuation

  14. MULTI-ETHNIC REFERENCE VALUES FOR SPIROMETRY FOR THE 3–95 YEAR AGE RANGE: THE GLOBAL LUNG FUNCTION 2012 EQUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Quanjer, Philip H.; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J.; Baur, Xaver; Hall, Graham L.; Culver, Bruce H.; Enright, Paul L.; Hankinson, John L.; Ip, Mary S.M.; Zheng, Jinping; Stocks, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Objective Derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Material Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5–95 years. Methods Lung function data were collated, and prediction equations derived using the LMS (λ, µ, σ) method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. Results After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals from 3–95 years for Caucasians (N=57,395), African Americans (N=3,545), and North (N=4,992) and South East Asians (N=8,255). FEV1 and FVC between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV1/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Conclusion Spirometric prediction equations for the 3–95 age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent, Arab, Polynesian, Latin American countries, and Africa will further improve these equations in the future. PMID:22743675

  15. [Reference values of iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols for the Venezuelan population].

    PubMed

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Landaeta, Maritza; Adrianza de Baptista, Gertrudis; Murillo, Carolain; Rincón, Mariela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Bilbao, Arantza; Anderson, Hazel; García, Doris; Franquiz, Julia; Puche, Rafael; Garcia, Omar; Quintero, Yurimay; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The review on iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols recommendations for Venezuela comprise the definitions adopted worldwide known as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) that include Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). The RDA for iron: 11 mg/day for infants < 1 year of age, 7-10 mg/day for children, 8-11 mg/day for males, 8-18 mg/day for females and 27 mg/day during pregnancy. RDA for iodine: 110-130 microg/day for infants, 90-120 microg/ day for children and adolescents, 150 microg/day for adults, 220 microg/ day for pregnancy and 290 microg/day during lactation. RDA Zinc: 2-3 mg/day for infants, 3-5 mg/day for children, 8-11 mg/day for male adolescents and adults, 8-9 mg/day for female adolescents and adults, 12 mg/day during pregnancy and 13 mg/day for lactation. RDA Vitamin C: 40-50 mg/day for infants, 15-45 mg/ day for children, 75 mg/day for male adolescents, 65 mg/day for female adolescents, 90 mg/day for adult males, 75 mg/day for adult females, 80-85 mg/day during pregnancy and 115-120 mg/day during lactation. Recommendations for copper, selenium, molybdenum, vitamins E, K, carotenoids and polyphenols are also presented. These recommendations will help to design adequate and efficient policies that could help to avoid or to treat the consequences derived from the deficiency or the excess of these nutrients. PMID:25924465

  16. A demographic transition altered the strength of selection for fitness and age-specific survival and fertility in a 19th century American population

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.

    2012-01-01

    Modernization has increased longevity and decreased fertility in many human populations, but it is not well understood how or to what extent these demographic transitions have altered patterns of natural selection. I integrate individual-based multivariate phenotypic selection approaches with evolutionary demographic methods to demonstrate how a demographic transition in 19th century female populations of Utah altered relationships between fitness and age-specific survival and fertility. Coincident with this demographic transition, natural selection for fitness, as measured by the opportunity for selection, increased by 13–20% over 65 years. Proportional contributions of age-specific survival to total selection (the complement to age-specific fertility) diminished from approximately 1/3 to 1/7 following a marked increase in infant survival. Despite dramatic reductions in age-specific fertility variance at all ages, the absolute magnitude of selection for fitness explained by age-specific fertility increased by approximately 45%. I show that increases in the adaptive potential of fertility traits followed directly from decreased population growth rates. These results suggest that this demographic transition has increased the adaptive potential of the Utah population, intensified selection on reproductive traits, and de-emphasized selection on survival-related traits. PMID:23730757

  17. Age specific responses to acute inhalation of diffusion flame soot particles: Cellular injury and the airway antioxidant response

    PubMed Central

    Van Winkle, Laura S.; Chan, Jackie K.W.; Anderson, Donald S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Wexler, Anthony S; Wallis, Christopher; Abid, Aamir D.; Sutherland, Katherine M.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.

    2011-01-01

    Current studies of particulate matter (PM) are confounded by the fact that PM is a complex mixture of primary (crustal material, soot, metals) and secondary (nitrates, sulfates and organics formed in the atmosphere) compounds with considerable variance in composition by sources and location. We have developed a laboratory-based PM that is replicable, does not contain dust or metals and that can be used to study specific health effects of PM composition in animal models. We exposed both neonatal (7 days of age) and adult rats to a single 6-hr exposure of laboratory generated fine diffusion flame soot (DFP; 170 ug/m3), or filtered air. Pulmonary gene and protein expression as well as indicators of cytotoxicity were evaluated 24 hours after exposure. Although DFP exposure did not alter airway epithelial cell composition in either neonates or adults, increased LDH activity was found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of neonates indicating an age-specific increase in susceptibility. In adults, 16 genes were differentially expressed as a result of DFP exposure while only 6 genes were altered in the airways of neonates. Glutamate cytsteine ligase protein was increased in abundance in both DFP exposed neonates and adults indicating an initiation of antioxidant responses involving the synthesis of glutathione. DFP significantly decreased catalase gene expression in adult airways, although catalase protein expression was increased by DFP in both neonates and adults. We conclude that key airway antioxidant enzymes undergo changes in expression in response to a moderate PM exposure that does not cause frank epithelial injury and that neonates have a different response pattern than adults. PMID:20961279

  18. Age-specific survival and philopatry in three species of European ducks: a long-term study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blums, P.; Mednis, A.; Bauga, I.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    Capture-recapture and band recovery models were used to estimate age-specific survival probabilities for female Northern Shovelers (Anas clypeata), Common Pochards (Aythya ferina), and Tufted Ducks (Aythya.fuligula) at Engure Marsh, Latvia, in 1964-1993. We banded more than 65,100 day-old ducklings of both sexes and captured 10,211 incubating females (3,713 new bandings and 6,498 recaptures). We developed a set of 3-age capture-recapture models to estimate annual survival rates for female ducklings, yearlings (SY), and adults (ASY) using programs SURGE and SURVIV and selected parsimonious models using a method developed bv Akaike (1973). Survival rates of SY and ASY females were highest-for Tufted Ducks intermediate for Common Pochards, and lowest for Northern Shovelers. Survival rates of SY and ASY females varied in parallel for shovelers and pochards. We believe that much of the difference in survival estimates between SY and ASY birds was caused by mortality rather than permanent emigration. Estimates of day-old duckling survival, reflecting both mortality and permanent emigration, were 0.12 for shoveler, 0.06 for pochard, and 0.03 for Tufted Duck. For all species, duckling survival varied over years, but the pattern of variation was not similar to that of the other age classes. Estimates of survival using band recovery data for SY + ASY female pochards and Tufted Ducks were similar to the capture-recapturee stimates, suggestingt hat surviving females returned to the breeding marsh with probabilities approaching 1.

  19. Age-specific and sex-specific morbidity and mortality from avian influenza A(H7N9).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Joseph P; Mackay, Ian M

    2013-11-01

    We used data on age and sex for 136 laboratory confirmed human A(H7N9) cases reported as of 11 August 2013 to compare age-specific and sex-specific patterns of morbidity and mortality from the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus with those of the avian influenza A(H5N1) virus. Human A(H7N9) cases exhibit high degrees of age and sex bias: mortality is heavily biased toward males >50 years, no deaths have been reported among individuals <25 years old, and relatively few cases documented among children or adolescents. The proportion of fatal cases (PFC) for human A(H7N9) cases as of 11 August 2013 was 32%, compared to a cumulative PFC for A(H5N1) of 83% in Indonesia and 36% in Egypt. Approximately 75% of cases of all A(H7N9) cases occurred among individuals >45 years old. Morbidity and mortality from A(H7N9) are lowest among individuals between 10 and 29 years, the age group which exhibits the highest cumulative morbidity and case fatality rates from A(H5N1). Although individuals <20 years old comprise nearly 50% of all human A(H5N1) cases, only 7% of all reported A(H7N9) cases and no deaths have been reported among individuals in this age group. Only 4% of A(H7N9) cases occurred among children<5 years old, and only one case from the 10 to 20 year age group. Age- and sex-related differences in morbidity and mortality from emerging zoonotic diseases can provide insights into ecological, economic, and cultural factors that may contribute to the emergence and proliferation of novel zoonotic diseases in human populations. PMID:24091087

  20. Dose consequence of repository failure and leach events for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. [Dose-to-age-specific maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, S.

    1980-11-01

    The consequence of repository breaching followed by hydrogeologic transport of radioactivity to the biosphere has been assessed in terms of dose to age specific maximum individuals. The dose assessment calculations include environmental transport via drinking water, irrigation pathways, stock watering, and water related recreation pathways where applicable. A principal assumption in this analysis is that the radioactice material and its containers undergo dissolution at the same rate as the repository media. The analysis concludes that postulated releases to the Pecos River at Malaga Bend and subsequent use of the contaminated water for 1 yr would not result in exceeding the recommended dose limit of 500 mrem/yr for the total body of the maximum individual of a population group. Additionally, 4.5 x 10/sup 4/ years of release at the worst release rate assuming no decay or other environmental removal would be required before the total body dose limit would be exceeded. For the bone, 7.1 x 10/sup 4/ yrs of continuous release at the worst level would be required before the 1500 mrem/yr limit would be exceeded. Thus, it is apparent that when environmental removal by decay and other mechanisms is considered , long-term impact of accumulation of nuclides in the environment as a result of these scenarios is insignificant with respect to maximum individual exposure. In conclusion, neither the hypothetical and conservative repsitory failure events leading to discharges of contaminated water at Malaga bend nor discharges to a postulated well in the Rustler aquifer with subsequent use by humans results in any dose limit being exceeded.

  1. Modelling postfledging survival and age- specific breeding probabilities in species with delayed maturity: A case study of Roseate Terns at Falkner Island, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lebreton, J.D.; Pradel, R.

    2002-01-01

    We modelled postfledging survival and age-specific breeding probabilities in endangered Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) at Falkner Island, Connecticut, USA using capture-recapture data from 1988-1998 of birds ringed as chicks and as adults. While no individuals bred as 2-year-olds during this period, about three-quarters of the young that survived and returned as 3-year-olds nested, and virtually all surviving birds had begun breeding by the time they reached 5 years of age. We found no evidence of temporal variation age of first breeding of birds from different cohorts. There was significant temporal variation in the annual survival of adults and the survival over the typical 3-year maturation period of prebreeding birds, with extremely low values for both groups from the 1991 breeding season. The estimated overwinter survival rate (0.62) for adults from 1991-1992 was about three-quarters the usual rate of about 0.83, but the low survival of fledglings from 1991 resulted in less than 25% of the otherwise expected number of young from that cohort returning as breeding birds; this suggests that fledglings suffered a greater proportional decrease in survival than did adults. The survival estimates of young from 1989 and 1990 show that these cohorts were not negatively influenced by the events that decimated the young from 1991, and the young from 1992 and 1993 had above-average survival estimates. The apparent decrease since 1996 in development of fidelity of new recruits to this site is suspected to be due mainly to nocturnal disturbance and predation of chicks causing low productivity.

  2. Modelling postfledging survival and age-specific breeding probabilities in species with delayed maturity: a case study of Roseate Terns at Falkner Island, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lebreton, J.D.; Pradel, R.

    2002-01-01

    We modeled postfledging survival and age-specific breeding probabilities in endangered Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) at Falkner Island, Connecticut, USA using capture-recapture data from 1988-1998 of birds ringed as chicks and as adults. While no individuals bred as 2-yr-olds during this period, about three-quarters of the young that survived and returned as 3-yr-olds nested, and virtually all surviving birds had begun breeding by the time they reached 5 years of age. We found no evidence of temporal variation in age of first breeding of birds from different cohorts. There was significant temporal variation in the annual survival of adults and the survival over the typical 3-yr maturation period of prebreeding birds, with extremely low values for both groups from the 1991 breeding season. The estimated overwinter survival rate (0.62) for adults from 1991-1992 was about three-quarters the usual rate of about 0.83, but the low survival of fledglings from 1991 resulted in less than 25% of the otherwise expected number of young from that cohort returning as breeding birds; this suggests that fledglings suffered a greater proportional decrease in survival than did adults. The survival estimates of young from 1989 and 1990 show that these cohorts were not negatively influenced by the events that decimated the young from 1991, and the young from 1992 and 1993 had above-average survival estimates. The apparent decrease since 1996 in development of fidelity of new recruits to this site is suspected due mainly to nocturnal disturbance and predation of chicks causing low productivity.

  3. Short communication: reference values for blood parameters in Holstein dairy cows: effects of parity, stage of lactation, and season of production.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, G; Ravarotto, L; Gottardo, F; Stefani, A L; Contiero, B; Moro, L; Brscic, M; Dalvit, P

    2011-08-01

    Confidence intervals for blood parameters used for nutritional and metabolic profile testing in cattle were calculated for clinically normal lactating Holstein cows, taking into account the effects of parity, stage of lactation, and season. Blood samples were collected from 740 cows in 33 Italian dairy herds according to a predefined protocol. Herds were visited during summer and the following winter, sampling 12 lactating cows at each visit (4 primiparous and 8 multiparous). Six cows were selected from the early-lactation group (days in milk: 10 to 89) and the other 6 were selected from the mid-lactation group (days in milk: 90 to 215). Cow selection criteria excluded animals clinically exposed to periparturient diseases as well as animals not considered in good health by a veterinary clinical examination. For each blood variable, outliers were identified and discarded. Data were then analyzed for their Gaussian distribution and variables with not normal distribution were log-transformed to adjust for lack of normality. Herd mean values were calculated for each blood parameter according to 3 main classification factors: parity (primiparous vs. multiparous), stage of lactation (early vs. mid) and season of production (summer vs. winter). The resulting data set was statistically analyzed using a mixed model with the fixed effects of these factors, their interactions, and the random effect of herd. General 95% confidence intervals were calculated for blood variables that showed a relevant herd variance component such as albumin, triglycerides, aspartate, urea, glucose, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, direct and total bilirubin, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. For the remaining parameters, specific confidence intervals were calculated for each level of the significant main factors. Parity affected blood concentration of total protein, globulin, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, creatinine kinase, and phosphorus. Blood

  4. Reference values of myocardial structure, function, and tissue composition by cardiac magnetic resonance in healthy African-Americans at 3T and their relations to serologic and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ying; Bluemke, David A; Gerstenblith, Gary; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Li, Ji; Zhu, Hong; Lai, Shenghan; Lai, Hong

    2014-09-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a standard of reference for cardiac structure and function. Recent advances in T1 mapping and spectroscopy also provide assessment of myocardial tissue composition. However, the reference ranges of left ventricular parameters have rarely been assessed in an African-American (AA) population without known cardiac disease. To estimate the reference values of myocardial structure, function, and tissue composition by CMR and to explore their relationships to serologic factors and cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic AAs with low Framingham risk, between November 2010 and June 2012, 92 healthy AAs aged ≥21 years, from Baltimore, MD, were enrolled in an observational study. CMR examination was performed on a 3T scanner. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed to noninvasively quantify myocardial triglyceride content. Native T1 values were obtained from modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence. The median age was 37 (interquartile range IQR 27 to 44) years (41% men). The median native T1 time of the myocardium was 1,228 ms (IQR 1,200 to 1,263) with no gender difference. The median myocardial fat content was 0.6% (IQR 0.7% to 4.6%). Native T1 time was not influenced by age, sex, and body mass index. Among the factors investigated, myocardial fat and elevated C-reactive protein (>2.0 mg/dL) were independently associated with T1 relaxation time. Native T1 time was also independently associated with left ventricular end-diastolic volume indexed to body surface area. In conclusion, this study of asymptomatic AAs provides reference ranges for cardiovascular structure, function, and tissue composition. Alterations in myocardial fat are associated with native T1 time, a CMR measure of interstitial fibrosis. PMID:25037675

  5. On-site analysis of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activity with the ChE check mobile test kit-Determination of reference values and their relevance for diagnosis of exposure to organophosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Worek, Franz; Schilha, Martina; Neumaier, Katharina; Aurbek, Nadine; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst; Kehe, Kai

    2016-05-13

    Poisoning by organophosphorus compounds (OP) still poses a major medical challenge. Diagnosis of clinical signs of OP poisoning is still the most important parameter for the initiation of specific treatment. However, in case of unspecific signs and of delayed onset of cholinergic crisis a rapid, reliable and on-site analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity would be of great value. Recently the ChE check mobile, a CE-certified ready to use kit for the determination of whole blood AChE and BChE activities, was developed. Here, we evaluated whole blood AChE and BChE reference values with samples taken from 181 male and 61 female volunteers and analyzed them on-site with the ChE check mobile test kit. The analysis of the data revealed a large inter-individual variability (BChE>AChE), only a small sex difference for AChE but a significant difference for BChE activities. The now available normal range values enable an evaluation of determined AChE and BChE activities in case of suspected exposure to OP nerve agents and pesticides. However, the large inter-individual variability of AChE and BChE activities calls for the determination of pre-exposure values in specific subpopulations in order to enable the diagnosis of low-level OP exposure. PMID:27033775

  6. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  7. Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library reference services. Topics include the historical development of reference services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…

  8. Reference frames and reference networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The summary of research activities concerning reference frames and reference networks performed in Poland in a period of 2011-2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on implementation of IUGG2011 and IAU2012 resolutions on reference systems, implementation of the ETRS89 in Poland, operational work of permanent IGS/ EUREF stations in Poland, operational work of ILRS laser ranging station in Poland, active GNSS station networks in Poland, maintenance of vertical control in Poland, maintenance and modernization of gravity control, and maintenance of magnetic control in Poland. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.

  9. Uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

  10. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following ready reference information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)

  11. All cause mortality and the case for age specific alcohol consumption guidelines: pooled analyses of up to 10 population based cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Ngaire; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Biddulph, Jane P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the suitability of age specific limits for alcohol consumption and to explore the association between alcohol consumption and mortality in different age groups. Design Population based data from Health Survey for England 1998-2008, linked to national mortality registration data and pooled for analysis using proportional hazards regression. Analyses were stratified by sex and age group (50-64 and ≥65 years). Setting Up to 10 waves of the Health Survey for England, which samples the non-institutionalised general population resident in England. Participants The derivation of two analytical samples was based on the availability of comparable alcohol consumption data, covariate data, and linked mortality data among adults aged 50 years or more. Two samples were used, each utilising a different variable for alcohol usage: self reported average weekly consumption over the past year and self reported consumption on the heaviest day in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the former sample comprised Health Survey for England years 1998-2002, 18 368 participants, and 4102 deaths over a median follow-up of 9.7 years, whereas the latter comprised Health Survey for England years 1999-2008, 34 523 participants, and 4220 deaths over a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Main outcome measure All cause mortality, defined as any death recorded between the date of interview and the end of data linkage on 31 March 2011. Results In unadjusted models, protective effects were identified across a broad range of alcohol usage in all age-sex groups. These effects were attenuated across most use categories on adjustment for a range of personal, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors. After the exclusion of former drinkers, these effects were further attenuated. Compared with self reported never drinkers, significant protective associations were limited to younger men (50-64 years) and older women (≥65 years). Among younger men, the range of protective effects was

  12. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  13. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

  14. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  15. Outcome-Based Quality Control by a Dental Reference Profile of a Population-Based Study (SHIP-0)

    PubMed Central

    Samietz, Stefanie; Söhnel, Andreas; Schwahn, Christian; Holtfreter, Birte; Mundt, Torsten; Meisel, Peter; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kocher, Thomas; Biffar, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was to develop an instrument for quality control in dental practices. We compared the number of teeth of subjects of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-0) with those from patients of dental practices. Methods. Patients from seven dental practices (n = 1,497) were randomly sampled by age strata and gender for a period of two years. Dental status derived from patient files was transformed into practice profiles using age-specific number of teeth as a parameter. Practice profiles were compared with a nomogram, which was based on the age-specific number of teeth of 3,990 SHIP-0 participants regularly visiting the dentist. Further, negative binomial regression models were evaluated to model associations between the number of teeth with age and dental practices, including interactions. Results. The practice profiles ranged between the 45th and 95th quantile curves of the reference population SHIP-0. The rate ratios (RR) for the number of missing teeth ranged from 0.37 to 0.67 (p < 0.001) between the different dental practices, indicating lower risk for higher numbers of missing teeth in comparison to SHIP-0. Conclusions. This study showed considerable differences between dental practices and the reference population of SHIP-0 regarding the pattern of tooth loss and confirms the value of nomograms to compare age-specific numbers of teeth between patients of dental practices and a population-based-study as a tool for quality control. For further analyses, the socioeconomic status of patients and relevant risk factors will be used to adjust for structural differences in order to improve the validity of the comparisons. PMID:27347549

  16. Right to Left Ventricular Diameter Ratio ≥0.42 is the Warning Flag for Suspecting Atrial Septal Defect in Preschool Children: Age- and Body Surface Area-Related Reference Values Determined by M-Mode Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Ichida, Fukiko

    2016-04-01

    It is not always easy to observe and screen atrial septal defects (ASD) using echocardiography. In addition, there are no established echocardiographic reference indices for screening patients with ASDs. We retrospectively reviewed our database and recruited 151 isolated ASD patients and 2769 healthy subjects. In total, 307 echocardiographic studies were performed for ASD patients. Surgical repairs were done in 75 of the ASD patients. The ratio of right to left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions (RVD/LVD), which was determined by M-mode echocardiography, was used as an index of RV dilatation. After obtaining age- and body surface area (BSA)-related RVD/LVD nomograms in healthy subjects, we calculated the z-scores of RVD/LVD for all subjects and obtained the optimal cut-off values to differentiate patients with ASD from healthy subjects. The optimal cut-off values were high in neonates and gradually decreased with an increase in the age and BSA, but were almost constant in children aged >4 years or whose BSA was >0.65 m(2). The cut-off values of RVD/LVD for suspected ASD were ≥0.42 in children aged >4 years or those whose BSA was >0.65 m(2). Those for an ASD operation were ≥0.46 in those whose BSA > 0.65 m(2). The RVD/LVD determined by M-mode echocardiography is a useful index to evaluate RV dilatation in patients with ASDs. The RVD/LVD ≥ 0.42 is the warning flag for suspecting ASD in preschool children and that ≥0.46 may be a clinical important sign to determine ASD operation. PMID:26700967

  17. Human health screening level risk assessments of tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC): calculated acute and chronic reference concentration (RfC) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) values based on toxicity and exposure scenario evaluations.

    PubMed

    Bus, James S; Banton, Marcy I; Faber, Willem D; Kirman, Christopher R; McGregor, Douglas B; Pourreau, Daniel B

    2015-02-01

    A screening level risk assessment has been performed for tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC) examining its primary uses as a solvent in industrial and consumer products. Hazard quotients (HQ) were developed by merging TBAC animal toxicity and dose-response data with population-level, occupational and consumer exposure scenarios. TBAC has a low order of toxicity following subchronic inhalation exposure, and neurobehavioral changes (hyperactivity) in mice observed immediately after termination of exposure were used as conservative endpoints for derivation of acute and chronic reference concentration (RfC) values. TBAC is not genotoxic but has not been tested for carcinogenicity. However, TBAC is unlikely to be a human carcinogen in that its non-genotoxic metabolic surrogates tertiary-butanol (TBA) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) produce only male rat α-2u-globulin-mediated kidney cancer and high-dose specific mouse thyroid tumors, both of which have little qualitative or quantitative relevance to humans. Benchmark dose (BMD)-modeling of the neurobehavioral responses yielded acute and chronic RfC values of 1.5 ppm and 0.3 ppm, respectively. After conservative modeling of general population and near-source occupational and consumer product exposure scenarios, almost all HQs were substantially less than 1. HQs exceeding 1 were limited to consumer use of automotive products and paints in a poorly ventilated garage-sized room (HQ = 313) and occupational exposures in small and large brake shops using no personal protective equipment or ventilation controls (HQs = 3.4-126.6). The screening level risk assessments confirm low human health concerns with most uses of TBAC and indicate that further data-informed refinements can address problematic health/exposure scenarios. The assessments also illustrate how tier-based risk assessments using read-across toxicity information to metabolic surrogates reduce the need for comprehensive animal testing. PMID:25629921

  18. Surface Temperature Humidity Reference System Handbook - November 2005

    SciTech Connect

    MT Ritsche

    2005-11-30

    The Surface Temperature and Humidity Reference (SURTHREF) system is intended to provide accurate reference values of ambient temperature and relative humidity for comparison with radiosonde prelaunch values.

  19. Age-specific vaccine effectiveness of seasonal 2010/2011 and pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 vaccines in preventing influenza in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Pebody, R G; Andrews, N; Fleming, D M; McMenamin, J; Cottrell, S; Smyth, B; Durnall, H; Robertson, C; Carman, W; Ellis, J; Sebastian-Pillai, P; Zambon, M; Kearns, C; Moore, C; Thomas, D Rh; Watson, J M

    2013-03-01

    An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42-66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45-97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27-97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI -6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15-91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42-68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32-91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group. PMID:22691710

  20. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  1. Image quality and age-specific dose estimation in head and chest CT examinations with organ-based tube-current modulation.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Yamauchi, M; Imai, K; Ikeda, M; Aoyama, T

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an organ-based tube-current modulation (OBTCM) system on image quality and age-specific dose in head and chest CT examinations. Image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image entropy were assessed using statistical and entropy analyses. Radiation doses for newborn, 6-y-old child and adult phantoms were measured with in-phantom dosimetry systems. The quality of CT images obtained with OBTCM was not different from that obtained without OBTCM. In head CT scans, the eye lens dose decreased by 20-33 % using OBTCM. In chest CT scans, breast dose decreased by 5-32 % using OBTCM. Posterior skin dose, however, increased by 11-20 % using OBTCM in head and chest CT scans. The reduction of effective dose using OBTCM was negligibly small. Detailed image quality and dose information provided in this study can be effectively used for OBTCM application. PMID:23734058

  2. Maternal age specific risk rate estimates for Down syndrome among live births in whites and other races from Ohio and metropolitan Atlanta, 1970-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Huether, C A; Ivanovich, J; Goodwin, B S; Krivchenia, E L; Hertzberg, V S; Edmonds, L D; May, D S; Priest, J H

    1998-01-01

    Our primary objective was to estimate, by one year and five year intervals, maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among whites and among other races from two different populations, metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio, using live birth and prenatally diagnosed cases ascertained during 1970-1989. The five year estimates were also calculated separately for each of the five four year periods during these 20 years. Additionally, we compared two different methods of estimating these risk rates by using a third population of whites, and compared two different statistical methods of smoothing the risk rates. The results indicate good agreement between the metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio estimates within races, but show a statistically significant difference between the two race categories. Because 86% of live births in the "other races" category in the combined population are to blacks, these data may be seen as the first estimates of maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among blacks calculated by one year intervals. We found excellent agreement in the risk rate estimates among the five four year time periods, between the estimates obtained by using the two different methods of estimation, and between the estimates obtained using the two different methods of statistical smoothing. Our estimated risk rates for white women in their 20s strongly reinforce those from previous studies currently being used for genetic counselling purposes. While we did find somewhat higher rates for women under 20, and increasingly higher rates for those over 30 years of age, these differences are not substantial. Thus, this study in general supports the risk rates estimated from data collected mostly during the 1960s and 1970s. PMID:9643290

  3. Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. X. Age-specific dynamics of adult epicuticular hydrocarbon expression in response to different host plants

    PubMed Central

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cassia C

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of sexual selection and sexual isolation in Drosophila mojavensis and its relatives has revealed a pervasive role of rearing substrates on adult courtship behavior when flies were reared on fermenting cactus in preadult stages. Here, we assessed expression of contact pheromones comprised of epicuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from eclosion to 28 days of age in adults from two populations reared on fermenting tissues of two host cacti over the entire life cycle. Flies were never exposed to laboratory food and showed significant reductions in average CHC amounts consistent with CHCs of wild-caught flies. Overall, total hydrocarbon amounts increased from eclosion to 14–18 days, well past age at sexual maturity, and then declined in older flies. Most flies did not survive past 4 weeks. Baja California and mainland populations showed significantly different age-specific CHC profiles where Baja adults showed far less age-specific changes in CHC expression. Adults from populations reared on the host cactus typically used in nature expressed more CHCs than on the alternate host. MANCOVA with age as the covariate for the first six CHC principal components showed extensive differences in CHC composition due to age, population, cactus, sex, and age × population, age × sex, and age × cactus interactions. Thus, understanding variation in CHC composition as adult D. mojavensis age requires information about population and host plant differences, with potential influences on patterns of mate choice, sexual selection, and sexual isolation, and ultimately how these pheromones are expressed in natural populations. Studies of drosophilid aging in the wild are badly needed. PMID:25360246

  4. Age-specific suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions of the former USSR during perestroika, in comparison with 22 European countries.

    PubMed

    Värnik, A; Wasserman, D; Dankowicz, M; Eklund, G

    1998-01-01

    Age-specific differences in suicide rates in the Baltic and Slavic regions of the former USSR were studied for the period 1984-1990, and were compared to those of 22 European countries. It was observed that suicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants in the Slavic and Baltic regions increased directly with age for women, and showed a bimodal distribution with peaks for the 45-54 and > or = 75 age groups for men. In most of the 22 European countries, the suicide rates of both men and women increased directly with age. In 1990 the suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions ranged from 25.1 for the 15-24 age group to 86.9 for men aged 75 or older, and from 6.0 to 29.8 for women, while the suicide rates in Europe ranged from 13.0 to 64.8 for men and from 3.6 to 18.7 for women. Decreases in the suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions during perestroika were largest for the 25-54 age group, averaging at drop of 45% for men and 33% for women between 1984 and 1986-1988. The pattern of age-specific suicide rates for women in the Slavic and Baltic regions remained similar to that in Europe throughout the period studied. This was in contrast to a distinct pattern of male suicide rates in the Slavic and Baltic regions in 1984, which converged with those found in other parts of Europe during 1986-1988. It appears that perestroika contributed to a unique pattern of male suicide mortality in the Slavic and Baltic regions, especially in the 25-54 age group. PMID:9825014

  5. Age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A in Santiago, Chile: risk factors and shift in age of infection among children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Fix, Alan D; Martin, Oriana San; Gallicchio, Lisa; Vial, Pablo A; Lagos, Rosanna

    2002-05-01

    Transition from high to lower endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection may portend increased public health burden with the shift of infection to older ages and increasing morbidity and mortality. This report describes age-specific prevalence of antibodies to HAV (anti-HAV) among children and young adults in Santiago, Chile, compared with previous prevalence data and assesses factors predictive for anti-HAV. In 1998, a serosurvey was performed in Metropolitan Santiago, designed to enroll a representative, age-stratified population on the basis of area of residence. A total of 784 individuals (age range, 1-24 years) were enrolled. Anti-HAV prevalence by year of life was as follows: ages 1 to 4, 12.5%; 5 to 9, 26.2%; 10 to 14, 43.4%; 15 to 19, 57.4%; 20 to 24, 73.9%. Adjusting for age, factors associated (inversely) with anti-HAV included residential areas of higher socioeconomic status (SES), parental education, and household characteristics of potable water, municipal sewage system, and the presence of a toilet or refrigerator in the house. In logistic regression analysis, only maternal years of education and residence in areas of higher SES remained independently associated with anti-HAV. Excluding those from higher SES areas, comparison of the age-specific anti-HAV prevalence data from previous studies of similar methodology in areas of lower SES revealed consistent decreases across all age groups; the age-standardized prevalence for this age range (1-24 years) dropped from 53.7% in 1990 to 40.6% in 1998. In light of the growing pool of susceptible individuals at older ages, with HAV continuing to circulate in the communities, evaluation of the feasibility of vaccination programs would be judicious. PMID:12201603

  6. Information Economics: Valuing Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinberg, Herbert R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the question of why previous articles and studies on the value of information have failed to provide meaningful techniques for measuring that value. The discussion covers four principle causes for confusion surrounding the valuation of information and draws conclusions about the value added model of information. (seven references) (CLB)

  7. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  8. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  9. Age-specific oxidative status and the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits in male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Noguera, Jose C; Dean, Rebecca; Isaksson, Caroline; Velando, Alberto; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2012-09-01

    Oxidative stress is emerging as a key factor underpinning life history and the expression of sexually selected traits. Resolving the role of oxidative stress in life history and sexual selection requires a pluralistic approach, which investigates how age affects the relationship between oxidative status (i.e., antioxidants and oxidative damage) and the multiple traits contributing to variation in reproductive success. Here, we investigate the relationship between oxidative status and the expression of multiple sexually selected traits in two-age classes of male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, a species which displays marked male reproductive senescence. We found that, irrespective of male age, both male social status and comb size were strongly associated with plasma oxidative status, and there was a nonsignificant tendency for sperm motility to be associated with seminal oxidative status. Importantly, however, patterns of plasma and seminal antioxidant levels differed markedly in young and old males. While seminal antioxidants increased with plasma antioxidants in young males, the level of seminal antioxidants remained low and was independent of plasma levels in old males. In addition, old males also accumulated more oxidative damage in their sperm DNA. These results suggest that antioxidant allocation across different reproductive traits and somatic maintenance might change drastically as males age, leading to age-specific patterns of antioxidant investment. PMID:23139875

  10. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Moon, Min Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  11. Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seven articles on library reference services highlight reference obsolescence in academic libraries, major studies of unobtrusive reference tests, methods for evaluating reference desk performance, reference interview evaluation, problems of reference desk control, online searching by end users, and reference collection development in…

  12. What Is the Best Model of Reference Service?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyckoson, David A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines how to determine the best model of reference service. Highlights include: libraries and community; components of reference service; inherent values of reference service; conflicting values and models of service; technology and change; new models and old values; and the "right" model of reference service. (AEF)

  13. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  14. Age-specific population frequencies of amyloidosis and neurodegeneration among cognitively normal people age 50-89 years: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Clifford R.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Rocca, Walter A.; Knopman, David S.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Lowe, Val J.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Preboske, Gregory M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background As treatment of pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a focus of therapeutic intervention, observational research studies should recognize the overlap between imaging abnormalities associated with typical aging vs those associated with AD. Our objective was to characterize how typical aging and pre-clinical AD blend together with advancing age in terms of neurodegeneration and b-amyloidosis. Methods We measured age-specific frequencies of amyloidosis and neurodegeneration in 985 cognitively normal subjects age 50 to 89 from a population-based study of cognitive aging. Potential participants were randomly selected from the Olmsted County, Minnesota population by age- and sex-stratification and invited to participate in cognitive evaluations and undergo multimodality imaging. To be eligible for inclusion, subjects must have been judged clinically to have no cognitive impairment and have undergone amyloid PET, FDG PET and MRI. Imaging studies were obtained from March 2006 to December 2013. Amyloid positive/negative status (A+/A−) was determined by amyloid PET using Pittsburgh Compound B. Neurodegeneration positive/negative status (N+/N−) was determined by an AD-signature FDG PET measure and/or hippocampal volume on MRI. We labeled subjects positive or negative for neurodegeneration (FDG PET or MRI) or amyloidosis by using cutpoints defined such that 90% of 75 clinically diagnosed AD dementia subjects were categorized as abnormal. APOE genotype was assessed using DNA extracted from blood. Every individual was assigned to one of four groups: A−N−, A+N−, A−N+, or A+N+. Age specific frequencies of the 4 A/N groups were determined cross-sectionally using multinomial regression models. Associations with APOE ε4 and sex effects were evaluated by including these covariates in the multinomial models. Findings The population frequency of A−N− was 100% (n=985) at age 50 and declined thereafter. The frequency of A+N− increased to a

  15. Human Papillomavirus Virus (HPV) Genotype- and Age-Specific Analyses of External Genital Lesions Among Men in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane A.; Stoler, Mark H.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A.; O'Keefe, Michael T.; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. Methods. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009–2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan–Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. Results. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9–19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Conclusion. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. PMID:25344518

  16. Sex- and age- specific relations between economic development, economic inequality and homicide rates in people aged 0-24 years: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Butchart, Alexander; Engström, Karin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test whether relations between economic development, economic inequality, and child and youth homicide rates are sex- and age-specific, and whether a country's wealth modifies the impact of economic inequality on homicide rates. METHODS: Outcome variables were homicide rates around 1994 in males and females in the age ranges 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 years from 61 countries. Predictor variables were per capita gross domestic product (GDP), GINI coefficient, percentage change in per capita gross national product (GNP) and female economic activity as a percentage of male economic activity. Relations were analysed by ordinary least squares regression. FINDINGS: All predictors explained significant variances in homicide rates in those aged 15-24. Associations were stronger for males than females and weak for children aged 0-9. Models that included female economic inequality and percentage change in GNP increased the effect in children aged 0-9 and the explained variance in females aged 20-24. For children aged 0-4, country clustering by income increased the explained variance for both sexes. For males aged 15-24, the association with economic inequality was strong in countries with low incomes and weak in those with high incomes. CONCLUSION: Relations between economic factors and child and youth homicide rates varied with age and sex. Interventions to target economic factors would have the strongest impact on rates of homicide in young adults and late adolescent males. In societies with high economic inequality, redistributing wealth without increasing per capita GDP would reduce homicide rates less than redistributions linked with overall economic development. PMID:12471400

  17. Age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in young pregnant women, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Sahota, Daljit S; Law, Lai-Wa; Cheng, Yvonne KY; Leung, Tak-Yeung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the age-specific prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in young pregnant women in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, and to determine whether an increase in prevalence occurs during adolescence. Methods HBV prevalence was quantified using data from routine antenatal screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in 10 808 women aged 25 years or younger born in Hong Kong SAR and managed at a single hospital between 1998 and 2011. The effect on prevalence of maternal age, parity and birth before or after HBV vaccine availability in 1984 was assessed, using Spearman’s correlation and multiple logistic regression analysis. Findings Overall, 7.5% of women were HBsAg-positive. The prevalence ranged from 2.3% to 8.4% in those aged ≤ 16 and 23 years, respectively. Women born in or after 1984 and those younger than 18 years of age were less likely to be HBsAg-positive (odds ratio, OR: 0.679; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.578–0.797) and (OR: 0.311; 95% CI: 0.160–0.604), respectively. For women born before 1984, there was no association between HBsAg carriage and being younger than 18 years of age (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.262–1.370) Logistic regression analysis showed that the prevalence of HBsAg carriage was influenced more by the woman being 18 years old or older (adjusted OR, aOR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.46–5.47) than being born before 1984 (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.21–1.67). Conclusion Immunity to HBV in young pregnant women who had been vaccinated as neonates decreased in late adolescence. PMID:25378739

  18. Promotional Perspectives of Reference Group Influence: Advertising Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessig, V. Parker; Park, C. Whan

    1978-01-01

    Examines the role of reference groups and promotional appeals in satisfying consumer motivations. Emphasizes three motivational reference group functions: informational, utilitarian, and value-expressive. (RL)

  19. Effects of salinity on the transcriptome of growing maize leaf cells point at cell-age specificity in the involvement of the antioxidative response in cell growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    . Conclusions The results demonstrate a cell-age specificity in the salinity response of growing cells, and point at involvement of the antioxidative response in cell growth restriction. Processes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging are more pronounced in the young cells, while the higher growth sensitivity of older cells is suggested to involve effects on cell-wall rigidity and lower protein protection. PMID:23324477

  20. Variance in age-specific sex composition of Pacific halibut catches, and comparison of statistical and genetic methods for reconstructing sex ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Timothy; Woods, Monica A.; Jimenez-Hidalgo, Isadora; Hauser, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Declines in size at age of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, in concert with sexually-dimorphic growth and a constant minimum commercial size limit, have led to the expectation that the sex composition of commercial catches should be increasingly female-biased. Sensitivity analyses suggest that variance in sex composition of landings may be the most influential source of uncertainty affecting current understanding of spawning stock biomass. However, there is no reliable way to determine sex at landing because all halibut are eviscerated at sea. In 2014, a statistical method based on survey data was developed to estimate the probability that fish of any given length at age (LAA) would be female, derived from the fundamental observation that large, young fish are likely female whereas small, old fish have a high probability of being male. Here, we examine variability in age-specific sex composition using at-sea commercial and closed-season survey catches, and compare the accuracy of the survey-based LAA technique to genetic markers for reconstructing the sex composition of catches. Sexing by LAA performed best for summer-collected samples, consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to characterize catches can be influenced by seasonal demographic shifts. Additionally, differences between survey and commercial selectivity that allow fishers to harvest larger fish within cohorts may generate important mismatch between survey and commercial datasets. Length-at-age-based estimates ranged from 4.7% underestimation of female proportion to 12.0% overestimation, with mean error of 5.8 ± 1.5%. Ratios determined by genetics were closer to true sample proportions and displayed less variability; estimation to within < 1% of true ratios was limited to genetics. Genetic estimation of female proportions ranged from 4.9% underestimation to 2.5% overestimation, with a mean absolute error of 1.2 ± 1.2%. Males were generally more difficult to assign than females: 6.7% of

  1. Computers and Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the current status and potential for automated library reference services in the areas of community information systems, online catalogs, remote online reference services, and telephone reference services. Several models of the reference procedure which might be used in developing expert systems are examined. (19 references) (CLB)

  2. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  3. The Modification of Age-Specific Expectations of Piaget's Theory of Development of Intentionality in Moral Judgments of Four- to Seven-Year Old Children in Relation to Use of Puppets in a Social (Imitative) Learning Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, John M.; Michael, William B.

    The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain whether the age specific expectations of Piaget's theory (1965) regarding the development of moral judgment in children from four to seven years of age were modifiable through use of a certain adaptation of Bandura and McDonald's imitative learning paradigm which had utilized adult models. In this…

  4. Reference Anytime Anywhere: Towards Virtual Reference Services at Penn State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Lesley M.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the service rationale, software and technology considerations taken by the Pennsylvania State University library in planning towards online, real-time reference services and provides an overview of the planned pilot project. Discusses recent trends in academic electronic libraries, including providing value-added services to support…

  5. Value, Value, Where Is the Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

  6. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  7. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  8. Live, Digital Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

  9. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  10. Marital status integration, suicide disapproval, and societal integration as explanations of marital status differences in female age-specific suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert

    2007-12-01

    Sociological analyses of suicide have often neglected female suicide rates. Three competing explanations are tested to determine why the suicide rates of married women are, typically, lower than the suicide rates of women who are not married: (1) marital status integration, (2) societal integration, and (3) a nation's normative order about disapproval of suicide. Data refer to age and marital status-specific female suicide rates from 12 developed countries. The results provide the strongest support for the marital status integration theory and consistent support for the social integration perspective. There is also mixed support for the cultural disapproval of suicide hypothesis. PMID:18275377

  11. Lifelong Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    This booklet was developed by early education teachers to help parents teach their children values necessary for learning and for living. The introduction identifies six lifelong values, discusses the important role played by parents in teaching these values, and offers a checklist of positive ways parents interact with their children. Each of the…

  12. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) from southcentral Alaska: Analysis of reproductive tracts. Marine mammal study 6-4. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Lensink, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    We estimated age of sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from southcentral Alaska, primarily western Prince William Sound, following the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similar to those in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  13. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  14. The Test of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Reports the results of an unobtrusive study, from a user's viewpoint, of reference services available in the Suffolk Cooperative Library System. The study raises questions of policy centering around user expectations of library reference services. (RAA)

  15. Best Reference Sources 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian; McConnell, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of the best reference materials published in 2001. Discusses activity in the reference publishing industry; costs; and lists print materials, Web sites, databases, and CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  16. Assessment of Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Seggern, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    This annotated bibliography of materials dealing with the evaluation of library reference services is arranged by category including literature success, quality, and accuracy of answers; cost and task analysis; interviews and communication; classification of reference questions; reference collections; staff availability; use and nonuse of…

  17. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

  18. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  19. Reference Services Planning in the 90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckwright, Gail Z., Ed.; Keenan, Lori M., Ed.

    The focus of this collection of papers about library reference service is on the community outside the library, rather than the special populations served within it. "Conflicts in Value Systems" (Allen B. Veaner) is an overview of the major conflict areas facing the library profession today. "Reference Services for Off-Campus Students and Faculty"…

  20. Age-specific metal and accumulation patterns in different tissues of nase (Chodrostoma nasus) from the Medjuvršje Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Djikanović, Vesna; Skorić, Stefan; Jarić, Ivan; Lenhardt, Mirjana

    2016-10-01

    Nase (Chodrostoma nasus L. 1758) specimens of four age classes (1(+) to 4(+)) were caught in July 2013 in the Medjuvršje Reservoir. Concentrations of 14 metals and elements (Al, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Si, Sr, Zn) in the muscle, gills and liver were analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma optical spectrometry (ICP-OES). The highest concentrations of Al, Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Si, Sr and Zn were detected in gills, while Cd, Cu, Fe and Mo reached the highest values in the liver. The majority of the analyzed elements were found in minimal concentrations in the muscle. Younger age classes (1(+), 2(+)) were differentiated by higher concentrations of Mn, Sr and Zn in muscle tissue, while the older ones were mainly differentiated by higher concentrations for Ni and Cu. The youngest age class (1(+)) was distinguished by higher concentrations of Zn, while the oldest age class (4(+)) was distinguished by higher concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mo and Sr in gills. Results obtained were likely caused by differences in the physiology and feeding habits between younger (1-2(+)) and older (3-4(+)) age groups of nase. PMID:27232958

  1. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population. PMID:26801472

  2. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  3. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  4. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard; Kotter, Dale

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  5. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  6. From non school-based, co-payment to school-based, free Human Papillomavirus vaccination in Flanders (Belgium): a retrospective cohort study describing vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities.

    PubMed

    Lefevere, Eva; Theeten, Heidi; Hens, Niel; De Smet, Frank; Top, Geert; Van Damme, Pierre

    2015-09-22

    School-based, free HPV vaccination for girls in the first year of secondary school was introduced in Flanders (Belgium) in 2010. Before that, non school-based, co-payment vaccination for girls aged 12-18 was in place. We compared vaccination coverage, age-specific coverage and socio-economic inequalities in coverage - 3 important parameters contributing to the effectiveness of the vaccination programs - under both vaccination systems. We used retrospective administrative data from different sources. Our sample consisted of all female members of the National Alliance of Christian Mutualities born in 1995, 1996, 1998 or 1999 (N=66,664). For each vaccination system we described the cumulative proportion HPV vaccination initiation and completion over time. We used life table analysis to calculate age-specific rates of HPV vaccination initiation and completion. Analyses were done separately for higher income and low income groups. Under non school-based, co-payment vaccination the proportions HPV vaccination initiation and completion slowly rose over time. By age 17, the proportion HPV vaccination initiation/completion was 0.75 (95% CI 0.74-076)/0.66 (95% CI 0.65-0.67). The median age at vaccination initiation/completion was 14.4 years (95% CI 14.4-14.5)/15.4 years (95% CI 15.3-15.4). Socio-economic inequalities in coverage widened over time and with age. Under school-based, free vaccination rates of HPV vaccination initiation were substantially higher. By age 14,the proportion HPV vaccination initiation/completion was 0.90 (95% CI 0.90-0.90)/0.87 (95% CI 0.87-0.88). The median age at vaccination initiation/completion was 12.7 years (95% CI 12.7-12.7)/13.3 years (95% CI 13.3-13.3). Socio-economic inequalities in coverage and in age-specific coverage were substantially smaller. PMID:26254978

  7. Age-specific periictal electroclinical features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and potential risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Joel; Kaur, Gurmeen; Fernandez, Guadalupe Baca-Vaca; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Kaffashi, Farhad; Loparo, Kenneth A; Rao, Shyam; Loplumlert, Jakrin; Kaiboriboon, Kitti; Amina, Shahram; Tuxhorn, Ingrid; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2013-11-01

    children. With cessation of medication, total seizure duration was significantly increased by a mean value of 8s in children and 11s in adults (p<0.05). Tonic phase duration also significantly increased with medication cessation, and although PGES durations increased, this was not significant. Root mean square successive difference was negatively correlated with PGES duration (longer PGES durations were associated with decreased vagally mediated heart rate variability; p<0.05) but not with tonic phase duration. This study clearly points out identifiable electroclinical differences between adult and pediatric GTCSs that may be relevant in explaining lower SUDEP risk in children. The findings suggest that some prolonged seizure phases and prolonged PGES duration may be electroclinical markers of SUDEP risk and merit further study. PMID:24011708

  8. Ethics and Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Elena S.

    1997-01-01

    While revised ethical codes provide helpful guidelines, reference archivists face many ethical questions raised by rapidly evolving technology, changing expectations, and inconsistent privacy laws that have no clear answers. Discusses issues related to reference searching, codification of ethics, cultural property and the responsibility of…

  9. Creating a Reference Toolbox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jane

    1997-01-01

    To help students understand that references are tools used to locate specific information, one librarian has her third-grade students create their own reference toolboxes as she introduces dictionaries, atlases, encyclopedias, and thesauri. Presents a lesson plan to introduce print and nonprint thesauri to third and fourth graders and includes a…

  10. Reference Service Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, John; Young, William

    This manual is primarily designed as an orientation program for librarians new to the Reference Services Division at the State University of New York at Albany University Libraries. It contains practical information and some of the procedures necessary for providing service at the reference desk in these libraries. The appendices provide samples…

  11. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  12. Library Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schippleck, Suzanne

    The Inglewood, California, public library provides a manual on reference service. The theory, purpose, and objectives of reference are noted, and goals and activities are described in terms of budget, personnel, resources, and services. A chapter on organization covers service structure, information services, relationships with other library…

  13. Rethinking Virtual Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

  14. Automated Periodical Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, David

    1985-01-01

    Describes public library reference service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select references, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…

  15. An Online Reference System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisman, Janet; Treat, William

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer aid developed to assist in academic library reference service using the DataPhase Circulation System, an automated system that features full cataloging records in database and permits local programing. Access points (subject, type of reference work, course) and database structure and user screens are highlighted. (EJS)

  16. Leading Education Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Michael D.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on, but is not limited to, reference sources on education found in the library at St. Bonaventure University, New York. The ERIC database leads the list of leading education reference sources. Also mentioned are the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors" and the Academic Index (InfoTrak) computer system. Other…

  17. Valuing Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Kate

    2005-01-01

    How well are adult and community learning providers doing when it comes to ensuring equality of opportunity (EO) and valuing diversity? Many are in transition from a defensive position of emphasising legal compliance towards making respect for diversity intrinsic to their strategic aims, plans and actions, according to the February edition of…

  18. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  19. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  20. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  1. Values Strategies for Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemin, Marion, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a reference for teachers to use in incorporating values education into all subject areas through the activities listed in the book. The book contains 16 chapters, of which about half provide guidelines, discussion and activities related to values in general, and half suggest activities specific to individual areas of study. In the…

  2. EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

  3. Enterprise Reference Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  4. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  5. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  6. Cooperative Reference: Hazards, Rewards, Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Candace D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the problems, benefits, and future of cooperative library reference services in five separate papers: (1) keynote address; (2) interlibrary reference communication; (3) quality control; (4) computerized cooperative reference; and (5) national reference service. (JD)

  7. [Diagnostic reference levels in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Vañó Carruana, E; Fernández Soto, J M; Sánchez Casanueva, R M; Ten Morón, J I

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses the diagnostic reference levels for radiation exposure proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to facilitate the application of the optimization criteria in diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures. These levels are normally established as the third quartile of the dose distributions to patients in an ample sample of centers and are supposed to be representative of good practice regarding patient exposure. In determining these levels, it is important to evaluate image quality as well to ensure that it is sufficient for diagnostic purposes. When the values for the dose received by patients are systematically higher or much lower than the reference levels, an investigation should determine whether corrective measures need to be applied. The European and Spanish regulations require the use of these reference values in quality assurance programs. For interventional procedures, the dose area product (or kerma area product) values are usually used as reference values together with the time under fluoroscopy and the total number of images acquired. The most modern imaging devices allow the value of the accumulated dose at the entrance to the patient to be calculated to optimize the distribution of the dose on the skin. The ICRP recommends that the complexity of interventional procedures be taken into account when establishing reference levels. In the future, diagnostic imaging departments will have automatic systems to manage patient dosimetric data; these systems will enable continuous dosage auditing and alerts about individual procedures that might involve doses several times above the reference values. This article also discusses aspects that need to be clarified to take better advantage of the reference levels in interventional procedures. PMID:24211195

  8. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women’s reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  9. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  10. Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis in French Polynesia: age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, circulating antigen, and specific IgG and IgG4 responses according to transmission level.

    PubMed

    Chanteau, S; Glaziou, P; Plichart, C; Luquiaud, P; Moulia-Pelat, J P; N'Guyen, L; Cartel, J L

    1995-01-01

    The age-specific patterns of microfilaremia, Og4C3 antigenemia, anti-Brugia malayi IgG and IgG4 were assessed in 3 villages of low, medium and high transmission level for Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis. The prevalence rates for each of the 4 markers were clearly age dependent and their patterns strongly associated with the transmission level. The antigenemia prevalence rate was consistently higher than the microfilaremia prevalence rate, in all age groups. The prevalences of anti-B. malayi IgG and IgG4 responses were very similar and much higher than those of microfilaremia or antigenemia. Antibody responses reached the plateau at an earlier age and at a higher prevalence with increased intensity of transmission. For all the markers, the prevalence rates were significantly higher in males than in females. PMID:7797377

  11. Setting reference targets

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  12. Value Added and Other Related Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitla, Dean K.

    The term "value added" refers to the assessment of the amount of learning that takes place during the college years. Two experiments, Value Added I and Value Added II, attempted to measure college students' attainment of eight liberal education objectives: (1) writing ability; (2) analytical ability; (3) sensitivity to ethics, morals, and values;…

  13. Reference selenocentric net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yura

    2012-08-01

    The catalogues based on mission “Apollo” and reference nets of the west lunar hemisphere made by missions “Zond 5”, ”Zond 8” cover small part of the Moon surface (zone from - 20 to +40 degrees by latitude). Three ALSEP stations were used to transform “Apollo” topographic coordinates. Transformation mean - square errors are less than 80 meters and measurement’s errors are about 60 meters. On this account positions inaccuracy near and between ALSEP stations are less 150 meters. The offset from place of the location ALSEP enlarges the supposed mistake is more than 300 m and this is a major part of the lunar surface. Catalogues of the mission “Apollo” realize quasidynamic coordinate system. Distribution reference nets DMA/A 15, NOS/USGS and DMA/603 mission “Apollo” on visible side of the Moon didn’t bring in appreciable results. Only KSC - 1162 realizes dynamic coordinate system and covers zone from - 70 to +70 degrees by latitude. The reference selenodetic net KSC - 1162 was made in the dynamic coordinate system. Analysis KSC - 1162 catalogue shows it corresponds to an essential requirements. It has enough reference points to cove r main areas of the lunar visible side. Reference points accuracy for plan coordinates is ± 40 meters and it is ± 80 in height. The purposes of investigation are increasing concentration accuracy and expansion of selenodetic control system based on optimal coordinate transformations. At present the best method of the expansion selenodetic reference net wide lunar area is the use of coordinate’s transformation matrix. Constituents of matrix and displacement vectors can be obtained by transform available general points in KSC - 1162 and transformable in its system catalogues. As a result was obtained summary reference net by expansion KSC - 1162 selenodetic system using 12 cosmic and ground selenodesic catalogues. In the future we plan to bind to the KSC - 1162 catalogue reference coordinate system data

  14. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  15. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  16. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  17. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  18. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  19. Assessment and Accountability in Reference Work. Part V: Reference Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hults, Patricia; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss the evaluation of library reference services. Topics addressed include unobtrusive testing; measuring the accountability of reference librarians by behavioral rather than factual evaluation; on-the-job training of reference librarians; and faculty expectations of academic reference librarians. (52 references)…

  20. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  1. Evaluating the Reference Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Gary E.

    1980-01-01

    Examines quantitative and qualitative evaluation and analysis of Washington State Library reference activities, based on research activities of the Consortium for Public Library Innovation. Several methods of data collection for a sample day are discussed, including a user ticket and a patterns of information requests form. (Author)

  2. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  3. Reference Services in Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Lucille; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This 16-article issue focuses on history, policy, services, users, organization, evaluation, and automation of the archival reference process. Collections at academic research libraries, a technical university, Board of Education, business archives, a bank, labor and urban archives, a manuscript repository, religious archives, and regional history…

  4. Genetics Home Reference: cherubism

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Contact Us Selection Criteria for Links Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications 8600 ...

  5. Chat Reference. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronan, Jana, Comp.; Turner, Carol, Comp.

    2002-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to gather data on chat reference service. A total of 66 of 124 ARL member libraries responded to the survey. A copy of the questionnaire with tabulated results is presented. Representative…

  6. Reference Sources for Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nursing Outlook, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The ninth revision (including a Canadian supplement) of a list of nursing reference works lists items in the following sections: abstract journals, audiovisuals, bibliographies, dictionaries, directories, drug lists and pharmacologies, educational programs, histories, indexes, legal guides, library administration and organization, research grants,…

  7. THAI, REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSS, RICHARD B.

    A REFERENCE GRAMMAR FOR THE THAI LANGUAGE IS PROVIDED. THE MAIN STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF STANDARD SPOKEN THAI ARE OUTLINED AND ELABORATED BY SUBCLASSIFICATION AND EXAMPLE. IN ADDITION, AN INDEX OF MINOR FORM-CLASS MEMBERS IS PROVIDED. THE APPROACH TO CLASSIFICATION OF GRAMMATICAL FEATURES FOLLOWS CURRENT TECHNIQUES OF AMERICAN DESCRIPTIVE…

  8. Best Reference 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian E.; LaGuardia, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Reading reference sources, whether on paper or on the screen, often leads to enlightened thinking, especially for library patrons. In an earlier age, enlightened monarchs surrounded themselves with leading intellectuals and patronized the arts. Today, people have the advantage of the world's collected wisdom at their fingertips in the form of…

  9. The Unreliability of References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

  10. Virtual Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  11. Internet Issues in Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the impact of Internet access on library reference services based on 1994 interviews with almost two dozen university librarians. Highlights include library policy, overcrowded workstations and methods of controlling use, recreational use of terminals that interferes with more formal library use, restriction as a form of censorship, and…

  12. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  13. Reference Collections and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Lois

    1999-01-01

    Reviews six reference materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)

  14. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  15. The Reference Encounter Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1983-01-01

    Develops model of the reference interview which explicitly incorporates human information processing, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive processing and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying…

  16. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  17. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  18. Reference Book Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Bill, Ed.

    For each reference work there is a 5 1/2 x 8 1/2" card with information about the work in brief, standardized format. The card indicates what the subject coverage is, the types of materials included, the service given, frequency of publication, procedure for use, an example of the procedure, a sample entry with explanatory notes, other places to…

  19. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  20. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  1. Shuttle Reference Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    This collection of shuttle reference data contains the following information: shuttle abort history, shuttle abort modes, abort decisions, space shuttle rendezvous maneuvers, space shuttle main engines, space shuttle solid rocket boosters, hold-down posts, SRB (solid rocket boosters) ignition, electrical power distribution, hydraulic power units, thrust vector control, SBR rate gyro assemblies, SBR separation and Space Shuttle Super Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT).

  2. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  3. The Place of the Practicum in Teaching Reference Interview Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundin, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the value of the practicum in learning reference interview techniques. Methods for offering such field experience and programs in several library schools are described, with emphasis on the practicum experience at the University of Alberta. A possible reference practicum program is outlined. (16 references) (Author/MES)

  4. Dried Blood Spot Testing for Seven Steroids Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry With Reference Interval Determination in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Borahm; Lee, Mi-Na; Park, Hyung-Doo; Kim, Jong Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) using immunoassays generates a large number of false-positive results. A more specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been introduced to minimize unnecessary follow-ups. However, because of limited data on its use in the Korean population, LC-MS/MS has not yet been incorporated into newborn screening programs in this region. The present study aims to develop and validate an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of seven steroids in dried blood spots (DBS) for CAH screening, and to define age-specific reference intervals in the Korean population. Methods We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method to determine the reference intervals of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 21-deoxycortisol, androstenedione, corticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone simultaneously in 453 DBS samples. The samples were from Korean subjects stratified by age group (78 full-term neonates, 76 premature neonates, 89 children, and 100 adults). Results The accuracy, precision, matrix effects, and extraction recovery were satisfactory for all the steroids at three concentrations; values of intra- and inter-day precision coefficients of variance, bias, and recovery were 0.7-7.7%, -1.5-9.8%, and 49.3-97.5%, respectively. The linearity range was 1-100 ng/mL for cortisol and 0.5-50 ng/mL for other steroids (R2>0.99). The reference intervals were in agreement with the previous reports. Conclusions This LC-MS/MS method and the reference intervals validated in the Korean population can be successfully applied to analyze seven steroids in DBS for the diagnosis of CAH. PMID:26354345

  5. The turnaround value of values.

    PubMed

    Thorbeck, J

    1991-01-01

    John Thorbeck is an executive with a ten-year career history of successes--and a sense of repeated failure. Just out of business school, he was marketing director at the Aspen Skiing Company for three years and helped to reverse thirteen seasons of decline. At the Timberland shoe company in the mid-1980s, he led a marketing strategy that tripled sales. At the Bass shoe company, where he was CEO from 1987 to 1990, he took the company from big losses to big profits. Now he is president, CEO, and part owner of a third shoe company--Geo. E. Keith--that is surely the oldest, perhaps the smallest, and arguably the finest shoemaker in the United States. But the high points of Thorbeck's résumé conceal a leadership education that led him only slowly to abandon confrontational management in favor of management by history, values, competence, and what he calls organizational coherence. In his first two marketing jobs, he fought wars with his opponents and won. Then at Bass, he tried to recapture the company's proud past. He revived company folklore and history, gave workers back their pride in workmanship, and used this rejuvenated company spirit to meet and win new markets. Yet he was trying to take Bass someplace its owners simply wouldn't let it go, and he left the company profitable but divided, the work force eager to go one way, owenership another. In each of his jobs, Thorbeck overlooked some vital part of the organizational community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10109472

  6. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  7. Reference Ranges & What They Mean

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Reference Ranges and What They Mean Share this page: Was this page helpful? Overview | Reference range defined | Where are the reference ranges? | Limits ...

  8. OSH technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  9. The NPL reference hazemeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, G. H. C.

    1992-09-01

    The reference hazemeter is a development of a commercial pivotable sphere hazemeter. The principle improvements are a high quality photometer and its associated electronic and temperature controller, a stable power supply for the source and the determination of the lamp current of illuminants A and C, improvements to the optics to achieve a well shaped beam, and mechanical modifications to accommodate the improvements and allow a good mechanical movement. Various tests were carried out to validate the instrument behavior. These identified systematic errors caused by inter-reflections. To reduce the inter-reflection errors, the blue filter and the input lenses were antireflection coated. The reference hazemeter complies with BS 2782--methods of testing plastics; part 5--optical and color properties; method 521A--determination of haze of film and sheet. A calibration service using the hazemeter is now in operation.

  10. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Steegers, Eric A P; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Visser, W Edward; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Visser, Theo J; Medici, Marco; Peeters, Robin P

    2015-09-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on reference range (RR) methodology and determinants of gestational hCG levels is crucial. Moreover, a better understanding of gestational hCG physiology can improve current screening programs and future clinical management. Serum total hCG levels were determined in 8195 women participating in the Generation R Study. Gestational age specific RRs using 'ultrasound derived gestational age' (US RRs) were calculated and compared with 'last menstrual period derived gestational age' (LMP RRs) and a model-based RR. We also investigated which pregnancy characteristics were associated with hCG levels. Compared to the US RRs, the LMP RRs were lower, most notably for the median and lower limit levels. No considerable differences were found between RRs calculated in the general population or in uncomplicated pregnancies only. Maternal smoking, BMI, parity, ethnicity, fetal gender, placental weight and hyperemesis gravidarum symptoms were associated with total hCG. We provide gestational RRs for total hCG and show that total hCG values and RR cut-offs during pregnancy vary depending on pregnancy dating methodology. This is likely due to the influence of hCG on embryonic growth, suggesting that ultrasound based pregnancy dating might be less reliable in women with high/low hCG levels. Furthermore, we identify different pregnancy characteristics that influence total hCG levels considerably and should therefore be accounted for in clinical studies. PMID:25963653

  11. Alignment reference device

    DOEpatents

    Patton, Gail Y.; Torgerson, Darrel D.

    1987-01-01

    An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

  12. Reference structure tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, David J.; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Sun, Xiaobai

    2004-07-01

    Reference structure tomography (RST) uses multidimensional modulations to encode mappings between radiating objects and measurements. RST may be used to image source-density distributions, estimate source parameters, or classify sources. The RST paradigm permits scan-free multidimensional imaging, data-efficient and computation-efficient source analysis, and direct abstraction of physical features. We introduce the basic concepts of RST and illustrate the use of RST for multidimensional imaging based on a geometric radiation model.

  13. Is anaphoric reference cooperative?

    PubMed

    Kantola, Leila; van Gompel, Roger P G

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the choice of anaphoric expression is affected by the presence of an addressee. Following a context sentence and visual scene, participants described a target scene that required anaphoric reference. They described the scene either to an addressee (Experiment 1) or without an addressee (Experiment 2). When an addressee was present in the task, participants used more pronouns and fewer repeated noun phrases when the referent was the grammatical subject in the context sentence than when it was the grammatical object and they used more pronouns when there was no competitor than when there was. They used fewer pronouns and more repeated noun phrases when a visual competitor was present in the scene than when there was no visual competitor. In the absence of an addressee, linguistic context effects were the same as those when an addressee was present, but the visual effect of the competitor disappeared. We conclude that visual salience effects are due to adjustments that speakers make when they produce reference for an addressee, whereas linguistic salience effects appear whether or not speakers have addressees. PMID:26165163

  14. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  15. Polyfluorinated substances in abiotic standard reference materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) which have values assigned for legacy organic pollutants and toxic elements. Existing SRMs serve as homogenous materials that can be used for method development, meth...

  16. SEI reference mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weary, Dwayne

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The goal of the reference mission is to expand the human presence to the moon and Mars in order to enhance our understanding of the universe, to seek terrestrial benefits from this exploration, and to establish the beginnings of a sustainable spacefaring civilization. Topics covered here include a phased definition of initial programmatic milestones and follow-on capabilities, near-term mission strategy, a lunar mission timeline, and a Mars mission timeline.

  17. Bushland, Texas Reference ET Calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bushland Reference Evapotranspiration (ET) Calculator was developed at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, for calculating grass and alfalfa reference ET. It uses the ASCE Standardized Reference ET Equation for calculating reference ET at hourly and dai...

  18. Expanding the Repertoire of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Suggests several ways that reference librarians can improve their skills beyond library school training. Reference interviews are discussed; effective methods of browsing the reference collection are described; opportunities for learning at the reference desk are suggested; and professional reading and study is discussed, including professional…

  19. Thyroid Function Testing in Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease: Trimester-specific Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy the thyroid is hyperstimulated, resulting in changes in thyroid hormone concentrations. Accurate assessment of thyroid function during pregnancy is critical, for both the initiation of thyroid hormone therapy, and for the adjustment of thyroid hormone dose in those already receiving thyroid hormone. Trimester-specific intervals are especially important during pregnancy when thyroid insufficiency may be associated with adverse obstetric outcome and fetal neurodevelopmental deficits. Gestational age-specific reference intervals are now available for thyroid function tests. Knowing the expected normal changes in hormone concentrations throughout pregnancy allows individualized supplementation when necessary. PMID:16418685

  20. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  1. Antares reference telescope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    Antares is a 24 beam, 40 TW carbon dioxide laser fusion system currently nearing completion. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target. It is to position the targets to within 10 (SIGMA)m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares reference telescope system is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares reference telescope system consists of two similar electrooptical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9% optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and tradeoffs are discussed. The final system chosen and its current status are described.

  2. Consumer Education Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. State Agency for Title I.

    This manual contains information for consumer education, which is defined as the process of imparting to an individual the skills, concepts, knowledges, and insights required to help each person evolve his or her own values, evaluate alternative choices in the marketplace, manage personal resources effectively, and obtain the best buys for his or…

  3. Rats exhibit reference-dependent choice behavior.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Mehwish; Jang, Hyeran; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2014-07-01

    Human preferences depend on whether a chosen outcome appears to be a loss or a gain compared with what had been expected, i.e., in comparison to a reference point. Because reference dependence has such a strong influence on human decision-making, it is important to uncover its origins, which will in turn help delineate the underlying mechanisms. It remains unknown whether rats use reference points in decision-making, and yet, the study of rats could help address the question of whether reference dependence is evolutionarily conserved among mammals and could provide a nonhuman animal model to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this important cognitive process. The aim of the current study was to determine whether rats show reference-dependent choice behavior. We developed a novel paradigm by modifying the "T" maze by installing "pockets" to the left and right of the "T" stem that held reward pellets so rats would potentially develop reference values for each option prior to choice. We found that the rats were indeed sensitive to the way alternatives were presented. That is, they exhibited reference-dependent choice behavior by avoiding the choice option framed as a loss (e.g., having four reward pellets in the pocket, but receiving only one), at least under conditions with certain outcomes and clear differences between the reference and outcome quantities. Despite the small number of rats in this study, this species-level capacity suggests that reference dependence in general and loss aversion in particular may be conserved traits that evolved at or before the emergence of mammals. PMID:24657593

  4. Energy and American values

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, I.; Brooks, H.; Lakoff, S.; Opie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary team consisting of an engineer, a political scientist, an historian, and a professor of religion and physics view the question of energy and values from each other's perspective. The result is a synthesis of the team's views on all aspects of energy technology and how it affects human life in general as well as the lives of different classes and specific groups in our society. It begins with an historic overview of the way an abundance of energy has shaped America's use of it. It continues by considering the energy debate as a conflict between Jeffersonians who believe in decentralized, appropriate technology and the centralized, efficient technology of Hamiltonians. The authors wrestle with regional and geographical differences in energy resources, environmental impacts, and ethical problems. 384 references.

  5. Tank characterization reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  6. PASCAL/48 reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Hamm, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    PASCAL/48 is a programming language for the Intel MCS-48 series of microcomputers. In particular, it can be used with the Intel 8748. It is designed to allow the programmer to control most of the instructions being generated and the allocation of storage. The language can be used instead of ASSEMBLY language in most applications while allowing the user the necessary degree of control over hardware resources. Although it is called PASCAL/48, the language differs in many ways from PASCAL. The program structure and statements of the two languages are similar, but the expression mechanism and data types are different. The PASCAL/48 cross-compiler is written in PASCAL and runs on the CDC CYBER NOS system. It generates object code in Intel hexadecimal format that can be used to program the MCS-48 series of microcomputers. This reference manual defines the language, describes the predeclared procedures, lists error messages, illustrates use, and includes language syntax diagrams.

  7. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1987-07-30

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  8. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, Robert M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1989-01-01

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

  9. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1989-04-04

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  10. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic inertial reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckelkamp-Baker, Dan; Sebesta, Henry R.; Burkhard, Kevin

    2000-07-01

    Optical platforms increasingly require attitude knowledge and optical instrument pointing at sub-microradian accuracy. No low-cost commercial system exists to provide this level of accuracy for guidance, navigation, and control. The need for small, inexpensive inertial sensors, which may be employed in pointing control systems that are required to satisfy angular line-of-sight stabilization jitter error budgets to levels of 1-3 microradian rms and less, has existed for at least two decades. Innovations and evolutions in small, low-noise inertial angular motion sensor technology and advances in the applications of the global positioning system have converged to allow improvement in acquisition, tracking and pointing solutions for a wide variety of payloads. We are developing a small, inexpensive, and high-performance inertial attitude reference system that uses our innovative magnetohydrodynamic angular rate sensor technology.

  12. Praxis language reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    This document is a language reference manual for the programming language Praxis. The document contains the specifications that must be met by any compiler for the language. The Praxis language was designed for systems programming in real-time process applications. Goals for the language and its implementations are: (1) highly efficient code generated by the compiler; (2) program portability; (3) completeness, that is, all programming requirements can be met by the language without needing an assembler; and (4) separate compilation to aid in design and management of large systems. The language does not provide any facilities for input/output, stack and queue handling, string operations, parallel processing, or coroutine processing. These features can be implemented as routines in the language, using machine-dependent code to take advantage of facilities in the control environment on different machines.

  13. Prediction of mortality rates in the presence of missing values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chon Sern; Pooi, Ah Hin

    2015-12-01

    A time series model based on multivariate power-normal distribution has been applied in the past literature on the United States (US) mortality data from the years 1933 to 2000 to forecast the future age-specific mortality rates of the years 2001 to 2010. In this paper, we show that the method based on multivariate power-normal distribution can still be used for an incomplete US mortality dataset that contains some missing values. The prediction intervals based on this incomplete training data are found to still have good ability of covering the observed future mortality rates although the interval lengths may become wider for long-range prediction.

  14. Analysis of SOFCs Using Reference Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Finklea, H.; Chen, X.; Gerdes, K.; Pakalapati, S.; Celik, I.

    2013-01-01

    Reference electrodes are frequently applied to isolate the performance of one electrode in a solid oxide fuel cell. However, reference electrode simulations raise doubt to veracity of data collected using reference electrodes. The simulations predict that the reported performance for the one electrode will frequently contain performance of both electrodes. Nonetheless, recent reports persistently treat data so collected as ideally isolated. This work confirms the predictions of the reference electrode simulations on two SOFC designs, and to provides a method of validating the data measured in the 3-electrode configuration. Validation is based on the assumption that a change in gas composition to one electrode does not affect the impedance of the other electrode at open circuit voltage. This assumption is supported by a full physics simulation of the SOFC. Three configurations of reference electrode and cell design are experimentally examined using various gas flows and two temperatures. Impedance data are subjected to deconvolution analysis and equivalent circuit fitting and approximate polarization resistances of the cathode and anode are determined. The results demonstrate that the utility of reference electrodes is limited and often wholly inappropriate. Reported impedances and single electrode polarization values must be scrutinized on this basis.

  15. Value Personalisation: A Base for Value Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Lydia

    This study examined the impact of the Value Clarification Action Plan on the quality of values education for secondary school students. The study identified values to be modeled through teacher behavior, created an action plan for preservice teachers through the values clarification process, trained students in values personalization, helped…

  16. The Semantic Values of "Ser" and "Estar."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMello, George

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the distinctions that exist among the uses of "ser" and "estar" in Spanish. They are explained with reference to the semantic values present in the three basic functions of these verbs: principal, auxiliary, and attributive. (NCR)

  17. [Echocardiographic reference ranges of sedated cats].

    PubMed

    Dümmel, C; Neu, H; Hüttig, A; Failing, K

    1996-04-01

    The aim of this study was to get echocardiographic values of sedated healthy cats of the race European short hair for further reference. After the preliminary examinations checking on the state of health (anamnesis, general and special clinical examinations, ECG, X-ray of thorax and preparation of selected laboratory parameters), 74 sedated animals and additionally 33 cats without sedation were echocardiographically measured. For sedatives we used ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine in order to minimize defending movements of the animals and to reduce the heart rate, which facilitated the echocardiographical measurements. The covariance analysis of the measured values showed a statistically significant dependence on the weight. This did not hold for the two calculated values of the fractional shortening (FS) and the quotient of left atrium and aorta (LA/Ao), where the weight-dependence of each component was compensated by the calculation of the quotient. All stated weight-dependent reference values refer to an average bodyweight of 4.0 kg. A dependence on the age did not show in the covariance analysis. Due to the sedation, the diameter of the left atrium (LA) and the diameter of the left ventricular lumen in the diastole (LVDd) as well as the fractional shortening decreased significantly. PMID:8650689

  18. Global daily reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing daily reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year daily data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ???100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a daily basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world

  19. Reference Artifacts for NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M; Hibbard, R; Martz, H E

    2003-02-11

    Two reference artifacts will be fabricated for this study. One of the artifacts will have a cylindrical geometry and will contain features similar to those on an SNRT target. The second artifact will have a spherical geometry and will contain features similar to those on a Double Shell target. The artifacts were designed for manufacturability and to provide a range of features that can be measured using NDE methods. The cylindrical reference artifact is illustrated in Figure 1. This artifact consists of a polystyrene body containing two steps and a machined slot, into which will fit a tracer made of doped polystyrene. The polystyrene body contains several grooves and can be fabricated entirely on a diamond turning machine. The body can be machined by turning a PS rod to a diameter slightly greater than the finished diameter of 2 mm. The part can be moved off-axis to face it off and to machine the steps, slot, and grooves. The tracer contains a drilled hole and a milled slot, which could be machined with a single setup on a milling machine. Once assembled, the artifact could be placed in a Be tube or other structure relevant to target assemblies. The assembled artifact will contain many features that could be measured using various NDE methods. Some of these features are: Diameter; Maximum height; Step height; Dimensions of upper step; Radius at the union of the bottom of step and the vertical wall; Sizes of the grooves; Distance from step to groove; Slot width; Slot height; Location of the groove beneath the tracer; Diameter and location of drilled hole in tracer; and Size and location of slot in tracer. The spherical reference artifact is illustrated in Figure 2. This artifact is intended to replicate a double shell target, which consists of concentric polymer spheres separated by aerogel. The artifact consists of an upper hemispherical shell composed of 1% BrCH, which mates via a step joint with a hemispherical component made of polystyrene. This lower component

  20. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  1. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  2. Development of solid thorium-232 reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Engelder, P.R.; Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.B.

    1985-05-01

    Thorium-232 reference materials having a matrix similar to soil and uranium-mill tailings are necessary for ensuring uniform standardization among measurements performed by remedial-action contractors. A task was undertaken by the Technical Measurements Center (TMC) to prepare some 200 pounds each of three different concentrations of Th-232 reference material by diluting a thorium ore with soil. Target values for Th-232 content were 70, 30, and 10 pCi/g. The recommended thorium-232 concentrations for the three reference materials are 71.2 +- 2.0 pCi/g, 30.5 +- 0.6 pCi/g, and 10.2 +- 0.3 pCi/g.

  3. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  4. Outstanding Reference Sources of 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlman, James R.

    1987-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 37 reference sources for small and medium sized public and academic libraries, categorized by subject area. These titles were selected by the Reference Sources Committee of the Reference and Adult Services Division of the American Library Association. (CLB)

  5. Gestural Viewpoint Signals Referent Accessibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debreslioska, Sandra; Özyürek, Asli; Gullberg, Marianne; Perniss, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The tracking of entities in discourse is known to be a bimodal phenomenon. Speakers achieve cohesion in speech by alternating between full lexical forms, pronouns, and zero anaphora as they track referents. They also track referents in co-speech gestures. In this study, we explored how viewpoint is deployed in reference tracking, focusing on…

  6. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  7. Students' Perceptions of Reference Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brian K.; Appel, Jonathan; Smith, Donald H.; Hoofnagle, Kara

    2006-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of reference letters. Students (n = 444) were asked to describe how they perceived reference letters. Four themes were uncovered. First, some students perceived reference letters as useful for employers. Second, some students perceived the letters as important for students seeking employment or admission…

  8. Reference Management in Instructive Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Alfons; Arts, Anja; Noordman, Leo

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of 2 language-in-use factors on the introduction and maintenance of referents in instructive discourse. These factors, implemented as conditions in an instructive production task, were the assumed visual identity for the reader of the objects or referents to be referred to in the instructions (visually same vs.…

  9. Focusing on Quality Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicknell, Tracy

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of the assessment of the quality of library reference service focuses on four aspects of service interaction: user needs and expectations, staff behavior and communication skills, the reference environment, and staff morale and workload. Measurement techniques for each aspect are also described. (Contains 36 references.) (LRW)

  10. Cultural Literacy and Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Aniello, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the role of library reference services in the enhancement of cultural literacy. The discussion covers the relationship between the extent of cultural literacy possessed by reference librarians and the quality of librarian patron interactions, and the role of reference sources in the cultural literacy of librarians and patrons. (53…

  11. New Reference: Diversifying Service Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Imogen

    This paper describes the experiences of a recent change process that focused on the delivery of reference services at the University of Western Australia (UWA). UWA reference librarians felt that they could not fulfill all of their duties while working from the reference desk for a significant period of time each day; they wanted time away from…

  12. Reference Policies and Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA.

    This guide to services of the reference department of Fenwick Library, George Mason University, is intended for use by staff in the department, as well as the general public. Areas covered include (1) reference desk services to users; (2) reference desk support procedures; (3) off desk services; (4) collection development, including staff…

  13. Range reference atmosphere models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Galusha, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used to establish the statistical parameters and models for wind and various thermodynamic quantities at an altitude of 0-70 km for nine geographical locations. It is noted that wind is modeled as a vector quantity using the bivariate normal probability function. With the five parameters of the bivariate normal distribution, the distribution for wind speed is derived as a generalized Rayleigh distribution. In addition, the frequency of wind direction is derived, and the conditional distribution of wind speed given the wind direction is derived. It is pointed out that these and other wind models are consistent with the rigorous mathematical properties of the bivariate normal probability theory. The thermodynamic quantities are consistent with the hydrostatic equation and the equation of state for the mean values. With these methods, many statistical relationships can be derived.

  14. Capillary reference half-cell

    DOEpatents

    Hall, S.H.

    1996-02-13

    The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods. 11 figs.

  15. Capillary reference half-cell

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Stephen H.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods.

  16. Thoughts on Earned Value Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pido, Kelle

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of Earned Value reporting and Earned Value Metrics (EVM) and the implementation for the Constellation Program. EVM is used to manage both the contract and civil service workforce, and used as a measure of contractor costs and performance. The Program EVM is not as useful for Level of Effort tasking, for either contractor, or civil service employees. Some issues and concerns in reference to EVM and the process for the use of EVM for Mission assurance are reviewed,

  17. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-01

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  18. Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames

    SciTech Connect

    Kamalov, Timur F.

    2010-12-22

    Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

  19. Multi-Elemental Nuclear Analysis of soil reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Medeiros, I. M. M. Amaral; Menezes, M. À. B. C.

    2011-08-01

    The elements concentration in the soil reference material (IAEA/SOIL-7) was obtained using the parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (CNEN-SP). The results obtained were in good agreement with the respective nominal values from this reference material suggesting the viability of using this parametric procedure for environmental investigations.

  20. Developing a Model To Provide Digital Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemper, James A.; Butler, John T.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an organizational model for providing digital reference services to all users who access the library remotely that was developed for distance learners at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities library. Describes the planning and implementation process, and discusses organizational change issues and the value of digital reference services…

  1. Myths of Isotopic Reference Materials Busted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplen, T.

    2007-12-01

    During the past several years, the determination of the isotopic abundances of elements including H, Li, B, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Tl, and Se has substantially increased because of expanded use in hydrology, environmental studies, microbiology, forensic investigations, atmospheric investigations, oceanography, etc. Improvements in instrumentation enable increasingly precise isotope-amount-ratio measurements in these fields, but these improvements in precision commonly do not lead to improvements in accuracy because of the lack or improper use of isotopic reference materials. When properly used, these critically important materials enable any laboratory worldwide to measure the same homogeneous sample and report the same isotopic abundance within analytical uncertainty. For example, for stable isotopic analysis of gaseous hydrogen samples, the agreement among 36 laboratories worldwide before normalization to any hydrogen gas reference material was 11.8 per mill. After normalization to anchors (gaseous H isotopic reference materials) at each end of the delta H-2 scale, the agreement was 0.85 per mill, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude. Consistency of delta C-13 measurements often can be improved by nearly 50 percent by anchoring the delta C-13 scale with two isotopic reference materials differing substantially in C-13 mole fraction, namely NBS 19 calcite and L-SVEC lithium carbonate. Agreement of delta C-13 values of four expert laboratories analyzing USGS40 L- glutamic acid by CF-IRMS methods improved from 0.084 to 0.015 per mill with use of the two scale anchors (NBS 19 and L-SVEC). Solid oxygen isotopic reference materials (IAEA-600 caffeine, IAEA-601 and IAEA-602 benzoic acids, IAEA-NO-3, USGS32, USGS34, and USGS35 nitrates, NBS-127, IAEA-SO-5, and IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfates) are poorly calibrated. Calibrating these solids to the VSMOW-SLAP reference water scale has been very difficult because both the solids and reference

  2. Object Relations and the Development of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, George M.; Sedgwick, Charlalee

    1990-01-01

    Claims acquisition of values is related to successes and failures of early relationships. Describes steps person goes through in making identifications, explaining steps that move person toward construction of value system. Refers to works of Heinz Kohut to explain how child's idealizing has within it necessary components for child's growth in…

  3. Order and Value: Transitioning to Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofferding, Laura

    2014-01-01

    As students progress from working with whole numbers to working with integers, they must wrestle with the big ideas of number values and order. Using objects to show positive quantities is easy, but no physical negative quantities exist. Therefore, when talking about integers, the author refers to number values instead of number quantities. The…

  4. Values Education and Some Suggestions to Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirhan Iscan, Canay

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the process, approaches and teacher roles in values education and offers recommendations for teachers. It uses print materials and Internet sources on values education. These sources were analyzed and synthesized to reveal certain cases and/or opinions. In addition to contemporary sources, older reference materials were also…

  5. Mycotoxins: regulations, quality assurance and reference materials.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, H P

    1995-01-01

    Some 60 countries have currently enacted or proposed regulations for control of mycotoxins (primarily the aflatoxins) in food and animal feed. Various factors influence the establishment of limits for certain mycotoxins, but there is no consistent rationale for setting limits or for enforcement control. The enforcement of the regulations requires monitoring of suspected commodities. Many laboratories perform large numbers of determinations of mycotoxins, in particular aflatoxins, and consider their results to be reliable. Nevertheless, it often happens that laboratories find quite different analytical results on samples that have been especially homogenized for interlaboratory studies. The application of Quality Assurance principles contributes to the reliability of mycotoxin measurements. Quality Assurance is focused on the organizational process and the conditions under which laboratory studies are planned, performed, monitored, recorded, reported and archived. This is, in itself, an important contribution to the scientific value of a study. A Quality Assurance programme should include various elements, including (certified) reference materials, if available. Certified reference materials are stable, homogeneous products with certified values of the analyte(s) of interest. Various certified reference materials for mycotoxins have been prepared by the European Commission's Community Bureau of Reference, in co-operation with several European laboratories (aflatoxin M1 in milk powder, aflatoxins B1 B2, G1, and G2 in peanut butter, aflatoxin B1 in peanut meal and compound feed, deoxynivalenol in wheat and maize flour). Other reference materials are in a well-advanced development stage (ochratoxin A in wheat flour and pig kidney, fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize). PMID:7664922

  6. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

  7. Reach for Reference: Elementary-Middle School Science Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of some new school science reference works. Two of the sources are traditional, while one is considered experimental. The two traditional reference works reviewed are "The American Heritage Children's Science Dictionary" for upper elementary grades, and "The American Heritage Student Science Dictionary" for…

  8. Statewide Supplemental Reference Service: New Jersey's Model for Backup Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberg, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the history of backup reference service in the state of New Jersey including the transition from regional backup service; describes the current statewide service; and considers future service possibilities in light of recent trends, including a decrease in the number of reference questions being received in libraries. (LRW)

  9. User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

  10. Reference Readiness for AV Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

  11. Values for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Graham

    2007-01-01

    What are values? Where do our values come from? How do our values make a difference in education? For educational leaders to achieve distinction in their practice, it is vital to establish clear personal values rather than reacting to the implicit values of others. This engaging book guides readers in considering the values they bring to their…

  12. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  13. European Vertical Reference System Influence in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celms, A.; Reķe, I.; Ratkevičs, A.

    2015-11-01

    Till 1 December, 2014, in Latvia the heights were determined in Baltic Normal Height System 1977. The national height system is determined by the Cabinet of Ministers and internal laws. Now for the change of the national height system to reconcile it with the European Vertical Reference System, amendments to the laws and regulations have been developed, but so far only the amendment to the Geospatial Information Law is in force, the amendment to the regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers is still not approved. This amendment declares the Latvia Height System based on the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia as the national height system. For height transformation, there is a transformation formula for each European country. After calculations it is seen that height difference between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and European Vertical Reference System depends on point location in the territory (coordinates). This unequal height difference between both height systems will cause unequal height values on border connection points between Baltic countries. The aim of the research is to evaluate the European Vertical Reference System in Latvia. To reach the aim the following tasks are set: 1) to evaluate the components of transformation formulas; 2) using the transformation formulas to calculate height differences between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the European Vertical Reference System realization EVRF2007 for the territory of Latvia and also between Baltic Normal Height System 1977 and the Latvia Normal Height System; 3) to get height differences in the European Vertical Reference System on the borderlines of Latvia - Estonia and Latvia - Lithuania.

  14. Choice by Value Encoding and Value Construction: Processes of Loss Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen, Martijn C.; Bockenholt, Ulf; Johnson, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Loss aversion and reference dependence are 2 keystones of behavioral theories of choice, but little is known about their underlying cognitive processes. We suggest an additional account for loss aversion that supplements the current account of the value encoding of attributes as gains or losses relative to a reference point, introducing a value…

  15. Queuing Theory and Reference Transactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terbille, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Examines the implications of applying the queuing theory to three different reference situations: (1) random patron arrivals; (2) random durations of transactions; and (3) use of two librarians. Tables and figures represent results from spreadsheet calculations of queues for each reference situation. (JMV)

  16. Moving Reference to the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlamery, Susan; Coffman, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explores the possibility of using Web contact center software to offer reference assistance to remote users. Discusses a project by the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System/Santiago Library System consortium to test contact center software and to develop a virtual reference network. (Author/LRW)

  17. Reference and the Technology Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedling, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the influence of timesaving and inspiring reference technologies on the field of reference services is assessed. Library media specialists are advised to be aware of and embrace such emerging technologies, as these will enable them to make information gathering effective and efficient and create information-literate students.

  18. "In Your Face" Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    1999-01-01

    Discusses changes in library reference service that have occurred with growing Internet use. Topics include the human factor that is still needed; the nature of reference questions; the goal of user self-sufficiency; the invisible nature of much of librarians' work; and providing real-time, interactive point-of-need service to remote users. (LRW)

  19. Reference Services: A Handmaid's Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Clare

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of problems in library reference services focuses on the influence of gender roles. A historical overview of gender roles in the development of American librarianship is presented that highlights stereotyped views of and attitudes toward women, which the author suggests still have influences on librarianship today. (17 references) (LRW)

  20. The Virtual Reference Librarian's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    This book is a practical guide to librarians and their administrators who are thinking about or in the early stages of providing virtual reference service. Part 1, "The Decision to Go Virtual," provides a context for thinking about virtual reference, including the benefits and problems, getting in the virtual frame of mind, and shopping for…