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Sample records for age-stage two-sex life

  1. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Li, Ni; Wang, Xing; Ma, Li; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis is an important pest of many aquatic vegetables including water chestnuts. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of P. crisonalis is essential to predicting its population dynamics in water chestnuts ponds. These relationships were examined in this study based on the age-stage, two-sex life table of P. crisonalis developed in the laboratory at 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36°C. The results showed that the values of Sxj (age-stage-specific survival rate), fxj (age-stage-specific fecundity), lx (age specific survival rate) and mx (age-specific fecundity) increased as the temperature rose from 21 to 27°C, then decreased from 30 to 36°C. Temperature also had a significant effect on the net reproductive rate (R0), gross reproductive rate (GRR), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ). The value of these parameters were at low levels at 21, 33, and 36°C. Further, the r value decreased as the temperature rose from 24 to 30°C, while the GRR reached its highest level at 27°C. The results indicated that optimal growth and development of P. crisonalis occurred at temperatures between 24°C to 30°C when compared to the lowest temperature (21°C) and higher temperatures of 33°C and 36°C.

  2. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Li, Ni; Wang, Xing; Ma, Li; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis is an important pest of many aquatic vegetables including water chestnuts. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of P. crisonalis is essential to predicting its population dynamics in water chestnuts ponds. These relationships were examined in this study based on the age-stage, two-sex life table of P. crisonalis developed in the laboratory at 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36°C. The results showed that the values of Sxj (age-stage–specific survival rate), fxj (age-stage-specific fecundity), lx (age specific survival rate) and mx (age-specific fecundity) increased as the temperature rose from 21 to 27°C, then decreased from 30 to 36°C. Temperature also had a significant effect on the net reproductive rate (R0), gross reproductive rate (GRR), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ). The value of these parameters were at low levels at 21, 33, and 36°C. Further, the r value decreased as the temperature rose from 24 to 30°C, while the GRR reached its highest level at 27°C. The results indicated that optimal growth and development of P. crisonalis occurred at temperatures between 24°C to 30°C when compared to the lowest temperature (21°C) and higher temperatures of 33°C and 36°C. PMID:28264022

  3. Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maimusa, Hamisu A; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Rahim, Junaid

    2016-03-01

    The life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage, two-sex life table. Findings inclusive in this study are: adult preoviposition periods, total preoviposition period, mean intrinsic rate of increase (r), mean finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rates (R0), and mean generation time (T). The total preadult development time was 9.47 days for Ae. albopictus and 8.76 days for Ae. aegypti. The life expectancy was 19.01 days for Ae. albopictus and 19.94 days for Ae. aegypti. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature for Ae. albopictus (r  =  -0.208, P > 0.05) and (r  =  -0.312, P > 0.05) for Ae. aegypti. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategists characterized by a high r, a large R0, and short T. This present study provides the first report to compare the life parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti strains from Penang island, Malaysia.

  4. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae) feeding on four palm plant varieties.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Lin, Yu-Ying; Jin, Qi-An; Wen, Hai-Bo; Peng, Zheng-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    The life history of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae), reared under laboratory conditions on leaves of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), royal palm [Roystonea regia (Kunth) O.F.Cook], bottle palm [Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. Bailey) H.E.Moore], and fishtail palm (Caryota ochlandra Hance) was analyzed using age-stage, two-sex life table. Means and standard errors of population growth parameters were calculated using the jackknife method. Moreover, survival rate and fecundity data were applied to project the population for revealing the different stage structure. The mean intrinsic rates of population growth when reared on each respective leaf type were 0.032, 0.031, 0.019, and 0.044. Individuals reared on C. nucifera achieved the highest net reproduction rate at 114.5 offspring per female. The mean generation times of B. longissima ranged from 93.2 d (reared on C. ochlandrai) to 161.5 d (reared on H. lagenicaulis). Projections from survival rate and fecundity data indicated that B. longissima populations can row considerably faster on C. ochlandra than on the other three host plants. The results validate the two-stage life history approach taken, providing an essential tool for developing and testing future control strategies.

  5. Development: Ages & Stages--Emerging Physical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how children develop their motor skills at different age levels. Newborn's movements are jerky and uncoordinated. Spending lots of floor time with a baby lying on her back or stomach helps her develop coordination, balance, and muscle strength during her earliest months. As locomotion enters a baby's life, she…

  6. Age, stage and senescence in plants

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Hal; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    1. Senescence (an increase in the mortality rate or force of mortality, or a decrease in fertility, with increasing age) is a widespread phenomenon. Theories about the evolution of senescence have long focused on the age trajectories of the selection gradients on mortality and fertility. In purely age-classified models, these selection gradients are non-increasing with age, implying that traits expressed early in life have a greater impact on fitness than traits expressed later in life. This pattern leads inevitably to the evolution of senescence if there are trade-offs between early and late performance. 2. It has long been suspected that the stage- or size-dependent demography typical of plants might change these conclusions. In this paper, we develop a model that includes both stage- and age-dependence and derive the age-dependent, stage-dependent and age×stage-dependent selection gradients on mortality and fertility. 3. We applied this model to stage-classified population projection matrices for 36 species of plants, from a wide variety of growth forms (from mosses to trees) and habitats. 4. We found that the age-specific selection gradients within a life cycle stage can exhibit increases with age (we call these contra-senescent selection gradients). In later stages, often large size classes in plant demography, the duration of these contra-senescent gradients can exceed the life expectancy by several fold. 5. Synthesis. The interaction of age- and stage-dependence in plants leads to selection pressures on senescence fundamentally different from those found in previous, age-classified theories. This result may explain the observation that large plants seem less subject to senescence than most kinds of animals. The methods presented here can lead to improved analysis of both age-dependent and stage-dependent demographic properties of plant populations. PMID:23741075

  7. Confronting two-sex demographic models with data.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tom E X; Inouye, Brian D

    2011-11-01

    Most population dynamics models explicitly track the density of a single sex. When the operational sex ratio can vary, two-sex models may be needed to understand and predict population trajectories. Various functions have been proposed to describe the relative contributions of females and males to recruitment, and these functions can differ qualitatively in the patterns that they generate. Which mating function best describes the dynamics of real populations is not known, since alternative two-sex models have not been confronted with experimental data. We conducted the first such comparison, using laboratory populations of the bean beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Manipulations of the operational sex ratio and total density provided strong support for a demographic model in which the birth rate was proportional to the harmonic mean of female and male densities, and females, males, and their offspring made unique contributions to density dependence. We offer guidelines for transferring this approach to other, less tractable systems in which possibilities for sex ratio manipulations are more limited. We show that informative experimental designs require strong perturbations of the operational sex ratio. The functional form of density dependence (saturating vs. over-compensatory) and the relative contributions of each sex to density dependence can both determine in which direction and at which population densities such perturbations would be most informative. Our experimental results and guidelines for design strategies promote synthesis of two-sex population dynamics theory with empirical data.

  8. Life Satisfaction across Four Stages of Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Morris L.

    1980-01-01

    For men life satisfaction was related to age stage in a monotonic increasing fashion. Life satisfaction scores remained relatively constant across the age stages for women. Family life and standard of living were found to be significant determinants of life satisfaction, for both sexes at each stage of adulthood. (Author)

  9. Mating behavior, population growth, and the operational sex ratio: a periodic two-sex model approach.

    PubMed

    Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Caswell, Hal; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2010-06-01

    We present a new approach to modeling two-sex populations, using periodic, nonlinear two-sex matrix models. The models project the population growth rate, the population structure, and any ratio of interest (e.g., operational sex ratio). The periodic formulation permits inclusion of highly seasonal behavioral events. A periodic product of the seasonal matrices describes annual population dynamics. The model is nonlinear because mating probability depends on the structure of the population. To study how the vital rates influence population growth rate, population structure, and operational sex ratio, we used sensitivity analysis of frequency-dependent nonlinear models. In nonlinear two-sex models the vital rates affect growth rate directly and also indirectly through effects on the population structure. The indirect effects can sometimes overwhelm the direct effects and are revealed only by nonlinear analysis. We find that the sensitivity of the population growth rate to female survival is negative for the emperor penguin, a species with highly seasonal breeding behavior. This result could not occur in linear models because changes in population structure have no effect on per capita reproduction. Our approach is applicable to ecological and evolutionary studies of any species in which males and females interact in a seasonal environment.

  10. ADAPTING A PARENT-COMPLETED, SOCIOEMOTIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE IN CHINA: THE AGES & STAGES QUESTIONNAIRES: SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xiaoyan; Xie, Huichao; Squires, Jane; Chen, Chieh-Yu

    2017-03-01

    The Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE; Squires, Bricker, & Twombly, 2002a), developed in the United States, was translated and adapted for use in China. Lack of valid and reliable instruments for identifying social and emotional delays in young children is a worldwide issue. Professionals in China have recently focused efforts on developing methods for early identification of social, emotional, and behavioral issues in the birth-to-5 population. Following the guidelines of the International Test Commission, the ASQ:SE was translated into Simplified Chinese (ASQ:SE-C) to collect a normative sample of 2,528 children across China. Data were analyzed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the ASQ:SE-C, using both classical test theory and item response theory, including generating cutoff points appropriate for the Chinese sample. A panel of Chinese experts was surveyed to assess face validity and estimated utility of the newly adapted tool. Discussions of research findings and implications for future studies are provided.

  11. Numerical simulation of a two-sex human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, I.; Adi-Kusumo, F.

    2014-02-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, cancer and other disease. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Although HPV virus primarily affects woman but it can also affects man because it cause of cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina, penis and some other cancers. HPV vaccines now used to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts because the vaccine protect against four types of HPV that most commonly cause disease are types 6, 11, 16, and 18. This paper is sequel work of Elbasha (2008). Difference with Elbasha (2008) are give alternative proof global stability, numerical simulation and interpretation. Global stability of the equilibrium on the model of a two-sex HPV vaccination were explored by using Lyapunov. Although we use the same lyapunov function, we use the largest invariant set to proof the global stability. The result show that the global stability of the equilibrium depends on the effective reproduction number (R). If R < 1 then the infection-free equilibrium is asymptotically stable globally. If R > 1 then endemic equilibrium have globally asymptotically stable properties. Then equilibrium proceed with the interpretation of numerical simulation.

  12. Short-Term and Long-Term Educational Mobility of Families: A Two-Sex Approach.

    PubMed

    Song, Xi; Mare, Robert D

    2017-02-01

    We use a multigenerational perspective to investigate how families reproduce and pass their educational advantages to succeeding generations. Unlike traditional mobility studies that have typically focused on one-sex influences from fathers to sons, we rely on a two-sex approach that accounts for interactions between males and females-the process in which males and females mate and have children with those of similar educational statuses and jointly determine the educational status attainment of their offspring. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we approach this issue from both a short-term and a long-term perspective. For the short term, grandparents' educational attainments have a direct association with grandchildren's education as well as an indirect association that is mediated by parents' education and demographic behaviors. For the long term, initial educational advantages of families may benefit as many as three subsequent generations, but such advantages are later offset by the lower fertility of highly educated persons. Yet, all families eventually achieve the same educational distribution of descendants because of intermarriages between families of high- and low-education origin.

  13. Modeling the Effects of Constant and Variable Temperatures on the Vital Rates of an Age-, Stage-, and Sex-Structured Population by Means of the SANDY Approach.

    PubMed

    Nachman, G; Gotoh, T

    2015-06-01

    We present a general and flexible mathematical model (called SANDY) that can be used to describe many biological phenomena, including the phenology of arthropods. In this paper, we demonstrate how the model can be fitted to vital rates (i.e., rates associated with development, survival, hatching, and oviposition) of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch)) exposed to different constant temperatures ranging from 15°C to 37.5°C. SANDY was incorporated into an age-, stage- and sex-structured dynamic model, which was fitted to cohort life-tables of T. urticae conducted at five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C). Age- and temperature-dependent vital rates for the three main stages (eggs, immatures, and adults) constituting the life-cycle of mites were adequately described by the SANDY model. The modeling approach allows for simulating the growth of a population in a variable environment. We compared the predicted net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) at fluctuating temperatures with empirical values obtained from life-table experiments conducted at temperatures that changed with a daily amplitude (±0, ±3, ±6, ±9, and ±12°C) around an average of 22°C. Results show that R0 decreases with increasing amplitude, while rm is more robust to variable temperatures. An advantage of SANDY is that the same simple mathematical expression can be applied to describe all the vital rates. Besides, the approach is not confined to modeling the influence of a single factor on population growth but allows for incorporating the combined effect of several limiting factors, provided that the combined effect of the factors is multiplicative.

  14. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    PubMed

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis.

  15. Life History of Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a Blowfly of Medical and Forensic Importance.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Garcia, D M; Pérez-Hérazo, A; Amat, E

    2017-03-06

    The life history traits of blow fly Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) was studied under semi-controlled laboratory conditions at 29.14°C temperature, 72.53% relative humidity, and 12-h photoperiod. The raw data were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table, considering the development rates among individuals of both sexes. Cochliomyia macellaria survival rate was 0.43 (♂) and 0.40 (♀), while life expectancy was 17.9 (♂) and 20.9 (♀) days, for adult males and females, respectively. The total fecundity was 681.15 eggs/female, with an average of 3.65 batches/female and 199 eggs/batch. The intrinsic rate of increase (r) was 0.327 days(-1), the finite rate of population increase (λ) was 3.35 days(-1), the mean generation time (T) was 17.15 days, and the net reproduction rate (R 0 ) was 272.46 offspring/individual. The population parameters found here corroborates that C. macellaria population act as a r selected species under laboratory conditions. Additionally, development data and accumulated degree days (ADD) for each stage of C. macellaria are provided and its implications for the forensic use are discussed.

  16. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles reveal novel candidate genes associated with meat quality at different age stages in hens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Yan, Feng-Bin; Li, Fang; Jiang, Ke-Ren; Li, Dong-Hua; Han, Rui-Li; Li, Zhuan-Jan; Jiang, Rui-Rui; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Xiang-Tao; Sun, Gui-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Poultry meat quality is associated with breed, age, tissue and other factors. Many previous studies have focused on distinct breeds; however, little is known regarding the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in different age stages, such as DNA methylation. Here, we compared the global DNA methylation profiles between juvenile (20 weeks old) and later laying-period (55 weeks old) hens and identified candidate genes related to the development and meat quality of breast muscle using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. The results showed that the later laying-period hens, which had a higher intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition capacity and water holding capacity (WHC) and less tenderness, exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels than the juvenile hens. A total of 2,714 differentially methylated regions were identified in the present study, which corresponded to 378 differentially methylated genes, mainly affecting muscle development, lipid metabolism, and the ageing process. Hypermethylation of the promoters of the genes ABCA1, COL6A1 and GSTT1L and the resulting transcriptional down-regulation in the later laying-period hens may be the reason for the significant difference in the meat quality between the juvenile and later laying-period hens. These findings contribute to a better understanding of epigenetic regulation in the skeletal muscle development and meat quality of chicken. PMID:28378745

  17. Identification of internal reference genes for gene expression normalization between the two sexes in dioecious white Campion.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Niklaus; Minder, Aria; Widmer, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR is a precise and efficient method for studying gene expression changes between two states of interest, and is frequently used for validating interesting gene expression patterns in candidate genes initially identified in genome-wide expression analyses, such as RNA-seq experiments. For an adequate normalisation of qRT-PCR data, it is essential to have reference genes available whose expression intensities are constant among the different states of interest. In this study we present and validate a catalogue of traditional and newly identified reference genes that were selected from RNA-seq data from multiple individuals from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia with the aim of studying gene expression differences between the two sexes in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. The catalogue contains more than 15 reference genes with both stable expression intensities and a range of expression intensities in flower buds and leaf tissues. These reference genes were used to normalize expression differences between reproductive and vegetative tissues in eight candidate genes with sex-biased expression. Our results suggest a trend towards a reduced sex-bias in sex-linked gene expression in vegetative tissues. In this study, we report on the systematic identification and validation of internal reference genes for adequate normalization of qRT-PCR-based analyses of gene expression differences between the two sexes in S. latifolia. We also show how RNA-seq data can be used efficiently to identify suitable reference genes in a wide diversity of species.

  18. Developmental screening in a Canadian First Nation (Mohawk): psychometric properties and adaptations of ages & stages questionnaires (2nd edition)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The need for early intervention tools adapted to the First Nation culture is well documented. However, standards derived from First Nation communities are absent from the literature. This study examines the psychometric properties of an adaptation of a caregiver-completed screening tool, the Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ), for the Mohawk population. Methods Participants who completed the questionnaires include 17 teachers, along with the parents of 282 children (130 girls and 152 boys) between the ages of 9 and 66 months who attend the Child and Family Center Mohawk Territory, Quebec. Results For the internal consistency of the four questionnaires (36-, 42-, 48- and 54-month intervals), Cronbach’s alphas varied between .61 and .84. Five results were below 0.60: “gross motor” (Q36 and Q42), “problem solving” (Q36) and “personal-social” (Q36 and Q42). A comparison of the results shows that parents and teachers agreed in 85% of the cases concerning the referral of the child for further evaluation. Moreover, the group discussion with the parents revealed that the use of the questionnaire was appreciated and was deemed appropriate for use within the community. Conclusion The results show that the ASQ is a screening test that may be appropriate for use with children from communities that are seemingly very different in terms of geographic, climatic and cultural backgrounds. This preliminary study with the Child and Family Center appears to support further study and the use of the ASQ with the Mohawk population. PMID:24467769

  19. Regular physical activity is associated with improved small artery distensibility in young to middle-age stage 1 hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Saladini, Francesca; Benetti, Elisabetta; Mos, Lucio; Mazzer, Adriano; Casiglia, Edoardo; Palatini, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of physical activity with small artery elasticity in the early stage of hypertension. We examined 366 young-to-middle-age stage 1 hypertensives (mean blood pressure 145.6±10.3/92.5±5.8 mmHg), divided into two categories of physical activity, sedentary (n=264) and non-sedentary (n=102) subjects. The augmentation index was measured using the Specaway DAT System. Small artery compliance (C2) was measured by applanation tonometry, at the radial artery, with an HDI CR2000 device. After 6 years of follow-up, arterial distensibility assessment was repeated in 151 subjects. Heart rate was lower in active than in sedentary subjects (71.2±8.9 vs 76.6±9.7 bpm, p<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, heart rate, smoking, and blood pressure, C2 was higher (8.0±2.6 vs 6.4±3.0 ml/mmHg × 100, p=0.008) in non-sedentary than in sedentary patients. The augmentation index was smaller in the former (8.8±20.1 vs 16.8±26.5%, p=0.044) but the difference lost statistical significance after further adjustment for blood pressure. After 6 years, C2 was still higher in the non-sedentary than sedentary subjects. In addition, an improvement in the augmentation index accompanied by a decline in total peripheral resistance was found in the former. These data show that regular physical activity is associated with improved small artery elasticity in the early phase of hypertension. This association persists over time and is independent of blood pressure and heart rate.

  20. An Evaluation of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Performance on Different Plant Leaves Based on Life History Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Di; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Huang, Fang; Bei, Ya-Wei; Lin, Wen-Cai; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    To compare the performance of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and native Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) on cucumber and tomato leaves in laboratory, life history characters were investigated, and life tables were constructed using the method of age-stage, two-sex table life. Compared with tomato leaf, there were shorter total preoviposition period (TPOP), higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher intrinsic rate of increase (r) of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa on cucumber leaf. Meanwhile, on cucumber leaf, the shorter TPOP, higher fecundity, longer female longevity, and higher value of r were found on population of F. intonsa but on tomato leaf which were found on population of F. occidentalis. From above, cucumber leaf was the preference to population development of both F. occidentalis and F. intonsa compared with tomato leaf. Nevertheless, on cucumber leaf, population of F. intonsa would grow faster than that of F. occidentalis, which was the opposite on tomato leaf. As to the population development in fields, much more factors would be taken into account, such as pollen, insecticide resistance, and effects of natural enemies etc. PMID:25673049

  1. Adaptability of small brown planthopper to four rice cultivars using life table and population projection method

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-Min; Tao, Yun-Li; Chi, Hsin; Wan, Fang-Hao; Chu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the adaptability of the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) to four rice cultivars including Shengdao13 (SD13), Shengdao14 (SD14), Shengdao15 (SD15), and Zixiangnuo (ZXN) using the age-stage, two-sex life table with a simplified method for recording egg production (i.e., every five days vs. daily). The intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the SBPH was the highest (0.1067 d−1) on cultivar SD15, which was similar to the rate on SD14 (0.1029 d−1), but was significantly higher than that occurring on ZXN (0.0897 d−1) and SD13 (0.0802 d−1). The differences of the finite rate of increase (λ) on the four rice cultivars were consistent with the r values. Population projection predicted an explosive population growth of the SBPH occurring in a relatively short time when reared on SD14 and SD15. These findings demonstrated that the SBPH can successfully survive on the four rice cultivars, although there were varying host adaptabilities. PMID:28205522

  2. Flight metabolic rate has contrasting effects on dispersal in the two sexes of the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    PubMed

    Niitepõld, Kristjan; Mattila, Anniina L K; Harrison, Philip J; Hanski, Ilkka

    2011-04-01

    Evolution of dispersal is affected by context-specific costs and benefits. One example is sex-biased dispersal in mammals and birds. While many such patterns have been described, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we study genetic and phenotypic traits that affect butterfly flight capacity and examine how these traits are related to dispersal in male and female Glanville fritillary butterflies (Melitaea cinxia). We performed two mark-recapture experiments to examine the associations of individuals' peak flight metabolic rate (MR(peak)) and Pgi genotype with their dispersal in the field. In a third experiment, we studied tethered flight in the laboratory. MR(peak) was negatively correlated with dispersal distance in males but the trend was positive in females, and the interaction between MR(peak) and sex was significant for long-distance dispersal. A similar but nonsignificant trend was found in relation to molecular variation at Pgi, which encodes a glycolytic enzyme: the genotype associated with high MR(peak) tended to be less dispersive in males but more dispersive in females. The same pattern was repeated in the tethered flight experiment: the relationship between MR(peak) and flight duration was positive in females but negative in males. These results suggest that females with high flight capacity are superior in among-population dispersal, which facilitates the spatial spreading of their reproductive effort. In contrast, males with high flight capacity may express territorial behaviour, and thereby increase the number of matings, whereas inferior males may be forced to disperse. Thus, flight capacity has opposite associations with dispersal rate in the two sexes.

  3. Life table study of the effects of sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam on Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei; Wang, Qiuhong; Li, Hui; Chen, Chengyu

    2014-05-01

    Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang (chive gnat) is the major insect pest affecting Chinese chive in Northern China. In order to explore the integrated control of B. odoriphaga, sublethal effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam were studied. The standard contact and stomach bioassay method was used to assess the effects of sublethal (LC5 and LC20) concentrations of thiamethoxam on the demographic parameters of B. odoriphaga, and data were interpreted based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. After thiamethoxam treatment, the intrinsic and finite rates of increase, net reproduction rate, survival rate, and reproductive value were all markedly decreased, while the mean generation time, total preovipositional period, and larval and pupal duration were prolonged, compared with controls. The intrinsic rates of increase dropped from 0.1775/day to 0.1502-0.1136/day. Following LC5 and LC20 treatments, net reproduction rate dropped from 61.75 offspring/individual (control) to 43.36 and 20.75 offspring/individual, respectively. Sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam decreased the developmental rate of laboratory populations of B. odoriphaga, suggesting that such doses may be useful in integrated pest management strategies.

  4. Treatment by glyphosate-based herbicide alters life history parameters of the rose-grain aphid Metopolophium dirhodum

    PubMed Central

    Saska, Pavel; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Lukáš, Jan; Chi, Hsin; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Honěk, Alois

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate is the number one herbicide in the world. We investigated the sub-lethal effects of this herbicide on the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), using an age-stage, two-sex life table approach. Three concentrations of the herbicide (low - 33.5, medium - 66.9 and high - 133.8 mmol dm−3 of active ingredient) and distilled water as the control were used. The LC50 of the IPA salt of glyphosate on M. dirhodum was equivalent to 174.9 mmol dm−3 of the active ingredient (CI95: 153.0, 199.0). The population parameters were significantly negatively affected by herbicide application, and this negative effect was progressive with the increasing concentration of the herbicide. A difference of two orders of magnitude existed in the predicted population development of M. dirhodum between the high concentration of the herbicide and the control. This is the first study that comprehensively documents such a negative effect on the population of an herbivorous insect. PMID:27302015

  5. Treatment by glyphosate-based herbicide alters life history parameters of the rose-grain aphid Metopolophium dirhodum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saska, Pavel; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Lukáš, Jan; Chi, Hsin; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Honěk, Alois

    2016-06-01

    Glyphosate is the number one herbicide in the world. We investigated the sub-lethal effects of this herbicide on the aphid Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), using an age-stage, two-sex life table approach. Three concentrations of the herbicide (low - 33.5, medium - 66.9 and high - 133.8 mmol dm‑3 of active ingredient) and distilled water as the control were used. The LC50 of the IPA salt of glyphosate on M. dirhodum was equivalent to 174.9 mmol dm‑3 of the active ingredient (CI95: 153.0, 199.0). The population parameters were significantly negatively affected by herbicide application, and this negative effect was progressive with the increasing concentration of the herbicide. A difference of two orders of magnitude existed in the predicted population development of M. dirhodum between the high concentration of the herbicide and the control. This is the first study that comprehensively documents such a negative effect on the population of an herbivorous insect.

  6. Genetically Engineered Ricin Suppresses Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on Demographic Analysis of Group-Reared Life Table.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng; Huang, Chun-Yen; Dai, Shu-Mei; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-04-27

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), reduces the quantity and quality of many host fruits through the process of oviposition and larval feeding, and this insect has been considered a major insect pest in several Asian countries for decades. Using an earlier-developed, female-specific system that combines the toxicity of the ricin A chain (RTA) and the alternative RNA splicing property of doublesex (Bddsx), we show that transgenic male flies harboring the RTA-Bddsx transgene unevenly repress the pest population through inheritable effects. In age-stage, two-sex life-table analyses, high larval mortality and a delay in pupation were observed after introducing the transgene. The high male to female ratio in DsRed(+) flies demonstrates the lethal effect of ricin on females. The fitness of both the DsRed(+)- and DsRed(-)-transformed females was reduced as shown in the decrease of the net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate (r), and finite rate (λ) values compared with the wild-type populations. The integrity of the RTA-Bddsx transgene remained in more than 80% of DsRed(+) males after ten generations, supporting the stable inheritance of the transgene. All of the data from this study support the proposed RTA-Bddsx SIT approach, which provides a species-specific and environmentally friendly method of suppressing, rather than eradiating, B. dorsalis.

  7. Differential Effects of C1qa Ablation on Glaucomatous Damage in Two Sexes in DBA/2NNia Mice

    PubMed Central

    Genis, Alina; Danias, John

    2015-01-01

    +/+ animals. In male mice, there was a tendency for 12 month old C1qa -/- animals to have better RGC scores and higher RGC counts, but this didn't reach statistical significance. ON scores in 11–13 month old animals of either sex were not different between all three genotype. Microglial activation in male 5–6 month old C1qa -/- mice was decreased compared to C1qa +/+ animals; no such effect was seen in females. Conclusions Absence of C1qa ameliorates RGC and ON loss in the DBA/2NNia strain, but this effect differs between the two sexes. C1q-mediated RGC damage seems to be more potent than IOP-mediated RGC loss. In contrast, C1qa absence provides axonal protection early on, but this protection cannot overcome the effects of significant IOP elevation. PMID:26544197

  8. Adolescence Education: Physical Aspect, Module One; Social Aspects, Module Two; Sex Roles, Module Three; Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Module Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Adolescence Education is a family life education training program designed to assist young people in their physical, social, emotional, and moral development as they prepare for adulthood, marriage, parenthood, aging, and social relationships in the context of family and society. This package consists of four individually bound modules: (1)…

  9. Study on life parameters of the invasive species Octodonta nipae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on different palm species, under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Youming; Miao, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-08-01

    In southeastern China, the invasion of the nipa palm hispid Octodonta nipae (Maulik) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) results in devastating damage to palms. Host plants play an important role in the population increases and outbreaks of O. nipae. O. nipae could not complete its development on the Majestic palm (Ravenea rivularis Jumelle & Perrier), and females did not lay eggs on Chinese fan palm (Livistona chinensis R. Brown). However, this insect species both completed development and laid eggs on Chinese windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei (Hooker) H. Wendland), Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis Chabaud), and pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii O' Brien). The demographic characteristics of O. nipae reared on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm were compared with an age-stage, two-sex life table. In this study, the developmental periods from egg to adult varied from 42.1 d on Chinese windmill palm to 49.8 d on pygmy date palm. The survivorship from egg to adult on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm was 77.5, 79.4, and 66.7%, respectively. Although the adult longevity and the mean fecundity for individuals reared on Chinese windmill palm, Canary Island date palm, and pygmy date palm were not significantly different, there were significant differences in the intrinsic rate of increase, the finite rate, and the mean generation time among palm species, and the values of intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate were higher for populations reared on Chinese windmill palm and Canary Island date palm (0.0313 and 1.0318 d(-1) and 0.0278 and 1.0282 d(-1), respectively) and lower for populations reared on pygmy date palm (0.0192 and 1.0194 d(-1)). However, mean generation time was shorter on Chinese windmill palm (124.11 d) and Canary Island date palm (129.62 d) and longer on pygmy date palm (166.03 d). Our study indicated that different hosts affected life parameters of O. nipae, with the most

  10. Development: Ages & Stages--Spatial Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2006-01-01

    Spatial concepts such as a sense of distance are learned through movement and exploration which is the most effective way for children to gain body awareness and an understanding of spatial relationships. It simultaneously develops muscle strength, coordination, self-confidence, and thinking skills. Spatial awareness can be defined as "an…

  11. Healing of 400 intra-alveolar root fractures. 1. Effect of pre-injury and injury factors such as sex, age, stage of root development, fracture type, location of fracture and severity of dislocation.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, J O; Andreasen, F M; Mejàre, I; Cvek, M

    2004-08-01

    significant factor, as girls showed more frequent hard tissue healing than boys. This relationship could possibly be explained by the fact that girls experienced trauma at an earlier age (i.e. with more immature root formation) and their traumas were of a less severe nature. Thus, the pre-injury or injury factors which had the greatest influence upon healing (i.e. whether hard tissue fusion or pulp necrosis) were: age, stage of root development (i.e. the size of the pulpal lumen at the fracture site) and mobility of the coronal fragment, dislocation of the coronal fragment and diastasis between fragments (i.e. rupture or stretching of the pulp at the fracture site).

  12. Family Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Family and Friends > Family Life Request Permissions Family Life Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... your outlook on the future. Friends and adult family members The effects of cancer on your relationships ...

  13. Bioenergetic constraints on the evolution of complex life.

    PubMed

    Lane, Nick

    2014-05-01

    All morphologically complex life on Earth, beyond the level of cyanobacteria, is eukaryotic. All eukaryotes share a common ancestor that was already a complex cell. Despite their biochemical virtuosity, prokaryotes show little tendency to evolve eukaryotic traits or large genomes. Here I argue that prokaryotes are constrained by their membrane bioenergetics, for fundamental reasons relating to the origin of life. Eukaryotes arose in a rare endosymbiosis between two prokaryotes, which broke the energetic constraints on prokaryotes and gave rise to mitochondria. Loss of almost all mitochondrial genes produced an extreme genomic asymmetry, in which tiny mitochondrial genomes support, energetically, a massive nuclear genome, giving eukaryotes three to five orders of magnitude more energy per gene than prokaryotes. The requirement for endosymbiosis radically altered selection on eukaryotes, potentially explaining the evolution of unique traits, including the nucleus, sex, two sexes, speciation, and aging.

  14. Bioenergetic Constraints on the Evolution of Complex Life

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Nick

    2014-01-01

    All morphologically complex life on Earth, beyond the level of cyanobacteria, is eukaryotic. All eukaryotes share a common ancestor that was already a complex cell. Despite their biochemical virtuosity, prokaryotes show little tendency to evolve eukaryotic traits or large genomes. Here I argue that prokaryotes are constrained by their membrane bioenergetics, for fundamental reasons relating to the origin of life. Eukaryotes arose in a rare endosymbiosis between two prokaryotes, which broke the energetic constraints on prokaryotes and gave rise to mitochondria. Loss of almost all mitochondrial genes produced an extreme genomic asymmetry, in which tiny mitochondrial genomes support, energetically, a massive nuclear genome, giving eukaryotes three to five orders of magnitude more energy per gene than prokaryotes. The requirement for endosymbiosis radically altered selection on eukaryotes, potentially explaining the evolution of unique traits, including the nucleus, sex, two sexes, speciation, and aging. PMID:24789818

  15. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  16. Life sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  17. Embryonic life and human life.

    PubMed

    Shea, M C

    1985-12-01

    A new human life comes into being not when there is mere cellular life in a human embryo, but when the newly developing body organs and systems begin to function as a whole, the author argues. This is symmetrical with the dealth of an existing human life, which occurs when its organs and systems have permanently ceased to function as a whole. Thus a new human life cannot begin until the development of a functioning brain which has begun to co-ordinate and organise the activities of the body as a whole.

  18. Defining life.

    PubMed

    Benner, Steven A

    2010-12-01

    Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected "theories of life." These include certain "list" definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a "self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution." We then act as "anthropologists," studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures.

  19. Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Extraterrestrial Intelligence is intelligent life that developed somewhere other than the earth. Such life has not yet been discovered. However, scientific research, including astronomy, biology, planetary science and studies of fossils here on earth have led many scientists to conclude that such life may exist on planets orbiting at least some of the hundreds of billions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Today, some researchers are trying to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence. This effort is often called SETI, which stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. SETI researchers decided that looking for evidence of their technology might be the best way to discover other intelligent life in the Galaxy. They decided to use large radio telescopes to search the sky over a wide range of radio frequencies...

  20. Defining Life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures. Key Words: Evolution—Life—Life detection—Biosignatures. Astrobiology 10, 1021–1030. PMID:21162682

  1. Development: Ages & Stages--The Importance of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of humor and how it helps to understand children's thinking from birth to 6 years. The article presents three sections describing how a young child's sense of humor reveals much about the way he thinks. The first section is entitled "Giggles!" written by Carla Poole. Intended for babies from birth to 2, Poole…

  2. Development: Ages & Stages--Helping Children Manage Fears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2004-01-01

    By watching, listening, and offering gentle reassurance, you can help young children work through their fears. Sudden noises, movement, or unfamiliar people often frighten babies. After 12 months of nurturing experiences with familiar teachers and routines, a baby is more prepared and less easily startled. Preschoolers have a variety of fears such…

  3. Development: Ages & Stages--How Self-Concept Develops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain how self-concept develops among young children. Several strategies on how to help children attain their full emotional development are also suggested. One such effective strategy is for parents and caregivers to be sensitive to the individual needs of children and to be responsive to them during daily…

  4. Development: Ages & Stages--How Abstract Thinking Develops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    Babies are active participants in their learning and need to explore a variety of objects. Nurturing relationships support these explorations. Objects are more clearly remembered and understood. Thus, one activity this article suggests doing with a 12-month-old to encourage abstract thinking, is talking about how squeezing the bottle of ketchup…

  5. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4)…

  6. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Martin-Brennan, Cindy; Joshi, Jitendra

    2003-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for 2003. Many life sciences experiments were lost with the tragic loss of STS-107. Life sciences experiments continue to fly as small payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Russian Progress vehicle. Health-related studies continue with the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) aboard the Odyssey spacecraft, collecting data on the radiation environment in Mars orbit. NASA Ames increased nanotechnology research in all areas, including fundamental biology, bioastronautics, life support systems, and homeland security. Plant research efforts continued at NASA Kennedy, testing candidate crops for ISS. Research included plant growth studies at different light intensities, varying carbon dioxide concentrations, and different growth media. Education and outreach efforts included development of a NASA/USDA program called Space Agriculture in the Classroom. Canada sponsored a project called Tomatosphere, with classrooms across North America exposing seeds to simulated Mars environment for growth studies. NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research released an updated strategic research plan.

  7. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  8. Cosmic life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, H.

    1980-01-01

    The existence and detection of extraterrestrial life are discussed. The evolution of life on earth is not considered possible if earth were 5% closer (runaway greenhouse effect) or 1% farther (runaway glaciation) from the sun, or if the sun were slightly more or less massive or hot. The Space Telescope and a possible interferometer search at infrared wavelengths, which offers a 100,000 times advantage over the visible in the ratio of planetary to stellar power, are proposed to help detect planetary systems about stars such as Barnard's star. The proposed NASA-Ames Project Cyclops, consisting of a 10 km phased array of 1026 dishes (perhaps on the back side of the moon), as well as a Soviet proposal to assemble 2 similar telescopes at the orbit of Saturn, would search in the radio frequency range for planets 100 light years or more distant.

  9. Life lessons

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Reminiscing about his younger self: “I mean I can’t very well just 86 [in American slang, to “86” is to eject, remove, or discard someone or something, J.R.N.] this guy from my life. On the other hand, if through some as yet undeveloped technology I were to run into him today, how comfortable would I feel about lending him money, or for that matter even stepping down the street to have a beer and talk over old times?” ― Thomas Pynchon, Slow Learner PMID:26734084

  10. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gregory K

    2002-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for the year. Highlights of animal studies were the first long-term flight of an animal enclosure module and an avian development facility on STS-108. Plant research efforts focused on a biomass production system for eventual use on the International Space Station (ISS), the PESTO experiment on ISS, and screening of several salad crop varieties for potential use in space. Health-related studies included the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) on the Mars Odyssey mission, presentation of results from NASA's Biomolecular Physics and Chemistry Program, and research related to human liver cell function in space through an agreement with StelSys. In industry and academia, a memorandum of understanding was signed between NASA and the biotechnology industry to enhance communication between NASA and the industry, expand commercial biotechnology space research and development, and expand formal and informal education of industry and the public regarding biotechnology and space research. NASA selected Purdue University to lead an NSCORT for advanced life support research to develop technologies to enable long-duration planetary mission and sustain human space colonies.

  11. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  12. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  13. Is the Good Life the Easy Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scollon, Christie Napa; King, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Participants rated the desirability and moral goodness of a life as a function of the happiness, meaning, and effort experienced. Happiness and meaning were solid predictors of the good life, replicating King and Napa (1998). Study 1 (N = 381) included wealth as an additional factor. Results…

  14. Life is pretty meaningful.

    PubMed

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    The human experience of meaning in life is widely viewed as a cornerstone of well-being and a central human motivation. Self-reports of meaning in life relate to a host of important functional outcomes. Psychologists have portrayed meaning in life as simultaneously chronically lacking in human life as well as playing an important role in survival. Examining the growing literature on meaning in life, we address the question "How meaningful is life, in general?" We review possible answers from various psychological sources, some of which anticipate that meaning in life should be low and others that it should be high. Summaries of epidemiological data and research using two self-report measures of meaning in life suggest that life is pretty meaningful. Diverse samples rate themselves significantly above the midpoint on self-reports of meaning in life. We suggest that if meaning in life plays a role in adaptation, it must be commonplace, as our analysis suggests.

  15. Defending definitions of life.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  16. Life Among the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Explores possibility of extra-terrestrial life, reviewing current hypotheses regarding where in space life would most likely occur. Discusses astrometry and spectroscopy as methods for determining stellar motions. Describes United States and Soviet projects for receiving stellar communications. Relates origin of life on earth to observed high…

  17. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  18. Life Chances Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a life chances exercise that helps students identify the life chances that they and society value. Explains that students learn that the attainment of important life chances is related to the family into which one is born. Discusses John Rawls' social theory. Suggests that participants may need to consider alternative systems of economic…

  19. Education and Life's Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders; De Ruyter, Doret J.; Aviram, Aharon

    2016-01-01

    There are deep connections between education and the question of life's meaning, which derive, ultimately, from the fact that, for human beings, how to live--and therefore, how to raise one's children--is not a given but a question. One might see the meaning of life as constitutive of the meaning of education, and answers to the question of life's…

  20. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  1. Engaging with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Margaret J.

    1997-01-01

    Explores an ancient world view rediscovered through modern science: the world is essentially cooperative and systems-seeking; relationships are a requirement for existence; life is a great experimenter; the processes of life are redundant and messy but ultimately self-organizing; and life supports uniqueness and is unpredictable. Relates these…

  2. A life with prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Fine, David Roger

    2012-01-01

    The author gives an anecdotal account of his life with developmental prosopagnosia (DP). He was not formally diagnosed until the age of 53 and has evolved a complicated strategy for recognizing people based on non-facial physical features and context. He describes his experiences through infancy, school, university life and courtship, work and family life. He believes that he has lived a full and successful life despite DP but that some aspects of his social and work life were impaired by face-blindness. In his experience people react positively and helpfully if the consequences of DP are explained to them, and this improves social interactions and communications.

  3. Definition of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    The definition of life is a long-standing debate with no general scientific consensus to be expected any time soon. The underlying problem is that living systems use compounds that are abundant in the surrounding environment and processes that are not intrinsically different from reactions that occur abiologically. There does not appear to exist a single characteristic property that is both intrinsic and unique to life. Rather we have to argue that life meets certain standards, or that it qualifies by the collective presence of a certain set of characteristics. The threshold for meeting this standard sounds arbitrary, and may well be arbitrary in the sense that life presumably arose through a long sequence of "emergent events", each at a greater level of molecular complexity and order (Hazen 2002). If that notion is correct, any rigid distinction between life and non-life is a matter of subjective judgment. While our everyday experience with life on Earth makes the distinction between the living and non-living for the most part unambiguous, a consideration of life on other worlds, where conditions may be different, and/or where life may have evolved from its inorganic precedents to a lesser degree, requires us to formulate a more formal and objective definition for life. Before doing so, we will first address the limitations of commonplace assumptions about what constitutes life.

  4. Transient population dynamics: Relations to life history and initial population state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Zinner, B.; Rockwell, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Most environments are variable and disturbances (e.g., hurricanes, fires) can lead to substantial changes in a population's state (i.e., age, stage, or size distribution). In these situations, the long-term (i.e., asymptotic) measure of population growth rate (??1) may inaccurately represent population growth in the short-term. Thus, we calculated the short-term (i.e., transient) population growth rate and its sensitivity to changes in the life-cycle parameters for three bird and three mammal species with widely varying life histories. Further, we performed these calculations for initial population states that spanned the entire range of possibilities. Variation in a population's initial net reproductive value largely explained the variation in transient growth rates and their sensitivities to changes in life-cycle parameters (all AICc ??? 6.67 units better than the null model, all R2 ??? 0.55). Additionally, the transient fertility and adult survival sensitivities tended to increase with the initial net reproductive value of the population, whereas the sub-adult survival sensitivity decreased. Transient population dynamics of long-lived, slow reproducing species were more variable and more different than asymptotic dynamics than they were for short-lived, fast reproducing species. Because ??1 can be a biased estimate of the actual growth rate in the short-term (e.g., 19% difference), conservation and wildlife biologists should consider transient dynamics when developing management plans that could affect a population's state, or whenever population state could be unstable.

  5. Survival and Reproductive Strategies in Two-Spotted Spider Mites: Demographic Analysis of Arrhenotokous Parthenogenesis of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Yang, Chung-Ming; Atlihan, Remzi; Saska, Pavel; Chi, Hsin

    2016-04-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan pest whose rapid developmental rate enables it to produce colonies of thousands of individuals within a short time period. When a solitary virgin female colonizes a new host plant, it is capable of producing male offspring through the arrhenotokous parthenogenesis; once her sons mature, oedipal mating occurs and the female will produce bisexual offspring. To analyze the effect of arrhenotokous reproduction on population growth, we devised and compared separate life tables for arrhenotokous and bisexual populations of T. urticae using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. For the cohort with bisexual reproduction, the intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.2736 d(−1), 1.3146 d(−1), 44.66 offspring, and 13.89 d, respectively. Because only male eggs were produced during the first 8 d of the oviposition period and the cohort would soon begin bisexual reproduction, it would be theoretically wrong to calculate the population parameters using the survival rate and fecundity of an arrhenotokous cohort. We demonstrated that the effect of arrhenotokous reproduction could be accurately described and evaluated using the age-stage, two-sex life table. We also used population projection based on life table data, quantitatively showing the effect that arrhenotokous reproduction has on the growth potential and management of T. urticae.

  6. [Being old is occurring later: age-related norms and self-concepts in the second half of life].

    PubMed

    Graefe, S; van Dyk, S; Lessenich, S

    2011-10-01

    Our contribution focuses on the question of how aging subjects experience and interpret biographic transitions into old age - specifically against the background of the current sociodiscursive revaluation of the so-called young old. The results of our qualitative interviews with elderly men and women in Germany indicate that the self-description "young elderly" does not play a role in identity-building in higher age, although norms of "active" or "productive aging" are widely accepted by the elderly. On the other hand, notions of "very old age" in need of care appear as something that can barely be integrated into the self-concepts and life plans of the interviewees. The transition from adulthood into the "third" (i.e., old age) stage is, thus, subjectively being postponed by elderly people into the (imagined) very last stage of their lives.

  7. Generation-based life table analysis reveals manifold effects of inbreeding on the population fitness in Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lu; Zou, Mingmin; Ren, Nana; Xie, Miao; Vasseur, Liette; Yang, Yifan; He, Weiyi; Yang, Guang; Gurr, Geoff M.; Hou, Youming; You, Shijun; You, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how inbreeding affects fitness is biologically important for conservation and pest management. Despite being a worldwide pest of many economically important cruciferous crops, the influence of inbreeding on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), populations is currently unknown. Using age-stage-specific life tables, we quantified the inbreeding effects on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of P. xylostella. Egg hatching rate, survival and fecundity of the inbred line significantly declined compared to those of the outbred line over time. The inbred P. xylostella line showed significantly lower intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproduction rate (R0), and finite increase rate (λ), and increasing generation time (T). Inbreeding effects vary with developmental stages and the fitness-related traits can be profoundly affected by the duration of inbreeding. Our work provides a foundation for further studies on molecular and genetic bases of the inbreeding depression for P. xylostella. PMID:26227337

  8. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  9. Life-history data.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James

    2016-07-15

    Life-history data are quantitative, retrospective and autobiographical data collected through event-history calendars. By mimicking the structure of our memories, these instruments can gather reliable information on different dimensions of the lifecourse. Life-history data enable the duration, timing and ordering of events to be brought to the foreground of analysis. Extending the scope of lifecourse research, life-history data make it possible to examine the long-term effects of past policies with more precision and detail.

  10. Artificial life and Piaget.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  11. Life-history differences favor evolution of male dimorphism in competitive games.

    PubMed

    Smallegange, Isabel M; Johansson, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Many species exhibit two discrete male morphs: fighters and sneakers. Fighters are large and possess weapons but may mature slowly. Sneakers are small and have no weapons but can sneak matings and may mature quickly to start mating earlier in life than fighters. However, how differences in competitive ability and life history interact to determine male morph coexistence has not yet been investigated within a single framework. Here we integrate demography and game theory into a two-sex population model to study the evolution of strategies that result in the coexistence of fighters and sneakers. We incorporate differences in maturation time between the morphs and use a mating-probability matrix analogous to the classic hawk-dove game. Using adaptive dynamics, we show that male dimorphism evolves more easily in our model than in classic game theory approaches. Our results also revealed an interaction between life-history differences and sneaker competitiveness, which shows that demography and competitive games should be treated as interlinked mechanisms to understand the evolution of male dimorphism. Applying our approach to empirical data on bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus robini), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and bullhorned dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus) indicates that observed occurrences of male dimorphism are in general agreement with model predictions.

  12. Origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Cleaves, H. J.

    2003-10-01

    Deciphering the origin of life requires some knowledge of the early planetary environment. Unfortunately, we lack definitive evidence of the atmospheric composition, surface temperature, oceanic pH, and other environmental conditions that may have been important for the appearance of the first living systems on Earth. The rock remnants of the early Archean are extremely scarce and most of the record has been lost. The first indications of life from carbon inclusions in rocks and the oldest fossil record are currently under debate but there is a consensus that life started during the first billion years after the Earth formed. Life as we know it is a chemical phenomenon. The chemistry that could have produced self-organizing systems is the central problem in the origin of life. There are several competing theories for how this chemistry may have arisen. In spite of their diversity, proposals for a prebiotic "soup", for the role of submarine hydrothermal vents, or for the extraterrestrial origin of organic compounds have as a common background assumption the idea that abiotic organic compounds were necessary for the emergence of life. It is possible that a combination of these sources - exogenous and endogenous - contributed building blocks for the origin of life on Earth. In this paper we provide a review of the main ideas on the origin of life from the astrobiological perspective and discuss the probability of life on extrasolar planets.

  13. WOWBugs: New Life for Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.; And Others

    This book of life science activities introduces a new experimental animal--the WOWBug, "Melittobia digitata"--that is commonly found in nature but has never before been used in the precollege classroom. It includes 20 activities and experiments for grades 5-12, that cover topics from basic orientation to ecological interactions, from physical…

  14. Thrust chamber life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The reusable life of the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) is influenced by the cyclic life of the regeneratively liquid cooled main combustion chamber (MCC). During an operational duty cycle the MCC liner is subjected to a large transient thermal gradient that imparts a high thermal cyclic strain to the liner hot gas wall. Life predictions of such chambers have usually been based on low cycle fatigue (LCF) evaluations. Hot-fire testing, however, has shown significant mid-channel wall deformation and thinning during accrued cyclic testing. This phenomenon is termed cyclic creep and appears to be significantly accelerated at elevated temperatures. An analytical method that models the cyclic creep phenomenon and its application to thrust chamber life prediction is presented. The chamber finite element geometry is updated periodically to account for accrued wall thinning and distortion. Failure is based on the tensile instability failure criterion. Cyclic life results for several chamber life enhancing coolant channel designs are compared to the typically used LCF analysis that neglects cyclic creep. The results show that the usable cyclic creep life is approximately 30 to 50% of the commonly used LCF life.

  15. Limited life item management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaglen, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Plans are available for age-sensitive hardware management. Control plan identifies shelf life or age control requirements for materials considered age sensitive, use sensitive, or time service or shelf life controlled items, and describes methods of arriving at age controls through adherence to detailed specifications.

  16. Is Life Unique?

    PubMed Central

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  17. Life in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

  18. Life sciences report 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Highlighted here are the major research efforts of the NASA Life Sciences Division during the past year. Topics covered include remote health care delivery in space, space biomedical research, gravitational biology, biospherics (studying planet Earth), the NASA Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), exobiology, flight programs, international cooperation, and education programs.

  19. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  20. It's a Frog's Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2003-01-01

    When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

  1. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  2. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  3. Empowering Students for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the new Occupational & Life Skills (OLS) program at Bellevue Community College in Bellevue, Washington. The OLS-Venture program, as it is now called, grew out of a series of continuing education classes in personal finance, cooking, and related life skills for people with autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other…

  4. Planets and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary

  5. Life in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, L J; Mancinelli, R L

    2001-02-22

    Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the Solar System has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the past few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as insurmountable physical and chemical barriers to life, we now see as yet another niche harbouring 'extremophiles'. This realization, coupled with new data on the survival of microbes in the space environment and modelling of the potential for transfer of life between celestial bodies, suggests that life could be more common than previously thought. Here we examine critically what it means to be an extremophile, and the implications of this for evolution, biotechnology and especially the search for life in the Universe.

  6. Life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of space life sciences and current research on the physiology of man in space are reviewed by examining Spacelab SLS-1. Milestones of space life sciences are discussed, with emphasis on the Skylab facility, the Space Shuttle program, and the Soviet Mir space station. Attention is given to the topic of the origins of life as it relates to space life sciences. The discovery of amino acids in meteorites and the question of whether the earth was seeded with life from space are discussed. A brief overview of efforts in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence is presented. Consideration is also given to the effects of gravity on cells, the effects of radiation, plant biology, CELSS, and the effects of gravity on humans.

  7. Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  8. Emergence of Life.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2011-09-29

    Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with transformation of molecules, of

  9. Life on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashko, Oleksandr

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through the life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life - most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective “search for life” are Enceladus, Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter’s satellites, Saturn’s satellites and first of all - Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity - from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active - mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet - like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn’t lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or

  10. Defining life or bringing biology to life.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called 'omics' revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough-but also encompassing enough-terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

  11. Deciding about treatments that prolong life

    MedlinePlus

    Palliative care - treatments that prolong life; Palliative care - life support; End-of-life-treatments that prolong life; Ventilator - treatments that prolong life; Respirator - treatments that prolong life; Life-support - treatments ...

  12. Breathing fresh life into life science education.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cyrus

    2014-12-15

    In the US, higher education in the life sciences is being overhauled. There is now a move both to change the way we teach biology students, emphasizing more engaging approaches, and to clearly define what it is a student should know. And for advanced degrees, there is a push to prepare students for a range of possible career paths, not just the tenure track. Cyrus Martin reports.

  13. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  14. Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life. There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was due to the presence of a thick atmosphere and the resulting warmer temperatures. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on Earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally.

  15. End of life care.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-01-26

    The combination of an ageing population and increasing numbers of prisoners means delivering end of life care in prisons is inevitable. To this end the National End of Life Programme has published a practical guide, aimed at health and social care workers, and prison staff. The guide outlines the six steps of the end of life care pathway in detail, from initiating discussions to care after death. It also includes case studies highlighting best practice. To read the guide, visit http://tinyurl.com/ndoflifeinprison.

  16. Potential alternate life biochemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2013-09-01

    While life on Earth continues to be discovered in unlikely environments, the underlying biochemistry is all very similar, based on the element carbon, and requiring liquid water. We consider alternate biochemistries based on elements other than carbon, including other group IVA elements, such as silicon and germanium, and solvents other than water. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen are also discussed. A fundamental issue is raised related to the detection of, and even the definition of life, whether it is carbon or non-carbon based. An extreme example of this issue would be in consideration of speculative life based on electrically charged dusty plasmas, which may have no physical body.

  17. Medicine's Life Inside the Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Medicine's Life Inside the Body Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page A Medicine's Life Inside the Body ... Work Computation Aids Drug Discovery This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  18. Life under alien skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartnell, Lewis

    2012-04-01

    As the number of confirmed extrasolar planets increases, so does the likelihood that some of them will harbour life. Lewis Dartnell describes some preliminary - but increasingly well founded - efforts to predict what alien plants and animals might look like.

  19. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... Feelings Having a baby is a major, life-changing experience. Don't be surprised to find that ...

  20. Diversity of Life Possible

    NASA Video Gallery

    Planets are distinguished by two basic properties, their size and their orbit. The size determines if the planet can have a life-sustaining atmosphere. The orbit affects the surface temperature and...

  1. Regenerative Life Support Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development plan and design concept of the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) planned for flight testing in the European Space Agency Spacelab. The development plan encompasses the ongoing advanced life support subsystem and a systems integration effort to evolve concurrently subsystem concepts that perform their function and can be integrated with other subsystems in a flight demonstration of a regenerative life support system. The design concept for RLSE comprises water-electrolysis O2 generation, electrochemically depolarized CO2 removal, and Sabatier CO2 reduction for atmosphere regeneration, urine vapor-compression distillation, and wash-water hyperfiltration for waste-water recovery. The flight demonstration by RLSE is an important step in qualifying the regenerative concepts for life support in space stations.

  2. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  3. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  4. End of Life Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

  5. Is life supernatural?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2015-09-01

    The big question of the origin of life is examined. The paradox created by Pasteur's resounding edict: Life only comes from life, pitted against the need for spontaneous generation is explored. This seemingly dead-end conundrum contrasts sharply with the great progress we have made in understanding the evolution of the species since Darwin's revolutionary insight. The conditions and sources of energy that might have promoted non-living molecules and compounds to cross the sharp line from inert to living are contemplated. Abiotic synthesis might help explain the origin, but still fails to explain the moment of vitalization. A different approach to discovering when the inert becomes alive is proposed. The need for, and a way to bring forth, a "Bio-Einstein" to solve this penultimate question of life's origin are presented.

  6. End of Life Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this with your healthcare provider. End of Life Considerations There are situations that ill older adults may ... is not indicated. In some settings, however, the law may require that physicians offer the option of ...

  7. Life on moduli space?

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Stephen D. H.

    2009-10-15

    While the number of metastable landscape vacua in string theory is vast, the number of supermoduli vacua which lead to distinct low-energy physics is even larger, perhaps infinitely so. From the anthropic perspective it is therefore important to understand whether complex life is possible on moduli space - i.e., in low-energy effective theories with (1) exact supersymmetry and (2) some massless multiplets (moduli). Unless life is essentially impossible on moduli space as a consequence of these characteristics, anthropic reasoning in string theory suggests that the overwhelming majority of sentient beings would observe 1-2. We investigate whether 1 and 2 are by themselves automatically inimical to life and conclude, tentatively, that they are not. In particular, we describe moduli scenarios in which complex life seems possible.

  8. Life Options Rehabilitation Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... at our CE credit website . Free Life Options Materials Download our free print materials, research-based fact ... sheets are also available in Spanish! Vaccination Education Materials Easy-to-read patient education fact sheets will ...

  9. Life sciences recruitment objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. Richard

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Sciences and Application are to ensure the health, well being and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental scientific knowledge in space life sciences. With these goals in mind Space Station Freedom represents substantial opportunities and significant challenges to the Life Sciences Division. For the first time it will be possible to replicate experimental data from a variety of simultaneously exposed species with appropriate controls and real-time analytical capabilities over extended periods of time. At the same time, a system for monitoring and ameliorating the physiological adaptations that occur in humans subjected to extended space flight must be evolved to provide the continuing operational support to the SSF crew. To meet its goals, and take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the challenges presented by Space Station Freedom, the Life Sciences Division is developing a suite of discipline-focused sequence. The research phase of the Life Sciences Space Station Freedom Program will commence with the utilization flights following the deployment of the U.S. laboratory module and achievement of Man Tended Capability. Investigators that want the Life Sciences Division to sponsor their experiment on SSF can do so in one of three ways: submitting a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), submitting a proposal in response to an Announcement of Opportunity (AO), or submitting an unsolicited proposal. The scientific merit of all proposals will be evaluated by peer review panels. Proposals will also be evaluated based on relevance to NASA's missions and on the results of an Engineering and Cost Analyses. The Life Sciences Division expects that the majority of its funding opportunities will be announced through NRA's. It is anticipated that the first NRA will be released approximately three years before first element launch (currently scheduled for late 1995

  10. Life without water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Lois M.; Crowe, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Anhydrobiosis, or life without water is commonly demonstrated by a number of plants and animals. These organisms have the capacity to loose all body water, remain dry for various periods, and then be revived by rehydration. While in the anhydrobiotic state, these organisms become highly resistant to several environmental stresses such as extremely low temperatures, elevated temperatures, ionizing radiation, and high vacuum. Since water is commonly thought to be essential for life, survival of anhydrobiotic organisms with an almost total loss of water is examined. A search of literature reveal that many anhydrobiotic organisms make large quantities of trehalose or other carbohydrates. Laboratory experiments have shown that trehalose is able to stabilize and preserve microsomes of sarcoplasmic reticulum and artificial liposomes. It was demonstrated that trehalose and other disaccharides can interact directly with phosopipid headgroups and maintain membranes in their native configuration by replacing water in the headgroup region. Recent studies show that trehalose is an effective stabilizer of proteins during drying and that it does so by direct interaction with groups on the protein. If life that is able to withstand environmental extremes has ever developed on Mars, it is expected that such life would have developed some protective compounds which can stabilize macromolecular structure in the absence of water and at cold temperatures. On Earth, that role appears to be filled by carbohydrates that can stabilize both membrane and protein stuctures during freezing and drying. By analog with terrestrial systems, such life forms might develop resistance either during some reproductive stage or at any time during adult existence. If the resistant form is a developmental stage, the life cycle of the organism must be completed with a reasonable time period relative to time when environmental conditions are favorable. This would suggest that simple organisms with a short

  11. A Quantum Origin of Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Paul C. W.

    The following sections are included: * Chemistry and Information * Q-life * The Problem of Decoherence * Life as the "Solution" of a Quantum Search Algorithm * Quantum Choreography * Acknowledgements * References

  12. Intelligent life in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2003-04-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  13. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  14. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  15. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  16. Stress and life history.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A

    2014-05-19

    In his book on behavioural endocrinology, Randy Nelson describes 'stress' as a 'notoriously ethereal concept'. Yet, despite this lack of clarity, studies of the consequences of stress across different time scales, life history stages, taxa and levels of biological enquiry form a large part of modern biology and biomedicine. Organisms need to recognise and respond to environmental challenges. Being able to do so appropriately, and with minimal costs, is an important physiological attribute, with great adaptive value. The costs and benefits of different mechanisms that enable organisms to cope with unpredictable environmental changes can be manifest to different degrees at different life stages. Accordingly, the level of stress experienced in the environment can act as a strong selective pressure that drives the evolution of life histories.

  17. Life Out of Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Doctinary overlays on the definition of life can effectively be avoided by focusing discussion on microorganisms, their vital processes, and their genetic pedigree. To reach beyond these present and highly advanced forms of life and to inquire about its origin it is necessary to consider the requirements imposed by the environment. These requirements include geophysically and geochemically acceptable conjectures for the generation of source compounds, their concentration from dilute solution, and their selective combination into functional biomolecules. For vital function these macromolecules require programming in the form of specific sequence motifs. This critical programming constitutes the scientifically least understood process in the origin of life. Once this stage has been surpassed the laws of Darwinian evolution can operate in ways that are understood and experimentally demonstrated.

  18. Life sciences accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    From its inception, the main charter of Life Sciences has been to define biomedical requirements for the design and development of spacecraft systems and to participate in NASA's scientific exploration of the universe. The role of the Life Sciences Division is to: (1) assure the health, well being and productivity of all individuals who fly in space; (2) study the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe; and (3) to utilize the space environment as a tool for research in biology and medicine. The activities, programs, and accomplishments to date in the efforts to achieve these goals are detailed and the future challenges that face the division as it moves forward from the shuttle era to a permanent manned presence in space space station's are examined.

  19. Life in the Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Wainwright, N. R.; Grasby, S. E.; Harvey, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    The current Martian surface environment is extremely hostile to any known form of life. The combination of subfreezing temperature, low atmospheric pressure and high ultraviolet flux, combined with desiccated and possibly oxidizing soil, could destroy even the hardiest microorganisms. The Viking biology experiments are generally interpreted to indicate that the surface of Mars is currently devoid of life and organic molecules at the part-per-billion level. Speculation on the possibility of extant or preserved microbial life on Mars thus centers on refuges in some manner protected from the current surface environment, either in space or time. Terrestrial analogs include hydrothermal systems, lakes, caves and subsurface aquifers as well as more clement conditions in the distant past. We are examining the evidence for microbiology in Earth's glaciated polar regions as analogs to the polar caps of Mars. This research concerns the detection of microorganisms or their preserved remains at the surface and within polar glacial ice.

  20. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  1. Habitats of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.

  2. Spacelab Life Sciences-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Hawes, Nikki; Fast, Tom N.; Zarow, Greg

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an historical overview of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission along with the resultant biomaintenance data and investigators' findings. Only the nonhuman elements, developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) researchers, are addressed herein. The STS-40 flight of SLS-1, in June 1991, was the first spacelab flown after 'return to orbit', it was also the first spacelab mission specifically designated as a Life Sciences Spacelab. The experiments performed provided baseline data for both hardware and rodents used in succeeding missions.

  3. Life among the axons.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Clay M

    2007-01-01

    A blink in history's eye has brought us an understanding of electricity, and with it a revolution in human life. From the frog leg twitch experiments of Galvani and the batteries of Volta, we have progressed to telegraphs, motors, telephones, computers, and the Internet. In the same period, the ubiquitous role of electricity in animal and plant life has become clear. A great milestone in this journey was the elucidation of electrical signaling by Hodgkin & Huxley in 1952. This chapter gives a personal account of a small part of this story, the transformation of the rather abstract electrical conductances of Hodgkin & Huxley into the more tangible gated ion channel.

  4. Fatigue life extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matejczyk, D. E.; Lin, J.

    1985-01-01

    Potential fatigue rejuvenation processes were carried out on fatigue-damaged material both with and without observable surface-connected fatigue cracks. The fatigue life of fatigue-damaged MAR-M246(Hf)(DS), a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy used in turbine airfoils, was extended by reheat treatment. The fatigue life of fatigue-cracked Inconel 718, a wrought nickel-base superalloy used in a wide variety of advanced rocket engine components, was extended by electron-beam welding to close off the surface-connected crack, followed by hot isostatic pressing and reheat treatment.

  5. Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Viking biology experiments are examined. It is noted that the Viking missions did not find a terrestrial type of life at either of the two landing sites. This evidence may suggest that Mars is lifeless, but science demands a more rigorous proof; thus, it is still not known whether life exists on Mars. It is suggested that the Martian polar regions must be explored before a conclusive answer is possible; the permanent polar caps of Mars are frozen water and would act as a 'cold finger' of the planet to trap organic molecules.

  6. The planets and life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  7. Life in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Live Webcast from Europe's Leading Research Organisations Summary Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 50 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists, astronomers and other scientists have worked tirelessly to answer these fundamental questions. And now this November via webcast, all the world will have the opportunity to see and hear the latest news on extraterrestrial life from the most prestigious research centers and how for the past three months, European students have had the chance to jump into the scientists' shoes and explore these questions for themselves. The event is being sponsored by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , in cooperation with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). "Life in the Universe" is being mounted in collaboration with the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission for the European Week of Science and Technology in November 2001 . "Life in the Universe" competitions are already underway in 23 European countries to find the best projects from school students between 14 and 18. Two winning teams from each country will be invited to a final event at CERN in Geneva on 8-11 November 2001 to present their projects and discuss them with a panel of International Experts at a special three-day event. They will also compete for the "Super Prize" - a free visit to ESA's and ESO's research and technology facilities at Kourou and Paranal in South America. Students participating in the programme are encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively. The only requirement is that the views be based upon scientific evidence. Many projects are being submitted just now - among them are scientific essays

  8. Reflexive Planning for Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

  9. Life after the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-eight percent of people who are approaching retirement age report that they intend to work full time or part time after retirement, mostly because they want to. With today's life span stretching to 80 years and beyond, turning 60 is no longer an end-stage event. Instead, it is the beginning of a new developmental phase. This article…

  10. Biological Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session MP2 includes short reports on: (1) Crew Regenerative Life Support in Long Duration Space Missions; (2) Bioconversion Systems for Food and Water on Long Term Space Missions; (3) Novel Laboratory Approaches to Multi-purpose Aquatic Biogenerative Closed-Loop Food Production Systems; and (4) Artificial Neural Network Derived Plant Growth Models.

  11. Ionizing radiation and life.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology.

  12. Quality of Life Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. New Mexico Environmental Inst.

    Comments, speeches, and questions delivered at the Quality of Life Symposium are compiled in these proceedings. As an exploratory session, the conference objectives were to (1) become better informed about New Mexico--its resource base, the economy, social and cultural base, and the environment; and (2) to evaluate and discuss the role of New…

  13. Chemical Origins of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J. Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

  14. Second Life, Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    An article this author wrote about avatar harassment and assault in Second Life (SL) inspired a considerable response after it was published. Perhaps the most notable reply was from Linden Lab, the company that created the virtual-reality world. In his initial essay ("The Chronicle of Higher Education," September 14, 2007; "The Education Digest,"…

  15. Empowerment for Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This monograph purports that American society limits the behavior of older individuals based on the arbitrary criterion of chronological age and proposes the concept of empowerment--gaining a sense of personal power or control over over's life--as the antidote for older persons who face devalued status as they age and the for the accompanying drop…

  16. Alien Life Imagined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark

    2012-11-01

    1. Kosmos: aliens in ancient Greece; 2. The world turned upside down: Copernicanism and the voyages of discovery; 3. In Newton's train: pluralism and the system of the world; 4. Extraterrestrials in the early machine age; 5. After Darwin: the war of the worlds; 6. Einstein's sky: life in the new universe; 7. Ever since SETI: astrobiology in the space age; References; Index.

  17. Life Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sunny

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) Life Skills for Prisoners Program. The program was designed to enhance and expand the Resolve to Stop the Violence Project, which had operated successfully for three years in the San Francisco County Jail as a restorative justice program. The mission of SFSD is to…

  18. Symposium: Student Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Questions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    To get an inside view of campus life today, the Intercollegiate Studies Institute (whose purpose is to foster in college students an appreciation of the values that sustain a free society) was approached and asked to supply a list of their Collegiate Network editors--students who are active on their campuses, interested in the issues facing higher…

  19. Learning from Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, David

    2009-01-01

    There is currently widespread interest in exploring the opportunities to develop learning that can be delivered in three-dimensional multiuser virtual environments (3-D MUVEs). In this paper, I argue for the need to conduct research into the emerging cultures of use in 3-D MUVEs, focussing on the example of Second Life. Drawing on social and…

  20. Life History and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

  1. Two-dimensional life?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Duve, C.; Miller, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    A model [Wachtershauser, G. (1988) Microbiol. Rev. 52, 452-484], according to which life started in the form of a monomolecular layer of interacting anionic metabolites electrostatically bound to a positively charged surface, is examined critically. The model raises a number of thermodynamic and kinetic difficulties.

  2. Yawning throughout life.

    PubMed

    Giganti, F; Salzarulo, P

    2010-01-01

    Yawning is a behavior that begins in the first stages of life. It has not only been observed in infants and in newborns, but also in fetuses of 12-14 weeks' gestational age. Yawning frequency changes over the life span. In preterm infants, the number of yawns decreases between 31 and 40 weeks' postconceptional age, mainly during the day. In this period of life, yawning is an isolated behavior rarely occurring in bursts, and its frequency is quite low with respect to adults. The incidence of yawning seems to increase when children attend elementary school, whereas this is reduced in the elderly. Aged people yawn less than younger ones, mainly during morning and mid-afternoon. In adults, the time course of yawning is associated with the time course of sleepiness, except upon awakening when the high frequency of yawns is not associated with high sleepiness. In adults, yawning frequency increases in the early morning and in the late evening, whereas at the earliest stages of development (fetuses and preterm infants) yawning does not show diurnal variations. Yawning seems to be involved in the modulation of arousal process across the whole life span. In preterm infants, yawning is often followed by motor activation and it is more common during waking than sleep; in adults, yawning occurs mainly at sleep onset and upon awakening.

  3. Freedom Road: Colonial Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    While historical fiction by Jean Fritz as well as titles like Robert Lawson's "Ben and Me" (1939) or "Mr. Revere and I" (1954) and Esther Forbes's "Johnny Tremain" (1943) are widely known classics that bring this period to life, recent years have yielded a wealth of new offerings--many of which are accessible picture books or read-alouds. These…

  4. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  5. From Light to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, Paul G.

    2015-09-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of H, C, N, O and S are coupled via biologically catalyzed electron transfer (redox) reactions far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper I examine the evolution of the structural motifs responsible for redox reactions (the biological "transistors") across the tree of life, and the photogeochemical reactions on minerals that ultimately came to be the driving force for these biological reactions.

  6. Graphic Life Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Patricia

    This is a prewriting activity for personal memoir or autobiographical writing. Grade 6-8 students brainstorm for important memories, create graphics or symbols for their most important memories, and construct a life map on tag board or construction paper, connecting drawings and captions of high and low points with a highway. During four 50-minute…

  7. It's a Salmon's Life!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

  8. Education for Interpersonal Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Higher education does not address the central challenges of daily interpersonal life--being a parent, spouse, friend, and offspring; dealing with change, loss, sickness, death. But education can instill "tacit knowing"--knowing in the bones, prior to conceptualization or verbalization. This knowing can be imparted by great literature. (MLW)

  9. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  10. Predicting service life margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Margins are developed for equipment susceptible to malfunction due to excessive time or operation cycles, and for identifying limited life equipment so monitoring and replacing is accomplished before hardware failure. Method applies to hardware where design service is established and where reasonable expected usage prediction is made.

  11. Mosquito Life Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Knowing the stages of the mosquito's life will help you prevent mosquitoes around your home and help you choose the right pesticides for your needs, if you decide to use them. All mosquito species go through four distinct stages during their live cycle.

  12. Lungfish and Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the writings of Homer W. Smith, a physiologist who wrote novels, histories of religion, textbooks, and a book on the kidney for the general reader. Smith's writing skills remind students that biologists are as multidimensional as the rest of the population. Smith shows that all parts of life are interrelated as they enrich and shed light…

  13. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  14. How life shaped Earth.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  15. Investigations Into Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Dean Samuel

    This laboratory manual, containing 44 exercises, is intended to be used as part of an audio-tutorial approach to laboratory work in a life-science course for student nurses. Exercises include basic techniques of miscroscopy, microbiology, electrophysiology, routine biochemical analyses of blood and urine, and microscopic examination of prepared…

  16. Life in the Galaxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, B. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the origin of life on the basis of information about cosmic evolution, stellar alchemy, atmospheric histories, and rise and fall of civilizations. Indicates that man's contact with other civilizations in our galaxy may be made possible through studies of interstellar communication. (CC)

  17. Learning for Life Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, Jane Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

  18. My father's life.

    PubMed Central

    Porth, R

    1995-01-01

    Medicine has many unsung heroes, and among them are physicians who spend their careers providing medical care in remote areas. In this article, Ronald Porth remembers the life of his father, Dr. Frank Porth, who for more than 30 years provided medical care on native reserves and in rural parts of the Prairies. Images p638-a p639-a PMID:7641162

  19. My father's life.

    PubMed

    Porth, R

    1995-09-01

    Medicine has many unsung heroes, and among them are physicians who spend their careers providing medical care in remote areas. In this article, Ronald Porth remembers the life of his father, Dr. Frank Porth, who for more than 30 years provided medical care on native reserves and in rural parts of the Prairies.

  20. The secret of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David; Kirsebom, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    Life as we know it would not be possible were it not for a particular nuclear energy level of carbon-12 predicted 60 years ago by Fred Hoyle. But the true nature of this energy level remains one of the biggest unsolved questions in nuclear physics, say David Jenkins and Oliver Kirsebom.

  1. Spacelab Life Sciences-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40, carrying Spacelab Life Sciences-1, was the first dedicated to study the human body in microgravity. Experiments regarding adaptation to space and readaptation to the world of gravity are discussed in this video. Spacelab is another precursor to long-term science aboard the space station.

  2. Chemicals in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Raymond B.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the dependencies of people on chemicals in various aspects of life. Describes some of the natural and synthetic chemicals currently used in food production, clothing, shelter, travel and exploration, sports and recreation, ventilation, heating and cooling, communications, decoration, sanitation, and education. (TW)

  3. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  4. Life Change Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, William M.; And Others

    The amount of life stress, as measured by the Schedule of Recent Experience (SRE), has been shown to be related to the onset of illness. This instrument was originally developed with a civilian population, and it became apparent that some questions were inappropriate when it was to be applied to a military population. Furthermore, it was believed…

  5. Life! Through Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Anne, Nancy

    This speech presents a review of research concerning the nature of play. Some of the formal characteristics of play are: (a) it is distinct from ordinary life in its "temporariness" and its limitless location; (b) there is an element of tension in play that leads to uncertainty concerning the outcome but at the same time provides the opportunity…

  6. Encaustic Still Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Len

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used in an advanced high school art class where students used the encaustic painting technique by melting wax and combining various pigments. Explains that the students painted a still-life of flowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh. (CMK)

  7. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  8. Coal Was Our Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Muriel; Williamson, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with former miners and their families in North East England about education and training needs uncovered gender, age, and cultural differences in reactions to changed circumstances and view of the future. Better opportunities for education, training, and employment are needed to rebuild the fabric of community life. (SK)

  9. Second Life as Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    In terms of exploring the status of Second Life (SL) usage in libraries, it would be useful to not only look at how and why the virtual world is being used but also how SL compares to successfully implemented innovations of the past. Comparing and contrasting the characteristics of previously accepted innovations with those of SL will help…

  10. Learning for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robotham, Dan

    2011-01-01

    People working in the field of education know well the positive effects adult and community learning can have on mental health and wellbeing. Participating in adult and community learning can help to widen social networks and improve life and employment chances; it makes for better general health; and can strengthen the learner's self-confidence,…

  11. Hypotheses, Limits, Models and Life

    PubMed Central

    Bains, William

    2014-01-01

    Life is launching a new section, called Hypotheses in the Life Sciences. The new Section will complement the other sections of Life, providing a feedstock of ideas whose tests can be published in the wider Life family, and elsewhere. We will consider hypotheses that are supported by real world, rigorous evidence, by clear arguments, and which provide a potential solution to a genuine gap in our understanding of any aspect of the life sciences. PMID:25551680

  12. [Patents on life? No patent on life!].

    PubMed

    van Raden, L

    1998-03-01

    Inventions related to living material are in principle patentable as well as inventions in the "classical" fields of technology as long as they are new, industrially applicable and involve an inventive step. A patent gives to its owner for a limited period of time the exclusive right to prevent others from using his patented new technical know-how. Starting point of patent protection in the field of genetic engineering is a genetic information or a genetically induced characteristic of an organism; there is no such thing as a "Patent on Life". As far as inventions relate to genetically modified organisms, patents give to their owners no additional property rights that might exclude the applicability e.g. of the laws on animal protection. Intellectual property like any other property is subject to the limits set up by law. It is neither scientifically correct nor does it help in finding a solution for the conflict within society to shift the--undoubtedly necessary--discussion about research and application in the field of genetic engineering to a discussion about patent law.

  13. Life Sciences Accomplishments 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnell, Mary Lou (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Division (LBSAD) serves the Nation's life sciences community by managing all aspects of U.S. space-related life sciences research and technology development. The activities of the Division are integral components of the Nation's overall biological sciences and biomedical research efforts. However, NASA's life sciences activities are unique, in that space flight affords the opportunity to study and characterize basic biological mechanisms in ways not possible on Earth. By utilizing access to space as a research tool, NASA advances fundamental knowledge of the way in which weightlessness, radiation, and other aspects of the space-flight environment interact with biological processes. This knowledge is applied to procedures and technologies that enable humans to live and work in and explore space and contributes to the health and well-being of people on Earth. The activities of the Division are guided by the following three goals: Goal 1) Use microgravity and other unique aspects of the space environment to enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. Goal 2) Develop the scientific and technological foundations for supporting exploration by enabling productive human presence in space for extended periods. Goal 3) Apply our unique mission personnel, facilities, and technology to improve education, the quality of life on Earth, and U.S. competitiveness. The Division pursues these goals with integrated ground and flight programs involving the participation of NASA field centers, industry, and universities, as well as interactions with other national agencies and NASA's international partners. The published work of Division-sponsored researchers is a record of completed research in pursuit of these goals. During 1993, the LBSAD instituted significant changes in its experiment solicitation and peer review processes. For the first time, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released requesting

  14. Starship Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multi generational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Only current technology is assumed. Highly reliable life support systems can be provided with reasonably small additional mass, suggesting that they can support long duration missions. Bioregenerative life support, growing crop plants that provide food, water, and oxygen, has been thought to need less mass than providing stored food for long duration missions. The large initial mass of hydroponics systems is paid for over time by saving the mass of stored food. However, the yearly logistics mass required to support a bioregenerative system exceeds the mass of food solids it produces, so that supplying stored dehydrated food always requires less mass than bioregenerative food production. A mixed system that grows about half the food and supplies the other half dehydrated has advantages that allow it to breakeven with stored dehydrated food in about 66 years. However, moderate increases in the hydroponics system mass to achieve high reliability, such as adding spares that double the system mass and replacing the initial system every 100 years, increase the mass cost of bioregenerative life support. In this case, the high reliability half food growing, half food supplying system does not breakeven for 389 years. An even higher reliability half and half system, with three times original system mass and replacing the system every 50 years, never breaks even. Growing food for starship life support requires more mass than providing dehydrated food, even for multigeneration voyages of hundreds of years. The benefits of growing some food may justify the added mass cost. Much more efficient recycling food production is wanted but may not be possible. A single multigenerational interstellar voyage to

  15. End of life issues.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Nigel

    2008-05-01

    Despite advances in cancer survival rates, end of life care remains a vital aspect of cancer management. The use of integrated care pathways can facilitate effective care of dying patients in a generalist setting. However, it remains important that staff are able to recognise the onset of the dying process, not only in order to make symptom control provision, but also that appropriate communication can occur with patients and those close to them. This allows the exercise of choice over place and style of care. The key symptoms at the end of life are restlessness, agitation, breathlessness, pain and noisy respiration from retained airway secretions. Ethical tensions arise from the assumptions that the use of opioids and sedatives hastens dying, but this is contradicted by available evidence.

  16. Bioenergetics and Life's Origins

    PubMed Central

    Deamer, David; Weber, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    Bioenergetics is central to our understanding of living systems, yet has attracted relatively little attention in origins of life research. This article focuses on energy resources available to drive primitive metabolism and the synthesis of polymers that could be incorporated into molecular systems having properties associated with the living state. The compartmented systems are referred to as protocells, each different from all the rest and representing a kind of natural experiment. The origin of life was marked when a rare few protocells happened to have the ability to capture energy from the environment to initiate catalyzed heterotrophic growth directed by heritable genetic information in the polymers. This article examines potential sources of energy available to protocells, and mechanisms by which the energy could be used to drive polymer synthesis. PMID:20182625

  17. Life table and consumption capacity of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, fed asparagus, Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, twosex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day(-1), 1.0811 day(-1), 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day(-1), 1.0781 day(-1), 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination.

  18. The right to life

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Kenneth M

    1981-01-01

    For much of human history the idea of a right to life has not seemed self-evident. The credibility of the idea appears to depend on a particular kind of intuition concerning the nature of the world. In this paper, the kind of intuition involved is related to the idea of a covenant, illustrated by that of marriage. The paper concludes by suggesting that talk about responsibilities may be more fruitful than talk about rights. PMID:7277408

  19. Life detection systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitz, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    Some promising newer approaches for detecting microorganisms are discussed, giving particular attention to the integration of different methods into a single instrument. Life detection methods may be divided into biological, chemical, and cytological methods. Biological methods are based on the biological properties of assimilation, metabolism, and growth. Devices for the detection of organic materials are considered, taking into account an instrument which volatilizes, separates, and analyzes a sample sequentially. Other instrumental systems described make use of a microscope and the cytochemical staining principle.

  20. Life's expanding realm.

    PubMed

    Knoll, A

    1994-06-01

    Geologic sediments from the Nullagine Range in Australia are used to illustrate the early existence of microbial communities in the oceans. These communities survived in oxygen-free environments. Some microbes, particularly cyanobacteria, developed the ability to synthesize energy from light, which led to the evolution of creatures with oxygen-dependent metabolism. Only recently has geologic evidence been discovered that supports the theory that animals developed only when there was enough oxygen in the atmosphere to support higher forms of life.

  1. Life's expanding realm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A.

    1994-01-01

    Geologic sediments from the Nullagine Range in Australia are used to illustrate the early existence of microbial communities in the oceans. These communities survived in oxygen-free environments. Some microbes, particularly cyanobacteria, developed the ability to synthesize energy from light, which led to the evolution of creatures with oxygen-dependent metabolism. Only recently has geologic evidence been discovered that supports the theory that animals developed only when there was enough oxygen in the atmosphere to support higher forms of life.

  2. Exploration Life Support Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, B. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project is now developing new technologies for the Vision for Space Exploration announced in 2004. ELS project development work is organized around the three major vehicles of the Exploration Program. The first vehicle is the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The ELS project will develop prototype hardware for this short duration orbital and trans-lunar vehicle s mission. The second vehicle is for sortie landings on the moon. Life support technology hardware for lunar surface access vehicles will include upgrades of existing CEV equipment and technologies to maximize commonality between the two vehicles as well as new technologies needed for the harsher thermal environments of the moon and the new element of dust. The third vehicle will be a longer duration lunar outpost. Crew stays of 180 days are planned for the lunar outpost. To minimize the need for consumables needed for resupply, a new set of hardware developments and processes better suited for long duration life support will be used. The water loop will be almost completely closed. The air revitalization will be partially closed. The outpost mission will have the continuous environment of 1/6th gravity making the separations of fluids and gases easier than the zero gravity for the CEV and orbital phases of lunar lander vehicles. This presentation will describe the planned technologies that are expected to be developed and considerations for how those technologies will be developed and demonstrated by the ELS project for these major program vehicles.

  3. Obstetric life support.

    PubMed

    Puck, Andrea Lorraine; Oakeson, Ann Marie; Morales-Clark, Ana; Druzin, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    The death of a woman during pregnancy is devastating. Although the incidence of maternal cardiac arrest is increasing, it continues to be a comparatively rare event. Obstetric healthcare providers may go through their entire career without participating in a maternal cardiac resuscitation. Concern has been raised that when an arrest does occur in the obstetric unit, providers who are trained in life support skills at 2-year intervals are ill equipped to provide the best possible care. The quality of resuscitation skills provided during cardiopulmonary arrest of inpatients often may be poor, and knowledge of critical steps to be followed during resuscitation may not be retained after life support training. The Obstetric Life Support (ObLS) training program is a method of obstetric nursing and medical staff training that is relevant, comprehensive, and cost-effective. It takes into consideration both the care needs of the obstetric patient and the adult learning needs of providers. The ObLS program brings obstetric nurses, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists together in multidisciplinary team training that is crucial to developing efficient emergency response.

  4. Welding for life

    SciTech Connect

    Stiebler, T.J.; Nugent, R.M.; Wilson, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    State of the Art Welding Techniques are being utilized to extend the life of major steam turbine components, as well as other traditional types of repairs. The development of a temper bead welding technique has allowed Houston Lighting and Power (HL and P) to perform innovative weld repairs. Nozzle vanes are weld repaired without removing the nozzle blocks from the case; repair life has also been doubled. A new two wire Gas Tungsten ARC Welding (GTAW) machine has produced high deposition rates while maintaining excellent mechanical properties. This results in faster turn-around time and with an improved weld repair. Development of a weld wire specification has also been instrumental in achieving additional component life by increasing the resistance to fatigue, especially in the heat affected zone. All these factors work together to enhance the weld repairs. Tensile strengths of 140,000 PSI with good ductility have been achieved. This paper will discuss their experiences with several repairs and recap the results of some studies and tests performed during the technique development stages. Major repairs include; weld repair of cases, nozzle blocks, nozzle boxes, stationary blade repair, forced draft fan shaft buildup, weld repair of turbine shrouds, blades, tennons and journals.

  5. Informal science education: lifelong, life-wide, life-deep.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Kalie; Falk, John H; Bell, James

    2014-11-01

    Informal Science Education: Lifelong, Life-Wide, Life-Deep Informal science education cultivates diverse opportunities for lifelong learning outside of formal K-16 classroom settings, from museums to online media, often with the help of practicing scientists.

  6. [Qualities of life and happiness].

    PubMed

    Veenhoven, R

    2011-03-01

    The phrase 'quality of life' is actually misleading. The designation suggests that the issue has to do with 1 quality, whereas in fact more qualities of life are indicated. Four of these qualities are: 1. the 'livability' of the surroundings, 2. the 'life-abilities' of the individual, 3. the 'utility of life' and 4. the subjective 'satisfaction' with a person's own life. The various qualities cannot meaningfully be collected together in an index. The most comprehensive measure of quality of life is how long and happily a person lives. The relationship between that and oral health has still hardly been studied.

  7. Navy Quality of Life Survey: Shipboard Life Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    ballpoint , or felt tip pens . Erase cleanly and completely any changes you make. Make black marks that fill in the entire circle. Do NOT make stray marks on...population. Results are presented for shipboard life overall and specific and grouped aspects of shipboard life. Of the 15 domains, the Shipboard Life...April 2002, with data collection closing in August 2002. This survey focused on overall perceptions of QOL in the Navy and QOL in 15 specific life

  8. APPLYING TEP MEASUREMENTS TO ASSESS THE AGING STAGE OF MARAGING 250 STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Y.; Gelbstein, Y.; Pinkas, M.; Yeheskel, O.; Landau, A.

    2008-02-28

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements had been proved as an effective method for evaluating the metallurgical state of various alloys. The current work was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of the aging state of Maraging 250 steel on TEP values. Commercial Maraging 250 steel was aged at 500 deg. C for 0.5-6 hours (hrs). TEP, hardness (Rc) and ultrasonic (US) measurements, were preformed on the as received and aged specimens. XRD measurements were used to identify the formation of precipitates (mainly Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo)), reverted austenite and to evaluate changes in the microstrain caused by the precipitation process. A correlation was found between the TEP and the various measurements as a function of the aging time.

  9. Applying Tep Measurements to Assess the Aging Stage of Maraging 250 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snir, Y.; Pinkas, M.; Gelbstein, Y.; Yeheskel, O.; Landau, A.

    2008-02-01

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements had been proved as an effective method for evaluating the metallurgical state of various alloys. The current work was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of the aging state of Maraging 250 steel on TEP values. Commercial Maraging 250 steel was aged at 500 °C for 0.5-6 hours (hrs). TEP, hardness (Rc) and ultrasonic (US) measurements, were preformed on the as received and aged specimens. XRD measurements were used to identify the formation of precipitates (mainly Ni3(Ti,Mo)), reverted austenite and to evaluate changes in the microstrain caused by the precipitation process. A correlation was found between the TEP and the various measurements as a function of the aging time.

  10. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    PubMed

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2017-02-01

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling.

  11. Development: Ages & Stages--How Children Learn to Problem-Solve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how children learn to problem solve from birth to 6 years. At 0 to 2 years, children learn to be very effective problem solvers by encouraging children's explorations and supporting their efforts to resolve difficulties. When they reach 3 years old, children enjoy experimenting with a wide variety of materials,…

  12. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  13. Business and life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The life support systems in the machine called the Space Shuttle is discussed and later about life support systems in a little cocoon that is far smaller than the shuttle; the more common term is a space suit.

  14. The Life of Roger Langdon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langdon, Roger; Langdon, Ellen

    2010-11-01

    Preface H. Clifton Lambert; 1. 'Why was I born?'; 2. Childhood's days; 3. Starting in life; 4. My secret departure; 5. Life in Jersey; 6. Return and marriage; 7. Scientific achievements; 8. Closing years; Appendices.

  15. End of Life (Hospice Care)

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle End of life Hospice care might be an option if you or a loved one has ... 28, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/end-of-life/in-depth/hospice-care/art- ...

  16. Space shuttle and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  17. "Control Your Diabetes. For Life."

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Control Your Diabetes. For Life." Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents For information about "Control Your Diabetes. For Life" campaign, visit www.YourDiabetesInfo. ...

  18. Sex differences in social focus across the life cycle in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Ghosh, Asim; Monsivais, Daniel; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Kaski, Kimmo

    2016-04-01

    Age and gender are two important factors that play crucial roles in the way organisms allocate their social effort. In this study, we analyse a large mobile phone dataset to explore the way life history influences human sociality and the way social networks are structured. Our results indicate that these aspects of human behaviour are strongly related to age and gender such that younger individuals have more contacts and, among them, males more than females. However, the rate of decrease in the number of contacts with age differs between males and females, such that there is a reversal in the number of contacts around the late 30s. We suggest that this pattern can be attributed to the difference in reproductive investments that are made by the two sexes. We analyse the inequality in social investment patterns and suggest that the age- and gender-related differences we find reflect the constraints imposed by reproduction in a context where time (a form of social capital) is limited.

  19. Sex differences in social focus across the life cycle in humans

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Ghosh, Asim; Monsivais, Daniel; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Kaski, Kimmo

    2016-01-01

    Age and gender are two important factors that play crucial roles in the way organisms allocate their social effort. In this study, we analyse a large mobile phone dataset to explore the way life history influences human sociality and the way social networks are structured. Our results indicate that these aspects of human behaviour are strongly related to age and gender such that younger individuals have more contacts and, among them, males more than females. However, the rate of decrease in the number of contacts with age differs between males and females, such that there is a reversal in the number of contacts around the late 30s. We suggest that this pattern can be attributed to the difference in reproductive investments that are made by the two sexes. We analyse the inequality in social investment patterns and suggest that the age- and gender-related differences we find reflect the constraints imposed by reproduction in a context where time (a form of social capital) is limited. PMID:27152223

  20. Preparing for life in space.

    PubMed

    Dasch, P

    1997-01-01

    The third team to inhabit the Advanced Life Support Test Chamber at the Johnson Space Center participated in an interview about life in the test chamber and program goals. Questions examine the air and water systems; human factors such as life in confinement, privacy, health, and training; and exercise. The test chamber is used to test life support systems for the International Space Station, lunar bases, and manned missions to Mars.

  1. Boiler-turbine life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Natzkov, S.; Nikolov, M.

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  2. Life on Europa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shylaja, B. S.

    1997-06-01

    The notion of life has always fascinated curious minds. From prehistoric days, fancy voyages to other colonies and visits from non-earthly beings have been creatively imagined. Apart from science fictions, the last few centuries saw many observational investigations of "cities of Moon", "colonies of Mars" and so on. However, the sophisticated tools of the modern era quickly put a full stop to these developments revealing that the other planets are not hospitable, and infact hostile for a life form like ours to exist there. That explains why in the last few decades the efforts shifted to observing the satellites of large planets. The anxiety grew with the knowledge of their atmospheric structure, chemical composition and volcanic activity. Detection of water, albeit frozen, was a welcome surprise. The flyby of Voyager and Pioneer provided ample evidence for the presence of water, one of the most important ingredients for the germination of the seed of life. The detection of the fossil of a microorganism on a stone believed to have fallen from Mars, boosted the scientists zeal to pursue the research, although the date for life on Mars (more than 3 billion years ago) is not very convincing. Last year, many scientists, from different branches like astrophysics, geology, oceanography, biology and astrogeology discussed the possibilities of life elsewhere in the universe. The focal point was not Mars, but Europa, one of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Their studies based on Voyager images supported the possibility of liquid water beneath the frozen sheets of ice. However, heat is also an essential parameter. Europa, being at a distance five times the sun-earth separation can have only 1/25th the warmth of the earth. Then, where does it get the necessary warmth from? There are other important sources of heat in many of these satellites that lie concealed from our view. They are the volcanoes. If present, can these keep the water warm below the ice sheets? The unmanned

  3. Actinides and Life's Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uranium- and thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3rd by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  4. Actinides and Life's Origins.

    PubMed

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  5. Educators Get a "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    For educators who think real life does not offer enough opportunities to practice their profession, there is Second Life, an Internet-based virtual environment that counts thousands of educators among its enthusiasts. Second Life bears a passing resemblance to an online game, with users represented by digitally drawn characters, called avatars,…

  6. End of Life: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

  7. Space Biology: Patterns of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Frank B.

    1971-01-01

    Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

  8. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  9. Geography of European Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life…

  10. Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

  11. Life-Threatening Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Cram, David L.

    1973-01-01

    Four life-threatening dermatoses—Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Kaposi's varicelliform eruption and purpura fulminans—are unique in their abrupt onset and rapid progress to death, but prompt diagnosis and proper therapy can often cure the condition or prevent undesirable sequelae. Since two of the four conditions can follow the use of a variety of drugs and all may be secondary to an infectious agent, any physician may encounter them in practice and should be aware of their seriousness. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:4701711

  12. Life care planning.

    PubMed

    Katz, Richard T; Delaney, Gail A

    2002-05-01

    Physicians may be asked to help plan long-term needs of patients with catastrophic injury. It is crucial to know the life expectancy and be intimately familiar with the needs of the disabled person for whom one is planning. This article uses two diagnostic groups as models to illustrate the process: one a spinal cord injured adult and the other a child with cerebral palsy and mental retardation. We provide examples of some of the specific types of needs for these two groups of individuals.

  13. Astrophysics of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Reid, I. Neill; Sparks, William B.

    2011-03-01

    1. A voyage from dark clouds to the early Earth P. Ehrenfreund, S. B. Charnley and O. Botta; 2. Galactic environment of the Sun and stars: interstellar and interplanetary material P. C. Frisch, H. R. Muller, G. P. Zank and C. Lopate; 3. Transits R. L. Gilliland; 4. Planet migration E. W. Thommes and J. J. Lissauer; 5. Organic synthesis in space S. A. Sandford; 6. The Vegetation Red Edge Spectroscopic Feature as a surface biomarker S. Seager and E. B. Ford; 7. Search for extra-solar planets through gravitational microlensing K. C. Sahu; 8. The galactic habitable zone G. Gonzalez; 9. Cosmology and life M. Livio.

  14. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  15. Life raft stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnofsky, M. I.; Barnett, J. H., Jr.; Harrison, F. L.; Marak, R. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An improved life raft stabilizer for reducing rocking and substantially precluding capsizing is discussed. The stabilizer may be removably attached to the raft and is defined by flexible side walls which extend a considerable depth downwardly to one another in the water. The side walls, in conjunction with the floor of the raft, form a ballast enclosure. A weight is placed in the bottom of the enclosure and water port means are provided in the walls. Placement of the stabilizer in the water allows the weighted bottom to sink, producing submerged deployment thereof and permitting water to enter the enclosure through the port means, thus forming a ballast for the raft.

  16. Zebra mussel life history

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  17. Creativity in later life.

    PubMed

    Price, K A; Tinker, A M

    2014-08-01

    The ageing population presents significant challenges for the provision of social and health services. Strategies are needed to enable older people to cope within a society ill prepared for the impacts of these demographic changes. The ability to be creative may be one such strategy. This review outlines the relevant literature and examines current public health policy related to creativity in old age with the aim of highlighting some important issues. As well as looking at the benefits and negative aspects of creative activity in later life they are considered in the context of the theory of "successful ageing". Creative activity plays an important role in the lives of older people promoting social interaction, providing cognitive stimulation and giving a sense of self-worth. Furthermore, it is shown to be useful as a tool in the multi-disciplinary treatment of health problems common in later life such as depression and dementia. There are a number of initiatives to encourage older people to participate in creative activities such as arts-based projects which may range from visual arts to dance to music to intergenerational initiatives. However, participation shows geographical variation and often the responsibility of provision falls to voluntary organisations. Overall, the literature presented suggests that creative activity could be a useful tool for individuals and society. However, further research is needed to establish the key factors which contribute to patterns of improved health and well-being, as well as to explore ways to improve access to services.

  18. Lifing of Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

  19. Life from the core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, Carlo; Coleman, Max; Pignatti, Johannes; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2010-05-01

    Life on Earth is the result of the chaotic combination of several independent chemical and physical parameters. One of them is the shield from ionizing radiation exerted by the atmosphere and the Earth's magnetic field. We hypothesise that the first few billion years of the Earth's history, dominated by bacteria, were characterized by stronger ionizing radiation. Bacteria can survive under such conditions better than any other organism. During the Archean and early Proterozoic the shield could have been weaker, allowing the development of only a limited number of species, more resistant to the external radiation. The Cambrian explosion of life could have been enhanced by the gradual growth of the solid inner core, which was not existent possibly before 1 Ga. The cooling of the Earth generated the solidification of the iron alloy in the center of the planet. As an hypothesis, before the crystallization of the core, the turbulence in the liquid core could have resulted in a lower or different magnetic field from the one we know today, being absent the relative rotation between inner and external core.

  20. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased.

  1. Venus: Water and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditkof, J. F.

    2013-05-01

    Amphiboles that contain the hydroxide ion form only in the presence of water and this fact has become the way for scientists to prove that Venus was once a water world. Though, tremolite is considered the main mineral to look for, it requires life that is analogous to the ancient life here on Earth for it to form. Dolomite is the main ingredient for the formation of this low grade metamorphic mineral and without it would be very difficult for tremolite to form, unless there is another process that is unknown to science. Venus is known to have extensive volcanic features (over 1600 confirmed shield volcanoes dot its surface) and with little erosion taking place; a mineral that is associated with volcanism and forms only in the presence of water should be regarded as the main goal. Hornblende can form via volcanism or a metamorphic process but requires water for initial formation. The European Space Agency is currently trying to determine whether or not the continents on Venus' surface are made of granite, as they argue granite requires water for formation. Either way, computer models suggest that any oceans that formed on the surface would have lasted at best 2 billion years, as the surface is estimated to be only 800 million years old, any hornblende that would have formed is more than likely going to be deep underground. To find this mineral, as well as others, it would require a mission that has the ability to drill into the surface, as the easiest place to do this would be on the mountain peaks in the Northern Hemisphere on the Ishtar Terra continent. Through the process of uplift, any remaining hornblende may have been exposed or very near exposed to the surface. Do to the amount of fluorine in the atmosphere and the interaction between this and the lithosphere, the hydroxyl ions may have been replaced with fluorine turning the hornblende into the more stable fluoro-hornblende. To further add to the mystery of Venus is the unusual atmospheric composition. The

  2. Surfing Second Life: What Does Second Life Have to Do with Real-Life Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oishi, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    Second Life's unstructured atmosphere and wide-open spaces where student creativity can grow and flourish are two of the reasons Pepperdine University Professor Bill Moseley integrated the program into his curriculum. In this article, the author discusses how Second Life works and its challenges. Second Life is often described as a 3-D version of…

  3. The essence of life purpose.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Pamela J

    2009-01-01

    Life purpose is an important thread of critical care nursing. However, no consensus exists for a definition of life purpose. In addition, ambiguity prevails regarding the manner in which life purpose is incorporated into nursing practice and research. Therefore, through a conceptual synthesis process, this article aims to clarify the essence of life purpose with relevance to health and critical care nursing today. The outcome of the conceptual synthesis is an operational definition to be used in future nursing research. Information was obtained from a literature search of scholarly articles using (1) searches of electronic databases of literature about life purpose and (2) research studies addressing conceptual, substantive, and methodological domains. Topics consisted of the philosophical underpinnings of life purpose, its attributes, definitions, and theoretical frameworks, along with differences in theories and empirical support. Finally, emerging from this process, the article culminates with a proposed conceptual definition of life purpose, which may be applied broadly to older adults in various critical care settings.

  4. Meaning in life in the Federal Republic of Germany: results of a representative survey with the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation (SMiLE)

    PubMed Central

    Fegg, Martin J; Kramer, Mechtild; Bausewein, Claudia; Borasio, Gian D

    2007-01-01

    Background The construct "meaning-in-life" (MiL) has recently raised the interest of clinicians working in psycho-oncology and end-of-life care and has become a topic of scientific investigation. Difficulties regarding the measurement of MiL are related to the various theoretical and conceptual approaches and its inter-individual variability. Therefore the "Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation" (SMiLE), an individualized instrument for the assessment of MiL, was developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate MiL in a representative sample of the German population. Methods In the SMiLE, the respondents first indicate a minimum of three and maximum of seven areas which provide meaning to their life before rating their current level of importance and satisfaction of each area. Indices of total weighting (IoW, range 20–100), total satisfaction (IoS, range 0–100), and total weighted satisfaction (IoWS, range 0–100) are calculated. Results In July 2005, 1,004 Germans were randomly selected and interviewed (inclusion rate, 85.3%). 3,521 areas of MiL were listed and assigned to 13 a-posteriori categories. The mean IoS was 81.9 ± 15.1, the mean IoW was 84.6 ± 11.9, and the mean IoWS was 82.9 ± 14.8. In youth (16–19 y/o), "friends" were most important for MiL, in young adulthood (20–29 y/o) "partnership", in middle adulthood (30–39 y/o) "work", during retirement (60–69 y/o) "health" and "altruism", and in advanced age (70 y/o and more) "spirituality/religion" and "nature experience/animals". Conclusion This study is a first nationwide survey on individual MiL in a randomly selected, representative sample. The MiL areas of the age stages seem to correspond with Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. PMID:18034898

  5. Web life: Foldit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    So what is the site about? Like the popular SETI@home program, which uses the downtime of home computers to sift radio-telescope data for evidence of alien life, Foldit draws on the idle hours of several thousand data-crunchers for help in solving scientific puzzles. But there is a twist. For a start, Foldit is all about biophysics. The project's goal is to understand how proteins - the chains of amino acids that drive processes inside living cells - fold themselves into a myriad of different shapes. But the most striking difference is that Foldit's protein-folding operators are actual human beings, and the datasets they are sifting are disguised as an amazingly addictive computer game.

  6. Fossil life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Three major problems beset paleontologists searching for morphological evidence of life on early Earth: selecting a prospective site; finding biogenic structures; and distinguishing biogenic from abiogenic structures. The same problems arise on Mars. Terrestrial experience suggests that, with the techniques that can be employed remotely, ancient springs, including hot springs, are more prospective than lake deposits. If, on the other hand, the search is for chemical evidence, the strategy can be very different, and lake deposits are attractive targets. Lakes and springs frequenly occur in close proximity, and therefore a strategy that combines the two would seem to maximize the chance of success. The strategy for a search for stromatolite on Mars is discussed.

  7. Game of Life Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

    At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

  8. Negative Entropy of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  9. Life after Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B.; Hameed, S.

    2000-12-01

    Beginning astronomy is a popular class for undergraduates, and a fair percentage of these students would take another nontechnical class in this field if one were available. What other courses exist for students to take after introductory astronomy? At NMSU we offer three classes that enroll large numbers of juniors/seniors who are nonscience majors. These classes are (1) Into the Final Frontier: the Human Exploration of Space, (2) The Search for Life in the Universe, (3) and Revolutionary Ideas in Science. Curricula for these classes, teaching strategies, and course materials will be provided in this poster presentation for those wishing to offer similar classes at their institutions. Some of th work presented in this poster was support by the NSF and NASA

  10. Late-life attachment.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  11. Life and space.

    PubMed

    Imshenetsky, A A

    1964-01-01

    The studies dealing with the detection of life on planets and in space will have two periods. The first period will be associated with the application of automatical devices, which will detect living creatures, whereas the second, more late, period will be concerned with the investigations provided by man himself. In these studies one should proceed from the idea of life on the Earth, and, consequently, look for living creatures containing no water, no carbon dioxide, etc. only after obtaining negative results in searching for creatures similar to those living on the Earth. The whole course of "chemical evolution" on the Earth proves the necessity of the detection on other planets of heterotrophic microorganisms at first, and only afterwards to look for specialized forms, i.e. chemo- and photoautotrophs. It is usually underestimated that as a result of adaptation to certain ecological conditions existing on planets living creatures may appear, which will distinctly differ in their biological properties from terrestrial forms. At present there is no faultless investigation which is able to prove to existence of cosmobionts in meteorites. The appropriate experiments convince us that soil bacteria. may penetrate into the central parts of meteorites, which have been lying in the ground. Samplings at high altitudes with the aid of aerostats or the rockets are difficult to provide because of the possibility of pollution of samples by terrestrial microbes. It is therefore necessary to elaborate special devices and new methods for sampling. The most perfect instrument for the detection of microorganisms will be a device, which will record the multiplication rate of microbes in the liquid media simultaneously by means of different methods: manometry, nephelometry, potentiometry and the determination of radioactive carbon dioxide which is extracted during the breakdown of organic substances.

  12. Life on other worlds : the twentieth century extraterrestrial life debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    1998-12-01

    List of illustrations; List of tables; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. From the physical world to the biological universe: Democritus to Lowell; 2. Life in the solar system; 3. Solar systems beyond; 4. Extraterrestrials in literature and the arts: the role of imagination; 5. The UFO controversy and the extraterrestrial hypothesis; 6. The origin and evolution of life in the extraterrestrial context; 7. SETI: the search for extraterrestrial intelligence; 8. The meaning of life; 9. Summary and conclusion: the biological universe; Select bibliographical essay; Index.

  13. The value of life and the value of life extension.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Recent developments in aging research have added new urgency to the bioethical debate concerning life and death issues, the value of life, and the reasonable limits of medicine. This paper analyzes the basic structures of the liberal and conservative components of this debate, showing that there has hitherto been inadequate analysis on both sides concerning the nature and implications of the value of life, as well as, and as distinct from the value of life extension. Classic concepts of the intrinsic or extrinsic value of life are argued to be tangential or actually irrelevant to the value of life's continuance and so to the value of life extension. An analysis of personhood is proposed which focuses explicitly upon the value of life extension to persons. This analysis shows that persons may only intelligibly be understood as processes, for whom life extension is an inalienable and fundamental value. It is further proposed that, properly understood, such an analysis may significantly narrow the liberal/conservative divide in bioethics.

  14. Origins and Evolution of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Part I. What Is Life?: 1. Problems raised by a definition of life M. Morange; 2. Some remarks about uses of cosmological anthropic 'principles' D. Lambert; 3. Minimal cell: the biologist point of view C. Brochier-Armanet; 4. Minimal cell: the computer scientist point of view H. Bersini; 5. Origins of life: computing and simulation approaches B. Billoud; Part II. Astronomical and Geophysical Context of the Emergence of Life: 6. Organic molecules in interstellar medium C. Ceccarelli and C. Cernicharo; 7. Cosmochemical evolution and the origin of life: insights from meteorites S. Pizzarello; 8. Astronomical constraints on the emergence of life M. Gounelle and T. Montmerle; 9. Formation of habitable planets J. Chambers; 10. The concept of galactic habitable zone N. Prantzos; 11. The young Sun and its influence on planetary atmospheres M. Güdel and J. Kasting; 12. Climates of the Earth G. Ramstein; Part III. Role of Water in the Emergence of Life: 13. Liquid water: a necessary condition to all forms of life K. Bartik, G. Bruylants, E. Locci and J. Reisse; 14. The role of water in the formation and evolution of planets T. Encrenaz; 15. Water on Mars J. P. Bibring; Part IV. From Non-Living Systems to Life: 16. Energetic constraints on prebiotic pathways: application to the emergence of translation R. Pascal and L. Boiteau; 17. Comparative genomics and early cell evolution A. Lazcano; 18. Origin and evolution of metabolisms J. Peretó; Part V. Mechanisms for Life Evolution: 19. Molecular phylogeny: inferring the patterns of evolution E. Douzery; 20. Horizontal gene transfer: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences D. Moreira; 21. The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution A. Latorre, A. Durbán, A. Moya and J. Peretó; Part VI. Life in Extreme Conditions: 22. Life in extreme conditions: Deinococcus radiodurans, an organism able to survive prolonged desiccation and high doses of ionising radiation S. Sommer and M. Toueille; 23. Molecular effects of UV and ionizing

  15. Life sciences payloads for Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Life Sciences Program for utilization of the Shuttle in the 1980's is presented. Requirements for life sciences research experiments in space flight are discussed along with study results of designs to meet these requirements. The span of life sciences interests in biomedicine, biology, man system integration, bioinstrumentation and life support/protective systems is described with a listing of the research areas encompassed in these descriptions. This is followed by a description of the approach used to derive from the life sciences disciplines, the research functions and instrumentation required for an orbital research program. Space Shuttle design options for life sciences experiments are identified and described. Details are presented for Spacelab laboratories for dedicated missions, mini-labs with carry on characteristics and carry on experiments for shared payload missions and free flying satellites to be deployed and retrieved by the Shuttle.

  16. Halophilic life on Mars ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Fendrihan, Sergiu; Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Holzinger, Anita; Polacsek, Tatjana K.; Legat, Andrea; Grösbacher, Michael; Weigl, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Background: The search for extraterrestrial life has been declared as a goal for the 21th century by several space agencies. Potential candidates are microorganisms on or in the surface of moons and planets, such as Mars. Extremely halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) are of astrobiological interest since viable strains have been isolated from million years old salt deposits (1) and halite has been found in Martian meteorites and in surface pools. Therefore, haloarchaeal responses to simulated and real space conditions were explored. Immuno assays for a potential Life Marker Chip experiment were developed with antisera against the universal enzyme ATP synthase. Methods: The focus of these studies was on the application of fluorescent probes since they provide strong signals, and detection devices are suitable for miniaturization. Viability of haloarchaeal strains (Halococcus dombrowskii and Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1) was probed with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ kit and the BacLight™ Bacterial Membrane Potential kit. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the DNA, following exposure to simulated and real space conditions (UV irradiation from 200 - 400 nm; 18 months exposure on the International Space Station [ISS] within the ADAPT experiment by Dr. P. Rettberg), were detected with fluorescent Alexa-Fluor-488-coupled antibodies. Immuno assays with antisera against the A-ATPase subunits from Halorubrum saccharovorum were carried out with the highly sensitive Immun-Star ™ WesternC ™ chemiluminescent kit (Bio-Rad). Results: Using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight™ kit, the D37 (dose of 37% survival) for Hcc. dombrowskii and Hbt. salinarum NRC-1, following exposure to UV (200-400 nm) was about 400 kJ/m2, when cells were embedded in halite and about 1 kJ/m2, when cells were in liquid cultures. Fluorescent staining indicated a slightly higher cellular activity than that which was derived from the determination of colony forming units. Assessment of viability with the Bac

  17. The search for alien life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, M.

    Life on Earth relies exclusively on the complex coordination among DNA, RNA, proteins, and an encompassing cell membrane. This level of complexity has been amenable to new molecular techniques with extreme specificity and sensitivity, enabling spectacular advances in cell biology and microbial ecology. Armed with molecular techniques, the last few decades of research have revealed the surprising extent of life on our own planet, expanding the habitable range of salinity, pressure, temperature, and radiation of our world. Given the relatively recent discoveries about life on Earth, how then can we expect to look for alien life that may use completely different sets of molecules for structure and activity? Astrobiology has taken on the challenge of developing the intellectual basis, target identification, instrument capabilities, and operational procedures for the search for life elsewhere. The research aims to develop general principles of how life maintains itself, how life interacts with its environment, and how the signatures of life may be preserved and recognized. The approach has been to move from the laboratory, to the environment, to robotic exploration of planetary analogs. To date, generic evidence for life can be perceived through life's creation and utilization of disequilibria, multiple uses of a relatively few sets of molecules, a preference for chiral compounds, and a predilection for lighter isotopes. It is through application of life detection instrumentation in environmental extremes that we hope to develop a catalogue of generic biosignatures, robust instrumentation capable of revealing the unexpected, and effective exploration strategies for robotic platforms in the search for signs of life. In 2009, Mars Science Laboratory and ExoMars may be the first beneficiaries of this approach.

  18. Life and Death Decision Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    LIFE SMOKING: CANCER, EMPHYSEMA, SHORTENED LIFE BATHING: FALLING, ELECTROCUTION CONTRACEPTION: DEATH , ILLNESS PREGNANCY: DEATH , ILLNESS ABORTION ...economic effect is the one with the highest probability of causing my death . -13- EXPECTED NET SYSTEM DESIGN BENEFIT TO ME DEATH DEATH (r A(excluding death ...0-AO81 424 STANFORD UNIV CALIF DEPT OF ENGtNEERING-ECONOM!C SYSTEMS F/6 12/1 LIFE ANDI DEATH DECISION ANALYSIS.CU) DEC 79 R A HOWARD N0OOIN-79-C-0036

  19. Life extending control: A concept paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of Life Extending Control is defined. Life is defined in terms of mechanical fatigue life. A brief description is given of the current approach to life prediction using a local, cyclic, stress-strain approach for a critical system component. An alternative approach to life prediction based on a continuous functional relationship to component performance is proposed.Base on cyclic life prediction an approach to Life Extending Control, called the Life Management Approach is proposed. A second approach, also based on cyclic life prediction, called the Implicit Approach, is presented. Assuming the existence of the alternative functional life prediction approach, two additional concepts for Life Extending Control are presented.

  20. Creative musical behavior and sex hormones: musical talent and spatial ability in the two sexes.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M

    1992-01-01

    Creative musical behavior, musical intelligence, and spatial ability were investigated in relation to salivary testosterone (T). In a cross-sectional study with 117 adults and in an 8-yr longitudinal study with 120 adolescents, composers, instrumentalists, and nonmusicians of both sexes were compared by analyses of variance. Results indicate that an optimal T range may exist for the expression of creative musical behavior. This range may be at the bottom of normal male T range and at the top of normal female T range. In addition, musicians were found to attain significantly higher spatial test scores than nonmusicians, both, in an 8-yr-period of adolescent development and in adulthood.

  1. Developmental Analysis of Two Sex-Determining Genes, M and F, in the Housefly, Musca Domestica

    PubMed Central

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, D.; Dubendorfer, A.; Hilfiker, A.; Nothiger, R.

    1993-01-01

    In the housefly, Musca domestica, a single dominant factor, M, determines maleness. Animals hemior heterozygous for M are males, whereas those without M develop as females. In certain strains, however, both sexes are homozygous for M, and an epistatic dominant factor, F(D), dictates female development. The requirement for these factors was analyzed by producing, with mitotic recombination, mosaic animals consisting of genetically male and female cells. Removal of F(D) from an M/M;F(D)/+ cell at any time of larval development, even in the last larval instar, resulted in sex-reversal, i.e., in the development of a male clone in an otherwise female fly. In contrast, when M was removed from M/+ cells, the resulting clones remained male despite their female genotype, even when the removal of M happened at embryonic stages. The occurrence of spontaneous gynandromorphs, however, shows that the loss of M in individual nuclei prior to blastoderm formation causes the affected cells to adopt the female pathway. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that M is the primary sex-determining signal which sets the state of activity of the key gene F at around the blastoderm stage. Parallels and differences to the sex-determining system of Drosophila are discussed. PMID:8375655

  2. Discrete two-sex models of population dynamics: On modelling the mating function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Legendre, Stéphane; Clobert, Jean

    2010-09-01

    Although sexual reproduction has long been a central subject of theoretical ecology, until recently its consequences for population dynamics were largely overlooked. This is now changing, and many studies have addressed this issue, showing that when the mating system is taken into account, the population dynamics depends on the relative abundance of males and females, and is non-linear. Moreover, sexual reproduction increases the extinction risk, namely due to the Allee effect. Nevertheless, different studies have identified diverse potential consequences, depending on the choice of mating function. In this study, we investigate the consequences of three alternative mating functions that are frequently used in discrete population models: the minimum; the harmonic mean; and the modified harmonic mean. We consider their consequences at three levels: on the probability that females will breed; on the presence and intensity of the Allee effect; and on the extinction risk. When we consider the harmonic mean, the number of times the individuals of the least abundant sex mate exceeds their mating potential, which implies that with variable sex-ratios the potential reproductive rate is no longer under the modeller's control. Consequently, the female breeding probability exceeds 1 whenever the sex-ratio is male-biased, which constitutes an obvious problem. The use of the harmonic mean is thus only justified if we think that this parameter should be re-defined in order to represent the females' breeding rate and the fact that females may reproduce more than once per breeding season. This phenomenon buffers the Allee effect, and reduces the extinction risk. However, when we consider birth-pulse populations, such a phenomenon is implausible because the number of times females can reproduce per birth season is limited. In general, the minimum or modified harmonic mean mating functions seem to be more suitable for assessing the impact of mating systems on population dynamics.

  3. Dynamics of mitochondrial inheritance in the evolution of binary mating types and two sexes.

    PubMed

    Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Lane, Nick; Seymour, Robert M; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2013-10-22

    The uniparental inheritance (UPI) of mitochondria is thought to explain the evolution of two mating types or even true sexes with anisogametes. However, the exact role of UPI is not clearly understood. Here, we develop a new model, which considers the spread of UPI mutants within a biparental inheritance (BPI) population. Our model explicitly considers mitochondrial mutation and selection in parallel with the spread of UPI mutants and self-incompatible mating types. In line with earlier work, we find that UPI improves fitness under mitochondrial mutation accumulation, selfish conflict and mitonuclear coadaptation. However, we find that as UPI increases in the population its relative fitness advantage diminishes in a frequency-dependent manner. The fitness benefits of UPI 'leak' into the biparentally reproducing part of the population through successive matings, limiting the spread of UPI. Critically, while this process favours some degree of UPI, it neither leads to the establishment of linked mating types nor the collapse of multiple mating types to two. Only when two mating types exist beforehand can associated UPI mutants spread to fixation under the pressure of high mitochondrial mutation rate, large mitochondrial population size and selfish mutants. Variation in these parameters could account for the range of UPI actually observed in nature, from strict UPI in some Chlamydomonas species to BPI in yeast. We conclude that UPI of mitochondria alone is unlikely to have driven the evolution of two mating types in unicellular eukaryotes.

  4. How Mathematics Describes Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklu, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The circle of life is something we have all heard of from somewhere, but we don't usually try to calculate it. For some time we have been working on analyzing a predator-prey model to better understand how mathematics can describe life, in particular the interaction between two different species. The model we are analyzing is called the Holling-Tanner model, and it cannot be solved analytically. The Holling-Tanner model is a very common model in population dynamics because it is a simple descriptor of how predators and prey interact. The model is a system of two differential equations. The model is not specific to any particular set of species and so it can describe predator-prey species ranging from lions and zebras to white blood cells and infections. One thing all these systems have in common are critical points. A critical point is a value for both populations that keeps both populations constant. It is important because at this point the differential equations are equal to zero. For this model there are two critical points, a predator free critical point and a coexistence critical point. Most of the analysis we did is on the coexistence critical point because the predator free critical point is always unstable and frankly less interesting than the coexistence critical point. What we did is consider two regimes for the differential equations, large B and small B. B, A, and C are parameters in the differential equations that control the system where B measures how responsive the predators are to change in the population, A represents predation of the prey, and C represents the satiation point of the prey population. For the large B case we were able to approximate the system of differential equations by a single scalar equation. For the small B case we were able to predict the limit cycle. The limit cycle is a process of the predator and prey populations growing and shrinking periodically. This model has a limit cycle in the regime of small B, that we solved for

  5. Early stress causes sex-specific, life-long changes in behaviour, levels of gonadal hormones, and gene expression in chickens.

    PubMed

    Elfwing, Magnus; Nätt, Daniel; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C; Persson, Mia; Hjelm, Jonas; Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Early stress can have long-lasting phenotypic effects. Previous research shows that male and female chickens differ in many behavioural aspects, and respond differently to chronic stress. The present experiment aimed to broadly characterize long-term sex differences in responses to brief events of stress experienced during the first weeks of life. Chicks from a commercial egg-laying hybrid were exposed to stress by inducing periods of social isolation during their first three weeks of life, followed by a broad behavioural, physiological and genomic characterization throughout life. Early stressed males, but not females, where more anxious in an open field-test, stayed shorter in tonic immobility and tended to have delayed sexual maturity, as shown by a tendency for lower levels of testosterone compared to controls. While early stressed females did not differ from non-stressed in fear and sexual maturation, they were more socially dominant than controls. The differential gene expression profile in hypothalamus was significantly correlated from 28 to 213 days of age in males, but not in females. In conclusion, early stress had a more pronounced long-term effect on male than on female chickens, as evidenced by behavioral, endocrine and genomic responses. This may either be attributed to inherent sex differences due to evolutionary causes, or possibly to different stress related selection pressures on the two sexes during commercial chicken breeding.

  6. Water and Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Mars appears to be cold dry and dead world. However there is good evidence that early in its history it had liquid water, more active volcanism, and a thicker atmosphere. Mars had this earth-like environment over three and a half billion years ago, during the same time that life appeared on Earth. The main question in the exploration of Mars then is the search for a independent origin of life on that planet. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils. Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, there is direct geomorphological evidence that, in the past, Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface - possibly due to a thicker atmosphere. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. One of the martian meteorites dates back to this early period and may contain evidence consistent with life. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils.

  7. Experience and Life History. Roskilde University Life History Project Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salling Olesen, Henning

    The Life History Project at Denmark's Roskilde University is a 5-year research project that was initiated in 1998 to examine learning and participation in adult and continuing education from a life history perspective. The project was designed to build on a broad range of qualitative interview studies and case studies into learning processes. The…

  8. Life Development Intervention for Athletes: Life Skills through Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Steven J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes sport psychology and model for practice consistent with training of counseling psychologists as teachers of life skills. Examines role that sport plays in society and its importance for development of identity and personal competence. Delineates life development intervention (LDI) and psychoeducational model for practice of sport…

  9. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  10. The Language of Life

    PubMed Central

    Palmenberg, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Science is our best current approximation of the way things work. You cannot do science unless you believe there is a discernable truth inherent to the arrangement of our tangible world. The problem is, we in our given time, never know where exactly the asymptote lies or how far we are from it. My curiosity about the natural world is innate, but fate has variously gifted me with outstanding personal opportunities to indulge that curiosity through the study of viruses. As a woman of the boomer generation, professional paths were not always open-door, and to a certain extent, still aren’t. Whether such points should now be viewed as obstacles or stepping stones is a matter of perspective. RNA viruses and the multiple, seminal mentors who taught me their secrets, have defined my career. Some of their stories are told here as they dovetail with mine. If there is any unity to this, it would be a pursuit of the language of life, or sequence analysis, as taught to us by natural selection. The intent here is not a legacy but an example. Science is a beautiful fate. PMID:27741404

  11. Photonics for life.

    PubMed

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Bassi, Andrea; Comelli, Daniela; Cova, Sergio; Farina, Andrea; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Valentini, Gianluca; Zappa, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Light is strictly connected with life, and its presence is fundamental for any living environment. Thus, many biological mechanisms are related to light interaction or can be evaluated through processes involving energy exchange with photons. Optics has always been a precious tool to evaluate molecular and cellular mechanisms, but the discovery of lasers opened new pathways of interactions of light with biological matter, pushing an impressive development for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. The use of light in different fields has become so widespread that the word photonics has been utilized to identify all the applications related to processes where the light is involved. The photonics area covers a wide range of wavelengths spanning from soft X-rays to mid-infrared and includes all devices related to photons as light sources, optical fibers and light guides, detectors, and all the related electronic equipment. The recent use of photons in the field of telecommunications has pushed the technology toward low-cost, compact, and efficient devices, making them available for many other applications, including those related to biology and medicine where these requirements are of particular relevance. Moreover, basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, and electronics have recognized the interdisciplinary need of biomedical science and are translating the most advanced researches into these fields. The Politecnico school has pioneered many of them,and this article reviews the state of the art of biomedical research at the Politecnico in the field internationally known as biophotonics.

  12. Self Righting Life Raft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Givens Buoy Raft was designed and manufactured for inventor Jim Givens of Givens Marine Survival Co. Inc., by RPR Industries, Inc. The Raft consists of a canopied topside and an underwater hemispheric ballast chamber. It has a heavy ballast stabilization system, adopted from NASA technology, which negates the capsizing problem. A "flapper valve" admits large amounts of water to the hemisphere chamber providing ballast to keep the center of gravity constant; stabilization system compensates for changes in wave angle and weight shifting of raft occupants. Mr. Givens has an exclusive patent license for use of the NASA technology. Produced in various sizes, capacities range from six to 20 persons. Raft is housed in a canister, available in several configurations. A pull on a line triggers the automatic inflation process, which takes 12 seconds. The raft has been credited with saving 230 lives in the last five years. It has found wide acceptance with operators of fishing boats, pleasure craft and other vessels. The Coast Guard is purchasing the rafts for use on its rescue helicopters and the Navy has a development program to adapt the system. The Coast Guard last year announced a proposed amendment of its regulations that would require large ballast chambers on inflatable life rafts.

  13. Power in everyday life

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    How does power manifest itself in everyday life? Using experience-sampling methodology, we investigated the prevalence, sources, and correlates of power in people’s natural environments. Participants experienced power-relevant situations regularly, though not frequently. High power was not restricted to a limited few: almost half of the sample reported experiencing high-power positions. Positional power and subjective feelings of power were strongly related but had unique relations with several individual difference measures and independent effects on participants’ affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations. Subjective feelings of power resulted more from within-participant situational fluctuation, such as the social roles participants held at different times, than from stable differences between people. Our data supported some theoretical predictions about power’s effects on affect, cognition, and interpersonal relations, but qualified others, particularly highlighting the role of responsibility in power’s effects. Although the power literature has focused on high power, we found stronger effects of low power than high power. PMID:27551069

  14. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  15. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  16. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  17. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  18. 46 CFR 180.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 180.71 Section 180.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket... life jackets equal to at least 10% of the number of persons permitted on board must be provided,...

  19. Extraterrestrial Life: Life on Mars - Then and Now

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf; Mojzsis, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    The recent claim to have identified possible signs of ancient life on Mars has been widely publicized and discussed. The authors conceded that none of the half-dozen pieces of evidence adduced in their paper individually provided strong support for extraterrestrial life, though they argued that the pieces added up to a case worth considering. Most - perhaps all - of the observed phenomena have counterparts in the inorganic world, so even the combination does not make a compelling case that there was ever life on Mars. Nevertheless, the importance of the problem has justified bringing the results to general attention. The paper has focussed interest on the origin and possible ubiquity of life, and on how we can design techniques capable of giving a more definitive answer to the question of whether there is, or has ever been, life elsewhere in the Universe.

  20. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  1. Temperature-dependent demography of Supella longipalpa (Blattodea: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Ju; Chi, Hsin

    2007-09-01

    The demography of the brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), was studied based on the age-stage, two-sex life table at 25, 29, and 33 degrees C. Females incubated at the three temperatures produced 11.8, 14.6, and 12.8 oothecae per female, respectively. The life expectancy for a newborn was 157.2, 207.7, and 147.9 d, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase at these temperatures was 0.0161, 0.0306, and 0.0398 d(-1), respectively. The net reproductive rate was 35.3, 100.9, and 87.2 offspring, respectively. The mean generation time was 222.1, 151.1, and 112.5 d, respectively. In the absence of other limiting factors, our results indicate that populations of S. longipalpa would be expected to establish and increase if introduced into environments where temperature was within 25 and 33 degrees C.

  2. Serpentinization and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley; 2003/2005 Science Teams, D. S.

    2005-12-01

    The serendipitous discovery of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field at 30N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge significantly changed our views about where and how life is sustained on our planet. Investigation of this site shows that it is like no other yet discovered, hosting carbonate chimneys that tower up to 60 m above the seafloor. The field rests on 1-2 my old crust, at a water depth of 800 m and is underlain by variably deformed and altered peridotite with lesser gabbro. An intense interdisciplinary field program in 2003 and a follow-on investigation in 2005 show that geological, biological, and chemical processes are strongly intertwined at this site. Serpentinization reactions in the subsurface produce pH 9-11, 40- 91° C fluids enriched in methane, hydrogen, and other hydrocarbons. Mixing of the high pH fluids with seawater forms nearly monomineralic towers of calcite, aragonite, and brucite. In contrast to the rich diversity of microorganisms typically found in black smoker environments, the warm, porous interiors of the chimneys are dominated by a single phylotype of organisms related to Methanosarcinales, which may be capable of both methane oxidation and production. Other microbes, including an organism related to an anaerobic methane-oxidizing phylotytpe (ANME-1) are present in moderate temperature environments such as the flanges (40° C to 70° C), where there is sustained mixing of pure vent fluids and seawater. They are also present in cool carbonate vein environments (<40° C) that cut the serpentinite bedrock. Bacterial colonies grow on the outside of diffusely venting chimneys where they form white to light grey filamentous strands several centimeters in length. Based on 16S rDNA clone libraries there is a relatively high diversity of organisms in these zones that include Eubacteria as well as Archaea. In contrast to the dense macrofaunal assemblages that typify most known high-temperature vent environments, the biomass at Lost City is much smaller. The

  3. Charting Ingredients for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Spectrum Charts Light from a Faraway Galaxy

    This graph, or spectrum, charts light from a faraway galaxy located 10 billion light years from Earth. It tracks mid-infrared light from an extremely luminous galaxy when the universe was only 1/4 of its current age.

    Spectra are created when an instrument called a spectrograph spreads light out into its basic parts, like a prism turning sunlight into a rainbow. They reveal the signatures, or 'fingerprints,' of molecules that make up a galaxy and contribute to its light.

    Spitzer's infrared spectrometer identified characteristic fingerprints of complex organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, illustrated in the artist's concept in the inset. These large molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, are considered among the building blocks of life.

    Scientists determined it took 10 billion years for photons from this galaxy to reach Spitzer's infrared eyes. These complex carbon and hydrogen molecules are from a young galaxy which is undergoing intense star formation, at the time the universe was only 3.5 billion years old.

    These distant galaxies with enormous amounts of gas being converted into young stars are some of the most luminous objects in the sky. Enshrouded by dust, they are only faint, inconspicuous little dots in optical images. They are as bright as 10 trillion suns put together and 10 times brighter than starburst galaxies seen in our local universe.

    This prompts a fascinating question as to what physical process is driving such enormous energy production in these galaxies when the universe is so young.

    These data were taken by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph in August and September 2004.

  4. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  5. Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

  6. Ethical Issues in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botterbusch, Hope R.; Talab, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    There are many unethical and illegal behaviors that take place in Second Life. This article offers several scenarios which represent some of these behaviors, including copyright infringement. It is hoped that the reader will understand how copyright infringement fits in with other unethical behaviors in Second Life. (Contains 20 resources.)

  7. Learning for Life and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakeley, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The publication of "Learning Through Life," the main report of the Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong Learning, has been welcomed across the trade union movement. It offers a useful and useable framework for discussing the learning needs of people through the different stages of life and makes compelling suggestions about how to adjust…

  8. Astrobiology: Life in Extreme Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving extremes encourages the…

  9. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  10. Second Thoughts about Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Micheal J.

    2007-01-01

    Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

  11. Psychological Aspects of Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swensen, Clifford H.

    1992-01-01

    Results of research directly and indirectly applicable to life support indicate that patients and intimates suffer less psychological distress if those who have close positive relationship with patient maintain emotional closeness to patient and participate in making decisions concerning life support. Suggests that people feel less distress if…

  12. Roots: The Life Space Pioneers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Adrienne Brant

    2008-01-01

    Traditional approaches to education and youth work were transformed by two psychologists who came to the United States as Hitler rose to power. Practical theorist Kurt Lewin challenged mechanistic ideas of behavior by studying children in their natural "life space." Theory practitioner Fritz Redl applied life space concepts to work with…

  13. The Life Narrative at Midlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Dan P.

    2014-01-01

    In a remarkably prescient chapter, Bertram Cohler (1982) reimagined the problems and the potentialities of psychological development across the life course as a distinctively human challenge in life narration. This chapter situates Cohler's original vision within the intellectual and scientific matrix of the late 1970s, wherein psychologists…

  14. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  15. Designing Shafts For Long Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart H.

    1988-01-01

    Improved method developed for choosing sizes of power-transmitting shafts for limited or unlimited service lives under variety of operating conditions. Stress versus fatigue life of proposed shaft design plotted, modified to account for expected operating conditions and used to calculate shaft diameter required for given fatigue life. If diameter of shaft represented by plot equals or exceeds required diameter, shaft considered adequate.

  16. Custom Orthotics Changed My Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holeton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The narrator relates his life's downward spiral and miraculous rebound from severe foot problems using animated bullet points, images, charts, and graphs. "Custom Orthotics Changed My Life" is a work of presentation fiction, or slideshow fiction, in the form of a video with an original soundtrack. The music was composed by David Kettler, a…

  17. Improving turbine blade fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buddenbohm, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    Turbine airfoil design, materials, and cooling system management are variables which, when optimized, can contribute to longer turbine component lives. These advancements have been identified as redesign techniques to improve the turbine fatigue life of the SSME High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. This paper discusses the general program approach toward improving turbine fatigue life.

  18. A "Second Life" for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the 3D virtual world known as Second Life and its potential as a learning platform. In the last few years, many colleges, universities, and libraries have established resources in what has become the preeminent multiuser virtual environment. Today, more than 100 Second Life "regions" are used for educational…

  19. Proper Installation Improves Carpet Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogan, Ralph

    1998-01-01

    Explains how proper carpet installation can add to carpet life; includes tips to consider before signing a carpet-installation purchasing agreement that can make the new carpet a better investment. Topics cover how color selection lengthens appearance life, the need for moisture testing, the importance of carpet seams in the purchasing process,…

  20. Second Thoughts about Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Most people have at least secondhand knowledge about Second Life, a virtual-reality world created by Linden Lab, in which avatars (digital characters) lease "islands" for real-life purposes--to sell products, conduct classes, do research, hold conferences, and even recruit for admissions. About nine million avatars reportedly interact on this…

  1. Life sciences and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Teeter, Ron

    1990-01-01

    The major life science considerations for Mars exploration missions are discussed. Radiation protection and countermeasures for zero gravity are discussed. Considerations of crew psychological health considerations and life support systems are addressed. Scientific opportunities presented by manned Mars missions are examined.

  2. Loss and Transcendence Life Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenolsen, Patricia

    Psychologists have often observed an underlying pattern or theme in the accounts that individuals give of their lives. To test a humanistic-existential approach to human development, 48 women were interviewed with the Loss and Transcendence (L/T) Life History Form. The L/T Life Theme is expressed in two ways: the expanded version includes the…

  3. Wild Beasts of Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a project with a transformative approach to color theory and still life. Students' use of an arbitrary color scheme can open their eyes, push their creativity and produce exciting paintings. Ordinary still-life objects will be transformed into dramatic, vibrant visuals. The Fauve style of painting is a great art history…

  4. Family Life Education: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuccaro, Mary; And Others

    Designed to serve as a model and resource for teachers setting up family life education programs at the secondary level, this family life education curriculum guide presents a specific ten-session model for programs at both the high school and junior high school levels. While both programs attempt to provide a broad overview of the areas commonly…

  5. How life affects the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of life on the atmosphere is examined through a discussion of the budgets of important atmospheric constituents and the processes that control their concentrations. Life profoundly influences oxygen and a number of minor atmospheric constituents, but many important gases, including those with the greatest effect on global climate, appear to be little altered by biological processes, at least in the steady state.

  6. Enjoyment and the Good Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Cheryl; Henderson, Karla

    2003-01-01

    Presents information to update parks and recreation professionals about what recent research says in regard to enjoyment and the good life, noting what applications this research has for practitioners. The article focuses on: the good life and leisure services; happiness, subjective well-being, and intrinsic motivation; leisure, happiness, and…

  7. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  8. Real Life and the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Praagh, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    The choices teachers make about both form and content in designing their courses shape students' perceptions of the connection between "real life" and the "classroom." The choice to begin a first-year law course with stories told by residential school survivors provides an example of how to bring "real life" into the…

  9. Extraterrestrial life in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that life exists elsewhere in the universe, even in our own planetary system, has intrigued scientists, philosophers, and theologians for centuries. The spaceflight programs of NASA have provided much new information about our planetary neighbors and have put to rest some speculations about the existence of life on those planets or their satellites. However, there are still undetermined questions about the possibility of some form of life existing in the far distant past in our planetary system. Beyond our planetary system, the astronomical quest for scientific clues about life continues, largely via the radio telescope. Thus far there is no conclusive evidence. Here, some of the recent findings about our planetary neighbors are reviewed and the question about life elsewhere in the universe is addressed.

  10. The evolution of complex life.

    PubMed

    Billingham, J

    1989-01-01

    In considering the probabilities that intelligent life might exist elsewhere in the Universe, it is important to ask questions about the factors governing the emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments and events in space. Two important problems arise. First, what can be learned about the general laws governing the evolution of complex life anywhere in space by studying its history on the Earth? Second, how is the evolution of complex life affected by events in space? To address these problems, a series of Science Workshops on the Evolution of Complex Life was held at the Ames Research Center. Included in this paper are highlights of those workshops, with particular emphasis on the first question, namely the evolution of complex extraterrestrial life.

  11. Life: past, present and future.

    PubMed Central

    Nealson, K H; Conrad, P G

    1999-01-01

    Molecular methods of taxonomy and phylogeny have changed the way in which life on earth is viewed; they have allowed us to transition from a eukaryote-centric (five-kingdoms) view of the planet to one that is peculiarly prokarote-centric, containing three kingdoms, two of which are prokaryotic unicells. These prokaryotes are distinguished from their eukaryotic counterparts by their toughness, tenacity and metabolic diversity. Realization of these features has, in many ways, changed the way we feel about life on earth, about the nature of life past and about the possibility of finding life elsewhere. In essence, the limits of life on this planet have expanded to such a degree that our thoughts of both past and future life have been altered. The abilities of prokaryotes to withstand many extreme conditions has led to the term extremophiles, used to describe the organisms that thrive under conditions thought just a few years ago, to be inconsistent with life. Perhaps the most extensive adaptation to extreme conditions, however, is represented by the ability of many bacteria to survive nutrient conditions not compatible with eukaryotic life. Prokaryotes have evolved to use nearly every redox couple that is in abundance on earth, filling the metabolic niches left behind by the oxygen-using, carbon-eating eukaryotes. This metabolic plasticity leads to a common feature in physically stratified environments of layered microbial communities, chemical indicators of the metabolic diversity of the prokaryotes. Such 'metabolic extremophily' forms a backdrop by which we can view the energy flow of life on this planet, think about what the evolutionary past of the planet might have been, and plan ways to look for life elsewhere, using the knowledge of energy flow on earth. PMID:10670014

  12. Life: past, present and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Conrad, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular methods of taxonomy and phylogeny have changed the way in which life on earth is viewed; they have allowed us to transition from a eukaryote-centric (five-kingdoms) view of the planet to one that is peculiarly prokarote-centric, containing three kingdoms, two of which are prokaryotic unicells. These prokaryotes are distinguished from their eukaryotic counterparts by their toughness, tenacity and metabolic diversity. Realization of these features has, in many ways, changed the way we feel about life on earth, about the nature of life past and about the possibility of finding life elsewhere. In essence, the limits of life on this planet have expanded to such a degree that our thoughts of both past and future life have been altered. The abilities of prokaryotes to withstand many extreme conditions has led to the term extremophiles, used to describe the organisms that thrive under conditions thought just a few years ago, to be inconsistent with life. Perhaps the most extensive adaptation to extreme conditions, however, is represented by the ability of many bacteria to survive nutrient conditions not compatible with eukaryotic life. Prokaryotes have evolved to use nearly every redox couple that is in abundance on earth, filling the metabolic niches left behind by the oxygen-using, carbon-eating eukaryotes. This metabolic plasticity leads to a common feature in physically stratified environments of layered microbial communities, chemical indicators of the metabolic diversity of the prokaryotes. Such 'metabolic extremophily' forms a backdrop by which we can view the energy flow of life on this planet, think about what the evolutionary past of the planet might have been, and plan ways to look for life elsewhere, using the knowledge of energy flow on earth.

  13. Life: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Nealson, K H; Conrad, P G

    1999-12-29

    Molecular methods of taxonomy and phylogeny have changed the way in which life on earth is viewed; they have allowed us to transition from a eukaryote-centric (five-kingdoms) view of the planet to one that is peculiarly prokarote-centric, containing three kingdoms, two of which are prokaryotic unicells. These prokaryotes are distinguished from their eukaryotic counterparts by their toughness, tenacity and metabolic diversity. Realization of these features has, in many ways, changed the way we feel about life on earth, about the nature of life past and about the possibility of finding life elsewhere. In essence, the limits of life on this planet have expanded to such a degree that our thoughts of both past and future life have been altered. The abilities of prokaryotes to withstand many extreme conditions has led to the term extremophiles, used to describe the organisms that thrive under conditions thought just a few years ago, to be inconsistent with life. Perhaps the most extensive adaptation to extreme conditions, however, is represented by the ability of many bacteria to survive nutrient conditions not compatible with eukaryotic life. Prokaryotes have evolved to use nearly every redox couple that is in abundance on earth, filling the metabolic niches left behind by the oxygen-using, carbon-eating eukaryotes. This metabolic plasticity leads to a common feature in physically stratified environments of layered microbial communities, chemical indicators of the metabolic diversity of the prokaryotes. Such 'metabolic extremophily' forms a backdrop by which we can view the energy flow of life on this planet, think about what the evolutionary past of the planet might have been, and plan ways to look for life elsewhere, using the knowledge of energy flow on earth.

  14. End of life decisions at the beginning of life.

    PubMed

    Snyder, R D

    1996-01-01

    Modern neonatal intensive care technology enhances the ability to maintain vulnerable newborns. In some circumstances survival may be insufficient justification for care. "End of life" strategies, originally applicable to adults, are being considered for newborns. Unresolved ethical issues in the care of these newborns involve multiple considerations. Concern occurs regarding patient-centered beneficence, non-maleficence, distributive justice, futility, legal rights of infants, and autonomy. The benefits to a newborn of treatment may fail to overcome the burdens of subsequent life. Under what circumstances a newborn loses the right to have life prolonged becomes a difficult ethical issue. With time and debate the proper response will become implemented.

  15. NASA Now: Life Science: Human Life Support on the ISS

    NASA Video Gallery

    The environmental and thermal operating systems, or ETHOS, monitors the life support system and the cooling system on the International Space Station. Find out from ETHOS operator Tess Caswell abou...

  16. NASA Now: Life Science: Portable Life Support System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacesuit engineer Antja Chambers discusses the Portable Life Support System, a backpack the astronauts wear during spacewalks. It provides oxygen for the astronauts, protects them from the harsh c...

  17. Life as a cosmic imperative?

    PubMed

    de Duve, Christian

    2011-02-13

    The origin of life on Earth may be divided into two stages separated by the first appearance of replicable molecules, most probably of RNA. The first stage depended exclusively on chemistry. The second stage likewise involved chemistry, but with the additional participation of selection, a necessary concomitant of inevitable replication accidents. Consideration of these two processes suggests that the origin of life may have been close to obligatory under the physical-chemical conditions that prevailed at the site of its birth. Thus, an extrasolar planet in which those conditions were replicated appears as a probable site for the appearance of extra-terrestrial life.

  18. Prospects for life span extension.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Felipe; Hadley, Evan; Suzman, Richard; Hodes, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Life expectancy has increased dramatically in the United States and in much of the world in recent years and decades. The factors underlying this increase are incompletely understood and are undoubtedly complex. A question that drives current research is whether life expectancy can be further extended using current knowledge of modifiable risk factors. A still more challenging research focus is on the possibility that life expectancy might be further increased through knowledge gained from studies of the basic biology of aging and its genetic and environmental modifiers.

  19. Lubricant effects on bearing life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1986-01-01

    Lubricant considerations for rolling-element bearings have within the last two decades taken on added importance in the design and operation of mechanical systems. The phenomenon which limits the useful life of bearings is rolling-element or surface pitting fatigue. The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness which separates the ball or roller surface from those of the raceways of the bearing directly affects bearing life. Chemical additives added to the lubricant can also significantly affect bearings life and reliability. The interaction of these physical and chemical effects is important to the design engineer and user of these systems. Design methods and lubricant selection for rolling-element bearings are presented and discussed.

  20. Maritime vessel obsolescence, life cycle cost and design service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Ilie, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing throughout their life. Major actions are needed to repair, renovate, sometime built or even replace those scrapped when technology or demand changes determine obsolescence. It is regarded as a concern throughout vessel's entire life cycle and reflects changes in expectation regarding performances in functioning, safety and environmental effects. While service live may differ from physical lives, expectations about physical lives is the main factors that determines design service life. Performance and failure are illustrated conceptually and represented in a simplified form considering the evolution of vessels parameters during its service life. In the proposed methodology an accumulated vessel lifecycle cost is analyzed and obsolescence is characterized from ship's design, performances, maintenance and management parameters point of view. Romanian ports feeding Black Sea are investigated in order to provide comprehensive information on: number and types of vessels, transport capacity and life cycle length. Recommendations are to be made in order to insure a best practice in lifecycle management in order to reduce costs.

  1. Potential Habitats for Exotic Life Within the Life Supporting Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Johannes J.; Firneis, Maria G.; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2010-05-01

    Questions like "Are we alone in the universe?", "How unique is Earth as a planet?" or "How unique is water-based life in the universe?" still are nowhere near of being answered. In recent years, discussions on these topics are more and more influenced by questions whether water is really the only possible solvent, or which conditions are necessary for life to evolve in planetary habitats. A change in our present geocentric mindset on the existence of life is required, in order to address these new questions [see also 1]. In May 2009 a new research platform at the University of Vienna was initiated in order to contribute to the solution of these questions. One task is to find essential biomarkers relevant to the problem of the detection of exotic life. In this context exotic life means: life, which is not necessarily based on a double bond between carbon and oxygen (C=O) and not on water as the only possible solvent. At present little is known about metabolistic systems, which are not based on C=O or on metabolisms which are operative in alternative solvents and a high effort of future laboratory work is necessary to open this window for looking for exotic life. To address the whole spectrum of life the concept of a general life supporting zone is introduced in order to extend the classical habitable zone (which is based on liquid water on a planetary surface, [2]). The life supporting zone of a planetary system is composed of different single "habitable zones" for the liquid phases of specific solvents and composites between water and other solvents. Besides exoplanetary systems which seem to be the most promising place for exotic life in our present understanding, some potential places could also exist within our Solar System and habitats like the subsurface of Enceladus, liquid ethane/methane lakes on Titan or habitable niches in the Venus atmosphere will also be taken into account. A preliminary list of appropriate solvents and their abundances in the Solar

  2. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  3. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  4. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  5. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  6. 46 CFR 117.71 - Life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life jackets. 117.71 Section 117.71 Shipping COAST GUARD... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.71 Life jackets. (a) An adult life jacket must be provided for each...

  7. Quality of Life: Perspectives and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L., Ed.

    The book deals with the concept of quality of life for persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part I, "Quality of Life: Personal Perspectives," contains "A Dream for Myself" (Connie Martinez); "Reflections on My Quality of Life: Then and Now" (Nancy Ward); "Quality of Life versus Quality of Life Judgments: A Parent's…

  8. The sense of coherence (SOC) as an important determinant of life satisfaction, based on own research, and exemplified by the students of University of the Third Age (U3A).

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Więczkowska, Halina; Ciemnoczołowski, Waldemar; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Muszalik, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The SOC is an important determinant of life satisfaction of elderly people. It determines the level of coping with various difficult situations, which accompany an old age stage. The aim of the study was to determine the connection between the SOC levels and life satisfaction among the U3A students. Another analyzed relationship was the SOC level against the background of socio-demographic factors. The study comprised 257 students of the U3A in Poland, located in the city of Bydgoszcz. The study group consisted of 237 women and 20 men, at the average age of 64.54 ± 6.01 years. The vast majority of the study group included individuals at the secondary education level, as well as married individuals. Just over half of the group claimed to be in good health, and have no afflictions. All of the respondents were fully mobile. The study was conducted with the diagnostic poll method, using the standardized questionnaires: The Scale SOC-29, WHOQOL-Bref, and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-bref version). The average value of global SOC was 128.77; the standard deviation 21.04; discrepancy 153 (minimum 50 and maximum 203). The SOC indicated significant relationship with quality of life (QoL) in the mental domain, social relationships, and environmental domain; no significant correlation in the physical domain was observed. The QOL reached about 70% of maximum result value, showing equal levels in its specific areas. A moderately decreasing (r=-0.375, p<0.01) relation η=0.376, between global SOC values and depression occurrence, as well as its non-existence was shown in the study. Individual SOC components were also negatively correlated with depression. Another observation was weak correlation between the sense of coherence and the individuals' level of education. No statistically significant effect of age, gender and marital status on the SOC levels of U3A students was found. Higher parameters of SOC and level of education shape significantly higher effects of life

  9. Preserving Dignity in Later Life.

    PubMed

    São José, José Manuel

    2016-09-01

    This article examines how elders who receive social care in the community experience loss of dignity and how they preserve their dignity. Qualitative research revealed that loss of dignity is a major concern for these elders and that they preserve their dignity differently, ranging from actively engaging with life to detaching themselves from life. We conclude that, in later life, preserving dignity while receiving social care differs from preserving dignity in the context of health care, especially health care provided in institutional settings. Furthermore, preserving dignity in later life, while receiving social care, is a complex process, depending not only on performing activities and individual action and responsibility, but also on other actions, some of them involving a certain inactivity/passivity, and interactions with others, especially caregivers. This article offers some insights to developing better policies and care practices for promoting dignity in the context of community-based social care.

  10. Life as a planetary phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Owen, T

    1985-01-01

    The success of recent spacecraft from the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. has given us a wealth of new data about the planets in our solar system. We can now develop a much better rationale for the reasons that abundant life is only found on our planet. Mars, smaller and more distant from the Sun, may nevertheless hold clues to the early development of Earth's atmosphere. The origin of life on Mars early in that planet's history cannot be ruled out. Titan offers a contemporary example of extremely primitive conditions, where chemical reactions resembling those that preceded the development of life on Earth may be occurring today. Venus and Jupiter illustrate the need for a planet to be the right size and the right distance from the sun if chemical evolution leading to the origin of life is to occur.

  11. Let's Teach Life Insurance Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Larry D.

    1973-01-01

    The author presents arguments for teaching life insurance concepts as part of the business education curriculum. He also presents specific facts, "knowledges," understandings, and concepts as part of the learning process. (AG)

  12. Life expectancy of kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J; Jaffe-Katz, A

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy (LE) of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. Closer inspection of the death rates at various ages reveals that, from age thirty, those of kibbutz women are lower than those of the Jewish population. Although those of kibbutz men are actually higher until age forty-nine, nevertheless the LE of kibbutz members (based on death rates) surpasses that of Jews in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations. Similarly, the factors contributing to kibbutz members' life expectancy evolve from this quality of life, especially as this quality of life affects old age.

  13. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  14. Is There Life on Mars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bruce C.; Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    1998-01-01

    Presents a conflict scenario for a case study on whether there is evidence of past life on Mars. Includes details about the use of this case study in developing an interdisciplinary approach to scientific ethics. (DDR)

  15. The Preparation for Life Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews "The Preparation for Life Curriculum" (Wilcox, Dunn, Lavercombe and Burn, 1984), which is a case study of a British career education curriculum development project in four secondary schools. (JDH)

  16. Life in Tropical Rain Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the diversity of rain forest life, the adaptations of rain forest plants and animals, and ways these organisms interact. Includes activities on canopy critters with a copyable sheet, rain forest revue, design a plant, and jungle sleuths. (RT)

  17. Anxiety disorders in late life.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and treatment of anxiety disorders in late life. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic and comorbidity data are derived from well designed random-sample community surveys. There are virtually no controlled data specific to treatment of anxiety in the elderly. Guidelines for treating anxiety disorders in late life, therefore, must be extrapolated from results of randomized controlled trials conducted in younger patients. MAIN MESSAGE: Generalized anxiety disorder and agoraphobia account for most cases of anxiety disorder in late life. Late-onset generalized anxiety is usually associated with depressive illness and, in this situation, the primary pharmacologic treatment is antidepressant medication. Most elderly people with agoraphobia do not give a history of panic attacks; exposure therapy is the preferred treatment for agoraphobia without panic. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians need to make more use of antidepressant medication and behavioural therapy and less use of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety disorders in late life. PMID:10587775

  18. Life After a Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live active, ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry about ...

  19. Bio-regenerative life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.; Wydeven, Theodore, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The basis for and the potential uses of bio-regenerative life support are examined. Bio-regenerative life support systems are an alternative to physical-chemical regeneration techniques for use when resupply of a crew in space is expensive, or when the logistics of resupply are difficult. Many of the scientific studies required for bio-regenerative life support systems have been completed and preliminary development of some components will begin within the next 12 to 18 months. The focus of the work that lies ahead will be efficient power and mass use, long-term system stability, component function, systems integration, and extensive testing in the space environment. Because of the advantages of bio-regeneration, it is anticipated that human life support for long-term space missions will evolve to include increasingly large amounts of biologically-based regeneration.

  20. Lunar Base Life Support Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of the lunar outpost habitat life support was undertaken to investigate the impact of life support failures and to investigate responses. Some preparatory static analysis for the Lunar Outpost life support model, an earlier version of the model, and an investigation into the impact of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) were reported previously. (Jones, 2008-01-2184, 2008-01-2017) The earlier model was modified to include possible resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and atmosphere and other material storage failures. Most failures impact the lunar outpost water balance and can be mitigated by reducing water usage. Food solids, nitrogen can be obtained only by resupply from Earth. The most time urgent failure is a lass of carbon dioxide removal capability. Life support failures might be survivable if effective operational solutions are provided in the system design.

  1. Genetics & the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the contribution made to the quality of human life by the study of genetics. Presents a description of the current status of genetics education. Suggests changes in genetics education necessary to keep up with new developments. (39 references) (CW)

  2. Life Support Systems Microbial Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monserrate C.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current microbial challenges of environmental control and life support systems. The contents include: 1) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) What is it?; 2) A Look Inside the International Space Station (ISS); 3) The Complexity of a Water Recycling System; 4) ISS Microbiology Acceptability Limits; 5) Overview of Current Microbial Challenges; 6) In a Perfect World What we Would like to Have; and 7) The Future.

  3. Microbial genomes: Blueprints for life

    SciTech Connect

    Relman, David A.; Strauss, Evelyn

    2000-12-31

    Complete microbial genome sequences hold the promise of profound new insights into microbial pathogenesis, evolution, diagnostics, and therapeutics. From these insights will come a new foundation for understanding the evolution of single-celled life, as well as the evolution of more complex life forms. This report is an in-depth analysis of scientific issues that provides recommendations and will be widely disseminated to the scientific community, federal agencies, industry and the public.

  4. Artifact & artifice: views on life.

    PubMed

    Dorin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    The views of some artists on what constitutes life are explored, with the aim of challenging those within the artificial life research community to rethink and perhaps expand their own views about the term and its meaningful application. The focus is on the musical works of Steve Reich and the paintings of Wassily Kandinsky. The role of the observer in determining when it is appropriate to label a thing as living is also discussed.

  5. Equipment life cycle costs minimised.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Sharon

    2004-11-01

    With the cost of energy now a major component of building operating costs, NHS Trust managers increasingly focus on estimating total life cycle costs of equipment such as boiler room and heat, steam and incineration plant. "Life cycle costing" is a broad term and encompasses a wide range of techniques that take into account both initial and future costs as well as the savings of an investment over a period of time.

  6. Boundaries of life: estimating the life span of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

    We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle ocean floor continental crust continental biosphere and the Kerogen as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere and obtain reasonable values for the present distribution of carbon in the surface reservoirs of the Earth The Earth system model for the long-term carbon cycle is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere prokaryotes eucaryotes and complex multicellular life They are characterized by different global temperature tolerance windows prokaryotes 2oC 100oC eucaryotes 5oC 45oC complex multicellular life 0oC 30oC From the Archaean to the future there always exists a prokaryotic biosphere 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears because the global surface temperature reaches the tolerance window for eucaryotes The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0 54 Gyr ago In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance For realistic values of the biotic enhancement of weathering there is no bistability in the future solutions for complex life Therefore complex organisms will not extinct by an implosion in comparison to the Cambrian explosion Eucaryotes and complex life become extinct because of too high surface temperatures in the future The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1 6 Gyr

  7. Photovoltaics: Life-cycle Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis V. M.; Kim, H.C.

    2009-10-02

    Life-cycle analysis is an invaluable tool for investigating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analyses of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often interwoven, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. This approach is well exemplified by our description of material and energy flows in four commercial PV technologies, i.e., mono-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, ribbon-silicon, and cadmium telluride. The same life-cycle approach is applied to the balance of system that supports flat, fixed PV modules during operation. We also discuss the life-cycle environmental metrics for a concentration PV system with a tracker and lenses to capture more sunlight per cell area than the flat, fixed system but requires large auxiliary components. Select life-cycle risk indicators for PV, i.e., fatalities, injures, and maximum consequences are evaluated in a comparative context with other electricity-generation pathways.

  8. The Model Life-cycle: Training Module

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Model Life-Cycle includes identification of problems & the subsequent development, evaluation, & application of the model. Objectives: define ‘model life-cycle’, explore stages of model life-cycle, & strategies for development, evaluation, & applications.

  9. Contemporary psychological approaches to life at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    When people have a serious life-limiting illness, physical symptoms are often prominent, both in the experience of the illness and in its treatment. No less important, however, are psychological symptoms. A holistic, bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach to quality of life near the end of life must address psychological distress of all types, including frank psychopathology, more moderate problems with living, and existential distress. Responding to mental health issues at the end of life requires (1) systematic and careful assessment, and (2) deployment of evidence-based treatments. In recent years, standardized assessment tools have been adapted or developed for use with people who have serious illness, and the same has happened with psychological treatments. Practitioners have several resources available to them. Given their practice orientation centered on meaningful engagement, occupational therapists can play an important role in responding to mental distress in patients with serious illness whose lives are becoming more circumscribed because of their medical condition or because of the mental distress itself. High-quality end-of-life care depends on scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that unfold as death draws near.

  10. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-08-01

    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10 μ in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission.

  11. Space life sciences: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The scientific research and supporting technology development conducted in the Space Life Sciences Program is described. Accomplishments of the past year are highlighted. Plans for future activities are outlined. Some specific areas of study include the following: Crew health and safety; What happens to humans in space; Gravity, life, and space; Sustenance in space; Life and planet Earth; Life in the Universe; Promoting good science and good will; Building a future for the space life sciences; and Benefits of space life sciences research.

  12. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  13. Space life sciences strategic plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-05-01

    Over the last three decades the Life Sciences Program has significantly contributed to NASA's manned and unmanned exploration of space, while acquiring new knowledge in the fields of space biology and medicine. The national and international events which have led to the development and revision of NASA strategy will significantly affect the future of life sciences programs both in scope and pace. This document serves as the basis for synthesizing the options to be pursued during the next decade, based on the decisions, evolution, and guiding principles of the National Space Policy. The strategies detailed in this document are fully supportive of the Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee's 'A Rationale for the Life Sciences,' and the recent Aerospace Medicine Advisory Committee report entitled 'Strategic Considerations for Support of Humans in Space and Moon/Mars Exploration Missions.' Information contained within this document is intended for internal NASA planning and is subject to policy decisions and direction, and to budgets allocated to NASA's Life Sciences Program.

  14. Advanced Life Support Project Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Life support systems are an enabling technology and have become integral to the success of living and working in space. As NASA embarks on human exploration and development of space to open the space frontier by exploring, using and enabling the development of space and to expand the human experience into the far reaches of space, it becomes imperative, for considerations of safety, cost, and crew health, to minimize consumables and increase the autonomy of the life support system. Utilizing advanced life support technologies increases this autonomy by reducing mass, power, and volume necessary for human support, thus permitting larger payload allocations for science and exploration. Two basic classes of life support systems must be developed, those directed toward applications on transportation/habitation vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), next generation launch vehicles, crew-tended stations/observatories, planetary transit spacecraft, etc.) and those directed toward applications on the planetary surfaces (e.g., lunar or Martian landing spacecraft, planetary habitats and facilities, etc.). In general, it can be viewed as those systems compatible with microgravity and those compatible with hypogravity environments. Part B of the Appendix defines the technology development 'Roadmap' to be followed in providing the necessary systems for these missions. The purpose of this Project Plan is to define the Project objectives, Project-level requirements, the management organizations responsible for the Project throughout its life cycle, and Project-level resources, schedules and controls.

  15. Space life sciences strategic plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last three decades the Life Sciences Program has significantly contributed to NASA's manned and unmanned exploration of space, while acquiring new knowledge in the fields of space biology and medicine. The national and international events which have led to the development and revision of NASA strategy will significantly affect the future of life sciences programs both in scope and pace. This document serves as the basis for synthesizing the options to be pursued during the next decade, based on the decisions, evolution, and guiding principles of the National Space Policy. The strategies detailed in this document are fully supportive of the Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee's 'A Rationale for the Life Sciences,' and the recent Aerospace Medicine Advisory Committee report entitled 'Strategic Considerations for Support of Humans in Space and Moon/Mars Exploration Missions.' Information contained within this document is intended for internal NASA planning and is subject to policy decisions and direction, and to budgets allocated to NASA's Life Sciences Program.

  16. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  17. The Search for Life on Other Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakosky, Bruce

    1998-10-01

    1. The search for life in the universe; 2. Impacts, extinctions, and the earliest history of life on Earth; 3. The history of the Earth; 4. The Earth's geological record and the earliest life; 5. Energy and life in unique environments on Earth; 6. Origin of life on Earth; 7. Requirements for extraterrestrial life; 8. Is life on Mars possible?; 9. Possible fossil life in meteorites from Mars; 10. Implanting life on Mars; 11. The exobiology of Venus; 12. Titan - a natural exobiology laboratory?; 13. Exobiology in the Jupiter system; 14. Formation of planets around other stars; 15. Searching for planets around other stars; 16. The habitability of planets around other stars; 17. Intelligent life in the universe; 18. Life in the universe; Additional reading and bibliography; Index.

  18. Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy in Hospital Melaka: Single Centre Experience

    PubMed

    Chee Chean, Dang; Kuo Zang, Wong; Lim, Michelle; Zulkefle, Nooraziah

    2016-12-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of chemotherapy on quality of life (QoL) among breast cancer patients and to evaluate the relationship with age, cancer stage and presence of any comorbidity. Methods: A prospective study was conducted among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in Hospital Melaka from 1st January 2014 to 31st July 2014. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) was given to patients to fill in prior chemotherapy (baseline) and after the third cycle of chemotherapy. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Result: Respondents were 32 female patients [mean age (SD): 49.7(9.93) years]. They reported a significant lower global health status (P < 0.01) and significant higher symptoms of nausea and vomiting (P < 0.01), loss of appetite (P = 0.028) and diarrhea (P = 0.026) after the third cycle of chemotherapy as compared to baseline. Compare to, this study showed significant better emotional functioning (P < 0.01) and social functioning (P < 0.01) than the EORTC QLQ-C30 Reference Values 2008 for breast cancer cases. Under symptom scales higher scores were noted for appetite loss (P = 0.017), nausea and vomiting (P < 0.01). Age, stage and comorbidity had no clear associations with global health status in our patients (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Chemotherapy did reduce the QoL of breast cancer patients. Management of chemotherapy-induced loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting should be improved for a better outcome.

  19. Search for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Brack, A; Clancy, P; Fitton, B; Hoffmann, B; Horneck, G; Kurat, G; Maxwell, J; Ori, G; Pillinger, C; Raulin, F; Thomas, N; Westall, F

    1998-06-01

    A multi-user integrated suite of instruments designed to optimize the search for evidence of life on Mars is described. The package includes: -Surface inspection and surface environment analysis to identify the potential Mars landing sites, to inspect the surface geology and mineralogy, to search for visible surficial microbial macrofossils, to study the surface radiation budget and surface oxidation processes, to search for niches for extant life. -Subsurface sample acquisition by core drilling -Analysis of surface and subsurface minerals and organics to characterize the surface mineralogy, to analyse the surface and subsurface oxidants, to analyse the mineralogy of subsurface aliquots, to analyse the organics present in the subsurface aliquots (elemental and molecular composition, isotopes, chirality). -Macroscopic and microscopic inspection of subsurface aliquots to search for life's indicators (paleontological, biological, mineralogical) and to characterize the mineralogy of the subsurface aliquots. The study is led by ESA Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity Directorate.

  20. Optimization of data life cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

    2014-06-01

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  1. Tradeoffs in bacteriophage life histories.

    PubMed

    Keen, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on the planet, yet most classical principles of evolutionary biology and ecology were not developed with viruses in mind. Here, the concept of biological tradeoffs, a fundamental tenet of life history theory, is examined in the context of bacteriophage biology. Specifically, several important parameters of phage life histories-replication, persistence, host range, and adsorption-are evaluated for tradeoffs. Available data indicate that replication rate is strongly negatively correlated with both persistence and host range, suggesting that the well-documented tradeoff in macroorganisms between offspring production and offspring quality also applies to phages. The biological tradeoffs that appear to characterize viruses' life histories have potential importance for viral evolution, ecology, and pathogenesis.

  2. Schizophrenia, reification and deadened life.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    Recent debates concerning the abolition of the schizophrenia label in psychiatry have focused upon problems with the scientific status of the concept. In this article, I argue that rather than attacking schizophrenia for its lack of scientific validity, we should focus on the conceptual history of this label. I reconstruct a specific tradition when exploring the conceptual history of schizophrenia. This is the concern with the question of the sense of life itself, conducted through the confrontation with schizophrenia as a form of life that does not live, or as Robert Jay Lifton termed it "lifeless life" (1979: 222-39). I conclude by arguing that the contemporary attempt to deconstruct or abolish the schizophrenia concept involves a fundamental shift in concern. The attempt both to normalize psychotic experiences, and to conceive them purely in terms of cognitive processes that can be mapped onto brain function, results in a fundamental move away from the attempt to understand the experience of madness.

  3. [End of life in France].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice.

  4. Definitely Life but not Definitively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Joan D.; Perry, Randall S.

    2006-12-01

    Although there have been attempts at a definition of life from many disciplines, none is accepted by all as definitive. Some people believe that it is impossible to define ‘life’ adequately at the moment. We agree with this point of view on linguistic grounds, examining the different types of definition, the contexts in which they are used and their relative usefulness as aids to arriving at a scientific definition of life. We look at some of the more recent definitions and analyse them in the light of our criteria for a good definition. We argue that since there are so many linguistic and philosophical difficulties with such a definition of life, what is needed is a series of working descriptions, which are suited to the audience and context in which they are used and useful for the intended purpose. We provide some ideas and examples of the forms these may take.

  5. The Satisfaction With Life Scale.

    PubMed

    Diener, E; Emmons, R A; Larsen, R J; Griffin, S

    1985-02-01

    This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.

  6. Breathing Life into Engineering: A Lesson Study Life Science Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…

  7. Origin of life: Cold-hearted RNA heats up life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Niles

    2013-12-01

    An RNA replicase ribozyme has long been sought by chemists interested in the origin of life. Now, a selection strategy employing a low-temperature water-ice mixture as the medium has led to discovery of a ribozyme that can catalyse polymerization of an RNA chain greater than its own length.

  8. Survival and Development of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae): A Biodegradation Agent of Organic Waste.

    PubMed

    Clariza Samayoa, Ana; Chen, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2016-12-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28ºC (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28ºC (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d(-1)), 1.0759 (d(-1)), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars.

  9. Survival and Development of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae): A Biodegradation Agent of Organic Waste.

    PubMed

    Samayoa, Ana Clariza; Chen, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2016-09-11

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28°C (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28°C (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d(-1)), 1.0759 (d(-1)), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars.

  10. Complicated grief in late life

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Complicated grief (CG) is a syndrome that affects 10% to 20% of grievers regardless of age, although proportionally more will face the death of loved ones in late life, CG is characterized by preoccupying and disabling symptoms that can persist for decades such as an inability to accept the death, intense yearning or avoidance, frequent reveries, deep sadness, crying, somatic distress, social withdrawal, and suicidal ideation. This syndrome is distinct from major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, but CG maybe comorbid with each. This communication will focus on the impact of CG in late life (over age 60) and will include a case vignette for illustrating complicated grief therapy. PMID:22754292

  11. Family Medicine: Bridge to Life.

    PubMed

    Luz, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the suicide of a close friend, this essay explores what comprises, and inspires a will to live, and how those in Family Medicine can address suicide risk even in the face of debilitating or terminal illness. Research indicates that the will to live is a measurable indicator of general well-being, distinct from depression, and an important predictor of a person's motivation to "hold on to life". As such, understanding what is at the heart of a desire to live should alter clinical practice. This essay offers ideas for ways in which to create bridges for patients that could help sustain life.

  12. Fossil evidence of Archaean life

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, J. William

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500 Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200–3500 Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500 Myr ago. PMID:16754604

  13. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies. PMID:26853918

  14. AUSSAT battery life test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorian, P. W.; Pickett, D. F., Jr.; Bogner, R. S.; Chao, T. I.; Jordan, J. P.; Clark, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    AUSSAT Pty. Ltd., the Australian National Satellite organization, has contracted with the Hughes Aircraft Company (HAC) for the construction of 3 satellites based on the now familiar HS-376 product line. As part of the AUSSAT contract, HAC is conducting an extensive NiCd battery life test program. The life test program, objectives and test results to date are described. Particular emphasis is given to the evaluation of the FS2117 separator as a future replacement for the Pellon 2505 separator of which only a very limited quantity remains.

  15. Crew and life support: ECLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, G.

    1984-02-01

    The schedule NASA has proposed has four main elements. The focal point of all the life support activity is demonstrator for the initial space station. The demonstrator is composed of items that are ready for Phase C and D development. Technical options are scheduled during the early years to provide alternatives because the capability to substitute must be maintained. Growth technology and supporting research and technology (SR&T) will continue throughout the program life, and as new items emerge, the space station capability will be updated.

  16. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-02-08

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies.

  17. Artificial Life in Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Unai; Sanz, Mikel; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    We develop a quantum information protocol that models the biological behaviours of individuals living in a natural selection scenario. The artificially engineered evolution of the quantum living units shows the fundamental features of life in a common environment, such as self-replication, mutation, interaction of individuals, and death. We propose how to mimic these bio-inspired features in a quantum-mechanical formalism, which allows for an experimental implementation achievable with current quantum platforms. This study paves the way for the realization of artificial life and embodied evolution with quantum technologies.

  18. Maximum life spur gear design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Mackulin, M. J.; Coe, H. H.; Coy, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    Optimization procedures allow one to design a spur gear reduction for maximum life and other end use criteria. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial guess values. The optimization algorithm is described, and the models for gear life and performance are presented. The algorithm is compact and has been programmed for execution on a desk top computer. Two examples are presented to illustrate the method and its application.

  19. Integrating Varieties of Life Course Concepts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A body of work referred to as the “life course” framework (also known as “life course theory,” the “life course paradigm,” and the “life course perspective”) has been increasingly used to motivate and justify the examination of the relationships among variables in social and behavioral science, particularly in the study of population health and aging. Yet, there is very little agreement on what some of these concepts mean, and there is hardly any agreement on what the “life course” is. This article focuses on the different ways in which the concept of “life course” is used in the contemporary study of aging and human development, particularly with regard to health and well-being. Clarification is given for how “life course” is distinguished from “life span” and “life cycle,” among other “life” words. This work reviews the conceptual literature on the life course, beginning with its formative years in the 1960s and 1970s, through to the present time. Detailed research of several literatures across disciplines revealed five different uses of the term “life course”: (a) life course as time or age, (b) life course as life stages, (c) life course as events, transitions, and trajectories, (d) life course as life-span human development, and (e) life course as early life influences (and their cumulation) on later adult outcomes. To the extent the concept of life course has a multiplicity of meanings that are at variance with one another, this is problematic, as communication is thereby hindered. On the other hand, to the extent the concept of life course involves a rich tapestry of different emphases, this is a good thing, and the diversity of meanings should be retained. This paper proposes a conceptual integration based in part on Riley’s age stratification model that resolves the various meanings of life course into one general framework. Coupled with a demographic conceptualization of the life course, this framework embeds

  20. Searching for Alien Life Having Unearthly Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The search for alien life in the solar system should include exploring unearth-like environments for life having an unearthly biochemistry. We expect alien life to conform to the same basic chemical and ecological constraints as terrestrial life, since inorganic chemistry and the laws of ecosystems appear to be universal. Astrobiologists usually assume alien life will use familiar terrestrial biochemistry and therefore hope to find alien life by searching near water or by supplying hydrocarbons. The assumption that alien life is likely to be based on carbon and water is traditional and plausible. It justifies high priority for missions to search for alien life on Mars and Europa, but it unduly restricts the search for alien life. Terrestrial carbon-water biochemistry is not possible on most of the bodies of our solar system, but all alien life is not necessarily based on terrestrial biochemistry. If alien life has a separate origin from Earth life, and if can survive in an environment extremely different from Earth's, then alien life may have unearthly biochemistry. There may be other solvents than water that support alien life and other elements than carbon that form complex life enabling chain molecules. Rather than making the exploration-restricting assumption that all life requires carbon, water, and terrestrial biochemistry, we should make the exploration-friendly assumption that indigenous, environmentally adapted, alien life forms might flourish using unearthly biochemistry in many places in the solar system. Alien life might be found wherever there is free energy and a physical/chemical system capable of using that energy to build living structures. Alien life may be discovered by the detection of some general non-equilibrium chemistry rather than of terrestrial biochemistry. We should explore all the potential abodes of life in the solar system, including those where life based on terrestrial biochemistry can not exist.

  1. The Quality of Life in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoguchi, Takashi; Fujii, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    This study is part of a collaborative project examining the quality of life in Confucian societies in Asia. Our major findings suggest that, when our sixteen specific life domains are grouped into three life spheres, namely, material, post-material, and public, the Japanese people tend to be most satisfied with the post-material sphere of life and…

  2. Probability: A Matter of Life and Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Mehdi; Kippen, Rebecca; Mills, Terence

    2016-01-01

    Life tables are mathematical tables that document probabilities of dying and life expectancies at different ages in a society. Thus, the life table contains some essential features of the health of a population. Probability is often regarded as a difficult branch of mathematics. Life tables provide an interesting approach to introducing concepts…

  3. Investigations in Life Science, Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Robert L.

    Developed for teachers of junior high school science classes, this unit presents ten investigations on plant growth, animal life, pond life, and general science interests. These investigations are designed to accompany any popular life science textbooks, may be used to supplement a year-long course in life science, are intended as a springboard…

  4. Does It Have a Life Cycle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2010-01-01

    If life continues from generation to generation, then all plants and animals must go through a life cycle, even though it may be different from organism to organism. Is this what students have "learned," or do they have their own private conceptions about life cycles? The formative assessment probe "Does It Have a Life Cycle?" reveals some…

  5. Life Review: Implementation, Theory, Research, and Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2006-01-01

    A selective literature review of publications on life review generated ideas on implementation, theory, research, and therapy. The review begins by differentiating life review from reminiscence, and summarizing ways to conduct a life review. A dozen theories that have been influenced by the life review technique are presented, with a focus placed…

  6. Life extending control for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, C. F.; Saus, J. R.; Ray, A.; Carpino, M.; Wu, M.-K.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of life extending control is defined. A brief discussion of current fatigue life prediction methods is given and the need for an alternative life prediction model based on a continuous functional relationship is established. Two approaches to life extending control are considered: (1) the implicit approach which uses cyclic fatigue life prediction as a basis for control design; and (2) the continuous life prediction approach which requires a continuous damage law. Progress on an initial formulation of a continuous (in time) fatigue model is presented. Finally, nonlinear programming is used to develop initial results for life extension for a simplified rocket engine (model).

  7. Extending wire rope service life

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Selecting the proper wire rope is not a simple procedure. Wire rope is a precision mining machine with scores of moving parts. It is therefore important for mining equipment users to know wire rope and how it is designed and constructed. Good lubrication and regular inspection is important for a safe and long service life.

  8. The Chemistry of Life's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, James P.

    1984-01-01

    From an understanding of how the solar system was formed, scientists have determined the conditions under which life probably originated on earth and, by experiment, have demonstrated a number of possible theories. These conditions, experiments, theories, and related topics are discussed. (JN)

  9. The Family & Life Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Mellie R.

    The Family and Life Education program at Aims Community College (ACC) in Colorado began in 1967 as prenatal classes taught by volunteer instructors who were registered nurses with backgrounds in maternal-child health. Currently, the program, which is co-sponsored by ACC and North Colorado Medical Center, involves a program coordinator, three staff…

  10. Breaking the Bread of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineo, Thomas M.; Royce, Christine A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes Bishop Hannan High School's (Pennsylvania) retreat program, in which students learn to develop a spiritual element in their lives. Discusses the theme, "The Bread of Life," and how the process of baking bread for communion helped unite and nourish students. Reports that, through a variety of fellowship activities, students gained a sense…

  11. Sustainable Consumption and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing Jian; Li, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sustainable consumption and life satisfaction. One aspect of sustainable consumption focused on in this study is the environment friendly purchase or green purchase. Using data collected from consumers in 14 cities in China, we found that consumers who reported green purchase…

  12. Toward Life-Long Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Raymond J.

    Developing life-long reading habits is a process that should begin in elementary school. Children should be encouraged not only to read what has been approved for classroom use but also to look beyond classroom walls to read for interest and enjoyment. "Looking beyond the walls" is a parable that suggests that school curriculum go beyond the…

  13. Connections: Life Cycle Kinesthetic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Office, Grand Junction, CO.

    An understanding of the environment and peoples' role in its preservation and destruction must be acquired in order to circumvent the current threat of environmental deterioration. This document provides lessons developed to help students and others reconnect with the natural systems which sustain life. The following activities are provided for…

  14. Learning with iLife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    A podcast is audio or visual content that is automatically delivered over a network via free subscription. The advantage podcasts have over traditional oral reports is that students can edit and revise until what they say and how they say it is perfected. iLife applications are ideal for creating podcasts and other digital projects because of…

  15. Science Education in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Zahira

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the observational study was to investigate whether spaces in Second Life (SL) displaying interactive scientific exhibits can become potential avenues to promote inquiry in teaching scientific concepts. 42 SL spaces (islands) were selected using inclusion/exclusion criteria out of 155 spaces that were found using three different…

  16. IYA2009 in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, A.; Gay, P. L.

    2008-11-01

    The New Media Group is working to create an IYA2009 presence in the 3-dimensional multi-user virtual world called Second Life (SL). Current installations, development plans, and collaboration initiatives will be discussed. The first wave of development will bring real-life (RL) IYA2009 events and exhibits to the residents of Second Life. Informational kiosks with IYA2009 freebie avatar clothing will be placed in a variety of science-related places and other high traffic locations in SL. The IYA 2009 cornerstone project ``From Earth to the Universe'' is planned to be a portable exhibit in SL that can reside in temporary locations and be unveiled for special events. Interactive exhibits for ``400 Years of Astronomy Timeline,'' ``Galileo's Telescope,'' and ``Dark Sky Awareness'' will also be under design. Live events such as public lectures, coffee talks, and a web-streamed opening ceremonies SL party are also in the works. Our ultimate plan is to bring together all those interested in brainstorming, creating, and developing content, exhibits, and activities in Second Life for IYA2009. Sharing resources, sponsorship, and land space will help us all succeed in bringing astronomy to the public in 2009 and beyond.

  17. IYA 2009 in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Adrienne J.; Gay, P. L.; New Media Working Group

    2008-05-01

    The New Media Group is working to create an IYA 2009 presence in the 3-dimensional multi-user virtual world called Second Life (SL). Current installations, development plans, and collaboration initiatives will be discussed. The first wave of development will bring real-life (RL) IYA 2009 events and exhibits to the residents of Second Life. Informational kiosks with IYA 2009 freebie avatar clothing will be placed in a variety of science-related places and other high traffic locations in SL. The IYA 2009 cornerstone project "From Earth to the Universe” is planned to be a portable exhibit in SL that can reside in temporary locations and be unveiled for special events. Interactive exhibits for "Years of Astronomy Timeline", "Galileo's Telescope", and "Dark Sky Awareness” will also be under design. Live events such as public lectures, coffee talks, and a web-streamed opening ceremonies SL party are also in the works. These are our ideas, now we want yours! Our ultimate plan is to bring together all those nationally and internationally interested in brainstorming, creating, and developing content, exhibits, and activities in Second Life for IYA 2009. Sharing resources, sponsorship, and land space will help us all succeed in bringing astronomy to the public in 2009 and beyond.

  18. Subjective Evaluation of Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Alan F.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Surveyed medical/surgical patients concerning life events during the preceding year. Subjective evaluations of events were obtained for dimensions of desirability, adjustment, anticipation, and control. Psychological impairment was associated with subjective evaluations, specifically desirability and adjustment. Inclusion of anticipation and…

  19. RURAL LIFE AND URBANIZED SOCIETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JONES, ARTHUR R., JR.; TAYLOR, LEE

    WIDESPREAD CHANGES IN RURAL AMERICAN LIFE HAVE RESULTED IN THE CONCEPT OF URBANIZED SOCIAL ORGANIZATION--THE REACTION AND INTERACTION OF RURAL AND URBAN CITIZENS TO THE SAME PATTERN OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION. THE ENTIRE POPULATION HAS BECOME SUBJECT TO URBAN-DERIVED SOCIAL STRUCTURES. FACTORS SUCH AS TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT AND MASS MEDIA…

  20. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  1. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  2. Life in South Korea Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  3. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, C. S. (Editor); Donnelly, K. L. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Research in exobiology, life sciences technology, space biology, and space medicine and physiology, primarily using data gathered on the Salyut 6 orbital space station, is reported. Methods for predicting, diagnosing, and preventing the effects of weightlessness are discussed. Psychological factors are discussed. The effects of space flight on plants and animals are reported. Bioinstrumentation advances are noted.

  4. The Tree of Animal Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braude, Stan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

  5. Families as Life Span Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Professionals dealing with challenging behavior frequently operate detached from the other relationships in the child's life. This narrow approach has been called the unilateral strategy based on the belief that the child's outside world can be ignored and behavior can be changed by administering specific corrective interventions. In contrast,…

  6. Life Science, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This life science guide is one of a series of guides, K-12, that were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The materials contained in the guide are supplementary, and designed to aid the science teacher in providing the kinds of experiences needed by students to gain an understanding of the…

  7. Life Stress and Academic Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Huang, Yun-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Stress has been shown to negatively affect learning. Academic burnout is a significant problem associated with poor academic performance. Although there has been increased attention on these two issues, literature on the relationship between students' life stress and burnout is relatively limited. This study surveys academic burnout and life…

  8. SKNy worms and long life.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Heinrich

    2008-03-21

    Interactions between insulin signaling and stress-response pathways can markedly impact life span. In this issue, Tullet et al. (2008) demonstrate that the worm homolog of Nrf2, called SKN-1, a transcription factor that switches on expression of antioxidant genes, is an important component of such signaling interactions.

  9. Life as a military spouse.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Military spouses live a capricious life. They often move away from everything familiar to support their active duty spouse. Honor, courage, and commitment are values military spouses need to assist them in being strong and resilient. Effective coping skills aid in the various roles these spouses assume, which may cause personal sacrifices to be made in support of the service member.

  10. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  11. FastStats: Life Expectancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet/Nutrition Disability and Functioning Exercise or Physical Activity Obesity and Overweight Smoking Injuries Accidents or Unintentional Injuries All Injuries Assault or Homicide Suicide and Self-Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health ...

  12. A Day in the Life...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansenberg, Dania; Branch, Jennifer L.; Silvennoinen, Anneli; Wilson, Kay; McClurg, Kati; Baffour-Awuah, Margaret; Clyde, Anne; Free, John; Oberg, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    These nine articles present narrative accounts of typical days in the working life of school librarians from all over the world. Includes school librarians, teacher-librarians, network librarians, Peace Corps volunteers, and Webmasters, as well as a report from the IASL (International Association of School Librarianship) Web site. (LRW)

  13. Life Sciences in NASA's Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1999-01-01

    The topics of agency and enterprise goals, OLMSA organization, life sciences relationship to NASA/HEDS strategic plans, budget allocated by the HEDS strategic plan goals, 1998 successes, exploration and the International Space Station, congressional budgets, OLMSA grants, biomedical research and countermeasures, medical care, biologically inspired technologies, and publication, education and outreach are all presented in viewgraph form.

  14. Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, M.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Thomas, D.; Shackelford, K.

    2008-01-01

    In the early days of spaceflight, space life sciences data were been collected and stored in numerous databases, formats, media-types and geographical locations. While serving the needs of individual research teams, these data were largely unknown/unavailable to the scientific community at large. As a result, the Space Act of 1958 and the Science Data Management Policy mandated that research data collected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration be made available to the science community at large. The Biomedical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch of the Space Life Sciences Directorate at JSC and the Data Archive Project at ARC, with funding from the Human Research Program through the Exploration Medical Capability Element, are fulfilling these requirements through the systematic population of the Life Sciences Data Archive. This program constitutes a formal system for the acquisition, archival and distribution of data for Life Sciences-sponsored experiments and investigations. The general goal of the archive is to acquire, preserve, and distribute these data using a variety of media which are accessible and responsive to inquiries from the science communities.

  15. Whole Life Living Skills Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Alice R.; And Others

    This manual provides ideas to enable Whole Life Program staff and friends to begin expanding on ways to reach and teach survival skills to adults. A list of suggestions for use of the curriculum activities and process appears first. Activities are provided for 11 curriculum areas: emergency procedures; apartment safety; apartment upkeep; food…

  16. Transformations in Mid-Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Roger L.

    1979-01-01

    Between the ages of thirty-five and fifty, adults become engrossed in questioning the meaning of work, marriage, and life itself. In the process, they must confront long-held false beliefs in their own immortality, safety, and innocence. (Author)

  17. A Beautiful Britto Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Romero Britto is a wonderful artist for young students to study when learning the building blocks of art and design. Colorful, linear, and full of bold patterns, Britto's work blends a contemporary cubist style and pop art commercial appeal. Themes of this contemporary artist's work include animals, flowers, still life, and people in joyful…

  18. Sourcing Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection and validation of quality lifecycle inventory (LCI) data can be the most difficult and time-consuming aspect of developing a life cycle assessment (LCA). Large amounts of process and production data are needed to complete the LCI. For many studies, the LCA analyst ...

  19. Counseling Adults for Life Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R.; Benjamin, Libby

    Adult counseling is assuming increasing importance in counselor education and training. Most important is the developmental aspect of growth all through life, since adulthood is not a static period but can be as fraught with conflict and choice as childhood or adolescence. Outlines describe some important differences between young people and…

  20. Is There Life without Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the way retirees perceive retirement and continue to work post-retirement. Using a longitudinal design, qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed to examine the effect of preoccupation with work on adjustment to retirement. The findings indicate a wide range of attitudes toward cessation of the working life on…

  1. Important Topics about Life & Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcraft, James S.

    This teacher's guide presents material suitable for junior and senior high school physical education, health, or home economics classes concerning life cycles and sex education. Unit 1, understanding the self, contains lessons on personality, self-image, defense mechanisms, peer groups, and the conformist. Unit 2, dating, contains lessons on going…

  2. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  3. The Tree of Life Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbrath, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    Middle-school students are just beginning to recognize their place in the world. That is why this author believes it is important to incorporate their world into their art. In this article, the author discusses the "Tree of Life" project, which she developed for her students in order to make them aware of various environmental issues, and how to…

  4. Powering the Future with LIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I; Diaz de la Rubia, T

    2009-04-28

    This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Leveraging the National Ignition Facility to meet the climate-energy challenge; (2) The journal into a new era of scientific discoveries; and (3) Safe and sustainable energy with LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy).

  5. USSR space life sciences digest

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.S.; Donnelly, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Research in exobiology, life sciences technology, space biology, and space medicine and physiology, primarily using data gathered on the Salyut 6 orbital space station, is reported. Methods for predicting, diagnosing, and preventing the effects of weightlessness are discussed. Psychological factors are discussed. The effects of space flight on plants and animals are reported. Bioinstrumentation advances are noted.

  6. Student-Life Stress Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The reliability of the Student-Life Stress Inventory of B. M. Gadzella (1991) was studied. The inventory consists of 51 items listed in 9 sections indicating different types of stressors (frustrations, conflicts, pressures, changes, and self-imposed stressors) and reactions to the stressors (physiological, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive) as…

  7. Defining life: the virus viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism-the virus-producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  8. Life on the Iowa Prairies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaim, Ginalie, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    A theme issue of the Iowa State Historical Department magazine ("The Goldfinch") focuses on elementary readings and activities about Iowa prairie life. A total of 13 articles is included. In "History Makers," eight letters recount student and teacher prairie experiences. "The Prairie: Problems or Paradise?" recounts…

  9. Life: A Question of Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlitt, Dorothy M.; And Others

    The purpose of this textbook is to provide junior high school students with the knowledge they will need to effect the changes that must be made for survival, to provide an environment that can sustain and flourish life, and understand and appreciate the aesthetic, social, and scientific implications of environmental problems. Organized around…

  10. Piezoelectric multilayer actuator life test.

    PubMed

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Jones, Christopher M; Aldrich, Jack B; Blodget, Chad J; Moore, James D; Carson, John W; Goullioud, Renaud

    2011-04-01

    Potential NASA optical missions such as the Space Interferometer Mission require actuators for precision positioning to accuracies of the order of nanometers. Commercially available multilayer piezoelectric stack actuators are being considered for driving these precision mirror positioning mechanisms. These mechanisms have potential mission operational requirements that exceed 5 years for one mission life. To test the feasibility of using these commercial actuators for these applications and to determine their reliability and the redundancy requirements, a life test study was undertaken. The nominal actuator requirements for the most critical actuators on the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) in terms of number of cycles was estimated from the Modulation Optics Mechanism (MOM) and Pathlength control Optics Mechanism (POM) and these requirements were used to define the study. At a nominal drive frequency of 250 Hz, one mission life is calculated to be 40 billion cycles. In this study, a set of commercial PZT stacks configured in a potential flight actuator configuration (pre-stressed to 18 MPa and bonded in flexures) were tested for up to 100 billion cycles. Each test flexure allowed for two sets of primary and redundant stacks to be mechanically connected in series. The tests were controlled using an automated software control and data acquisition system that set up the test parameters and monitored the waveform of the stack electrical current and voltage. The samples were driven between 0 and 20 V at 2000 Hz to accelerate the life test and mimic the voltage amplitude that is expected to be applied to the stacks during operation. During the life test, 10 primary stacks were driven and 10 redundant stacks, mechanically in series with the driven stacks, were open-circuited. The stroke determined from a strain gauge, the temperature and humidity in the chamber, and the temperature of each individual stack were recorded. Other properties of the stacks, including the

  11. Early Life Bereavement and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hong; Olsen, Jørn; Yuan, Wei; Cnattingus, Sven; Vestergaard, Mogens; Obel, Carsten; Gissler, Mika; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to examine whether early life bereavement, as indicator of severe stress, was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia later in life. Based on population registers, we established a cohort of all children born in Denmark (N = 1 686 416) and Sweden (N = 2 563 659) from 1973 to 1997. Children were categorized as exposed if they lost a first-degree relative during the first 18 years of life. Outcome is the first diagnosis of schizophrenia as either inpatient or outpatient. Log-linear Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs). A total of 188,850 children (4.6%) experienced death of a first-degree relative from birth to 18 years of age. Compared with unexposed children, those exposed had overall a 39% higher risk of schizophrenia (= 1.39, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 1.32–1.47). The IRR was particularly high if the family member committed suicide (aIRR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.90–2.34) or died due to an injury or accident (aIRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.27–1.63). The IRR of schizophrenia decreased with increasing child's age at bereavement (P < 0.0001). Children who experienced >1 death during the first 18 years of life (aIRR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.46–2.19) had a higher risk than those with a single death (aIRR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.30–1.45). The study suggested that exposure to death of a first-degree relative before 18 years was associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in later life. The complex mechanisms behind these associations remain to be elucidated. PMID:26817875

  12. Life sciences on the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    Despite of the fact that the lunar environment lacks essential prerequisites for supporting life, lunar missions offer new and promising opportunities to the life sciences community. Among the disciplines of interest are exobiology, radiation biology, ecology and human physiology. In exobiology, the Moon offers an ideal platform for studies related to the understanding of the principles, leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life. These include the analysis of lunar samples and meteorites in relatively pristine conditions, radioastronomical search for other planetary systems or Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI), and studies on the role of radiation in evolutionary processes and on the environmental limits for life. For radiation biology, the Moon provides an unique laboratory with built-in sources for optical as well as ionising radiation to investigate the biological importance of the various components of cosmic and solar radiation. Before establishing a lunar base, precursor missions will provide a characterisation of the radiation field, determination of depth dose distributions in different absorbers, the installation of a solar flare alert system, and a qualification of the biological efficiency of the mixed radiation environment. One of the most challenging projects falls into the domain of ecology with the establishment for the first time of an artificial ecosystem on a celestial body beyond the Earth. From this venture, a better understanding of the dynamics regulating our terrestrial biosphere is expected. It will also serve as a precursor of bioregenerative life support systems for a lunar base. The establishment of a lunar base with eventually long-term human presence will raise various problems in the fields of human physiology and health care, psychology and sociology. Protection guidelines for living in this hostile environment have to be established.

  13. Basecalling with LifeTrace.

    PubMed

    Walther, D; Bartha, G; Morris, M

    2001-05-01

    A pivotal step in electrophoresis sequencing is the conversion of the raw, continuous chromatogram data into the actual sequence of discrete nucleotides, a process referred to as basecalling. We describe a novel algorithm for basecalling implemented in the program LifeTrace. Like Phred, currently the most widely used basecalling software program, LifeTrace takes processed trace data as input. It was designed to be tolerant to variable peak spacing by means of an improved peak-detection algorithm that emphasizes local chromatogram information over global properties. LifeTrace is shown to generate high-quality basecalls and reliable quality scores. It proved particularly effective when applied to MegaBACE capillary sequencing machines. In a benchmark test of 8372 dye-primer MegaBACE chromatograms, LifeTrace generated 17% fewer substitution errors, 16% fewer insertion/deletion errors, and 2.4% more aligned bases to the finished sequence than did Phred. For two sets totaling 6624 dye-terminator chromatograms, the performance improvement was 15% fewer substitution errors, 10% fewer insertion/deletion errors, and 2.1% more aligned bases. The processing time required by LifeTrace is comparable to that of Phred. The predicted quality scores were in line with observed quality scores, permitting direct use for quality clipping and in silico single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection. Furthermore, we introduce a new type of quality score associated with every basecall: the gap-quality. It estimates the probability of a deletion error between the current and the following basecall. This additional quality score improves detection of single basepair deletions when used for locating potential basecalling errors during the alignment. We also describe a new protocol for benchmarking that we believe better discerns basecaller performance differences than methods previously published.

  14. CARES/LIFE Software Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has entered into a letter agreement with BIOSYM Technologies Inc. (now merged with Molecular Simulations Inc. (MSI)). Under this agreement, NASA will provide a developmental copy of the CARES/LIFE computer program to BIOSYM for evaluation. This computer code predicts the time-dependent reliability of a thermomechanically loaded component. BIOSYM will become familiar with CARES/LIFE, provide results of computations useful in validating the code, evaluate it for potential commercialization, and submit suggestions for improvements or extensions to the code or its documentation. If BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations reaches a favorable evaluation of CARES/LIFE, NASA will enter into negotiations for a cooperative agreement with BIOSYM/Molecular Simulations to further develop the code--adding features such as a user-friendly interface and other improvements. This agreement would give BIOSYM intellectual property rights in the modified codes, which they could protect and then commercialize. NASA would provide BIOSYM with the NASA-developed source codes and would agree to cooperate with BIOSYM in further developing the code. In return, NASA would receive certain use rights in the modified CARES/LIFE program. Presently BIOSYM Technologies Inc. has been involved with integration issues concerning its merger with Molecular Simulations Inc., since both companies used to compete in the computational chemistry market, and to some degree, in the materials market. Consequently, evaluation of the CARES/LIFE software is on hold for a month or two while the merger is finalized. Their interest in CARES continues, however, and they expect to get back to the evaluation by early November 1995.

  15. Enceladus Life Finder: Search for Life in a Habitable Moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, J. I.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Spilker, L. J.; Postberg, F.; Cable, M. L.; Srama, R.; Clark, K.; Lee, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    A thousand times smaller in mass than Ganymede, Enceladus was known from Voyager data to be extremely bright and a dearth of craters on some parts of its surface suggested geologic activity. Cassini discovered the presence and composition of a plume erupting from the south polar terrain of Enceladus, approximately 100 narrow, distinct "geysers" or "jets" that feed it, and anomalous thermal signatures along fractures from which the geysers erupt. Cassini discovered organic and nitrogen-bearing molecules in the plume vapor, and detected salts in the plume icy grains, arguing strongly for ocean water being in contact with a rocky core. As much as Cassini has done, it cannot tell us whether the ocean of Enceladus hosts an active biota today. Enceladus Life Finder (ELF) is a Discovery-class solar-powered Saturn orbiter designed to fly multiple times through the plume of Enceladus. It carries two state-of-the-art mass spectrometers designed to analyze the gas and grains in the plume. The goals of the mission are derived directly from the most recent decadal survey: first, to determine primordial sources of organics and sites of organic synthesis today, second, to determine if there are modern habitats in the solar system beyond Earth where the conditions for life exist today and third, if life exists there now. ELF conducts three tests for life. The first test looks for a non-abiotic distribution of amino acids, the second determines whether the carbon number distribution in fatty acids or isoprenoids is biased toward a particular rule, and the third measures carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios, together with the abundance of methane relative to other alkanes, to assess whether the values fall in the range for biological processes. The ELF mission spacecraft conducts ten science plume fly-throughs; the baseline science is completed in the first five plume passages.

  16. Quality of Life and Functional Status across the Life Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Recovery Practices in Breast Cancer (RESTORE). This is a randomized exercise intervention trial with a lymphedema prevention program. Project 1 is...treatment and beyond. 15. SUBJECT TERMS breast cancer, quality of life, lymphedema , exercise 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...management may be a potential intervention for those at greater risk of lymphedema . • Women with swelling reported a significantly lower quality

  17. Quality of Life and Functional Status Across the Life Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    This is a randomized exercise intervention trial with a lymphedema prevention program. Project 1 is a continuation of a study that was initiated in...quality of life, lymphedema , exercise 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT...children in the home, balancing work and family roles, and changes in physical health as a result of cancer or its treatment, (e.g., lymphedema or

  18. Habitability and Life - an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehöft, J. H.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract The search for habitable planets has seen a significant boost, since much effort was invested into development of newer and more powerful techniques of detecting such planetary bodies. This search is fuelled by the interest that is sparked by its help in answering the bigger question of the origin of life on Earth and its abundance in the universe. Traditionally a planetary body has been deemed habitable when it provides conditions under which water is liquid. This led to the formulation of a habitable zone across stars, in which liquid water can exist. [1] Liquid water remains to this day the single most important feature in the search for life. There have been various suggestions of life being present in waterless environments like liquid hydrocarbons or even liquid ammonia, but how exactly a living system under such conditions might work, no one can satisfactorily explain. [2] A very important point in this context that is not often raised is that while water might be a favourable medium in which to live and certainly a major constituent of all living organism we know of, water alone is not alive and it will not spontaneously evolve into life. It would thus seem that apart from the presence of liquid water there a number of other, minor, necessary ingredients to life that determine whether a planet is habitable (meaning capable of sustaining life) or whether it is also capable of providing the starting grounds for the evolution of living systems. These other ingredients are determined by the minimum requirements of life itself. They include the molecular components of the most primitive encasing of an organism, the most primitive molecules needed for something like a metabolism and the most primitive way of storing information. [3] In addition to these molecular components, life must be able to utilise a source of energy to drive chemical reactions. Observations of various extremophiles on Earth utilising all kinds disequilibria suggest that these can

  19. A New Criterion for Demarcating Life from Non-Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Criteria for demarcating life from non-life are important for deciding whether new candidate systems, either discovered extraterrestrially or constructed in the laboratory, are genuinely alive or not. They are also important for understanding the origin of life and its evolution. Current criteria are either too restrictive or too extensive. The new criterion proposed here poses that a system is living when it is capable of utilizing active causation, at evolutionary or behavioural timescales. Active causation is produced when the organism uses an estimate of its own Darwinian fitness to modulate the variance of stochasticity that drives hereditary or behavioural changes. The changes are subsequently fed back to the fitness estimate and used in the next cycle of a feedback loop. The ability to use a self-estimated fitness in this way is an evolved property of the organism, and the way in which fitness is estimated is therefore controlled and stabilized by Darwinian evolution. The hereditary and behavioural trajectories resulting from this mechanism combine predictability with unpredictability, and the mechanism produces a form of self-directed agency in living organisms that is absent from non-living systems.

  20. 76 FR 77455 - Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance-Slayer's Rule Exclusion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AN40 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life...' Group Life Insurance (``SGLI'') and Veterans' Group Life Insurance (``VGLI'') to prohibit payment of insurance proceeds payable because of the death of a person whose life was insured under SGLI or...

  1. Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document reports the results and analyses presented at the Life and Microgravity Spacelab One Year Science Review meeting. The science conference was held in Montreal, Canada, on August 20-21, 1997, and was hosted by the Canadian Space Agency. The LMS payload flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-78) from June 20 - July 7, 1996. The LMS investigations were performed in a pressurized Spacelab module and the Shuttle middeck. Forty scientific experiments were performed in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, the growth of protein crystals, and animal, human, and plant life sciences. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity.

  2. LifeSat - Radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    1990-01-01

    Spaceflight crews will be exposed to levels of radiation which exceed those experienced on the ground. In order to reduce the uncertainty in the evaluation of risks it is necessary to validate the responses of biological systems in space under conditions which simulate exposure levels expected during exploration class missions. The LifeSat system provides the experimental capabilities to satisfy these goals. Specifically, LifeSat is capable of long duration flights of up to 60 days, is able to fly directly into trapped radiation belts and in circular or eccentric polar orbits, has the ability to provide artificial gravity and imposes fewer restrictions than the STS on the use of hazardous materials such as chemical fixatives. These features along with reference missions and experiments are discussed with respect to radiation research goals.

  3. Life support subsystem monitoring instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Kostell, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    The recognition of the need for instrumentation in manned spacecraft life-support subsystems has increased significantly over the past several years. Of the required control and monitoring instrumentation, this paper will focus on the monitoring instrumentation as applied to life-support subsystems. The initial approach used independent sensors, independent sensor signal conditioning circuitry, and independent logic circuitry to provide shutdown protection only. This monitoring system was replaced with a coordinated series of printed circuit cards, each of which contains all the electronics to service one sensor and provide performance trend information, fault detection and isolation information, and shutdown protection. Finally, a review of sensor and instrumentation problems is presented, and the requirement for sensors with built-in signal conditioning and provisions for in situ calibration is discussed.

  4. The origin of cellular life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This essay presents a scenario of the origin of life that is based on analysis of biological architecture and mechanical design at the microstructural level. My thesis is that the same architectural and energetic constraints that shape cells today also guided the evolution of the first cells and that the molecular scaffolds that support solid-phase biochemistry in modern cells represent living microfossils of past life forms. This concept emerged from the discovery that cells mechanically stabilize themselves using tensegrity architecture and that these same building rules guide hierarchical self-assembly at all size scales (Sci. Amer 278:48-57;1998). When combined with other fundamental design principles (e.g., energy minimization, topological constraints, structural hierarchies, autocatalytic sets, solid-state biochemistry), tensegrity provides a physical basis to explain how atomic and molecular elements progressively self-assembled to create hierarchical structures with increasingly complex functions, including living cells that can self-reproduce.

  5. Assuring Life in Composite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos c.

    2008-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to assure life in composite systems by using dynamic buckling of smart composite shells as an example. The combined use of composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right below the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 9% at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load. The uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects and thereby in the assured life of the shell.

  6. Space Life Support Engineering Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seagrave, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report covers the second year of research relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems. Emphasis was directed toward concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis in an effort to begin optimizing the system needed for water purification. Four appendices are attached. The first covers the ASPEN modeling of the closed loop Environmental Control Life Support System (ECLSS) and its thermodynamic analysis. The second is a report on the dynamic model development for water regulation in humans. The third regards the development of an interactive computer-based model for determining exercise limitations. The fourth attachment is an estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an ECLSS.

  7. The Life Support Database system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Likens, William C.

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of the database system are described with specific reference to data available from the Build-1 version and techniques for its utilization. The review of the initial documents for the Life Support Database is described in terms of title format and sequencing, and the users are defined as participants in NASA-sponsored life-support research. The software and hardware selections are based respectively on referential integrity and compatibility, and the implementation of the user interface is achieved by means of an applications-programming tool. The current Beta-Test implementation of the system includes several thousand acronyms and bibliographic references as well as chemical properties and exposure limits, equipment, construction materials, and mission data. In spite of modifications in the database the system is found to be effective and a potentially significant resource for the aerospace community.

  8. Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, James Patton

    1998-02-01

    This document reports the results and analyses presented at the Life and Microgravity Spacelab One Year Science Review meeting. The science conference was held in Montreal, Canada, on August 20-21, 1997, and was hosted by the Canadian Space Agency. The LMS payload flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-78) from June 20 - July 7, 1996. The LMS investigations were performed in a pressurized Spacelab module and the Shuttle middeck. Forty scientific experiments were performed in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, the growth of protein crystals, and animal, human, and plant life sciences. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity.

  9. Can Music Save Your Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Who hasn't at least once had the feeling of being remade through music? Who is there who does not date a new phase in life to hearing this or that symphony or song? But does music constantly provide revelation--or does it have some other effects, maybe less desirable? For those who teach, the question is especially pressing. Students tend to spend…

  10. Towards the bibliography of life.

    PubMed

    King, David; Morse, David R; Willis, Alistair; Dil, Anton

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses how we intend to take forward the vision of a Bibliography of Life in the ViBRANT project. The underlying principle of the Bibliography is to provide taxonomists and others with a freely accessible bibliography covering the whole of life. Such a bibliography has been achieved for specific study areas within taxonomy, but not for "life" as a whole.The creation of such a comprehensive tool has been hindered by various social and technical issues. The social concerns focus on the willingness of users to contribute to the Bibliography. The technical concerns relate to the architecture required to deliver the Bibliography. These issues are discussed in the paper and approaches to addressing them within the ViBRANT project are described, to demonstrate how we can now seriously consider building a Bibliography of Life. We are particularly interested in the potential of the resulting tool to improve the quality of bibliographic references. Through analysing the large number of references in the Bibliography we will be able to add metadata by resolving known issues such as geographical name variations. This should result in a tool that will assist taxonomists in two ways. Firstly, it will be easier for them to discover relevant literature, especially pre-digital literature; and secondly, it will be easier for them to identify the canonical form for a citationThe paper also covers related issues relevant to building the tool in ViBRANT, including implementation and copyright, with suggestions as to how we could address them.

  11. Is There Life After Grief?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    anger is not treated, the re- sult is often depression. Many people are taught early in life to repress anger because display- ing anger indicates a...operation. It opened me up and removed a large portion of my pain , hurt and anger . The scar of that operation, like the memory of Kara, will always...reality, 31-32 AF Officer Effectiveness Reports, 46 Anger , 28 Baines, Don, 12 Bloomfield, Harold, 32 Caine, Lynn, 17 Candlelighters, 45 Casualties

  12. The life of lipid droplets

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Tobias C.; Farese, Robert V.

    2009-01-01

    Lipid droplets are the least characterized of cellular organelles. Long considered simple lipid storage depots, these dynamic and remarkable organelles have recently been implicated in many biological processes, and we are only now beginning to gain insights into their fascinating lives in cells. Here we examine what we know of the life of lipid droplets. We review emerging data concerning their cellular biology and present our thoughts on some of the most salient questions for investigation. PMID:19041421

  13. Basic Life Support (BLS) Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-19

    Healthcare Standards Manual," •• current edition 2 A (d) American Heart Association , "Basic Life Support," current Ii~ curriculum3 (e) American Red Cross...Training. Training based on the specifications of the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross. "- 1Available from the Joint Commission on...Maintain the instructor’s rating in BLS from the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross. G. EFFECTIVE DATE AND IMPLEMENTATION This

  14. Asthma Outcomes: Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sandra R.; Rand, Cynthia S.; Cabana, Michael D.; Foggs, Michael B.; Halterman, Jill S.; Olson, Lynn; Vollmer, William M.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Taggart, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Background “Asthma-related quality of life” refers to the perceived impact that asthma has on the patient’s quality of life. Objective National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies convened an expert group to recommend standardized measures of the impact of asthma on quality of life for use in future asthma clinical research. Methods We reviewed published documentation regarding the development and psychometric evaluation; clinical research use since 2000; and extent to which the content of each existing quality of life instrument provides a unique, reliable, and valid assessment of the intended construct. We classified instruments as core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to the study’s aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Eleven instruments for adults and 6 for children were identified for review. None qualified as core instruments because they predominantly measured indicators of asthma control (symptoms and/or functional status); failed to provide a distinct, reliable score measuring all key dimensions of the intended construct; and/or lacked adequate psychometric data. Conclusions In the absence of existing instruments that meet the stated criteria, currently available instruments are classified as either supplemental or emerging. Research is strongly recommended to develop and evaluate instruments that provide a distinct, reliable measure of the patient’s perception of the impact of asthma on all of the key dimensions of quality of life, an important outcome that is not captured in other outcome measures. PMID:22386511

  15. NTRE extended life feasibility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

  16. Is life law-like?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth M; Buchanan, Anne V

    2011-08-01

    Genes are generally assumed to be primary biological causes of biological phenotypes and their evolution. In just over a century, a research agenda that has built on Mendel's experiments and on Darwin's theory of natural selection as a law of nature has had unprecedented scientific success in isolating and characterizing many aspects of genetic causation. We revel in these successes, and yet the story is not quite so simple. The complex cooperative nature of genetic architecture and its evolution include teasingly tractable components, but much remains elusive. The proliferation of data generated in our "omics" age raises the question of whether we even have (or need) a unified theory or "law" of life, or even clear standards of inference by which to answer the question. If not, this not only has implications for the widely promulgated belief that we will soon be able to predict phenotypes like disease risk from genes, but also speaks to the limitations in the underlying science itself. Much of life seems to be characterized by ad hoc, ephemeral, contextual probabilism without proper underlying distributions. To the extent that this is true, causal effects are not asymptotically predictable, and new ways of understanding life may be required.

  17. Bilastine and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, I; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of quality of life (QoL) and its modification through therapeutic interventions has become a prioritary concern in recent years and a requirement on the part of regulatory agencies for the authorization of new drugs. In clinical studies of allergic disorders, particularly allergic rhinitis and urticaria, different types of generic questionnaires have been used - especially disease specific instruments such as the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) or skin disease specific tools such as the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Throughout its clinical development, bilastine has been shown to be more effective than placebo and at least as effective as cetirizine, levocetirizine, fexofenadine or desloratadine in controlling the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. QoL has been studied as a secondary objective in three allergic rhinitis clinical trials, using the RQLQ, in a total of 2335 patients. Likewise, in chronic urticaria, QoL has been evaluated using the DLQI in a total of 525 patients, versus levocetirizine and placebo. The improvement in the QoL parameters in these studies (RQLQ or DLQI domains) at all times proved proportional to the symptoms improvement. In general, the data obtained relating to changes in QoL are concordant with the mean global visual analog scale (VAS in mm) values and their changes, from the beginning until the end of the treatment period, for all of the trials, for bilastine and all its comparators.

  18. Photobioreactors in Life Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ines; Braun, Markus; Slenzka, Klaus; Posten, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Life support systems for long-term space missions or extraterrestrial installations have to fulfill major functions such as purification of water and regeneration of atmosphere as well as the generation of food and energy. For almost 60 years ideas for biological life support systems have been collected and various concepts have been developed and tested. Microalgae as photosynthetic organisms have played a major role in most of these concepts. This review deals with the potentials of using eukaryotic microalgae for life support systems and highlights special requirements and frame conditions for designing space photobioreactors especially regarding illumination and aeration. Mono- and dichromatic illumination based on LEDs is a promising alternative for conventional systems and preliminary results yielded higher photoconversion efficiencies (PCE) for dichromatic red/blue illumination than white illumination. Aeration for microgravity conditions should be realized in a bubble-free manner, for example, via membranes. Finally, a novel photobioreactor concept for space application is introduced being parameterized and tested with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This system has already been tested during two parabolic flight campaigns.

  19. A dynamic architecture of life

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Beatrix P.; Brockes, Jeremy; Galliot, Brigitte; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Lobo, Daniel; Mainardi, Marco; Mirouze, Marie; Prochiantz, Alain; Steger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, a profound conceptual transformation has occurred comprising different areas of biological research, leading to a novel understanding of life processes as much more dynamic and changeable. Discoveries in plants and animals, as well as novel experimental approaches, have prompted the research community to reconsider established concepts and paradigms. This development was taken as an incentive to organise a workshop in May 2014 at the Academia Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome. There, experts on epigenetics, regeneration, neuroplasticity, and computational biology, using different animal and plant models, presented their insights on important aspects of a dynamic architecture of life, which comprises all organisational levels of the organism. Their work demonstrates that a dynamic nature of life persists during the entire existence of the organism and permits animals and plants not only to fine-tune their response to particular environmental demands during development, but underlies their continuous capacity to do so. Here, a synthesis of the different findings and their relevance for biological thinking is presented. PMID:26949518

  20. Why epilepsy challenges social life.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Bettina K; Jokeit, Hennric

    2017-01-01

    Social bonds are at the center of our daily living and are an essential determinant of our quality of life. In people with epilepsy, numerous factors can impede cognitive and affective functions necessary for smooth social interactions. Psychological and psychiatric complications are common in epilepsy and may hinder the processing of social information. In addition, neuropsychological deficits such as slowed processing speed, memory loss or attentional difficulties may interfere with enjoyable reciprocity of social interactions. We consider societal, psychological, and neuropsychological aspects of social life with particular emphasis on socio-cognitive functions in temporal lobe epilepsy. Deficits in emotion recognition and theory of mind, two main aspects of social cognition, are frequently observed in individuals with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Results from behavioural studies targeting these functions will be presented with a focus on their relevance for patients' daily life. Furthermore, we will broach the issue of pitfalls in current diagnostic tools and potential directions for future research. By giving a broad overview of individual and interpersonal determinants of social functioning in epilepsy, we hope to provide a basis for future research to establish social cognition as a key component in the comprehensive assessment and care of those with epilepsy.

  1. Having a life versus being alive.

    PubMed

    Kushner, T

    1984-03-01

    In an attempt to provide some clarification in the abortion issue it has recently been proposed that since 'brain death' is used to define the end of life, 'brain life' would be a logical demarcation for life's beginning. This paper argues in support of this position, not on empirical grounds, but because of what it reflects of what is valuable about the term 'life'. It is pointed out that 'life' is an ambiguous concept as it is used in English, obscuring the differences between being alive and having a life, a crucial distinction for bioethical questions. The implications of this distinction for the moral debate about abortion are discussed.

  2. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  3. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  4. The conception of life in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Deplazes-Zemp, Anna

    2012-12-01

    The phrase 'synthetic biology' is used to describe a set of different scientific and technological disciplines, which share the objective to design and produce new life forms. This essay addresses the following questions: What conception of life stands behind this ambitious objective? In what relation does this conception of life stand to that of traditional biology and biotechnology? And, could such a conception of life raise ethical concerns? Three different observations that provide useful indications for the conception of life in synthetic biology will be discussed in detail: 1. Synthetic biologists focus on different features of living organisms in order to design new life forms, 2. Synthetic biologists want to contribute to the understanding of life, and 3. Synthetic biologists want to modify life through a rational design, which implies the notions of utilising, minimising/optimising, varying and overcoming life. These observations indicate a tight connection between science and technology, a focus on selected aspects of life, a production-oriented approach to life, and a design-oriented understanding of life. It will be argued that through this conception of life synthetic biologists present life in a different light. This conception of life will be illustrated by the metaphor of a toolbox. According to the notion of life as a toolbox, the different features of living organisms are perceived as various rationally designed instruments that can be used for the production of the living organism itself or secondary products made by the organism. According to certain ethical positions this conception of life might raise ethical concerns related to the status of the organism, the motives of the scientists and the role of technology in our society.

  5. Spacelab life sciences 1 - Reprints of background life sciences publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald (Editor); Leonard, Joel (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Results from investigations conducted in preparation for the first Spacelab life-sciences mission are summarized in selected previously published papers. Topics discussed are the role of calcium in osteoporosis, orthostaic hypotension, cardiovascular adjustments to gravitational stress, cell biology, exposure to stressful environments, heart-lung interactions in aerospace medicine, effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology, macular bioaccelerometers on earth and in space, and metabolism of nonessential N-15-labeled amino acids and the measurement of human whole-body protein synthesis rates.

  6. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Life Support Systems in Space Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D. (Editor); Smernoff, D. T. (Editor); Klein, H. P. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Life support systems in space travel, in closed ecological systems were studied. Topics discussed include: (1) problems of life support and the fundamental concepts of bioregeneration; (2) technology associated with physical/chemical regenerative life support; (3) projection of the break even points for various life support techniques; (4) problems of controlling a bioregenerative life support system; (5) data on the operation of an experimental algal/mouse life support system; (6) industrial concepts of bioregenerative life support; and (7) Japanese concepts of bioregenerative life support and associated biological experiments to be conducted in the space station.

  7. The Crowded Life Is a Slow Life: Population Density and Life History Strategy.

    PubMed

    Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L; Varnum, Michael E W; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2017-01-09

    The world population has doubled over the last half century. Yet, research on the psychological effects of human population density, once a popular topic, has decreased over the past few decades. Applying a fresh perspective to an old topic, we draw upon life history theory to examine the effects of population density. Across nations and across the U.S. states (Studies 1 and 2), we find that dense populations exhibit behaviors corresponding to a slower life history strategy, including greater future-orientation, greater investment in education, more long-term mating orientation, later marriage age, lower fertility, and greater parental investment. In Studies 3 and 4, experimentally manipulating perceptions of high density led individuals to become more future-oriented. Finally, in Studies 5 and 6, experimentally manipulating perceptions of high density seemed to lead to life-stage-specific slower strategies, with college students preferring to invest in fewer rather than more relationship partners, and an older MTurk sample preferring to invest in fewer rather than more children. This research sheds new insight on the effects of density and its implications for human cultural variation and society at large. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Space life sciences: Programs and projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA space life science activities are outlined. Brief, general descriptions are given of research in the areas of biomedical research, space biology, closed loop life support systems, exobiology, and biospherics.

  9. Exobiology and the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts on planetary studies and the search for extraterrestrial life are presented. Studies of the Jovian atmosphere were conducted. An assessment of the prospects for life on Mars is presented. And, the the means of contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed.

  10. The Cost of Uncertain Life Span*

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    A considerable amount of uncertainty surrounds the length of human life. The standard deviation in adult life span is about 15 years in the U.S., and theory and evidence suggest it is costly. I calibrate a utility-theoretic model of preferences over length of life and show that one fewer year in standard deviation is worth about half a mean life year. Differences in the standard deviation exacerbate cross-sectional differences in life expectancy between the U.S. and other industrialized countries, between rich and poor countries, and among poor countries. Accounting for the cost of life-span variance also appears to amplify recently discovered patterns of convergence in world average human well-being. This is partly for methodological reasons and partly because unconditional variance in human length of life, primarily the component due to infant mortality, has exhibited even more convergence than life expectancy. PMID:22368324

  11. Preparing for the End of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... care focus on comfort and quality of life. Hospice Care Click for more information One of the ways ... before they need end-of-life or hospice care. Unlike hospice care, palliative care may be used for as ...

  12. Introduction: "Let there be (some) life"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eirich, F. R.

    1986-01-01

    The author introduces a meeting session about the origins of life by briefly reviewing theories of chemical and molecular evolution. The discussion focuses on structures of early life, sequences of chemical synthesis, and evolution of biomolecules.

  13. Life after weight-loss surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... eliminate many health problems Improve your quality of life Live longer It is important to understand that there will be many other changes in your life. These include the way you eat, what you ...

  14. Life and Death Drawings in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Constance DeMuth

    1979-01-01

    Believing that adolescents need to explore their feelings about life and their fantasies about death, an art teacher was prompted to use a human skeleton as a still life subject. The success of this art project is described. (KC)

  15. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts of research in the areas of biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, endrocrinology, enzymology, exobiology, genetics, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, and numerous other topics related to space and life sciences are given.

  16. Live a Full Life with Fibro

    MedlinePlus

    ... Live a Full Life with Fibro Page Content Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain condition that affects 10 ... family, you can live an active life with fibromyalgia. Talking with Your Physician Take the first step ...

  17. The Search for Signals of Extraterrestrial Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The search for signals of extraterrestial life is connected with the general problem of existence and distribution of intelligent life in the...of scientific research. More than that, a portion of the problem which relates to the form of life of the planets of the solar system has already been...civilizations not exist on the nearest planets of the solar system, but even the existence of simple forms of life there is questionable.

  18. Leadership and Work-Life Balance.

    PubMed

    Mattock, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Simply stated, work-life balance is something that is both difficult to define and difficult to achieve. Leaders, throughout the continuum of trauma care, need to have a sound understanding of what work-life balance means and set an example of a healthy work-life balance for those they lead. This article offers strategies for enhancing work-life balance and challenges individuals to use self-reflection as a means to furthering their personal and professional growth.

  19. Quality of Life for Marines on Okinawa.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    well . As in any organization, and as in life in general in our society, quality of life , at least in its material and psychological aspects, increases...trying to definitively tie performance to other variables such as job satisfaction , organizational commitment, and quality of life . The fact that the... life . In addition to eliciting information on the D-T (feelings) scale, satisfaction scales, and comparison items, this section of the survey also

  20. Stressful Life Events: Measurement, Moderators, and Adaptation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-10

    tolerance for stimulation, sensation seeking as a personality attribute may well serve as an important moderator of life stress. High sensation seekers...experiencing stressful life events and psychological well -being. A helping spouse seems to be particularly valuable in contributing to self- confidence...7. Crnic, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Ragozin, A. S., & Robinson, N. M. The effects of life stress and social support on the life satisfaction and

  1. Mid-Life Professional Crises: Two Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinell, C. F.

    Burnout must be considered as symptomatic of a serious event in a person's life--a mid-life crisis, as it is widely termed. Numerous writings point out that during a period of life, roughly between the ages of 30 and 55, many people reach a crisis brought on by the realization that everyone's career, status, and life are measurable and limited.…

  2. Primary lithium cell life studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capulli, John; Donley, Sam; Deligiannis, Frank; Shen, David

    1990-01-01

    One solution for providing a truly independent power source is to package, within the critical subsystem element, a primary battery that can remain dormant for time periods as long as the mission life, which can be 10-15 years, maximum. When primary power from the spacecraft solar array/battery system is interrupted, the backup battery system, which is connected through a diode to the power input line, would automatically support the load to avoid a power interruption to the critical load for a time period long enough to ensure that ground control could access the satellite and correct the anomaly by sending appropriate commands to the spacecraft. Critical subsystems identified for the application are telemetry and command circuits, volatile computer memory, attitude control circuits, and some critical payloads. Due to volume packaging and weight restrictions that exist on most spacecraft, coupled with the long storage periods required, lithium cell technology was selected for the backup power source. Because of the high energy density (200-400 Wh/kg), long shelf life, and load capability, soluble cathode primary lithium technology was chosen. The most important lithium cell properties that require detail characterization for this application are capacity loss, shelf life, and the voltage delay mechanism. These are functions of storage time and temperature. During storage, a passive film builds up on the lithium electrode. The film protects the lithium electrode from progressive capacity decay but requires time to break down when a load is applied. This phenomenon results in a depressed voltage during the period of film breakdown which can last from fractions of a second to minutes.

  3. Holdridge life zone physical inconsistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, A., Sr.; Ochoa, A.

    2015-12-01

    Life zones is a very used classification system, developed by L.R. Holdridge in 1967, used to discern why plants have different adaptation mechanism to their surrounding environment. In this paper, the relation between potential evapotranspiration rate (ETr ), anual precipitation (P ) and biotemperature (Tb ) in the Holdridge triangle, is parametrized (P = (500/9)*ETr) to evaluate if the rain process is conserved in Colombia. Further, an adiabatic ascent of air with diurnal and interannual variability, and cluster analysis is view as a classification example of the advantage of using physical process to evaluate the plants adaptation mechanisms . The most inconsistency life zones are situated in the rainiest places of Colombian pacific costs in tropical latitudinal region, are non-exist places in holdridge triangle with annual biotemperature higher than 26◦ C, annual precipitation about 10.000mm and annual potential evapotranspiration rate about 0.1. The difference between Holdridge predicted precipitation and the precipitation measured with TRMM are about 5.000mm in these places. Classification systems based on an annual average, do not stablish adaptation as a function of diurnal variability, for example, the difference between valley sides vegetation could not being determined. This kind of limitations, added to a validation procces and the auscence of a physic procces in the variable interaction, make the Holdridge Life Zones a very useful tool, but physically inconsistent for caracterice vegetation as a function of precipitation. The rain process is very complex, depend of mass and energy exchanges and is still a controversial topic in atmospheric modeling, as a biotic pump.

  4. City Life: Rankings (Livability) versus Perceptions (Satisfaction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between the popular Mercer city ranking (livability) and survey data (satisfactions). Livability aims to capture "objective" quality of life such as infrastructure. Survey items capture "subjective" quality of life such as satisfaction with city. The relationship between objective measures of quality of life and…

  5. Work, Love, and Learning in Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Clark, M. Carolyn

    To understand how work, love, and learning are interrelated in adults' lives, data were collected in two ways: through a life-history type instrument and through in-depth interviews with 19 men and women. A life event framework was chosen to illustrate the broad constructs of work and love. Respondents identified in two columns major life events…

  6. The Homeless Professor in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Harry E.

    2008-01-01

    The virtual online world called Second Life can be deceptive. It looks like a game, but the participants are not assigned goals. Indeed, it may be said that the goal of Second Life is to create one's own goals. As a result, the residents of Second Life choose to work in many different directions. Some choose to develop land; some try to earn…

  7. The Promise of Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peruniak, Geoffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Little has been written in the career development literature about quality of life, even though this concept is implied in all counselor interventions. In this article, the author suggests that the broad and subjective nature of quality of life, rather than a liability, is its very strength. Quality of life is presented as an important holistic…

  8. Personality and Life Events as Predictors of Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: Do Life Events Mediate the Link between Personality and Life Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Man Yee; Cheung, Fanny M.; Cheung, Shu Fai

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association among personality traits, life events and life satisfaction, and the underlying pathways from personality traits to life satisfaction. A total of 1,961 adolescents were recruited from 21 secondary schools in Hong Kong. The adolescent version of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI-A), the Chinese…

  9. Extraterrestrial Life: Processes, Implications, and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyson, Joseph T.

    Provided are background materials relating the study of extraterrestrial life to common biological principles. A history of the creation of the sun and earth is included, as well as a summary of one current theory regarding the origin of life on earth. Relationships are identified regarding possible origins of life on other planets. Factors…

  10. [Favouring the work-life balance].

    PubMed

    Masurelle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Saint-Amand-les-Eaux general hospital, in the north of France, actively promotes quality of life at work for its staff. In 2014, during National Quality of Life at Work week, the hospital put in place a programme of activities encouraging a better work-life balance.

  11. Life Satisfaction in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2012-01-01

    We appraised life satisfaction using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and analysed its psychometric properties in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Ninety-nine persons with ID from four services in Spain participated. A battery of subjective assessments was used, including the SWLS, a Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF), and…

  12. Student Life Balance: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doble, Niharika; Supriya, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Student life stress, student family conflict and student life balance are issues that are scarcely researched. This paper aims to develop a scale for assessing the concept of student life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study evaluated a 54-item scale for assessing the construct. The data are obtained from 612 Indian students.…

  13. Life Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Life Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) past life (focusing on dinosaurs and fossil formation, types, and importance); (2) animal life (examining groups of invertebrates and vertebrates, cells, reproduction, and classification systems); (3) plant life…

  14. Student Life Issues: From the Front Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallin, Alice, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Issues on college student life are presented, focusing on first, the results of a questionnaire survey asking Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities (ACCU) college and university presidents to name what they consider to be the three most immediate student life concerns and, second, ACCU Student Life Task Force discussions on the data…

  15. Life Satisfaction of the Elderly American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Freddie L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines generally high life satisfaction of 58 elderly reservation American Indians and its relationship to selected internal and external environmental factors. Suggests that internal environmental variables may be useful indicators of life satisfaction and that subjective measures of life satisfaction may be more predictive of mental health…

  16. Intelligent Life Out There: Are We Alone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    For the past two decades, increasing numbers of scientists have been optimistic about finding other intelligent life forms in our galaxy. On the other hand, as knowledge has grown regarding how life developed on earth, a scientific counterrevolution has evolved. Simply stated, it questions the inevitability of widespread life within our galaxy,…

  17. Life beyond the solar system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1972-01-01

    Review of some of the highlights and more recent developments in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The first major problem is one of the generality of the formation of planetary systems. Observations of the nearest stars which are not members of binary or multiple stars indicates that fully half have companions of planetary mass. The presence of organic compounds in meteorites, probably in Jovian planets, in comets, in the interstellar medium, and in cool stars implies that the production of organic compounds essential for the origin of life should be pervasive throughout the universe. Possibilities of interstellar communication are discussed.

  18. Microfluidics and the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The field of microfluidics, often also referred to as "Lab-on-a-Chip" has made significant progress in the last 15 years and is an essential tool in the development of new products and protocols in the life sciences. This article provides a broad overview on the developments on the academic as well as the commercial side. Fabrication technologies for polymer-based devices are presented and a strategy for the development of complex integrated devices is discussed, together with an example on the use of these devices in pathogen detection.

  19. The Problem Life Solves (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E.

    2013-12-01

    After forming, planets start the long process of dissipating energy into space. Early on, accretionary processes provide sufficient kinetic energy to raise temperatures enough to drive chemical systems rapidly toward equilibrium, maximizing the release of chemical energy. Eventually heat is dissipated, temperatures drop, and outer portions of planets cool enough to slow the rates of chemical reactions. As reaction rates slow to the scale of geologic time, chemical energy becomes trapped in assemblages of planetary materials far from equilibrium. Numerous examples are provided by chondritic meteorites, which show that activation energy barriers allow chemical energy to remain trapped for most of the age of the solar system even if heat dissipation is efficient -- and perhaps as a direct consequence. Activation energies that inhibit favorable reactions can be overcome by catalysis, which permits chemical systems to attain lower energy states. Catalysis in planets serves to continue the release of energy into space begun by heat dissipation. This implies that there is an overall thermodynamic drive for catalysis to appear as planets cool. Reasons why catalysis emerges in some cases and not others may depend on interactions of cooling rates and compositions but the specifics are murky at present. Life is a particularly efficient catalyst, and its emergence on a planet helps solve the problem generated by the catastrophic decrease in reaction rates during cooling. The single example we have of life on Earth got its start catalyzing oxidation-reduction reactions arranged in states far from equilibrium by geologic processes. On the pre-photosynthetic Earth the boldest biosignatures were redox processes occurring at rates that could only be explained by catalysis, and specifically by catalytic processes that have no abiotic mechanism. Biologically enhanced rates of redox reactions persist to the present, and maintain the biogeochemical cycles that permit the photosynthetic

  20. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Gretchen M; Human, Theresa; Shutter, Lori

    2015-12-01

    The appropriate use of medications during Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) is essential to optimize patient care. Important considerations when choosing the appropriate agent include the patient's organ function and medication allergies, potential adverse drug effects, drug interactions, and critical illness and aging pathophysiologic changes. Critical medications used during ENLS include hyperosmolar therapy, anticonvulsants, antithrombotics, anticoagulant reversal and hemostatic agents, anti-shivering agents, neuromuscular blockers, antihypertensive agents, sedatives, vasopressors and inotropes, and antimicrobials. This article focuses on the important pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and clinical pearls of these therapies, providing practitioners with essential drug information to optimize pharmacotherapy in acutely ill neurocritical care patients.

  1. The Automaticity of Social Life

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Williams, Erin L.

    2008-01-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions. PMID:18568084

  2. Long life valve design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. R.; Hall, A. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Valve concept evaluation, final candidate selection, design, manufacture, and demonstration testing of a pneumatically actuated 10-inch hybrid poppet butterfly shutoff valve are presented. Conclusions and recommendations regarding those valve characteristics and features which would serve to guide in the formulation of future valve procurements are discussed. The pertinent design goals were temperature range of plus 200 to minus 423 F, valve inlet pressure 35 psia, actuation pressure 750 psia, main seal leakage 3 x 0.00001 sccs at 35 psia valve inlet pressure, and a storage and operating life of 10 years. The valve was designed to be compatible with RP-1, propane, LH2, LO2, He, and N2.

  3. Ages & Stages Questionnaires[R], Third Edition (ASQ-3[TM]): A Parent-Completed Child-Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Jane; Bricker, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Now enhanced and updated based on extensive user feedback and a new, unparalleled research sample of more than 12,000 children, ASQ-3 is the most accurate, cost-effective, and parent-friendly way to identify children from one month to 5 1/2 years with developmental delays. ASQ-3 offers more than any other screening system: (1) Recommended by the…

  4. Regarding the real diversity of Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) in the late Pliocene (Chapadmalalan Age/Stage) of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Alfredo E; Taglioretti, Matías; DE Los Reyes, Martín; Cuadrelli, Francisco; Poire, Daniel

    2016-06-07

    A large diversity of Glyptodontidae has been proposed as characterizing the Chapadmalalan Age (Pliocene). Most of these taxa were recognized on the basis of partial dorsal carapaces and/or caudal tubes, whereas the main diagnostic characteristic is a particular morphology of the exposed surface of the osteoderms. From a biostratigraphic point of view some species are biostratigraphically important. The Upper Chapadmalalan is based on the Paraglyptodon chapadmalensis biozone. Both the re-evaluation of the type and referred materials and new significant findings from the Chapadmalal and El Polvorín Formations indicate that the diversity of Pliocene Glyptodontidae is more limited than previously supposed. The particular morphology of the exposed surface of the osteoderms that characterizes some of the species actually corresponds to a taphonomic alteration, which results in a non-real ornamentation pattern. Thus, the Glyptodontinae P. chapadmalensis must be replaced as a fossil guide because neither this species nor the species included in the genera Urotherium, Trachycalyptus and Lomaphorus are well characterized. Taking into account the diversity of Glyptodontidae for this lapse, the Glyptodontinae are very scarce (a situation that contrasts with its records in the Pleistocene), whereas Eosclerocalyptus, "Plohophorini" (Plohophorus) and Doedicurinae (cf. Eleutherocercus antiquus) are among the most recorded taxa.

  5. Only six kingdoms of life.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-06-22

    There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro-organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences cloned after PCR amplification of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples is a powerful way of exploring our degree of ignorance of major groups. As there are only five eukaryotic kingdoms, two claims using such methods for numerous novel 'kingdom-level' lineages among anaerobic eukaryotes would be remarkable, if true. By reanalysing those data with 167 known species (not merely 8-37), I identified relatives for all 8-10 'mysterious' lineages. All probably belong to one of five already recognized phyla (Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Apusozoa, Myzozoa, Loukozoa) within the basal kingdom Protozoa, mostly in known classes, sometimes even in known orders, families or genera. This strengthens the idea that the ancestral eukaryote was a mitochondrial aerobe. Analogous claims of novel bacterial divisions or kingdoms may reflect the weak resolution and grossly non-clock-like evolution of ribosomal rRNA, not genuine phylum-level biological disparity. Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that our overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life. However, immense lower-level diversity remains to be mapped, as does the root of the tree of life.

  6. A rooted net of life.

    PubMed

    Williams, David; Fournier, Gregory P; Lapierre, Pascal; Swithers, Kristen S; Green, Anna G; Andam, Cheryl P; Gogarten, J Peter

    2011-09-21

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a single model that acknowledges the discrete evolutionary units that constitute the organism. Briefly, this Rooted Net of Life genome phylogeny is constructed around an initial, well resolved and rooted tree scaffold inferred from a supermatrix of combined ribosomal genes. Extant sampled ribosomes form the leaves of the tree scaffold. These leaves, but not necessarily the deeper parts of the scaffold, can be considered to represent a genome or pan-genome, and to be associated with members of other gene families within that sequenced (pan)genome. Unrooted phylogenies of gene families containing four or more members are reconstructed and superimposed over the scaffold. Initially, reticulations are formed where incongruities between topologies exist. Given sufficient evidence, edges may then be differentiated as those representing vertical lines of inheritance within lineages and those representing horizontal genetic transfers or endosymbioses between lineages.

  7. Technology development life cycle processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  8. The origins of cellular life.

    PubMed

    Schrum, Jason P; Zhu, Ting F; Szostak, Jack W

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the origin of cellular life on Earth requires the discovery of plausible pathways for the transition from complex prebiotic chemistry to simple biology, defined as the emergence of chemical assemblies capable of Darwinian evolution. We have proposed that a simple primitive cell, or protocell, would consist of two key components: a protocell membrane that defines a spatially localized compartment, and an informational polymer that allows for the replication and inheritance of functional information. Recent studies of vesicles composed of fatty-acid membranes have shed considerable light on pathways for protocell growth and division, as well as means by which protocells could take up nutrients from their environment. Additional work with genetic polymers has provided insight into the potential for chemical genome replication and compatibility with membrane encapsulation. The integration of a dynamic fatty-acid compartment with robust, generalized genetic polymer replication would yield a laboratory model of a protocell with the potential for classical Darwinian biological evolution, and may help to evaluate potential pathways for the emergence of life on the early Earth. Here we discuss efforts to devise such an integrated protocell model.

  9. On the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Jack W

    The origin of life is a very rich field, filled with possibilities and ripe for discovery. RNA replication requires chemical energy and vesicle division is easy to do with mechanical energy. These requirements point to a surface lake, perhaps at some time following the period of concentrated cyanide chemistry that gave rise to nucleotides, amino acids and (maybe) fatty acids. A second requirement follows specifically from the nature of the RNA replication cycle, which requires generally cool to moderate temperatures for the copying chemistry, punctuated by brief periods of high temperature for strand separation. Remarkably, lakes in a geothermal active area provide just such a fluctuating temperature environment, because lakes similar to Yellowstone can be generally cool (even ice covered in winter), but they contain numerous hydrothermal vents that emit streams of hot water. Protocells in such an environment would occasionally be swept into these hot water streams, where the transient high temperature exposure would cause RNA strand separation. However, the protocells would be quickly mixed with surrounding cold water, and would therefore cool quickly, before their delicate RNA molecules could be destroyed by heat. Because of the combination of favorable chemical and physical environments, this could be the most likely scenario for the early Earth environment that nurtured the origin of life.

  10. [Charles Gerhardt's life and work].

    PubMed

    Blondel-Mégrelis, Marika

    2008-05-01

    Charles Gerhardt's life and work is rather well-known thanks to Grimaux and Tiffeneau. His reform of the equivalents, his classification, his obtention of organic acid anhydrids and his famous Treatise of Organic Chemistry. His active collaboration to the Revue scientifique et industrielle du Docteur Quesneville, the creation of his Comptes-Rendus des Travaux de Chimie. Are not so often quoted. Thanks to his translations and reviews, German chemical advancements became well known in France Gerhardt was Liebig's translator for almost all his life, even through the fluctuations of their personal relation. He was the representative of German chemistry in France. With Auguste Laurent, with whom he is constantly associated, things need to be examined precisely. Laurent and Gerhardt, friends at a moment, cannot be confounded. Though they worked together for some years, they were not engaged in a similar project. Besides an experimentalist, Laurent was essentially a theorician of chemistry, whereas Gerhardt refused to think about atoms and arrangements. Formulas have to describe relations between facts, in no case anything about arrangements. For posterity however, Gerhardt will be, on the same level as Laurent, the creator of modern chemistry doctrines.

  11. Life Sciences Division Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Ames Research Center (ARC) is responsible for the development, integration, and operation of non-human life sciences payloads in support of NASA's Gravitational Biology and Ecology (GB&E) program. To help stimulate discussion and interest in the development and application of novel technologies for incorporation within non-human life sciences experiment systems, three hardware system models will be displayed with associated graphics/text explanations. First, an Animal Enclosure Model (AEM) will be shown to communicate the nature and types of constraints physiological researchers must deal with during manned space flight experiments using rodent specimens. Second, a model of the Modular Cultivation System (MCS) under development by ESA will be presented to highlight technologies that may benefit cell-based research, including advanced imaging technologies. Finally, subsystems of the Cell Culture Unit (CCU) in development by ARC will also be shown. A discussion will be provided on candidate technology requirements in the areas of specimen environmental control, biotelemetry, telescience and telerobotics, and in situ analytical techniques and imaging. In addition, an overview of the Center for Gravitational Biology Research facilities will be provided.

  12. Regenerative life support system research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Sections on modeling, experimental activities during the grant period, and topics under consideration for the future are contained. The sessions contain discussions of: four concurrent modeling approaches that were being integrated near the end of the period (knowledge-based modeling support infrastructure and data base management, object-oriented steady state simulations for three concepts, steady state mass-balance engineering tradeoff studies, and object-oriented time-step, quasidynamic simulations of generic concepts); interdisciplinary research activities, beginning with a discussion of RECON lab development and use, and followed with discussions of waste processing research, algae studies and subsystem modeling, low pressure growth testing of plants, subsystem modeling of plants, control of plant growth using lighting and CO2 supply as variables, search for and development of lunar soil simulants, preliminary design parameters for a lunar base life support system, and research considerations for food processing in space; and appendix materials, including a discussion of the CELSS Conference, detailed analytical equations for mass-balance modeling, plant modeling equations, and parametric data on existing life support systems for use in modeling.

  13. Exploring life's limits: Deep geobiochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    N-dimensional chemical space on Earth and beyond produces diverse habitats for microbial activity. Hydrothermal environments cover a wide range of habitable space up to and including life's known limits and provide a window into deep geological, geochemical, and biological processes. Hydrothermal water compositions, as sampled from and measured in terrestrial hot springs on Earth's surface, vary in chemical constituent speciation and concentrations over orders of magnitude in a plethora of geochemical parameters with biological significance, including hydronium ion, sulfide, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and molybdenum. Proteins provide a link between geochemistry and microbial activity by catalyzing chemical reactions. Proteins extracted and identified by tandem mass spectrometry from 13 hot spring sediments and biofilms - covering pH values from 2-9 and diverse geochemical compositions - function as efflux transporters, permeases, electron transporters, and others, suggesting that these processes were present in the environment and occurring at the time of sampling. Metalloenzymes have been identified, including the iron protein rubrerythrin, thought to be involved in oxidative stress protection in anaerobic bacteria and archaea, as well as proteins involved in macronutrient processing (carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur). The melding of biochemistry with geochemistry shows potential for quantifying microbial activity in deep environments by demonstrating the presence - and as techniques improve, relative abundances - of reaction-catalyzing enzymes. Moreover, using hot spring sources and their outflow channels as chemical and biological models of geologic time helps decipher the origin and co-evolution of life and geochemistry.

  14. Only six kingdoms of life.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro-organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences cloned after PCR amplification of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples is a powerful way of exploring our degree of ignorance of major groups. As there are only five eukaryotic kingdoms, two claims using such methods for numerous novel 'kingdom-level' lineages among anaerobic eukaryotes would be remarkable, if true. By reanalysing those data with 167 known species (not merely 8-37), I identified relatives for all 8-10 'mysterious' lineages. All probably belong to one of five already recognized phyla (Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Apusozoa, Myzozoa, Loukozoa) within the basal kingdom Protozoa, mostly in known classes, sometimes even in known orders, families or genera. This strengthens the idea that the ancestral eukaryote was a mitochondrial aerobe. Analogous claims of novel bacterial divisions or kingdoms may reflect the weak resolution and grossly non-clock-like evolution of ribosomal rRNA, not genuine phylum-level biological disparity. Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that our overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life. However, immense lower-level diversity remains to be mapped, as does the root of the tree of life. PMID:15306349

  15. A Rooted Net of Life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a single model that acknowledges the discrete evolutionary units that constitute the organism. Briefly, this Rooted Net of Life genome phylogeny is constructed around an initial, well resolved and rooted tree scaffold inferred from a supermatrix of combined ribosomal genes. Extant sampled ribosomes form the leaves of the tree scaffold. These leaves, but not necessarily the deeper parts of the scaffold, can be considered to represent a genome or pan-genome, and to be associated with members of other gene families within that sequenced (pan)genome. Unrooted phylogenies of gene families containing four or more members are reconstructed and superimposed over the scaffold. Initially, reticulations are formed where incongruities between topologies exist. Given sufficient evidence, edges may then be differentiated as those representing vertical lines of inheritance within lineages and those representing horizontal genetic transfers or endosymbioses between lineages. Reviewers W. Ford Doolittle, Eric Bapteste and Robert Beiko. PMID:21936906

  16. Life on Titan: Theorem of existance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashko, O.

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life[1]. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life -- most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective ``search for life'' are Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, their satellites and first of all -- Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity -- from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active -- mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet -- like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn't lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or nuclear winter. These

  17. [Health and life-style of students].

    PubMed

    Grebniak, N P; Grebniak, V P; Mashinistov, V V

    2007-01-01

    It is established that the increase of morbidity with highly active chronic development is an integral characteristic of students' health. The unfavorable tendencies in health conditions are conditioned by the improper life-style. The specificity of students' life-style relates to the professional targeting of the education and gender trends. The conceptual model of healthy life-style formation includes such blocks as the parameters of life-style, the risk factors, the deviations in health conditions, the activities in life-style enhancement.

  18. Life on Mars: New strategies to detect life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.; Sephton, Mark A.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Mathies, Richard A.; Skelley, Allison M.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Zent, Aaron P.; Quinn, Richard C.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Robert, François; Botta, Oliver; Glavin, Daniel P.

    2005-12-01

    The quest to determine whether life existed, or still exists, on Mars continues with several missions planned for the red planet by both the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the next few decades. One instrument designed for these missions is the Mars Organic Detector (MOD), which uses a new approach to achieve exceptionally high detection sensitivities and analysis capabilities for key bio-organic compounds. MOD is scheduled to fly in the ESA ExoMars mission early next decade and will attempt to answer the question of whether we are alone in the solar system. Here the MOD team explains why we have reason to be optimistic about uncovering the organic secrets of Mars.

  19. World and Life or Education and the Question of Meaning (of Life).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masschelein, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Examines whether the human world is threatened by a decline in respect for life, questioning some of the convictions and assumptions which underlie this diagnosis and the concomitant demand for an education in the value of life. The paper discusses the meaning of life, human existence, the sacredness of life, and the question of meaning and…

  20. Choose Life! Unborn Children and the Right to Life. Intermediate Level: Grades 5-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum is designed to assist Catholic school teachers and parish catechists in their efforts to foster a pro-life attitude in students in grades 5 and 6. Following an introduction is the curriculum, which features six lessons. These are: (1) The miracle of life around us; (2) Respect for all life; (3) The miracle of human life; (4)…