Science.gov

Sample records for age-standardised incidence rates

  1. Age-specific and age-standardised incidence rates for intraoral squamous cell carcinoma in blacks on the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Altini, M; Kola, A H

    1985-12-01

    All new cases of intraoral squamous cell carcinoma which occurred in Blacks resident on the Witwatersrand during the 10-yr period 1971-80 were traced by examining the records of all the hospital pathology departments in this area. The population at risk at the mid-point of the study (1975) was calculated from the National Population Censuses of 1970 and 1980, and consisted of 1125960 men and 880269 women. Age-specific incidence rates and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated for each intraoral site for men and women. In the latter calculation a standard World population was used. All rates are expressed as average number of cases per 100000 population per annum. The age-specific incidence rates and age-standardised incidence rates (in brackets) for men and women respectively are: tongue, 1.43 and 0.26 (2.69 and 0.41); gingiva and alveolar ridge, 0.04 and 0.01 (0.07 and 0.01); floor of mouth, 0.87 and 0.22 (1.64 and 0.38); buccal mucosa, 0.05 and 0.04 (0.13 and 0.05); hard and soft palate, 0.34 and 0.05 (0.63 and 0.08). There appears to have been an increase in the incidence of intraoral cancer in Black South Africans since the first survey in 1953-55, which can probably be ascribed to the urbanization process. In Europe, North America and in other population groups in South Africa, the palate is least frequently affected. In contrast, in Black South Africans lesions of the palate are much more common, being less frequent only than tongue and floor of mouth lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This is the first study that estimates the incidence and mortality rate for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients in Malaysia by sex and ethnicity. METHODS The 4,501 patients were selected from National Cancer Patient Registry-Colorectal Cancer data. Patient survival status was cross-checked with the National Registration Department. The age-standardised rate (ASR) was calculated as the proportion of CRC cases (incidence) and deaths (mortality) from 2008 to 2013, weighted by the age structure of the population, as determined by the Department of Statistics Malaysia and the World Health Organization world standard population distribution. RESULTS The overall incidence rate for CRC was 21.32 cases per 100,000. Those of Chinese ethnicity had the highest CRC incidence (27.35), followed by the Malay (18.95), and Indian (17.55) ethnicities. The ASR incidence rate of CRC was 1.33 times higher among males than females (24.16 and 18.14 per 100,000, respectively). The 2011 (44.7%) CRC deaths were recorded. The overall ASR of mortality was 9.79 cases, with 11.85 among the Chinese, followed by 9.56 among the Malays and 7.08 among the Indians. The ASR of mortality was 1.42 times higher among males (11.46) than females (8.05). CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence and mortality is higher in males than females. Individuals of Chinese ethnicity have the highest incidence of CRC, followed by the Malay and Indian ethnicities. The same trends were observed for the age-standardised mortality rate. PMID:26971697

  3. Geographic Variation of the Incidence Rate of Lower Limb Amputation in Australia from 2007-12

    PubMed Central

    Fortington, Lauren V.; Akram, Muhammad; Erbas, Bircan; Kohler, Friedbert

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, little is known about how the incidence rate (IR) of lower limb amputation (LLA) varies across the country. While studies in other economically developed countries have shown considerable geographic variation in the IR-LLA, mostly these have not considered whether the effect of common risk factors are the same across regions. Mapping variation of the IR-LLA, and the effect of common risk factors, is an important first step to focus research into areas of greatest need and support the development of regional specific hypotheses for in-depth examination. The aim of this study was to describe the geographic variation in the IR-LLA across Australia and understand whether the effect of common risk factors was the same across regions. Using hospital episode data from the Australian National Hospital Morbidity database and Australian Bureau of Statistics, the all-cause crude and age-standardised IR-LLA in males and females were calculated for the nation and each state and territory. Generalised Linear Models were developed to understand which factors influenced geographic variation in the crude IR-LLA. While the crude and age-standardised IR-LLA in males and females were similar in most states and territories, they were higher in the Northern Territory. The effect of older age, being male and the presence of type 2 diabetes was associated with an increase of IR-LLA in most states and territories. In the Northern Territory, the younger age at amputation confounded the effect of sex and type 2 diabetes. There are likely to be many factors not included in this investigation, such as Indigenous status, that may explain part of the variation in the IR-LLA not captured in our models. Further research is needed to identify regional- and population- specific factors that could be modified to reduce the IR-LLA in all states and territories of Australia. PMID:28118408

  4. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis. We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20–99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population. A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17–2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57–3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36–1.51). The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies. PMID:27661041

  5. Shoulder Injury Incidence Rates in NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Foy, Millennia; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the astronaut shoulder injury rates began with an operational concern at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training. An astronaut suffered a shoulder injury during an NBL training run and commented that it was possibly due to a hardware issue. During the subsequent investigation, questions arose regarding the rate of shoulder injuries in recent years and over the entire history of the astronaut corps.

  6. First principles modeling of nonlinear incidence rates in seasonal epidemics.

    PubMed

    Ponciano, José M; Capistrán, Marcos A

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we used a general stochastic processes framework to derive from first principles the incidence rate function that characterizes epidemic models. We investigate a particular case, the Liu-Hethcote-van den Driessche's (LHD) incidence rate function, which results from modeling the number of successful transmission encounters as a pure birth process. This derivation also takes into account heterogeneity in the population with regard to the per individual transmission probability. We adjusted a deterministic SIRS model with both the classical and the LHD incidence rate functions to time series of the number of children infected with syncytial respiratory virus in Banjul, Gambia and Turku, Finland. We also adjusted a deterministic SEIR model with both incidence rate functions to the famous measles data sets from the UK cities of London and Birmingham. Two lines of evidence supported our conclusion that the model with the LHD incidence rate may very well be a better description of the seasonal epidemic processes studied here. First, our model was repeatedly selected as best according to two different information criteria and two different likelihood formulations. The second line of evidence is qualitative in nature: contrary to what the SIRS model with classical incidence rate predicts, the solution of the deterministic SIRS model with LHD incidence rate will reach either the disease free equilibrium or the endemic equilibrium depending on the initial conditions. These findings along with computer intensive simulations of the models' Poincaré map with environmental stochasticity contributed to attain a clear separation of the roles of the environmental forcing and the mechanics of the disease transmission in shaping seasonal epidemics dynamics.

  7. Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally

    SciTech Connect

    Low, N.C.

    1995-09-01

    Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

  8. The incidence rate of thyroid cancer among women in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Almalki, Shaia S; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2015-06-01

    This study provides a descriptive epidemiological data of thyroid cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR) and the age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) stratified by the region and year of diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi thyroid cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were applied using descriptive statistics with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 2,930 cases were recorded in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR at 9.43 per 100,000 women, followed by Tabuk at 7.11 and eastern region at 6.5, while Jazan and Jouf had the lowest average ASIRs at 1.97 and at 2.72, respectively. The region of Qassim recorded the greatest changes of ASIR at 5.5 per 100,000 women from 2001 to 2008. There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, Tabuk and eastern region were the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. While, Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Finally, the region of Qassim had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of thyroid cancer disease among Saudi women.

  9. Drinking water fluoridation and osteosarcoma incidence on the island of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Comber, Harry; Deady, Sandra; Montgomery, Erin; Gavin, Anna

    2011-06-01

    The incidence of osteosarcoma in Northern Ireland was compared with that in the Republic of Ireland to establish if differences in incidence between the two regions could be related to their different drinking water fluoridation policies. Data from the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry (NICR) and the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI) on osteosarcoma incidence in the respective populations were used to estimate the age-standardised and age-specific incidence rates in areas with and without drinking water fluoridation. One hundred and eighty-three osteosarcoma cases were recorded on the island of Ireland between 1994 and 2006. No significant differences were observed between fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas in either age-specific or age-standardised incidence rates of osteosarcoma. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that osteosarcoma incidence in the island of Ireland is significantly related to public water fluoridation. However, this conclusion must be qualified, in view of the relative rarity of the cancer and the correspondingly wide confidence intervals of the relative risk estimates.

  10. Colorectal cancer incidence rates have decreased in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed colorectal cancer incidence data from the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, for the period 1985-2005. We carried out a trend analysis through a Joinpoint regression analysis, and summarized trends as annual percent change (APC) of the standardized (European standard) rates. Colorectal incidence rates increased until 1996 (APC=+1.4, 95% CI: 0.8-1.9), then decreased significantly (APC=-1.1, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.4). The change was detected as statistically significant in the age group of 54+ years. Among younger individuals, we observed an increasing incidence until 2003. In the same geographical area, a colorectal screening programme has been active from 1982; it was initially based on guaiac faecal occult blood testing (GFOBT) and on immunological testing (IFOBT) since the mid 1990s. The decline in colorectal cancer incidence since 1996, in the whole population and especially among individuals older than 54 years, may suggest the effect of FOBT screening in terms of precancerous polyps removal.

  11. Injury Types and Incidence Rates in Precollegiate Female Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Saluan, Paul; Styron, Joseph; Ackley, J. Freeland; Prinzbach, Arianna; Billow, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Background: With childhood sports opportunities continuing to increase at an enormous rate along with participation starting at younger ages, the number of female participants in sports has increased in paramount fashion over the past few decades. A review of the current literature reveals a very small number of studies (<30) that document specific injuries suffered by competitive female gymnasts. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the incidence of various injuries and injury rates for different gymnast levels among young precollegiate female gymnasts over a 21-year period, from 1985 to 2005. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: This institutional review board–approved study retrospectively evaluated young, precollegiate female gymnasts over a 21-year period. Gymnasts were stratified into 1 of 4 competition levels based on the number of hours spent training. In addition to the frequency of injuries and hours trained, data collected on each gymnast included the following: age at the time of injury, body part injured, laterality of the injury, and diagnosis. Results: Over the 21-year period, 3681 new injuries were evaluated by a single physician. The injury incidence (2.155 per 1000 exposure hours) was slightly lower when compared with previously reported injury rates. There were 1,452,574 total exposure hours documented from training facility records. The injury rate per 1000 exposure hours was 2.859 for elite, 2.820 for high-level, 1.667 for intermediate, and 0.687 for novice gymnasts. The lower extremity was injured more often than the upper extremity (60.9% compared with 22.6% of total injuries). This difference was statistically significant across all levels. Conclusion: The injury incidence in this study was 2.155 per 1000 exposure hours. This was slightly lower when compared with previously reported injury rates. Although those studies only lasted 3 years or less, the injury rates can be directly compared because they are reported as

  12. Incidence and mortality of primary liver cancer in England and Wales: Changing patterns and ethnic variations

    PubMed Central

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Khan, Shahid A; Crossey, Mary ME; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore recent trends, modes of diagnosis, ethnic distribution and the mortality to incidence ratio of primary liver cancer by subtypes in England and Wales. METHODS: We obtained incidence (1979-2008) and mortality (1968-2008) data for primary liver cancer for England and Wales and calculated age-standardised incidence and mortality rates. Trends in age-standardised mortality (ASMR) and incidence (ASIR) rates and basis of diagnosis of primary liver cancer and subcategories: hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic bile duct and unspecified liver tumours, were analysed over the study period. Changes in guidelines for the diagnosis of primary liver cancer (PLC) may impact changing trends in the rates that may be obtained. We thus explored changes in the mode of diagnosis as reported to cancer registries. Furthermore, we examined the distribution of these tumours by ethnicity. Most of the statistical manipulations of these data was carried out in Microsoft excel® (Seattle, Washington, United Sttaes). Additional epidemiological statistics were done in Epi Info software (Atlanta, GA, United Sttaes). To define patterns of change over time, we evaluated trends in ASMR and ASIR of PLC and intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma (IHBD) using a least squares regression line fitted to the natural logarithm of the mortality and incidence rates. We estimated the patterns of survival over subsequent 5 and 10 years using complement of mortality to incidence ratio (1-MIR). RESULTS: Age-standardised mortality rate of primary liver cancer increased in both sexes: from 2.56 and 1.29/100000 in 1968 to 5.10 and 2.63/100000 in 2008 for men and women respectively. The use of histology for diagnostic confirmation of primary liver cancer increased from 35.7% of registered cases in 1993 to plateau at about 50% during 2005 to 2008. Reliance on cytology as a basis of diagnosis has maintained a downward trend throughout the study period. Although approximately 30% of the PLC registrations had

  13. Influence of birth rates and transmission rates on the global seasonality of rotavirus incidence.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Virginia E; Viboud, Cécile; Lopman, Ben A; Patel, Manish M; Parashar, Umesh D; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2011-11-07

    Rotavirus is a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and yet the dynamics of rotavirus in such settings are poorly understood. Rotavirus is typically less seasonal in the tropics, although recent observational studies have challenged the universality of this pattern. While numerous studies have examined the association between environmental factors and rotavirus incidence, here we explore the role of intrinsic factors. By fitting a mathematical model of rotavirus transmission dynamics to published age distributions of cases from 15 countries, we obtain estimates of local transmission rates. Model-predicted patterns of seasonal incidence based solely on differences in birth rates and transmission rates are significantly correlated with those observed (Spearman's ρ = 0.65, p < 0.05). We then examine seasonal patterns of rotavirus predicted across a range of different birth rates and transmission rates and explore how vaccination may impact these patterns. Our results suggest that the relative lack of rotavirus seasonality observed in many tropical countries may be due to the high birth rates and transmission rates typical of developing countries rather than being driven primarily by environmental conditions. While vaccination is expected to decrease the overall burden of disease, it may increase the degree of seasonal variation in the incidence of rotavirus in some settings.

  14. Age, Race and Regional Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in Georgia between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701

  15. Cervical cancer prevented by screening: Long-term incidence trends by morphology in Norway.

    PubMed

    Lönnberg, Stefan; Hansen, Bo Terning; Haldorsen, Tor; Campbell, Suzanne; Schee, Kristina; Nygård, Mari

    2015-10-01

    Both major morphologic types of cervical cancer, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC), are causally related to persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV), but screening has primarily been effective at preventing SCC. We analysed incidence trends of cervical cancer in Norway stratified by morphologies over 55 years, and projected SCC incidence in the absence of screening by assessing the changes in the incidence rate of AC. The Cancer Registry of Norway was used to identify all 19,530 malignancies in the cervix diagnosed in the period 1956-2010. The majority of these (82.9%) were classified as SCCs, 10.5% as ACs and the remaining 6.6% were of other or undefined morphology. By joint-point analyses of a period of more than five decades, the average annual percentage change in the age-standardised incidence was -1.0 (95%CI: -2.1-0.1) for cervical SCC, 1.5 (95%CI:1.1-1.9) for cervical AC and -0.9 (95%CI: -1.4 to -0.3) for cervical cancers of other or undefined morphology. The projected age-standardised incidence rate of cervical SCC in Norway, assuming no screening, was 28.6 per 100,000 woman-years in 2010, which compared with the observed SCC rate of 7.3 corresponds to an estimated 74% reduction in SCC or a 68% reduction due to screening in the total cervical cancer burden. Cytology screening has impacted cervical cancer burden more than suggested by the overall observed cervical cancer incidence reduction since its peak in the mid-1970s. The simultaneous substantial increase in cervical adenocarcinoma in Norway is presumably indicative of an increase in exposure to HPV over time.

  16. Global Dynamics of a Parasite-Host Model with Nonlinear Incidence Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yilei

    The paper is concerned with the effect of a nonlinear incidence rate Sp Iq on dynamical behaviors of a parasite-host model. It is shown that the global attractor of the parasite-host model is an equilibrium if q = 1, which is similar to that of the parasite-host model with a nonlinear incidence rate of the fractional function (SI)/(S+I). However, when q is greater than one, more positive equilibria appear and limit cycles arise from Hopf bifurcations at the positive equilibria for the model with the incidence rate Sp Iq. It reveals that the nonlinear incidence rate of the exponential function Sp Iq for generic p and q can lead to more complicated and richer dynamics than the bilinear incidence rate or the fractional incidence rate for this model.

  17. Trends in lip cancer incidence in Vaud, Switzerland.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, F.; La Vecchia, C.; Te, V. C.; Franceschi, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recent trends in lip cancer incidence in the Swiss Canton of Vaud (approximately 600,000 inhabitants in 1990) were analysed over the period 1975-1990, when a total of 87 cases were registered. A steady and substantial decline was observed in both sexes, since age-standardised (world) rates declined from 1.8 to 0.6/100,000 males and from 0.14 to 0.02/100,000 females. These downward trends were evident across subsequent age groups. These trends were apparently not due to changes in registration or classification criteria in the study period and are discussed in terms of decreased occupational exposure to ultraviolet light, and reduced pipe and cigar smoking. PMID:8217589

  18. Ectopic pregnancies: rising incidence rates in Northern California.

    PubMed Central

    Shiono, P H; Harlap, S; Pellegrin, F

    1982-01-01

    In a population of about 300,000 Northern California women aged 15--44, the age-adjusted incidence of ectopic pregnancy rose from 55.5 to 84.2/100,000 women, 1972--1978. The ratio of ectopics to 1,000 deliveries-plus-spontaneous abortions rose from 9.4 to 14.8. The change occurred mainly in women under age 30, and was observed in seven of the eight hospitals in the area. There was no alteration in the frequency of hospitalized pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); salpingitis decreased over the years studied; and tubal sterilization events remained constant at around 0.9 per cent per year of women aged 15--44. PMID:7055319

  19. Ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates in 17 cities, United States, 1991-2006.

    PubMed

    Chesson, Harrell W; Kirkcaldy, Robert D; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Weinstock, Hillard S

    2014-04-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance can hinder gonorrhea prevention and control efforts. In this study, we analyzed historical ciprofloxacin resistance data and gonorrhea incidence data to examine the possible effect of antimicrobial drug resistance on gonorrhea incidence at the population level. We analyzed data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project and city-level gonorrhea incidence rates from surveillance data for 17 cities during 1991-2006. We found a strong positive association between ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates at the city level during this period. Their association was consistent with predictions of mathematical models in which resistance to treatment can increase gonorrhea incidence rates through factors such as increased duration of infection. These findings highlight the possibility of future increases in gonorrhea incidence caused by emerging cephalosporin resistance.

  20. Soft Tissue Strain Rates in Side-Blast Incidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-02

    for Human Head Impacts. Proceedings ASME Biomechanics of Human Factors Conference. [22] Hannon P, Knapp K. 2006. Forensic Biomechanics. Lawyers...J, Song, B, Pintar, F, Yoganandan N, Chen W, Gennarelli TA. 2008. How to test brain and brain simulant at ballistic and blast strain rates. Rocky

  1. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  2. Review and modelling of malaria crude incidence rate in a low incidence population, Illinois 1990 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Oyinade, Akinyede; Soyemi, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The highest risk of imported malaria in Illinois is associated with travel to countries of origin by immigrants to visit family and friends. We used Join point regression to analyze Malaria crude incidence rate (mCIR) trend from 1990 through 2013. We found join point regression a useful way to summarize mCIR trends because it connected the linear line segments over a fixed time interval (annual) and allowed characterization of the trends using the Annual Percent Change. PMID:28154622

  3. The incidence of hip fracture in Shiraz, Iran: a promising rate comparing to previous studies.

    PubMed

    Maharlouei, N; Atefi, S; Namazi, H; Kazemifar, S; Soveid, M; Shahraki, H R; Farahmand, Z; Khodayari, M; Arab, P; Forouzan, F; Allamehzadeh, N; Fazilat, S; Khademolhosseini, S; Nafari, F; Lankarani, K B

    2017-03-16

    We evaluate the incidence of hip fracture in 50 years old or above in southwest of Iran. Age-adjusted incidence rates of hip fracture, standardized to the 2000 US white population, were 79.55 per 10(5) in total and 66.51 and 92.37 per 10(5) in male and female, respectively.

  4. Cervical cancer: incidence and survival in migrants within Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Borràs, J M; Sánchez, V; Moreno, V; Izquierdo, A; Viladiu, P

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--This study examined the incidence of cervical cancer and survival rates according to migrant experience of women from different regions of Spain to Girona, Catalonia (Spain). DESIGN--Using data from the population based cancer registry of Girona for the period 1980-89, crude and age adjusted incidence rates were calculated for local-born and first generation migrants from other Spanish regions. The age standardised rate ratio (SRR) was calculated and Cox's regression model was used to adjust survival according to migrant status for age and stage at diagnosis. MAIN RESULTS--The incidence of cervical cancer was significantly higher in first generation Spanish migrants compared with locally born women (SRR: 2.02; 95% CI 1.40:2.92). The stage at diagnosis was more advanced among migrants. Survival probability was significantly associated with stage at diagnosis, but age and region of birth were not. CONCLUSIONS--Migrants from the southern Spanish regions show a twofold excess in the incidence of cervical cancer compared with the Girona-born female population. Cases of cervical cancer in migrants are diagnosed at a more advanced stage and as a consequence have a poorer prognosis. PMID:7798043

  5. Dynamics of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Hsien

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate. This type of nonlinear incidence can be used to describe the psychological effect of certain diseases spread in a contact network at high infective levels. We first find a threshold value for the transmission rate. This value completely determines the dynamics of the model and interestingly, the threshold is not dependent on the functional form of the nonlinear incidence rate. Furthermore, if the transmission rate is less than or equal to the threshold value, the disease will die out. Otherwise, it will be permanent. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the theoretical results. We also consider the effect of the nonlinear incidence on the epidemic dynamics.

  6. Incidence and outcome of subarachnoid haemorrhage: a retrospective population based study

    PubMed Central

    Pobereskin, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The purpose was to define the incidence and case fatality rates of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the population of Devon and Cornwall.
METHODS—A retrospective population based design was employed with multiple overlapping methods of case ascertainment. A strict definition of subarachnoid haemorrhage was used. Age and sex specific incidence rates and relative risks for death at different time intervals are calculated.
RESULTS—Eight hundred cases of first ever subarachnoid haemorrhage were identified; 77% of cases were verified by CT, 22% by necropsy, and 1% by lumbar puncture. The incidence rates are higher than those previously reported in the United Kingdom. The age standardised incidence rate (/100 000 person-years) for females was 11.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 9.5-15.0), for males 7.4 (5.4-10.0), and the total rate was 9.7 (7.5-12.6). The case fatality rates at 24 hours, 1 week, and 30 days were 21 (18-24)%, 37 (33-41)%, and 44 (40-49)% respectively. The relative risk for death at 30days for those over 60 years:under 60 years was 2.95 (2.18-3.97).
CONCLUSION—The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in the United Kingdom is higher than previously reported. Three quarters of the mortality occurs within 3days.

 PMID:11181855

  7. Prostate cancer incidence rates have started to decrease in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Ciatto, Stefano; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has dramatically changed the epidemiology of prostate cancer. Growing incidence rates have been documented in almost all western countries following the increased usage of PSA screening. In the United States after a period of huge increase in incidence, rates have decreased to values lower than those of the pre-PSA era. Similar changes have been documented also in the area of the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, where prostate cancer incidence rates doubled from the early 1990s to 2003 and afterwards decreased. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a decline in prostate cancer incidence in Italy following the screening-related increase.

  8. Statistics of hematologic malignancies in Korea: incidence, prevalence and survival rates from 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Eun-Hye; Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Park, Byung-Kiu; Lee, Hyewon; Eom, Hyeon-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Background The nationwide statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea has not been reported yet. Methods The Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Korean Society of Hematology jointly investigated domestic incidence rates and prevalence of hematologic malignancies occurred between 1999 and 2008, and analyzed survival rates of patients who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2008. Data of hematologic malignancies from 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Data base. The crude incidence rates, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates, annual percentage change of incidence, and prevalence from 1999-2008 were calculated. Survival rates for patients diagnosed in 1993-2008 were estimated. Results In 2008, a total of 8,006 cases of hematologic malignancies were occurred, which comprised 4.5% of all malignancies. In all genders, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and multiple myeloma were most frequent diseases. In terms of age, ages between 60 and 69 were most prevalent. From 1999 to 2008, the age-standardized incidence rates increased from 10.2 to 13.7, and the annual percentage change was 3.9%. The 5-year survival rate increased from 38.2% during 1993-1995 to 55.2% during 2004-2008. As of January 2009, number of patients with 10-year prevalence was 33,130, and with 5- to 10-year prevalence was 10,515. Conclusion This is the first nationwide statistical report of hematologic malignancies in Korea. It could be used as the basic information to help investigate epidemiologic characteristics, evaluate progress during the past years, and establish future strategies for hematologic malignancies. Periodic statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea should be continued. PMID:22479275

  9. Rapid rise and subsequent decline in prostate cancer incidence rates for New Mexico, 1989-1993.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, F D; Welsh, D J; Hoffman, R M; Key, C R

    1995-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1980s, a large increase in incidence rates for prostate cancer occurred in association with increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. In New Mexico, the increased screening was associated with earlier detection of cancers and decreased prostate cancer mortality, suggesting that PSA screening may be effective. PSA screening has become a controversial topic of public debate, and anecdotal reports from physicians indicated that prostate cancer screening practice patterns were changing in New Mexico. To assess whether PSA-associated trends in prostate cancer incidence were continuing, we examined incidence rates from 1989 to 1993 among men in New Mexico. From 1989 to 1992, age-adjusted rates increased substantially for non-Hispanic whites (77%), Hispanics (50%), and American Indians (27%). Although rates increased for all stages combined, incidence rates decreased for distant-stage disease, especially for non-Hispanic whites, indicating a continuing trend toward earlier detection. In 1993, incidence rates unexpectedly decreased from 203 to 158/100,000 in non-Hispanic whites, largely as a result of changes in rates in men over age 65 years. Although incidence rates decreased, the trend toward earlier detection was maintained for non-Hispanic whites. In contrast, among Hispanic and American Indians, rates did not change substantially between 1992 and 1993. Because the epidemic in prostate cancer was associated with increased PSA screening, it is likely that the trends for non-Hispanic whites are also related to PSA screening. We suggest that the decrease in rates and the continued stage shift are consistent with repeated screening of men in the population at risk.

  10. Presumed Regional Incidence Rate of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Han, Daikwon; Kang, Sungchan; Song, Kyoung Jun; Cho, Sung-il

    2015-01-01

    The regional incidence rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) were traditionally calculated with the residential population as the denominator. The aim of this study was to estimate the true incidence rate of OHCA and to investigate characteristics of regions with overestimated and underestimated OHCA incidence rates. We used the national OHCA database from 2006 to 2010. The nighttime residential and daytime transient populations were investigated from the 2010 Census. The daytime population was calculated by adding the daytime influx of population to, and subtracting the daytime outflow from, the nighttime residential population. Conventional age-standardized incidence rates (CASRs) and daytime corrected age-standardized incidence rates (DASRs) for OHCA per 100,000 person-years were calculated in each county. A total of 97,291 OHCAs were eligible. The age-standardized incidence rates of OHCAs per 100,000 person-years were 34.6 (95% CI: 34.3-35.0) in the daytime and 24.8 (95% CI: 24.5-25.1) in the nighttime among males, and 14.9 (95% CI: 14.7-15.1) in the daytime, and 10.4 (95% CI: 10.2-10.6) in the nighttime among females. The difference between the CASR and DASR ranged from 35.4 to -11.6 in males and from 6.1 to -1.0 in females. Through the Bland-Altman plot analysis, we found the difference between the CASR and DASR increased as the average CASR and DASR increased as well as with the larger daytime transient population. The conventional incidence rate was overestimated in counties with many OHCA cases and in metropolitan cities with large daytime population influx and nighttime outflow, while it was underestimated in residential counties around metropolitan cities. PMID:26425035

  11. Multiple primary tumours: incidence estimation in the presence of competing risks

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Stefano; Terracini, Lea; Ricceri, Fulvio; Zanetti, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Background Estimating the risk of developing subsequent primary tumours in a population is difficult since the occurrence probability is conditioned to the survival probability. Methods We proposed to apply Markov models studying the transition intensities from first to second tumour with the Aalen-Johansen (AJ) estimators, as usually done in competing risk models. In a simulation study we applied the proposed method in different settings with constant or varying underlying intensities and applying age standardisation. In addition, we illustrated the method with data on breast cancer from the Piedmont Cancer Registry. Results The simulation study showed that the person-years approach led to a sensibly wider bias than the AJ estimators. The largest bias was observed assuming constantly increasing incidence rates. However, this situation is rather uncommon dealing with subsequent tumours incidence. In 9233 cases with breast cancer occurred in women resident in Turin, Italy, between 1985 and 1998 we observed a significant increased risk of 1.91 for subsequent cancer of corpus uteri, estimated with the age-standardised Aalen-Johansen incidence ratio (AJ-IRstand), and a significant increased risk of 1.29 for cancer possibly related to the radiotherapy of breast cancer. The peak of occurrence of those cancers was observed after 8 years of follow-up. Conclusion The increased risk of a cancer of the corpus uteri, also observed in other studies, is usually interpreted as the common shared risk factors such as low parity, early menarche and late onset of menopause. We also grouped together those cancers possibly associated to a previous local radiotherapy: the cumulative risk at 14 years is still not significant, however the AJ estimators showed a significant risk peak between the eighth and the ninth year. Finally, the proposed approach has been shown to be reliable and informative under several aspects. It allowed for a correct estimation of the risk, and for investigating

  12. Incidence rate of female breast cancer in urban Shijiazhuang in 2012 and modifiable risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Denggui; He, Yutong; Wei, Lizhen; Zhang, Nan; Li, Shumei; Wen, Xiaoduo; Yang, Yi; Wang, Guiying; Wang, Shijie; Geng, Cuizhi; Liu, Yunjiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is diagnosed more frequently among urban than rural women in China; however, the incidence among women in Shijiazhuang is unknown. Methods As registered Chinese citizens are entitled to complete public medical insurance coverage, the incidence rate was estimated using reimbursement records of first hospitalization. Results Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Shijiazhuang. The crude rate and age‐standardized incidence rates by China (ASRC) and world (ASRW) standards were 59.6, 48.5 and 45.5/100 000 in 2012. Mean age at diagnosis was 55.1 years. Incidence increased with age, peaking at 165.1 at 70–74. In comparison with urban women in other Chinese cities, incidence in Shijiazhuang was similar to Shanghai (ASRC 46.6) and Suzhou (ASRW 45). When compared with 31 other Chinese cities, Shijiazhuang ranked second highest behind Guangzhou (ASRW 46.6), and the ASRW correlated significantly with gross domestic product per capita among the 32 cities. The breast cancer ASRW in Shijiazhuang was 2.7 times the rate of 41 rural Chinese counties (17). When compared with GLOBOCAN 2012 data according to the Human Development Index, breast cancer incidence in Shijiazhuang matched countries with a high human development index (ASRW 45.2). Conclusion Breast cancer incidence in Shijiazhuang in 2012 was the highest in China, matching the rate in countries with high social economic development. This rate may continue to rise, parallel with urbanization, and may be associated with changing reproductive patterns and Westernization. Prevention methods need to be incorporated. PMID:27766774

  13. The influence of weather conditions on the relative incident rate of fishing vessels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Pelot, Ronald P; Hilliard, Casey

    2009-07-01

    There is a long history of studying the relationship between weather and maritime activities. This article analyzes the link between relative incident rate (RIR) and general weather factors within certain gridded areas and time periods. The study area, which encompasses a broad extent of Atlantic Canadian waters, includes fishing incidents recorded by the Canadian Coast Guard from 1997 to 1999. Methodologies used for traffic track generation in a geographical information system and aggregation of all relevant weather data needed for the statistical analyses are presented. Ultimately, a regression tree was built to illustrate the relationship between incident rate and the following six weather factors: wave height; sea surface temperature; air temperature; ice concentration; fog presence; and precipitation. Results from the regression tree reveal that the RIR defined as (incident number per area-day)/(traffic amount per area-day) across grid cells with incidents, increases as the weather conditions deteriorate in a general way, and the concentration of ice has the biggest influence on the magnitude of incident rates for a given level of traffic exposure. The results from this analysis may assist administrators of maritime traffic, especially those associated with fishing activities, through a better understanding of the influence on RIR of certain weather conditions within given areas in specific time periods.

  14. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women.

  15. The effects of different rates of ascent on the incidence of altitude decompression sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Waligora, James M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of different rates of ascent on the incidence of altitude decompression sickness (DCS) was analyzed by a retrospective study on 14,123 man-flights involving direct ascent up to 38,000 ft altitude. The data were classified on the basis of altitude attained, denitrogenation at ground level, duration of stay at altitude, rest or exercise while at altitude, frequency of exercise at altitude, and ascent rates. This database was further divided on the basis of ascent rates into different groups from 1000 ft/min up to 53,000 ft/min. The database was analyzed using multiple correlation and regression methods, and the results of the analysis reveal that ascent rates influence the incidence of DCS in combination with the various factors mentioned above. Rate of ascent was not a significant predictor of DCS and showed a low, but significant multiple correlation (R=0.31) with the above factors. Further, the effects of rates below 2500 ft/min are significantly different from that of rates above 2500 ft/min on the incidence of symptoms (P=0.03) and forced descent (P=0.01). At rates above 2500 ft/min and up to 53,000 ft/min, the effects of ascent rates are not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) in the population examined while the effects of rates below 2500 ft/min are not clear.

  16. National Trends in Incidence Rates of Hospitalization for Stroke in Children With Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCavit, Timothy L.; Xuan, Lei; Zhang, Song; Flores, Glenn; Quinn, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The success of primary stroke prevention for children with sickle cell disease (SCD) throughout the United States is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to generate national incidence rates of hospitalization for stroke in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) before and after publication of the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP trial) in 1998. Procedure We performed a retrospective trend analysis of the 1993–2009 Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Kids’ Inpatient Databases. Hospitalizations for SCD patients 0–18 years old with stroke were identified by ICD-9CM code. The primary outcome, the trend in annual incidence rate of hospitalization for stroke in children with SCD, was analyzed by linear regression. Incidence rates of hospitalization for stroke before and after 1998 were compared by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results From 1993 to 2009, 2,024 hospitalizations were identified for stroke. Using the mean annual incidence rate of hospitalization for stroke from 1993 to 1998 as the baseline, the rate decreased from 1993 to 2009 (point estimate = −0.022/100 patient years [95% CI, −0.039, −0.005], P = 0.027). The mean annual incidence rate of hospitalization stroke decreased by 45% from 0.51 per 100 patient years in 1993–1998 to 0.28 per 100 patient years in 1999–2009 (P = 0.008). Total hospital days and charges attributed to stroke also decreased by 45% and 24%, respectively. Conclusions After publication of the STOP trial and hydroxyurea licensure in 1998, the incidence of hospitalization for stroke in children with SCD decreased across the United States, suggesting that primary stroke prevention has been effective nationwide, but opportunity for improvement remains. PMID:23151905

  17. Burden of Type 2 Diabetes in Mexico: Past, Current and Future Prevalence and Incidence Rates

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. Methods We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960–2012), and birth-cohort (1920–1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010–2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Results Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65–68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57–59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960–2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7–22.5% by 2050, affecting 15–25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Conclusions Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. PMID:26546108

  18. Rates and risk factors for progression to incident dementia vary by age in a population cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ching-Wen; Snitz, Beth E.; Hughes, Tiffany F.; McDade, Eric; Chang, Chung-Chou H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate rate of progression from normal cognition or mild impairment to dementia, and to identify potential risk and protective factors for incident dementia, based on age at dementia onset in a prospective study of a population-based cohort (n = 1,982) aged 65 years and older. Methods: Following the cohort annually for up to 5 years, we estimated incidence of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating ≥1) among individuals previously normal or mildly impaired (Clinical Dementia Rating 0 or 0.5). In the whole cohort, and also stratified by median onset age, we examined several vascular, metabolic, and inflammatory variables as potential risk factors for developing dementia, using interval-censored survival models. Results: Based on 67 incident cases of dementia, incidence rate (per 1,000 person-years) was 10.0 overall, 5.8 in those with median onset age of 87 years or younger, and 31.5 in those with onset age after 87 years. Adjusting for demographics, the risk of incident dementia with onset age of 87 years or younger (n = 33) was significantly increased by baseline smoking, stroke, low systolic blood pressure, and APOE*4 genotype, and reduced by current alcohol use. Among those with dementia with onset after 87 years (n = 34), no risk or protective factor was significant. Conclusion: Risk and protective factors were only found for incident dementia with onset before the median onset age of 87 years, and not for those with later onset. Either unexplored risk factors explain the continued increase in incidence with age, or unknown protective factors are allowing some individuals to delay onset into very old age. PMID:25471390

  19. Age-period-cohort analysis of hepatitis A incidence rates in Korea from 2002 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of hepatitis A in Korea from 2002 to 2012 using age-period-cohort analyses. METHODS We used claims data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation for the entire population. Census data from 2010 were used as the standard population. The incidence of hepatitis A was assumed to have a Poisson distribution, and the models and effects were evaluated using the intrinsic estimator method, the likelihood ratio, and the Akaike information criterion. RESULTS The incidence of hepatitis A gradually increased until 2007 (from 17.55 to 35.72 per 100,000 population) and peaked in 2009 (177.47 per 100,000 population). The highest incidence was observed among 27-29-year-old individuals when we omitted data from 2005 to 2007. From 2005 to 2007, the peak incidence was observed among 24-26-year-old individuals, followed by 27-29-year-olds. The best model fits were observed when the age-period-cohort variables were all considered at the same time for males, females, and the whole population. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of hepatitis A exhibited significant age-period-cohort effects; its incidence peaked in 2009 and was especially high among Koreans 20-39 years of age. These epidemiological patterns may help predict when high incidence rates of hepatitis A may occur in developing countries during their socioeconomic development. PMID:27703127

  20. Prevalence and Incidence Rates of Dementia and Cognitive Impairment No Dementia in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Mejia-Arango, Silvia; Gutierrez, Luis Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) in the Mexican population. Methods The MHAS study is a prospective panel study of health and aging in Mexico with 7,000 elders that represent 8 million subjects nationally. Using measurements of cognition and activities of daily living of dementia cases and CIND were identified at baseline and follow up. Overall incidence rates and specific rates for sex, age and education were calculated. Results Prevalence was 6.1% and 28.7% for dementia and CIND, respectively. Incidence rates were 27.3 per 1,000 person-years for dementia and 223 per 1,000 persons-year for CIND. Rates of dementia and CIND increased with advancing age and decreased with higher educational level; sex had a differential effect depending on the age strata. Hypertension, diabetes and depression were risk factors for dementia but not for CIND. Discussion These data provide estimates of prevalence and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment in the Mexican population for projection of future burden. PMID:21948770

  1. Progress estimating incidence rates of tumors and deformities in St. Louis River white sucker

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC) was listed for the Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) of Fish Tumors and Other Deformities without the benefit of histological information. Information on the fish tumor incidence rate is important for the future removal of the BUI. Two year...

  2. Relationship between entomological inoculation rate, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence rate, and incidence of malaria attack in rural Gabon.

    PubMed

    Elissa, N; Migot-Nabias, F; Luty, A; Renaut, A; Touré, F; Vaillant, M; Lawoko, M; Yangari, P; Mayombo, J; Lekoulou, F; Tshipamba, P; Moukagni, R; Millet, P; Deloron, P

    2003-03-01

    To assess the relationships between variations of Plasmodium falciparum transmission and those of peripheral parasitaemia prevalence or malaria attack incidence rates in regions with limited fluctuations of transmission, we conducted a follow-up in two Gabonese populations. Entomological surveys were carried out from May 1995 to April 1996 in Dienga, and from May 1998 to April 1999 in Benguia. In Dienga, malaria transmission was seasonal, being not detected during two 3-month periods. Mean entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was 0.28 infective bite/person/night. In Benguia, malaria transmission was perennial with seasonal fluctuations, mean EIR being 0.76 infective bite/person/night. In Dienga, 301 schoolchildren were followed from October 1995 to March 1996. Clinical malaria attack was defined as fever associated with >5000 parasites/microl of blood. P. falciparum prevalence varied from 28 to 42%, and monthly malaria attack incidence from 30 to 169 per thousand. In Benguia, the entire population (122 persons) was followed from November 1998 to April 1999. Prevalence varied from 22 to 50%, and monthly malaria attack incidence from 52 to 179 per thousand. In each area, entomological variations were not related to parasite prevalence, but preceded malaria attack incidence with 1- or 2-month time lag, corresponding to the pre-patency period that differs in the two populations, possibly according to differences in immunity related to parasite transmission.

  3. Trends in the Incidence Rates of Chronic Hepatitis B in Poland in the Years 2005 - 2013

    PubMed Central

    Stawinska-Witoszynska, Barbara; Zysnarska, Monika; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Wojtyła-Buciorab, Paulina; Krzyzaniak, Alicja; Wieckowska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of newly-diagnosed cases of chronic hepatitis is decisive for the overall incidence rate of hepatitis B observed in Poland. Objectives We aimed to determine the chronic hepatitis B incidence trends in Poland, taking into consideration the ages, genders, and environments of the patients. Methods The study is based on aggregated data from Polish descriptive epidemiological studies for the period of 2005 to 2013 (i.e., hepatitis B incidence numbers and ratios, including mixed HBV and HCV infections) as published in the annual bulletins Choroby zakazne i zatrucia w Polsce (Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland] drawn up by the laboratory for the monitoring and analysis of epidemiological status of the department of epidemiology at the national institute of public health - national institute of hygiene (NIPH-NIH). Poland, a central European country situated in the humid continental climate zone, is classified as a highly developed country. In the analyzed period, the Polish population consisted of about 38 million people, more than 19 million of whom were women, and more than 18 million of whom were men. Among European countries, Poland has the smallest number of national and ethnic minorities. For the purposes of epidemiological supervision, a special definition of acute hepatitis B was adopted in Poland in 2005, which facilitated separate registration of acute and chronic cases. Results A significantly increasing chronic hepatitis B incidence trend was observed in the population of Poland, with considerable increases in incidence rates for both men and women alike. The incidence rates for inhabitants of both urban and rural areas also showed an increasing tendency. Chronic hepatitis B occurred more frequently in men and in urban areas. For each of the five-year age groups encompassing patients between 20 and 54 years of age, the increase in the incidence rate proved to be significant. Conclusions The registered increase in the

  4. State-level Uterine Corpus Cancer Incidence Rates Corrected for Hysterectomy Prevalence, 2004-2008

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Rebecca L.; Devesa, Susan S.; Cokkinides, Vilma; Ma, Jiemin; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-01-01

    Background The interpretation of uterine cancer rates is hindered by the inclusion of women whose uterus has been surgically removed in the population at risk. Hysterectomy prevalence varies widely by state and race/ethnicity, exacerbating this issue. Methods We estimated hysterectomy-corrected, age-adjusted uterine corpus cancer incidence rates by race/ethnicity for 49 states and the District of Columbia during 2004-2008 using case counts obtained from population-based cancer registries; population data from the U.S. Census Bureau; and hysterectomy prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Corrected and uncorrected incidence rates were compared with regard to geographic and racial/ethnic disparity patterns and the association with obesity. Results Among non-Hispanic whites, uterine cancer incidence rates (per 100,000 woman-years) uncorrected for hysterectomy prevalence ranged from 17.1 in Louisiana to 32.1 in New Jersey, mirrored regional hysterectomy patterns, and were not correlated with obesity prevalence (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r = 0.06, two-sided p = 0.68). In comparison, hysterectomy-corrected rates were higher by 30% (District of Columbia) to more than 100% (Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, and Oklahoma), displayed no discernible geographic pattern, and were moderately associated with obesity (r = 0.37, two-sided p = 0.009). For most states, hysterectomy correction diminished or reversed the black/white deficit and accentuated the Hispanic/white deficit. Conclusion Failure to adjust uterine cancer incidence rates for hysterectomy prevalence distorts true geographic and racial patterns and substantially underestimates the disease burden, particularly for Southern states. Impact Correction for hysterectomy is necessary for the accurate evaluation of uterine cancer rates. PMID:23125334

  5. Statistical modelling of breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Robertson, C; Boyle, P

    1997-01-01

    The interpretation of time trends in disease rates can be facilitated using estimable contrasts from age-period-cohort models. Cohort and period trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality rates in Scotland were investigated using contrasts that measure the changes in the linear trends. These contrasts were compared with estimates obtained from mortality rates in the USA and Japan. A significant moderation of both breast cancer incidence and mortality rates was observed in Scotland, associated with cohorts of women born after the Second World War compared with women born between the two world wars. The moderation of breast cancer mortality among cohorts born after 1925 compared with cohorts born before 1925 that was observed in the USA and Japan was also observed in this study. This moderation is not present in the incidence rates. The relative decline in the risk of breast cancer seen in younger cohorts seems to be contradictory to the temporal pattern present among breast cancer risk factors. It may well be that the alteration of eating patterns as a result of rationing in the wartime and immediate post-war period, and the subsequent influence on certain breast cancer risk factors probably produced by such changes, may have had some influence on the development of healthier girls and women. Such speculation could be addressed in a well-designed epidemiological study. There have been no changes in the mortality rate trends with period in Scotland, although the changes in the incidence rate trends with period are consistent with an increase in registration coverage.

  6. Age-standardized incidence rates of primordial cyst (keratocyst) on the Witwatersrand.

    PubMed

    Rachanis, C C; Shear, M

    1978-11-01

    Cases of primordial cysts derived from the records of all the hospital pathology departments and private pathology practices on the Witwatersrand, were recorded for the 10-year period 1965-74. The population at risk (1970 census) was 974,390 Whites and 1,567,280 Blacks. Age-specific morbidity rates for each sex and race were calculated, as well as age-standardized incidence rates standardized against African, World and European standard populations. The age-standardized incidence rates for primordial cysts, standardized against a World standard population, per million per year are 0.61, 0, 4.86 and 3.50 for Black males and females and White males and females, respectively. In the population at risk, primordial cysts are much more common in Whites than in Blacks, the incidence being eight times higher in White males than in Black males. The present study confirms that there is a bimodal age distribution but with a higher incidence of the cyst in the age group 50-64 years than previously suspected. This may be either because a substantial number of cases remain undiagnosed for many years or because there are two groups of primordial cyst: one which is triggered in young patients and the other in older patients.

  7. Incidence and survival rates of ovarian cancer in low-income women in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Abuidris, Dafalla O.; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Elhaj, Ahmed M.; Eltayeb, Elgaylani Abdallah; Elsanousi, Mohamed; Ibnoof, Rehab S.; Mohammed, Sulma I.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynecological cancer worldwide. Little is known about the disease in Sudan. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the incidence rate, age and stage at diagnosis, and median survival time of patients presenting at the National Cancer Institute-University of Gezira (NCI-UG), Sudan. Data were collected in a prospective study of women with ovarian cancer over a period of eleven years of follow-up (between 2000 and 2011). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the distribution of the demographics of the sample. The direct method was used to compute the age-standardized rate (ASR) using data from the 1966 and 2000 World Standard Populations (WSPs). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival functions and the median survival time. Log-rank tests were used to statistically compare between the survival functions. There were steady increases in ovarian cancer incidence rates between 2000 and 2009, with a slight decline noted in 2010 and 2011. The patients' age range was 9–90. The age-specific incidence rate increased greatly in women aged 55 years or older. The majority of the patients had stage III or IV disease. The annual ASR using WSPs 1966 and 2000 as standard populations were 3.3 and 3.7 per 100,000 women, respectively. The median survival time was 31 months (95% confidence interval, 19–43). The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 38%. In Sudan, ovarian cancer affects postmenopausal women, akin to what is reported in the developed world with high incidence rates. Presenting with advanced stage disease is the predominant factor that results in a short survival time for women. PMID:28105363

  8. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  9. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  10. Incidence and Mortality Rates of Disasters and Mass Casualty Incidents in Korea: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study, 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jin; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Sung, Joohon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality rates of disasters and mass casualty incidents (MCIs) over the past 10 yr in the administrative system of Korea administrative system and to examine their relationship with population characteristics. This was a population-based cross-sectional study. We calculated the nationwide incidence, as well as the crude mortality and injury incidence rates, of disasters and MCIs. The data were collected from the administrative database of the National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) and from provincial fire departments from January 2000 to December 2009. A total of 47,169 events were collected from the NEMA administrative database. Of these events, 115 and 3,079 cases were defined as disasters and MCIs that occurred in Korea, respectively. The incidence of technical disasters/MCIs was approximately 12.7 times greater than that of natural disasters/MCIs. Over the past 10 yr, the crude mortality rates for disasters and MCIs were 2.36 deaths per 100,000 persons and 6.78 deaths per 100,000 persons, respectively. The crude injury incidence rates for disasters and MCIs were 25.47 injuries per 100,000 persons and 152 injuries per 100,000 persons, respectively. The incidence and mortality of disasters/MCIs in Korea seem to be low compared to that of trend around the world. PMID:23678255

  11. A nationwide study of asthma incidence rate and its determinants in Swedish pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Bröms, Kristina; Norbäck, Dan; Sundelin, Claes; Eriksson, Margaretha; Svärdsudd, Kurt

    2012-09-01

    While many studies on asthma prevalence have been published, the number of studies on asthma incidence in pre-school children is limited. In this project, a nationwide sample of pre-school children was followed with the aim of estimating cumulative 5-year asthma incidence and its determinants. Parents of 5,886 children 1-6 years of age, sampled from day-care centres in 62 municipalities all over Sweden, responded in 2002 to a baseline postal questionnaire with questions regarding symptoms indicating possible asthma or atopic conditions, and a number of other variables. In 2007, parents of 4,255 children responded to an almost identical follow-up questionnaire. Of these, the 3,715 children who were free from asthma at baseline constitute the study population for this report. A large number of potential baseline determinants for cumulative 5-year asthma incidence were identified. Of these, food allergy, rhinitis, incomplete asthma diagnosis criteria (wheezing last 12 months, and ever had asthma but no current symptoms), parental rhinitis, parental asthma, age, and eczema, in ranking order of importance, remained significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis. The asthma incidence rate was highly dependent on presence or absence of these variables, the average annual rate ranging from 2/1,000/year in 6-year-olds with no determinants to 154/1,000/year in 1-year-olds with all determinants, corresponding to 11/1,000/year based on the whole study population.

  12. p53 mutations associated with aging-related rise in cancer incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Richard B

    2013-08-01

    TP53's role as guardian of the genome diminishes with age, as the probability of mutation increases. Previous studies have shown an association between p53 gene mutations and cancer. However, the role of somatic TP53 mutations in the steep rise in cancer rates with aging has not been investigated at a population level. This relationship was quantified using the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) TP53 and GLOBOCAN cancer databases. The power function exponent of the cancer rate was calculated for 5-y age-standardized incidence or mortality rates for up to 25 cancer sites occurring in adults of median age 42 to 72 y. Linear regression analysis of the mean percentage of a cancer's TP53 mutations and the corresponding cancer exponent was conducted for four populations: worldwide, Japan, Western Europe, and the United States. Significant associations (P ≤ 0.05) were found for incidence rates but not mortality rates. Regardless of the population studied, positive associations were found for all cancer sites, with more significant associations for solid tumors, excluding the outlier prostate cancer or sex-related tumors. Worldwide and Japanese populations yielded P values as low as 0.002 and 0.005, respectively. For the United States, a significant association was apparent only when analysis utilized the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. This study found that TP53 mutations accounts for approximately one-quarter and one-third of the aging-related rise in the worldwide and Japanese incidence of all cancers, respectively. These significant associations between TP53 mutations and the rapid rise in cancer incidence with aging, considered with previously published literature, support a causal role for TP53 according to the Bradford-Hill criteria. However, questions remain concerning the contribution of TP53 mutations to neoplastic development and the role of factors such as genetic instability, obesity, and gene deficiencies other

  13. Incidence of renal stones among cadmium exposed battery workers.

    PubMed Central

    Järup, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-01-01

    The health effects of occupational exposure to cadmium were studied in a group of 902 workers employed for at least one year in a Swedish battery factory between 1931 and 1982. Data on air cadmium concentrations for different periods were combined with company employment records to obtain individual cumulative exposure estimates. A questionnaire including questions on the occurrence of kidney stones was sent to all 601 living workers and to the next of kin of 267 of the deceased workers. The response rate was 88%. 73 workers reported renal calculi that appeared after initial employment. A dose-response relation was found between cumulative exposure to cadmium and age standardised cumulative incidence. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were then computed for three exposure categories (< 250, 250- < 5000, and 5000 micrograms/m3 x years) standardised for calendar time, age, and smoking with the low exposure group as reference level. The IRRs were 1.0, 1.6 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.7-3.4], and 3.0 (95% CI 1.3-6.8) respectively. beta 2 Microglobulin measurements were available for 33 workers who formed stones; 13 of these workers had tubular proteinuria (beta 2 microglobulin > or = 34 micrograms/mmole creatinine)--that is, a prevalence of 39%. There was also an indication of a steeper dose-response relation among workers with tubular proteinuria. PMID:8343420

  14. The optimization of incident angles of low-energy oxygen ion beams for increasing sputtering rate on silicon samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, T.; Yoshida, N.; Takahashi, M.; Tomita, M.

    2008-12-01

    In order to determine an appropriate incident angle of low-energy (350-eV) oxygen ion beam for achieving the highest sputtering rate without degradation of depth resolution in SIMS analysis, a delta-doped sample was analyzed with incident angles from 0° to 60° without oxygen bleeding. As a result, 45° incidence was found to be the best analytical condition, and it was confirmed that surface roughness did not occur on the sputtered surface at 100-nm depth by using AFM. By applying the optimized incident angle, sputtering rate becomes more than twice as high as that of the normal incident condition.

  15. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the people's Republic of China: incidence, treatment, and survival rates

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.N.

    1983-10-01

    The incidence, treatment regimens, and survival rates for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in China, one of the most common cancers in that country, are reviewed. Although treated almost exclusively with megavoltage photon therapy, in some cancer centers intracavitary radium insertions are used to increase the radiation dose to the primary tumor site. A histological study of these tumors shows that patients whose tumors are well-differentiated and contain an abundance of lymphocytes have the best prognosis.

  16. Total-body irradiation and cataract incidence: A randomized comparison of two instantaneous dose rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ozsahin, M.; Belkacemi, Y.; Pene, F.; Dominique, C.; Schwartz, L.H.; Uzal, C.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Gindrey-Vie, B.; Vitu-Loas, L.; Touboul, E. )

    1994-01-15

    To assess the influence of instantaneous total-body irradiation dose rate in hematological malignancies, the authors randomized 157 patients according to different instantaneous dose rates. Patients have undergone a total-body irradiation before bone-marrow transplantation according to two different techniques: Either in one fraction (1000 cGy given to the midplane at the level of L4, and 800 cGy to the lungs) or in six fractions (1200 cGy over 3 consecutive days to the midplane at the level of L4, and 900 cGy to the lungs). Patients were randomized according to two instantaneous dose rates, called LOW and HIGH, in single-dose (6 vs. 15 cGy/min) and fractionated (3 vs. 6 cGy/min) TBI groups; there were 77 cases for the LOW and 80 for the HIGH groups, with 57 patients receiving single-dose (28 LOW, 29 HIGH) and 100 patients receiving fractionated total-body irradiation (49 LOW, 51 HIGH). As of July 1992, 16 of 157 patients developed cataracts after 17 to 46 months, with an estimated incidence of 23% at 5 years. Four of 77 patients in the LOW group, 12 of 80 patients in the HIGH group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 12% and 34%, respectively. Ten of 57 patients in the single-dose group, and 6 of 100 patients in the fractionated group developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 39% and 13%, respectively. When the subgroups were considered, in the single-dose group, 3 of 28 LOW patients, and 7 of 29 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 24% and 53%, respectively; in the fractionated group, 1 of 49 LOW patients, and 5 of 51 HIGH patients developed cataracts, with 5-year estimated incidences of 4% and 22%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of 5-year estimated cataract incidence between the patients receiving steroids and those not. The instantaneous dose rate was the only independent factor influencing the cataractogenesis. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The Relationship Between Monthdisease Incidence Rate and Climatic Factor of Classical Swine Fever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbin; Xu, Danning; Xiao, Jianhua; Zhang, Ru; Dong, Jing

    The Swine Fever is a kind of acute, highly infective epidemic disease of animals; it is name as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) by World animal Health organization. Meteorological factors such as temperature, air pressure and rainfall affect the epidemic of CSF significantly through intermediary agent and CSF viral directly. However there is significant difference among different region for mode of effects. Accordingly, the analyze must adopt different methods. The dependability between incidence rate each month of CSF and meteorological factors from 1999 to 2004 was analyzed in this paper. The function of meteorological factors on CSF was explored and internal law was expected to be discovered. The correlation between the incidence rate of Swine Fever and meteorological factors, thus the foundation analysis of the early warning and the decision-making was made, the result indicated that the incidence rate of CSF has negative correlation with temperature, rainfall, cloudage; relative humidity has positive correlation with disease; for air pressure, except average air pressure of one month, other air pressure factors have positive correlation with disease; for wind speed, except Difference among moths of wind speed and average temperature of one month. have positive correlation with disease, other wind speed factors has negative correlation with disease.

  18. High burden of breast cancer in Belgium: recent trends in incidence (1999-2006) and historical trends in mortality (1954-2006)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In Belgium, breast cancer mortality has been monitored since 1954, whereas cancer incidence data have only been made available for a few years. In this article we update historical trends of breast cancer mortality and describe the recent breast cancer incidence. Methods Incidence data were extracted from the Belgium Cancer Registry from 2004 to 2006 for the Walloon and Brussels Regions and Belgium, and from 1999 to 2006 for the Flemish Region. The Directorate-general Statistics and Economic information provided the mortality data for the years 1954-1999 and 2004. The regional authorities of the Flemish and Brussels Regions provided the mortality data for the years 2000-2003 and 2005-2006. Results In 2004, the World age-standardised breast cancer incidence for the whole of Belgium was 110 per 100, 000 person-years for all ages; and 172, 390 and 345 per 100, 000 person-years for the 35-49, 50-69, and 70+ age groups, respectively. The incidence rate was slightly higher in each age group in the Brussels Region. In Flanders, where the incidence could be observed during a longer period, an increase was observed until 2003 in the 50-69 age group, followed by a decrease. To the contrary, in the oldest age group, incidence continued to rise over the whole period, whereas no change in incidence was observed between 1999 and 2006 in the 35-49 age group. Mortality increased until the late 1980s and afterwards decreased in all regions and in age groups younger than 70. In women of 70 years and older, the decline began later. Conclusions The burden of breast cancer in Belgium is very high. In 2004, Belgium ranked first for the age-standardised incidence rate in Europe for all ages combined and in the 35-49 and 50-69 age groups. The impact of the known risk factors and of mammographic screening should be further studied. The mortality rate in Belgium ranked lower than incidence, suggesting favourable survival. Plausible explanations for the discrepancy between

  19. Global stability and attractivity of a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaodan; Liu, Lijun; Zhou, Wenshu

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we study the global stability and attractivity of the endemic equilibrium for a network-based SIS epidemic model with nonmonotone incidence rate. The model was introduced in Li (2015). We prove that the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if α (a parameter of this model) is sufficiently large, and is globally attractive if the transmission rate λ satisfies λ/λc ∈(1 , 2 ] , where λc is the epidemic threshold. Some numerical experiments are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  20. Cancer incidence rates in the Kurdistan region/Iraq from 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ramadhan T; Abdulljabar, Rezvan; Saeed, Abdullah; Kittani, Sarwar Sadiq; Sulaiman, Hushyar M; Mohammed, Sami A; Rashid, Rekawt M; Hussein, Nawfal R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of gradual increase in incidence overall the world. Kurdistan Region in Iraq has been exposed to several carcinogenic hazards. There are few reports about the increased risk of cancer in different cities in Iraq. These reports did not cover Kurdistan region. The aim of this paper was to study cancer incidence and to identify possible risks of cancer in this region. Cancer registries from 9 hospitals in three cities of Kurdistan were used as a source of data. Information on these cases was subjected to careful verification regarding repetition, place of residence and other possible errors. Overall registered cases in 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 1444, 2081, 2356 respectively. 49% of registered cases were males and 51% were female. The Age Standardized Rate of cancer was 89.83/100 000 among male and 83.93/100 000 among female. The results showed major variation in incidence rates of different types of cancer in the three governorates of Kurdistan. Furthermore, there was evidence of increased risks of cancer in Kurdistan Region in Iraq. Hematological malignancies were the most common cancer among male (21.13% of all cancer in males) and second most common in female (18.8% of all cancer in female), only exceeded by breast cancer. To reach sound conclusions about extent and determinants of cancer in Kurdistan, enormous multi-spectrum efforts are now needed.

  1. Global stability of a transport-related infection model with general incidence rate in two heterogeneous cities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Liu, Xianning

    2014-12-01

    To further understand the effects of travel on disease spread, a transport-related infection model with general incidence rate in two heterogeneous cities is proposed and analyzed. Some analytical results on the global stability of equilibria (including disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium) are obtained. The explicit formula for the basic reproduction number R0 is derived and it is proved to be a threshold for disease spread. To reveal how incidence rate and travel rate influence the disease spread, effects of general incidence rate and travel rate on the dynamics of system are shown via numeric simulations.

  2. High Repetition Rate Grazing Incidence Pumped X-ray Laser operating at 18.9 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, R; Dunn, J; Patel, P K; Price, D F; Smith, R F; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2004-05-11

    We have demonstrated a 10 Hz Ni-like Mo X-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm with 150 mJ total pump energy by employing a novel pumping scheme. The grazing incidence scheme is described, where a picosecond pulse is incident at a grazing angle to a Mo plasma column produced by a slab target irradiated by a 200 ps laser pulse. This scheme uses refraction of the short pulse at a pre-determined electron density to increase absorption to pump a specific gain region. The high efficiency inherent to this scheme allows a reduction in the pump energy where 70 mJ long pulse energy and 80 mJ short pulse energy are sufficient to produce lasing at a 10 Hz repetition rate. Under these conditions and by optimizing the delay between the pulses, we achieve strong amplification and saturation for 4 mm long targets.

  3. High incidence of oesophageal and gastric cancer in Kashmir in a population with special personal and dietary habits.

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, M S; Zargar, S A; Mahajan, R; Banday, M A

    1992-01-01

    Over a three year period (1 July 1986 to 30 June 1989) all newly diagnosed and histologically proved cases of oesophageal and gastric cancer were recorded prospectively. Some 1515 cases of oesophageal cancer (1050 men and 465 women) and 966 cases of gastric cancer (789 men and 177 women) were registered. Seven patients had simultaneous oesophageal and gastric cancer. Age standardised incidence rates for oesophageal cancer were: men 43.6/100,000 per year; women 27.9/100,000 per year. The rates for gastric cancer were: men 36.7/100,000 per year, women 9.9/100,000 per annum. These figures were three to six times higher than those recorded by cancer registries in Banglore, Madras, and Bombay. The incidence rates for oesophageal and gastric cancer in Islamabad (southern district of Kashmir) were 4.1 to 5.4 times higher in men and 1.5 to 2.0 times higher in women than those for Kupwara (northern district of Kashmir). The incidence rates for oesophageal and gastric cancer in Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs were different. The epidemiology of oesophageal cancer in Kashmir was similar to that found in the 'Asian oesophageal cancer belt'. At the same time Kashmir also had an unprecedented high incidence of gastric cancer. Kashmiries have special personal and dietary habits. Further studies are needed to define the relation between these habits and the occurrence of oesophageal and gastric cancer. PMID:1740265

  4. Malaria Incidence Rates from Time Series of 2-Wave Panel Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Chiyaka, Christinah; Singer, Burton H.

    2016-01-01

    Methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from a commonly occurring form of interval-censored longitudinal parasitological data—specifically, 2-wave panel data—was first proposed 40 years ago based on the theory of continuous-time homogeneous Markov Chains. Assumptions of the methodology were suitable for settings with high malaria transmission in the absence of control measures, but are violated in areas experiencing fast decline or that have achieved very low transmission. No further developments that can accommodate such violations have been put forth since then. We extend previous work and propose a new methodology to estimate malaria incidence rates from 2-wave panel data, utilizing the class of 2-component mixtures of continuous-time Markov chains, representing two sub-populations with distinct behavior/attitude towards malaria prevention and treatment. Model identification, or even partial identification, requires context-specific a priori constraints on parameters. The method can be applied to scenarios of any transmission intensity. We provide an application utilizing data from Dar es Salaam, an area that experienced steady decline in malaria over almost five years after a larviciding intervention. We conducted sensitivity analysis to account for possible sampling variation in input data and model assumptions/parameters, and we considered differences in estimates due to submicroscopic infections. Results showed that, assuming defensible a priori constraints on model parameters, most of the uncertainty in the estimated incidence rates was due to sampling variation, not to partial identifiability of the mixture model for the case at hand. Differences between microscopy- and PCR-based rates depend on the transmission intensity. Leveraging on a method to estimate incidence rates from 2-wave panel data under any transmission intensity, and from the increasing availability of such data, there is an opportunity to foster further methodological

  5. Age-standardized incidence rates of ameloblastoma and dentigerous cyst on the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shear, M; Singh, S

    1978-07-01

    Although a great deal is known about the incidence of cancer, including oral cancer, no such study has been done on odontogenic tumors and jaw cysts. There are therefore no standardized data which would allow for comparative incidences in different countries and between different groups. In the present study, cases of ameloblastomas and dentigerous cysts derived from the records of all the hospital pathology departments and private pathology practices on the Witwatersrand, were recorded for the 10-year period 1965--1974. The population at risk (1970 census) was 974,390 Whites and 1,567,280 Blacks. The annual incidence rates, standardized against the standard world population, for ameloblastomas per million population are 1.96, 1.20, 0.18 and 0.44 for Black males, females and White males, females, respectively. The equivalent four figures for dentigerous cysts are 1.18, 1.22, 9.92 and 7.26. These figures show that ameloblastoma is very much more common in Blacks than Whites in the population at risk. Conversely, dentigerous cysts are much more common in Whites. This makes it unlikely that dentigerous cysts predispose to ameloblastoma formation. These epidemiologic observations give rise to speculation as to whether some component of the South African Black diet or other environmental substance might possibly be an etiologic factor in ameloblastoma.

  6. Analysis of a novel stochastic SIRS epidemic model with two different saturated incidence rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zhengbo; Meng, Xinzhu; Lu, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with two different nonlinear incidence rates and double epidemic asymmetrical hypothesis, and we devote to develop a mathematical method to obtain the threshold of the stochastic epidemic model. We firstly investigate the boundness and extinction of the stochastic system. Furthermore, we use Ito's formula, the comparison theorem and some new inequalities techniques of stochastic differential systems to discuss persistence in mean of two diseases on three cases. The results indicate that stochastic fluctuations can suppress the disease outbreak. Finally, numerical simulations about different noise disturbance coefficients are carried out to illustrate the obtained theoretical results.

  7. Incidence Rates of Deliberate Self-Harm in Denmark 1994–2011

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Background: The validity and reliability of suicide statistics have been questioned and few nationwide studies of deliberate self-harm have been presented. Aim: To calculate rates of deliberate self-harm in Denmark in order to investigate trends and assess the reliability of hospital records. Method: A register study based on all individuals recorded with an episode of deliberate self-harm or probable deliberate self-harm in nationwide registers during 1994–2011. Results: A substantial difference in the rates of deliberate self-harm and probable deliberate self-harm was noted for both genders. The average incidence rate of deliberate self-harm for women and men was 130.7 (95% CI = 129.6–131.8) per 100,000 and 86.9 (95% CI = 86.0–87.8) per 100,000, respectively. The rates of deliberate self-harm for women increased from 137.6 (95% CI = 132.9–142.3) per 100,000 in 1994 to 152.7 (95% CI = 147.8–157.5) in 2011. For a subgroup of younger women aged 15–24 years, an almost threefold increase was observed, IRR = 2.5 (95% CI = 2.4–2.7). The most frequently used method was self-poisoning. Conclusion: The rates of deliberate self-harm and probable deliberate self-harm differed significantly. An increased incidence of deliberate self-harm among young Danish women was observed, despite detection bias. An improved registration procedure of suicidal behavior is needed. PMID:27278571

  8. Incidence Rate of Prediabetes Progression to Diabetes: Modeling an Optimum Target Group for Intervention.

    PubMed

    DeJesus, Ramona S; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Rutten, Lila J; Jacobson, Debra J; Wilson, Patrick M; St Sauver, Jennifer

    2016-09-30

    Thirty-seven percent of US adults have prediabetes. Various interventions can delay diabetes progression; however, the optimum target group for risk reduction is uncertain. This study estimated rate of progression to diabetes at 1 and 5 years among a cohort of patients from 3 primary care clinics and modeled the potential magnitude in diabetes incidence risk reduction of an intervention program among specific subgroups. Records of 106,821 empaneled patients in 2005 were reviewed. Generalized population attributable risk (PAR) statistics were calculated to estimate the impact of reducing fasting blood glucose on diabetes progression. Multiple intervention effects (varying levels of glucose reduction along with multiple adherence rates) were examined for those with baseline glucose from 110 to 119 mg/dL and ≥120 mg/dL. Ten percent of patients (n = 10,796) met criteria for prediabetes. The 1- and 5-year diabetes incidence rate was 38.6 and 40.24 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Age and obesity were independent predictors of increased progression rate. The generalized PAR for a 10-point reduction in the 110-119 mg/dL subgroup with 25% adherence was 7.6%. The generalized PAR for similar percent reduction and adherence level in patients with baseline glucose of ≥120 mg/dL was only 3.0%. Rate of progression to diabetes increased over time and with associated independent risk factors. Greater risk reduction in diabetes progression within the target population can be achieved when the intervention is successful in those with baseline glucose of 110-119 mg/dL. Modeling an optimum target group for a diabetes prevention intervention offers a novel and useful guide to planning and allocating resources in population health management.

  9. The End of the Hysterectomy Epidemic and Endometrial Cancer Incidence: What Are the Unintended Consequences of Declining Hysterectomy Rates?

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, Sarah M.; Minasian, Lori; Noone, Anne-Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Population-level cancer incidence rates are one measure to estimate the cancer burden. The goal is to provide information on trends to measure progress against cancer at the population level and identify emerging patterns signifying increased risk for additional research and intervention. Endometrial cancer is the most common of the gynecologic malignancies but capturing the incidence of disease among women at risk (i.e., women with a uterus) is challenging and not routinely published. Decreasing rates of hysterectomy increase the number of women at risk for disease, which should be reflected in the denominator of the incidence rate calculation. Furthermore, hysterectomy rates vary within the United States by multiple factors including geographic location, race, and ethnicity. Changing rates of hysterectomy are important to consider when looking at endometrial cancer trends. By correcting for hysterectomy when calculating incidence rates of cancers of the uterine corpus, many of the disparities that have been assumed for this disease are diminished. PMID:27148481

  10. In situ growth rate measurements by normal-incidence reflectance during MOVPE growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, H.Q.; Breiland, W.G.; Hammons, B.E.; Chui, H.C.

    1996-05-01

    We present an in situ technique for monitoring metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy growth by normal-incidence reflectance. This technique is used to calibrate the growth rate periodically and to monitor the growth process routinely. It is not only a precise tool to measure the growth rate, but also very useful in identifying unusal problems during a growth run, such as depletion of source material, deterioration of surface morphology, and problems associated with an improper growht procedure. We will also present an excellent reproducibility ({+-}0.3% over a course of more than 100 runs) of the cavity wavelength of vertical-cavity surface emitting laser structures with periodic calibration by this in situ technique.

  11. Falling Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria Death Rate among Adults despite Rising Incidence, Sabah, Malaysia, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Rajahram, Giri S; Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J; Menon, Jayaram; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Deaths from Plasmodium knowlesi malaria have been linked to delayed parenteral treatment. In Malaysia, early intravenous artesunate is now recommended for all severe malaria cases. We describe P. knowlesi fatalities in Sabah, Malaysia, during 2012-2014 and report species-specific fatality rates based on 2010-2014 case notifications. Sixteen malaria-associated deaths (caused by PCR-confirmed P. knowlesi [7], P. falciparum [7], and P. vivax [1] and microscopy-diagnosed "P. malariae" [1]) were reported during 2012-2014. Six patients with severe P. knowlesi malaria received intravenous artesunate at hospital admission. For persons ≥15 years of age, overall fatality rates during 2010-2014 were 3.4, 4.2, and 1.0 deaths/1,000 P. knowlesi, P. falciparum, and P. vivax notifications, respectively; P. knowlesi-associated fatality rates fell from 9.2 to 1.6 deaths/1,000 notifications. No P. knowlesi-associated deaths occurred among children, despite 373 notified cases. Although P. knowlesi malaria incidence is rising, the notification-fatality rate has decreased, likely due to improved use of intravenous artesunate.

  12. Running Backwards: Consequences of Current HIV Incidence Rates for the Next Generation of Black MSM in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Derrick D.; Herrick, A. L.; Coulter, Robert W. S.; Friedman, M. Reuel; Mills, Thomas C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Stall, Ron D.

    2015-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately impacted by HIV. To better understand this public health problem, we reviewed the literature to calculate an estimate of HIV incidence among Black MSM. We used this rate to model HIV prevalence over time within a simulated cohort, which we subsequently compared to prevalence from community-based samples. We searched all databases accessible through PubMed, and Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections abstracts for HIV incidence estimates among Black MSM. Summary HIV incidence rates and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Using the average incidence rate, we modeled HIV prevalence within a simulated cohort of Black MSM (who were all HIV-negative at the start) from ages 18 through 40. Based on five incidence rates totaling 2898 Black MSM, the weighted mean incidence was 4.16 % per year (95 % CI 2.76–5.56). Using this annual incidence rate, our model predicted that 39.94 % of Black MSM within the simulated cohort would be HIV-positive by age 30, and 60.73 % by 40. Projections were similar to HIV prevalence found in community-based samples of Black MSM. High HIV prevalence will persist across the life-course among Black MSM, unless effective prevention and treatment efforts are increased to substantially reduce HIV transmission among this underserved and marginalized population. PMID:26267251

  13. Population-Based Incidence Rates of Diarrheal Disease Associated with Norovirus, Sapovirus, and Astrovirus in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Shioda, Kayoko; Cosmas, Leonard; Audi, Allan; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Breiman, Robert F.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrheal diseases remain a major cause of mortality in Africa and worldwide. While the burden of rotavirus is well described, population-based rates of disease caused by norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus are lacking, particularly in developing countries. Methods Data on diarrhea cases were collected through a population-based surveillance platform including healthcare encounters and household visits in Kenya. We analyzed data from June 2007 to October 2008 in Lwak, a rural site in western Kenya, and from October 2006 to February 2009 in Kibera, an urban slum. Stool specimens from diarrhea cases of all ages who visited study clinics were tested for norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus by RT-PCR. Results Of 334 stool specimens from Lwak and 524 from Kibera, 85 (25%) and 159 (30%) were positive for norovirus, 13 (4%) and 31 (6%) for sapovirus, and 28 (8%) and 18 (3%) for astrovirus, respectively. Among norovirus-positive specimens, genogroup II predominated in both sites, detected in 74 (87%) in Lwak and 140 (88%) in Kibera. The adjusted community incidence per 100,000 person-years was the highest for norovirus (Lwak: 9,635; Kibera: 4,116), followed by astrovirus (Lwak: 3,051; Kibera: 440) and sapovirus (Lwak: 1,445; Kibera: 879). For all viruses, the adjusted incidence was higher among children aged <5 years (norovirus: 22,225 in Lwak and 17,511 in Kibera; sapovirus: 5,556 in Lwak and 4,378 in Kibera; astrovirus: 11,113 in Lwak and 2,814 in Kibera) compared to cases aged ≥5 years. Conclusion Although limited by a lack of controls, this is the first study to estimate the outpatient and community incidence rates of norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus across the age spectrum in Kenya, suggesting a substantial disease burden imposed by these viruses. By applying adjusted rates, we estimate approximately 2.8–3.3 million, 0.45–0.54 million, and 0.77–0.95 million people become ill with norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus, respectively, every year in

  14. Monthly Incidence Rates of Abusive Encounters for Canadian Family Physicians by Patients and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje (Bo); Hamilton, Ryan; Tatemichi, Sue; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Lemire, Francine; Manca, Donna; Ramsden, Vivian R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to examine the monthly incidence rates of abusive encounters for family physicians in Canada. Methods. A 7-page cross-sectional survey. Results. Of the entire study sample (N = 720), 29% of the physicians reported having experienced an abusive event in the last month by a patient or patient family member. Abusive incidents were classified as minor, major, or severe. Of the physician participants who reported having been abused, all reported having experienced a minor event, 26% a major, and 8% a severe event. Of the physicians who experienced an abusive event, 55% were not aware of any policies to protect them, 76% did not seek help, and 64% did not report the abusive event. Conclusion. Family physicians are subjected to significant amounts of abuse in their day-to-day practices. Few physicians are aware of workplace policies that could protect them, and fewer report abusive encounters. Physicians would benefit from increased awareness of institutional policies that can protect them against abusive patients and their families and from the development of a national policy. PMID:22332007

  15. A statistical test for the equality of differently adjusted incidence rate ratios.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Kurt; Pischon, Tobias; Schulz, Mandy; Schulze, Matthias B; Ray, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner

    2008-03-01

    An incidence rate ratio (IRR) is a meaningful effect measure in epidemiology if it is adjusted for all important confounders. For evaluation of the impact of adjustment, adjusted IRRs should be compared with crude IRRs. The aim of this methodological study was to present a statistical approach for testing the equality of adjusted and crude IRRs and to derive a confidence interval for the ratio of the two IRRs. The method can be extended to compare two differently adjusted IRRs and, thus, to evaluate the effect of additional adjustment. The method runs immediately on existing software. To illustrate the application of this approach, the authors studied adjusted IRRs for two risk factors of type 2 diabetes using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study from 2005. The statistical method described may be helpful as an additional tool for analyzing epidemiologic cohort data and for interpreting results obtained from Cox regression models with adjustment for different covariates.

  16. Global stability for delay SIR and SEIR epidemic models with nonlinear incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Ma, Wanbiao; Wei, Daijun

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, based on SIR and SEIR epidemic models with a general nonlinear incidence rate, we incorporate time delays into the ordinary differential equation models. In particular, we consider two delay differential equation models in which delays are caused (i) by the latency of the infection in a vector, and (ii) by the latent period in an infected host. By constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals and using the Lyapunov-LaSalle invariance principle, we prove the global stability of the endemic equilibrium and the disease-free equilibrium for time delays of any length in each model. Our results show that the global properties of equilibria also only depend on the basic reproductive number and that the latent period in a vector does not affect the stability, but the latent period in an infected host plays a positive role to control disease development.

  17. Computational Modelling and Optimal Control of Ebola Virus Disease with non-Linear Incidence Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaidza, I.; Makinde, O. D.; Okosun, O. K.

    2017-03-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has exposed the need to connect modellers and those with relevant data as pivotal to better understanding of how the disease spreads and quantifying the effects of possible interventions. In this paper, we model and analyse the Ebola virus disease with non-linear incidence rate. The epidemic model created is used to describe how the Ebola virus could potentially evolve in a population. We perform an uncertainty analysis of the basic reproductive number R 0 to quantify its sensitivity to other disease-related parameters. We also analyse the sensitivity of the final epidemic size to the time control interventions (education, vaccination, quarantine and safe handling) and provide the cost effective combination of the interventions.

  18. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  19. A Web Tool for Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Philip S.; Check, David P.; Anderson, William F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis can inform registry-based studies of cancer incidence and mortality, but concerns about statistical identifiability and interpretability, as well as the learning curves of statistical software packages, have limited its uptake. METHODS We implemented a panel of easy-to-interpret estimable APC functions and corresponding Wald tests in R code that can be accessed through a user-friendly web tool. RESULTS Input data for the web tool consist of age-specific numbers of events and person-years over time, in the form of a rate matrix of paired columns. Output functions include model-based estimators of cross-sectional and longitudinal age-specific rates; period and cohort rate ratios that incorporate the overall annual percentage change (net drift); and estimators of the age-specific annual percentage change (local drifts). The web tool includes built-in examples for teaching and demonstration. User data can be input from a Microsoft Excel worksheet or by uploading a comma-separated-value (csv) file. Model outputs can be saved in a variety of formats including R and Excel. CONCLUSIONS APC methodology can now be carried out through a freely-available user-friendly web tool. The tool can be accessed at http://analysistools.nci.nih.gov/apc/. IMPACT The web tool can help cancer surveillance researchers make important discoveries about emerging cancer trends and patterns. PMID:25146089

  20. Low incidence of flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures but high rate of complications

    PubMed Central

    Kuoppala, Eira; Parviainen, Roope; Pokka, Tytti; Sirviö, Minna; Serlo, Willy; Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common type of elbow fracture in children. A small proportion of them are flexion-type fractures. We analyzed their current incidence, injury history, clinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcomes. Patients and methods We performed a population-based study, including all children <16 years of age. Radiographs were re-analyzed to include only flexion-type supracondylar fractures. Medical records were reviewed and outcomes were evaluated at a mean of 9 years after the injury. In addition, we performed a systematic literature review of all papers published on the topic since 1990 and compared the results with the findings of the current study. Results During the study period, the rate of flexion-type fractures was 1.2% (7 out of 606 supracondylar humeral fractures). The mean annual incidence was 0.8 per 105. 4 fractures were multidirectionally unstable, according to the Gartland-Wilkins classification. All but 1 were operatively treated. Reduced range of motion, changed carrying angle, and ulnar nerve irritation were the most frequent short-term complications. Finally, in the long-term follow-up, mean carrying angle was 50% more in injured elbows (21°) than in uninjured elbows (14°). 4 patients of the 7 achieved a satisfactory long-term outcome according to Flynn’s criteria. Interpretation Supracondylar humeral flexion-type fractures are rare. They are usually severe injuries, often resulting in short-term and long-term complications regardless of the original surgical fixation used. PMID:27168001

  1. Incidence rates of specific histological types of lung cancer in Singapore Chinese dialect groups, and their aetiological significance.

    PubMed

    Law, C H; Day, N E; Shanmugaratnam, K

    1976-03-15

    Significant differences in the incidence levels of lung cancer have been observed among major Chinese dialect groups or communities (Kokkien, Teochew and Cantonese) in Singapore. Among males, the incidence rate is highest in the Hokkiens (age-standardized incidence rate per 100,000 persons per year in Hokkien 67.8, Teochew 55.3, Cantonese 54.0) and among females, it is highest in the Cantonese (Hokkien 12.4, Teochew 12.8, Cantonese 27.2). The present investigation was undertaken to determine the incidence rates of each of the main histological types of lung cancer in the Chinese population and to determine whether there are any correlations between histological patterns and the dialect group differentials that may be of aetiological significance. During the period 1968-1972, a total of 1,747 cases of lung cancer (1,285 males and 462 females) were reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry. It proved possible to type the neoplasms histologically in 476 males (37.0%) and 154 females (33.3%). Age-standardized rates by histological type were computed on the assumption that those histologically typed were a representative sample of all lung cancers. This study shows that Hokkien males have a significantly higher incidence rate of epidermoid carcinoma than the other dialect groups (Hokkien 36.1, Teochew 21.1, Cantonese 17.3). The Cantonese females have significantly higher incidence rates of both epidermoid carcinoma (Hokkien 3.7, Teochew 2.3, Cantonese 5.9) and adenocarcinoma (Hokkien 4.6, Teochew 3.6, Cantonese 11.9). Various sources of bias in studied of this type were examined; it is concluded that the differences in the histologic-specific incidence rates of lung cancer among the various Chinese dialect groups in Singapore are real and not artefactual. The significance of these findings in relation to possible aetiological factors is discussed.

  2. Regions of High Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Low Bystander CPR Rates in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Straney, Lahn D.; Bray, Janet E.; Beck, Ben; Finn, Judith; Bernard, Stephen; Dyson, Kylie; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health issue and research has shown that large regional variation in outcomes exists. Of the interventions associated with survival, the provision of bystander CPR is one of the most important modifiable factors. The aim of this study is to identify census areas with high incidence of OHCA and low rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia Methods We conducted an observational study using prospectively collected population-based OHCA data from the state of Victoria in Australia. Using ArcGIS (ArcMap 10.0), we linked the location of the arrest using the dispatch coordinates (longitude and latitude) to Victorian Local Government Areas (LGAs). We used Bayesian hierarchical models with random effects on each LGA to provide shrunken estimates of the rates of bystander CPR and the incidence rates. Results Over the study period there were 31,019 adult OHCA attended, of which 21,436 (69.1%) cases were of presumed cardiac etiology. Significant variation in the incidence of OHCA among LGAs was observed. There was a 3 fold difference in the incidence rate between the lowest and highest LGAs, ranging from 38.5 to 115.1 cases per 100,000 person-years. The overall rate of bystander CPR for bystander witnessed OHCAs was 62.4%, with the rate increasing from 56.4% in 2008–2010 to 68.6% in 2010–2013. There was a 25.1% absolute difference in bystander CPR rates between the highest and lowest LGAs. Conclusion Significant regional variation in OHCA incidence and bystander CPR rates exists throughout Victoria. Regions with high incidence and low bystander CPR participation can be identified and would make suitable targets for interventions to improve CPR participation rates. PMID:26447844

  3. Childhood Cancer Incidence in British Indians & Whites in Leicester, 1996–2008

    PubMed Central

    Sayeed, Shameq; Barnes, Isobel; Cairns, Benjamin J.; Finlayson, Alexander; Ali, Raghib

    2013-01-01

    Background South Asians in England have an increased risk of childhood cancer but incidence by their individual ethnicities using self-assigned ethnicity is unknown. Our objective was to compare the incidence of childhood cancer in British Indians and Whites in Leicester, which has virtually complete, self-assigned, ethnicity data and the largest population of Indians in England. Methods We obtained data on all cancer registrations from 1996 to 2008 for Leicester with ethnicity obtained by linkage to the Hospital Episodes Statistics database. Age-standardised incidence rates were calculated for childhood cancers in Indians and Whites as well as rate ratios, adjusted for age. Results There were 33 cancers registered among Indian children and 39 among White children. The incidence rate for Indians was greater compared to Whites for all cancers combined (RR 1.82 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.89); p = 0.01), with some evidence of increased risk of leukaemia (RR 2.20 (0.95 to 5.07); p = 0.07), lymphoma (RR 3.96 (0.99 to 15.84); p = 0.04) and central nervous system tumours (RR 2.70 (1.00 to 7.26); p = 0.05). Rates were also higher in British Indian children compared to children in India. Conclusions British Indian children in Leicester had an increased risk of developing cancer compared to White children, largely due to a higher incidence of central nervous system and haematological malignancies. PMID:23613964

  4. Identifying Differences Between Biochemical Failure and Cure: Incidence Rates and Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank A.; Shah, Chirag; Kestin, Larry; Ghilezan, Mihai; Krauss, Daniel; Ye Hong; Brabbins, Donald; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    2011-11-15

    Background: Patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer were evaluated to estimate the length of time required to document biochemical cure (BC) after treatment and the variables associated with long-term treatment efficacy. Patients and Methods: 2,100 patients received RT alone for localized prostate carcinoma (external-beam RT, n = 1,504; brachytherapy alone, n = 241; or brachytherapy + pelvic radiation, n = 355). The median external-beam dose was 68.4 Gy, and the median follow-up time was 8.6 years. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined according to the Phoenix definition. Results: Biochemical failure was experienced by 685 patients (32.6%). The median times to BF for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 6.0, 5.6, and 4.5 years respectively (p < 0.001). The average annual incidence rates of BF for years 1-5, 5-10,11-15, and 16-20 in low-risk patients were 2.0%, 2.0%, 0.3%, and 0.06% (p < 0.001); for intermediate-risk patients, 4%, 3%, 0.3%, and 0% (p < 0.001); and for high-risk patients, 10.0%, 5.0%, 0.3%, and 0.3% (p < 0.001). After 5 years of treatment, 36.9% of all patients experienced BF. The percentage of total failures occurring during years 1-5, 5-10, 11-15, and 16-20 were 48.7%, 43.5%, 6.5%, and 1.3% for low-risk patients; 64.0%, 32.2%, 3.8%, and 0% for intermediate-risk patients; and 71.9%, 25.9%, 1.1%, and 1.1% for high-risk patients, respectively. Increasing time to nadir was associated with increased time to BF. On multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with 10-year BC included prostate-specific antigen nadir and time to nadir. Conclusions: The incidence rates for BF did not plateau until later than 10 years after treatment, suggesting that extended follow-up time is required to monitor patients after treatment. Prostate-specific antigen nadir and time to nadir have the strongest association with long-term BC.

  5. [Hereditary deafness in Kirov oblast: estimation of the incidence rate and DNA diagnosis in children].

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, R A; Osetrova, A A; Sharonova, E I

    2012-04-01

    Genetic analysis of hereditary deafness (HD) has been performed in the city of Kirov and ten rural districts of Kirov oblast (administrative region). The analysis employed the methods used in audiology, medical genetic counseling, and DNA diagnosis. Deafness has been established to be hereditary in 143 children from 100 unrelated families. The incidence rates of isolated and syndromic HDs in the period studied (1995-2001) have been estimated at 1.25 and 0.36 per 1000 newborns, respectively, the total incidence rate of all HD forms being 1.61 per 1000 newborns (1 case per 621 newborns). DNA analysis for the detection of seven frequent mutations in the genes GJB2 (the 35delG, 167delT, 235delC, and M34T mutations), GJB6 (the del(GJB6-D13S1854) and del(GJB6-D13S1830) mutations), and TMC1 (the R34X mutation) has been performed in families with isolated neurosensory deafness. Molecular genetic analysis has detected mutations in 51 children (48.6%); in 54 children (51.4%), no mutations have been found. The following genotypes have been identified in children with HD: 35delG/35delG in 32 probands (30.5%), 35delG/+ in 16 probands (15.2%), 35delG/235delC in 1 proband (0.95%), M34T/+ in 1 proband (0.95%), and M34T/35delG in 1 proband (0.95%). The 167delT mutation has not been found. The frequency of the 35delG mutation in the GJB2 gene has been estimated to be 39.05%. In the group with a family history of HD, mutations have been found in 66.7% of patients; in the group without a family history of HD, in 37.5% of patients. No mutation has been found in the GJB6 or TMC1 gene. Molecular genetic analysis has been performed in a family with clinically diagnosed Treacher Collins-Franceschetti syndrome. Sequencing has been used to find the 748-69C>T polymorphism in intron 6 (in the homozygous state) and the 3635C>G mutation in exon 23 leading to the substitution of glycine for alanine at position 1176 of the amino acid sequence (Ala1176Gly, in the heterozygous state), which have not

  6. Incidence Rates of Fish Tumors and Deformities in the St. Louis River Area of Concern: A Preliminary Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine the current incidence rate of fish tumors and deformities in the St. Louis River and compare that to the rate in a relatively unimpaired waterbody on Lake Superior. These data are necessary to remove the “Fish Tumors and Deformities” Benef...

  7. Dynamics of a Delayed HIV-1 Infection Model with Saturation Incidence Rate and CTL Immune Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ting; Liu, Haihong; Xu, Chenglin; Yan, Fang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a five-dimensional virus model incorporating saturation incidence rate, CTL immune response and three time delays which represent the latent period, virus production period and immune response delay, respectively. We begin this model by proving the positivity and boundedness of the solutions. Our model admits three possible equilibrium solutions, namely the infection-free equilibrium E0, the infectious equilibrium without immune response E1 and the infectious equilibrium with immune response E2. Moreover, by analyzing corresponding characteristic equations, the local stability of each of the feasible equilibria and the existence of Hopf bifurcation at the equilibrium point E2 are established, respectively. Further, by using fluctuation lemma and suitable Lyapunov functionals, it is shown that E0 is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproductive numbers for viral infection R0 is less than unity. When the basic reproductive numbers for immune response R1 is less than unity and R0 is greater than unity, the equilibrium point E1 is globally asymptotically stable. Finally, some numerical simulations are carried out for illustrating the theoretical results.

  8. Incidence rate of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on conventional and organic Canadian dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Levison, L J; Miller-Cushon, E K; Tucker, A L; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Barkema, H W; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a common and costly production disease on dairy farms. In Canada, the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) has been determined for conventionally managed dairy farms; however, no studies to date have assessed rates in organically managed systems. The objectives of this observational study were (1) to determine the producer-reported IRCM and predominant pathogen types on conventional and organic dairy farms in Southern Ontario, Canada, and (2) to evaluate the association of both mean overall IRCM and pathogen-specific IRCM with management system, housing type, and pasture access. Data from 59 dairy farms in Southern Ontario, Canada, distributed across conventional (n=41) and organic management (n=18) systems, were collected from April 2011 to May 2012. In addition to management system, farms were categorized by housing method (loose or tie-stall) and pasture access for lactating cows. Participating producers identified and collected samples from 936 cases of clinical mastitis. The most frequently isolated mastitis pathogens were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Bacillus spp., Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The IRCM was higher on conventional farms than organic (23.7 vs. 13.2 cases per 100 cow-years) and was not associated with housing type (loose or tie-stall), pasture access, or herd-average milk yield. Bulk tank somatic cell count tended to be lower on conventional farms than organic (222,000 vs. 272,000 cells/mL). Pathogen-specific IRCM attributed to Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp., and E. coli was greater on conventional than organic farms, but was not associated with housing or any other factors. In conclusion, organic management was associated with reduced overall and pathogen-specific IRCM.

  9. Are tumor incidence rates from chronic bioassays telling us what we need to know about carcinogens?

    PubMed

    Gaylor, David W

    2005-03-01

    Chronic bioassays for over 500 chemicals have been conducted under the auspices of the National Cancer Institute and/or the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to screen chemicals for carcinogenicity, providing a wealth of information about bioassays. Typically, chemicals are administered for two years to both sexes in each of one strain of rats and mice generally at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), MTD/2, MTD/4 (in recent years), as well as unexposed control animals. In an attempt to ascertain the sensitivity of this bioassay to detect animal carcinogens tested at the MTD for the current experimental design, the false negative rate (failure to detect increased tumor rates) was investigated. This was accomplished by examining the tumor incidences from over 150 NTP bioassays and estimating the probability that a statistically significant (P0.01) dose-response trend would be obtained at one or more tissue sites in either sex of rats or mice if 200, rather than 50, animals were used per dose group. This provides an estimate of the proportion of chemicals that were not declared high-dose animal carcinogens due to the limited sample size of 50 animals per species-sex-dose group. In this series of chemicals tested, 97/156 (62%) were identified by the NTP to show some or clear evidence of carcinogenicity. With an increase of the number of animals per dose group from 50 to 200, it is estimated that 92% of these chemicals would show statistically significant (P0.01) dose-response trends at one or more tissue sites in either sex of rats or mice. Many of these chemicals are not genotoxic. Some chemicals had no structural alerts for carcinogenicity, but were tested because of potentially high human exposure. This analysis suggests that almost all of the chemicals selected would produce a statistically significant increase in tumor incidence at the MTD with larger sample sizes. Hence, this MTD bioassay screen is not distinguishing between true carcinogens and non

  10. Melanoma incidence increases in the elderly of Catalonia but not in the younger population: effect of prevention or consequence of immigration?

    PubMed

    Puig, Susana; Marcoval, Joaquim; Paradelo, Cristina; Azon, Antoni; Bartralot, Ramon; Bel, Susana; Bigata, Xavier; Boada, Aram; Campoy, Antoni; Carrera, Cristina; Curco, Neus; Dalmau, Joan; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Ferreres, Josep R; Formigon, Manel; Gallardo, Fernando; Gonzalez, Alberto; Just, Miquel; Llistosella, Enric; Marti, Rosa M; Nogues, M Elena; Pedragosa, Ramon; Pujol, Josep A; Roldán-Marín, Rodrigo; Sabat, Mireia; Salleras, Montserrat; Smandia, Juan A; Zaballos, Pedro; Plana, Estel; Malvehy, Josep

    2015-04-01

    All cases of MM diagnosed in 23 hospitals in Catalonia, from 2000 to 2007 were recorded and melanoma incidence calculated and adjusted for the European standard population via the direct method. The age standardised rate/100,000 inhabitants varied from 6.74 in 2000 to 8.64 in 2007 for all melanomas and from 4.79 to 5.80 for invasive MMs; the Breslow thickness was stable during the period. The increase in invasive melanoma incidence in the elderly was remarkable, the crude rate/100,000 inhabitants increasing from 11.04 (2000) to 15.49 (2007) in the 60-64 year population, while remaining more stable in the 30-34 year range, from 3.97 in 2000 to 4.55 in 2007, and with a tendency to decrease from 5.1 in 2000 to 2.5 in 2007 for the age range of 25-29 years. These lower age ranges are much more affected by immigration. Despite the large immigrant population (nearly one million immigrants arrived in Catalonia during the study period from countries with a low melanoma incidence), melanoma incidence in our region has risen considerably and this trend is likely to persist in the near future.

  11. A trend analysis of breast cancer incidence rates in the United States from 2000 to 2009 shows a recent increase.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ningqi; Huo, Dezheng

    2013-04-01

    Recent reports have shown that the breast cancer incidence rate in the US stabilized after a sharp reduction in 2002 and 2003. It is important to continue monitoring breast cancer incidence rates according to age group, race/ethnicity, estrogen receptor (ER) status, and tumor stage. Age-standardized breast cancer incidence rates were calculated using data from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 18 registries from 2000 to 2009, for 677,774 female breast cancer patients aged 20 and above. Jointpoint regression models were used to fit a series of joined straight lines on a log scale to annual age-standardized rates. The incidence rates of all breast cancer significantly increased for non-Hispanic blacks from 2005 to 2009 (annual percentage change, APC = 2.0 %, p = 0.01) and Asian/Pacific Islanders from 2000 to 2009 (APC = 1.2 %, p = 0.02). Since 2004, incidence rates in women aged 40-49 years significantly increased for most racial/ethnic groups (overall APC = 1.1 %, p = 0.001). The incidence rate of carcinoma in situ significantly increased in all racial/ethnic groups, with an APC range from 2.3 to 3.0 % (p < 0.005). The localized breast cancer incidence significantly increased in non-Hispanic blacks (APC = 1.3 %, p = 0.004) and Asians (APC = 1.2 %, p = 0.03). ER-positive breast cancer significantly increased in almost all age/race sub-groups after 2005 (APC by race: non-Hispanic whites 1.5 %, non-Hispanic blacks 4.3 %, Asian/Pacific Islanders 1.7 %, and Hispanics 1.8 %; all p values <0.05), while ER-negative breast cancer decreased in most sub-groups (APC by race: non-Hispanic whites-3.9 %, non-Hispanic blacks-3.7 %, Asian/Pacific Islanders-1.5 %, and Hispanics-4.3 %; all p values <0.05). Recently the incidence of breast cancer appears to be increasing in certain subgroups, including ER-positive, early-stage breast cancers, in particular among non-Hispanic blacks and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Further studies are

  12. Rating the Relevance of QUORUM-Selected ASRS Incident Narratives to a "Controlled Flight into Terrain" Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Statler, Irving C.

    1998-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to identify commercial aviation incidents that are relevant to a "controlled flight into terrain" (CFIT) accident using a NASA-developed text processing method. The QUORUM method was used to rate 67820 incident narratives, virtually all of the narratives in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, according to their relevance to two official reports on the crash of American Airlines Flight 965 near Cali, Colombia in December 1995. For comparison with QUORUM's ratings, three experienced ASRS analysts read the reports of the crash and independently rated the relevance of the 100 narratives that were most highly rated by QUORUM, as well as 100 narratives randomly selected from the database. Eighty-four of 100 QUORUM-selected narratives were rated as relevant to the Cali accident by one or more of the analysts. The relevant incidents involved a variety of factors, including, over-reliance on automation, confusion and changes during descent/approach, terrain avoidance, and operations in foreign airspace. In addition, the QUORUM collection of incidents was found to be significantly more relevant than the random collection.

  13. Temporal changes in liver cancer incidence rates in Japan: accounting for death certificate inaccuracies and improving diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharp, G B; Cologne, J B; Fukuhara, T; Itakura, H; Yamamoto, M; Tokuoka, S

    2001-09-01

    Primary liver cancer (PLC) rates have risen dramatically during the past few decades in some regions, particularly in Japan, where PLC is now the third major cause of cancer death. PLC is one of the most difficult tumors to diagnose correctly, because (i) the liver is a frequent site of cancer metastasis and (ii) death from PLC is often attributed to cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. Also, because the disease is often rapidly fatal, a large proportion of liver cancer cases are identified based on death certificates alone without confirmation by clinical records. Thus, worldwide differences in published incidence rates for this disease reflect regional or national differences in both the accuracy of death certificates and the sensitivity of diagnostic methods. By comparing death certificate causes of death with those based on pathology review, we were able to adjust 1958--1994 incidence rates for a large Japanese cohort for these errors. Although the death certificate false-positive error rate declined, the false-negative error rate remained high throughout the study. The introduction of improved liver cancer diagnostic methods in Japan in the early 1980s was associated with a sharp increase in PLC incidence. We conclude that errors in death certificate causes of death and changes in liver cancer diagnostic techniques have had an important impact on the reported incidence of this disease. Taking these factors into account, rates of hepatocellular carcinoma rose between 2.4- and 4.3-fold in our Japanese cohort from 1960 to 1985, peaked about 1993 and declined thereafter. Incidence rates of cholangiocarcinoma remained stable through 1987.

  14. The incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Saeid; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Aziznejhad, Hojjat; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality estimates of ovarian cancer based on human development are essential for planning by policy makers. This study is aimed at investigating the standardised incidence rates (SIR) and standardised mortality rates (SMR) of ovarian cancer and their relationship with the Human Development Index (HDI) in Asian countries. Methods This study was an ecologic study in Asia for assessment of the correlation between SIR, age standardised rates (ASR), and HDI and their details, including life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and gross national income (GNI) per capita. We used the correlation bivariate method for assessment of the correlation between ASR and HDI, and its details. Statistical significance was assumed if P < 0.05. All reported P-values were two-sided. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS (Version 15.0, SPSS Inc.). Results The highest SIR of ovarian cancer was observed in Singapore, Kazakhstan, and Brunei respectively. Indonesia, Brunei, and Afghanistan had the highest SMR. There was a positive correlation between the HDI and SIR (r = 0.143, p = 0.006). Correlation between SMR of ovarian cancer and HDI was not significant (r = 0.005, p = 052.0). Conclusion According to the findings of this study, between the HDI and SIR, there was a positive correlation, but there was no correlation between the SMR and HDI. PMID:27110284

  15. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Stefano; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Curti, Stefania; Cooke, Robin MT; Bena, Antonella; de Giacomi, Giovanna; dell'Omo, Marco; Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous; Melani, Carla; Biocca, Marco; Buiatti, Eva; Campo, Giuseppe; Zanardi, Francesca; Violante, Francesco S

    2008-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Methods Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million) over 3–6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare). Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1) codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence) on regional databases; 2) demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the χscore test) age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for married/unmarried men and women. Results Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall). Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57–1.60) in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40–1.45) in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2–3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts). Conclusion This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population. PMID:18957090

  16. The incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: a four-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) and endometrial cancer (EC) in the Republic of Korea using national insurance claim data generated from 2009 to 2012. Materials and Methods Data that were generated from 2009 to 2012 were sourced from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Inpatients Sample database. The data from women who were assigned diagnosis codes representing EH or EC within 1 month of being assigned codes that corresponded to procedures that included endometrial biopsies and several types of gynecologic surgeries to obtain endometrial pathology samples, were selected for analysis. Results Data from 2,477,424 women were entered into the database between 2009 and 2012, and the data from 1,868 women with EH and 868 women with EC were extracted for analysis. The mean ages of the patients were 44.1 ± 0.4 years for those with EH and 52.7 ± 0.6 years for those with EC. The EH and EC incidence rates were 37 per 100,000 woman-years and 8 per 100,000 woman-years, respectively. The EH and EC incidence rates peaked when the women were in their late forties and fifties, respectively. Conclusions The EH and EC incidence rates determined in this study were somewhat lower than those determined from previous studies. Further studies are required that adjust the data for race, menopausal hormone therapy, and obesity. PMID:27635340

  17. Predictive Power of Incidents Reporting Rate and Its Dimensions by Job Stress among Workers’ Isfahan Steel Company

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, F; Samavatyan, H; Pourabdian, S; Jafari, E

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is long-term interest in the effects of stress on health, due to the strain that it places on individuals which can lead to an increased risk of disease. The present study examined degree of perceived job stress related to incidents reporting rate and its dimensions among workers’ Isfahan Steel Company. Methods: A self-administered anonymous was distributed to 189 workers. The survey included demographic factors, incidents reporting rate and its components (physical symptoms, psychological symptoms and accidents) and the Job Stress Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by multivariate (MANOVA) and correlation techniques. Results: 1) there was internal significant correlation between perceived job stress with incident reporting rate as well as with its two components namely physical symptoms and psychological symptoms; 2) there was not a significant relationship between perceived job stress and accident; 2) In multivariate analysis, perceived job stress respectively about 12%, 18% and 19% of the variance of variables of incidents reporting rate, physical and psychological symptoms significantly predicted (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Perceived job stress influences to physical and psychological symptoms. Therefore, decreasing job stress can be important to prevent the development of stress-related diseases and to promote workers health. PMID:23113092

  18. [Seasonality of rotavirus infection in Venezuela: relationship between monthly rotavirus incidence and rainfall rates].

    PubMed

    González Chávez, Rosabel

    2015-09-01

    In general, it has been reported that rotavirus infection was detected year round in tropical countries. However, studies in Venezuela and Brazil suggest a seasonal behavior of the infection. On the other hand, some studies link infection with climatic variables such as rainfall. This study analyzes the pattern of behavior of the rotavirus infection in Carabobo-Venezuela (2001-2005), associates the seasonality of the infection with rainfall, and according to the seasonal pattern, estimates the age of greatest risk for infection. The analysis of the rotavirus temporal series and accumulated precipitation was performed with the software SPSS. The infection showed two periods: high incidence (November-April) and low incidence (May-October). Accumulated precipitation presents an opposite behavior. The highest frequency of events (73.8% 573/779) for those born in the period with a low incidence of the virus was recorded at an earlier age (mean age 6.5 +/- 2.0 months) when compared with those born in the station of high incidence (63.5% 568/870, mean age 11.7 +/- 2.2 months). Seasonality of the infection and the inverse relationship between virus incidence and rainfall was demonstrated. In addition, it was found that the period of birth determines the age and risk of infection. This information generated during the preaccine period will be helpful to measure the impact of the vaccine against the rotavirus.

  19. Age-standardized Incidence Rates for Leukemia Associated with Consanguineous Marriages in 68 Countries, an Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage that defines as a union between biologically related persons has a variety of known deleterious correlations with factors that affect public health within human populations. To investigate the association between the mean of inbreeding coefficient (α) and incidence of leukemia, the present ecological study on 68 countries was carried out. Statistical analysis showed that the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia positively correlated with log10GNI per capita (r=0.699, df=66, P<0.001) and negatively correlated with log10α (r=−0.609, df=66, P<0.001). Controlling log10GNI per capita, a significant negative correlation between log10α and the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia was observed (r=−0.392, df=65, P=0.001). The countries were stratified according to their annual GNI per capita, low and high-income countries with GNI per capita less than and more than 10,000$, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that in high-income countries, after controlling for log10GNI per capita, the correlation between the age-standardized incidence rate of leukemia and log10α was still significant (r=−0.600, df=36, P<0.001). It should be noted that there was no significant association between the age-standardized mortality rate due to leukemia and log10α (P>0.05). The present finding indicates that the rate of leukemia, age-standardized for incidence, is lower in countries with a high prevalence of consanguineous marriages. PMID:25960855

  20. Tuberculosis incidence rate and risk factors among HIV-infected adults with access to antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Enju; MAKUBI, Abel; DRAIN, Paul; SPIEGELMAN, Donna; SANDO, David; LI, Nan; CHALAMILLA, Guerino; SUDFELD, Christopher R.; HERTZMARK, Ellen; FAWZI, Wafaie W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence rate and risk factors of tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Tanzania. Design A prospective observational study among HIV-infected adults attending 47 HIV clinics in Dar es Salaam. Methods We estimated TB incidence rates among HIV-infected patients prior to and after ART initiation. We used Cox proportional hazard regressions to determine the predictors of incident TB among HIV-infected adults enrolled in the HIV care and treatment program. Results We assessed 67,686 patients for a median follow-up period of 24 (interquartile range: 8–49) months; 7,602 patients were diagnosed with active TB. The TB incidence rate was 7.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 7.6–8.2)/100 person-years prior to ART initiation, and 4.4(95%CI, 4.2–4.4)/100 person-years for patients receiving ART. In multivariate analyses, patients on ART in the first 3 months had a 57% higher risk of TB (Hazard Ratio:1.57, 95%CI:1.47–1.68) compared to those not on ART, but the risk significantly decreased with increasing duration of ART. Risk factors for incident TB included being male, having low body mass index or middle upper arm circumference, lower CD4 cell count, and advanced WHO disease stage. There was seasonal variation for incident TB, with higher risk observed following the rainy seasons (May, June, and November). Conclusion In TB endemic regions, HIV-infected patients initiating ART, particularly males and those with poor nutritional status, should be closely monitored for active TB in the months following ART initiation. In addition to increasing the access to ART, interventions should be considered to improve nutritional status among HIV-infected patients. PMID:26091295

  1. Incidence rate of thyroid cancer in Neuquén (2001-2012).

    PubMed

    Cohen Sabban, Marcos Alejandro; Palmero, Cintia; Bertrand, Beatriz; Aiello, Ana; Ghiglioni, Amalia; Mac Donell, Maria Celina; Croci, Cecilia; Cabaeiro, Patricia; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan

    2014-11-01

    During the past decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) has been reported worldwide. In Argentina there is no national cancer registry, and its incidence has therefore not been established. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of TC in the province of Neuquén and to compare it to that reported in the literature. The medical records of 229 patients admitted over a period of 12 years (2001 to 2012) were used for data analysis. Tumor size, age, sex, and histological type were evaluated. The study period was divided into four three-year periods, and differences in each of these features were analyzed. We found an incidence of 4.72/100,000 inhabitants/year, and almost all patients had papillary TC. TC was five times more common in females as compared to males (7.78 and 1.55 respectively). Mean tumor size was 22.2 ± 1.1 mm. Tumor size was significantly greater in men (31.8 ± 3.7 mm) than in women (20.4 ± 1.0 mm). When grouped by three-year periods, a higher number of cases was found in the last one (47, 49, 49 and 84 respectively). As regards tumor distribution by size, there was a significant decrease in mean tumor size in the fourth period and an increase in the proportion of tumors <10mm. We report an increase in TC incidence in the Argentinean province of Neuquén which is similar to the overall increase reported in the international literature.

  2. Estimating the incidence reporting rates of new influenza pandemics at an early stage using travel data from the source country.

    PubMed

    Chong, K C; Fong, H F; Zee, C Y

    2014-05-01

    During the surveillance of influenza pandemics, underreported data are a public health challenge that complicates the understanding of pandemic threats and can undermine mitigation efforts. We propose a method to estimate incidence reporting rates at early stages of new influenza pandemics using 2009 pandemic H1N1 as an example. Routine surveillance data and statistics of travellers arriving from Mexico were used. Our method incorporates changes in reporting rates such as linearly increasing trends due to the enhanced surveillance. From our results, the reporting rate was estimated at 0·46% during early stages of the pandemic in Mexico. We estimated cumulative incidence in the Mexican population to be 0·7% compared to 0·003% reported by officials in Mexico at the end of April. This method could be useful in estimation of actual cases during new influenza pandemics for policy makers to better determine appropriate control measures.

  3. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  4. Surveillance Length and Validity of Benchmarks for Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection Incidence Rates in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Fontela, Patricia S.; Quach, Caroline; Buckeridge, David; Pai, Madukhar; Platt, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Several national and regional central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) surveillance programs do not require continuous hospital participation. We evaluated the effect of different hospital participation requirements on the validity of annual CLABSI incidence rate benchmarks for intensive care units (ICUs). Methods We estimated the annual pooled CLABSI incidence rates for both a real regional (<100 ICUs) and a simulated national (600 ICUs) surveillance program, which were used as a reference for the simulations. We simulated scenarios where the annual surveillance participation was randomly or non-randomly reduced. Each scenario's annual pooled CLABSI incidence rate was estimated and compared to the reference rates in terms of validity, bias, and proportion of simulation iterations that presented valid estimates (ideal if≥90%). Results All random scenarios generated valid CLABSI incidence rates estimates (bias −0.37 to 0.07 CLABSI/1000 CVC-days), while non-random scenarios presented a wide range of valid estimates (0 to 100%) and higher bias (−2.18 to 1.27 CLABSI/1000 CVC-days). In random scenarios, the higher the number of participating ICUs, the shorter the participation required to generate ≥90% valid replicates. While participation requirements in a countrywide program ranged from 3 to 13 surveillance blocks (1 block = 28 days), requirements for a regional program ranged from 9 to 13 blocks. Conclusions Based on the results of our model of national CLABSI reporting, the shortening of participation requirements may be suitable for nationwide ICU CLABSI surveillance programs if participation months are randomly chosen. However, our regional models showed that regional programs should opt for continuous participation to avoid biased benchmarks. PMID:22586480

  5. Incidence and case fatality rates of stroke subtypes in a multiethnic population: the South London Stroke Register

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, C; Rudd, A; Howard, R; Coshall, C; Stewart, J; Lawrence, E; Hajat, C; Hillen, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To identify sociodemographic differences in the incidence of the subtypes of first ever stroke in a multiethnic population. Methods: A prospective community stroke register (1995–8) was developed using multiple notification sources and pathological and clinical classifications of stroke. Standardisation of rates was to European and World populations and adjusted for age, sex and socioeconomic status in multivariate analyses. A multiethnic population of 234 533 in south London, of whom 21% are black was studied. Results: A total of 1254 cases were registered. The average age of stroke was 71.7 years with black patients being 11.3 years younger than white patients (p<0.0001). The incidence rate/1000 population was 1.33 (crude) (95% CI 1.26 to 1.41), 1.28 (European adjusted) (95% CI 1.2 to 1.35) with a 2.18 (95% CI 1.86 to 2.56) (p<0.0001) age and sex adjusted incidence rate ratio in the black population. Radiological diagnosis was confirmatory in 1107 (88.3%) with 862 (68.7%) infarction, 168 (13.4%) primary intracerebral haemorrhage, and 77 (6.2%) subarachnoid haemorrhage. Of the cerebral infarction cases 189 (21.9%) were total anterior circulatory, 250 (29%) partial anterior, 141 (16.4%) posterior (POCI) and 282 (32.7%) lacunar infarcts. The black group had a significantly higher incidence of all subtypes of stroke except for POCI and unclassified strokes. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for men compared with women was 1.34 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.19 to 1.50; p<0.001). The IRR for manual versus non-manual occupations in those aged 35–64 years was 1.64 (95%CI 1.22 to 2.23; p<0.0001). There was a borderline significant increase in adjusted survival at 6 months in the black group 95% (CI 0.61 to 1.03, p=0.078) with a hazard ratio of 0.79 after adjustment and stratification. Conclusions: Although the black population is at increased risk of stroke and most subtypes of stroke, this is not translated into significant differences in survival

  6. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary. PMID:26133134

  7. Comparison of the Cumulative Incidence Rates of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis between 1970 and 2013 among Four State-Owned Colliery Groups in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Han, Bing; Yuan, Juxiang; Suo, Xia; Qin, Tianbang; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie

    2015-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the incidence characteristics of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) based on data from four large state-owned colliery groups of China, by comparing the cumulative incidence rates of CWP. We investigated 87,904 coal workers from the Datong, Kailuan, Fuxin, and Tiefa Colliery Groups, who were exposed to dust for at least 1 year. The cumulative incidence rate of CWP was calculated with the life-table method and stratified analysis among coal workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. Our results showed the cumulative incidence rate of Datong was higher than that of any other colliery group among workers with different occupational categories during different years of first dust exposure. For Datong workers who started their dust exposure in the 1970s, the cumulative incidence rates of CWP among tunneling, mining, combining, and helping workers were 34.77%, 10.20%, 34.59%, and 4.91% during the observed time of 34 years, respectively. For those in the 1980s, the cumulative incidence rates were 32.29%, 13.51%, 2.98%, and 0.47%, respectively. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. In conclusion, the Datong colliery has the highest cumulative incidence rate of CWP among the four studied collieries, followed by Kailuan. The cumulative incidence rates of Fuxin and Tiefa were the lowest. Additional dust-proofing measures for decreasing dust concentrations are still necessary.

  8. The Faroese IBD Study: Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Across 54 Years of Population-based Data

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Turid; Nielsen, Kári R.; Munkholm, Pia; Burisch, Johan; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs] include Crohn’s disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC], and IBD unclassified [IBDU]. In 2010 and 2011, the ECCO-EpiCom study found the worldwide highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in the Faroe Islands: 83 per 100 000 [European Standard Population, ESP]. The present study assessed the long-term time trends in IBD incidence in the Faroese population. Methods: In this population-based study, data were retrieved from the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands and included all incident cases of CD, UC, and IBDU diagnosed between July 1960 and July 2014. Patients of all ages were included and diagnoses were defined according to the Copenhagen Diagnostic Criteria. Results: A total of 664 incident IBD patients were diagnosed: 113 with CD, 417 with UC, and 134 with IBDU. Of these, 51 [8%] were diagnosed with paediatric-onset IBD. Between 1960 and 1979, a total of 55 persons were diagnosed; 105 in 1980–89; 166 in 1990–99; 180 in 2000–09; and 158 in 2010–14. This represented an increase in the age-standardised IBD incidence rate from 7, 25, 40, and 42 to 74 per 100 000 [ESP]. For CD, the increase was from 1 to 10, for UC from 4 to 44, and for IBDU from 2 to 21 per 100 000 [ESP]. Conclusions: The high IBD incidence was found to be a relatively new phenomenon. The observed increase is unlikely to be an artefact resulting from, for instance, better registration. Our study indicated a real and increasing disease burden resulting from changing—so far unidentified—exposures. PMID:26933031

  9. Genetic parameters of body weight and ascites in broilers: effect of different incidence rates of ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpanah, J; Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N; Shadparvar, A A; Pakdel, A

    2017-02-01

    1. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of incidence rate (5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 50%) of ascites syndrome on the expression of genetic characteristics for body weight at 5 weeks of age (BW5) and AS and to compare different methods of genetic parameter estimation for these traits. 2. Based on stochastic simulation, a population with discrete generations was created in which random mating was used for 10 generations. Two methods of restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling were used for the estimation of genetic parameters. A bivariate model including maternal effects was used. The root mean square error for direct heritabilities was also calculated. 3. The results showed that when incidence rates of ascites increased from 5% to 30%, the heritability of AS increased from 0.013 and 0.005 to 0.110 and 0.162 for linear and threshold models, respectively. 4. Maternal effects were significant for both BW5 and AS. Genetic correlations were decreased by increasing incidence rates of ascites in the population from 0.678 and 0.587 at 5% level of ascites to 0.393 and -0.260 at 50% occurrence for linear and threshold models, respectively. 5. The RMSE of direct heritability from true values for BW5 was greater based on a linear-threshold model compared with the linear model of analysis (0.0092 vs. 0.0015). The RMSE of direct heritability from true values for AS was greater based on a linear-linear model (1.21 vs. 1.14). 6. In order to rank birds for ascites incidence, it is recommended to use a threshold model because it resulted in higher heritability estimates compared with the linear model and that BW5 could be one of the main components of selection goals.

  10. Incidence and mutation rates of Huntington's disease in Spain: experience of 9 years of direct genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Arroyo, M; Moreno, S; Valiente, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Prior to the discovery of the Huntington's disease (HD) mutation, the prevalence, incidence, and new mutation rates for this disease were based on the presence of progressive choreic movements and a positive family history. Objective: To evaluate the uptake of the HD genetic analysis in Spain, and to provide additional information on the epidemiology of this disease from the experience of 9 years of direct genetic testing. Methods: From 1994 to 2002, CAG repeat length was determined in 317 patients with symptoms compatible with HD. In all cases, demographic, clinical, and family data were carefully reviewed. Results: HD diagnosis (CAG repeat length ⩾36) was confirmed in 166 (52%) symptomatic cases. Of these, 76 (45.8%) reported a positive family history and in 21 cases (12.7%) family history was negative. New mutation events were genetically proven in three families and highly suspected in another, estimating that the minimum new mutation rate for HD in our population is >4%, with a potential mutation rate of 8%. More than 16% of all HD cases had late onset (>59 years) of symptoms, and in three quarters of these the family history was negative. The incidence rate for the autonomous communities of Navarra and the Basque country, based on the number of newly diagnosed cases by genetic testing, was 4.7 per million per year. Conclusions: Direct HD genetic testing shows that the incidence and mutation rates of the disease are 2–3 times higher than previously reported. We also demonstrated the relevance of CAG repeat length assessment in diagnosing patients with late onset of symptoms and negative family history for HD. PMID:15716522

  11. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  12. Correlation of West Nile Virus Incidence in Donated Blood with West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease Rates, United States, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Betsem, Edouard; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Stramer, Susan L.; Shaz, Beth; Sayers, Merlyn; LeParc, German; Custer, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across the United States. We aggregated blood donor data from 2010–2012 and then calculated the incidence of WNV RNA–positive donations and compared the incidence with neuroinvasive disease (NID) case data from the ArboNET surveillance system. Of 10,107,853 donations, 640 were confirmed positive. The seasonal WNV incidence rate per 100,000 persons was 33.4 (95% CI 22–45) in 2010, 25.7 (95% CI 15–34) in 2011, and 119.9 (95% CI 98–141) in 2012. NID to blood donor ratios were 1 in 164 (95% CI 152–178) in 2010, 1 in 158 (95% CI 145–174) in 2011, and 1 in 131 (95% CI 127–136) in 2012. We updated estimates of the ratio of NID to WNV infection rates, demonstrating stable disease penetrance over the study period. Blood donor WNV RNA screening is a valuable public health tool for WNV surveillance. PMID:27935796

  13. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should

  14. High-Repetition-Rate Grazing-Incidence Pumped X-Ray Laser Operating at 18.9 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, R.; Dunn, J.; Patel, P. K.; Price, D. F.; Smith, R. F.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.

    2005-03-01

    We have demonstrated a 10 Hz Ni-like Mo x-ray laser operating at 18.9 nm with 150 mJ total pump energy by employing a novel pumping scheme. The grazing-incidence scheme is described, where a picosecond pulse is incident at a grazing angle to a Mo plasma column produced by a slab target irradiated by a 200 ps laser pulse. This scheme uses refraction of the short pulse at a predetermined electron density to increase absorption to pump a specific gain region. The higher coupling efficiency inherent to this scheme allows a reduction in the pump energy where 70 mJ long pulse energy and 80 mJ short pulse energy are sufficient to produce lasing at a 10 Hz repetition rate. Under these conditions and by optimizing the delay between the pulses, we achieve strong amplification and close to saturation for 4 mm long targets.

  15. Comparison of age- and sex-specific incidence rate patterns of the leukemia complex in the cat and the dog.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R

    1983-05-01

    Data on cancer cases in cats and dogs were collected systematically by the Animal Neoplasm Registry of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, Calif., a population-based animal tumor registry. Etiologic relationships were evaluated on the basis of comparisons of age-specific, sex-specific, and age-neutered-specific incidence rate patterns of the leukemias. Age-adjusted annual incidence rates for all leukemias per 100,000 cats or dogs were 224.3 and 30.5, respectively. The cat had 6.1 times more malignant lymphomas and 15.7 times more myeloproliferative disease than the dog. Feline age-specific rates indicated a bimodal age pattern for all leukemias and for malignant lymphoma alone and a single early peak for myeloproliferative disease. In the dog, all age-specific patterns increased with age and peaked later in life. Feline sex-specific, age-adjusted rates showed that the neutered female was at lowest risk, followed by the neutered male, entire female, and entire male. In the dog, the neutered male was at lowest risk while the other three sex categories were clustered. However, the magnitude of expression within each species separately was the same for the neutered male, entire male, and entire female, but not for the neutered female. Neutering decreased the risk of leukemias in the female cat by approximately one-half but did not affect the risk of leukemias in the female dog.

  16. Time trends (1998-2007) in brain cancer incidence rates in relation to mobile phone use in England.

    PubMed

    de Vocht, Frank; Burstyn, Igor; Cherrie, John W

    2011-07-01

    Mobile phone use in the United Kingdom and other countries has risen steeply since the early 1990's when the first digital mobile phones were introduced. There is an ongoing controversy about whether radio frequency (RF) exposure from mobile phones increases the risk of brain cancer. However, given the widespread use and nearly two decades elapsing since mobile phones were introduced, an association should have produced a noticeable increase in the incidence of brain cancer by now. Trends in rates of newly diagnosed brain cancer cases in England between 1998 and 2007 were examined. There were no time trends in overall incidence of brain cancers for either gender, or any specific age group. Systematic increases in rates for cancers of the temporal lobe in men (0.04 new cases/year) and women (0.02/year) were observed, along with decreases in the rates of cancers of the parietal lobe (-0.03/year), cerebrum (-0.02/year) and cerebellum (-0.01/year) in men only. The increased use of mobile phones between 1985 and 2003 has not led to a noticeable change in the incidence of brain cancer in England between 1998 and 2007. The observed increase in the rate of cancers in the temporal lobe, if caused by mobile phone use, would constitute <1 additional case per 100,000 people in that period. These data do not indicate a pressing need to implement a precautionary principle by means of population-wide interventions to reduce RF exposure from mobile phones.

  17. Updated fracture incidence rates for the US version of FRAX (registered trademark)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of results produced by the US version of FRAX (trademarked) indicates that this tool overestimates the likelihood of major osteoporotic fracture. In an attempt to correct this, we updated underlying baseline fracture rates for the model. We used US hospital discharge data from 2006 to ca...

  18. Tracing the incidence of X-ray AGN and their distribution of accretion rates across the galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, James; Coil, Alison; Georgakakis, Antonis; Nandra, Kirpal

    2016-08-01

    X-ray selection provides a powerful method of identifying AGN across a variety of host galaxies and with a wide range of accretion rates. However, careful consideration of the underlying selection biases are vital to reveal the true underlying distribution of accretion rates and determine how the incidence of AGN is related to the properties of the galaxies that host them. I will present new measurements of the distribution of specific accretion rates (scaled relative to the total host galaxy mass, roughly tracing the Eddington ratio) within both star-forming and quiescent galaxy populations. We combine near-infrared selected samples of galaxies from the CANDELS/3D-HST and UltraVISTA surveys with deep Chandra X-ray data and use an advanced Bayesian technique to constrain the underlying distribution of specific accretion rates as a function of stellar mass and redshift. Our results reveal a broad distribution of accretion rates (reflecting long-term variability in the level of AGN fuelling) in both galaxy types. The probability of a star-forming galaxy hosting an AGN (above a fixed specific accretion rate) has a strong stellar mass dependence - revealing an intrinsically higher incidence of AGN in massive star-forming galaxies - and undergoes a stellar-mass-dependent evolution with redshift. The probability of a quiescent galaxy hosting an AGN is generally lower but does not depend on stellar mass and evolves differently with redshift. These results provide vital insights into the relationship between the growth of black hole and the physical properties of their host galaxies.

  19. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates by Histological Type in 1975–2008: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Fukuaki Lee; Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality is important for the evaluation of cancer control activities. We investigated recent trends in age-standardized incidence rates by histological type of lung cancer in Osaka, Japan. Methods Cancer incidence data for 1975–2008 were obtained from the Osaka Cancer Registry. Lung cancer mortality data with population data in Osaka during 1975–2012 were obtained from vital statistics. We examined trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for all histological types and age-standardized incidence rates by histological type and age group using a joinpoint regression model. Results The age-standardized incidence rate of lung cancer levelled off or slightly increased from 1975–2008, with an annual percentage change of 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%–0.4%) for males and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9%–1.3%) for females, and the mortality rate decreased by 0.9% (95% CI, 1.2%–0.7%) for males and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.8%–0.3%) for females. The incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and small cell carcinoma (SMC) significantly decreased for both genders, whereas that of adenocarcinoma (ADC) significantly increased among almost all age groups in both genders. Conclusions The incidence rates of SQC and SMC decreased with the decline in smoking prevalence, which probably explains the change in trends in the incidence rates of lung cancer from the mid-1980s. However, the reason for the increase in ADC remains unclear. Therefore, trends in incidence rates of lung cancer should be carefully monitored, especially for ADC, and the associations between ADC and its possible risk factors should be studied. PMID:27150013

  20. Effect of cardiovascular prevention strategies on incident coronary disease hospitalisation rates in Spain; an ecological time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Medrano, María José; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Ortíz, Cristina; Galán, Iñaki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the overall population impact of primary prevention strategies (promotion of healthy lifestyles, prevention of smoking and use of vascular risk drug therapy) of coronary disease in Spain. Design Ecological time series analysis, 1982–2009. Setting All public and private hospitals in Spain. Participants General population. Outcome Incident coronary disease hospitalisation as derived from official hospital discharge data. Methods Annual hospitalisation rates were modelled according to nationwide use of statins, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and antiplatelet drugs, and prevalences of smoking, obesity and overweight. Additive generalised models and mixed Poisson regression models were used for the purpose, taking year as the random-effect variable and adjusting for age, sex, prevalence of vascular risk factors and the number of hospital beds in intensive and coronary care units. Results Across 28 years and 671.5 million person-years of observation, there were 2 986 834 hospitalisations due to coronary disease; of these, 1 441 980 (48.28%) were classified as incident. Hospitalisation rates increased from 1982 to 1996, with an inflection point in 1997 and a subsequent 52% decrease until 2009. Prevalences of smoking, obesity, overweight and use of vascular risk drug therapy were significantly associated with hospitalisation rates (p<0.001): incidence rates ratios (95% CI) for the fourth versus the first quartile were 1.46 (1.42 to 1.50), 1.80 (1.78 to 1.83), 1.58 (1.55 to 1.60) and 0.57 (0.51 to 0.63), respectively. These variables accounted for 92% of interannual variability. Conclusions After decades of continuous rises, hospitalisation due to incident ischaemic heart disease has been cut by half, an achievement associated with the decline in smoking and the increase in vascular risk drug therapy. These results indicate that these two primary prevention strategies have been effective at a population level, thanks to an appropriate balance

  1. Global stability for an HIV-1 infection model with Beddington-DeAngelis incidence rate and CTL immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Cuifang; Huang, Lihong; Yuan, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an HIV-1 infection model with Beddington-DeAngelis incidence rate and CTL immune response is investigated. One main feature of this model is that an eclipse stage for the infected cells is included and a portion of these cells is reverted to uninfected cells. We derive the basic reproduction number R1 and the immune response reproduction number R2 for the HIV-1 infection model. By constructing Lyapunov functions, the global stabilities for the equilibria have been analyzed.

  2. Ultraviolet B Irradiance and Incidence Rates of Bladder Cancer in 174 Countries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Schistosoma hemato- bium is highly prevalent in Egypt, 35 and chronic infection with it has been shown to substantially increase risk of bladder cancer ...rates of bladder cancer in a few European countries may be due in part to the extremely high prevalence of cigarette smok- ing in those countries in the...Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin D. GLOHOCAN 2002: cancer inci- dence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. IARC Cancer Base No.5. version 2.0. www

  3. The incidence and mortality rates of neuroblastoma cases before and after the cessation of the mass screening program in Japan: A descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Takafumi; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Katanoda, Kota; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Ito, Yuri; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2017-02-01

    In 2003, Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare halted the neuroblastoma (NB) mass screening program, running since 1985. This study aimed to examine whether NB incidence and mortality changed before and after the program halted. This is a descriptive population-based study. We used data from the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project, Vital Statistics of Japan, and Japanese CANcer Survival Information for Society (J-CANSIS). Incidence rate, cumulative incidence rate, mortality rate, cumulative mortality rate, and relative 5-year survival for NB were calculated. Children were divided into two birth cohort groups, consisting of children born before, or after the cessation of the NB mass screening program. We compared the two cohorts, with regards to the cumulative incidence and mortality rates at 5 years old. The incidence rate was lower after the cessation of the NB mass screening program. There was no substantial change in the mortality rate, and no significant variation in the relative 5-year survival between groups. The cumulative incidence rate in the latter cohort was significantly lower than that in the former cohort (rate ratio: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.25-0.61, p < 0.001). No significant difference in the cumulative mortality rate between the two cohorts was observed (rate ratio: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.80-1.22, p = 0.93). The NB incidence rate decreased markedly and the mortality rate did not substantially change after the cessation of the NB mass screening program. The NB mass screening program probably caused overdiagnosis, and its effectiveness was not clear.

  4. A Multicountry Ecological Study of Cancer Incidence Rates in 2008 with Respect to Various Risk-Modifying Factors

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William B.

    2013-01-01

    Observational and ecological studies are generally used to determine the presence of effect of cancer risk-modifying factors. Researchers generally agree that environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and low serum 25-hdyroxyvitamin D levels are important cancer risk factors. This ecological study used age-adjusted incidence rates for 21 cancers for 157 countries (87 with high-quality data) in 2008 with respect to dietary supply and other factors, including per capita gross domestic product, life expectancy, lung cancer incidence rate (an index for smoking), and latitude (an index for solar ultraviolet-B doses). The factors found to correlate strongly with multiple types of cancer were lung cancer (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer), energy derived from animal products (direct correlation with 12 types of cancer, inverse with two), latitude (direct correlation with six types, inverse correlation with three), and per capita gross national product (five types). Life expectancy and sweeteners directly correlated with three cancers, animal fat with two, and alcohol with one. Consumption of animal products correlated with cancer incidence with a lag time of 15–25 years. Types of cancer which correlated strongly with animal product consumption, tended to correlate weakly with latitude; this occurred for 11 cancers for the entire set of countries. Regression results were somewhat different for the 87 high-quality country data set and the 157-country set. Single-country ecological studies have inversely correlated nearly all of these cancers with solar ultraviolet-B doses. These results can provide guidance for prevention of cancer. PMID:24379012

  5. Incidence Rate of Post-Intubation Tracheal Stenosis in Patients Admitted to Five Intensive Care Units in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farzanegan, Roya; Farzanegan, Behrooz; Zangi, Mahdi; Golestani Eraghi, Majid; Noorbakhsh, Shahram; Doozandeh Tabarestani, Neda; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam

    2016-01-01

    Background Tracheal stenosis is one of the worst complications associated with endotracheal intubation and it is the most common reason for reconstructive airway surgeries. Due to various local risk factors, the incidence rate of tracheal stenosis may vary in different countries. In order to estimate the incidence rate of post-intubation tracheal stenosis (PITS) in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), a follow-up study was planned. As there was no similar methodological model in the literature, a feasibility step was also designed to examine the whole project and to enhance the follow-up rate. Objectives To estimate the PITS incidence rate in patients admitted to ICUs, as well as to evaluate the feasibility of the study. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted in five hospitals in two provinces (Tehran and Arak) of Iran from November 2011 to March 2013. All patients admitted to ICUs who underwent more than 24 hours of endotracheal intubation were included. Upon their discharge from the ICUs, the patients received oral and written educational materials intended to ensure a more successful follow-up. The patients were asked to come back for follow-up three months after their extubation, or sooner in case of any symptoms developing. Those with dyspnea or stridor underwent a bronchoscopy. The asymptomatic patients were given a spirometry and then they underwent a bronchoscopy if the flow-volume loop suggested airway stenosis. Results Some seventy-three patients (70% men) were included in the study. Multiple trauma secondary to motor vehicle accidents (52%) was the most common cause of intubation. Follow-ups were completed in only 14 (19.2%, CI = 0.109 - 0.300) patients. One patient (7%, CI = 0.007 - 0.288) developed symptomatic tracheal stenosis that was confirmed by bronchoscopy. The barriers to a successful follow-up were assessed on three levels: ineffective oral education upon discharge, improper usage of educational materials, and

  6. Modeling the influence of incident angle and deposition rate on a nanostructure grown by oblique angle deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun-Dar; Dong, Yu-Wei

    2017-02-01

    In this study, numerical approaches were applied to theoretically investigate the influence of process parameters, such as the incident angle and the deposition rate, on the nanostructural formation of thin films by oblique angle deposition (OAD). A continuum model was first developed, and the atomic diffusion, shadowing effect and steering effect were incorporated in the formation mechanisms of the surface morphology and nanostructure of the deposited films. A characteristic morphology of columnar nanorods corresponding to an OAD was well reproduced through this kinetic model. With the increase of the incident angle, the shadowing effect played a significant role in the columnar structures and the ratio of the surface area to volume was raised, implying a high level of voids in the nanostructures. When the deposition rate decreased, the porosity was notably suppressed due to the atomic diffusion in the growth process. These simulation results coincide well with many experimental observations. With the manipulation of the numerical simulations, the underlying mechanisms of the morphological formation during OAD were revealed, which also provided plentiful information to stimulate the process designs for manufacturing advanced materials.

  7. Risk factors and geographical heterogeneity in unintentional home injuries incidence rate: new evidence based on Multiscopo survey in Italy.

    PubMed

    Snidero, Silvia; Rahim, Yousif; Berchialla, Paola; Gregori, Dario

    2007-12-01

    Home injuries together, with road traffic accidents, are estimated to be the third cause of death in Italy (Arokiasamy and Krishnan 1994). However, as in most other countries, in Italy there is a lack of information on home injuries and on how differences in geographical patterns may influence the scope and magnitude of this phenomenon. By analysing a multipurpose large survey (Multiscopo) carried out annually, geographical heterogeneity in home injuries incidence rate can be investigated. The aim of this study is the assessment of possible differences in geographical patterns among the Italian regions making use of a re-analysis of Multiscopo home injury data. The study results show that Italian regions differ greatly in the number of home injuries. The geographical heterogeneity may be due to the unemployment rate and the incidence of poverty that is greater in the Southern and Insular regions than in other zones. Other socio-economic variables such as alcohol consumption can increase the risk of injury in the home. To prevent them it could be useful to organize campaigns aimed at increasing the awareness among people about this problem.

  8. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Norovirus in the Community and Presenting to Primary Healthcare Facilities in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Sarah J.; Donaldson, Anna L.; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Tam, Clarence C.

    2016-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study and a study of primary-healthcare consultations, we had a rare opportunity to estimate age-specific rates of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease in the United Kingdom. Rates in children aged <5 years were significantly higher than those for other age groups in the community (142.6 cases per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval {CI}, 99.8–203.9] vs 37.6 [95% CI, 31.5–44.7]) and those for individuals presenting to primary healthcare (14.4 cases per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 8.5–24.5] vs 1.4 [95% CI, .9–2.0]). Robust incidence estimates are crucial for vaccination policy makers. This study emphasises the impact of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease, especially in children aged <5 years. PMID:26744427

  9. The Rate of Epistaxis Incidence in New-Generation Anticoagulants and Perioperative Approach in Otorhinolaryngological Practices.

    PubMed

    Gökdoğan, Ozan; Akyildiz, Ilker; Sayin, Begum Yetis; Okutucu, Sercan; Tanalp, Ali Cevat; Arslan, Necmi

    2017-03-01

    Nose bleeding is a common situation seen in otorhinolaryngological practices. One of the greatest risk factors in nose bleeding is the use of anticoagulant medicine. With the medicine developed in recent years, the risk of nose bleeding due to the frequent use of anticoagulant and antiagregant is gradually increasing.The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of especially new-generation anticoagulants on nose bleeding. In addition, the use and complications of new-generation anticoagulants and antiagregants have been compiled in light of information obtained from the literature.Three hundred forty patients whose follow-up is conducted by the cardiology department and who use oral antithrombocytic medicine have been included in the study. It has been determined that 15% of these patients use new-generation oral anticoagulants (Rivaroksaban, apiksaban, dabigatran, danaparoid) and the other patients are treated with conventional antithrombocytic treatment (Aspirin, Warfarin, Enoksaparin sodium). The rate of nose bleeding in patients who use classical anticoagulants has been observed to be 28%. In 30 of these patients who had nose bleeding, while cauterization and buffering by otorhinolaryngology specialists, major intervention has not been necessary for any of the patients. While bleeding has been observed in 26% of the patients who use new-generation anticoagulants, bleeding that required operational intervention has taken place in 2 patients. Bleedings have been stopped surgically through a large number of cauterization and buffering.While the new-generation anticoagulants cause lower rate of bleeding, it has been observed that controlling these bleedings is more difficult.

  10. Severe maternal morbidity from direct obstetric causes in West Africa: incidence and case fatality rates.

    PubMed Central

    Prual, A.; Bouvier-Colle, M. H.; de Bernis, L.; Bréart, G.

    2000-01-01

    Data on maternal morbidity make it possible to assess how many women are likely to need essential obstetric care, and permit the organization, monitoring and evaluation of safe motherhood programmes. In the present paper we propose operational definitions of severe maternal morbidity and report the frequency of such morbidity as revealed in a population-based survey of a cohort of 20,326 pregnant women in six West African countries. The methodology and questionnaires were the same in all areas. Each pregnant woman had four contacts with the obstetric survey team: at inclusion, between 32 and 36 weeks of amenorrhoea, during delivery and 60 days postpartum. Direct obstetric causes of severe morbidity were observed in 1215 women (6.17 cases per 100 live births). This ratio varied significantly between areas, from 3.01% in Bamako to 9.05% in Saint-Louis. The main direct causes of severe maternal morbidity were: haemorrhage (3.05 per 100 live births); obstructed labour (2.05 per 100), 23 cases of which involved uterine rupture (0.12 per 100); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0.64 per 100), 38 cases of which involved eclampsia (0.19 per 100); and sepsis (0.09 per 100). Other direct obstetric causes accounted for 12.2% of cases. Case fatality rates were very high for sepsis (33.3%), uterine rupture (30.4%) and eclampsia (18.4%); those for haemorrhage varied from 1.9% for antepartum or peripartum haemorrhage to 3.7% for abruptio placentae. Thus at least 3-9% of pregnant women required essential obstetric care. The high case fatality rates of several complications reflected a poor quality of obstetric care. PMID:10859853

  11. Evaluation of incidence rates in pre-clinical studies using a Williams-type procedure.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Ludwig A; Sill, Martin; Schaarschmidt, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of dose-response relationships is a common problem in pre-clinical studies. For example, proportions such as mortality rates and histopathological findings are of particular interest in repeated toxicity studies. Commonly applied designs consist of an untreated control group and several, possibly unequally spaced, dosage groups. The Williams test can be formulated as a multiple contrast test and is a powerful option to evaluate such data. In this paper, we consider simultaneous inference for Williams-type multiple contrasts when the response variable is binomial and sample sizes are only moderate. Approximate simultaneous confidence limits can be constructed using the quantiles of a multivariate normal distribution taking the correlation into account. Alternatively, multiplicity-adjusted p-values can be calculated as well. A simulation study shows that a simple correction based on adding pseudo observations leads to acceptable performance for moderate sample sizes, such as 40 per group. In addition, the calculation of adjusted p-values and approximate power is presented. Finally, the proposed methods are applied to example data from two toxicological studies; the methods are available in an R-package.

  12. Centenarian Rates and Life Expectancy Related to the Death Rates of Multiple Sclerosis, Asthma, and Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Children.

    PubMed

    Lens-Pechakova, Lilia S

    2016-02-01

    The autoimmune diseases are among the 10 leading causes of death for women and the number two cause of chronic illness in America as well as a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Patients of some autoimmune diseases have shown a shorter life span and are a model of accelerated immunosenescence. Conversely, centenarians are used as a model of successful aging and have shown several immune parameters that are better preserved and lower levels of autoantibodies. The study reported here focused on clarifying the connection between longevity and some autoimmune and allergic diseases in 29 developed Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, because multidisciplinary analyses of the accelerated or delayed aging data could show a distinct relationship pattern, help to identify common factors, and determine new important factors that contribute to longevity and healthy aging. The relationships between the mortality rates data of multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), asthma, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) from one side and centenarian rates (two sets) as well as life expectancy data from the other side were assessed using regression models and Pearson correlation coefficients. The data obtained correspond to an inverse linear correlation with different degrees of linearity. This is the first observation of a clear tendency of diminishing centenarian rates or life expectancy in countries having higher death rates of asthma, MS, and RA and a higher incidence of T1D in children. The conclusion is that most probably there are common mechanistic pathways and factors affecting the above diseases and at the same time but in the opposite direction the processes of longevity. Further study, comparing genetic data, mechanistic pathways, and other factors connected to autoimmune diseases with those of longevity could clarify the processes involved, so as to promote longevity and limit the expansion of those

  13. Trends in Stage-Specific Incidence Rates for Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder in the United States: 1988 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Matthew E.; Smith, Angela B.; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Tyree, Seth; Kim, William Y.; Milowsky, Matthew I.; Pruthi, Raj S.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is notable for a striking heterogeneity of disease-specific risks. Among the approximately 75% of incident cases found to be superficial to the muscularis propria at the time of presentation (non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer), the risk of progression to the lethal phenotype of muscle-invasive disease is strongly associated with stage and grade of disease. Given the suggestion of an increasing percentage of low-risk cases in hospital-based registry data in recent years, the authors hypothesized that population-based data may reveal changes in the stage distribution of early-stage cases. METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data were used to examine trends for the stage-specific incidence of bladder cancer between 1988 and 2006, adjusted for age, race, and sex, using Joinpoint and nonparametric tests. RESULTS: The adjusted incidence rate of papillary noninvasive (Ta) predominantly low grade (77%) disease was found to increase from 5.52 to 9.09 per 100,000 population (P <.0001), with an average annual percentage change of +3.3. Over the same period, concomitant, albeit smaller, decreases were observed for flat in situ (Tis) and lamina propria-invasive (T1) disease (2.57 to 1.19 and 6.65 to 4.61 per 100,000 population [both P <.0001]; average annual percent change of −5.0 and −1.6, respectively). The trend was most dramatic among patients in the oldest age strata, suggesting a previously unappreciated cohort phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study should motivate further epidemiological investigations of differential associations of genetic and environmental factors with different bladder cancer phenotypes as well as further scrutiny of clinical practice guideline recommendations for the growing subgroup of predominantly older patients with lower-risk disease. PMID:24122346

  14. The Incidence Rate and Economic Burden of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in a Working-Age Population

    PubMed Central

    Broulette, Jonah; Yu, Holly; Pyenson, Bruce; Iwasaki, Kosuke; Sato, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently associated with the very young and the elderly but is a largely underrecognized burden among working-age adults. Although the burden of CAP among the elderly has been established, there are limited data on the economic burden of CAP in the employed population. Objective To assess the economic impact of CAP in US working-age adults from an employer perspective by estimating the incidence rate and costs of healthcare, sick time, and short-term disability for this patient population. Methods This retrospective cohort study is based on data from 2 Truven Health Analytics databases. The study population consisted of commercially insured active employees aged 18 to 64 years, early retirees aged <65 years, and adult dependents of both cohorts. CAP was identified using medical claims with pneumonia diagnosis codes during the 2009 calendar year. Incidence rate, episode level, and annual costs were stratified by age and by risk based on the presence of comorbidities. Descriptive statistics were used to compare healthcare (ie, medical and pharmacy) costs, sick time, and short-term disability costs between the cohorts with and without CAP. Linear regression was used to estimate the average annual incremental healthcare cost in employed patients with inpatient or outpatient CAP versus individuals without CAP. Results Study eligibility was met by 12,502,017 employed individuals, including 123,920 with CAP and 12,378,097 without CAP; the overall incidence rate of CAP was 10.6 per 1000 person-years. Among individuals with and without CAP, the costs of healthcare, sick time, and short-term disability increased with advancing age and with higher risk status. The mean annual healthcare costs were $20,961 for patients with CAP and $3783 for individuals without CAP. Overall, the mean costs of sick time and short-term disability were $1129 and $1016, respectively, in active employees with CAP, and $853 and $322, respectively

  15. Comparison of Age- Standard Incidence Rate Trends of Gynecologic and Breast Cancer in Iran and Other Countries

    PubMed Central

    ARAB, Maliheh; NOGHABAEI, Giti

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Female cancer, especially breast and gynecologic cancers are considered multistage disease, highly influenced by risk and protective factors and/or screening preventive modalities. Consequences of all these factors result in the trend of change over time. Methods In this comparative study, based on data of national cancer registry of Iran 2004 published by Iranian Ministry of Health, age — standard incidence rate (ASR) according to the world population was calculated in all reported gynecologic and breast cancers. Source of all subjects are pathologic based. In the next step, the calculated ASR of Iran and those of the other countries in 2004 were compared to GLOBOCAN ASR reports of 2008. Results In Iran ASR of breast cancer 2004 (24.93) changed to 18.4 in 2008. Ovarian cancer ASR of 2004, 3.07 was 3.1 in 2008. Endometrial cancer ASR in 2004 (2.29) was 1.7 in 2008. Cervical cancer ASR of 1.71 in 2004 was 2.2 in 2008. Conclusions In Iran incidence trend of breast and endometrium are decreasing in the same direction of USA and Australia. Increasing trend of ovary and cervix ASR in Iran is in the inverse direction of USA and Australia which are decreasing. Future studies to find out the same trend or any changes, might develop these findings and improve consequent practical decisions based on results of this study and complementary future studies. PMID:26060699

  16. Prevalence, incidence and progression of hand osteoarthritis in the general population: the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Haugen, Ida K; Englund, Martin; Aliabadi, Piran; Niu, Jingbo; Clancy, Margaret; Kvien, Tore K; Felson, David T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence and longitudinal course of radiographic, erosive and symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (HOA) in the general population. Methods Framingham osteoarthritis (OA) study participants obtained bilateral hand radiographs at baseline and 9-year follow-up. The authors defined radiographic HOA at joint level as Kellgren–Lawrence grade (KLG)≥2, erosive HOA as KLG≥2 plus erosion and symptomatic HOA as KLG≥2 plus pain/aching/stiffness. Presence of HOA at individual level was defined as ≥1 affected joint. The prevalence was age-standardised (US 2000 Population 40–84 years). Results Mean (SD) baseline age was 58.9 (9.9) years (56.5% women). The age-standardised prevalence of HOA was only modestly higher in women (44.2%) than men (37.7%), whereas the age-standardised prevalence of erosive and symptomatic OA was much higher in women (9.9% vs 3.3%, and 15.9% vs 8.2%). The crude incidence of HOA over 9-year follow-up was similar in women (34.6%) and men (33.7%), whereas the majority of those women (96.4%) and men (91.4%) with HOA at baseline showed progression during follow-up. Incident metacarpophalangeal and wrist OA were rare, but occurred more frequently and from an earlier age in men than women. Development of erosive disease occurred mainly in those with non-erosive HOA at baseline (as opposed to those without HOA), and was more frequent in women (17.3%) than men (9.6%). Conclusions The usual female predominance of prevalent and incident HOA was less clear for radiographic HOA than for symptomatic and erosive HOA. With an ageing population, the impact of HOA will further increase. PMID:21622766

  17. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita; Moonsamy, Suri; Abbai, Nathlee Samantha; Wand, Handan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002–2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR) were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old), unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole. PMID:27104835

  18. Global Stability of Delayed Viral Infection Models with Nonlinear Antibody and CTL Immune Responses and General Incidence Rate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical behaviors for a five-dimensional viral infection model with three delays which describes the interactions of antibody, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses, and nonlinear incidence rate are investigated. The threshold values for viral infection, antibody response, CTL immune response, CTL immune competition, and antibody competition, respectively, are established. Under certain assumptions, the threshold value conditions on the global stability of the infection-free, immune-free, antibody response, CTL immune response, and interior equilibria are proved by using the Lyapunov functionals method, respectively. Immune delay as a bifurcation parameter is further investigated. The numerical simulations are performed in order to illustrate the dynamical behavior of the model. PMID:28115980

  19. Incidence of psychotic illness in London: comparison of ethnic groups.

    PubMed Central

    King, M.; Coker, E.; Leavey, G.; Hoare, A.; Johnson-Sabine, E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare annual incidences of psychosis in people from different ethnic groups as defined in the 1991 census. SETTING--Catchment area of district psychiatric hospital. DESIGN--All people aged 16 to 54 years who made contact with a wide range of community and hospital services between 1 July 1991 and 30 June 1992 were screened for psychotic symptoms. Patients with such symptoms were interviewed face to face to collect information on demography, ethnic group, psychiatric history and symptoms, drug use, and how care had been sought. A key informant, usually a close relative, was also interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Age standardised incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis according to the ninth edition of the International Classification of Diseases in each ethnic group. RESULTS--Ninety three patients took part, of whom 38 were assigned a certain or very likely diagnosis of schizophrenia (15 in white population, 14 in black, seven in Asian, and two in others). The age standardised annual incidence of schizophrenia was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2.9) per 10,000 of the population. The incidence ratio for schizophrenia in all ethnic minority groups compared with the white population was 3.6 (1.9 to 7.1); the corresponding figure for non-affective psychosis was 3.7 (2.2 to 6.2). CONCLUSIONS--Raised incidences of schizophrenia were not specific to the African Caribbeans, which suggests that the current focus on schizophrenia in this population is misleading. Members of all ethnic minority groups were more likely to develop a psychosis but not necessarily schizophrenia. The personal and social pressures of belonging to any ethnic minority group in Britain are important determinants in the excess of psychotic disorders found. PMID:7755702

  20. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    PubMed

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  1. A cross-national analysis of the effects of methadone maintenance and needle and syringe program implementation on incidence rates of HIV in Europe from 1995 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Phillip L; McCullagh, Charlotte A

    2016-06-01

    Although many studies have found an association between harm reduction interventions and reductions in incidence rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, scant research explores the effects of harm reduction cross-nationally. This study used a year- and country-level fixed effects model to estimate the potential effects of needle-and-syringe programs (NSPs) and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) on incidence rates of HIV in the general population and among people who inject drugs (PWID), in a sample of 28 European nations. After adjusting for Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and total expenditures on healthcare, we identified significant associations between years of MMT and NSP implementation and lower incidence rates of HIV among PWID and the general population. In addition to years of implementation of NSP and MMT, the greater proportion of GDP spent on healthcare was associated with a decrease in logged incidence rates of HIV. The findings of this study suggest that MMT and NSP may reduce incidence rates of HIV among PWID cross-nationally. The current study opens a new avenue of exploration, which allows for a focus on countrywide policies and economic drivers of the epidemic. Moreover, it highlights the immense importance of the adoption of harm reduction programs as empirically-based health policy as well as the direct benefits that are accrued from public spending on healthcare on incidence rates of HIV within the general population and among subpopulations of PWID.

  2. Quality of drinking water and high incidence rate of esophageal cancer in Golestan province of Iran: a probable link.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Najmeddin, Ali; Rahmani, Farah; Malekzadeh, Ahad

    2012-02-01

    Golestan province in north Iran is known to be a high-risk area for esophageal cancer (EC). Of a long list of multiple risk factors, this study focuses on a possible link between the epidemiologic patterns of EC and the anomalous concentration of some ions and elements in the drinking water sources. A total of 183 samples from 45 villages covering a wide range of EC mortality rates are collected and analyzed. The results demonstrate that NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Sb, and Sr exceed the recommended maximum concentration level (MCL) in drinking water. This is more prominent in the villages with high esophageal cancer mortality rate, suggesting a possible link between EC incidence and water quality. Se concentration in drinking water increases from low to the high EC areas, a finding contrary to the expected trend. It is concluded that Se deficiency does not play a major role in the etiology of EC in the Golestan province. The statistical results obtained from Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests along with cluster analysis are consistent with the observed trend of EC mortality rate in Golestan province.

  3. Changes in Echocardiographic Parameters According to the Rate of Residual Renal Function Decline in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyang Mo; Doh, Fa Mee; Kim, Chan Ho; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Eun Jin; Han, Jae Hyun; Han, Ji Suk; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Residual renal function (RRF) is associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy as well as all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, no studies have yet examined the serial changes in echocardiographic findings according to the rate of RRF decline in incident dialysis patients. A total of 81 patients who started peritoneal dialysis (PD) between 2005 and 2012 at Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea, and who underwent baseline and follow-up echocardiography within the first year of PD were recruited. Patients were dichotomized into “faster” and “slower” RRF decline groups according to the median values of RRF decline slope (−1.60 mL/min/y/1.73 m2). Baseline RRF and echocardiographic parameters were comparable between the 2 groups. During the first year of PD, there were no significant changes in LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), left atrial volume index (LAVI), or LV mass index (LVMI) in the “faster” RRT decline group, while these indices decreased in the “slower” RRT decline group. The rate of RRF decline was a significant determinant of 1-year changes in LVEDVI, LAVI, and LVMI. The linear mixed model further confirmed that there were significant differences in the changes in LVEDVI, LAVI, and LVMI between the 2 groups (P = 0.047, 0.048, and 0.001, respectively). During a mean follow-up duration of 31.9 months, 4 (4.9%) patients died. Compared with the “slower” RRF decline group, CV composite (20.29/100 vs 7.18/100 patient-years [PY], P = 0.098), technique failure (18.80/100 vs 4.19/100 PY, P = 0.006), and PD peritonitis (15.73/100 vs 4.95/100 PY, P = 0.064) developed more frequently in patients with “faster” RRF decline rate. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, patients with “faster” RRF decline rate showed 4.82-, 4.44-, and 7.37-fold higher risks, respectively, for each clinical outcome. Preservation of RRF is important for

  4. Comparison of the Postoperative Incidence Rate of Capsular Contracture among Different Breast Implants: A Cumulative Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Fuqiang; Gao, Yang; Yuan, Xi; Fan, Dongli

    2015-01-01

    Background A large number of clinical studies have reported that the different materials used in breast implants were a possible cause of the different incidence rates of capsular contracture observed in patients after implantation. However, this theory lacks comprehensive support from evidence-based medicine, and considerable controversy remains. Objectives In this study, a cumulative systematic review examined breast augmentation that used implants with textured or smooth surfaces to analyze the effects of these two types of implants on the occurrence of postoperative capsular contracture. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of literature databases, including PubMed and EMBASE, for clinical reports on the incidence of capsular contracture after the implantation of breast prostheses. We performed a cumulative meta-analysis on the incidence of capsular contracture in order from small to large sample sizes and conducted subgroup analyses according to the prosthetic material used, the implant pocket placement, the incision type and the duration of follow-up. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used as the final pooled statistics. Results This meta-analysis included 16 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and two retrospective studies. The cumulative comparison of textured and smooth breast implants showed statistical significance at 2.13 (95% CI, 1.18-3.86) when the fourth study was entered into the analysis. With the inclusion of more reports, the final results indicated that smooth breast implants were more likely to be associated with capsular contracture, with statistical significance at 3.10 (95% CI, 2.23-4.33). In the subgroup analyses, the subgroups based on implant materials included the silicone implant group and the saline implant group, with significant pooled statistical levels of 4.05 (95% CI, 1.97-8.31) and 3.12 (95% CI, 2.19-4.42), respectively. According to implant pocket placement, a subglandular group and a submuscular

  5. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis: A 5-year nationwide population-based study in a country with an intermediate tuberculosis burden.

    PubMed

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis.We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20-99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population.A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57-3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36-1.51).The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies.

  6. Large-Amplitude, High-Rate Roll Oscillations of a 65 deg Delta Wing at High Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Schiff, Lewis B.

    2000-01-01

    The IAR/WL 65 deg delta wing experimental results provide both detail pressure measurements and a wide range of flow conditions covering from simple attached flow, through fully developed vortex and vortex burst flow, up to fully-stalled flow at very high incidence. Thus, the Computational Unsteady Aerodynamics researchers can use it at different level of validating the corresponding code. In this section a range of CFD results are provided for the 65 deg delta wing at selected flow conditions. The time-dependent, three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are used to numerically simulate the unsteady vertical flow. Two sting angles and two large- amplitude, high-rate, forced-roll motions and a damped free-to-roll motion are presented. The free-to-roll motion is computed by coupling the time-dependent RANS equations to the flight dynamic equation of motion. The computed results are compared with experimental pressures, forces, moments and roll angle time history. In addition, surface and off-surface flow particle streaks are also presented.

  7. Incidence and mortality rates in breast, corpus uteri, and ovarian cancers in Poland (1980–2013): an analysis of population-based data in relation to socioeconomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Tomasz; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Nieweglowska, Dorota; Ludwin, Artur; Czerw, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze incidence and mortality trends in breast cancer (BC), corpus uteri cancer (CUC), and ovarian cancer (OC) in Poland in the context of sociodemographic changes. Materials and methods Incidence and mortality data (1980–2013) were retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry, while socioeconomic data (1960–2013) were obtained from the World Bank. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated by direct standardization, and join-point regression was performed to describe trends using the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Results A significant decrease in birth and fertility rates and a large increase in gross domestic product were observed together with a decrease in the total mortality rate among women, as well as an increase in life expectancy for women. A large, significant increase in BC incidence was observed (AAPC1980–1990 2.14, AAPC1990–1996 4.71, AAPC1996–2013 2.21), with a small but significant decrease in mortality after a slight increase (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). During the period 1980–2013, a significant increase in CUC incidence (AAPC1980–1994 3.7, AAPC1994–2013 1.93) was observed, with an initial mortality-rate reduction followed by a significant increase (AAPC1980–2006 −1.12, AAPC2006–2013 3.74). After the initial increase of both OC incidence and mortality from 1994, the incidence rate decreased significantly (AAPC1980–1994 2.98, AAPC1994–2013 −0.49), as did the mortality rate (AAPC1980–1994 0.52, AAPC1994–2013 −0.66). Conclusion After 1994, a decrease in OC incidence was found, while the incidence of BC and CUC continued to increase. A reduction in mortality rate was observed for BC and OC predominantly at the end of the study period, while for CUC, after a long decreasing mortality trend, a significant increase was observed. PMID:27660470

  8. Trends in the annual incidence rates of narcotics felons arrested over the last 30 years in metropolitan Bursa, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akgoz, Semra; Akkaya, Cengiz; Berkay, Fugen; Turkmen, Nursel; Kan, Ismet; Kirli, Selcuk

    2007-07-01

    Illegal substance use is a serious problem all over the world. In order to effectively combat substance abuse it is important that both the particular features of drug users and the culture-specific risk factors that go along with drug abuse be identified. The present study was carried out in Bursa, Turkey, in order to document annual changes in the frequency of felons arrested of narcotics offenses and to establish the socio-demographics of these narcotics felons. Among the 2,230 narcotics felons reviewed, 24.3% had been charged with drug dealing but not consumption (profit-driven felons [PDFs]), 19.0% were narcotics felons charged with both dealing and consumption ([hard core drug users HCDUs]), and 56.7% were narcotics felons charged only with consumption and possession (not so hard core drug users [NHCDUs]). The NHCDUs were younger (< 30 years) than both the HCDUs and PDFs, while most of the PDFs and HCDUs were married. Despite the fact that the male/female ratio of the Bursa population was nearly 1:1 for the past 30 years, 93.0%, 95.0% and 96.0% of the PDFs, HCDUs, and NHCDUs, respectively, were male. It was also found that the most commonly used illicit substance in Bursa over this period of time was cannabis. Over the course of the 30-year period examined, the annual incidence rate of narcotics felons arrested increased from 0.4257 per 10,000 to 1.2389 per 10,000. Determining the socio-demographic characteristics of HCDUs and NHCDUs would be useful in preventing substance use before substance users become addicted.

  9. Estimated glomerular filtration rate within the normal or mildly impaired range and incident non-valvular atrial fibrillation: Results from a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Alon; Haim, Moti; Hoshen, Moshe; Balicer, Ran D; Reges, Orna; Leibowitz, Morton; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Hasdai, David

    2017-01-01

    Background Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, in particular in the significant renal impairment range (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), is associated with incident atrial fibrillation. This association is less established within the normal or mildly impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate range. Methods Using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) estimated glomerular filtration rate formula, we identified ambulatory adults (>22 years old) without rheumatic heart disease or prosthetic valves and with 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)rate<130 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in their index visit, for incident, newly-diagnosed atrial fibrillation. We analyzed cohorts with and without prior cardiovascular disease. Results Over a mean follow-up of 104 months and >10 m patient-years of follow-up (∼75% <60 years old, ∼57% females), >65,000 individuals had ≥1 atrial fibrillation event (incident atrial fibrillation rate 5.1% and 5.8% excluding or including prior cardiovascular disease, or 49 and 55 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively). In both cohorts, individuals with versus without incident atrial fibrillation had lower mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (∼83 versus 95 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, overall a 10 ml/min/1.73 m(2) decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate was independently associated with a mean increase in incident atrial fibrillation of 1.5% and 2.4% in the cohorts excluding or including prior cardiovascular disease, respectively ( p < 0.001 for both). However, a graded association between lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and atrial fibrillation was observed in the 90-130 ml/min/1.73 m(2) range, whereas a blunted association was observed in the 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) range. Conclusion Within the 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2 )< estimated glomerular filtration rate

  10. Time Trends over 16 Years in Incidence-Rates of Autism Spectrum Disorders across the Lifespan Based on Nationwide Danish Register Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Christina Mohr; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Lauritsen, Marlene Briciet

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated time trends and associated factors of incidence rates of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the lifespan from 1995 to 2010, using data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry. First time diagnosis of childhood autism, atypical autism, Asperger's syndrome, or pervasive developmental…

  11. Sex differences in the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases in Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, and a comparison with other rates published worldwide.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2016-09-01

    Many skin and skin-related diseases affect the sexes unequally, with attendant implications for public health and resource allocation. To evaluate better the incidence of skin and skin-related diseases affecting males vs. females, we reviewed published population-based epidemiology studies of skin disorders performed utilizing Rochester Epidemiology Project data. Females had a higher incidence of the following diseases: connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, morphea, dermatomyositis, primary Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus [not in all studies]), pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, condyloma acuminatum, hidradenitis suppurativa, herpes zoster (except in children), erythromelalgia, venous stasis syndrome, and venous ulcers. Males had a higher incidence of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, basal cell carcinoma (exception, females aged ≤40 years), squamous cell carcinoma, and lentigo maligna. Incidence rates were equal in males and females for cutaneous malignant melanoma (exception, higher in females aged 18-39 years), lower-extremity cellulitis, cutaneous nontuberculous mycobacterial infection, Behçet disease, delusional infestation, alopecia areata, and bullous pemphigoid. Many of the population-based sex-specific incidence rates of skin and skin-related diseases derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project are strikingly different from those estimated elsewhere. In general, females are more commonly affected by skin and skin-related diseases. The reasons for this imbalance remain to be determined and are likely multifactorial.

  12. Are sociodemographic characteristics associated with spatial variation in the incidence of OHCA and bystander CPR rates? A population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Janet E; Lijovic, Marijana; Smith, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been shown to vary considerably in Victoria. We examined the extent to which this variation could be explained by the sociodemographic and population health characteristics of the region. Methods Using the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry, we extracted OHCA cases occurring between 2011 and 2013. We restricted the calculation of bystander CPR rates to those arrests that were witnessed by a bystander. To estimate the level of variation between Victorian local government areas (LGAs), we used a two-stage modelling approach using random-effects modelling. Results Between 2011 and 2013, there were 15 830 adult OHCA in Victoria. Incidence rates varied across the state between 41.9 to 104.0 cases/100 000 population. The proportion of the population over 65, socioeconomic status, smoking prevalence and education level were significant predictors of incidence in the multivariable model, explaining 93.9% of the variation in incidence among LGAs. Estimates of bystander CPR rates for bystander witnessed arrests varied from 62.7% to 73.2%. Only population density was a significant predictor of rates in a multivariable model, explaining 73% of the variation in the odds of receiving bystander CPR among LGAs. Conclusions Our results show that the regional characteristics which underlie the variation seen in rates of bystander CPR may be region specific and may require study in smaller areas. However, characteristics associated with high incidence and low bystander CPR rates can be identified and will help to target regions and inform local interventions to increase bystander CPR rates. PMID:27821597

  13. Derivation of effective penetration depth of femtosecond laser pulses in metal from ablation rate dependence on laser fluence, incidence angle, and polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiro; Hashida, Masaki; Nishii, Takaya; Inoue, Shunsuke; Sakabe, Shuji

    2015-01-05

    Ablation rate dependence on laser fluence for copper subjected to oblique femtosecond laser irradiation has been determined experimentally in order to investigate processing induced by oblique irradiation. A difference of ablation rate between p-polarized and s-polarized oblique irradiation is clearly observed. Effective penetration depth is defined to explain the ablation rate dependence instead of using optical penetration depth, which is treated as a key value for determining the ablation rate in conventional theory. The effective penetration depth for copper is presented in simple formulas as a function of laser incidence angle for each polarization.

  14. Associations of Census-Tract Poverty with Subsite-Specific Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates and Stage of Disease at Diagnosis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kevin A.; Sherman, Recinda L.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Lin, Ge; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Boscoe, Francis P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. It remains unclear whether neighborhood poverty contributes to differences in subsite-specific colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. We examined associations between census-tract poverty and CRC incidence and stage by anatomic subsite and race/ethnicity. Methods. CRC cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 from 15 states and Los Angeles County (N = 278,097) were assigned to 1 of 4 groups based on census-tract poverty. Age-adjusted and stage-specific CRC incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Analyses were stratified by subsite (proximal, distal, and rectum), sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty. Results. Compared to the lowest poverty areas, CRC IRs were significantly higher in the most impoverished areas for men (IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12–1.17) and women (IRR = 1.06 95% CI 1.05–1.08). Rate differences between high and low poverty were strongest for distal colon (male IRR = 1.24 95% CI 1.20–1.28; female IRR = 1.14 95% CI 1.10–1.18) and weakest for proximal colon. These rate differences were significant for non-Hispanic whites and blacks and for Asian/Pacific Islander men. Inverse associations between poverty and IRs of all CRC and proximal colon were found for Hispanics. Late-to-early stage CRC IRRs increased monotonically with increasing poverty for all race/ethnicity groups. Conclusion. There are differences in subsite-specific CRC incidence by poverty, but associations were moderated by race/ethnicity. PMID:25165475

  15. Incidence rates and deaths of tuberculosis in HIV-negative patients in the United States and Germany as analyzed by new predictive model for infection.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yudong; Ding, Fan; Suo, Siqingaowa; Bu, Ri-e; Zarlenga, Dante S; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Incidence and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) have been decreasing worldwide. Given that TB is a cosmopolitan disease, proper surveillance and evaluation are critical for controlling dissemination. Herein, mathematical modeling was performed in order to: 1) demonstrate a correlation between the incidence of TB in HIV-free patients in the US and Germany, and their corresponding mortality rates; 2) show the utility of the newly developed D-R algorithm for analyzing and predicting the incidence of TB in both countries; and 3) inform us on population death rates due to TB in HIV-negative patients. Using data published by the World Health Organization between 1990 and 2009, the relationship between incidence and mortality that could not be ascribed to HIV infection was evaluated. Using linear, quadratic and cubic curves, we found that a cubic function provided the best fit with the data in both the US (Y = 2.3588+2.2459X+61.1639X(2)-60.104X(3)) and Germany (Y = 1.9271+9.4967X+18.3824X(2)-10.350X(3)) where the correlation coefficient (R) between incidence and mortality was 0.995 and 0.993, respectively. Second, we demonstrated that fitted curves using the D-R model were equal to or better than those generated using the GM(1,1) algorithm as exemplified in the relative values for Sum of Squares of Error, Relative Standard Error, Mean Absolute Deviation, Average Relative Error, and Mean Absolute Percentage Error. Finally, future trends using both the D-R and the classic GM(1,1) models predicted a continued decline in infection and mortality rates of TB in HIV-negative patients rates extending to 2015 assuming no changes to diagnosis or treatment regimens are enacted.

  16. Injury prevention target groups in soccer: injury characteristics and incidence rates in male junior and senior players.

    PubMed

    Schmikli, Sandor L; de Vries, Wouter R; Inklaar, Han; Backx, Frank J G

    2011-05-01

    To identify target groups for injury prevention in male amateur soccer players under 35 years of age. A computer-assisted telephone survey with a 12-month recall period for injuries in a representative sample of Dutch citizens from the Injuries and Physical Activity Netherlands (IPAN)-database. A comparison of the volume of soccer injuries, the incidence and the need for medical attention per level of exposure and age category. The incidence in seniors was twice that of juniors (17.5% versus 8.1%; odds ratio (OR=2.4). In juniors the overall incidence was lowest in the category with the least amount of soccer exposure time (0-3 h: 2.9%; 3-5 h: 13.0%; 5+ h: 12.3%). A comparable result was found in seniors: (0-3 h: 12.0%; 3-5 h: 21.6%; 5+ h: 21.5%). Within each level of soccer exposure, a different incidence was found in juniors and seniors (0-3 h: OR=4.6; 3-5 h: OR=1.8; 5+ h: OR=1.9). Ankle, knee and upper leg injuries were most common (59.9%). Contusions, strains and sprains dominated (78.1%). Body region and type of injuries were similar in both age categories. Medical treatment for injuries was equally necessary in both age groups. Senior male amateur soccer players and particularly the more skilled seniors (involved in soccer at least 3 h per week), should be primarily targeted for studies on injury risk factors and prevention programs.

  17. Risk factors associated with the incidence rate of clinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Msami, H M

    2007-05-01

    Smallholder dairy herds around the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania supply 86% of raw milk consumed by the city dwellers. Previous studies have indicated that clinical mastitis is an important disease affecting smallholder dairy cows and an 18-month questionnaire-based longitudinal field-study was conducted between July 2003 and March 2005 to elucidate risk factors associated with the incidence. A total of 6057 quarter-level observations from 317 lactating cows on 87 randomly selected smallholder dairy herds were analysed at the quarter and cow level using logistic and Poisson regression models, respectively. At the quarter level, the average incidence rate of clinical mastitis was 38.4 cases per 100 quarter-years at risk whereas at the cow level the incidence rate was 43.3 cases per 100 cow-years at risk. The incidence was significantly (P< or =0.001) associated with cow factors (body condition score, parity, stage of lactation, and udder consistency), housing (floor type) conditions and milking (cow and udder preparation) practices. It was concluded that the extrapolation of the classic ten-point mastitis control plan into smallholder dairy herds should be undertaken cautiously. An integrated approach to dairy extension should focus more on the creation of mastitis awareness among smallholder producers and on the improvement of animal nutrition and reproduction indices-factors that may also have a direct impact on milk yield.

  18. Anal human papillomavirus in HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men: incidence and clearance rates, duration of infection, and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Donà, M G; Vescio, M F; Latini, A; Giglio, A; Moretto, D; Frasca, M; Benevolo, M; Rollo, F; Colafigli, M; Cristaudo, A; Giuliani, M

    2016-12-01

    Little is known regarding the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We aimed to evaluate incidence and clearance rates, their risk factors, and duration of anal HPV infection in HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM). A longitudinal study was conducted. Anal samples were analysed using the Linear Array HPV Genotyping test. Incidence and clearance rates, and corresponding risk factors, were estimated using a two-state Markov model. Overall, 155 MSM (median age 33.4 years) attending the largest sexually transmitted infection (STI) centre in Rome, Italy, were followed for a median of 12.2 months (Q1-Q3: 7.0-18.1). Incidence and clearance rates for any HPV were 85.6 (95% CI: 58.4-125.4) and 35.6 (95% CI: 24.7-51.5) × 1000 person-months, respectively; the median duration of infection was 9.4 months (Q1-Q3: 7.5-12.1). Receptive anal sex emerged as the only risk factor for the acquisition of any HPV (Hazard Ratio, HR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.16-6.06). The incidence rates for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic types were 42.3 (95% CI: 29.2-61.4) and 29.2 (95% CI: 19.5-43.7) × 1000 person-months, respectively (p = 0.13); their clearance rates were 62.9 (95% CI: 45.1-87.7) and 65.7 (95% CI: 47.4-91.0) × 1000 person-months, respectively (p = 0.83). HPV16 showed the lowest clearance rate among carcinogenic types (59.7 × 1000 person-months), and a duration of infection of 16.8 months. In conclusion, a higher incidence rate was observed for carcinogenic compared to non-carcinogenic HPV types, although the difference was not significant. HPV16 emerged as the type with the longest duration of infection and the lowest clearance rate among carcinogenic types.

  19. Gender and ethnic differences in incidence and survival of lymphoid neoplasm subtypes in an Asian population: Secular trends of a population-based cancer registry from 1998 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Loy, En Yun; Lim, Gek Hsiang; Zheng, Huili; Chow, Khuan Yew; Lim, Soon Thye

    2015-12-01

    Descriptive epidemiology on incidence and survival by lymphoid neoplasm (LN) subtypes using the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification remained limited in Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether gender and ethnic differences in incidence and survival of LN subtypes existed using the Singapore Cancer Registry (SCR) from 1998 to 2012. We derived age standardised incidence rates (ASIRs) by the direct standardisation method and 5-year relative survival (RSR) by the Ederer II method and period approach. Five-year observed survival (OS) was obtained for each ethnicity. Malays had the highest ASIR of total LNs among the three ethnicities for each time period. The largest increase in 5-year RSR subtypes was follicular lymphoma from 43.8% in 1998-2002 to 82.3% in 2008-2012; followed by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) from 48.1% in 1998-2002 to 77.9% in 2008-2012. Although males had higher incidence than females in each time period, females had greater 5-year RSR for follicular lymphoma (89.8% in 2008-2012 for females vs. 76.6% in 2008-2012 for males) and CLL/SLL (78.7% in 2008-2012 for females vs. 76.7% in 2008-2012 for males). All three ethnicities experienced an overall increase in 5-year OS for mature B-cell lymphoma, with Indians experiencing the greatest increase (37.1% in 1998-2002 to 61.1% in 2008-2012), followed by Malays (30.8% in 1998-2002 to 48.7% in 2008-2012) and then Chinese (36.4% in 1998-2002 to 51.3% in 2008-2012). Our study demonstrated that improved mature B-cell lymphoma survival was not only observed in the West, but also in Singapore.

  20. The global burden of injury: incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and time trends from the Global Burden of Disease study 2013

    PubMed Central

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Graetz, Nicholas; Bolliger, Ian; Naghavi, Mohsen; Higashi, Hideki; Mullany, Erin C; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Adofo, Koranteng; Alsharif, Ubai; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Barrero, Lope H; Bekele, Tolesa; Bose, Dipan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Derrett, Sarah; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Petrovich Ermakov, Sergey; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L; Gabbe, Belinda; Gosselin, Richard A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hijar, Martha; Hu, Guoqing; Jayaraman, Sudha P; Jiang, Guohong; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Chanda; Lecky, Fiona E; Leung, Ricky; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Majdan, Marek; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matzopoulos, Richard; Meaney, Peter A; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Miller, Ted R; Mock, Charles N; Norman, Rosana E; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Refaat, Amany; Rojas-Rueda, David; Roy, Nobhojit; Schwebel, David C; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Skirbekk, Vegard; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Stein, Dan J; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Theadom, Alice M; Tran, Bach Xuan; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vavilala, Monica S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z; Yu, Chuanhua; Murray, Christopher J L; Vos, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Injuries, and Risk Factors study used the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) to quantify the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. This paper provides an overview of injury estimates from the 2013 update of GBD, with detailed information on incidence, mortality, DALYs and rates of change from 1990 to 2013 for 26 causes of injury, globally, by region and by country. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the extensive GBD mortality database, corrections for ill-defined cause of death and the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on inpatient and outpatient data sets, 26 cause-of-injury and 47 nature-of-injury categories, and seven follow-up studies with patient-reported long-term outcome measures. Results In 2013, 973 million (uncertainty interval (UI) 942 to 993) people sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare and 4.8 million (UI 4.5 to 5.1) people died from injuries. Between 1990 and 2013 the global age-standardised injury DALY rate decreased by 31% (UI 26% to 35%). The rate of decline in DALY rates was significant for 22 cause-of-injury categories, including all the major injuries. Conclusions Injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. The decline in rates for almost all injuries is so prominent that it warrants a general statement that the world is becoming a safer place to live in. However, the patterns vary widely by cause, age, sex, region and time and there are still large improvements that need to be made. PMID:26635210

  1. Incidence of Second Malignancies in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Hamm, Jeremy; Jiang, Wei Ning; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; Lapointe, Vince; Kahnamelli, Adam; McKenzie, Michael; Miller, Stacy; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the second malignancy incidence in prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy (BT) relative to radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare both groups with the cancer incidence in the general population. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 2418 patients were treated with Iodine 125 prostate BT monotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency, and 4015 referred patients were treated with RP. Cancer incidence was compared with the age-matched general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Pelvic malignancies included invasive and noninvasive bladder cancer and rectal cancer. Cox multivariable analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates to determine whether treatment (RP vs BT) was associated with second malignancy risk. Results: The median age at BT was 66 years and at RP 62 years. The SIR comparing BT patients with the general population was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.22) for second malignancy and was 1.53 (95% CI 1.12-2.04) for pelvic malignancy. The SIR comparing RP patients with the general population was 1.11 (95% CI 0.98-1.25) for second malignancy and was 1.11 (95% CI 0.82-1.48) for pelvic malignancy. On multivariable analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05) and smoking (HR 1.65) were associated with increased second malignancy risk (P<.0001). Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased second malignancy risk relative to BT (HR 0.90, P=.43), even when excluding patients who received postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy (HR 1.13, P=.25). Older age (HR 1.09, P<.0001) and smoking (HR 2.17, P=.0009) were associated with increased pelvic malignancy risk. Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased pelvic malignancy risk compared with BT (HR 0.57, P=.082), even when excluding postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy patients (HR 0.87, P=.56). Conclusions: After adjustment for covariates, BT patients did not have an increased second

  2. Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Alghamdi, Mansour M; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32), followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07), and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69) than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men). Conclusion A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men. PMID:25028562

  3. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi

  4. Habits of sun exposure and risk of malignant melanoma: an analysis of incidence rates in Norway 1955-1977 by cohort, sex, age, and primary tumor site

    SciTech Connect

    Magnus, K.

    1981-11-15

    Incidence data on malignant melanoma of the skin in Norway from 1955-1977, comprising a total of 5108 new cases, were analyzed according to cohort, sex, age, and primary tumor site. A continuous increase in incidence of approximately 7% per year was observed for both sexes during the study period. For trunk and lower limb melanomas, the increase and cohort variations in incidence were much greater than for face and neck melanoma. A difference between these site groups was also observed in the shape of the cohort curves of age-specific rates. This indicated that the trend in carcinogenic exposure through life was different for the face--neck and the trunk--lower limb. For the generations born 1930-1949, the incidence of malignant melanoma per area unit of skin was greater for the trunk and lower limb than for the face--neck. It is suggested that not only the cumulated dose, but also the intensity of solar radiation may be significant in the cause of malignant melanoma.

  5. Sport/leisure injury hospitalisation rates--evidence for an excess burden in remote areas.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Boufous, Soufiane

    2009-11-01

    Information about the regional population distribution of sports injury rates is important for the identification of priority groups for injury prevention and sports medicine service delivery. This study describes the relationship between regional measures of social disadvantage (socio-economic index for areas, SEIFA) and remoteness (accessibility/remoteness index of Australia, ARIA) and the incidence of sport/leisure hospitalisation episodes for 2003-2004. All hospital separations, of New South Wales (NSW, Australia) residents, with an ICD-10-AM principal diagnosis indicating an injury and an activity code indicating sport/leisure activity were included. Age-standardised hospitalisation rates were calculated across SEIFA and ARIA categories. There was no clear trend in hospitalisation rates across SEIFA quintiles, with rates ranging from a low of 150.3/100,000 population (95% CI: 145.5-155.2) in the quintile of most disadvantage to a high of 201.8/100,000 population (196.1-207.4) in the middle quintile. In contrast, there was a strong positive and significant trend across ARIA groups (p<0.001) with rates ranging from a low of 156.2/100,000 population (153.2-159.2) in the most urban areas to a high of 335.5/100,000 population (306.5-364.6) in remote areas. Reasons for these trends are unclear but may include differences in medical and allied health service provision, sport/leisure infrastructure and opportunities across regions or differential participation in sport across NSW. Further investigations into why remote and very remote areas, in particular, have such high rates, including exploration of participation rates, sport/leisure opportunity delivery factors and the provision of sports medicine services need to be undertaken before injury rates can be reduced in these areas.

  6. Incidence, prevalence, and occurrence rate of infection among adults hospitalized after traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection occurs commonly among patients hospitalized after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and has been associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay and an elevated risk of poor neurological outcome and mortality. However, as many relevant published studies to date have varied in the type and severity of TBI among included patients as well as in their design (randomized versus non-randomized), risk of bias, and setting (hospital ward versus intensive care unit), their reported estimates of infection occurrence vary considerably. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and occurrence rate of infection among patients hospitalized after TBI. Methods/Design We will search electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) from their first available date as well as personal files, reference lists of included articles, and conference proceedings. Two investigators will independently screen titles and abstracts and select cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and randomized controlled trials involving adults hospitalized after TBI that reported estimates of cumulative incidence, incidence rate, prevalence, or occurrence rate of infection for inclusion in the systematic review. These investigators will also independently extract data and assess risk of bias. We will exclude studies with fewer than ten patients; experimental groups allocated to treatment with antibiotics, glucocorticoids, immunosuppressants, barbiturates, or hypothermia; and studies focused on military/combat-related TBI. Pooled estimates of cumulative incidence, incidence rate, prevalence, and occurrence rate will be calculated using random effects models. We will also calculate I2 and Cochran

  7. Apparently-Different Clearance Rates from Cohort Studies of Mycoplasma genitalium Are Consistent after Accounting for Incidence of Infection, Recurrent Infection, and Study Design

    PubMed Central

    Smieszek, Timo; White, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is a potentially major cause of urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and increased HIV risk. A better understanding of its natural history is crucial to informing control policy. Two extensive cohort studies (students in London, UK; Ugandan sex workers) suggest very different clearance rates; we aimed to understand the reasons and obtain improved estimates by making maximal use of the data from the studies. As M. genitalium is a sexually-transmitted infectious disease, we developed a model for time-to-event analysis that incorporates the processes of (re)infection and clearance, and fitted to data from the two cohort studies to estimate incidence and clearance rates under different scenarios of sexual partnership dynamics and study design (including sample handling and associated test sensitivity). In the London students, the estimated clearance rate is 0.80p.a. (mean duration 15 months), with incidence 1.31%-3.93%p.a. Without adjusting for study design, corresponding estimates from the Ugandan data are 3.44p.a. (mean duration 3.5 months) and 58%p.a. Apparent differences in clearance rates are probably mostly due to lower testing sensitivity in the Uganda study due to differences in sample handling, with 'true' clearance rates being similar, and adjusted incidence in Uganda being 28%p.a. Some differences are perhaps due to the sex workers having more-frequent antibiotic treatment, whilst reinfection within ongoing sexual partnerships might have caused some of the apparently-persistent infection in the London students. More information on partnership dynamics would inform more accurate estimates of natural-history parameters. Detailed studies in men are also required. PMID:26910762

  8. Trends in tobacco consumption and incidences of associated neoplasms in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, E M; Jolley, D

    1983-04-30

    From 1960 to 1979 total annual consumption of tobacco in Papua New Guinea increased from 573 to 1800 metric tonnes. The annual consumption of tobacco per head increased from 2.78 to 6.14 kg, and the proportion of commercial cigarettes smoked is estimated to have increased from 20% to 71% of the total tobacco consumption. Between 1965 and 1979 the average annual age standardised incidence of reported cases of carcinoma of the oral cavity increased significantly in women (p less than 0.01) but not in men (p greater than 0.05). This rise might have been related to increasing consumption of tobacco or alcohol, or both, in individuals who habitually chewed betel nut. There was no significant change in the reported incidences of carcinoma of the larynx, lung, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, or bladder. At present there are no constraints on the marketing of tobacco in Papua New Guinea.

  9. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries. PMID:27336001

  10. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    PubMed

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  11. Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; Dohal, Ahlam A; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR), and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling. Results A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001) in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83), followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82), and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98). The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years) and 1.71 + (0.09× years), respectively. Conclusion We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women. PMID:25028565

  12. Effect of low /sup 60/Co dose rates on sister chromatid exchange incidence in the benthic worm. Neanthes arenaceodentata

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-10-13

    The usefulness of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as a measure of low-level radiation effect was examined in a benthic marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Larvae were exposed to /sup 60/Co radiation for 12 to 24 h at total doses ranging from 0.5 to 309 R and at dose rates from 0.04 to 13 R/h. Animals exposed at intermediate dose rates (0.5, 0.6, 1.25, 2.0, and 2.5 R/h) had SCE frequencies per chromosome about twice that of those receiving no radiation (controls), whereas those exposed at the higher dose rates (7.0 and 13 R/h) had SCE frequencies lower than the controls. Animals exposed at the lower dose rates (0.04 and 0.1 R/h) had lower SCE frequencies than those exposed at intermediate dose rates (and higher SCE frequencies than controls). The length of chromosome pair number one differed among metaphase spreads and was used as an index of chromosome condensation in a given metaphase. Because there is a possibility that chromosome morphology may affect the ability to resolve SCEs, morphology will be monitored in future studies. A preliminary experiment was performed to assess the effects of 2.2 and 11.5 R/h for 24 h on growth and development. Larvae observed at 6 and 17 d after irradiation did not have significantly different numbers of abnormal larvae or survival rates.

  13. Modelling idiopathic Parkinson disease as a complex illness can inform incidence rate in healthy adults: the PR EDIGT score.

    PubMed

    Schlossmacher, Michael G; Tomlinson, Julianna J; Santos, Goncalo; Shutinoski, Bojan; Brown, Earl G; Manuel, Douglas; Mestre, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    Fifty-five years after the concept of dopamine replacement therapy was introduced, Parkinson disease (PD) remains an incurable neurological disorder. To date, no disease-modifying therapeutic has been approved. The inability to predict PD incidence risk in healthy adults is seen as a limitation in drug development, because by the time of clinical diagnosis ≥ 60% of dopamine neurons have been lost. We have designed an incidence prediction model founded on the concept that the pathogenesis of PD is similar to that of many disorders observed in ageing humans, i.e. a complex, multifactorial disease. Our model considers five factors to determine cumulative incidence rates for PD in healthy adults: (i) DNA variants that alter susceptibility (D), e.g. carrying a LRRK2 or GBA risk allele; (ii) Exposure history to select environmental factors including xenobiotics (E); (iii) Gene-environment interactions that initiate pathological tissue responses (I), e.g. a rise in ROS levels, misprocessing of amyloidogenic proteins (foremost, α-synuclein) and dysregulated inflammation; (iv) sex (or gender; G); and importantly, (v) time (T) encompassing ageing-related changes, latency of illness and propagation of disease. We propose that cumulative incidence rates for PD (PR ) can be calculated in healthy adults, using the formula: PR (%) = (E + D + I) × G × T. Here, we demonstrate six case scenarios leading to young-onset parkinsonism (n = 3) and late-onset PD (n = 3). Further development and validation of this prediction model and its scoring system promise to improve subject recruitment in future intervention trials. Such efforts will be aimed at disease prevention through targeted selection of healthy individuals with a higher prediction score for developing PD in the future and at disease modification in subjects that already manifest prodromal signs.

  14. Power law incidence rate in epidemic models. Comment on: "Mathematical models to characterize early epidemic growth: A review" by Gerardo Chowell et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Linda J. S.

    2016-09-01

    Dr. Chowell and colleagues emphasize the importance of considering a variety of modeling approaches to characterize the growth of an epidemic during the early stages [1]. A fit of data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak to models indicates sub-exponential growth, in contrast to the classic, homogeneous-mixing SIR model with exponential growth. With incidence rate βSI / N and S approximately equal to the total population size N, the number of new infections in an SIR epidemic model grows exponentially as in the differential equation,

  15. Association of Increased Urinary Albumin With Risk of Incident Clinical Fracture and Rate of Hip Bone Loss: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.

    PubMed

    Fink, Howard A; Vo, Tien N; Langsetmo, Lisa; Barzilay, Joshua I; Cauley, Jane A; Schousboe, John T; Orwoll, Eric S; Canales, Muna T; Ishani, Areef; Lane, Nancy E; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2016-12-24

    Prior studies suggest that increased urine albumin is associated with a heightened fracture risk in women, but results in men are unclear. We used data from Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS), a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years, to evaluate the association of increased urine albumin with subsequent fractures and annualized rate of hip bone loss. We calculated albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) from urine collected at the 2003-2005 visit. Subsequent clinical fractures were ascertained from triannual questionnaires and centrally adjudicated by review of radiographic reports. Total hip BMD was measured by DXA at the 2003-2005 visit and again an average of 3.5 years later. We estimated risk of incident clinical fracture using Cox proportional hazards models, and annualized BMD change using ANCOVA. Of 2982 men with calculable ACR, 9.4% had ACR ≥30 mg/g (albuminuria) and 1.0% had ACR ≥300 mg/g (macroalbuminuria). During a mean of 8.7 years of follow-up, 20.0% of men had an incident clinical fracture. In multivariate-adjusted models, neither higher ACR quintile (p for trend 0.75) nor albuminuria (HR versus no albuminuria, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.20) was associated with increased risk of incident clinical fracture. Increased urine albumin had a borderline significant, multivariate-adjusted, positive association with rate of total hip bone loss when modeled in ACR quintiles (p = 0.06), but not when modeled as albuminuria versus no albuminuria. Macroalbuminuria was associated with a higher rate of annualized hip bone loss compared to no albuminuria (-1.8% more annualized loss than in men with ACR <30 mg/g; p < 0.001), but the limited prevalence of macroalbuminuria precluded reliable estimates of its fracture associations. In these community-dwelling older men, we found no association between urine albumin levels and risk of incident clinical fracture, but found a borderline significant, positive association with rate of hip

  16. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M; Dinesen, Peter T

    2016-10-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it.

  17. Influence of anatomical subsite on the incidence of microsatellite instability, and KRAS and BRAF mutation rates in patients with colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Benedix, Frank; Meyer, Frank; Kube, Rainer; Kropf, Siegfried; Kuester, Doerthe; Lippert, Hans; Roessner, Albert; Krüger, Sabine

    2012-10-15

    There is a growing amount of data supporting the concept that cancers originating from the proximal and distal colon are distinct clinicopathological entities. The incidence of MSI and BRAF mutation is strongly associated with right sided tumor location, whereas there are conflicting results for KRAS mutation rates. However, to date, no data exist whether and to what extent defined colonic subsites influence MSI status, KRAS and BRAF mutation rates. We selected primary colon cancer from 171 patients operated on at our institution between 2007 and 2010. BRAF, KRAS mutation rates and microsatellite instability were determined and correlated with clinicopathological features and tumor location. MSI-h cancers were significantly associated with poor histological grade but a lower rate of distant metastases. KRAS-mutated tumors were linked to lower T-stage and better differentiation. Colon carcinomas with BRAF mutation were significantly associated with distant metastatic spread and poor histological grade. Furthermore, we found that MSI-h status, KRAS and BRAF mutation rates varied remarkably among the colonic subsites irrespective of right- and left-sided origin, respectively. The results of the current study provide further evidence that a simple classification into right- and left-sided colon carcinoma does not represent the complexity of this tumor entity.

  18. MRI-detection rate and incidence of lumbar bleeding sources in 190 patients with non-aneurysmal SAH

    PubMed Central

    Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Brawanski, Nina; Platz, Johannes; Bruder, Markus; Senft, Christian; Marquardt, Gerhard; Seifert, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Background Up to 15% of all spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) have a non-aneurysmal SAH (NASAH). The evaluation of SAH patients with negative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is sometimes a diagnostic challenge. Our goal in this study was to reassess the yield of standard MR-imaging of the complete spinal axis to rule out spinal bleeding sources in patients with NASAH. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the spinal MRI findings in 190 patients with spontaneous NASAH, containing perimesencephalic (PM) and non-perimesencephalic (NPM) SAH, diagnosed by computer tomography (CT) and/or lumbar puncture (LP), and negative 2nd DSA. Results 190 NASAH patients were included in the study, divided into PM-SAH (n = 87; 46%) and NPM-SAH (n = 103; 54%). Overall, 23 (22%) patients had a CT negative SAH, diagnosed by positive LP. MR-imaging of the spinal axis detected two patients with lumbar ependymoma (n = 2; 1,05%). Both patients complained of radicular sciatic pain. The detection rate raised up to 25%, if only patients with radicular sciatic pain received an MRI. Conclusion Routine radiological investigation of the complete spinal axis in NASAH patients is expensive and can not be recommended for standard procedure. However, patients with clinical signs of low-back/sciatic pain should be worked up for a spinal pathology. PMID:28369075

  19. A higher incidence rate of acute coronary syndrome following radiation therapy in patients with breast cancer and a history of coronary artery diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yen-Chien; Chuang, Jen-Pin; Hsieh, Pi-Ching; Chiou, Meng-Jiun; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate whether patients with breast cancer and a history of cardiovascular diseases (CADs) are at an increased incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after receiving radiation therapy (RT). In Taiwan, 5828 patients who had a history of CAD were newly diagnosed of breast cancer and received mastectomy between 1999 and 2009. Among these patients, 1851 also received RT. The study cohort was prospectively followed to the end of 2010 for estimating the incidence of ACS in association with exposure to RT. A Cox proportional hazard model that was adjusted for covariates was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of ACS. Over the study period, the incident rates of ACS for RT and control patients were estimated at 1.51 and 1.77 per 100 person-years, respectively. Covariate-adjusted regression analysis indicated that the hazard of ACS significantly increased in RT patients at an adjusted HR of 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-1.87]. Both hypertension and diabetes significantly increased the hazard of ACS in this patient cohort, with adjusted HRs of 3.31 (95% CI 1.94-5.66) and 1.50 (95% CI 1.19-1.89), respectively. This 12-year follow-up study suggested excess of ACS events in association with RT exposure in patients with breast cancer who had a higher cardiovascular risk. In consideration of the benefit associated with RT, intensive cardiac care should be given to patients with breast cancer and high cardiovascular risk.

  20. Measles incidence rate and a phylogenetic study of contemporary genotype H1 measles strains in China: is an improved measles vaccine needed?

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingwei; Zheng, Jingtong; Huang, Honglan; Hu, Yu; Bian, Jiang; Xu, Deqi; Li, Fan

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of measles in China has increased over the last decade. To evaluate the genetic variation of measles strains, 16 measles wild-type virus strains were isolated from 14 vaccinated cases and 2 nonvaccinated cases in Jilin Province during 2005-2006, and their nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes were amplified by RT-PCR. The amplified products were sequenced and compared with the Edmonston virus and the existing vaccine strains (Changchun-47 and Shanghai-191). The results showed that the variation rate between the vaccine and wild-type strains was 9.8-12.0% in the N gene and 5.9-6.9% in the H gene, respectively. In addition, cross-neutralization assays revealed that although sera obtained from infants following primary vaccination effectively neutralized vaccine strains, the capacity in neutralizing H1 wild-type measles virus isolates was decreased fourfold. Antigenic ratios testing revealed that the antigenic relatedness between wild-type measles viruses and existing vaccine strains was notably low. These data suggest that the increased incidence of measles in Jilin Province may be attributed to the antigenic drift between wild-type and vaccine strains. Our findings strengthen the recommendation of supplemental immunization with existing vaccines and also strongly suggest a need for developing new vaccines to better control measles virus outbreaks.

  1. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the comparative effects of reduced irrigation regimes--partial root-zone drying (PRD) and conventional deficit irrigation (DI)--on the incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under three Ca-fertilization rates: 0, 100, and 200mg Ca kg(-1) soil (denoted Ca0, Ca1, and Ca2, respectively). The plants were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and treated with PRD and DI during early flowering to the fruit maturity stage. The results showed that, in comparison with DI treatment, PRD significantly reduced BER incidence. A greater xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater resources, application of PRD irrigation could be a promising approach for saving water and for preventing BER development in tomatoes.

  2. Age-specific bone tumour incidence rates are governed by stem cell exhaustion influencing the supply and demand of progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Richard B

    2014-07-01

    Knudson's carcinogenic model, which simulates incidence rates for retinoblastoma, provides compelling evidence for a two-stage mutational process. However, for more complex cancers, existing multistage models are less convincing. To fill this gap, I hypothesize that neoplasms preferentially arise when stem cell exhaustion creates a short supply of progenitor cells at ages of high proliferative demand. To test this hypothesis, published datasets were employed to model the age distribution of osteochondroma, a benign lesion, and osteosarcoma, a malignant one. The supply of chondrogenic stem-like cells in femur growth plates of children and adolescents was evaluated and compared with the progenitor cell demand of longitudinal bone growth. Similarly, the supply of osteoprogenitor cells from birth to old age was compared with the demands of bone formation. Results show that progenitor cell demand-to-supply ratios are a good risk indicator, exhibiting similar trends to the unimodal and bimodal age distributions of osteochondroma and osteosarcoma, respectively. The hypothesis also helps explain Peto's paradox and the finding that taller individuals are more prone to cancers and have shorter lifespans. The hypothesis was tested, in the manner of Knudson, by its ability to convincingly explain and demonstrate, for the first time, a bone tumour's bimodal age-incidence curve.

  3. Comparative effect of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on incidence of blossom-end rot in tomato under varied calcium rates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanqi; Feng, Hao; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the comparative effects of reduced irrigation regimes—partial root-zone drying (PRD) and conventional deficit irrigation (DI)—on the incidence of blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under three Ca-fertilization rates: 0, 100, and 200mg Ca kg–1 soil (denoted Ca0, Ca1, and Ca2, respectively). The plants were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and treated with PRD and DI during early flowering to the fruit maturity stage. The results showed that, in comparison with DI treatment, PRD significantly reduced BER incidence. A greater xylem sap abscisic acid concentration, lower stomatal conductance, and higher plant water status in the PRD in relation to the DI plants might have contributed to the increased fruit Ca uptake, and could have reduced BER development in tomato fruits. Therefore, under conditions with limited freshwater resources, application of PRD irrigation could be a promising approach for saving water and for preventing BER development in tomatoes. PMID:23530128

  4. The use of deer vehicle accidents as a proxy for measuring the degree of interaction between human and deer populations and its correlation with the incidence rate of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Daniel H; Christos, Paul J; LaBonte, Andrew M

    2013-04-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut's Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors' study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted.

  5. The Use of Deer Vehicle Accidents as a Proxy for Measuring the Degree of Interaction Between Human and Deer Populations and Its Correlation With the Incidence Rate of Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wiznia, Daniel H.; Christos, Paul J.; LaBonte, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The study described in this article examined the relationship between the incidence rate of deer vehicle accidents (DVAs), a proxy for measuring the interaction between populations of humans and deer, and human Lyme disease incidence rate. The authors also examined the relationship between deer population density and human Lyme incidence rate. They analyzed data from Connecticut’s Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Public Health from 1999 through 2008 by deer management zone (DMZ) and town. For DVA incidence rate versus Lyme incidence rate for both DMZs and towns, most of the correlation coefficients computed yearly were moderate to strong and all of the p-values were significant. A weak correlation was observed between deer population density and Lyme disease incidence rate by DMZ. The authors propose DVAs as a proxy for measuring the interaction between coexisting populations of humans and deer. The authors’ study suggests that additional investigations of DVAs and their relationship to Lyme disease to further assess the utility of public health interventions are warranted. PMID:23621054

  6. Abundance, biting behaviour and parous rate of anopheline mosquito species in relation to malaria incidence in gold-mining areas of southern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Páez, E; Pérez, E; Sánchez, V

    2007-12-01

    A longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in five localities of southern Venezuela between January 1999 and April 2000 to determine the abundance, biting behaviour and parity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to climate variables and malaria incidence. A total of 3685 female anopheline mosquitoes, representing six species, were collected. The most abundant species were Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (60.7%) and Anopheles darlingi Root (35.1%), which together represented 95.8% of the total anophelines collected. Abundance and species distribution varied by locality. Malaria prevalence varied from 12.5 to 21.4 cases per 1000 population. Transmission occurred throughout the year; the annual parasite index (API) for the study period was 813.0 cases per 1000 population, with a range of 71.6-2492 per 1000 population, depending on locality. Plasmodium vivax (Grassi & Feletti) (Coccidia: Plasmodiidae) accounted for 78.6% of cases, Plasmodium falciparum (Welch) for 21.4% and mixed infections (Pv+Pf) for < 0.1%. Anopheles marajoara and An. darlingi were more abundant during the rainy season (April-September). There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05) between mosquito abundance and rainfall. Correlations between malaria incidence by parasite species and mosquito abundance were not significant (P > 0.05). Monthly parous rates were similar for An. marajoara and An. darlingi throughout the year, with two peaks that coincided with the dry-rainy transition period and the period of less rain. Peaks in the incidence of malaria cases were observed 1 month after major peaks in biting rates of parous anophelines. Anopheles darlingi engages in biting activity throughout the night, with two minor peaks at 23.00-00.00 hours and 03.00-04.00 hours. Anopheles marajoara has a different pattern, with a biting peak at 19.00-21.00 hours and 76.6% of biting occurring before midnight. Although both vectors bite indoors and outdoors

  7. Utilizing United States Coast Guard data to calculate incidence rates and identify risk factors for occupational fishing injuries in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Day, Emily Ruth; Lefkowitz, Daniel K; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Hovinga, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Commercial fishing has high rates of work-related injury and death and needs preventive strategies. Work-related fatal and nonfatal injury rates for New Jersey (NJ) commercial fishermen who suffered unintentional traumatic injuries from 2001 to 2007 are calculated using data from the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Marine Safety and Pollution Database and estimated denominator data. Fatalities were compared to those ascertained by the NJ Fatality Assessment Control and Evaluation (FACE) surveillance system. For the study years, 225 nonfatal injuries and 31 fatal injuries were reported. Among nonfatal injuries, the causes by frequency were fall onto surface, crushed between objects, struck by moving object, line handling/caught in lines, collision with fixed objects, fall into water, and other noncontact injuries. The distribution of fatal injuries differed, with the most frequent cause as crushed between objects. Falls into water and several noncontact injuries accounted for most of the other fatalities. The large majority (96%) of nonfatal injuries were contact injuries, whereas only 68% of fatalities were classified as contact. The overall incidence rate of nonfatal injuries was 1188 per 100,000 full-time equivalents (FTEs) per year. The rate varied considerably by year, from a low of 286 per 100,000 FTEs in 2001 and 2007 to 3806 per 100,000 FTEs in 2003. The overall occupational fatality rate over the period 2001-2007 was 164 per 100,000 FTEs per year. These results can aid in targeting the commercial fishing industry for injury prevention strategies and interventions, especially for falls, crushing injuries, and drownings.

  8. Increasing incidence of aortic aneurysms in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Fowkes, F. G.; Macintyre, C. C.; Ruckley, C. V.

    1989-01-01

    The numbers of patients being admitted to hospital with aortic aneurysms have increased recently. A study was carried out to try to find out whether this was a true increase in incidence or whether it could be attributable to more accurate diagnosis and better surgical techniques. From analyses of routine statistics it was found that from 1950 to 1984 age standardised mortality rose 20-fold in men to 47.1 per 100,000 population and 11-fold in women to 22.2 per 100,000 and that this was mainly due to more deaths from abdominal aneurysms. Hospital admissions of men with abdominal aneurysms were found to have increased steadily from 1968 to 1983, but the increase for women admitted did not begin until 1978. An increase in both emergency and elective admissions and only a marginal fall in deaths in hospital (from 45% to 39%) suggest that admissions for abdominal aneurysms increased across a wide range of severity of disease. It is concluded for the following reasons that the true incidence of aortic aneurysms, particularly abdominal aneurysms, has been increasing in England and Wales: the trends are not wholly compatible with advances in diagnosis and surgery, there are inconsistencies by age and sex, and increases have occurred in the number of complicated as well as uncomplicated cases. PMID:2492850

  9. Uric acid: association with rate of renal function decline and time until start of dialysis in incident pre-dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) hyperuricemia is common. Evidence that hyperuricemia might also play a causal role in vascular disease, hypertension and progression of CKD is accumulating. Therefore, we studied the association between baseline uric acid (UA) levels and the rate of decline in renal function and time until start of dialysis in pre-dialysis patients. Methods Data from the PREPARE-2 study were used. The PREPARE-2 study is an observational prospective cohort study including incident pre-dialysis patients with CKD stages IV-V in the years between 2004 and 2011. Patients were followed for a median of 14.9 months until start of dialysis, kidney transplantation, death, or censoring. Main outcomes were the change in the rate of decline in renal function (measured as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)) estimated using linear mixed models, and time until start of dialysis estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results In this analysis 131 patients were included with a baseline UA level (mean (standard deviation (SD)) of 8.0 (1.79) mg/dl) and a mean decline in renal function of -1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), -2.01; -1.22) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. The change in decline in GFR associated with a unit increase in UA at baseline was -0.14 (95% CI -0.61;0.33, p = 0.55) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. Adjusted for demography, comorbidities, diet, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, proteinuria, diuretic and/or allopurinol usage the change in decline in eGFR did not change. The hazard ratio (HR) for starting dialysis for each mg/dl increase in UA at baseline was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.94;1.24, p = 0.27). After adjustment for the same confounders the HR became significant at 1.26 (95% CI, 1.06;1.49, p = 0.01), indicating an earlier start of dialysis with higher levels of UA. Conclusion Although high UA levels are not associated with an accelerated decline in renal function, a high serum UA level in incident pre

  10. A Systematic Review of the Incidence, Risk Factors and Case Fatality Rates of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) Disease in Africa (1966 to 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Uche, Ifeanyi Valentine; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2017-01-01

    This study systematically reviews the literature on the occurrence, incidence and case fatality rate (CFR) of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Africa from 1966 to 2014. Data on the burden of iNTS disease in Africa are sparse and generally have not been aggregated, making it difficult to describe the epidemiology that is needed to inform the development and implementation of effective prevention and control policies. This study involved a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase databases. It documents the geographical spread of iNTS disease over time in Africa, and describes its reported incidence, risk factors and CFR. We found that Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) have been reported as a cause of bacteraemia in 33 out of 54 African countries, spanning the five geographical regions of Africa, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa since 1966. Our review indicates that NTS have been responsible for up to 39% of community acquired blood stream infections in sub-Saharan Africa with an average CFR of 19%. Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis are the major serovars implicated and together have been responsible for 91%% of the cases of iNTS disease, (where serotype was determined), reported in Africa. The study confirms that iNTS disease is more prevalent amongst Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals, infants, and young children with malaria, anaemia and malnutrition. In conclusion, iNTS disease is a substantial cause of community-acquired bacteraemia in Africa. Given the high morbidity and mortality of iNTS disease in Africa, it is important to develop effective prevention and control strategies including vaccination. PMID:28056035

  11. Incidence rates of treatment-emergent adverse events and related hospitalization are reduced with azacitidine compared with conventional care regimens in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Seymour, John F; Döhner, Hartmut; Minden, Mark D; Stone, Richard; Gambini, Dominique; Dougherty, Donna; Beach, C L; Weaver, Jerry; Dombret, Hervé

    2017-06-01

    Relative risks of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and related hospitalization is most accurate when accounting for treatment exposure. AZA-AML-001 showed azacitidine (AZA) prolonged overall survival versus conventional care regimens (CCR) in older patients (≥65 years) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by 3.9 months. Preselection of CCR before study randomization allows evaluation of AZA safety in patient subgroups with similar clinical features. Within preselection groups, AZA exposure was greater than each CCR. Incidence rates (IRs; numbers of events normalized for drug exposure time) of hospitalizations and days in hospital for TEAEs per patient-year of exposure were to varying degrees lower with AZA versus each CCR. Overall survival was significantly prolonged with AZA versus best supportive care (BSC) in AZA-AML-001; this analysis showed 55% and 41% reductions in IRs of TEAE-related hospitalization and days in hospital, respectively, with AZA versus BSC. Older patients with AML unable to tolerate intensive therapy should be offered active low-intensity treatment.

  12. Incidence of Menkes disease.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, T; Kleijer, W J; Horn, N

    1991-02-01

    We have calculated the incidence of Menkes disease for Denmark, France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and West Germany, based on known Menkes patients born during the time period 1976-87. Considering live-born Menkes patients, the combined incidence for these five countries is 1 Menkes patient per 298,000 live-born babies. If the number of affected aborted fetuses are taken into account, the incidence is 1 Menkes per 254,000 live-born babies. This incidence, which is 2-4 times lower than earlier published incidence figures, places Menkes disease as an extremely rare disease. The mutation rate for Menkes disease is estimated to be 1.96 x 10(-6), based on the number of isolated Menkes cases born during the time period 1976-87 and the total number of newborn males during this time.

  13. Blazhko effect in the Galactic bulge fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars - I. Incidence rate and differences between modulated and non-modulated stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Skarka, M.

    2017-04-01

    We present the first paper of a series focused on the Blazhko effect in RR Lyrae type stars pulsating in the fundamental mode that are located in the Galactic bulge. A comprehensive overview of the incidence rate and light-curve characteristics of the Blazhko stars is given. We analysed 8282 stars having the best quality data in the OGLE-IV survey, and found that at least 40.3 per cent of the stars show modulation of their light curves. The number of Blazhko stars we identified is 3341, which is the largest sample ever studied, implying that these are the most relevant statistical results currently available. Using combined data sets with OGLE-III observations, we found that 50 per cent of the stars that show unresolved peaks close to the main component in OGLE-IV are actually Blazhko stars with extremely long periods. Blazhko stars with modulation occur preferentially among RR Lyrae stars with shorter pulsation periods in the Galactic bulge. Fourier amplitude and phase coefficients based on the mean light curves appear to be substantially lower for Blazhko stars than for stars with an unmodulated light curve on average. We derived new relations for the compatibility parameter Dm in the I passband and relations that allow for differentiating modulated and non-modulated stars easily based on R31, ϕ21 and ϕ31. Photometric metallicities, intrinsic colours and absolute magnitudes computed using empirical relations are the same for Blazhko and non-modulated stars in the Galactic bulge, suggesting there is no correlation between the occurrence of the Blazhko effect and these parameters.

  14. The Effect of High Rates of Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections on HIV Incidence in a Cohort of Black and White Men Who Have Sex with Men in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Colleen F; Vaughan, Adam S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis H; Salazar, Laura F; Frew, Paula M; Cooper, Hannah L F; Diclemente, Ralph; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2015-06-01

    Data reporting sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence rates among HIV-negative U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM) are lacking. In addition, it is difficult to analyze the effect of STI on HIV acquisition given that sexual risk behaviors confound the relationship between bacterial STIs and incident HIV. The InvolveMENt study was a longitudinal cohort of black and white HIV-negative, sexually active MSM in Atlanta who underwent routine screening for STI and HIV and completed behavioral questionnaires. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for urethral and rectal Chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC), and syphilis, stratified by race. Propensity-score-weighted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of STI on HIV incidence and calculate the population attributable fraction (PAF) for STI. We included 562 HIV-negative MSM with 843 person-years of follow-up in this analysis. High incidence rates were documented for all STIs, particularly among black MSM. Having a rectal STI was significantly associated with subsequent HIV incidence in adjusted analyses (aHR 2.7; 95% CI 1.2, 6.4) that controlled for behavioral risk factors associated with STI and HIV using propensity score weights. The PAF for rectal STI was 14.6 (95% CI 6.8, 31.4). The high incidence of STIs among Atlanta MSM and the association of rectal STI with HIV acquisition after controlling for behavioral risk underscore the importance of routine screening and treatment for STIs among sexually active MSM. Our data support targeting intensive HIV prevention interventions, such as preexposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP), for Atlanta MSM diagnosed with rectal STIs.

  15. Oral Administration of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Decreased the Incidence of Severe Diarrhea and Related Mortality Rate and Increased Weight Gain in Preweaned Dairy Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Foditsch, Carla; Pereira, Richard Van Vleck; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Gomez, Marilia Souza; Marques, Eduardo Carvalho; Santin, Thiago; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve food animal productivity and health. However, scientific evidence that specific microbes can be used to benefit animal health and performance is limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administering a live culture of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii to newborn dairy calves on subsequent growth, health, and fecal microbiome. Initially, a safety trial was conducted using 30 newborn bull calves to assess potential adverse effects of the oral and rectal administration of F. prausnitzii to neonatal calves. No adverse reactions, such as increased body temperature or heart and respiratory rates, were observed after the administration of the treatments. All calves survived the experimental period, and there was no difference in fecal consistency score, attitude, appetite or dehydration between the treatment groups. The rectal route was not an efficient practice while the oral route ensures that the full dose is administered to the treated calves. Subsequently, a randomized field trial was completed in a commercial farm with preweaned calves. A total of 554 Holstein heifers were assigned to one of two treatment groups: treated calves (FPTRT) and non-treated calves (control). Treated calves received two oral doses of F. prausnitzii, one at treatment assignment (1st week) and another one week later. The FPTRT group presented significantly lower incidence of severe diarrhea (3.1%) compared with the control group (6.8%). Treated calves also had lower mortality rate associated with severe diarrhea (1.5%) compared to control calves (4.4%). Furthermore, FPTRT calves gained significantly more weight, 4.4 kg over the preweaning period, than controls calves. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii in the fecal microbiota was significantly higher in the 3rd and 5th weeks of life of FPTRT calves than of the control calves, as revealed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings showed that oral

  16. Increasing Incidence in Relapsing-Remitting MS and High Rates among Young Women in Finland: A Thirty-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Sumelahti, Marja-Liisa; Holmberg, Markus H. A.; Murtonen, Annukka; Huhtala, Heini; Elovaara, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Object. Gender and disease course specific incidences were studied in high- and medium-risk regions of MS in Finland. Methods. Age- and gender-specific incidences with 95% CIs were calculated in 10-year periods from 1981 to 2010. Poser diagnostic criteria were used and compared with the McDonald criteria from 2001 to 2010. Association between age and diagnostic delay over time was assessed by using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results. 1419 (89%) RRMS and 198 (11%) PPMS cases were included. RRMS incidence increased with the female to male ratio (F/M) from 4,2/105 (F/M 1.9) to 9,7 (2.3), while that of PPMS decreased from 1,2 (1.6) to 0,7 (1.2). The use of McDonald criteria did not change the conclusion. The decreasing diagnostic delay and age at diagnosis in RRMS were associated within the 10-year periods and contrasted those in PPMS. Increasing female risk in RRMS was observed in the high-risk region. Conclusion. Increasing RRMS incidence and high female ratios shown in each age group indicate gender-specific influences acting already from childhood. A more precise definition of the risk factors and their action in MS is needed to provide a better understanding of underlying pathological processes and a rationale for the development of new preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:25431672

  17. Incidence rates and deaths of tuberculosis in HIV-negative patients in the United States and Germany as analyzed by new predictive model for infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidence and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB) have been decreasing worldwide. Given that TB is a cosmopolitan disease, proper surveillance and evaluation are critical for controlling dissemination. Herein, mathematical modeling was performed in order to: 1) demonstrate a correlation between the i...

  18. [Critical incidents].

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  19. INCIDENCE OF ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA

    PubMed Central

    REED, Susan D.; NEWTON, Katherine M.; CLINTON, Walter L.; EPPLEIN, Meira; GARCIA, Rochelle; ALLISON, Kimberly; VOIGT, Lynda F.; Weiss, Noel S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Estimate age-specific incidence of endometrial hyperplasia: simple, complex, and atypical, in order of increasing likelihood of progression to carcinoma. Study design Women ages 18–90 years with endometrial pathology specimens (1985–2003) at a large integrated health plan were identified using automated data. Incidence rates were obtained by dividing the number of cases by the estimated number of female health plan enrollees who retained a uterus. Results Endometrial hyperplasia peak incidence was: simple-142/100,000 woman-years, complex-213/100,000 woman-years, both in the early 50s; and atypical-56/100,000 woman-years in the early 60s. Age-adjusted incidence decreased over the study period, especially for atypical hyperplasia. Conclusions Endometrial hyperplasia incidence without and with atypia peaks in the early postmenopausal years and in the early 60s, respectively. Given that some cases of endometrial hyperplasia likely go undiagnosed, the figures provided should be viewed as minimum estimates of the true incidence. PMID:19393600

  20. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Mitochondrial Lineages in Cities with Distinct Dengue Incidence Rates Suggests Complex Population Dynamics of the Dengue Vector in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Dueñez, Jeiczon; Arboleda, Sair; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4), Chikungunya and yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure and the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic landscapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure and phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV. Methods/Findings Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI) - NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were sequenced and analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 and 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha and Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium and high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time and a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello and in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time and space in these cities. Conclusions Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is

  1. Sudden cardiac death rate in an area characterized by high incidence of coronary artery disease and low hardness of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, D; Dini, F L; Azzarelli, A; Giaconi, A; Volterrani, C; Lunardi, M

    1995-02-01

    From January 1992 to January 1993 the incidence of sudden cardiac death among the population of the Media Valle del Serchio area (Tuscany, Italy), composed of a population of 35,000, was found to be twice that of the European average; 32 cases have been reported over this period in that area (9 per 10,000 in the examined year), with a male/female (M/F) ratio of 2.5:1 (23 M, 9 F). In Italy the mean incidence of sudden death was calculated as 6/10,000 and in Europe 5/10,000. In the examined population hypertension was the coronary risk factor present most frequently (87%). A previous diagnosis of coronary artery disease was documented in 21 cases (66%); 5 of these exhibited previous myocardial infarction and 3 previous myocardial infarction associated with left ventricular heart failure. In 7 subjects no previous cardiovascular disorders were discovered. Prodromal symptoms had been reported in 20 cases (62%), which included chest pain in 8 and dyspnea in 8. In the examined geographic area a high prevalence of coronary artery disease was verified through the records of the Public Health Service, which documents the main causes of mortality in Tuscany, and through the hospitalization data and the services provided for ischemic heart disease at the local coronary care unit compared with the national average. Moreover, research was accomplished on physical and chemical properties of drinking water in the same area, and this revealed a very low total hardness due to the paucity of calcium and magnesium salts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Relating annual migration from high tuberculosis burden country of origin to changes in foreign-born tuberculosis notification rates in low-medium incidence European countries.

    PubMed

    Hanway, Aidan; Comiskey, Catherine M; Tobin, Katy; O'Toole, Ronan F

    2016-12-01

    The level of immigration from high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries (HBCs) which impacts on the foreign-born TB notification rate is largely unknown. In this work, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of epidemiological data from 2000 to 2013 from nine European countries: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Crude notification rates were calculated for foreign- and native-born populations and a multiple-linear regression model predicting notification rates with HBC population data was generated. From 2000 to 2013, the population percentage with a foreign birthplace increased on average each year in all nine countries, ranging from +0.11%/year in the Netherlands to +0.66%/year in Spain. An annual increase in HBC migrants above +0.43% per year (95% Confidence Interval: 0.24%-0.63%) corresponded with higher TB notification rates in the foreign-born population of the countries analyzed. This indicates that migration from HBCs can exert a measurable effect on the foreign-born TB notification rate. However, an increase in the foreign-born TB notification rate coincided with an average annual rise in national TB notification rates only in countries, Norway (+3.85%/year) and Sweden (+2.64%/year), which have a high proportion (>80%) of TB cases that are foreign-born.

  3. Suicide in Recent Onset Psychosis Revisited: Significant Reduction of Suicide Rate over the Last Two Decades — A Replication Study of a Dutch Incidence Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Jill S.; van Es, Frank D.; Visser, Ellen; Aleman, André; Bruggeman, Richard; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare the suicide risk over the past decade following recent onset psychosis to findings from the eighties and nineties in the same catchment area and to identify predictors of suicide in the context of the Psychosis Recent Onset Groningen-Survey (PROGR-S). A medical file search was carried out to determine the current status of all patients admitted between 2000 and 2009. The suicide rate was compared with a study executed in 1973–1988 in the same catchment area. Predictors of suicide were investigated using Cox regression. The status of 424 of the 614 patients was known in July 2014. Suicide occurred in 2.4% of patients with psychosis disorders (n = 10; mean follow-up 5.6 years); 6 out of 10 suicides took place within two years. Within two decades, the suicide rate dropped from 11% (follow-up 15 years, 8.5% after 5 years) to 2.4%. The Standardized Mortality Rate (SMR) of suicides compared with the general population was 41.6. A higher age was the only significant predictor for suicide. Neuroticism, living situation, disorganized and negative symptoms, and passive coping style all showed a trend for significance. A significant reduction in the suicide rate was found for people with psychosis over the past decades. Given the high SMR, suicide research should be given the highest priority. Identifying predictors may contribute to further reduction of suicide among patients with psychosis. PMID:26068417

  4. Presence of animal feeding operations and community socioeconomic factors impact salmonellosis incidence rates: An ecological analysis using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Kristi S; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Malayil, Leena; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-10-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are a leading cause of foodborne illness. Risk factors for salmonellosis include the consumption of contaminated chicken, eggs, pork and beef. Agricultural, environmental and socioeconomic factors also have been associated with rates of Salmonella infection. However, to our knowledge, these factors have not been modeled together at the community-level to improve our understanding of whether rates of salmonellosis are variable across communities defined by differing factors. To address this knowledge gap, we obtained data on culture-confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Newport and S. Javiana cases (2004-2010; n=14,297) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), and socioeconomic, environmental and agricultural data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regressions. Multiple community-level factors were associated with salmonellosis rates; however, our findings varied by state. For example, in Georgia (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR)=1.01; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.005-1.015) Maryland (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.003-1.015) and Tennessee (IRR=1.01; 95% CI=1.002-1.012), zip codes characterized by greater rurality had higher rates of S. Newport infections. The presence of broiler chicken operations, dairy operations and cattle operations in a zip code also was associated with significantly higher rates of infection with at least one serotype in states that are leading producers of these animal products. For instance, in Georgia and Tennessee, rates of S. Enteritidis infection were 48% (IRR=1.48; 95% CI=1.12-1.95) and 46% (IRR=1.46; 95% CI=1.17-1.81) higher in zip codes with broiler chicken operations compared to those without these operations. In Maryland, New Mexico and Tennessee, higher poverty levels in zip codes were associated with

  5. Melanoma Incidence Rates in Active Duty Military Personnel Compared With a Population-Based Registry in the United States, 2000-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    for Research on Cancer Working Group on artifi- cial ultraviolet ( UV ) light and skin cancer: The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous...later in life, especially among those with fair skin pigmentation, light eye and hair color, and propensity to freckle.’*"^ Studies comparing melanoma...occupations, " aircrew survival equipmentman" and "engineman," were found to have at least a two-fold risk of melanoma compared with general population rates

  6. Foodborne Illness Incidence Rates and Food Safety Risks for Populations of Low Socioeconomic Status and Minority Race/Ethnicity: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe. PMID:23955239

  7. Foodborne illness incidence rates and food safety risks for populations of low socioeconomic status and minority race/ethnicity: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2013-08-15

    While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe.

  8. Incidence rate of type 2 diabetes is >50% lower in GrassrootsHealth cohort with median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 41 ng/ml than in NHANES cohort with median of 22 ng/ml.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, S L; Baggerly, L L; French, C B; Heaney, R P; Gorham, E D; Holick, M F; Scragg, R; Garland, C F

    2016-01-01

    Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. This study compared incidence rates of type 2 diabetes among participants aged ≥20 years in two U.S. cohorts with markedly different median 25(OH)D concentrations. The median 25(OH)D concentration in the GrassrootsHealth (GRH) cohort was 41 ng/ml (N=4933) while in the 2005-6 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) it was 22 ng/ml (N=4078) (P<0.0001). The adjusted annual incidence rate of type 2 diabetes was 3.7 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval=1.9, 6.6) in the GRH cohort, compared to 9.3 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval=6.7, 12.6) in NHANES. In the NHANES cohort, the lowest 25(OH)D tertiles (<17, 17-24 ng/ml) had higher odds of developing diabetes than the highest tertile (OR: 4.9, P=0.02 and 4.8, P=0.01 respectively), adjusting for covariates. Differences in demographics and methods may have limited comparability. Raising serum 25(OH)D may be a useful tool for reducing risk of diabetes in the population.

  9. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2·4 billion and 1·6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537·6 million in 1990 to 764·8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114·87 per 1000 people to 110·31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21·1% in 1990 to 31·2% in 2013. Interpretation Ageing of the world’s population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries. PMID:26063472

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer With 2 Fractions in 1 Application Under Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia: Incidence and Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin; Czajka-Pepl, Agnieszka; Scharbert, Gisela; Wetzel, Léonore; Sturdza, Alina; Dörr, Wolfgang; Pötter, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the psychological consequences of high-dose-rate brachytherapy with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: In 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, validated questionnaires were used for prospective assessment of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder (ASD/PTSD) (Impact of Event Scale–Revision), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30/Cervical Cancer 24), physical functioning (World Health Organization performance status), and pain (visual analogue scale), before and during treatment and 1 week and 3 months after treatment. Qualitative interviews were recorded in open format for content analysis. Results: Symptoms of ASD occurred in 30% of patients 1 week after treatment; and of PTSD in 41% 3 months after treatment in association with this specific brachytherapy procedure. Pretreatment predictive variables explain 82% of the variance of PTSD symptoms. Helpful experiences were the support of the treatment team, psychological support, and a positive attitude. Stressful factors were pain, organizational problems during treatment, and immobility between brachytherapy fractions. Conclusions: The specific brachytherapy procedure, as performed in the investigated mono-institutional setting with 2 fractions in 1 application under spinal/epidural anesthesia, bears a considerable risk of traumatization. The source of stress seems to be not the brachytherapy application itself but the maintenance of the applicator under epidural anesthesia in the time between fractions. Patients at risk may be identified before treatment, to offer targeted psycho-social support. The patients' open reports regarding helpful experiences are an encouraging feedback for the treatment team; the reported stressful factors

  11. The prevalence and genetic characterization of Chlamydia psittaci from domestic and feral pigeons in Poland and the correlation between infection rate and incidence of pigeon circovirus.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Tomasz; Pestka, Daria; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Chlamydia psittaci that occurs in a wide range of bird species. High infection rates with C. psittaci are found in pigeons, which can act as vectors transmitting this bacterium to poultry and humans. Chlamydia shedding by pigeons is intermittent and can be activated by stressors or immunosuppression. The most common immunosuppressive factor for pigeons is a pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. psittaci in Polish populations of domestic and feral pigeons (Columba livia) in the context of its correlation with PiCV infections. The second objective was to determine the genetic characteristics of Polish C. psittaci isolates. The study was conducted on 377 pigeon samples (276 domestic and 101 feral pigeons) collected from pigeons from different regions of Poland. The average prevalence of C. psittaci in the Polish pigeon population was determined at 6.8%, and it was higher in domestic than in feral pigeons. This is the first ever study to suggest a potential correlation between C. psittaci and PiCV infections, which could be attributed to the fact that there are 2 to 3 times more pigeons infected with C. psittaci and coinfected with PiCV than pigeons infected with C. psittaci alone. This trend was observed mainly in the population of sick pigeons. As many as 88.2% of isolates were recognized as belonging to genotype B, and the remaining isolates were identified as belonging to genotype E. The isolates analyzed in this study demonstrated low levels of genetic variation (96-100% homology among the isolates and in relation to reference strains). Chlamydia psittaci could be expected to spread across pigeon populations due to the high probability of mutual infections between birds and the increasing number of PiCV infections.

  12. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. Setting: German sleep centers. Patients or Participants: Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Interventions: None; observational study. Measurements and Results: A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94–7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. Conclusions: For the years 2007–2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. Citation: Oberle D, Drechsel-Bäuerle U, Schmidtmann I, Mayer G, Keller-Stanislawski B. Incidence of narcolepsy in Germany. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1619–1628. PMID:25902804

  13. Introduction to Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will explain and facilitate such incident reporting.

  14. A prospective randomised trial comparing insertion success rate and incidence of catheterisation-related complications for subclavian venous catheterisation using a thin-walled introducer needle or a catheter-over-needle technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, E; Kim, B G; Lim, Y J; Jeon, Y T; Hwang, J W; Kim, H C; Choi, Y H; Park, H P

    2016-09-01

    In clinical practice, both a thin-walled introducer needle and catheter-over-needle technique can be used to allow insertion of a guidewire during central venous catheterisation using the Seldinger technique. We compared the incidence of catheterisation-related complications (arterial puncture, haemothorax, pneumothorax, haematoma and catheter tip malposition) and insertion success rate for these two techniques in patients requiring right-sided subclavian central venous catheterisation. A total of 414 patients requiring infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterisation were randomly allocated to either a thin-walled introducer needle (needle group, n = 208) or catheter-over-needle technique (catheter group, n = 206). The catheterisation-related complication rate was lower in the needle group compared with the catheter group (5.8% vs. 15.5%; p = 0.001). Overall insertion success rates were similar (97.1% and 92.7% in the needle and catheter groups respectively; p = 0.046), although the first-pass success rate was higher in the needle group (62.0% vs. 35.4%; p < 0.001). We recommend the use of a thin-walled introducer needle technique for right-sided infraclavicular subclavian venous catheterisation.

  15. Constipation and Incident CKD.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun Ling; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-04-01

    Constipation is one of the most prevalent conditions in primary care settings and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, potentially through processes mediated by altered gut microbiota. However, little is known about the association of constipation with CKD. In a nationwide cohort of 3,504,732 United States veterans with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), we examined the association of constipation status and severity (absent, mild, or moderate/severe), defined using diagnostic codes and laxative use, with incident CKD, incident ESRD, and change in eGFR in Cox models (for time-to-event analyses) and multinomial logistic regression models (for change in eGFR). Among patients, the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (14.1) years old; 93.2% of patients were men, and 24.7% were diabetic. After multivariable adjustments, compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation had higher incidence rates of CKD (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.14) and ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18) and faster eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios for eGFR slope <-10, -10 to <-5, and -5 to <-1 versus -1 to <0 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.20; 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.09; and 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.03, respectively). More severe constipation associated with an incrementally higher risk for each renal outcome. In conclusion, constipation status and severity associate with higher risk of incident CKD and ESRD and with progressive eGFR decline, independent of known risk factors. Further studies should elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

  16. Relationship of Self-Rated Health to Stroke Incidence and Mortality in Older Individuals with and without a History of Stroke: A Longitudinal Study of the MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing (CFAS) Population

    PubMed Central

    Mavaddat, Nahal; van der Linde, Rianne; Parker, Richard; Savva, George; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Brayne, Carol; Mant, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been associated with increased risk of death and poor health outcomes even after adjusting for confounders. However its’ relationship with disease-specific mortality and morbidity has been less studied. SRH may also be particularly predictive of health outcomes in those with pre-existing conditions. We studied whether SRH predicts new stroke in older people who have never had a stroke, or a recurrence in those with a prior history of stroke. Methods MRC CFAS I is a multicentre cohort study of a population representative sample of people in their 65th year and older. A comprehensive interview at baseline included questions about presence of stroke, self-rated health and functional disability. Follow-up at 2 years included self-report of stroke and stroke death obtained from death certificates. Multiple logistical regression determined odds of stroke at 2 years adjusting for confounders including disability and health behaviours. Survival analysis was performed until June 2014 with follow-up for up to 13 years. Results 11,957 participants were included, of whom 11,181 (93.8%) had no history of stroke and 776 (6.2%) one or more previous strokes. Fewer with no history of stroke reported poor SRH than those with stroke (5 versus 21%). In those with no history of stroke, poor self-rated health predicted stroke incidence (OR 1.5 (1.1–1.9)), but not stroke mortality (OR 1.2 (0.8–1.9)) at 2 years nor for up to 13 years (OR 1.2(0.9–1.7)). In those with a history of stroke, self-rated health did not predict stroke incidence (OR 0.9(0.6–1.4)), stroke mortality (OR 1.1(0.5–2.5)), or survival (OR 1.1(0.6–2.1)). Conclusions Poor self-rated health predicts risk of stroke at 2 years but not stroke mortality among the older population without a previous history of stroke. SRH may be helpful in predicting who may be at risk of developing a stroke in the near future. PMID:26928666

  17. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... C. Richardson Frances Babcock Vicki Benard Djenaba A. Joseph Jacqueline W. Miller Thomas B. Richards Mona Saraiya ... MPH Keisha Houston, DrPH, MPH Commander Djenaba A. Joseph, MD, MPH Jun Li, MD, PhD, MPH Captain ...

  18. Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: Herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, G.S.; King, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    In a cooperative agreement starting January 1995, prior to the FDA's licensure of the varicella vaccine on March 17, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded the Los Angeles Department of Health Services’ Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project (AV-VASP). Since only varicella case reports were gathered, baseline incidence data for herpes zoster (HZ) or shingles was lacking. Varicella case reports decreased 72%, from 2834 in 1995 to 836 in 2000 at which time approximately 50% of children under 10 years of age had been vaccinated. Starting in 2000, HZ surveillance was added to the project. By 2002, notable increases in HZ incidence rates were reported among both children and adults with a prior history of natural varicella. However, CDC authorities still claimed that no increase in HZ had occurred in any US surveillance site. The basic assumptions inherent to the varicella cost–benefit analysis ignored the significance of exogenous boosting caused by those shedding wild-type VZV. Also ignored was the morbidity associated with even rare serious events following varicella vaccination as well as the morbidity from increasing cases of HZ among adults. Vaccine efficacy declined below 80% in 2001. By 2006, because 20% of vaccinees were experiencing breakthrough varicella and vaccine-induced protection was waning, the CDC recommended a booster dose for children and, in 2007, a shingles vaccination was approved for adults aged 60 years and older. In the prelicensure era, 95% of adults experienced natural chickenpox (usually as children)—these cases were usually benign and resulted in long-term immunity. Varicella vaccination is less effective than the natural immunity that existed in prevaccine communities. Universal varicella vaccination has not proven to be cost-effective as increased HZ morbidity has disproportionately offset cost savings associated with reductions in varicella disease. Universal varicella vaccination has failed to

  19. Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in a Multicenter Cohort of HIV-Positive Patients in Spain 2004–2011: Increasing Rates of HCV Diagnosis but Not of HCV Seroconversions

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Monge Corella, Susana; Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Félix; Blanco, José Ramón; Santos, Ignacio; del Romero, Jorge; Segura, Ferrán; Portilla, Joaquín; Guillén, Santiago Moreno; del Amo, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We aim to describe rates and risk factors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) diagnoses, follow-up HCV testing and HCV seroconversion from 2004–2011 in a cohort of HIV-positive persons in Spain. Methods CoRIS is a multicentre, open and prospective cohort recruiting adult HIV-positive patients naïve to antiretroviral therapy. We analysed patients with at least one negative and one follow-up HCV serology. Incidence Rates (IR) were calculated and multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted Rates Ratios (aIRR). Results Of 2112 subjects, 53 HCV diagnoses were observed, IR = 0.93/100py (95%CI: 0.7–1.2). IR increased from 0.88 in 2004–05 to 1.36 in 2010–11 (aIRR = 1.55; 95%CI: 0.37–6.55). In men who have sex with men (MSM) from 0.76 to 1.10 (aIRR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.31–6.82); in heterosexual (HTX) subjects from 1.19 to 1.28 (aIRR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.11–10.24). HCV seroconversion rates decreased from 1.77 to 0.65 (aIRR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.12–1.11); in MSM from 1.06 to 0.49 (aIRR = 0.46; 95%CI: 0.09–2.31); in HTX from 2.55 to 0.59 (aIRR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.06–0.98). HCV infection risk was higher for injecting drug users (IDU) compared to HTX (aIRR = 9.63;95%CI: 2.9–32.2); among MSM, for subjects aged 40–50 compared to 30 or less (IRR = 3.21; 95%CI: 1.7–6.2); and among HTX, for female sex (aIRR = 2.35; 95%CI: 1.03–5.34) and <200 CD4-count (aIRR = 2.39; 95%CI: 0.83–6.89). Conclusion We report increases in HCV diagnoses rates which seem secondary to intensification of HCV follow-up testing but not to rises in HCV infection rates. HCV IR is higher in IDU. In MSM, HCV IR increases with age. Among HTX, HCV IR is higher in women and in subjects with impaired immunological situation. PMID:25549224

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Reducing the Incidence Rate of Healthcare-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection: A Non-Randomized, Stepped Wedge, Single-Site, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence rate of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI) is estimated at 1 in 100 patients. Antibiotic exposure is the most consistently reported risk factor for HA-CDI. Strategies to reduce the risk of HA-CDI have focused on reducing antibiotic utilization. Prospective audit and feedback is a commonly used antimicrobial stewardship intervention (ASi). The impact of this ASi on risk of HA-CDI is equivocal. This study examines the effectiveness of a prospective audit and feedback ASi on reducing the risk of HA-CDI. Methods Single-site, 339 bed community-hospital in Barrie, Ontario, Canada. Primary outcome is HA-CDI incidence rate. Daily prospective and audit ASi is the exposure variable. ASi implemented across 6 wards in a non-randomized, stepped wedge design. Criteria for ASi; any intravenous antibiotic use for ≥ 48 hrs, any oral fluoroquinolone or oral second generation cephalosporin use for ≥ 48 hrs, or any antimicrobial use for ≥ 5 days. HA-CDI cases and model covariates were aggregated by ward, year and month starting September 2008 and ending February 2016. Multi-level mixed effect negative binomial regression analysis was used to model the primary outcome, with intercept and slope coefficients for ward-level random effects estimated. Other covariates tested for inclusion in the final model were derived from previously published risk factors. Deviance residuals were used to assess the model’s goodness-of-fit. Findings The dataset included 486 observation periods, of which 350 were control periods and 136 were intervention periods. After accounting for all other model covariates, the estimated overall ASi incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0.48 (95% 0.30, 0.79). The ASi effect was independent of antimicrobial utilization. The ASi did not seem to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile infection on the surgery wards (IRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.45, 1.69) compared to the medicine wards (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28, 0.63). The ward

  1. A prospective study of acute cerebrovascular disease in the community: the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project--1981-86. 2. Incidence, case fatality rates and overall outcome at one year of cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, J; Sandercock, P; Dennis, M; Burn, J; Warlow, C

    1990-01-01

    The age and sex specific incidence rates for cerebral infarction, primary intracerebral haemorrhage and subarachnoid haemorrhage in a population of approximately 105,000 are presented. Over four years 675 patients with a first-ever stroke were registered with the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. The pathological diagnosis was confirmed by computerised tomography (CT) scan, necropsy or lumbar puncture (cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage only) in 78% of cases and a further 17% were diagnosed according to the Guy's Hospital Stroke Diagnostic Score. The proportion of all first-ever strokes by pathological type was: cerebral infarction 81% (95% confidence interval 78-84), primary intracerebral haemorrhage 10% (8-12), subarachnoid haemorrhage 5% (3-7) and uncertain type 5% (3-7). These proportions are similar to other community-based studies. The overall 30 day case fatality rate was 19% (16-22), that for cerebral infarction being 10% (7-13), primary intracerebral haemorrhage 50% (38-62) and subarachnoid haemorrhage 46% (29-63). One year post stroke 23% (19-27) with cerebral infarction were dead and 65% (60-70) of survivors were functionally independent. The figures for primary intracerebral haemorrhage were 62% (43-81) dead and 68% (50-86) of survivors functionally independent and for subarachnoid haemorrhage were 48% (24-72) dead and 76% (56-96) of survivors functionally independent. There are important differences between these rates and those from other sources possibly due to more complete case ascertainment in our study. Nevertheless, the generally more optimistic early prognosis in our study, particularly for cases of cerebral infarction, has important implications for the planning of clinical trials and for the expected impact that any treatment might have on the general population. PMID:2303826

  2. True rise in anaphylaxis incidence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min-Suk; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Byung-Keun; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The incidence trend of anaphylaxis in Asia is not well investigated. The aim of this study is to estimate the entire population-based incidence of anaphylaxis in Korea using a nationwide administrative database. Data over a 7-year period (2008–2014) was obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database which covers 97.9% of the entire Korean population. Using diagnosis codes from the International Classification of Diseases-10 for anaphylaxis (T78.0, T78.2, T80.5, and T88.6), we identified the annual number of patients who had visited any hospital with a primary diagnosis of anaphylaxis. Incidence rates were calculated using the population distribution data of all NHI beneficiaries. The incidence of anaphylaxis in Korea was 32.19 episodes per 100,000 person-years in 2014, which nearly doubled from 2008 (16.02 episodes per 100,000 person-years). The incidence of anaphylaxis increased continuously throughout these years regardless of gender and age groups (P for trend < 0.001). Female was significantly less predisposed than male (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confident interval [CI], 0.66–0.72; P < 0.001). The incidence was the lowest in 0 to 19 age group and the highest in 40 to 69 age group (adjusted OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 2.29–2.54; P < 0.001). In conclusion, we report the increasing time trend of anaphylaxis incidence rates using nationwide claims database for the first time in Asia. PMID:28151851

  3. Critical incident reporting systems.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Jag; Marriott, Lin

    2005-02-01

    Approximately 10% of all hospital admissions are complicated by critical incidents in which harm is caused to the patient - this amounts to more than 850,000 incidents annually. Critical incident reporting (CIR) systems refer to the structured reporting, collation and analysis of such incidents. This article describes the attributes required for an effective CIR system. Example neonatal trigger events and a management pathway for handling a critical incident report are described. The benefits and limitations of CIR systems, reactive and prospective approaches to the analysis of actual or potential critical incidents and the assessment of risk are also reviewed. Individual human error is but one contributor in the majority of critical incidents. Recognition of this and the fostering of an organisational culture that views critical incident reports as an opportunity to learn and to improve future patient care is vital if CIR systems are to be effective.

  4. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  5. Critical incidents and judicial response during medium security treatment.

    PubMed

    Jeandarme, Inge; Wittouck, Ciska; Vander Laenen, Freya; Pouls, Claudia; Heimans, Henri; Oei, T I; Bogaerts, Stefan

    This study examined inpatient incidents in three Flemish forensic medium security units and analyzed the subsequent judicial reactions to these incidents. During medium security treatment, incidents were reported for more than half of the participants. The most frequently registered incidents were non-violent in nature, such as absconding and treatment non-compliance. The base rate for physically violent incidents was low. Although crime-related incidents during medium security treatment were rarely prosecuted and adjudicated, the base rate of revocation - and hence drop-out from treatment - as a result of these incidents was high.

  6. Altitude Modulates Concussion Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David W.; Myer, Gregory D.; Currie, Dustin W.; Comstock, R. Dawn; Clark, Joseph F.; Bailes, Julian E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent research indicates that the volume and/or pressure of intracranial fluid, a physiology affected by one’s altitude (ie, elevation above sea level), may be associated with the likelihood and/or severity of a concussion. The objective was to employ an epidemiological field investigation to evaluate the relationship between altitude and concussion rate in high school sports. Hypothesis: Because of the physiologies that occur during acclimatization, including a decline in intracranial compliance (a “tighter fit”), increased altitude may be related to a reduction in concussion rates in high school athletes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data on concussions and athlete exposures (AEs) between 2005-2006 and 2011-2012 were obtained from a large national sample of high schools (National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System [High School RIO]) and were used to calculate total, competition, and practice concussion rates for aggregated sports and for football only. Results: Altitude of participating schools ranged from 7 to 6903 ft (median, 600 ft), and a total of 5936 concussions occurred in 20,618,915 exposures (2.88 per 10,000 AEs). When concussion rates were dichotomized by altitude using the median, elevated altitude was associated with a reduction in concussion rates overall (rate ratio [RR], 1.31; P < .001), in competition (RR, 1.31; P < .001), and in practice (RR, 1.29; P < .001). Specifically, high school sports played at higher altitude demonstrated a 31% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-38%) in the incidence of total reported concussions. Likewise, concussion rates at increased altitude were reduced 30% for overall exposures, 27% for competition exposures, and 28% for practice exposures in football players (P < .001). Conclusion: The results of this epidemiological investigation indicate increased physiological responses to altitude may be associated with a reduction in sports

  7. Improving incident reporting among junior doctors

    PubMed Central

    Hotton, Emily; Jordan, Lesley; Peden, Carol

    2014-01-01

    To ensure systems in hospitals improve to make patient care safer, learning must occur when things go wrong. Incident reporting is one of the commonest mechanisms used to learn from harm events and near misses. Only a relatively small number of incidents that occur are actually reported and different groups of staff have different rates of reporting. Nationally, junior doctors are low reporters of incidents, a finding supported by our local data. We set out to explore the culture and awareness around incident reporting among our junior doctors, and to improve the incident reporting rate within this important staff group. In order to achieve this we undertook a number of work programmes focused on junior doctors, including: assessment of their knowledge, confidence and understanding of incident reporting, education on how and why to report incidents with a focus on reporting on clinical themes during a specific time period, and evaluation of the experience of those doctors who reported incidents. Junior doctors were asked to focus on incident reporting during a one week period. Before and after this focussed week, they were invited to complete a questionnaire exploring their confidence about what an incident was and how to report. Prior to “Incident Reporting Week”, on average only two reports were submitted a month by junior doctors compared with an average of 15 per month following the education and awareness week. This project highlights the fact that using a focussed reporting period and/or specific clinical themes as an education tool can benefit a hospital by promoting awareness of incidents and by increasing incident reporting rates. This can only assist in improving hospital systems, and ultimately increase patient safety. PMID:26734264

  8. Do perceived job insecurity and annoyance due to air and noise pollution predict incident self-rated poor health? A prospective analysis of independent and joint associations using a German national representative cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Natalie; Loerbroks, Adrian; Bolte, Gabriele; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Background Current economic and social change has contributed to increasing job insecurity and traffic-related pollution in residential areas. Both job insecurity and exposure to noise and air pollution are known determinants of population health and can concur in peoples' lives. This may hold true particularly for socially disadvantaged subpopulations. Nevertheless, the potential independent and joint links of those exposures to health have been rarely examined so far. We aimed to contribute to the scarce body of evidence. Methods Information on perceived job insecurity and exposures to noise and air pollution as expressed by annoyance as well as on self-rated health were gathered from 2 waves of the population-based German Socio-Economic Panel (2009 and 2011, N=6544). We performed multivariable Poisson regression to examine the independent and joint risk of poor health in 2011 by perceived job insecurity and annoyance due to noise and air pollution in 2009. Results After the 2-year follow-up in 2011, 571 (8.7%) participants rated their health as poor. The risk of reporting incident poor health was increased by roughly 40% in employees reporting high versus low perceived job insecurity and annoyance due to noise and air pollution, respectively. This risk increased when both exposures were present at higher levels (risk ratio=1.95 (1.49 to 2.55)). Conclusions Work-related and environmental exposures may accumulate and have a joint health impact. Elaboration on the link between occupational and residential exposures is warranted in the light of their concurrence and their implications for health inequities. PMID:28115332

  9. CANCER INCIDENCE IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite low mortality and cancer incidence rates overall, farmers may experience excess risk of several cancers. These excesses have been observed in some, but not all, retrospective epidemiological studies of agricultural workers in several countries. Excess risk has been ob...

  10. Delay Adjusted Incidence

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  11. Incident analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, D.W.; Buerer, A.; Leeds, S.

    1996-02-20

    This document presents information about a fire that occurred in January 1996 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This fire was caused by the spontaneous combustion of 100% fuming nitric acid. Topics discussed include: Summary of the incident; technical background; procedural background; supervision; previous incidents with 100% fuming nitric acid; and judgment of potential hazards.

  12. Cancer incidence pattern in Cordoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Díaz, María del Pilar; Osella, Alberto R; Aballay, Laura R; Muñoz, Sonia E; Lantieri, María J; Butinof, Mariana; Paz, Roberto Meyer; Pou, Sonia; Eynard, Aldo R; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-08-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death in Argentina; nevertheless the distribution of the cancer incidence rates throughout the country is unknown. This study was conducted to describe cancer incidence patterns in Córdoba Province. Incidence data were supplied by the Government Córdoba Cancer Registry. Demographic information (age, sex, and place of residence) and diagnosis, certified by a pathologist, about all incident cases from June 2003 to May 2005 by type and 5-year age groups were obtained. Comparison of the incidence rate of cancer in various counties was performed by using standardized incidence rates (SIR) per 100,000 inhabitants using the world standard population. Estimated SIRs were used to build up incidence maps. Two indicators were created: sex ratio and site-specific ratio. Mixed Poisson models were fitted. Taken as a whole for all counties, SIR was 121.42 and 141.57 for men and women, respectively. The most common sites in men were prostate (13.62), lung (10.12), colon (7.53), and bladder (7.03); in women were breast (22.51) and colon (3.31). The highest and lowest rates were in urban and rural areas, respectively. Cancer registry has a pivotal role in cancer control. Such information is the primary resource of information not only for epidemiological research on cancer determinants but also for planning and evaluating health services for the policies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  13. Effect of socioeconomic group on incidence of, management of, and survival after myocardial infarction and coronary death: analysis of community coronary event register.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, C.; Woodward, M.; Leslie, W.; Tunstall-Pedoe, H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of socioeconomic group (with reference to age and sex) on the rate of, course of, and survival after coronary events. DESIGN: Community coronary event register from 1985 to 1991. SETTING: City of Glasgow north of the River Clyde, population 196,000. SUBJECTS: 3991 men and 1551 women aged 25-64 years on the Glasgow MONICA coronary event register with definite or fatal possible or unclassifiable events according to the criteria of the World Health Organisation's MONICA project (monitoring trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of coronary events; proportion of subjects reaching hospital alive; case fatality in admitted patients and in community overall. RESULTS: Event rates increased with age for both sexes and were greater in men than women at all ages. The rate increased 1.7-fold in men and 2.4-fold in women from the least (Q1) to the most (Q4) deprived socioeconomic quarter. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age and was steeper for women than men. The proportion treated in hospital (66%) decreased with age, was greater in women than men, and decreased in both sexes with increasing deprivation (age standardised odds ratio 0.82 for Q4 v Q1) Case fatality in hospital (20%) increased with age, was greater for women than men when age was standardised, and showed no strong socioeconomic pattern. Overall case fatality in the community (50%) increased with age, was similar between the sexes, and increased from Q1 to Q4 (age standardised odds ratio 1.12 in men, 1.18 in women). CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic group affects not only death rates from myocardial infarction but also event rates and chance of admission. This should be taken into account when different groups of patients are compared. Because social deprivation is associated with so many more deaths outside hospital, primary and secondary prevention are more likely than acute hospital care to reduce the socioeconomic variation in

  14. Incidence of herpes zoster, 1997-2002.

    PubMed Central

    Mullooly, J. P.; Riedlinger, K.; Chun, C.; Weinmann, S.; Houston, H.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated age-specific herpes zoster (HZ) incidence rates in the Kaiser Permanente Northwest Health Plan (KPNW) during 1997-2002 and tested for secular trends and differences between residents of two states with different varicella vaccine coverage rates. The cumulative proportions of 2-year-olds vaccinated increased from 35% in 1997 to 85% in 2002 in Oregon, and from 25% in 1997 to 82% in 2002 in Washington. Age-specific HZ incidence rates in KPNW during 1997-2002 were compared with published rates in the Harvard Community Health Plan (HCHP) during 1990-1992. The overall HZ incidence rate in KPNW during 1997-2002 (369/100,000 person-years) was slightly higher than HCHP's 1990-1992 rate when adjusted for age differences. For children 6-14 years old, KPNW's rates (182 for females, 123 for males) were more than three times HCHP's rates (54 for females, 39 for males). This increase appears to be associated with increased exposure of children to oral corticosteroids. The percentage of KPNW children exposed to oral corticosteroids increased from 2.2% in 1991 to 3.6% in 2002. Oregon residents had slightly higher steroid exposure rates during 1997-2002 than Washington residents. There were significant increases in HZ incidence rates in Oregon and Washington during 1997-2002 among children aged 10-17 years, associated with increased exposure to oral steroids. PMID:15816149

  15. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  16. High Prevalence and High Incidence of Coinfection with Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Syphilis and Low Rate of Effective Vaccination against Hepatitis B in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men with Known Date of HIV Seroconversion in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Klaus; Thamm, Michael; Bock, Claus-Thomas; Scheufele, Ramona; Kücherer, Claudia; Muenstermann, Dieter; Hagedorn, Hans-Jochen; Jessen, Heiko; Dupke, Stephan; Hamouda, Osamah; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Meixenberger, Karolin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at higher risk for coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis than the general population. HIV infection and these coinfections accelerate disease progression reciprocally. This study evaluated the prevalence and incidence of these coinfections in HIV1-positive MSM in Germany. Materials and Methods As part of a nationwide, multicenter, prospective cohort study of HIV-infected MSM, plasma samples collected yearly were screened for HBsAg and antibodies to HBc, HBs, HCV, and syphilis. Samples with indications of active HBV or HCV infection were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Prevalence and incidence of each infection and incidence rates per study participant were calculated, and incidences over 4-year time intervals compared. Results This study screened 5,445 samples from 1,843 MSM. Median age at HIV seroconversion was 33 years. Prevalences of active, cleared, and occult HBV, and of active/cleared HCV were 1.7%, 27.1%, 0.2%, and 8.2%, respectively, and 47.5% had been effectively vaccinated against HBV. Prevalence of antibodies to Treponema pallidum and of triple or quadruple sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were 39.6% and 18.9%, respectively. Prevalence of STI, cleared HBV, HBV vaccination, and history of syphilis differed significantly among age groups. Incidences of HBV, HCV, and syphilis were 2.51, 1.54, and 4.06 per 100 person-years, respectively. Incidences of HCV and syphilis increased over time. HCV incidence was significantly higher in MSM coinfected with syphilis and living in Berlin, and syphilis incidence was significantly higher for MSM living in Berlin. Discussion Despite extensive HBV vaccination campaigns, fewer than 50% of screened MSM were effectively vaccinated, with a high proportion of HIV-positive MSM coinfected with HBV. High rates of STI coinfections in HIV-positive MSM and increasing incidences emphasize the need for better tailored campaigns for

  17. Incidence of hip fracture in southeastern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Reikerås, O.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of hip fracture has been studied extensively, but there is still some doubt whether the age-specific incidence is increasing. The proportion of trochanteric fractures has varied and has also been said to be increasing. We studied data on 1,730 prospectively registered cases from 1998–2003 and computed age- and gender-specific incidence rates for intracapsular and trochanteric fractures. The incidence of hip fracture for women over 50 years was 1,263 and for men 452 per 100,000. The proportion of trochanteric fractures was 38% for women and 41% for men. There was no significant difference in the proportion of trochanteric fractures either between or within the genders, and the proportion did not exceed 50% in any age group. These findings confirm the high incidence of hip fracture in Norway but do not indicate any increase. The proportion of trochanteric fractures also seems to be stable. PMID:17033761

  18. Safety incident reporting in emergency radiology: analysis of 1717 safety incident reports.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Shaqdan, Khalid W; Aran, Shima; Raja, Ali S; Lev, Michael H; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the incidence and types of safety reports logged in the radiology safety incident reporting system in our emergency radiology section over an 8-year period. Electronic incident reporting system of our institute was searched for the variables in emergency radiology. All reports from April 2006 to June 2014 were included and deindentified. The following event classifications were investigated in radiography, CT, and MRI modalities: diagnostic test orders, ID/documentation/consent, safety/security/conduct, service coordination, surgery/procedure, line/tube, fall, medication/IV safety, employee general incident, environment/equipment, adverse drug reaction, skin/tissue, and diagnosis/treatment. A total of 881,194 emergency radiology examinations were performed during the study period, 1717 (1717/881,194 = 0.19 %) of which resulted in safety reports. Reports were classified into 14 different categories, the most frequent of which were "diagnostic test orders" (481/1717 = 28 % total incident reports), "medication/IV safety" (302/1717 = 18 % total incident reports), and "service coordination" (204/1717 = 12 % total incident reports). X-ray had the highest report rate (873/1717 = 50 % total incident reports), followed by CT (604/1717 = 35 % total incident reports) and MRI (240/1717 = 14 % total incident reports). Forty-six percent of safety incidents (789/1717) caused no harm and did not reach the patient, 36 % (617/1717) caused no harm but reached the patient, 18 % (308/1717) caused temporary or minor harm/ damage, and less than 1 % caused permanent or major harm/ damage or death. Our study shows an overall safety incident report rate of 0.19 % in emergency radiology including radiography, CT, and MRI modalities. The most common safety incidents were diagnostic test orders, medication/IV safety, and service coordination.

  19. Incidence and risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in transitional Thailand: results from the Thai cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Susan; D‘Este, Catherine; Bain, Chris; Peungson, Janya; Banwell, Cathy; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly prevalent in countries undergoing rapid development, including Thailand. We assessed T2DM incidence over an 8-year period in a nationwide cohort of Thai adults. Methods Thai Cohort Study participants were surveyed in 2005, 2009 and 2013. The analysed cohort members were aged (15–88), did not have diabetes in 2005 and were followed up by questionnaire in 2013 (n=39 507). T2DM was ascertained using self-report, which has been validated using physician interviews. We calculated the 8-year cumulative incidence of T2DM. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations between potential risk factors and T2DM incidence. Results 8-year cumulative incidence of T2DM (2005 to 2013) was 177 per 10 000 (95% CI 164 to 190). Crude and age-standardised cumulative incidences of T2DM by sex were 249 per 10 000 (95% CI 226 to 272) and 222 per 10 000 (95% CI 219 to 225) for men; and 119 per 10 000 (95% CI 105 to 133) and 96 per 10 000 (95% CI 94 to 98) for women, respectively. T2DM increased significantly for both sexes with increasing age and body mass index (BMI) (p trend <0.001 for both). Residence in an urban area as a child associated with T2DM among men and women (OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7 and OR=1.4, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.79); this was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for BMI. Among men, smoking (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.2) and alcohol intake (OR=1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.0) were associated with T2DM. Conclusions This study found that the sociodemographic and lifestyle changes that have accompanied Thailand's economic development are associated with T2DM risk in a large cohort of Thai adults. Our findings highlight the need to address these transitions to prevent a further increase in the national incidence of T2DM, particularly among Thai men. PMID:27974373

  20. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwing, Travis G.; Rash, Joshua A.; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Bramble, Bev; Landine, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety (TA) can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian…

  1. Anatomy of an incident

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; Land, Whitney M.; Schreiber, Stephen B.

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identified as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.

  2. Anatomy of an incident

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Trujillo, Stanley; Lawton, Cindy M.; ...

    2016-03-23

    A traditional view of incidents is that they are caused by shortcomings in human competence, attention, or attitude. It may be under the label of “loss of situational awareness,” procedure “violation,” or “poor” management. A different view is that human error is not the cause of failure, but a symptom of failure – trouble deeper inside the system. In this perspective, human error is not the conclusion, but rather the starting point of investigations. During an investigation, three types of information are gathered: physical, documentary, and human (recall/experience). Through the causal analysis process, apparent cause or apparent causes are identifiedmore » as the most probable cause or causes of an incident or condition that management has the control to fix and for which effective recommendations for corrective actions can be generated. A causal analysis identifies relevant human performance factors. In the following presentation, the anatomy of a radiological incident is discussed, and one case study is presented. We analyzed the contributing factors that caused a radiological incident. When underlying conditions, decisions, actions, and inactions that contribute to the incident are identified. This includes weaknesses that may warrant improvements that tolerate error. Measures that reduce consequences or likelihood of recurrence are discussed.« less

  3. Meteorite incidence angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. W.

    1993-06-01

    Think about an asteroid smashing into the surface of the Moon and excavating a crater; or hitting Earth and scattering meteorite fragments over a strewn field. Imagine a fragment of cometary dust burning out in the Earth's atmosphere and producing a meteor. These bodies have paths that are inclined at some angle to the vertical. But what is the predominant value of this angle of incidence, i? How does the number of incident bodies vary as a function of angle i? And how do both these affect the prevalence of non- circular lunar craters and the ellipticity of meteorite strewn fields?

  4. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    PubMed Central

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  5. RAPID INCIDENT RESPONSE FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Will discuss WERF Contract (RFP# 03-HHE-5PP), Protocols for the Timely Investigation of Potential Health Incidents Associated with Biosolids Land Application, as a member of the project advisory committee. The contractor, University of North Carolina, started work in early June, ...

  6. New model for predicting freeway incidents and incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1997-08-01

    This paper presents a new model that predicts the number of freeway incidents and associated delays based on general freeway segment characteristics, traffic volumes, and incident management procedures. The model is intended to be used in planning capacity-enhancing freeway improvements and incident management programs. Estimates of incident frequencies, severity, durations, and delays are provided for seven standard incident types, each of which represents a significant fraction of total unplanned incidents and has severity and/or duration characteristics substantially different from the others. In addition to describing the incident prediction model, the paper addresses the need for a coordinated national strategy for collecting incident data, with particular attention to urban freeways. It concludes that the incident data systems that have evolved in several urban areas, often in connection with freeway service patrols and incident response team activities, already provide a valuable nationwide data resource for understanding incident patterns and their variations. However, better national coordination of locally collected incident data would be helpful for addressing issues beyond the scope of the local concerns for which virtually all current systems were originally designed. Specific areas for improvement include the definitions of incident types, descriptions of incident locations (relative to both the length and breadth of the highway), and data recording the critical times during incidents such as when detection, response, and clearing occur.

  7. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Cancer.gov

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and two-phase stratified sampling. Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  8. Patient safety incidents are common in primary care: A national prospective active incident reporting survey

    PubMed Central

    Brami, Jean; Chanelière, Marc; Kret, Marion; Mosnier, Anne; Dupie, Isabelle; Haeringer-Cholet, Anouk; Keriel-Gascou, Maud; Maradan, Claire; Villebrun, Frédéric; Makeham, Meredith; Quenon, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Background The study objectives were to describe the incidence and the nature of patient safety incidents (PSIs) in primary care general practice settings, and to explore the association between these incidents and practice or organizational characteristics. Methods GPs, randomly selected from a national influenza surveillance network (n = 800) across France, prospectively reported any incidents observed each day over a one-week period between May and July 2013. An incident was an event or circumstance that could have resulted, or did result, in harm to a patient, which the GP would not wish to recur. Primary outcome was the incidence of PSIs which was determined by counting reports per total number of patient encounters. Reports were categorized using existing taxonomies. The association with practice and organizational characteristics was calculated using a negative binomial regression model. Results 127 GPs (participation rate 79%) reported 317 incidents of which 270 were deemed to be a posteriori judged preventable, among 12,348 encounters. 77% had no consequences for the patient. The incidence of reported PSIs was 26 per 1000 patient encounters per week (95% CI [23‰ -28‰]). Incidents were three times more frequently related to the organization of healthcare than to knowledge and skills of health professionals, and especially to the workflow in the GPs’ offices and to the communication between providers and with patients. Among GP characteristics, three were related with an increased incidence in the final multivariable model: length of consultation higher than 15 minutes, method of receiving radiological results (by fax compared to paper or email), and being in a multidisciplinary clinic compared with sole practitioners. Conclusions Patient safety incidents (PSIs) occurred in mean once every two days in the sampled GPs and 2% of them were associated with a definite possibility for harm. Studying the association between organizational features of general

  9. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  10. Increased incidence rate of colorectal tumors due to the intake of a soluble dietary fiber in rat chemical carcinogenesis can be suppressed by substituting partially an insoluble dietary fiber for the soluble one.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hideki; Nishimune, Takahiro; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Miura, Tsutomu; Morita, Shigeru; Yanagimoto, Yukio; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Ikegami, Sachie

    2002-08-01

    In epidemiologic studies on human colorectal tumors, results on the relative protective effect of soluble and insoluble fibers are not consistent. We studied in this work the effect in rats of feeding guar gum or guar gum together with cellulose on the incidence of colorectal tumors induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. The results were as follows: (i) The enhancement of tumor formation by feeding solely guar gum (guar gum group) was suppressed completely when two-thirds of the guar gum was replaced with cellulose (cellulose-guar gum group). The odds ratio for tumor formation was 0.075 (95% CI 0.006-0.936, p = 0.044) for guar gum group vs. no fiber control and 0.833 (0.134-5.167, p = 0.83) for cellulose-guar gum group vs. the control. (ii) In both groups, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased significantly compared to the no fiber control group, and fecal excretion of total bile acids almost doubled. (iii) In guar gum group rats, the deconjugation activity (beta-glucuronidase, beta-glucosidase) was higher than the control or cellulose-guar gum group rats. (iv) The amount of cecal short-chain fatty acids was almost double in guar gum group rats compared to the cellulose-guar gum group or the control rats, and pH of the cecal content of the guar gum group rats had a tendency to be lower. (v) The concentration of fecal secondary bile acids was extremely low in the younger rats of the guar gum group. From these results, it seemed significant to study the cancer preventive effect of the mixed feeding to experimental animals of water-soluble and insoluble fibers instead of the singular feeding.

  11. The increasing toll of adolescent cancer incidence in the US

    PubMed Central

    Kriebel, David; Clapp, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Cancer incidence is rising among adolescents (“teens”). The causes of the increase are unknown but studying incidence patterns and trends may produce insights into etiology. Using data from the US National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program we described trends of cancer incidence among teens (15–19 year olds). We reviewed and summarized incidence patterns for histologic cancer groups and the most frequently diagnosed sites of cancer among teens during 2008–2012 reported by the SEER Cancer Statistics Review. We calculated annual incidence rates for the years 1975–2012 and used linear regression analysis to evaluate trends and calculate rates of change. Incidence for all sites combined increased annually by 0.67% for males and 0.62% for females during the period 1975 through 2012 –resulting in more than a 25% increase over 38 years. The biggest annual incidence increases occurred in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (2.16% females; 1.38% males), thyroid cancer (2.12% females; 1.59% males), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (1.73% females) and testicular cancer (1.55% males). Incidence rates for most histologic groups and sites showed steady long term increases over the 38 years of data. Despite improvements in survival, rising incidence trends mean growing numbers of young adults are undergoing painful and costly cancer treatments. A concerted research program is vital to investigate causes of steadily rising teen cancer rates. PMID:28235028

  12. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  13. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  14. Evaluation of Incident Risks in a Repository for Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Grundler, D.; Mariae, D.; Muller, W.; Boetsch, W.; Thiel, J.

    2008-07-01

    A probabilistic safety assessment of the operation phase of a repository for radioactive waste requires the knowledge of incident risks. These are evaluated from generic observations. The present method accounts for the uncertainty (1) of whether an incident occurs, (2) of the incident rate, (3) of the duration of generic observation, and (4) of the duration of operation phase of the repository. It yields a mean risk and its standard deviation from a minimum of generic data, comprising only the number of observed incidents and the duration of the observation, as more comprehensive generic data are seldom available. It was shown that incidents sharing a common generic observation must be either merged together to a total incident or the generic observation must be split up in sub-observations, one for each such incident. The method was tested on the example of the German Konrad repository for low-level waste in a deep geological formation. (authors)

  15. [Incidence of proliferative retinopathy and sex-related differences in death rate among patients with diabetes mellitus and sight impairment treated with insulin (according to the data from national diabetic registry)].

    PubMed

    Tron'ko, N D; Khalangot, N D; Kravchenko, V I; Kul'chinskaia, Ia B; Gur'ianov, V G; Mis'ko, L A

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the analysis of the occurrence of diabetes mellitus-linked sight impairment and proliferative retinopathy after data of National Diabetes Population Register among patients receiving insulin therapy. The number of women with above mentioned impairments has been found to prevail significantly over that of men. This tendency is also observed among the patients aged to 50 y. o., although in this age group the number of men with diabetes mellitus prevails over that of women. This discrepancy can be explained through higher death rate linked with diabetes mellitus among men as compared with women. Death rate statistics concerning patients with diabetes mellitus complicated with sight impairment for 2003 y. confirms this supposition.

  16. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'.

  17. Grazing incidence beam expander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkapeddi, P. R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V. K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  18. The burden of stroke in Africa: a glance at the present and a glimpse into the future

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Mayowa O; Arulogun, Oyedunni; Melikam, Sylvia; Adeoye, Abiodun M; Akarolo-Anthony, Sally; Akinyemi, Rufus; Arnett, Donna; Tiwari, Hemant; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Jenkins, Carolyn; Lackland, Daniel; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Akpalu, Albert; Sagoe, Kwamena; Stephen Sarfo, Fred; Obiako, Reginald; Owolabi, Lukman

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Information on the current burden of stroke in Africa is limited. The aim of this review was to comprehensively examine the current and projected burden of stroke in Africa. Methods We systematically reviewed the available literature (PubMed and AJOL) from January 1960 and June 2014 on stroke in Africa. Percentage change in age-adjusted stroke incidence, mortality and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for African countries between 1990 and 2010 were calculated from the Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) model-derived figures. Results Community-based studies revealed an age-standardised annual stroke incidence rate of up to 316 per 100 000 population, and age-standardised prevalence rates of up to 981 per 100 000. Model-based estimates showed significant mean increases in age-standardised stroke incidence. The peculiar factors responsible for the substantial disparities in incidence velocity, ischaemic stroke proportion, mean age and case fatality compared to high-income countries remain unknown. Conclusions While the available study data and evidence are limited, the burden of stroke in Africa appears to be increasing. PMID:25962945

  19. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  20. Psychiatric illness in the medical profession: incidence in relation to sex and field of practice.

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The overall incidence of psychiatric illness among the physicians of British Columbia during 1970-74 was 1.27% per year. The overall suicide rate was more than 36.5/100 000. Incidence was not dependent on sex or age. The two specialties with the highest incidence--ophthalmology and psychiatry--had previously been demonstrated to have significantly high rates of suicide. The highest incidence was among psychiatric residents; in other resident groups collectively the incidence was at the expected rate. Greater severity of illness and poorer prognosis was found in family physicians compared with specialists, although the incidence was the same in the two groups. PMID:953898

  1. Incidence of vestibular schwannomas in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kshettry, Varun R; Hsieh, Jason K; Ostrom, Quinn T; Kruchko, Carol; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-09-01

    There is a paucity of population-based data evaluating the incidence of vestibular schwannomas according to age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Such data are necessary to assess the burden of vestibular schwannomas on varying populations and to inform future research and healthcare planning. The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, which contains the largest aggregation of population-based data on the incidence of primary central nervous system tumors in the US, was used. Age-adjusted incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) of vestibular schwannomas from 2004 to 2010 were calculated by age at diagnosis, gender, race, and ethnicity. Annual percent change (APC) was calculated using Joinpoint to characterize temporal trends. From 2004 to 2010, there were 23,729 newly diagnosed vestibular schwannomas in the US; overall incidence was 1.09 per 100,000 population. Incidence was stable over time (APC -0.41 %, 95 % confidence interval -3.4, 2.7). Incidence increased with age to a peak of 2.93 per 100,000 in the 65-74 year old age group. Overall, there was no difference in incidence by gender. Compared to Whites, incidence was highest in Asian Pacific Islanders (IRR 1.37, p < 0.001) and lowest in African Americans (IRR 0.36, p < 0.001). Incidence was lower in Hispanics than non-Hispanics (IRR 0.69, p < 0.001). Over 3300 vestibular schwannomas are diagnosed per year in the US and incidence is 1.09 per 100,000 population. Incidence increases with age up to the 65-74 year old age group. Incidence is higher in Asian Pacific Islanders and lower in African Americans and Hispanics.

  2. Reasons for not reporting adverse incidents: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Vincent, C; Stanhope, N; Crowley-Murphy, M

    1999-02-01

    A previous study (Stanhope et al. 1998) established that staff in two obstetric units reported less than a quarter of designated incidents to the units' risk managers. A questionnaire was administered to 42 obstetricians and 156 midwives at the same two obstetric units, exploring the reasons for low rates of reporting. Questions concerned their knowledge of their unit's incident reporting system; whether they would report a series of 10 designated adverse obstetric incidents to the risk manager; and their views on 12 potential reasons for not reporting incidents. Most staff knew about the incident-reporting system in their unit, but almost 30% did not know how to find a list of reportable incidents. Views on the necessity of reporting the 10 designated obstetric incidents varied considerably. For example, 96% of staff stated they would always report a maternal death, whereas less than 40% would report a baby's unexpected admission to the Special Care Baby Unit. Midwives said they were more likely to report incidents than doctors, and junior staff were more likely to report than senior staff. The main reasons for not reporting were fears that junior staff would be blamed, high workload and the belief (even though the incident was designated as reportable) that the circumstances or outcome of a particular case did not warrant a report. Junior doctors felt less supported by their colleagues than senior doctors. Current systems of incident reporting, while providing some valuable information, do not provide a reliable index of the rate of adverse incidents. Recommended measures to increase reliability include clearer definitions of incidents, simplified methods of reporting, designated staff to record incidents and education, feedback and reassurance to staff about the nature and purpose of such systems.

  3. Population trends in the 10-year incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the UK: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 2004–2014

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Edwards, Emma; Lee, Helen; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Smeeth, Liam; Douglas, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe trends in the incidence and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the UK by diabetes type, age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, region and calendar year. Design Cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Setting UK primary care. Participants 7.7 million patients ≥12 contributing to the CPRD from 2004 to 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures Age-standardised prevalence and incidence of diabetes, DR and severe DR (requiring photocoagulation) by calendar year and population subgroup. Relative risk of developing DR and severe DR by population subgroup. Results The prevalence of DR was 48.4% in the population type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (14 846/30 657) and 28.3% (95 807/338 390) in the population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Prevalence of DR remained stable in people with T2DM and decreased in people with T1DM. Screening for DR increased over time for patients with T2DM and remained static for patients with T1DM Incidence of DR increased in parallel with the incidence of T2DM in both diabetic populations. Among patients with T2DM, relative risk of DR varied significantly by region, was increased for older age groups and in men compared with women, with risk of severe DR increased in South Asian groups and more deprived groups. Relative risk of DR for patients with T1DM varied by age and region, but not by gender, ethnic group or deprivation. Conclusions This is the largest study to date examining the burden of DR in the UK. Regional disparities in incidence may relate to differences in screening delivery and disease ascertainment. Evidence that deprivation and ethnicity are associated with a higher risk of severe DR highlights a significant potential health inequality. Findings from this study will have implications for professionals working in the diabetes and sight loss sectors, particularly to inform approaches for diagnosis of retinopathy and campaigning to better tackle the disease for

  4. Security incidents on the Internet, 1989--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an analysis of trends in Internet security based on an investigation of 4,299 Internet security-related incidents reported to the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center (CERT{reg_sign}/CC) from 1989 through 1995. Prior to this research, knowledge of actual Internet security incidents was limited and primarily anecdotal. This research: (1) developed a taxonomy to classify Internet attacks and incidents, (2) organized, classified, and analyzed CERT{reg_sign}/CC incident records, (3) summarized the relative frequency of the use of tools and vulnerabilities, success in achieving access, and results of attacks, (4) estimated total Internet incident activity, (5) developed recommendations for Internet users and suppliers, and (6) developed recommendations for future research. With the exception of denial-of-service attacks, security incidents were found to be increasing at a rate less than Internet growth. Estimates showed that most, if not all, severe incidents were reported to the CERT{reg_sign}/CC, and that more than one out of three above average incidents (in terms of duration and number of sites) were reported. Estimates also indicated that a typical Internet site was involved in, at most, around one incident (of any kind) per year, and a typical Internet host in, at most, around one incident in 45 years. The probability of unauthorized privileged access was around an order of magnitude less likely. As a result, simple and reasonable security precautions should be sufficient for most Internet users.

  5. Incidence of CNS tumors in Appalachian children.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Luo, Alice; Durbin, Eric B; Lycan, Ellen; Tucker, Thomas; Chen, Quan; Horbinski, Craig; Villano, John L

    2017-03-11

    Determine whether the risk of astrocytomas in Appalachian children is higher than the national average. We compared the incidence of pediatric brain tumors in Appalachia versus non-Appalachia regions, covering years 2000-2011. The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collects population-based data from 55 cancer registries throughout U.S. and Canada. All invasive primary (i.e. non-metastatic tumors), with age at diagnosis 0-19 years old, were included. Nearly 27,000 and 2200 central nervous system (CNS) tumors from non-Appalachia and Appalachia, respectively comprise the cohorts. Age-adjusted incidence rates of each main brain tumor subtype were compared. The incidence rate of pediatric CNS tumors was 8% higher in Appalachia, 3.31 [95% CI 3.17-3.45] versus non-Appalachia, 3.06, [95% CI 3.02-3.09] for the years 2001-2011, all rates are per 100,000 population. Astrocytomas accounted for the majority of this difference, with the rate being 16% higher in Appalachian children, 1.77, [95% CI 1.67-1.87] versus non-Appalachian children, 1.52, [95% CI 1.50-1.55]. Among astrocytomas, World Health Organization (WHO) grade I astrocytomas were 41% higher in Appalachia, 0.63 [95% CI 0.56-0.70] versus non-Appalachia 0.44 [95% CI 0.43-0.46] for the years 2004-2011. This is the first study to demonstrate that Appalachian children are at greater risk of CNS neoplasms, and that much of this difference is in WHO grade I astrocytomas, 41% more common. The cause of this increased incidence is unknown and we discuss the importance of this in relation to genetic and environmental findings in Appalachia.

  6. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  7. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  8. Harnessing Critical Incidents for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patahuddin, Sitti Maesuri; Lowrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A critical incident is a situation or event that holds significance for learning, both for the students and teachers. This paper presents four examples of critical incidents from a Year 7 teacher's lesson excerpts in Indonesia involving teaching of fractions, to show how they shaped classroom situation, brought forward elements of conflict, and…

  9. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players

    PubMed Central

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. Methods: A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at p<0.05, Odds ratios, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results: 75.50% participated, 71.40% were 18 years old, and 71.40% were White. Injury was sustained by 83% of players with the knee (25%) most commonly injured. Injury incidence was 1.52 per player with an injury rate of 5.95 injuries per 1000 match playing hours. The Stability Index increased significantly (p=0.03) by 15% in the medial/lateral direction post-season compared to pre-season. Significant differences in post-test anterior posterior and overall static and front and front right dynamic stability between injured and uninjured players were noted. Risk factors for injury included the scrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only. PMID:25674136

  10. Incidence of fractures requiring inpatient care

    PubMed Central

    Somersalo, Axel; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lönnroos, Eija; Heinänen, Mikko; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Background The overall incidence of fractures has been addressed in several studies, but there are few data on different types of fractures that require inpatient care, even though they account for considerable healthcare costs. We determined the incidence of limb and spine fractures that required hospitalization in people aged ≥ 16 years. Patients and methods We collected data on the diagnosis (ICD10 code), procedure code (NOMESCO), and 9 additional characteristics of patients admitted to the trauma ward of Central Finland Hospital between 2002 and 2008. Incidence rates were calculated for all fractures using data on the population at risk. Results and interpretation During the study period, 3,277 women and 2,708 men sustained 3,750 and 3,030 fractures, respectively. The incidence of all fractures was 4.9 per 103 person years (95% CI: 4.8–5.0). The corresponding numbers for women and men were 5.3 (5.1–5.4) and 4.5 (4.3–4.6). Fractures of the hip, ankle, wrist, spine, and proximal humerus comprised two-thirds of all fractures requiring hospitalization. The proportion of ankle fractures (17%) and wrist fractures (9%) was equal to that of hip fractures (27%). Four-fifths of the hospitalized fracture patients were operated. In individuals aged < 60 years, fractures requiring hospitalization were twice as common in men as in women. In individuals ≥ 60 years of age, the opposite was true. PMID:24694275

  11. LEPTOSPIROSIS INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Hussin, Narwani; Cheah, Wee Kooi; Verasahib, Khebir; Goh, Pik Pin

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Oceania. Malaysia was categorized as a probable endemic country without any available data. Thus, this study was conducted to determine incidence, case fatality rate and mortality rate of leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is a notifiable disease in Malaysia since 2010 whereby probable or confirmed cases must be notified to relevant health district office. There were 3,665 and 4,457 probable and laboratory confirmed leptospirosis cases notified in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In the 2-year period, the most common age group of patients was 19 years old or less (23.3%) with male:female ratio of 2.61:1. Students consisted about 16.9% of patients, followed by agriculture-based or plantation workers (14.7%). Overall age-standardized incidence rate of leptospirosis in Malaysia for 2012 and 2013 was 29.02 per 100,000. Overall case fatality rate was 1.47% for 2-year period and overall age-standardized mortality rate was 0.45 per 100,000. Leptospirosis is an emerging public health concern in Malaysia and may pose a significant health impact and burden to the nation in the coming years if not well controlled.

  12. Ultraviolet B and Incidence Rates of Leukemia Worldwide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    basics. Gaithersburg MD: Aspen, 2000:141–5. 49. DeanHT, Arnold FA Jr, Jay P, Knutson JW. Studies onmass control of dental caries through fluoridation...Journal of Preventive Medicine.z D m s v t o Introduction Approximately 300,500 new cases and 225,500deaths from leukemia occur annually world-wide.1 In...expo- sure to tobacco smoke,3 electromagnetic fıelds,4 ben- From the Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University

  13. Colorectal Cancer Incidence Among Young Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kathryn E.; Taylor, Thomas H.; Pan, Chuan-Ju G.; Stamos, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has decreased over the past three decades, due largely to screening efforts. Relatively little is known about CRC incidence among the young adult (YA) population ages 20–39, as screening typically commences at age 50 for average-risk individuals. We examined CRC incidence with a focus on YAs in order to identify high-risk subgroups. Methods: We analyzed 231,544 incident CRC cases from 1988–2009 (including 5617 YAs 20–39 years of age) from the California Cancer Registry. We assessed age-specific incidence rates by race/ethnicity, gender, and colorectal tumor location, and calculated the biannual percent change (BAPC) to monitor change in incidence over the 22-year study period. Results: The absolute incidence of CRC per 100,000 was low among YAs 20–29 and 30–39 years old (ranging from 0.7 per 100,000 among Hispanic and African American females aged 20–29 up to 5.0 per 100,000 among Asian/Pacific Islander males aged 30–39). However, we observed increasing CRC incidence rates over time among both males and females in the YA population, particularly for distal colon cancer in Hispanic females aged 20–29 (BAPC=+15.9%; p<0.042). Conclusion: The absolute incidence of CRC remains far lower for YAs than among adults aged 50 and over. However, CRC incidence is increasing among young adults, in contrast to the decreasing rates observed for adults in the screened population (aged 50 and above). More research is needed to better characterize YAs at increased risk for CRC. PMID:25538862

  14. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Incidents in Peru 1973–2008: Incidence, Mortality, and Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J. Jaime; López-Rivera, Luis A.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Gianella, Camila; Paca-Palao, Ada; Luna, Diego; Huicho, Luis; Paca, Ada; Luis, López; Luna, Diego; Rosales, Edmundo; Best, Pablo; Best, Pablo; Egúsquiza, Miriam; Gianella, Camila; Lema, Claudia; Ludeña, Esperanza; Miranda, J. Jaime; Huicho, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiological profile and trends of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Peru have not been well-defined, though this is a necessary step to address this significant public health problem in Peru. The objective of this study was to determine trends of incidence, mortality, and fatality of RTIs in Peru during 1973–2008, as well as their relationship to population trends such as economic growth. Methods and Findings Secondary aggregated databases were used to estimate incidence, mortality and fatality rate ratios (IRRs) of RTIs. These estimates were standardized to age groups and sex of the 2008 Peruvian population. Negative binomial regression and cubic spline curves were used for multivariable analysis. During the 35-year period there were 952,668 road traffic victims, injured or killed. The adjusted yearly incidence of RTIs increased by 3.59 (95% CI 2.43–5.31) on average. We did not observe any significant trends in the yearly mortality rate. The total adjusted yearly fatality rate decreased by 0.26 (95% CI 0.15–0.43), while among adults the fatality rate increased by 1.25 (95% CI 1.09–1.43). Models fitted with splines suggest that the incidence follows a bimodal curve and closely followed trends in the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Conclusions The significant increasing incidence of RTIs in Peru affirms their growing threat to public health. A substantial improvement of information systems for RTIs is needed to create a more accurate epidemiologic profile of RTIs in Peru. This approach can be of use in other similar low and middle-income settings to inform about the local challenges posed by RTIs. PMID:24927195

  15. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out ... individual years. Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex From 1999–2013, the rate of people dying ...

  16. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out ... individual years. Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex From 1999–2013, the rate of people dying ...

  17. [Incidence study of listeriosis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Valero, Fernando Parrilla; Rafart, Josep Vaqué

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive retrospective study of cases of listeriosis occurring in Spain from 2001 to 2007 to determine the burden and trend of this disease in our setting. Several sources of information were used. Epidemiological information was collected from 1.242 cases of listeriosis, representing a mean incidence rate of 0,56 cases per 100.000 inhabitants per year, which was extrapolated as an overall estimate for Spain. The annual incidence showed a statistically significant increasing trend (p <0,001) over the study period. This figure was higher than that reported in Spain (0,16) by the Microbiological Information System, which is voluntary, showing that underreporting exists. The inclusion of listeriosis in the Mandatory Notification System would allow determination of the distribution and characteristics of this infection in humans, as well as promotion of effective prevention and control.

  18. Near anastigmatic grazing incidence telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1984-01-01

    A performance capability assessment is presently conducted for short versus long grazing incidence telescope designs, in view of the observation that the field curvature and astigmatism that are the primary residual aberrations of a Wolter-type incidence telescope can be substantially reduced through mirror length reduction. A major advantage of the short element telescope is that, if sufficiently short, both the paraboloid and hyperboloid surfaces may be fabricated as a single piece; this significantly facilitates the task of alignment.

  19. Perioperative Hypothermia: Incidence and Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    1990 Thesis/" Perioperative Hypothermia: Incidence and Prevention CRodney L. Fisher AFIT Student at: Columbia University AFIT/CI/CIA 90-120 AFT/I/I...Civilian Institution Programs DTIC CTELECTE 0 36 UNCLASSIFIFD 4 PERIOPERATIVE HYPOTHERMIA: INCIDENCE AND PREVENTION By Rodney L. Fisher, CAPT., USAF...Availability Codes Avall and/or Dit Special ABSTRACT Perioperative thermal regulation is discussed. A retrospective audit was conducted to identify the

  20. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this information available to

  1. Cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Different publications show an increased incidence of neoplasms in renal transplant patients. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of cancer in the recipients of renal transplants performed in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) during the period 1981–2007. Methods/Design During the study period 1967 kidney transplants were performed, corresponding to 1710 patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to the transplant will be excluded (n = 38). A follow-up study was carried out in order to estimate cancer incidence after transplantation. For each patient, information included donor and recipient characteristics, patients and graft survival and cancer incidence after transplantation. Incident cancer is considered as new cases of cancer after the transplant with anatomopathological confirmation. Their location will be classified according to the ICD-9. The analysis will be calculated using the indirect standardisation method. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the Spanish general population will be obtained from the Carlos III Health Institute, the National Epidemiology Centre of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Crude first, second and third-year post-transplantation cancer incidence rates will be calculated for male and female recipients. The number of cases of cancer at each site will be calculated from data in the clinical records. The expected number of cancers will be calculated from data supplied by the Carlos III Health Institute. For each tumour location we will estimate the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using sex-specific cancer incidence rates, by dividing the incidence rate for the transplant patients by the rate of the general population. The 95% confidence intervals of the SIRs and their associated p-values will be calculated by assuming that the observed cancers follow a Poisson distribution. Stratified analysis will be performed to examine the variation in the SIRs with sex and length of follow-up. Competing

  2. Cancer Incidence, Survival, and Mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horm, John W.; Burhansstipanov, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Overall cancer incidence among southwestern American Indians is less than half that of U.S. whites; Alaska Native and white rates are similar. However, both native groups have elevated rates for specific cancers (stomach, liver, and gallbladder), and Indians have low five-year survival rates. Data tables outline incidence, mortality, and survival…

  3. Trends in pyloric stenosis incidence, Atlanta, 1968 to 1982.

    PubMed Central

    Lammer, E J; Edmonds, L D

    1987-01-01

    Four studies reported an increasing incidence of pyloric stenosis during the late 1970s from geographically diverse areas of the United Kingdom. It was suggested that the increased incidence might be related to changes in infant feeding practices. We used data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, a population based birth defects registry, to examine the secular trends and descriptive epidemiology of pyloric stenosis in a North American city. For the period 1968 to 1982, the incidence of pyloric stenosis was 1.33 per 1000 live births; there was no evidence of an increasing trend for either race or sex specific rates of pyloric stenosis. The descriptive epidemiology of the pyloric stenosis cases showed higher rates for males, whites, and infants of higher birth weight. We found no increasing trend in pyloric stenosis incidence in Atlanta, despite well documented changes in US infant feeding practices (an increased prevalence of breast feeding) during the 1970s. PMID:3656370

  4. Incidence and mortality of bullous pemphigoid in France.

    PubMed

    Joly, Pascal; Baricault, Sophie; Sparsa, Agnès; Bernard, Philippe; Bédane, Christophe; Duvert-Lehembre, Sophie; Courville, Philippe; Bravard, Pierre; Rémond, Brigitte; Doffoel-Hantz, Valérie; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-08-01

    A major increase in the incidence of BP has been recently reported in the United Kingdom. In addition, there are some controversies about the over-mortality of BP patients. The primary objective was to reevaluate the incidence of BP in France as compared with that we estimated 15 years ago. The secondary objective was to assess mortality of BP patients. BP incidence was retrospectively estimated from all BP cases diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2005 in three French regions with a total population of 3.858 million inhabitants. BP mortality was assessed from a prospective cohort accrued during the same time period. A total of 502 incident BP patients (mean age: 82.6±8.8 years) were identified. Overall estimated incidence was 21.7 cases per million persons per year (95%CI:19.8-23.7 cases per million persons per year), which is about 3-fold higher than the incidence that we estimated 15 years ago. In the population aged 70 years or above, BP incidence was 162 cases per million per year (95%CI:147-177 cases per million per year). The overall 1-year survival rate was 62% (95% CI: 56-67%). The risk of death for BP patients was more than six times greater than that for the general population (SMR:6.60; 95%CI:5.47-7.90). The incidence of BP in France has increased 3-fold in the last 15 years. BP is associated with high mortality.

  5. Incidence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Staines, A; Hanif, S; Ahmed, S; McKinney, P; Shera, S; Bodansky, H

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 16 September 1996
 OBJECTIVES—To determine the incidence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) among children aged up to 16 years residing in the city of Karachi, Pakistan, during the five years from 1989 to 1993.
DESIGN—Retrospective study of incidence using hospital and clinic records.
SETTING—The city of Karachi, Pakistan.
SUBJECTS—Children satisfying standard criteria for the diagnosis of IDDM, attending treatment facilities for the first time during the study period.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The incidence of IDDM in this population and its variation by age and sex.
RESULTS—The incidence of IDDM in this population is 1.02/100 000 per year, which is one of the lowest incidence rates yet reported.
CONCLUSIONS—The very low incidence of IDDM, contrasted with the substantially higher incidence among migrants, supports the view that environmental factors are the major determinants of variations in the incidence of this condition between populations.

 PMID:9068300

  6. Cosmic rays, solar activity, magnetic coupling, and lightning incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, J. T. A.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented and described that unifies the complex influence of several factors on spatial and temporal variation of lightning incidence. These factors include the cosmic radiation, solar activity, and coupling between geomagnetic and interplanetary (solar wind) magnetic fields. Atmospheric electrical conductivity in the 10 km region was shown to be the crucial parameter altered by these factors. The theory reconciles several large scale studies of lightning incidence previously misinterpreted or considered contradictory. The model predicts additional strong effects on variations in lightning incidence, but only small effects on the morphology and rate of thunderstorm development.

  7. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  8. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment.

  9. Incidence and Demographics of Childhood Ptosis

    PubMed Central

    Griepentrog, Gregory J.; Diehl, Nancy; Mohney, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report the incidence and demographics of childhood ptosis diagnosed over a 40-year period in a well-defined population. Design Retrospective, population-based cohort study. Participants Patients (< 19 years) diagnosed with childhood ptosis as residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from January 1, 1965, through December 31, 2004 Methods The medical records of all potential patients identified by the Rochester Epidemiology Project were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures Calculated annual age- and sex-specific incidence rates and demographic information. Results A total of 107 children were diagnosed with ptosis during the 40-year period, yielding an incidence of 7.9/100,000 < 19 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.4-9.5) of age. Ninety-six (89.7%) of the 107 were congenital in onset, 81 (75%) of which had simple congenital ptosis, yielding a birth prevalence of 1 in 842 births. A family history of childhood ptosis was present in twelve percent of queried patients with simple congenital ptosis. Three (4%) of the simple congenital ptosis cases were bilateral and 55 (68%) of the unilateral cases involved the left upper eyelid (95% CI: 57%-78%, p<0.001). Conclusion Childhood ptosis was diagnosed in 7.9 per 100,000 patients less than 19 years (95% CI: 6.4-9.5). Simple congenital ptosis was the most prevalent form, occurring in 1 in 842 births, and significantly more likely to involve the left side. PMID:21496927

  10. Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liderazgo de la DEA Resource Center » Statistics & Facts » Methamphetamine Lab Incidents Methamphetamine Lab Incidents, 2004-2014 NOTE: These maps include all meth incidents, including labs, "dumpsites" or "chemical and glassware" ...

  11. Cancer Incidence among Former Love Canal Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gensburg, Lenore J.; Pantea, Cristian; Kielb, Christine; Fitzgerald, Edward; Stark, Alice; Kim, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Background The Love Canal was a rectangular 16-acre, 10-ft-deep chemical waste landfill situated in a residential neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York. This seriously contaminated site came to public attention in 1978. Only one prior study examined cancer incidence in former residents of the Love Canal neighborhood (LC). Objective In this study we aimed to describe cancer incidence in former LC residents from 1979 to 1996 and to investigate whether it differs from that of New York State (NYS) and Niagara County (NC). Methods From 1978 to 1982, we interviewed 6,181 former residents, and 5,052 were eligible to be included in this study. In 1996, we identified 304 cancer diagnoses in this cohort using the NYS Cancer Registry. We compared LC cancer incidence with that of NYS and NC using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and we compared risks within the LC group by potential exposure to the landfill using survival analysis. Results SIRs were elevated for cancers of the bladder [SIRNYS = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91–2.16] and kidney (SIRNYS = 1.48; 95% CI, 0.76–2.58). Although CIs included 1.00, other studies have linked these cancers to chemicals similar to those found at Love Canal. We also found higher rates of bladder cancer among residents exposed as children, based on two cases. Conclusions In explaining these excess risks, the role of exposure to the landfill is unclear given such limitations as a relatively small and incomplete study cohort, imprecise exposure measurements, and the exclusion of cancers diagnosed before 1979. Given the relatively young age of the cohort, further surveillance is warranted. PMID:19672407

  12. Measles incidence and reporting trends in Germany, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Ole; Rieck, Thorsten; Matysiak-Klose, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective We aimed to quantify progress towards measles elimination in Germany from 2007 to 2011 and to estimate any potential underreporting over this period. Methods We determined the annual incidence of notified cases of measles – for each year – in northern, western, eastern and southern Germany and across the whole country. We then used measles-related health insurance claims to estimate the corresponding incidence. Findings In each year between 2007 and 2011, there were 6.9–19.6 (mean: 10.8) notified cases of measles per million population. Incidence decreased with age and showed geographical variation, with highest mean incidence – 20.3 cases per million – in southern Germany. Over the study period, incidence decreased by 10% (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 0.90; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.85–0.95) per year in western Germany but increased by 77% (IRR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.62–1.93) per year in eastern Germany. Although the estimated incidence of measles based on insurance claims showed similar trends, these estimates were 2.0- to 4.8-fold higher than the incidence of notified cases. Comparisons between the data sets indicated that the underreporting increased with age and was generally less in years when measles incidence was high than in low-incidence years. Conclusion Germany is still far from achieving measles elimination. There is substantial regional variation in measles epidemiology and, therefore, a need for region-specific interventions. Our analysis indicates underreporting in the routine surveillance system between 2007 and 2011, especially among adults. PMID:25378728

  13. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease.

  14. Chernobyl fallout and cancer incidence in Finland.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, Anssi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Patama, Toni; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Verkasalo, Pia; Hakulinen, Timo

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since the Chernobyl accident, but its health consequences remain to be well established. Finland was one of the most heavily affected countries by the radioactive fallout outside the former Soviet Union. We analyzed the relation of the estimated external radiation exposure from the fallout to cancer incidence in Finland in 1988-2007. The study cohort comprised all ∼ 3.8 million Finns who had lived in the same dwelling for 12 months following the accident (May 1986-April 1987). Radiation exposure was estimated using data from an extensive mobile dose rate survey. Cancer incidence data were obtained for the cohort divided into four exposure categories (the lowest with the first-year committed dose <0.1 mSv and the highest ≥ 0.5 mSv) allowing for a latency of 5 years for leukemia and thyroid cancer, and 10 years for other cancers. Of the eight predefined cancer sites regarded as radiation-related from earlier studies, only colon cancer among women showed an association with exposure from fallout [excess rate ratio per increment in exposure category 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.11]. No such effect was observed for men, or other cancer sites. Our analysis of a large cohort over two decades did not reveal an increase in cancer incidence following the Chernobyl accident, with the possible exception of colon cancer among women. The largely null findings are consistent with extrapolation from previous studies suggesting that the effect is likely to remain too small to be empirically detectable and of little public health impact.

  15. Incidents Unsuitable for Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray; And Others

    Educators from over 30 countries judged the suitability of incidents in moral education in the context of their native environment. Participants were 54 secondary school principals or teachers, most of whom were graduate students or married to graduate students at the University of California, Santa Barbara. They were given descriptions of 23…

  16. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  17. INCIDENT REPORTING: LEARNING FROM EXPERIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Dean, Jesse D.; Davis, Patrick B.; Ruiz, Antonio

    2007-09-12

    Experience makes a superior teacher. Sharing the details surrounding safety events is one of the best ways to help prevent their recurrence elsewhere. This approach requires an open, non-punitive environment to achieve broad benefits. The Hydrogen Incident Reporting Tool (www.h2incidents.org) is intended to facilitate the sharing of lessons learned and other relevant information gained from actual experiences using and working with hydrogen and hydrogen systems. Its intended audience includes those involved in virtually any aspect of hydrogen technology, systems and use, with an emphasis towards energy and transportation applications. The database contains records of safety events both publicly available and/or voluntarily submitted. Typical records contain a general description of the occurrence, contributing factors, equipment involved, and some detailing of consequences and changes that have been subsequently implemented to prevent recurrence of similar events in the future. The voluntary and confidential nature and other characteristics surrounding the database mean that any analysis of apparent trends in its contents cannot be considered statistically valid for a universal population. A large portion of reported incidents have occurred in a laboratory setting due to the typical background of the reporting projects, for example. Yet some interesting trends are becoming apparent even at this early stage of the database’s existence and general lessons can already be taken away from these experiences. This paper discusses the database and a few trends that have already become apparent for the reported incidents. Anticipated future uses of this information are also described. This paper is intended to encourage wider participation and usage of the incidents reporting database and to promote the safety benefits offered by its contents.

  18. Climate, demographic factors and geographical variations in the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vescio, F; Busani, L; Mughini Gras, L; Fazio, C; Neri, A; Avellis, L; Rezza, G; Stefanelli, P

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effect of climatic, demographic factors and intra-country geographical variations on the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Italy. For this purpose, incidence rates of IMD cases reported in Italy between 1994 and 2012 were calculated, and a cluster analysis was performed. A geographical gradient was determined, with lower incidence rates in central and southern Italy, compared to the northern parts, where most clusters were observed. IMD rates were higher in medium-sized towns than in villages. Adults were at lower risk of IMD than children aged ⩽4 years. IMD incidence tended to decrease with increasing monthly mean temperatures (incidence rate ratio 0·94, 95% confidence interval 0·90-0·99). In conclusion, geographical variations in IMD incidence were found, where age and temperature were associated with disease occurrence. Whether geographical variations should be considered in national intervention plans is still a matter for discussion.

  19. Lung cancer trend in England for the period of 2002 to 2011 and projections of future burden until 2020.

    PubMed

    Olajide, Olufemi O; Field, John K; Davies, Michael M P A; Marcus, Michael W

    2015-08-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world, therefore creating a huge public health concern. The aim of this study is to determine the change in age-standardised incidence rate trend of lung cancer in England between 2002 and 2011 and use these findings to anticipate the potential burden of the disease by gender in the year 2020. Lung cancer incidence data (ICD-10 code C33-34) from 2002 and 2011 and mid-year population estimates for the same period were obtained from Office of National Statistics. Age-standardised incidence rates were calculated, by gender and region. Poisson regression analysis was used to describe the time incidence trend and projections were estimated up to year 2020. A total of 318, 417 lung cancer cases were identified. Incidence rates decreased in men by an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of -1.0% and increased in women by +1.9%. Projection analysis showed that by year 2020, provided the rates remain the same, English women will have the same lung cancer incidence rates as their male counterparts. This study demonstrated that there would be 5,848 excess lung cancer cases by 2020 with female population accounting for 85% (4,996) of the excess cases. Therefore, in addition to the development of high quality preventive intervention strategies, future public health also needs to prioritise targets at the implementation phase, in a manner that engage women living in regions that have demonstrated very high AAPC values.

  20. Oral cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Zheng, Rongshou; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Siwei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To descript the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer among Chinese population in 2011, and provide valuable data for oral cancer prevention and research. Methods Data from 177 population-based cancer registries distributed in 28 provinces were accepted for this study after evaluation based on quality control criteria, covering a total of 175,310,169 populations and accounting for 13.01% of the overall national population in 2011. Incidence and mortality rates were calculated by area, gender and age groups. The numbers of new cases and deaths were estimated using the 5-year age-specific cancer incidence/mortality rates and the corresponding populations. The Chinese population in 2000 and World Segi’s population were used for age-standardized rates. Results The estimate of new cases diagnosed with oral cancer was 39,450 including 26,160 males and 13,290 females. The overall crude incidence rate for oral cancer was 2.93/100,000. The age-standardized rates by China (ASRCN) population and by World population (ASRwld) were 2.22/100,000 and 2.17/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative incidence rate was 0.25%. The estimated number of oral cancer deaths of China in 2011 was 16,933, including 11,794 males and 5,139 females. The overall crude mortality rate was 1.26/100,000, accounting for 0.80% of all cancer deaths. The ASRCN and ASRwld for mortality were 0.90/100,000 and 0.89/100,000, respectively. Among subjects aged 0-74 years, the cumulative mortality rate was 0.10%. The incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer were much higher in males and urban areas than in females and rural areas. In addition, the incidence and mortality rates were increased by the raising of ages. Conclusions Results in the study may have important roles for oral cancer prevention and research. Although oral cancer burden of China is not high, we must pay attention to this malignancy as well. In addition, further researches need to be done for

  1. Incidence of knee cartilage surgery in Norway, 2008–2011

    PubMed Central

    Engen, Cathrine Nørstad; Årøen, Asbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Objective A systematic and long-term data collection on the treatment of focal cartilage defects (FCDs) of the knee is needed. This can be achieved through the foundation of a National Knee Cartilage Defect Registry. The aim of this study was to establish the nationwide burden of knee cartilage surgery, defined as knee surgery in patients with an FCD. We also aimed to identify any geographical differences in incidence rates, patient demographics or trends within this type of surgery. Setting A population-based study with retrospective identification of patients undergoing knee cartilage surgery in Norway through a mandatory public health database from 2008 to 2011. Participants We identified all patients undergoing cartilage surgery, or other knee surgery in patients with an FCD. All eligible surgeries were assessed for inclusion on the basis of certain types of ICD-10 and NOMESKO Classification of Surgical Procedures codes. Primary and secondary outcome measures The variables were diagnostic and surgical codes, geographic location of the performing hospital, age and sex of the patients. Yearly incidence and incidence rates were calculated. Age-adjusted incidences for risk ratios and ORs between geographical areas were also calculated. Results A total of 10 830 cases of knee cartilage surgery were identified, with slight but significant decreases from 2008 to 2011 (p<0.0003). The national incidence rate was 56/100 000 inhabitants and varied between regions, counties and hospitals. More than 50% of the procedures were palliative and nearly 400 yearly procedures were reparative or restorative. Conclusions Knee cartilage surgery is common in Norway, counting 2500 annual cases with an age-adjusted incidence rate of 68.8/100 000 inhabitants. There are significant geographical variations in incidence and trends of surgery and in trends between public and private hospitals. We suggest that a national surveillance system would be beneficial for the future evaluation

  2. Poverty and childhood cancer incidence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pan, I-Jen; Daniels, Julie L; Zhu, Kangmin

    2010-07-01

    This study examined socioeconomic differentials in cancer incidence rates during 2000-2005 among children aged 0-19 in the United States. The data on childhood cancers, which were classified by the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, Third Edition (ICCC-3), were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. The socioeconomic status of residential area at diagnosis was estimated by county-level poverty rate in Census 2000, i.e., percentage of persons in the county living below the national poverty thresholds. Counties were categorized as low-, medium-, and high-poverty areas when the poverty rates were <10, 10-19.99, and 20% or higher, respectively. The results showed that medium- and high-poverty counties had lower age-adjusted incidence rates than low-poverty counties for total childhood cancers combined, central nervous system neoplasms (ICCC group III), neuroblastoma (group IV), renal tumors (group VI), and other malignant epithelial neoplasms and malignant melanomas (group XI). When the data were stratified by race, these associations were observed among whites, but not blacks. For leukemia (group I), poor counties had higher incidence rates than affluent counties for whites, but lower rates for blacks. This ecologic study provides perspective on area socioeconomic variations in childhood cancer incidence that warrants further research.

  3. Swedish hunters' safety behaviour and experience of firearm incidents.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Midlöv, Patrik; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Eriksson, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Since any firearm injury is potentially lethal, it is of great interest to prevent firearm incidents. This study investigated such incidents during hunting and Swedish hunters' safety behaviour. A 48-item questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 1000 members of the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management. The questions considered demographics, hunting experience/hunting habits/safety behaviour/attitudes and experience of careless weapon handling, hunters' weapons and safety behaviour relating to weapons, health status, firearm incidents and their preventability, and personal comments on the questionnaire. The response rate was almost 50%. The mean age of the responders was 54 years; 5% were females. Almost none (1%) reported hunting under the influence of alcohol. Young age and male sex were positively associated with risk behaviour, although the presence of multiple risk behaviours in the same responder was not common. A very high degree of compliance with Swedish laws regarding weapon storage was reported. One-quarter of the responders had witnessed a firearm incident caused by another hunter, which in most situations did not result in human injury or death. An unsafetied weapon was the most common reported "cause" of these incidents. Experience of a firearm incident was not uncommon and the majority of the responders considered the incident in question to be preventable. This study provides a picture of the possible risk behaviour among hunters and the results suggest that future prevention work should target safer weapon handling.

  4. Deprivation, immigration and tuberculosis incidence in Naples, 1996-2000.

    PubMed

    Ponticiello, Antonio; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Simonetti, Andrea; Ortolani, Rosanna; Malerba, Mario; Sanduzzi, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    Most of the tuberculosis cases in Campania occur in Naples, the biggest city in the South of Italy with the highest unemployment and immigration rates. However, the occurrence of tuberculosis differs between the different neighbourhoods and it is not known whether these differences are associated with poverty or with immigration. We describe tuberculosis incidence and its association with socio-economic status and immigration in the city of Naples during the period 1996-2000. The basic design was an ecological study, correlating the incidence of tuberculosis which was calculated on the basis of notified tuberculosis cases to census data on immigration and socio-economic deprivation per neighbourhood. Immigrants had a high risk for tuberculosis (RR=34 for Africans) but the incidence of TB varied largely by districts and seemed independent of immigration. All socioeconomic factors increased the incidence of TB significantly. In a multivariate Poisson regression analysis only the rate of unemployment (p=0.02) and the population density (p=0.002) remained independently associated with tuberculosis incidence. In this study we showed that deprivation explained differences in tuberculosis incidence in Naples to a greater extent than immigration.

  5. Incidence of cancer among workers producing calcium carbide.

    PubMed Central

    Kjuus, H; Andersen, A; Langård, S

    1986-01-01

    The overall mortality and the incidence of cancer have been studied among male employees at a plant producing calcium carbide. The cohort was defined as all men employed at the plant for at least 18 months in the period 1953 to 1970 and was classified according to 10 occupational categories. The 790 men have been observed from 1953 to 1983 and the incidence of cancer in the cohort has been compared with national incidence rates. A significant excess of colonic cancer (standardised incidence ratio, SIR = 2.09) and of prostatic cancer (SIR = 1.78) was found, and also a slight excess of lung cancer among furnace and maintenance workers (SIR = 1.56). The possible exposure of the workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, and cadmium is discussed. PMID:3964572

  6. Racial and Gender Disparities in Incidence of Lung and Bronchus Cancer in the United States: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, Mohammad A.; Kengwoung-Keumo, Jean-Jacques; Oates, Gabriela R.; Guemmegne, Juliette T.; Akinlawon, Akinola; Ekadi, Green; Fouad, Mona N.; Singh, Karan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain population groups in the United States carry a disproportionate burden of cancer. This work models and analyzes the dynamics of lung and bronchus cancer age-adjusted incidence rates by race (White and Black), gender (male and female), and prevalence of daily smoking in 38 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and across eight U.S. geographic regions from 1999 to 2012. Methods Data, obtained from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Section of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reflect approximately 77% of the U.S. population and constitute a representative sample for making inferences about incidence rates in lung and bronchus cancer (henceforth lung cancer). A longitudinal linear mixed-effects model was used to study lung cancer incidence rates and to estimate incidence rate as a function of time, race, gender, and prevalence of daily smoking. Results Between 1999 and 2012, age-adjusted incidence rates in lung cancer have decreased in all states and regions. However, racial and gender disparities remain. Whites continue to have lower age-adjusted incidence rates for this cancer than Blacks in all states and in five of the eight U.S. geographic regions. Disparities in incidence rates between Black and White men are significantly larger than those between Black and White women, with Black men having the highest incidence rate of all subgroups. Assuming that lung cancer incidence rates remain within reasonable range, the model predicts that the gender gap in the incidence rate for Whites would disappear by mid-2018, and for Blacks by 2026. However, the racial gap in lung cancer incidence rates among Black and White males will remain. Among all geographic regions, the Mid-South has the highest overall lung cancer incidence rate and the highest incidence rate for Whites, while the Midwest has the highest incidence rate for Blacks. Between 1999 and 2012, there was a downward trend in the prevalence of daily smokers in both genders. However, males

  7. Incidence of transient global amnesia in Merano, province of Bolzano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Nardone, Raffaele

    2014-12-01

    Few community-based studies determined the incidence of transient global amnesia (TGA), with annual incidence rates between 2.9 and 10.4/100,000. Data on sex distribution of TGA are discrepant. Aim of this study was to determine the incidence of TGA in Merano, province of Bolzano, Northern Italy. Cases were identified from hospital discharge diagnoses of all the Departments of the general hospital of Merano and neighboring towns. Patients fulfilling internationally accepted diagnostic criteria for TGA and residing in Merano were included. Crude, age- and sex-specific incidence rates were computed. The overall annual crude incidence rate of TGA was 9.6/100,000 inhabitants (9.5 % confidence interval 6.7-13.3), 10.1/100,000 for men and 8.9/100,000 for women (p < 0.001). After adjustment by the direct method to the European population, the annual incidence rate was 6.4/100,000. The incidence rate of TGA in Merano, Italy, does not differ from that reported in Turku, Finland and Belluno, Italy. This study confirms that this benign syndrome is relatively common and occurs mainly in elderly patients. However, the higher male predominance in TGA incidence rates contrasts with previous epidemiological studies. Further, prospective incidence studies should therefore be conducted to further clarify sex predominance in TGA.

  8. Incidence of Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in Croatia: A Population Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kadojić, Dragutin; Demarin, Vida; Dikanović, Marinko; Lusić, Ivo; Tuskan-Mohar, Lidija; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Mihaljević, Ivan; Kadojić, Mira; Bitunjac, Milan; Vranjes, Zeljko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this population based neuroepidemiological study was to establish the real incidence rates of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD): stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the Republic of Croatia. Multicentric study included 89 501 persons of all ages in four regional centres in Croatia: Zagreb, Osijek + Slavonski Brod, Rijeka and Split. The following incidence rates of stroke, expressed at population of 100 000, have been established: Zagreb 290.52, Osijek + Slavonski Brod 302.14, Rijeka 219.65, Split 195.82. Incidence rate of stroke for the Republic of Croatia is 251.39. The following incidence rates of TIA, expressed at population of 100,000, have been established: Zagreb 87.15, Osijek + Slavonski Brod 156.53, Rijeka 90.11, Split 59.10. Incidence rate of TIA for the Republic of Croatia is 100.55. In the continental part of Croatia (Zagreb, Osijek + Slavonski Brod) incidence rate of stroke is higher by 45%, while incidence rate of TIA is higher by 82% than in the coastal part of Croatia, probably due to different lifestyle and environmental factors. The study has shown relatively high incidence rates of acute CVD (stroke and TIA) in the Republic of Croatia, which proves that CVD are a great public health problem.

  9. State Methods for a Cyber Incident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Statewide Emergency Response and Response Plan SIPC State Infrastructure Protection Center SIRT Security Incident Response Team SIRT State Incident...by statute and policy to report agency information security incidents to the state Security Incident Response Team ( SIRT ). Those reports are made...through recent state statutes. P-16 Yes, agencies are required by statute and policy to report information security incidents to the SIRT . Q-17

  10. A Descriptive Analysis of Incidents Reported by Community Aged Care Workers.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Amina; Douglas, Heather E; Smith, Cheryl; Georgiou, Andrew; Osmond, Tracey; Armour, Pauline; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the types of incidents that occur to aged care clients in the community. This limits the development of effective strategies to improve client safety. The objective of the study was to present a profile of incidents reported in Australian community aged care settings. All incident reports made by community care workers employed by one of the largest community aged care provider organizations in Australia during the period November 1, 2012, to August 8, 2013, were analyzed. A total of 356 reports were analyzed, corresponding to a 7.5% incidence rate per client year. Falls and medication incidents were the most prevalent incident types. Clients receiving high-level care and those who attended day therapy centers had the highest rate of incidents with 14% to 20% of these clients having a reported incident. The incident profile indicates that clients on higher levels of care had higher incident rates. Incident data represent an opportunity to improve client safety in community aged care.

  11. Replication of grazing incidence optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, Melville P.

    1986-01-01

    The replication of grazing incidence optics is reviewed. Electroform and epoxy replication are described and compared. It is concluded that for light weight and deep nesting, replication has a distinct advantage over direct production. The resolution of optics produced in this manner is however, limited to about 10 arc seconds; a typical value is 40 arc seconds. Epoxy replicated pieces tend to have better optical figures than electroformed optics, but the latter can be made thinner to make more deeply nested systems.

  12. Mortality and cancer incidence in aluminum reduction plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Spinelli, J.J.; Band, P.R.; Svirchev, L.M.; Gallagher, R.P. )

    1991-11-01

    An historical cohort study was conducted among 4,213 men who worked for 5 or more years at a Soderberg aluminum reduction plant in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios were used to compare the mortality and cancer incidence of the cohort with that of the BC population and to examine risk by cumulative exposure to coal-tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) and electromagnetic fields. Significantly elevated rates were observed for bladder cancer incidence (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.69) and brain cancer mortality (standardized mortality ratio = 2.17). The risk of bladder cancer was strongly related to cumulative exposure to CTPV (P less than .01). The risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma also increased with increasing exposure (P less than .05), although the overall rate was similar to that of the general population (SIR = 1.06). The lung cancer rate was as expected (SIR = 0.97), but showed a weak association with CTPV exposure that was not statistically significant. No individual cause of death or incident cancer site was related to exposure to electromagnetic fields. Analysis of the joint effect of smoking and CTPV exposure on lung and bladder cancer showed the exposure response relationships to be independent of smoking.

  13. Trajectory of Cognitive Decline after Incident Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Deborah A.; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Kabeto, Mohammed U.; Giordani, Bruno; Wadley, Virginia G.

    2015-01-01

    .097); however, there was a significantly faster poststroke rate of incident cognitive impairment compared to the prestroke rate (odds ratio, 1.23 per year; 95% CI, 1.10–1.38; P<0.001). For a 70 year-old black woman, stroke at year 3 was associated with greater incident cognitive impairment: absolute difference (95% CI) of 4.0% (−1.2%–9.2%) at year 3 and 12.4% (7.7%–17.1% at year 6). Conclusion Incident stroke was associated with an acute decline in cognition and also accelerated and persistent cognitive decline over 6 years. PMID:26151265

  14. Estimation of HIV incidence in two Brazilian municipalities, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Ferreira, Orlando da Costa; de Brito, Ana Maria; Luhm, Karin Regina; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa Lopes; Silva, Ana Maria; Cavalcanti, Ana Maria Salustiano; Ito, Tomoko Sasazawa; Raboni, Sonia Mara; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate HIV incidence in two Brazilian municipalities, Recife and Curitiba, in the year of 2013. METHODS The method for estimating incidence was based on primary information, resulting from the Lag-Avidity laboratory test for detection of recent HIV infections, applied in a sample of the cases diagnosed in the two cities in 2013. For the estimation of the HIV incidence for the total population of the cities, the recent infections detected in the research were annualized and weighted by the inverse of the probability of HIV testing in 2013 among the infected and not diagnosed cases. After estimating HIV incidence for the total population, the incidence rates were estimated by sex, age group, and exposure category. RESULTS In Recife, 902 individuals aged 13 years and older were diagnosed with HIV infection. From these, 528 were included in the study, and the estimated proportion of recent infections was 13.1%. In Curitiba, 1,013 people aged 13 years and older were diagnosed, 497 participated in the study, and the proportion of recent infections was 10.5%. In Recife, the estimated incidence rate was 53.1/100,000 inhabitants of 13 years and older, while in Curitiba, it was 41.1/100,000, with male-to-female ratio of 3.5 and 2.4, respectively. We observed high rates of HIV incidence among men who have sex with men, of 1.47% in Recife and 0.92% in Curitiba. CONCLUSIONS The results obtained in the two cities showed that the group of men who have sex with men are disproportionately subject to a greater risk of new infections, and indicate that strategies to control the spread of the epidemic in this population subgroup are essential and urgent. PMID:27598785

  15. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  16. Ethnic differences in coronary heart disease case fatality rates in Auckland.

    PubMed

    Bullen, C; Beaglehole, R

    1997-12-01

    Data from the Auckland Coronary or Stroke (ARCOS) study for the years 1983 to 1992 were analysed to describe 28-day case fatality rates from coronary heart disease among Europeans, Maori and Pacific Islands people in Auckland, New Zealand. The case fatality rate was consistently higher in each age group and for both sexes among Maori and Pacific Islands people than in Europeans. Age-standardised case fatalities for Maori and Pacific Islands people were similar at around 65 per cent, compared with around 45 per cent among Europeans, and these differences were not explained by ethnic differences in possible underreporting of nonfatal myocardial infarction, in socioeconomic status, smoking, symptoms or past myocardial infarction. There was evidence of a more rapid progression of acute coronary events to a fatal outcome among Maori and Pacific Islands people, partly explained by delays in access to life support and coronary care: greater proportions of Pacific Islands people than Maori or Europeans who died did so within an hour of onset of symptoms (56 per cent of Pacific Islands people, 47 per cent of Maori, 45 per cent of Europeans). Pacific Islands and Maori people with acute coronary events took longer to reach a coronary care unit (mean times: Pacific Islands people 8.6 hours, Maori 7.4 hours, Europeans 6.7 hours, P < 0.05), although the median times were not significantly different; life-support units were used by a majority of Pacific Islands people and Europeans (57 per cent and 55 per cent, respectively), compared with only 46 per cent of Maori, but hospital care was similar for the three groups. Further qualitative and quantitative research is needed to investigate the reasons for these ethnic disparities in case fatality rates.

  17. Melanoma incidence and frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Orjan; Johansson, Olle

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been increasing steadily in many countries since 1960, but the underlying mechanism causing this increase remains elusive. The incidence of melanoma has been linked to the distance to frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting towers. In the current study, the authors sought to determine if there was also a related link on a larger scale for entire countries. Exposure-time-specific incidence was extracted from exposure and incidence data from 4 different countries, and this was compared with reported age-specific incidence of melanoma. Geographic differences in melanoma incidence were compared with the magnitude of this environmental stress. The exposure-time-specific incidence from all 4 countries became almost identical, and they were approximately equal to the reported age-specific incidence of melanoma. A correlation between melanoma incidence and the number of locally receivable FM transmitters was found. The authors concluded that melanoma is associated with exposure to FM broadcasting.

  18. Incidence of injury in kickboxing participation.

    PubMed

    Romaine, Linda J; Davis, Shala E; Casebolt, Kevin; Harrison, Kelly A

    2003-08-01

    Cardio kickboxing classes have become a popular form of exercise to enhance fitness. This study surveyed kickboxing participants and instructors to ascertain the severity, type, and incidence of injuries sustained while performing cardio kickboxing exercise. The respondents consisted of 77.4% instructors and 29.3% participants with a mean age of 32.29 years (+/-8.98 years). Injury from kickboxing exercise was reported by 29.3% of the respondents, 31% of the instructors, and 15.5% of the participants. The most common site of injury for instructors was the back, followed by the knee, hip, and shoulder. The most common site of injury for participants was the back, knee, and ankle. Strains were the most common type of injury reported, followed by sprains and tendinitis. More than half of the injuries reported were new injuries (64%), with almost 59% of the total injuries reported causing a disruption of the normal exercise routine or an alteration of normal daily activities. Instructors who reported using music speeds greater than 140 beats per minute had a higher incidence of injury, compared with instructors who used music between 125 and 139 beats per minute. The wrist and elbow had the highest percentage of new injuries reported. This study suggests that kickboxing exercise can be a safe form of exercise for fitness purposes. Keeping music speeds below 140 beats per minute and limiting the number of kickboxing sessions per week may help to reduce injury rates.

  19. Incidence of hip fractures in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Koo, Bo Kyeong; Lee, Eun Jung; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Myoung Hee; Shin, Kun Hong; Ha, Yong Chan; Cho, Nam Han; Shin, Chan Soo

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in both Western and Asian populations. Because the aged population in Korea is increasing, the number of osteoporotic fractures is thought to be also increasing. However, there has been no nationwide analysis of osteoporotic fractures in Korea. We analyzed the incidence and cost of hip fracture from 2001 to 2004 by using data from the Health Insurance Review Agency, Korea. In the over 50 years age group, the number of hip fractures in women increased from 250.9/100,000 persons in 2001 to 262.8/100,000 in 2004, a 4.7% increase. However, that in men decreased from 162.8/100,000 in 2001 to 137.5/100,000 in 2004, a 15.5% decrease. Direct medical care costs of hip fracture increased from $62,707,697 in 2001 to $65,200,035 in 2004, and the proportional cost of hip fractures in the national medical costs increased by 4.5% over 4 years (from 0.200% in 2001 to 0.209% in 2004). On analysis of the population-based data obtained from the whole country from 2001 to 2004, the incidence rate of hip fractures in women, not in men, and its cost have increased in Korea. The gender distribution of hip fractures underlines the need for aggressive intervention in osteoporosis in elderly women.

  20. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  1. [Childhood cancer: a comparative analysis of incidence, mortality, and survival in Goiania (Brazil) and other countries].

    PubMed

    Braga, Patrícia Emília; Latorre Md, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Curado, Maria Paula

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates can yield geographic and temporal trends that are useful for planning and evaluating health interventions. This article reviews cancer incidence and mortality rates and respective trends around the world in children under 15 years old, as well as their 5-year survival rates in developed and developing countries. We conclude that even though increasing or stable childhood cancer incidence rates and decreasing mortality rates have been observed in developed countries, the trends remain unknown in developing countries. Data from the city of Goiania, Brazil, show stable childhood cancer incidence and mortality rates. Five-year survival rates (48%) in Goiania are similar to those seen in underdeveloped regions and lower than those reported in developed countries (64-70%).

  2. Ideal cardiovascular health and incident hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hai Yan; Liu, Xiao Xue; Wang, An Xin; Wu, Yun Tao; Zheng, Xiao Ming; Zhao, Xiao Hong; Cui, Kai; Ruan, Chun Yu; Lu, Cheng Zhi; Jonas, Jost B.; Wu, Shou Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) has been defined by the American Heart Association as the absence of disease and presence of 7 key health factors. Since it is unknown whether cumulative exposure to CVH reduces the risk of developing arterial hypertension, we prospectively examined the potential association between cumulative CVH (cumCVH) score (except for blood pressure metrics) and incident hypertension. Of the 101,510 participants with an age range of 18 to 98 years in this longitudinal community-based Kailuan study, our cohort included those 15,014 participants without hypertension at baseline and who had follow-up examinations 2, 4, and 6 years later. CumCVH was calculated as the summed CVH score for each examination multiplied by the time between the 2 examinations (points × year). Based on the cumCVH score, the study population was stratified into groups of <44 points, 44 to 48 points, 49 to 54 points, 55 to 59 points, and ≥60 points. Incidence of hypertension ranged from 16.76% in the lowest cumCVH category to 11.52% in the highest cumCVH category. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, income level, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration, uric acid concentration, resting heart rate, parental history of hypertension at baseline, and medication usage before the third follow-up examination, participants in the highest cumCVH category had a significantly reduced risk of incident hypertension compared with those in the lowest cumCVH category (adjusted odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.50–0.71). For every increase in category based on the cumCVH score, the risk of hypertension decreased by approximately 2% (odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.97–0.98). The effect was consistent across sex and age groups. A higher cumCVH score is associated with a lower risk of incident hypertension. PMID:27977580

  3. Incidence and predicting factors of falls of older inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Hellen Cristina de Almeida; Reiners, Annelita Almeida Oliveira; Azevedo, Rosemeiry Capriata de Souza; da Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido; Abreu, Débora Regina de Oliveira Moura; de Oliveira, Adriana Delmondes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence and predicting factors associated with falls among older inpatients. METHODS Prospective cohort study conducted in clinical units of three hospitals in Cuiaba, MT, Midwestern Brazil, from March to August 2013. In this study, 221 inpatients aged 60 or over were followed until hospital discharge, death, or fall. The method of incidence density was used to calculate incidence rates. Bivariate analysis was performed by Chi-square test, and multiple analysis was performed by Cox regression. RESULTS The incidence of falls was 12.6 per 1,000 patients/day. Predicting factors for falls during hospitalization were: low educational level (RR = 2.48; 95%CI 1.17;5.25), polypharmacy (RR = 4.42; 95%CI 1.77;11.05), visual impairment (RR = 2.06; 95%CI 1.01;4.23), gait and balance impairment (RR = 2.95; 95%CI 1.22;7.14), urinary incontinence (RR = 5.67; 95%CI 2.58;12.44) and use of laxatives (RR = 4.21; 95%CI 1.15;15.39) and antipsychotics (RR = 4.10; 95%CI 1.38;12.13). CONCLUSIONS The incidence of falls of older inpatients is high. Predicting factors found for falls were low education level, polypharmacy, visual impairment, gait and balance impairment, urinary incontinence and use of laxatives and antipsychotics. Measures to prevent falls in hospitals are needed to reduce the incidence of this event. PMID:26083943

  4. Incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia, 1968--1977.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R W; Kannan Kutty, M; Dharmalingam, S K; Ponnudurai, J R

    1979-10-01

    A record of all known cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia is complete for 10 years from 1968 to 1977. Special efforts in case-finding were made in the State of Selangor where conditions are optimal. Age-adjusted incidence rates among Chinese males and females were 16.5 and 7.2 per 100,000, among Malay males and females 2.3 and 0.7 and among Indian males, 1.0. There were no significant changes in incidence rates over the 10-year period for sex and ethnic groups, or for Chinese subethnic groups. In Chinese subethnic groups, rates were highest among Cantonese, moderate among Khek and lowest among Hokkien and Teochiu. Standardized incidence ratios using Selangor as the standard population indicate considerable under-reporting in the less urban states of Malaysia, particularly among females. In Selangor, incidence rates were similar for urban and rural residents, but the frequency of cases was higher among Chinese working in industry and living in poor neighbourhoods.

  5. Incidence of Dementia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strydom, Andre; Chan, Trevor; King, Michael; Hassiotis, Angela; Livingston, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Dementia may be more common in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population. The increased risk for Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome (DS) is well established, but much less is known about dementia in adults with ID who do not have DS. We estimated incidence rates from a longitudinal study of…

  6. Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Incident Gout

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqing; Peloquin, Christine E.; Dubreuil, Maureen; Roddy, Edward; Lu, Na; Neogi, Tuhina; Choi, Hyon K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sleep apnea is associated with hyperuricemia owing to hypoxia-induced nucleotide turnover. We undertook this study to assess the relationship between incident sleep apnea and the risk of incident gout. Methods Using data from The Health Improvement Network in the UK, we identified individuals with a first-ever physician diagnosis of sleep apnea. For each patient with sleep apnea, up to 5 individuals without sleep apnea were matched by sex, age, birth year, and body mass index (within ±0.5 kg/m2). We estimated the incidence rates of gout and examined the relationship between sleep apnea and the risk of incident gout using a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for potential confounders. In addition, we assessed the rate difference in gout due to sleep apnea using an additive hazard model. Results Among 9,865 patients with newly diagnosed sleep apnea and 43,598 matched individuals without sleep apnea, we identified 270 incident cases of gout over 1 year of followup, resulting in incidence rates of 8.4 per 1,000 person-years and 4.8 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. The crude and multivariable rate ratios of incident gout in patients with sleep apnea were 1.7 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3, 2.2) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.1, 2.1), respectively. The corresponding rate differences between patients with sleep apnea and the comparison cohort were 3.6 (95% CI 1.6, 5.6) and 2.8 (95% CI 0.7, 4.9) per 1,000 person-years. The effect of sleep apnea persisted across subgroups. Conclusion This general population–based study indicates that sleep apnea is independently associated with an increased risk of incident gout. Future research should examine the potential benefits of correcting sleep apnea–induced hypoxia on the risk of hyperuricemia and gout flares. PMID:26477891

  7. Cancer incidence following exposure to drinking water with asbestos leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, H.L.; Wolfgang, P.E.; Burnett, W.S.; Nasca, P.C.; Youngblood, L.

    1989-05-01

    In November 1985, the New York State Department of Health was altered to extraordinary concentrations of asbestos leachate in the drinking water in the Town of Woodstock. Concentrations of 3.2 million fibers per liter (MFL) to 304.5 MFL were found, depending on location. An investigation of cancer incidence in the area was conducted for the period 1973-83 using the State Cancer Registry to compute standardized incidence ratios. No evidence was found of elevated cancer incidence at sites associated with asbestos exposure. A statistically non-significant excess of kidney cancer was seen among men, but not women. Colon cancer among men was significantly low, but incidence among women was similar to that expected. Lung cancer incidence was lower than expected for both sexes. Ovarian cancer rates were not different from expected rates. At sites not previously related to asbestos exposure, cancer of the oral cavity was significantly high, with most affected persons having a history of cigarette smoking. Surveillance of the community is continuing because of an insufficient latent period for some exposed groups.

  8. Kaposi sarcoma incidence in Mozambique: national and regional estimates.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Paula; Albuquerque, Gabriela; Vieira, Mariana; Foia, Severiano; Ferro, Josefo; Carrilho, Carla; Lunet, Nuno

    2015-11-01

    Kaposi sarcoma is expressed in four clinical variants, all associated with human herpes virus type 8 infection, namely, classic, endemic, immunosuppression-related and AIDS-related. The latter currently accounts for most of the burden of Kaposi sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa, reflecting the frequency of HIV infection and its management. We aimed to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique and in its provinces. We estimated the number of incident cases of Kaposi sarcoma by adding up the expected number of endemic and AIDS-related cases. The former were estimated from the rates observed in Kyandondo, Uganda (1960-1971). The latter were computed from the number of AIDS-related deaths in each region, assuming that the ratio between the AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma incident cases and the number of AIDS-related deaths observed in the city of Beira applies to all regions. A total of 3862 Kaposi sarcoma cases were estimated to have occurred in Mozambique in 2007, mostly AIDS-related, in the age group 25-49 years, and in provinces from South/Centre. The age-standardized incidence rates were 36.1/100 000 in men and 11.5/100 000 in women, with a more than three-fold variation across provinces. We estimated a high incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Mozambique, along with large regional differences. These results can be used to improve disease management and to sustain political decisions on health policies.

  9. Increasing incidence of cataract surgery: Population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gollogly, Heidrun E.; Hodge, David O.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Erie, Jay C.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To estimate the incidence of cataract surgery in a defined population and to determine longitudinal cataract surgery patterns. SETTING Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. DESIGN Cohort study. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) databases were used to identify all incident cataract surgeries in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011. Age-specific and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated and adjusted to the 2010 United States white population. Data were merged with previous REP data (1980 to 2004) to assess temporal trends in cataract surgery. Change in the incidence over time was assessed by fitting generalized linear models assuming a Poisson error structure. The probability of second-eye cataract surgery was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS Included were 8012 cataract surgeries from 2005 through 2011. During this time, incident cataract surgery significantly increased (P < .001), peaking in 2011 with a rate of 1100 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval, 1050–1160). The probability of second-eye surgery 3, 12, and 24 months after first-eye surgery was 60%, 76%, and 86%, respectively, a significant increase compared with the same intervals in the previous 7 years (1998 to 2004) (P < .001). When merged with 1980 to 2004 REP data, incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 3 decades (P < .001). CONCLUSION Incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 32 years and has not leveled off, as reported in Swedish population-based series. Second-eye surgery was performed sooner and more frequently, with 60% of residents having second-eye surgery within 3-months of first-eye surgery. PMID:23820302

  10. 78 FR 38949 - Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing... Technology (NIST) is seeking information relating to Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC). NIST is... Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs) to coordinate effectively when responding to...

  11. Incidence of fractures in a geographically defined population.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, L J; Cook, A; Thomson, R G

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to describe the population based age and sex specific incidence of fractures at different sites in a large English health district. DESIGN--Recording of fractures was accomplished by a specially constructed outpatient index and by record linkage to hospital inpatient information, for the three years surrounding the 1981 census. SETTING--The fracture index was held by the Department of Community Health in Leicester using data from the fracture clinic at the central large district general hospital, supplemented by hospital inpatient data from Trent Region and the two adjoining regions. PARTICIPANTS--The denominator population was the Leicestershire Health Authority resident population. In the three years, 12,711 fractures amongst males and 10,565 amongst females were recorded. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The overall estimated annual incidence of fractures was 100 per 10,000 population for males and 81 per 10,000 population for females. Below the age of 55 years all fractures showed a higher incidence amongst males but amongst the over 55s, there was a consistent fall in the male:female incidence ratio with some sites showing a striking female preponderance. The results also show an apparent age specific temporal increase in incidence at certain fracture sites compared with earlier British data, but fracture incidence figures still suggest lower rates in this country than in North America and some Scandinavian countries. CONCLUSIONS--These findings provide population based incidence data on a major public health problem and are consistent with the major determinants of osteoporosis and increase in falls in postmenopausal women. The temporal and geographical variation in fracture incidence remain to be explained. PMID:2273364

  12. Incident trends for a hazardous waste cleanup company.

    PubMed

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, F; Rejent, G M

    1999-01-01

    Published reports to assess incidents in hazardous waste operations are scarce. This study was designed to evaluate incident trends in a relatively large hazardous waste cleanup company. The data for 6.5 years, winter 1990 through spring 1996, provided 1848 incident reports with 87% involving injury/illness cases. Over 75% of injury/illness incidents were due to mechanical agents, 10% occurred because of chemical exposure, 5% involved poisonous plants and insect bites, 2% resulted from temperature extremes, 1% were from cumulative injuries/illnesses, and in 7% the agent was not recorded. Almost 31% of injuries were related to the upper extremities, with the fingers most often injured, followed by the hands. Lower back strain cases constituted 11% of injuries, ankle/foot/toe cases 9%, and knee cases 5%. Recovery technicians (laborers) had the highest frequency of injury/illness incidents (52%), followed by supervisors (15%) and heavy machinery operators (10%). The incidence rates (IRs) for all recordable incidents ranged from 11.9 for the second quarter of 1990 down to 1.2 for the fourth quarter of 1995 with a mean (SD) and median of 6.3 (3.0) and 6.1, respectively. For the time period studied, IRs decreased significantly (p < 0.01). It was concluded that hands-on experience in the field and improvements in the health and safety program of the company--including expanding its focus (originally the prevention of chemical exposure) to include construction safety--reduced the incidents considerably. Introduction of new regulations has also contributed to this trend.

  13. The Epidemiology of Incident Fracture from Cradle to Senescence.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Julie A; Lane, Stephen E; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Holloway, Kara L; Timney, Elizabeth N; Bucki-Smith, Gosia; Morse, Amelia G; Dobbins, Amelia G; Williams, Lana J; Hyde, Natalie K; Kotowicz, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    To reduce the burden of fracture, not only does bone fragility need to be addressed, but also injury prevention. Thus, fracture epidemiology irrespective of degree of trauma is informative. We aimed to determine age-and-sex-specific fracture incidence rates for the Barwon Statistical Division, Australia, 2006-2007. Using radiology reports, incident fractures were identified for 5342 males and 4512 females, with incidence of 210.4 (95 % CI 204.8, 216.2) and 160.0 (155.3, 164.7)/10,000/year, respectively. In females, spine (clinical vertebral), hip (proximal femoral) and distal forearm fractures demonstrated a pattern of stable incidence through early adult life, with an exponential increase beginning in postmenopausal years for fractures of the forearm followed by spine and hip. A similar pattern was observed for the pelvis, humerus, femur and patella. Distal forearm, humerus, other forearm and ankle fractures showed incidence peaks during childhood and adolescence. For males, age-related changes mimicked the female pattern for fractures of the spine, hip, ribs, pelvis and humerus. Incidence at these sites was generally lower for males, particularly among the elderly. A similar childhood-adolescent peak was seen for the distal forearm and humerus. For ankle fractures, there was an increase during childhood and adolescence but this extended into early adult life; in contrast to females, there were no further age-related increases. An adolescent-young adult peak incidence was observed for fractures of the face, clavicle, carpal bones, hand, fingers, foot and toe, without further age-related increases. Examining patterns of fracture provides the evidence base for monitoring temporal changes in fracture burden, and for identifying high-incidence groups to which fracture prevention strategies could be directed.

  14. International patterns and trends in thyroid cancer incidence, 1973–2002

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Han, Xuesong; Ward, Mary H.; Sjodin, Andreas; Zhang, Yaqun; Bai, Yana; Zhu, Cairong; Guo, Grace L.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhang, Yawei

    2009-01-01

    During the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in many parts of the world. To date, no study has compared trends in thyroid cancer incidence across continents. We examined incidence data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) over the 30-year period 1973–2002 from 19 populations in the Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania. Thyroid cancer rates have increased from 1973–1977 to 1998–2002 for most of the populations except for Sweden, in which the incidence rates decreased about 18% for both males and females. The average increase was 48.0% among males and 66.7% among females. More recently, the age-adjusted international thyroid cancer incidence rates from 1998–2002 varied 5-fold by geographic region for males and nearly 10-fold for females by geographic region. Considerable variation in thyroid cancer incidence was present for every continent but Africa, in which the incidence rates were generally low. Our analysis of published CI5 data suggests that thyroid cancer rates increased between 1973 and 2002 in most populations worldwide and that the increase does not appear to be restricted to a particular region of the world or by the underlying rates of thyroid cancer. PMID:19016336

  15. Tardive and spontaneous dyskinesia incidence in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To identify the incidence rate of spontaneous dyskinesia (SD) and tardive dyskinesia (TD) in a general population and to examine the association between dykinesia and potential risk factors (exposure to metoclopramide [MCP], antipsychotic drugs, and history of diabetes and psychoses). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted for the years 2001 through 2010, based on medical claims data from the Deseret Mutual Benefit Administrators (DMBA). Results Thirty-four cases of TD and 229 cases of SD were identified. The incidence rate of TD among persons previously prescribed an antipsychotic or metoclopramide (MCP) (per 1,000) was 4.6 (1.6-7.7) for those with antipsychotic drug use only, 8.5 (4.8-12.2) for those with MCP use only, and 15.0 (2.0-28.1) for those with both antipsychotic and MCP use. In the general population, the incidence rate (per 100,000 person-years) of TD was 4.3 and of probable SD was 28.7. The incidence rates of TD and SD increased with age and were greater for females. Those with diabetes or psychoses had almost a 3-fold greater risk of TD than those without either of these diseases. Persons with schizophrenia had 31.2 times increased risk of TD than those without the disease. Positive associations also existed between the selected diseases and the incidence rate of probable SD, with persons with schizophrenia having 4.4 times greater risk of SD than those without the disease. Conclusions SD and TD are rare in this general population. Diabetes, psychoses, and especially schizophrenia are positively associated with SD and TD. A higher proportion of those with SD present with spasm of the eyelid muscles (blepharospasm) compared more with the TD cases who present more with orofacial muscular problems. PMID:23714238

  16. Thyroid cancer incidence in New Jersey: time trend, birth cohort and socioeconomic status analysis (1979-2006).

    PubMed

    Roche, Lisa M; Niu, Xiaoling; Pawlish, Karen S; Henry, Kevin A

    2011-01-01

    The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologies and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques.

  17. Thyroid Cancer Incidence in New Jersey: Time Trend, Birth Cohort and Socioeconomic Status Analysis (1979–2006)

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Lisa M.; Niu, Xiaoling; Pawlish, Karen S.; Henry, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    The study's purpose was to investigate thyroid cancer incidence time trends, birth cohort effects, and association with socioeconomic status (SES) in New Jersey (NJ), a high incidence state, using NJ State Cancer Registry data. Thyroid cancer incidence rates in each sex, nearly all age groups, two major histologies and all stages significantly increased between 1979 and 2006. For each sex, age-specific incidence rates began greatly increasing in the 1924 birth cohort and, generally, the highest thyroid cancer incidence rate for each five-year age group occurred in the latest birth cohort and diagnosis period. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in NJ Census tracts with higher SES and in counties with a higher percentage of insured residents. These results support further investigation into the relationship between rising thyroid cancer incidence and increasing population exposure to medical (including diagnostic) radiation, as well as widespread use of more sensitive diagnostic techniques. PMID:22187575

  18. International patterns and trends in testicular cancer incidence, overall and by histologic subtype, 1973-2007.

    PubMed

    Trabert, B; Chen, J; Devesa, S S; Bray, F; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates of testicular cancer in Northern European and North American countries have been widely reported, whereas rates in other populations, such as Eastern Europe, Central/South America, Asia, and Africa, have been less frequently evaluated. We examined testicular cancer incidence rates overall and by histologic type by calendar time and birth cohort for selected global populations 1973-2007. Age-standardized incidence rates over succeeding 5-year periods were calculated from volumes 4-9 of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents electronic database (CI5plus) and the newly released CI5X (volume 10) database. Annual percent change over the 35-year period was calculated using weighted least squares regression. Age-period-cohort analyses were performed and observed rates and fitted rate ratios presented by birth cohort. Incidence rates of testicular cancer increased between 1973-1977 and 2003-2007 in most populations evaluated worldwide. Of note, incidence rates in Eastern European countries rose rapidly and approached rates in Northern European countries. Rates in Central and South America also increased and are now intermediate to the high rates among men of European ancestry and low rates among men of Asian or African descent. Some heterogeneity in the trends in seminoma and nonseminoma were observed in Denmark, the United Kingdom, and among US whites, particularly in recent generations, with rapid and uniform increases in the incidence of both histologic types in Slovakia. Reasons for the rising incidence rates among European and American populations remain unexplained; however, changing distributions in the prevalence of risk factors for testicular cancer cannot be ruled out.

  19. Mortality rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases in Italy from 1979 to 2010: an age–period–cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate the trends in CLRD mortality in Italy, and the specific contributions of age, time period and birth cohort in driving these trends. Population and cause-of-death data in Italy between 1979 and 2010 were collected from the World Health Organization website. Age-specific mortality rates for CLRDs, and effects for age, time period and birth cohort on mortality trends were estimated using age–period–cohort models. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis represent nearly 98% of the deaths from CLRDs. Despite the overall number of deaths have been stable (in men) or increasing (in women), the age-standardised rates have been steadily decreasing from 1979 to 2010, passing from 104.3 to 55.4 per 100 000 person-years in men and from 32.2 to 19.6 per 100 000 person-years in women. The average relative annual decrease was −3.6% in men and −2.7% in women. Since the end of the 1990s, the decreasing trend of CLRD mortality has started to level off, in particular in women. The decrease in CLRD mortality rates has been more accentuated in more recent cohorts and in younger age groups. Both birth cohort and time period significantly affected the CLRD mortality rates, suggesting that changes in the spread of risk factors (smoking habits, early-life and occupational exposures) across different birth cohorts, as well as in advanced in healthcare and medical practice, may have played a major role in secular changes in COPD mortality rates in Italy. PMID:27730182

  20. Mortality rates for chronic lower respiratory diseases in Italy from 1979 to 2010: an age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objectives of this study were to estimate the trends in CLRD mortality in Italy, and the specific contributions of age, time period and birth cohort in driving these trends. Population and cause-of-death data in Italy between 1979 and 2010 were collected from the World Health Organization website. Age-specific mortality rates for CLRDs, and effects for age, time period and birth cohort on mortality trends were estimated using age-period-cohort models. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis represent nearly 98% of the deaths from CLRDs. Despite the overall number of deaths have been stable (in men) or increasing (in women), the age-standardised rates have been steadily decreasing from 1979 to 2010, passing from 104.3 to 55.4 per 100 000 person-years in men and from 32.2 to 19.6 per 100 000 person-years in women. The average relative annual decrease was -3.6% in men and -2.7% in women. Since the end of the 1990s, the decreasing trend of CLRD mortality has started to level off, in particular in women. The decrease in CLRD mortality rates has been more accentuated in more recent cohorts and in younger age groups. Both birth cohort and time period significantly affected the CLRD mortality rates, suggesting that changes in the spread of risk factors (smoking habits, early-life and occupational exposures) across different birth cohorts, as well as in advanced in healthcare and medical practice, may have played a major role in secular changes in COPD mortality rates in Italy.

  1. Cancer Incidence and Trend Analysis in Shahroud, Iran, 2000 - 2010

    PubMed Central

    Fateh, Mansooreh; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer is the third leading cause of death in Iran, and its trend isincreasing in recent years. National reports state that cancer registries in Shahroud district had 204% coverage in 2008. This study investigated cancer situation in Shahroud with complete details between 2000-2010. Methods Data was obtained from national cancer registry software and analyzed after removing the repeated records. World standard population and direct standardization method was used to calculate Age Standardized incidence Rates (ASRs). Annual percentage changes calculated using Jointpoint software and Poisson regression model was performed to calculate cancer incidence trends. Results A total of 2240 cancer cases were identified, 1234 (55.1%) in man and 1006 (44.9%) in woman. The mean age was 61.6 years (Confidence Interval, CI 95%: 60.9- 62.3). ASRs of total cancers was 95.4 (CI 95%: 89.2-101.6) per 100,000; this rate was 114.8 (CI 95%: 107.9-121.6) for men and 105.2 (CI 95%: 100.6 -109.8) for women. The average annual increase in ASR was 12.4%, which could not be attributed only to improve reporting. Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in men, and breast cancer is most common in women. Conclusion Cancer incidence rate has increased significantly in Shahroud in recent years. A portion of this increase can be attributed to increased incidence of cancers, especially cancers of colorectal, gastric, breast, and skin. PMID:25250116

  2. Trends in the incidence of primary liver cancer in Central Uganda, 1960–1980 and 1991–2005

    PubMed Central

    Ocama, P; Nambooze, S; Opio, C K; Shiels, M S; Wabinga, H R; Kirk, G D

    2009-01-01

    Primary liver cancer (PLC) incidence trends from Africa are unknown. Using Kampala Cancer Registry data from 1960 to 1980 and 1991 to 2005, we identified 771 PLCs. Although rates were stable among men, PLC incidence among women increased >50%. Investigations of viral hepatitis, aflatoxin, obesity, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may help to explain the increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). PMID:19174820

  3. [Incidence and regional distribution of colorectal cancers in Austria].

    PubMed

    Hanusch, J; Friedl, H P; Schemper, M; Schiessel, R

    1985-05-10

    Based on data obtained from the official Austrian cancer registry, we evaluated the incidence of, and death rate from cancer of the colon and rectum. The increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer in Austria is comparable to that of other western industrial countries. There is an estimated rise in the annual figures of newly registered patients from 3174 in 1971 to 3981 cases in 1981. Regional distribution within Austria is not homogeneous: the highest risk of disease was observed in Vienna (60 new cases per year per 100000 inhabitants), the lowest in Tyrol with 40 new cases per 100000. The marked east-west slope in the incidence of colorectal cancer in Austria is a good basis for the investigation of pathogenetic factors.

  4. Factors affecting the incidence of hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, C W; Donner, A P

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of hypertension was determined among 10,173 patients of general practices in southwestern Ontario studied from 1978 to 1982. For both sexes the incidence of hypertension rose with increasing age. The incidence was higher among men than among women until age 50, after which it was similar for the two sexes. Obesity was positively associated with incidence for both sexes. In men this association diminished significantly with increasing age. The similar trend in women fell just short of statistical significance. In men but not women heavy alcohol consumption was positively related to the incidence of hypertension. However, the broad definition of this variable may have obscured a relation in women. Among men the effect of obesity on the incidence of hypertension was less for heavy drinkers than for light drinkers. Smoking was not related to the incidence of hypertension in either sex. PMID:3815197

  5. Recent trends in racial and regional disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in United States

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangmi

    2017-01-01

    Background Although black women experienced greater cervical cancer incidence and mortality rate reduction in recent years, they continue to have higher incidence rates than whites. Great variations also exist among geographic regions of the US, with the South having both the highest incidence and mortality rates compared to other regions. The present study explores the question of whether living in the South is associated with greater racial disparity in cervical cancer incidence and mortality by examining race- and region-specific rates and the trend between 2000 and 2012. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Program data was used. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, annual percent changes, and disparity ratios were calculated using SEER*Stat software and Joinpoint regression for four groups: US14-Non-Hispanic White (NHW), US14-Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), South-NHW, and South-NHB, where South included 4 registries from Georgia and Louisiana and US14 were 14 US registries except the four South registries. Results The average age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence rate was the highest among South-NHBs (11.1) and mortality rate was the highest among US14-NHBs (5.4). In 2012, the degree of racial disparities between South-NHBs and South-NHWs was greater in terms of mortality rates (NHB:NHW = 1.80:1.35) than incidence rates (NHB:NHW = 1.45:1.15). While mortality disparity ratios decreased from 2000–2012 for US14-NHB (APC: -1.9(-2.3,-1.4), mortality disparity ratios for South-NHWs (although lower than NHBs) increased compared to US14-NHW. Incidence rates for NHBs continued to increase with increasing age, whereas rates for NHWs decreased after age 40. Mortality rates for NHBs dramatically increased at age 65 compared to a relatively stable trend for NHWs. The increasing racial disparity with increasing age in terms of cervical cancer incidence rates became more pronounced when corrected for hysterectomy prevalence. Conclusions

  6. Future of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence in the United States Forecast Through 2030

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Scott P.; Altekruse, Sean F.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Rosenberg, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence rates have been increasing in the United States for the past 35 years. Because HCC has a poor prognosis, quantitative forecasts could help to inform prevention and treatment strategies to reduce the incidence and burden of HCC. Methods Single-year HCC incident case and population data for the years 2000 to 2012 and ages 35 to 84 years were obtained from the SEER 18 Registry Database. We forecast incident HCC cases through 2030, using novel age-period-cohort models and stratifying by sex, race/ethnicity, and age. Rates are presented because absolute numbers may be influenced by population increases. Results Rates of HCC increased with each successive birth cohort through 1959. However, rates began to decrease with the 1960 to 1969 birth cohorts. Asians/Pacific Islanders (APIs) have had the highest HCC rates in the United States for many years, but the rates have stabilized and begun to decline in recent years. Between 2013 and 2030, rates among APIs are forecast to decline further, with estimated annual percentage changes of −1.59% among men and −2.20% among women. Thus, by 2030, Asians are forecast to have the lowest incidence rates among men, and Hispanics are forecast to have the highest rates among men (age-standardized rate, 44.2). Blacks are forecast to have the highest rate among women (age-standardized rate, 12.82). Conclusion Although liver cancer has long had some of the most rapidly increasing incidence rates, the decreasing rates seen among APIs, individuals younger than 65 years, and cohorts born after 1960 suggest that there will be declines in incidence of HCC in future years. Prevention efforts should be focused on individuals in the 1950 to 1959 birth cohorts, Hispanics, and blacks. PMID:27044939

  7. Insulin-dependent diabetes in a Scottish region: incidence and urban/rural differences.

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, N R

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the 0-18 year age group was studied in Tayside Region for the years 1980 to 1983. The mean annual rate of 21.7 per 100,000 is high in international terms and suggests that the rise in incidence observed in Scotland in the 1970s has continued. Urban and rural incidences were compared using postcodes. Rural rates were significantly (0.02 greater than p greater than 0.01) higher, due mainly to the difference in rates for the 0-9 age groups. PMID:3772281

  8. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence in a Healthcare Area.

    PubMed

    Molina, Antonio J; García-Martínez, Lidia; Zapata-Alvarado, Julio; Alonso-Orcajo, Nieves; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Martín, Vicente

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends in the incidence of lung cancer in the Leon Healthcare Area. All cases of cancer among residents of the Leon healthcare catchment area listed in the hospital-based tumor registry of the Centro Asistencial Universitario de Leon (CAULE) between 1996 and 2010 were included. Gross incidence rates over 3-year intervals were calculated and adjusted for the worldwide and European populations. A total of 2,491 cases were included. In men, incidence adjusted for the European population rose from 40.1 new cases per 100,000 population (1996-1998) to 61.8 (2005-2007), and then fell to 54.6 (2008-2010). In women, incidence tripled from 3.0 (1996-1998) to 9.2 new cases per 100,000 (2008-2010). Although lung cancer is an avoidable disease, it is a serious problem in the Leon Healthcare Area. Of particular concern is the rising incidence among women.

  9. Incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Joachim; Wöhrle, Johannes C; Palm, Frederick; Nix, Wilfred A; Maschke, Matthias; Safer, Anton; Becher, Heiko; Grau, Armin J

    2014-06-01

    There is a lack of prospective and population based epidemiological data on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Germany to date. The ALS registry Rhineland-Palatinate was established to investigate the incidence, course and phenotypic variety of ALS in this south-west German state of about 4 million inhabitants. During the period 2010-2011, consecutive incident patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to the revised El Escorial criteria were included and followed up using multiple overlapping sources of case ascertainment. One hundred and forty-six patients were enrolled. The annual crude incidence for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate was 1.8/100,000 person-years (95% CI 1.6-2.2). Male to female ratio was 1.1:1. Incidence increased with age reaching a peak in the 70-74 years age group and declined thereafter. Late-onset ALS (≥ 75 years) was found in 14.4% of patients. About 32% of patients presented with bulbar onset. In conclusion, incidence rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Rhineland-Palatinate is within the range of other prospective population based registers in Europe and North America. Gender ratio is nearly balanced.

  10. Invasive Cervical Cancer Incidence Disparities in New Jersey--a Spatial Analysis in a High Incidence State.

    PubMed

    Roche, Lisa M; Niu, Xiaoling; Henry, Kevin A

    2015-11-01

    Although invasive cervical cancer incidence has declined, disparities persist. We identified spatial clusters of census tracts with elevated invasive cervical cancer incidence rates using New Jersey State Cancer Registry cases 20 years or older diagnosed in 2005-2009. Each cluster's population was compared with the rest of New Jersey's population on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Odds ratios that assessed associations between statistically significant characteristics (from a univariate comparison of cases in the clusters versus cases in the rest of New Jersey) and being a case in a cluster versus being a case in the rest of New Jersey were calculated from logistic regression models. Significant incidence clusters were identified around Newark, Trenton, and Camden. Being Black (all areas), Hispanic (Newark, Camden), unmarried (Newark), and uninsured/Medicaid-insured (Trenton) were significantly associated with being a case in these areas. These study results can be used to target invasive cervical cancer prevention efforts more effectively.

  11. Smoking and incidence of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-de-Arcelus, Mónica; Toledo, Estefanía; Martínez-González, Miguel Á.; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Moreno-Montañés, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Smoking is a serious global public health concern that has been related to many chronic diseases. However, the effect of smoking on eye disorders has been less studied. The aim of this cohort study was to assess the association between current tobacco smokers and the risk of developing glaucoma and furthermore to evaluate the relationship between passive or former smokers and glaucoma. In this prospective and dynamic cohort, 16,797 participants initially who were found not to have glaucoma were followed up for a median of 8.5 years. Validated data on lifestyle, including tobacco consumption, were assessed at baseline. Information about new diagnosis of glaucoma was collected by follow-up questionnaires every 2 years. The outcome was the incidence of self-reported glaucoma during the follow-up. A subsample was used to validate the glaucoma diagnosis. During the 8.5 years of follow-up, 184 new glaucoma cases were identified. Current smokers had a significantly higher risk of glaucoma compared to participants who had never smoked after controlling for potential confounders (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.88 [95% coefficient interval (CI): 1.26–2.81]; P = 0.002). A nonsignificant increased risk was found among former smokers (HR 1.27 [95% CI: 0.88–1.82]; P = 0.198). When we assessed the exposure as per the number of cigarette pack-years, a dose–response relationship between pack-years and the risk of glaucoma was found (HR for the 5th quintile versus the 1st quintile: 1.70 [95% IC: 1.10–2.64], P for trend, 0.009). However, no relationship was found between passive smokers and glaucoma. (HR 0.67 [95% CI: 0.37–1.21]; P = 0.189). Our results suggest a direct association between current smokers and the incidence of glaucoma. In particular, this association was related to the number of pack-years, which was not found in the case of former smokers nor in the case of passive smokers. PMID:28072720

  12. Incidence of malaria in a wintering population of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) on Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Knisley, J.O.

    1970-01-01

    Canvasback ducks wintering on Chesapeake Bay had a 6% incidence of Leucocytozoon sirnondi and 2% incidence of Haemoproteus. Sub-inoculation of whole blood into Pekin ducklings produced a Plasmodium infection rate of 31%. Females were more frequently infected (12/22) than males (15/68). The parasite was identified as P. circumflexum.

  13. The incidence of basal cell carcinoma in Croatia: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Jurakić Toncić, Ruzica; Ledić-Drvar, Daniela; Marasović, Dujomir; Puizina-Ivić, Neira; Cabrijan, Leo; Bradamante, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. The age-specific incidence rate and age-standardized incidence rate were calculated per 100,000 inhabitants according to the latest population census in Croatia from 2001. In the study period, there were 7,244 BCC cases (3,519 men and 3,725 women) in Croatia. The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 54.9 for men and 53.9 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 33.6 for men and 24.5 for women. The head and neck were almost exclusive localizations of BCC. The highest BCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. The incidence of BCC was high in both littoral and inland counties of Croatia. Study results will serve as reference figures on studying the trend of BCC incidence in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years.

  14. Cancer Incidence in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia: Disparities in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengerich, Eugene J.; Tucker, Thomas C.; Powell, Raymond K.; Colsher, Pat; Lehman, Erik; Ward, Ann J.; Siedlecki, Jennifer C.; Wyatt, Stephen W.

    2005-01-01

    Composed of all or a portion of 13 states, Appalachia is a heterogeneous, economically disadvantaged region of the eastern United States. While mortality from cancer in Appalachia has previously been reported to be elevated, rates of cancer incidence in Appalachia remain unreported. Purpose:To estimate Appalachian cancer incidence by stage and…

  15. Cancer incidence among Mormons and non-Mormons in Utah (United States) 1971-85.

    PubMed

    Lyon, J L; Gardner, K; Gress, R E

    1994-03-01

    We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 by religion (Mormon, non-Mormon) for Utah (United States) using the 49,182 cancer cases occurring between 1971-85. For all causes of cancer, the rate in Utah for male members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons) was about 24 percent less than the comparable US rate. There was a 50-percent lower rate of cancers associated with cigarette smoking among LDS men. Non-LDS (NLDS) men in Utah experienced an incidence of smoking-associated cancers slightly higher than other US men. LDS men had an incidence of those cancers not associated with smoking slightly lower than US men, and NLDS men had a 40-percent higher rate than US men because of higher rates of melanoma and cancers of the lip and prostate gland. LDS women had an all-sites cancer rate 24 percent below the comparable US rate, and a 60-percent lower rate of smoking-associated cancers. The incidence of cancer not associated with smoking was 20 percent lower for LDS women compared with US women and was the result of lower rates of cancers of the colon, breast, and uterine cervix. NLDS women had a 13-percent higher incidence of cancers not associated with smoking because of higher rates of cancers of the lip and breast.

  16. Computer Simulation for Emergency Incident Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D L

    2004-12-03

    This report describes the findings and recommendations resulting from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Incident Management Simulation Workshop held by the DHS Advanced Scientific Computing Program in May 2004. This workshop brought senior representatives of the emergency response and incident-management communities together with modeling and simulation technologists from Department of Energy laboratories. The workshop provided an opportunity for incident responders to describe the nature and substance of the primary personnel roles in an incident response, to identify current and anticipated roles of modeling and simulation in support of incident response, and to begin a dialog between the incident response and simulation technology communities that will guide and inform planned modeling and simulation development for incident response. This report provides a summary of the discussions at the workshop as well as a summary of simulation capabilities that are relevant to incident-management training, and recommendations for the use of simulation in both incident management and in incident management training, based on the discussions at the workshop. In addition, the report discusses areas where further research and development will be required to support future needs in this area.

  17. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  18. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry.

    PubMed

    Tserkovny, Alex

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects "as if they were points." Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation "extended lines sameness" is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy "degree of indiscernibility" and "discernibility measure" of extended points.

  19. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133

  20. Do solar cycles influence giant cell arteritis and rheumatoid arthritis incidence?

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, Simon; Rider, Lisa G.; Johnson, Jay R.; Miller, Federick W.; Matteson, Eric L.; Crowson, C. S.; Gabriel, S. E.

    2015-05-15

    Our objective was to examine the influence of solar cycle and geomagnetic effects on the incidence of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: We used data from patients with GCA (1950-2004) and RA (1955-2007) obtained from population-based cohorts. Yearly trends in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence were correlated with the F10.7 index (solar radiation at 10.7 cm wavelength, a proxy for the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation) and AL index (a proxy for the westward auroral electrojet and a measure of geomagnetic activity). Fourier analysis was performed on AL, F10.7, and GCA and RA incidence rates. Results: The correlation of GCA incidence with AL is highly significant: GCA incidence peaks 0-1 year after the AL reaches its minimum (ie, auroral electrojet reaches a maximum). The correlation of RA incidence with AL is also highly significant. RA incidence rates are lowest 5-7 years after AL reaches maximum. AL, GCA and RA incidence power spectra are similar: they have a main peak (periodicity) at about 10 years and a minor peak at 4-5 years. However, the RA incidence power spectrum main peak is broader (8-11 years), which partly explains the lower correlation between RA onset and AL. The auroral electrojets may be linked to the decline of RA incidence more strongly than the onset of RA. The incidences of RA and GCA are aligned in geomagnetic latitude. Conclusions: AL and the incidences of GCA and RA all have a major periodicity of about 10 years and a secondary periodicity at 4-5 years. Geomagnetic activity may explain the temporal and spatial variations, including east-west skewness in geographic coordinates, in GCA and RA incidence, although the mechanism is unknown. Lastly, the link with solar, geospace and atmospheric parameters need to be investigated. These novel findings warrant examination in other populations and with other autoimmune diseases.

  1. Asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence and mortality in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, Katya; Dimitrova, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Bulgaria totally banned the import, production and use of asbestos in 2005, but produced and used asbestos products during the last 3-4 decades of the 20th century. The aim of this study was to follow the incidence and mortality of mesothelioma in Bulgaria in relation to past occupational exposures. A literature search between 1960 and 2014 was conducted to obtain information on asbestos consumption, occupational exposure and asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). Data on registered mesotheliomas were provided by the National Cancer Register and data for recognized occupational ARDs were provided by the National Social Security Institute. An increase in the incidence of mesothelioma from 5 to 58 from 1993 to 2013, with 666 cases in the 21-year period, was registered. Incidence, mortality rates, deaths and male-to-female ratios and were lower in comparison to industrialized countries. The increase in mesothelioma incidence is considered as a consequence of more recent production and use of asbestos and asbestos products and the high occupational exposure between 1977 and 1989, while the lower rate of mesothelioma deaths and male-to-female ratio need to be investigated further.

  2. The geographic variation of cancer incidence in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, S D; Birnie, S E; Marrett, L D; Taylor, S M; Reynolds, D; Davies, J; Drake, J J; Hayes, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Our objectives were (1) to describe an analysis of the spatial pattern of cancer incidence in Ontario and (2) to discuss the quality of data in the Ontario Cancer Registry with respect to the accuracy of local cancer rates. METHODS. Cancer incidence rates were calculated for 22 cancer sites in 49 counties of Ontario during 1976 to 1986. Capture-recapture methods were used to estimate completeness of case registration, and completeness of residence information was also assessed. Spatial autocorrelation was used in measuring the geographic pattern of incidence rates. Comparisons were also made between sexes and with earlier data from 1966 to 1975. RESULTS. The quality of the geographic data in the registry appeared good, and corrections for incomplete or inaccurate registration had little impact. About one third of the sex-site combinations showed some evidence of spatial patterning in the cancer rate. Particularly strong regional variation was noted for cancers of the stomach, lung, uterus, and prostate. CONCLUSIONS. The analysis revealed a number of cancers with significant spatial patterning of risk. Further work is needed to relate the cancer data to other information on potential life-style and environmental factors. PMID:8129051

  3. Incidence and risk factors of workplace violence on psychiatric staff

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, Marilyn; Lanza, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott; Hartley, Dan; Rierdan, Jill; Zeiss, Robert; Amandus, Harlan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND A study by Hesketh et al. found that 20% of psychiatric nurses were physically assaulted, 43% were threatened with physical assault, and 55% were verbally assaulted at least once during the equivalent of a single work week. From 2005 through 2009, the U.S. Department of Justice reported that mental health occupations had the second highest average annual rate of workplace violence, 21 violent crimes per 1,000 employed persons aged 16 or older. OBJECTIVE An evaluation of risk factors associated with patient aggression towards nursing staff at eight locked psychiatric units. PARTICIPANTS Two-hundred eighty-four nurses in eight acute locked psychiatric units of the Veterans Health Administration throughout the United States between September 2007 and September 2010. METHODS Rates were calculated by dividing the number of incidents by the total number of hours worked by all nurses, then multiplying by 40 (units of incidents per nurse per 40-hour work week). Risk factors associated with these rates were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with a Poisson model. RESULTS Combining the data across all hospitals and weeks, the overall rate was 0.60 for verbal aggression incidents and 0.19 for physical aggression, per nurse per week. For physical incidents, the evening shift (3 pm – 11 pm) demonstrated a significantly higher rate of aggression than the day shift (7 am – 3 pm). Weeks that had a case-mix with a higher percentage of patients with personality disorders were significantly associated with a higher risk of verbal and physical aggression. CONCLUSION Healthcare workers in psychiatric settings are at high risk for aggression from patients. PMID:24894691

  4. Persistent Ischemic Stroke Disparities despite Declining Incidence in Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Lewis B.; Smith, Melinda A.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Brown, Devin L.; Zahuranec, Darin B.; Garcia, Nelda; Kerber, Kevin A.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Adelman, Eric E.; Baek, Jonggyu; Lisabeth, Lynda D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine trends in ischemic stroke incidence among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Methods We performed population-based stroke surveillance from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010 in Corpus Christi, Texas. Ischemic stroke patients 45 years and older were ascertained from potential sources, and charts were abstracted. Neurologists validated cases based on source documentation blinded to ethnicity and age. Crude and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted annual incidence was calculated for first ever completed ischemic stroke. Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted ischemic stroke rates, rate ratios, and trends. Results There were 2,604 ischemic strokes in Mexican Americans and 2,042 in non-Hispanic whites. The rate ratios (Mexican American:non-Hispanic white) were 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.67–2.25), 1.50 (95% CI = 1.35– 1.67), and 1.00 (95% CI = 0.90–1.11) among those aged 45 to 59, 60 to 74, and 75 years and older, respectively, and 1.34 (95% CI = 1.23–1.46) when adjusted for age. Ischemic stroke incidence declined during the study period by 35.9% (95% CI = 25.9–44.5). The decline was limited to those aged ≥60 years, and happened in both ethnic groups similarly (p > 0.10), implying that the disparities seen in the 45- to 74-year age group persist unabated. Interpretation Ischemic stroke incidence rates have declined dramatically in the past decade in both ethnic groups for those aged ≥60 years. However, the disparity between Mexican American and non-Hispanic white stroke rates persists in those <75 years of age. Although the decline in stroke is encouraging, additional prevention efforts targeting young Mexican Americans are warranted. PMID:23868398

  5. Incidence of herpes zoster infections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Nimmrich, S; Horneff, G

    2015-03-01

    The risk of herpes zoster among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) exposed to biologics has not been evaluated. We determined incidence rates of herpes zoster among children with JIA in correlation with medication at time of occurrence and total drug exposure. The German biologics register database was used to identify patients with herpes zoster. Crude infection rates and incidence ratios (IRR) were compared to published rates. Demographics and overall exposure and particular exposure time to corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and biologics were analyzed. The JIA cohort included 3,042 patients with 5,557.9 person-years of follow-up; 1,628 have used corticosteroids, 2,930 methotrexate and 1,685 etanercept. In total, 17 herpes zoster events have been documented [6/1,000 patients (3.5-9.0); 3.1/1,000 patient-years (1.9-4.9)]. Thus, the incidence rate in JIA patients was higher than expected [IRR 2.9 (1.8-4.5), p < 0.001]. In all patients, the event resolved completely. There were two complications, one patient developed intercostal neuralgia, and one had a recurrent herpes zoster. Compared to the healthy population, a significant higher IRR is observed in JIA patients who received a monotherapy with etanercept or in combination with steroids and methotrexate, but not in JIA patients exposed to methotrexate without biologics. In comparison with our control group of patients treated with methotrexate, the IRR was higher for exposure to etanercept monotherapy and combination of etanercept and corticosteroids irrespective of methotrexate use. A generally higher incidence rate in JIA patients treated with etanercept was observed. No serious or refractory manifestations occurred.

  6. Behavioral Traits and Airport Type Affect Mammal Incidents with U.S. Civil Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Kristin B.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Martin, James A.; DeVault, Travis L.; Wang, Guiming

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife incidents with aircraft cost the United States (U.S.) civil aviation industry >US1.4 billion in estimated damages and loss of revenue from 1990 to 2009. Although terrestrial mammals represented only 2.3 % of wildlife incidents, damage to aircraft occurred in 59 % of mammal incidents. We examined mammal incidents (excluding bats) at all airports in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Wildlife Strike Database from 1990 to 2010 to characterize these incidents by airport type: Part-139 certified (certificated) and general aviation (GA). We also calculated relative hazard scores for species most frequently involved in incidents. We found certificated airports had more than twice as many incidents as GA airports. Incidents were most frequent in October ( n = 215 of 1,764 total) at certificated airports and November ( n = 111 of 741 total) at GA airports. Most (63.2 %) incidents at all airports ( n = 1,523) occurred at night but the greatest incident rate occurred at dusk (177.3 incidents/hr). More incidents with damage ( n = 1,594) occurred at GA airports (38.6 %) than certificated airports (19.0 %). Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates) incidents incurred greatest (92.4 %) damage costs ( n = 326; US51.8 million) overall and mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) was the most hazardous species. Overall, relative hazard score increased with increasing log body mass. Frequency of incidents was influenced by species relative seasonal abundance and behavior. We recommend airport wildlife officials evaluate the risks mammal species pose to aircraft based on the hazard information we provide and consider prioritizing management strategies that emphasize reducing their occurrence on airport property.

  7. Behavioral traits and airport type affect mammal incidents with U.S. civil aircraft.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Kristin B; Belant, Jerrold L; Martin, James A; DeVault, Travis L; Wang, Guiming

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife incidents with aircraft cost the United States (U.S.) civil aviation industry >US$1.4 billion in estimated damages and loss of revenue from 1990 to 2009. Although terrestrial mammals represented only 2.3 % of wildlife incidents, damage to aircraft occurred in 59 % of mammal incidents. We examined mammal incidents (excluding bats) at all airports in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Wildlife Strike Database from 1990 to 2010 to characterize these incidents by airport type: Part-139 certified (certificated) and general aviation (GA). We also calculated relative hazard scores for species most frequently involved in incidents. We found certificated airports had more than twice as many incidents as GA airports. Incidents were most frequent in October (n = 215 of 1,764 total) at certificated airports and November (n = 111 of 741 total) at GA airports. Most (63.2 %) incidents at all airports (n = 1,523) occurred at night but the greatest incident rate occurred at dusk (177.3 incidents/hr). More incidents with damage (n = 1,594) occurred at GA airports (38.6 %) than certificated airports (19.0 %). Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates) incidents incurred greatest (92.4 %) damage costs (n = 326; US$51.8 million) overall and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was the most hazardous species. Overall, relative hazard score increased with increasing log body mass. Frequency of incidents was influenced by species relative seasonal abundance and behavior. We recommend airport wildlife officials evaluate the risks mammal species pose to aircraft based on the hazard information we provide and consider prioritizing management strategies that emphasize reducing their occurrence on airport property.

  8. The incidence and mortality of lung cancer and their relationship to development in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Pakzad, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer worldwide and the most common cancer in Asia. It is necessary to get information on epidemiology and inequalities related to incidence and mortality of the cancer to use for planning and further research. This study aimed to investigate epidemiology and inequality of incidence and mortality from lung cancer in Asia. Methods The study was conducted based on data from the world data of cancer and the World Bank [including the Human Development Index (HDI) and its components]. The incidence and mortality rates, and cancer distribution maps were drawn for Asian countries. To analyze data, correlation test between incidence and death rates, and HDI and its components at significant was used in the significant level of 0.05 using SPSS software. Results A total of 1,033,881 incidence (71.13% were males and 28.87% were females. Sex ratio was 2.46) and 936,051 death (71.45% in men and 28.55% in women. The sex ratio was 2.50) recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Five countries with the highest standardized incidence and mortality rates of lung cancer were Democratic Republic of Korea, China, Armenia, Turkey, and Timor-Leste, respectively. Correlation between HDI and standardized incidence rate was 0.345 (P=0.019), in men 0.301 (P=0.042) and in women 0.3 (P=0.043); also between HDI and standardized mortality rate 0.289 (P=0.052), in men 0.265 (P=0.075) and in women 0.200 (P=0.182). Conclusions The incidence of lung cancer has been increasing in Asia. It is high in men. Along with development, the incidence and mortality from lung cancer increases. It seems necessary to study reasons and factors of increasing the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in Asian countries. PMID:26798586

  9. Associations among ancestry, geography and breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Wayne A; Morrison, Robert L; Lee, Tammy Y; Williams, Tanisha M; Ramnarine, Shelina; Roach, Veronica; Slovacek, Simeon; Maharaj, Ravi; Bascombe, Nigel; Bondy, Melissa L; Ellis, Matthew J; Toriola, Adetunji T; Roach, Allana; Llanos, Adana A M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common newly diagnosed cancer among women in Trinidad and Tobago (TT) and BC mortality rates are among the highest in the world. Globally, racial/ethnic trends in BC incidence, mortality and survival have been reported. However, such investigations have not been conducted in TT, which has been noted for its rich diversity. In this study, we investigated associations among ancestry, geography and BC incidence, mortality and survival in TT. Data on 3767 incident BC cases, reported to the National Cancer Registry of TT, from 1995 to 2007, were analyzed in this study. Women of African ancestry had significantly higher BC incidence and mortality rates (Incidence: 66.96; Mortality: 30.82 per 100,000) compared to women of East Indian (Incidence: 41.04, Mortality: 14.19 per 100,000) or mixed ancestry (Incidence: 36.72, Mortality: 13.80 per 100,000). Geographically, women residing in the North West Regional Health Authority (RHA) catchment area followed by the North Central RHA exhibited the highest incidence and mortality rates. Notable ancestral differences in survival were also observed. Women of East Indian and mixed ancestry experienced significantly longer survival than those of African ancestry. Differences in survival by geography were not observed. In TT, ancestry and geographical residence seem to be strong predictors of BC incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, disparities in survival by ancestry were found. These data should be considered in the design and implementation of strategies to reduce BC incidence and mortality rates in TT. PMID:26338451

  10. Incidence of instrument separation using LightSpeed rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Kenneth I; Hammond, Nathan B; Biggs, Stephen G; Ibarrola, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    The use of nickel-titanium rotary instrument systems has gained popularity over the past 10 years. One of these instrument systems is the LightSpeed (LightSpeed Technology, Inc, San Antonio, TX). One drawback for all nickel-titanium rotary instruments is the incidence of instrument separation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of nonretrievable instrument separation using the LightSpeed system in a clinical setting. A total of 3543 canals were treated over a 24 month period and during that time, 46 LightSpeed instruments were separated and found to be nonretrievable, resulting in a separation rate of 1.30%. This rate was lower than previous reported studies.

  11. Incidence of prostate cancer in Lithuania after introduction of the Early Prostate Cancer Detection Programme.

    PubMed

    Smailyte, G; Aleknaviciene, B

    2012-12-01

    In Lithuania, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is offered to healthy asymptomatic men as a screening test in the population-based Early Prostate Cancer Detection Programme (EPCDP). The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of prostate cancer before and after introduction of the EPCDP in Lithuania. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality data from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry were analysed for the period 1990-2008. Age-specific incidence and mortality data were adjusted to the European Standard Population. There have been extraordinary changes in the incidence of prostate cancer in Lithuania following introduction of the EPCDP, and there is strong evidence that these changes are the result of increased detection rates, especially in men of screening age. Further observation of changes in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Lithuania may help to determine the extent to which PSA testing at the population level influences incidence and mortality in the general population.

  12. Incidence of Infectious Mononucleosis in Universities and U.S. Military Settings

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Harmon, Yolonda J; Jason, Leonard A; Katz, Ben Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The reported incidence rates for Infectious Mononucleosis (IM) within universities and military settings vary widely from study to study. Several factors may have contributed to the discrepancy in these incidence rates include misdiagnosis, ambiguity in the reported sample populations, and number of students who visited and were diagnosed at their campus's health service centers. The current review examines previously reported literature on the incidence rate in universities and military settings of infectious mononucleosis taking into account these possible confounding factors. Methods Articles examined for the literature review were selected by searching several databases within Google Scholar and PubMed. Results Variance in the incidence rates could be due to differences in the populations studied, true geographic or epidemiologic variation or inconsistent number of students who visited and were diagnosed at their campus's health service centers. PMID:27583306

  13. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout. PMID:26683907

  14. Evaluation of mortality and cancer incidence among alachlor manufacturing workers.

    PubMed Central

    Acquavella, J F; Riordan, S G; Anne, M; Lynch, C F; Collins, J J; Ireland, B K; Heydens, W F

    1996-01-01

    Alachlor is the active ingredient in a family of preemergence herbicides. We assessed mortality rates from 1968 to 1993 and cancer incidence rates from 1969 to 1993 for manufacturing workers with potential alachlor exposure. For workers judged to have high alachlor exposure, mortality from all causes combined was lower than expected [23 observed, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.4-1.0], cancer mortality was similar to expected (6 observed, SMR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.3-1.6), and there were no cancer deaths among workers with 5 or more years high exposure and 15 or more years since first exposure (2.3 expected, SMR = 0, 95% CI, 0-1.6). Cancer incidence for workers with high exposure potential was similar to the state rate [18 observed, standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.2, 95% CI, 0.7-2.0], especially for workers exposed for 5 or more years and with at least 15 years since first exposure (4 observed, SIR = 1.0, 95% CI, 0.3-2.7). The most common cancer for these latter workers was colorectal cancer (2 observed, SIR 3.9, 95% CI, 0.5-14.2 among workers). Despite the limitations of this study with respect to small size and exposure estimating, the findings are useful for evaluating potential alachlor-related health risks because past manufacturing exposures greatly exceeded those characteristic of agricultural operations. These findings suggest no appreciable effect of alachlor exposure on worker mortality or cancer incidence rates during the study period. PMID:8841758

  15. Abortion incidence and postabortion care in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Basinga, Paulin; Moore, Ann M; Singh, Susheela D; Carlin, Elizabeth E; Birungi, Francine; Ngabo, Fidele

    2012-03-01

    Abortion is illegal in Rwanda except when necessary to protect a woman's physical health or to save her life. Many women in Rwanda obtain unsafe abortions, and some experience health complications as a result. To estimate the incidence of induced abortion, we conducted a national sample survey of health facilities that provide postabortion care and a purposive sample survey of key informants knowledgeable about abortion conditions. We found that more than 16,700 women received care for complications resulting from induced abortion in Rwanda in 2009, or 7 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Approximately 40 percent of abortions are estimated to lead to complications requiring treatment, but about a third of those who experienced a complication did not obtain treatment. Nationally, the estimated induced abortion rate is 25 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44, or approximately 60,000 abortions annually. An urgent need exists in Rwanda to address unmet need for contraception, to strengthen family planning services, to broaden access to legal abortion, and to improve postabortion care.

  16. Incidence of gliomas by anatomic location

    PubMed Central

    Larjavaara, Suvi; Mäntylä, Riitta; Salminen, Tiina; Haapasalo, Hannu; Raitanen, Jani; Jääskeläinen, Juha; Auvinen, Anssi

    2007-01-01

    The anatomic location of a glioma influences prognosis and treatment options. The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of gliomas in different anatomic areas of the brain. A representative population-based sample of 331 adults with glioma was used for preliminary analyses. The anatomic locations for 89 patients from a single center were analyzed in more detail from radiologic imaging and recorded on a three-dimensional 1 × 1 × 1– cm grid. The age-standardized incidence rate of gliomas was 4.7 per 100,000 person-years. The most frequent subtypes were glioblastoma (47%) and grade II–III astrocytoma (23%), followed by oligodendroglioma and mixed glioma. The gliomas were located in the frontal lobe in 40% of the cases, temporal in 29%, parietal in 14%, and occipital lobe in 3%, with 14% in the deeper structures. The difference in distribution between lobes remained after adjustment for their tissue volume: the tumor:volume ratio was 4.5 for frontal, 4.8 for temporal, and 2.3 for parietal relative to the occipital lobe. The area with the densest occurrence was the anterior subcortical brain. Statistically significant spatial clustering was found in the three-dimensional analysis. No differences in location were found among glioblastoma, diffuse astrocytoma, and oligodendroglioma. Our results demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in the anatomic distribution of gliomas within the brain. PMID:17522333

  17. Intracerebral hemorrhage mortality is not changing despite declining incidence

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Smith, Melinda A.; Brown, Devin L.; Garcia, Nelda M.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Adelman, Eric E.; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine trends in incidence and mortality of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a rigorous population-based study. Methods: We identified all cases of spontaneous ICH in a South Texas community from 2000 to 2010 using rigorous case ascertainment methods within the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project. Yearly population counts were determined from the US Census, and deaths were determined from state and national databases. Age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted incidence was estimated for each year with Poisson regression, and a linear trend over time was investigated. Trends in 30-day case fatality and long-term mortality (censored at 3 years) were estimated with log-binomial or Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, stroke severity, and comorbid disease. Results: A total of 734 cases of ICH were included. The age-, sex-, and ethnicity-adjusted ICH annual incidence rate was 5.21 per 10,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.36, 6.24) in 2000 and 4.30 per 10,000 (95% CI 3.21, 5.76) in 2010. The estimated 10-year change in demographic-adjusted ICH annual incidence rate was −31% (95% CI −47%, −11%). Yearly demographic-adjusted 30-day case fatality ranged from 28.3% (95% CI 19.9%, 40.3%) in 2006 to 46.5% (95% CI 35.5, 60.8) in 2008. There was no change in ICH case fatality or long-term mortality over time. Conclusions: ICH incidence decreased over the past decade, but case fatality and long-term mortality were unchanged. This suggests that primary prevention efforts may be improving over time, but more work is needed to improve ICH treatment and reduce the risk of death. PMID:24838789

  18. Incidence of cancer among ferrochromium and ferrosilicon workers

    PubMed Central

    Langård, S; Andersen, Aa; Gylseth, B

    1980-01-01

    ABSTRACT The results are presented of a study of the overall mortality and the incidence of cancer in male workers producing ferrosilicon and ferrochromium. Although the study included all present and retired workers employed in the factory for more than one year from 1928 until 1977 inclusive, the incidence of cancer in those 976 workers who started work before 1 January 1960 was studied in particular. Both the overall mortality and the incidence of cancer for all sites were lower than expected when compared with the national expected figures. Nine cases of lung cancer were found in the total population—seven in the ferrochromium subpopulation against expected rates of 3·1 and 1·8 when using national and local expected rates respectively as reference, and less than one expected case when using an internal reference population. A 1·5 O/E ratio was found for prostatic cancer in the whole study population. The results indicate that the increased incidence of lung cancer in the ferrochromium group has a causal relationship to occupational exposure. Perforation of the nasal septum was found in two present ferrochromium workers, and hexavalent chromium was found in the working atmosphere at the ferrochromium arc-furnaces during an industrial hygiene survey carried out in 1975. It is therefore concluded that the raised incidence of lung cancer is partly due to exposure to chromates. The results do not support the suggestion that exposure to chromic compounds entails a cancer hazard similar to that of exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds. PMID:7426461

  19. Dynamic Relations between Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Climatic Factors in Golestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Mollalo, Abolfazl; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL), an important public health problem in Iran, is sensitive to climate conditions. This study aimed to examine dynamic relations between the climate factors and incidence of ZCL in Golestan Province, northern Iran during 2010–2012. Methods: Data of monthly climatic factors, including temperature variables, relative humidity variables, evaporation, total rainfall, and number of freezing and rainy days together with monthly ZCL incidence were used. Spear-man rank correlation was carried out to explain associations between the monthly ZCL incidence rate and climate factors at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months lagged periods. Pearson’s correlation analysis was conducted to examine the type and strength of relationships between the spatially averaged climate factors and ZCL incidence rate in district level. Stepwise multiple regression was used to find the best combination of independent climatic variables, which predict the ZCL incidence. Results: Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the highest correlations between climate factors and monthly ZCL incidence were established when the climate time-series lagged the ZCL incidence series, especially two month prior to disease incidence. Based on the results of the both Spearman rank correlation and Pearson correlation analyses, ZCL incidences in Golestan Province tend to be more prevalent in areas with higher temperature, lower relative humidity, lower total rainfall, higher evaporation and lower number of rainy days. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicated that minimum temperature, mean humidity, and rainfall had considerable effect on ZCL incidence. Conclusion: Climate factors are major determinants of ZCL incidence rate in Golestan Province and such climate conditions provide favourable conditions for propagation and transmission of ZCL in this endemic area. PMID:26623427

  20. Recent changes in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia: Transition to the west.

    PubMed

    Baburin, Aleksei; Aareleid, Tiiu; Rahu, Mati; Reedik, Lauri; Innos, Kaire

    2016-06-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality trends in Estonia during recent decades and to compare the pattern of these trends with other selected European countries and regions. We attempt to explain the findings in relation to changes in Estonian society and healthcare system. Methods BC incidence (1985-2012) and mortality (1985-2013) data for Estonia were obtained from the Estonian Cancer Registry and Statistics Estonia. Data for selected European countries were obtained from the EUREG database. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze age-standardized rates in Estonia by age. For international comparison of incidence and mortality rates, we used scatterplot with 95% confidence ellipses and the mortality to incidence ratio. Results The overall BC incidence continues to increase in Estonia, while mortality has been in decline since 2000. Both incidence and mortality trends varied considerably across age groups. Among women aged 60 years and older, BC incidence increased at a rate of nearly 3% per year. Significant decrease in mortality was seen only among women aged 50-59 years. Comparison of scatterplots between countries and regions revealed two clusters in Europe separated along the incidence axis. The correlation between incidence and mortality in Estonia changed its direction in the mid-1990s. Conclusion In recent years, the dynamics of BC burden in Estonia has transitioned towards the high incidence-low mortality type model, which is characteristic to Western, Northern and Southern Europe. Although overall BC incidence is much lower in Estonia than in more affluent European countries, mortality from BC is still relatively high, particularly among elderly women.

  1. Incidence of Concussion in Youth Ice Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Elbin, R.J.; Sufrinko, Alicia; Dakan, Scott; Bookwalter, Kylie; Price, Ali; Meehan, William P.; Collins, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ice hockey is a fast-paced collision sport that entails both intentional (ie, body checking) and incidental contact that may involve the head. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of concussions in relation to games/practices and age among competition-level youth ice hockey players (ages 12–18 years). METHODS: Participants included 397 youth ice hockey players from Western Pennsylvania; Boston, Massachusetts; and Birmingham, Alabama, during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 youth ice hockey seasons. Incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of concussion were calculated for games/practices and age groups. RESULTS: A total of 23 369 (12 784 practice/10 585 game) athletic exposures (AEs) involving 37 medically diagnosed concussions occurred. More than 40% of concussions involved illegal contact. The combined IR for games and practices was 1.58 concussions per 1000 AEs. The IRR was 2.86 times (95% confidence interval 0.68–4.42) higher during games (2.49 per 1000 AEs) than practices (1.04 per 1000 AEs). CONCLUSIONS: The overall IR for concussion in youth ice hockey was comparable to those reported in other youth collision sports. The game-to-practice IRR was lower than previously reported in ice hockey and other youth sports, although more concussions per exposure occurred in games compared with practices. Younger players had a higher rate of concussions than older players. PMID:26746405

  2. Mortality and incidence of tumours among ferrochromium workers

    PubMed Central

    Axelsson, G; Rylander, R; Schmidt, A

    1980-01-01

    ABSTRACT An investigation was carried out to determine the cause of death and the incidence of tumours among 1932 workers in a ferrochromium plant in Sweden. The workers had been exposed mainly to metallic and trivalent chromium (Cr3+); hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) was also present in certain working operations. The population was defined as all men employed at the plant for at least one year during 1930-75, and were classified according to their occupation within the industry. The causes of death were initially obtained from parish registers. For deaths occuring between 1951 and 1975, death certificates were collected from the National Central Bureau of Statistics. Data on the incidence of cancer during 1958-75 were obtained from the Swedish National Cancer Registry. Expected death rates and incidence of tumours were calculated, based on the rates for the county in which the factory was situated. The total number of deaths from tumours was less than expected (69 versus 76·7). Five cases of respiratory cancer were found, against an expected 7·2. Among maintenance workers, an increased death rate from all tumours and an increased number of respiratory tumours were found. Two of the latter were mesotheliomas and could be connected with asbestos exposure. No increase was found for respiratory tumours among the heavily exposed workers at the arc-furnaces; one case of mesothelioma was found in this group. PMID:7426462

  3. Decline in the diagnosis of schizophrenia among first contacts with psychiatric services in north-east Scotland, 1969-1984.

    PubMed

    Eagles, J M; Hunter, D; McCance, C

    1988-06-01

    Annual age-standardised rates for first contacts with psychiatric services in the Aberdeen area from 1969 to 1984 were calculated for schizophrenia, paranoid states, reactive psychoses, all affective psychoses, mania, and depressive neuroses. Highly significant declines occurred in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and of depressive neuroses. No concomitant increase occurred. It is concluded that these results probably indicate that there has been a fall in the incidence of schizophrenia in North-East Scotland. This may have arisen due to changes in the mode of expression and/or the severity of all functional psychoses.

  4. Report of cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zhao, Ping; Zeng, Hongmei; Zou, Xiaonong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the cancer incidences and mortalities in China in 2010. Methods On basis of the evaluation procedures and data quality criteria described in the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR), data from 219 cancer registries were evaluated. Data from 145 registries were identified as qualified and then accepted for the 2010 cancer registry report. The incidences and mortalities of major cancers and the overall incidence and mortality were stratified by residency (urban or rural), areas (eastern, middle, and western), gender, and age. The cancer cases and deaths were estimated based on age-specific rate and national population in 2010. The China 2010 Population Census data and Segi’s world population data were used for calculating the age-standardized cancer incidence/mortality rates. Results Data were obtained from a total of 145 cancer registries (63 in urban areas and 82 in rural areas) covering 158,403,248 people (92,433,739 in urban areas and 65,969,509 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases (MV%) were 67.11%; 2.99% of incident cases were identified through proportion of death certification only (DCO%), with the mortality to incidence ratio of (M/I) 0.61. The estimates of new cancer cases and cancer deaths were 3,093,039 and 1,956,622 in 2010, respectively. The crude incidence was 235.23/105 (268.65/105 in males and 200.21/105 in females), the age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and by world standard population (ASR world) were 184.58/105 and 181.49/105, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 21.11%. The cancer incidence and ASR China were 256.41/105 and 187.53/105 in urban areas and 213.71/105 and 181.10/105 in rural areas. The crude cancer mortality in China was 148.81/105 (186.37/105 in males and 109.42/105 in females), the age-standardized mortalities by Chinese standard population and by world standard population were 113.92/105 and 112.86/105, and the cumulative

  5. Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Punjab, North India

    PubMed Central

    Sood, A; Midha, V; Sood, N; Bhatia, A S; Avasthi, G

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Ulcerative colitis occurs worldwide. It is considered common in most of Europe and North America and uncommon in most of the developing Asian countries. The incidence/prevalence of ulcerative colitis varies not only according to geographical region but also with race and ethnicity. There are no reported data from India on the incidence of the disease and its prevalence. Material and methods: A house to house survey was conducted by questionnaire, formulated to enquire about symptoms that are suggestive of ulcerative colitis. Those with prolonged diarrhoea with or without rectal bleeding were considered as suspected cases. These suspected cases were subjected to video sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy and rectal biopsy. In addition, patients already diagnosed and receiving treatment for ulcerative colitis, encountered during the survey, were reviewed. Resurvey of the same areas was conducted after a one year interval to detect new cases. Using direct methods, standardised rates were calculated using world standard population weights 22, 18, 16, 12, 12, 9, 7, 3, and 1 for each 10 year age group. Standardised rates were also obtained separately for males, females, and combined populations, using the Punjab state 1991 population census data. Rates were also estimated according to UK 2000 population data. Ninety five per cent confidence intervals (95% CI) of prevalence and incidence rates of ulcerative colitis were estimated under the assumption that the distribution of cases followed a Poisson probability model. Results: A total population of 51 910 were screened from January to March 1999. We identified 147 suspected cases and of these 23 were finally established as ulcerative colitis cases, giving a crude prevalence rate of 44.3 per 100 000 inhabitants (95% CI 29.4–66.6). A second visit to the same areas after one year identified 10 suspected cases in a population of 49 834. Of these, three were confirmed as “definite” ulcerative colitis giving a crude

  6. Secular trends in fracture incidence in the UK between 1990 and 2012.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, R Y; Wyers, C E; Curtis, E M; Geusens, P P M M; van den Bergh, J P W; de Vries, F; Cooper, C; van Staa, T P; Harvey, N C

    2016-11-01

    We studied sex-specific incidence rates in a population 50 years or older in the UK. In the period of 1990-2012, the overall rate of fracture did not change, but there were marked secular alterations in the rates of individual fracture types, particularly hip and spine fractures in the elderly.

  7. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  8. The Incidence of Ankle Sprains in Orienteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrand, Jan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…

  9. Noticing Critical Incidents in a Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Ban Heng

    2014-01-01

    What teachers attend to, how they make sense of, and respond to critical incidents in the classroom are important for improving teaching. However, seeing and understanding important features of critical incidents can be difficult. In this paper, I propose a notion of productive noticing, which I used to analyse a case study of what teachers…

  10. Critical Incidents in ELT Initial Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2008-01-01

    A critical incident is any unplanned event that occurs during class. In has been suggested that if trainee teachers formally reflect on these critical incidents, it may be possible for them to uncover new understandings of the teaching and learning process. This paper outlines and discusses how eighteen trainee teachers in an English language…

  11. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollution incidents....

  12. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollution incidents....

  13. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pollution incidents....

  14. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pollution incidents....

  15. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained...

  16. Incidence of chronic atrophic gastritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Mariam Abdullahi; Weck, Melanie Nicole; Gao, Lei; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-07-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an important precursor lesion of intestinal gastric cancer. As it is typically asymptomatic, epidemiological data on the incidence of CAG are sparse. We aimed to provide an overview of published data on CAG incidence (overall and according to risk factors) from follow-up studies. Articles with information on incidence of CAG published in English until 26th of July 2009 were identified through a systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE search. Data extracted include study characteristics and key findings regarding the incidence of CAG. A meta-analysis was performed on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and CAG incidence. Overall, data on CAG incidence were available from 14 studies, in 7 studies incidence could be estimated according to H. pylori infection. Most studies were conducted in symptomatic or high risk populations and the maximum number of incident cases was 284. Incidence estimates ranged from 0 to 11% per year and were consistently below 1% in patients not infected with H. pylori. The highest incidence was observed in a special study conducted on ulcer patients treated by proximal gastric vagotomy. Rate ratios for the association between H. pylori infection and CAG incidence ranged from 2.4 to 7.6 with a summary estimate of 5.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.1-8.3). Incidence of CAG is very low in the absence of H. pylori infection. There is a need for more population-based studies to provide comparable estimates of incidence and the impact of risk factors in the development of CAG.

  17. Cancer incidence in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiow-Ing; Yaung, Chih-Liang; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antinuclear demonstrations reveal that the public is anxious about the potential health effects caused by nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to address the question "Is there a higher cancer incidence rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan?" The Taiwan Cancer Registry database from 1979 to 2003 was used to compare the standardized incidence rate of the top four cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks between the "plant-vicinity" with those "non-plant-vicinity" groups. All cancer sites, five-leading cancers in Taiwan, and gender-specific cancers were also studied. We also adopted different observation time to compare the incidence rate of cancers between two groups to explore the impact of the observation period. The incidences of leukemia, thyroid, lung, and breast cancer were not significantly different between two groups, but cervix uteri cancer showed higher incidence rates in the plant-vicinity group. The incidence of cervical cancer was not consistently associated with the duration of plant operation, according to a multiyear period comparison. Although there was higher incidence in cervix cancer in the plant-vicinity group, our findings did not provide the crucial evidence that nuclear power plants were the causal factor for some cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks.

  18. Environment as a potential key determinant of the continued increase of prostate cancer incidence in martinique.

    PubMed

    Belpomme, Dominique; Irigaray, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980-2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  19. Hazardous materials incidents in military aircraft.

    PubMed

    Voge, V M; Tolan, G

    1993-07-01

    We evaluated 10 years of reported hazardous cargo incident information from the U.S. Air Force and Naval Safety Centers. In this first of two papers describing the hazardous cargo problems reported by the two services, we describe types of aircraft and types of hazardous cargo involved in incidents not causing aircraft mishaps. Normally, hazardous cargo must be manifested as such and no passengers are allowed on such flights. Unauthorized hazardous cargo was found on military aircraft carrying passengers. The most common problem was fuel spills or fumes. The most frequent cause of a hazardous cargo incident was improper manifest of same. Improvements are recommended for the incompatible or inconsistent hazardous cargo incident reporting systems, in order to improve prevention of hazardous cargo incidents.

  20. Semantic Theme Analysis of Pilot Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Pilots report accidents or incidents during take-off, on flight and landing to airline authorities and Federal aviation authority as well. The description of pilot reports for an incident contains technical terms related to Flight instruments and operations. Normal text mining approaches collect keywords from text documents and relate them among documents that are stored in database. Present approach will extract specific theme analysis of incident reports and semantically relate hierarchy of terms assigning weights of themes. Once the theme extraction has been performed for a given document, a unique key can be assigned to that document to cross linking the documents. Semantic linking will be used to categorize the documents based on specific rules that can help an end-user to analyze certain types of accidents. This presentation outlines the architecture of text mining for pilot incident reports for autonomous categorization of pilot incident reports using semantic theme analysis.

  1. DOE's Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.

    1990-09-01

    Computer security is essential in maintaining quality in the computing environment. Computer security incidents, however, are becoming more sophisticated. The DOE Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC) team was formed primarily to assist DOE sites in responding to computer security incidents. Among CIAC's other responsibilities are gathering and distributing information to DOE sites, providing training workshops, coordinating with other agencies, response teams, and vendors, creating guidelines for incident handling, and developing software tools. CIAC has already provided considerable assistance to DOE sites faced with virus infections and worm and hacker attacks, has issued over 40 information bulletins, and has developed and presented a workshop on incident handling. CIAC's experience in helping sites has produced several lessons learned, including the need to follow effective procedures to avoid virus infections in small systems and the need for sound password management and system administration in networked systems. CIAC's activity and scope will expand in the future. 4 refs.

  2. Investigation of a “Sharps” Incident

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael Edward; Trujillo, Stanley; Schreiber, Stephen Bruce

    2016-08-03

    Special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities are provided at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. Engineered barriers provide the most effective protection from radioactive and hazardous materials. The Worker Safety Security Team augments these passive safety feature by investigating incidents to identify appropriate prevention and mitigation measures. “Learning Teams” facilitate employee feedback loop and integration toward process improvement. Here, this article reports an investigation of a “Sharps” incident and reviews a case study of a technician that cuts his left thumb while making a gasket. Causal analysis of the sharps incident uncovered contributing factors that created the environment in which the incident occurred. Finally, latent organizational conditions that created error-likely situations or weakened defenses were identified and controlled. Effective improvements that reduce the probability or consequence of similar sharps incidents were implemented.

  3. Customer focused incident monitoring in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Khan, F A; Khimani, S

    2007-06-01

    The database of incident forms relating to anaesthesia services in an institutional risk management programme were reviewed for 2003-2005, the aim being to identify any recurring patterns. Incidents were prospectively categorised as relating to attitude/behaviour, communication breakdown, delay in service, or were related to care, cost, environment, equipment, security, administrative process, quality of service or miscellaneous. The total number of anaesthesia-related incidents reported during the period was 287, which related to 0.44% of the total number of anaesthetics administered during the time period. In all, 170 incidents were reported by the department, 96 by internal customers and 21 by external customers. Only 30% of the complaints came from the operating room. Thirty-four per cent of all incidents related to communication, behaviour and delay in service. A requirement to teach communication skills and stress handling formally in anaesthesia training programmes, and at the time of induction of staff into the department, has been identified.

  4. Investigation of a “Sharps” Incident

    DOE PAGES

    Cournoyer, Michael Edward; Trujillo, Stanley; Schreiber, Stephen Bruce

    2016-08-03

    Special nuclear material research, process development, technology demonstration, and manufacturing capabilities are provided at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. Engineered barriers provide the most effective protection from radioactive and hazardous materials. The Worker Safety Security Team augments these passive safety feature by investigating incidents to identify appropriate prevention and mitigation measures. “Learning Teams” facilitate employee feedback loop and integration toward process improvement. Here, this article reports an investigation of a “Sharps” incident and reviews a case study of a technician that cuts his left thumb while making a gasket. Causal analysis of the sharps incident uncovered contributing factorsmore » that created the environment in which the incident occurred. Finally, latent organizational conditions that created error-likely situations or weakened defenses were identified and controlled. Effective improvements that reduce the probability or consequence of similar sharps incidents were implemented.« less

  5. Incidence of lead shot in canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975 and 1976, 2,544 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) from North Dakota, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Maryland were flouroscoped to determine the incidence of body shot. A significant increase from west to east was detected in the incidence of shot for immatures from the four states. The incidence of shot in immatures after the 1975-76 hunting season was 18 percent in Maryland and 20 percent in Illinois. In Wisconsin no difference in the incidence of shot could be detected between areas trapped or time periods when trapping was conducted. In Maryland a significant decrease in the incidence of body shot was detected in adults, but not immatures, between 1975 and 1976. shot was located throughout the body of canvasbacks. Frequency varied from one to nine shot per bird and averaged 2.0 for adults and 1.5 for immatures.

  6. Incidence and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injury in Ballet

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Preston J.; Gerrie, Brayden J.; Varner, Kevin E.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. Purpose To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. Results The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P < .001). Only 3 studies provided prevalence data, including 62% prevalence of lumbosacral pain, 58% painful snapping hip, and 29% patellofemoral pain. Lower extremity injuries comprised 66% to 91% of all injuries, with the foot and ankle accounting for 14% to 57%. Conclusion The overall incidence of injury

  7. Nervous System and Intracranial Tumour Incidence by Ethnicity in England, 2001–2007: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Maile, Edward J.; Barnes, Isobel; Finlayson, Alexander E.; Sayeed, Shameq; Ali, Raghib

    2016-01-01

    Background There is substantial variation in nervous system and intracranial tumour incidence worldwide. UK incidence data have limited utility because they group these diverse tumours together and do not provide data for individual ethnic groups within Blacks and South Asians. Our objective was to determine the incidence of individual tumour types for seven individual ethnic groups. Methods We used data from the National Cancer Intelligence Network on tumour site, age, sex and deprivation to identify 42,207 tumour cases. Self-reported ethnicity was obtained from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. We used mid-year population estimates from the Office for National Statistics. We analysed tumours by site using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios comparing non-White ethnicities to Whites after adjustment for sex, age and deprivation. Results Our study showed differences in tumour incidence by ethnicity for gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary tumours and cranial and paraspinal nerve tumours. Relative to Whites; South Asians, Blacks and Chinese have a lower incidence of gliomas (p<0.01), with respective incidence rate ratios of 0.68 (confidence interval: 0.60–0.77), 0.62 (0.52–0.73) and 0.58 (0.41–0.83). Blacks have a higher incidence of meningioma (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 1.29 (1.05–1.59) and there is heterogeneity in meningioma incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Blacks have a higher incidence of pituitary tumours relative to Whites (p<0.01) with an incidence rate ratio of 2.95 (2.37–3.67). There is heterogeneity in pituitary tumour incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Conclusions We present incidence data of individual tumour types for seven ethnic groups. Current understanding of the aetiology of these tumours cannot explain our results. These findings suggest avenues for further work. PMID:27135830

  8. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yinan; Joyce, Brian T; Colicino, Elena; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Qi; Shrubsole, Martha J; Kibbe, Warren A; Gao, Tao; Zhang, Zhou; Jafari, Nadereh; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Hou, Lifang

    2016-03-01

    Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages) can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3-5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02) and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.28). Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003) and mortality (P = 0.02). Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a 'J-shaped' manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  9. Incidence and Paris Classification of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eszter Müller, Katalin; Laszlo Lakatos, Peter; Papp, Maria; Veres, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    New epidemiological data suggest that the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing. As a result the burden of disease accounts for more strains to the health care system. The clinical variability queries whether disease characteristics are related to clinical outcome. Our aim was to delineate the latest results of incidence trends in pediatric IBD and to compare the first experiences with Paris Classification. Incidence of pediatric IBD has been increasing in Western Europe and in Eastern Europe. To better characterize IBD, Paris Classification was introduced and validated recently. Ileocolonic involvement is the most characteristic disease location in Crohn's disease (CD) based on applying Paris Classification. The rate of perianal disease and complicated behaviour in CD was similar. It is of interest that CD patients with colonic involvement were less likely to have stricturing disease compared with patients with ileal involvement. In addition, pancolitis dominated in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, most countries lack prospective, nationwide epidemiological studies to estimate incidence trends. This review emphasizes the importance of nationwide registries that enroll all pediatric IBD cases serving reliable data for “everyday practice.” These first reports have shown that Paris Classification is a useful tool to determine the pediatric IBD phenotype. PMID:24778643

  10. Incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease in Tokat province, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çakmak, Bülent; Toprak, Muhammet; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Köseoğlu, Reşid Doğan; Güneri, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in Tokat province, Turkey. Material and Methods The medical records of patients who had been diagnosed and treated at one university hospital, six government hospitals, and one specialist hospital in Tokat province between January 2005 and December 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Results During the study period, there were 59,754 births and GTD was diagnosed in 73 cases. The calculated GTD incidence was 1.22/1000. The mean age of the patients diagnosed with GTD was 28.6±7.3 (range 17–51) years. In GTD, complete moles occurred in 26%, partial moles in 74%, and no invasive moles, choriocarcinomas, or placental site trophoblastic tumours were found. Only two patients received chemotherapy (methotrexate). There was no mortality associated with the disease during follow-up. Conclusion The incidence of GTD in Tokat province was 1.2 per 1000 births. Early diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up play a critical role in preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with disease. The incidence of GTD, which has a high recovery rate with adequate treatment and follow-up, can be determined from regional and community-based research. PMID:24790512

  11. Changing pattern of age-specific breast cancer incidence in the Swiss canton of Geneva.

    PubMed

    Bouchardy, Christine; Usel, Massimo; Verkooijen, Helena M; Fioretta, Gérald; Benhamou, Simone; Neyroud-Caspar, Isabelle; Schaffar, Robin; Vlastos, Georges; Wespi, Yves; Schäfer, Peter; Rapiti, Elisabetta

    2010-04-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use declined sharply after mid-2002, when the Women's Health Initiative trial reported an association between breast cancer occurrence and HRT. Hypothesized mechanism behind this association is that HRT promotes growth of pre-existing small tumors, leading to earlier tumor detection. We evaluated the impact of the sudden decline in HRT use on age distribution of breast cancer in Geneva. We included all incident breast cancer cases recorded from 1975 to 2006 at the Geneva cancer registry. We calculated mean annual incidence rates per 100,000 for 2 year periods for three age groups and assessed temporal changes by joinpoint regression. We compared age-specific incidence curves for different periods, reflecting different prevalence rates of HRT use. After increasing constantly between 1986 and 2002 among women aged 50-69 years [annual percent change (APC): +4.4, P < 0.0001], rates declined sharply after 2003 (APC: -6.0; P = 0.0264). Age-specific breast cancer rates changed dramatically with changes in prevalence of HRT use. During low HRT prevalence, breast cancer incidence increased progressively with age, when HRT prevalence was reaching its maximum (1995-2002), higher rates were seen in 60- to 64-year-old women, with a concomitant decrease in risk among elderly. After the sudden decline in HRT use, the incidence peak diminished significantly and incidence increased again with age. Following the abrupt decline in HRT use in Geneva, breast cancer incidence rates among post-menopausal women decreased considerably with striking changes in age-specific incidence rates before, during and after the peak in HRT prevalence.

  12. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in a Caribbean population: comparisons with African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Hennis, Anselm J; Hambleton, Ian R; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, Maria Cristina; Nemesure, Barbara

    2009-01-15

    We describe breast cancer incidence and mortality in the predominantly African-origin population of Barbados, which shares an ancestral origin with African-Americans. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated from histologically confirmed breast cancer cases identified during a 45-month period (July 2002-March 2006). Mortality rates were estimated from death registrations over 10-years starting January 1995. There were 396 incident cases of breast cancer for an incidence rate of 78.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 70.5-86.3), standardized to the US population. Breast cancer incidence in African-Americans between 2000 and 2004 was 143.7 (142.0-145.5) per 100,000. Incidence peaked at 226.6 (174.5-289.4) per 100,000 among Barbadian women aged 50-54 years, and declined thereafter, a pattern in marked contrast to trends in African-American women, whose rates continued to increase to a peak of 483.5 per 100,000 in those aged 75-79 years. Incidence rate ratios comparing Barbadian and African-American women showed no statistically significant differences among women aged>or=55 years (prate in Barbados was 32.9 (29.9-36.0) per 100,000; similar to reported US rates. The pattern of diverging breast cancer incidence between Barbadian and African-American women may suggest a greater contribution from genetic factors in younger women, and from environmental factors in older women. Studies in intermediate risk populations, such as Barbados, may assist the understanding of racial disparities in breast cancer.

  13. [New incidence and mortality data. 2003-2005].

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta

    2009-04-23

    This is an update of incidence and mortality cancer data provided by the Italian Network of Cancer Registry (AIRTUM) relative to the period 2003-2005.AIRTUM is a network of general and specialized population-based cancer registries that covers about 1/3 of the Italian resident population (www.registri-tumori.it). Incidence and mortality data for the period 2003-2005 are based on 20 Registries. The five most frequently diagnosed cancers were: - prostate (18.5%), non melanoma skin (15.8%), lung (13.1%), colorectal (12.0%), bladder (5.7%) among males; - breast (24.9%), non melanoma skin (15.1%), colorectal (11.9%), lung (5.0%) and stomach (4.1%) among females. In the same period the most frequent causes of cancer death were: - cancer of the lung (27.6%), colorectal (10.7%), prostate (8.5%), stomach (7.3%) and liver (6.1%) among males; - breast cancer (16.3%), colorectal (11.9%), lung (10.3%), stomach (7.2%) and pancreas (6.5%) among females. According to the age-specific incidence rates one man and one woman every two will receive a cancer diagnosis during his/hers life (from birth to the age of 84 years). From 1993-1995 to 2003-2005, overall crude cancer incidence rate (males and females together) increased from 555.4 to 654.8 x 100,000. Standardization showed that 63% of this increase was due to ageing of the population. Moreover, most of the residual increase was among those cancer sites (breast, prostate, colorectal, thyroid and melanoma) for which early detection may have played a relevant role in anticipating (and therefore increasing) the number of diagnoses. Due to population ageing also overall cancer mortality did not show any decrease when crude rates were compared. On the contrary, standardized mortality rates (all cancers together) showed a strong decrease (311.4 vs. 266.5 x 100.000). The risk of receiving a diagnosis or dying because of cancer is still lower in residents in the regions of the South of Italy than in those of Central and Northern Italy

  14. Systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of genital warts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a common, highly infectious disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), whose high recurrence rates contribute to direct medical costs, productivity loss and increased psychosocial impact. Because of the lack of a systematic review of the epidemiology of AGWs in the literature, this study reviewed the published medical literature on the incidence and prevalence of AGWs. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed on the worldwide incidence and prevalence of AGWs between 2001 and 2012 using the PubMed and EMBASE databases. An additional screening of abstracts from relevant sexual health and infectious disease conferences from 2009 to 2011 was also conducted. Only original studies with general adult populations (i.e., at least including ages 20 through 40 years) were included. Results The overall (females and males combined) reported annual incidence of any AGWs (including new and recurrent) ranged from 160 to 289 per 100,000, with a median of 194.5 per 100,000. New AGW incidence rates among males ranged from 103 to 168 per 100,000, with a median of 137 per 100,000 and among females from 76 to 191 per 100,000, with a median of 120.5 per 100,000 per annum. The reported incidence of recurrent AGWs was as high as 110 per 100,000 among females and 163 per 100,000 among males. Incidence peaked before 24 years of age in females and between 25 and 29 years of age among males. The overall prevalence of AGWs based on retrospective administrative databases or medical chart reviews or prospectively collected physician reports ranged from 0.13% to 0.56%, whereas it ranged from 0.2% to 5.1% based on genital examinations. Conclusions The literature suggests that AGWs are widespread and the prevalence depends on study methodology as suggested by higher rates reported from routine genital examinations versus those from treatment records. However, there remains a need for more population-based studies from certain regions

  15. Observations of cancer incidence surveillance in Duluth, Minnesota.

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdson, E E

    1983-01-01

    In 1973, amphibole asbestos fibers were discovered in the municipal water supply of Duluth, Minnesota. The entire city population of approximately 100,000 was exposed from the late 1950s through 1976 at levels of 1-65 million fibers per liter of water. Because of previous epidemiologic studies that linked mesothelioma, lung and gastrointestinal cancers to occupational exposure to asbestos, surveillance of cancer incidence in residents of Duluth was initiated to determine the health effect from ingestion of asbestos. The methodology of the Third National Cancer Survey (TNCS) and SEER Program was used. Duluth 1969-1971 rates were compared with TNCS rates for the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul during 1969-1971; Duluth rates during 1974-1976 are compared with Duluth 1969-1971; Duluth rates during 1979-1980 are compared with Duluth 1969-1971 and with Iowa SEER; and a table of the occurrence of malignant mesothelioma is presented. Statistically significant excesses are observed in several primary sites in Duluth residents. However, lung cancer in Duluth females is the only primary site considered also of biological significance. The mesothelioma incidence rate is no more than expected. This paper also describes the problems of long-term surveillance of exposed populations considered at risk of environment cancer, the need for improved study methodologies and the use of federal records for follow up of exposed individuals. PMID:6662096

  16. Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Mhango, Chisale; Philbin, Jesse; Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Msusa, Ausbert

    2017-01-01

    Background In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman’s life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7–14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi’s high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates. Methods We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. Results We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161–160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28–61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures. Conclusions The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34–35). Over

  17. [The role of chemical composition of drinking water in predicting the incidence of urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Pivovarov, Iu P; Konashinskiĭ, A V

    1989-06-01

    Detailed observational data on urolithiasis incidence at the territory of the Amur Region are presented. 4 foci with a high level of disease incidence have been detected. The content of calcium, magnesium, and strontium has been determined in drinking water and correlation of urolithic disease rates with rations Ca/Sr and Mg/Sr were established. Certain dependence of the disease rates on the above ratios shows that their elevation corresponds to the reduction of urolithiasis rates, and vice versa. Application of the given technique in the urolithiasis endemic areas with the established level of disease incidence provides analogous results. It is assumed that in a number of cases unfavourable distribution of some chemical elements in drinking water, i. e., Ca/Sr and Mg/Sr, has affected the high level of urolithiasis incidence.

  18. Trends of skin cancer in the Canton of Vaud, 1976-92.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, F.; Franceschi, S.; Te, V. C.; Randimbison, L.; La Vecchia, C.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in incidence and mortality for basal cell carcinomas (BCC), squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) for the period 1976-92 were analysed using data from the Cancer Registry of the Swiss Canton of Vaud. Among the 12,473 cases registered, 63% were basal cell carcinomas, 25% squamous cell cancers, 9% cutaneous malignant melanomas and 3% other miscellaneous histological types. Age-standardised incidence rates increased substantially for all histological types considered, from 44% increase for BCC in males to a more than 3-fold increase for SCC in females, with only signs of a levelling off in 1991-92, following a peak of incidence rates in 1986-90. From 1976-80 to 1991-92 CMM incidence increased by approximately 80% in both sexes. In 1991-92, age-standardised (world) incidence rates per 100,000 were 69.3 for basal cell, 29.1 for squamous cell cancers and 11.5 for melanomas in males, and, respectively, 62.2, 18.0 and 12.3 in females. With respect to mortality, in males rates increased for both non-melanocytic cancer (> 40%) and CMM (> 53%) whereas in females CMM, BCC and SCC rates remained approximately stable over the calendar periods examined. In 1991-92, age-standardised mortality rates per 100,000 were 2.6 for melanoma and 0.7 for other skin cancers in males, and, respectively, 1.6 and 0.2 in females. Upward trends in incidence were also present, and relatively homogeneous across, various age groups examined. However, SCC and CMM levelled off over the last period, and some decline was apparent in males below age 45. Separate analysis by anatomical site showed substantial increases in the head and neck for SCC and BCC, and in the trunk for CMM. In 1991-92, middle-aged women had almost equalled male incidence rates of BCC and SCC. A female excess of CMM incidence seemed to have disappeared since 1981-86. The increase in skin cancer incidence thus continued in this population up to the late 1980s, with a plateau only after 1990

  19. Cancer incidence and mortality in Grenada 1990-2000.

    PubMed

    Asulin, Y; McCann, T J; McCarty, C W; Hage, R W; Rooney, P J; Macpherson, C N L

    2004-12-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the available cancer incidence (1996-2000) and mortality data (1990-2000) for the tri-island Caribbean nation of Grenada, Carriacou and Petit Martinique. Data for the analysis came from three sources: the Grenada Department of Statistics, the histopathology specimen books from St George's General Hospital and the Death Registry of the Ministry of Health, Grenada. The age-standardized rates (ASR) per 100 000 for all cancer sites combined were 170.2 in females and 158.2 in males. The four most frequent diagnoses (ASR) by cancer site in females were cervix (60.7), breast (49.1), uterus (28.4) and skin (13.3); and among males, prostate (61.4), bladder (16.3), skin (19.3) and stomach (10). Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 for all cancer sites combined were 105.4 in females and 165 in males. The four most frequent cancer associated mortalities (ASR) in females were breast (17.9), uterus (11.2), colon (10.3) and cervix (9.7); and among males, prostate (53.6), lung (18.7), stomach (14.5) and colon (10.9). This study found statistically significant spatial trends for overall cancer mortality and temporal trends in incidence and mortality rates for prostate and for incidence rates of stomach cancer. These rates are compared with those from other areas in the Caribbean and the United States of America and encourage efforts to establish a cancer registry in Grenada.

  20. Taxonometric Applications in Radiotherapy Incident Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dunscombe, Peter B. Ekaette, Edidiong U.; Lee, Robert C.; Cooke, David L.

    2008-05-01

    Recent publications in both the scientific and the popular press have highlighted the risks to which patients expose themselves when entering a healthcare system. Patient safety issues are forcing us to, not only acknowledge that incidents do occur, but also actively develop the means for assessing and managing the risks of such incidents. To do this, we ideally need to know the probability of an incident's occurrence, the consequences or severity for the patient should it occur, and the basic causes of the incident. A structured approach to the description of failure modes is helpful in terms of communication, avoidance of ambiguity, and, ultimately, decision making for resource allocation. In this report, several classification schemes or taxonomies for use in risk assessment and management are discussed. In particular, a recently developed approach that reflects the activity domains through which the patient passes and that can be used as a basis for quantifying incident severity is described. The estimation of incident severity, which is based on the concept of the equivalent uniform dose, is presented in some detail. We conclude with a brief discussion on the use of a defined basic-causes table and how adding such a table to the reports of incidents can facilitate the allocation of resources.

  1. Changes in HIV-1 incidence in heroin users in Guangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lai, S; Liu, W; Chen, J; Yang, J; Li, Z J; Li, R J; Liang, F X; Liang, S L; Zhu, Q Y; Yu, X F

    2001-04-01

    Guangxi Province, China recently experienced an outbreak of HIV-1 infection among heroin users. We studied HIV-1 incidence rates and associated risk factors for HIV-1 infection among heroin users residing in Pingxiang City. A total of 318 heroin users were followed from February 1998 through January 1999 (median follow-up: 8.1 months). Of these, 130 were prospectively followed from January through September 1999 (median follow-up: 8.3 months). HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence rates for each period were calculated. A generalized estimating equation approach was implemented to identify independent risk factors associated with HIV-1 infection across both periods. Among 318 study participants, 97.2% were men. The median age was 22 years. Approximately 60% reported sharing needles. HIV-1 prevalence at baseline was 15.4%. During the first follow-up period, HIV-1 incidence was 2.38 per 100 person years (py), and HCV incidence was 26.8 per 100 py. During the second follow-up period, HIV-1 incidence was 6.86 per 100 py, and HCV incidence was 28.9 per 100 py. After controlling for age and other factors, HCV seropositivity, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and sharing needles were independently associated with HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that HIV-1 incidence was rising over time in Pingxiang City, Guangxi Province. The high incidence of HCV heightens the importance of enhanced prevention programs to reduce injection and needle sharing among heroin users.

  2. Brain and central nervous system cancer incidence in navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and projections for 2014.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, J; Román, E San; Burgui, R; Guevara, M; Moreno-Iribas, C; Urbina, M J; Ardanaz, E

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary.

  3. Statistical evaluation of weather patterns on fishing vessel incidents in Atlantic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue

    Commercial fishing is an inherently risky industry and the safety of the people and property involved is always a concern of maritime administrations. Weather conditions, location, activity level, vessel type and numerous other factors are acknowledged to be major contributors to the occurrence of maritime incidents. However, there is a dearth of detailed research to understand the relationship between weather conditions and maritime incidents, including the occurrence, the rate and the severity of the consequences. This thesis attempts to demonstrate that such an association exists, and determine which are the principal weather factors driving this outcome. Relationships between boating activity levels and weather factors are also examined. The study area, which encompasses a broad extent of Atlantic Canadian waters, includes fishing incidents recorded by the Canadian Coast Guard from1997 to 1999. Weather data from numerous sources were processed to ascertain the conditions during each incident. Data preparation included matching records across disparate databases, and spatial and temporal interpolation/extrapolation. Methodologies used for traffic track generation in a geographical information system and aggregation of all relevant weather data needed for the statistical analyses are presented. Several risk model hypotheses were tested. Classification trees were built to identify important weather factors associated with the occurrence of incidents (ceteris paribus), and also to examine weather effects on the relative incident rates (given that incidents have occurred). Finally, a logistic regression model was built to calculate probability of incidents being classified as severe or not. This study has demonstrated that certain weather factors have a larger influence on the occurrence, rate and/or consequences of maritime incidents. These results can be instructive for better preventative measures for boating in hazardous weather conditions. Search and rescue

  4. Cumulative Incidence of Cancer among HIV-infected Individuals in North America

    PubMed Central

    Silverberg, Michael J.; Lau, Bryan; Achenbach, Chad J.; Jing, Yuezhou; Althoff, Keri N.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Engels, Eric A.; Hessol, Nancy; Brooks, John T.; Burchell, Ann N.; Gill, M. John; Goedert, James J.; Hogg, Robert; Horberg, Michael A.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Korthuis, Phillip T.; Mathews, William C.; Mayor, Angel; Modur, Sharada P.; Napravnik, Sonia; Novak, Richard M.; Patel, Pragna; Rachlis, Anita R.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Willig, James H.; Justice, Amy C.; Moore, Richard D.; Dubrow, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is increasingly common among HIV patients given improved survival. Objective To examine calendar trends in cumulative cancer incidence and hazard rate by HIV status. Design Cohort study Setting North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design during 1996–2009 Patients 86,620 HIV-infected and 196,987 uninfected adults Measurements We estimated cancer-type-specific cumulative incidence by age 75 years by HIV status and calendar era, and examined calendar trends in cumulative incidence and hazard rates. Results Cumulative incidences (%) of cancer by age 75 (HIV+/HIV−) were: Kaposi sarcoma (KS), 4.4/0.01; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), 4.5/0.7; lung, 3.4/2.8; anal, 1.5/0.1; colorectal, 1.0/1.5; liver, 1.1/0.4; Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 0.9/0.1; melanoma, 0.5/0.6; and oral cavity/pharyngeal, 0.8/0.8. Among HIV-infected subjects, we observed decreasing calendar trends in cumulative incidence and hazard rate for KS and NHL. For anal, colorectal and liver cancers, increasing cumulative incidence, but not hazard rate trends, were due to the decreasing mortality rate trend (−9% per year), allowing greater opportunity to be diagnosed with these cancer types. Despite decreasing hazard rate trends for lung, HL, and melanoma, we did not observe cumulative incidence trends due to the compensating effect of the declining mortality rate on cumulative incidence. Limitations Secular trends in screening, smoking, and viral co-infections were not evaluated. Conclusions Our analytic approach helped disentangle the effects of improved survival and changing cancer-specific hazard rates on cumulative incidence trends among HIV patients. Cumulative cancer incidence by age 75, approximating lifetime risk in HIV patients, may have clinical utility in this population. The high cumulative incidences by age 75 for KS, NHL, and lung cancer supports early and sustained ART and smoking cessation. Primary Funding Source National Institutes of Health PMID:26436616

  5. Verapamil reduces incidence of reentry during ventricular fibrillation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qi; Dosdall, Derek J; Li, Li; Rogers, Jack M; Ideker, Raymond E; Huang, Jian

    2014-11-01

    The characteristics of reentrant circuits during short duration ventricular fibrillation (SDVF; 20 s in duration) and the role of Ca(++) and rapid-activating delayed rectifier potassium currents during long duration ventricular fibrillation (LDVF; up to 10 min in duration) were investigated using verapamil and sotalol. Activation mapping of the LV epicardium with a 21 × 24 electrode plaque was performed in 12 open-chest pigs. Pigs were given either verapamil (0.136 mg/kg) or sotalol (1.5 mg/kg) and verapamil. Reentry patterns were quantified for SDVF, and, for LDVF, activation patterns were compared with our previously reported control LDVF data. Verapamil significantly increased conduction velocity around the reentrant core by 10% and reduced the reentrant cycle length by 15%, with a net reduction in reentry incidence of 70%. Sotolol had an opposite effect of decreasing the conduction velocity around the core by 6% but increasing the reentrant cycle length by 13%, with a net reduction of reentry incidence of 50%. After 200 s of VF, verapamil significantly slowed wavefront conduction velocity and activation rate compared with control data. Verapamil decreased the incidence of reentry in SDVF by accelerating conduction velocity to increase the likelihood of conduction block, possibly through increased sympathetic tone. The drug slowed activation rate and conduction velocity after 200 s of VF, suggesting that L-type Ca(++) channels remain active and may be important in the maintenance of LDVF. Sotalol in addition to verapamil caused no additional antiarrhythmic effect.

  6. Increasing Incidence of Enteropathy-associated T Cell Lymphoma in the United States (1973-2008)

    PubMed Central

    Sharaiha, Reem Z.; Lebwohl, Ben; Reimers, Laura; Bhagat, Govind; Green, Peter H.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL) is a rare lymphoma subtype that is strongly associated with celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disease triggered by the ingestion of gluten. Since CD rates are increasing in the U.S., we sought to determine whether the incidence rates of EATL are increasing as well. Method We identified primary, pathologically confirmed lymphoma cases from the SEER database registries from 1973 to 2008. To ensure capture of all cases of EATL, we included the following lymphoma subtypes, limited to the small bowel: non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NOS) T-cell, Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (NOS), and enteropathy type T-cell lymphoma, and calculated their age and sex-adjusted incidence rates over time. Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results We identified 161 small bowel lymphomas diagnosed between 1973 and 2008. The overall age and sex-adjusted annual incidence for all bowel lymphomas was 0.016 per 100,000, which increased over the study period from 0.006 to 0.024 per 100,000. These tumors were most common in males (age-adjusted incidence rate= 0.021 per 100,000) with the highest incidence rate in Hispanics (age-adjusted incidence rate =0.033 per 100,000). The median overall survival was 7 months. There was no difference in survival by race/ethnicity (p=0.09), or gender (P= 0.06). Conclusion Our results indicate a significant increase in the incidence of EATL in the U.S., which could reflect the increasing seroprevalence of CD and better recognition of rare types of T-cell lymphomas. The incidence may continue to rise given the large ratio of undiagnosed-to-diagnosed individuals with CD in the U.S. PMID:22169928

  7. Modelling total duration of traffic incidents including incident detection and recovery time.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil; Shobeirinejad, Ameneh

    2014-10-01

    Traffic incidents are key contributors to non-recurrent congestion, potentially generating significant delay. Factors that influence the duration of incidents are important to understand so that effective mitigation strategies can be implemented. To identify and quantify the effects of influential factors, a methodology for studying total incident duration based on historical data from an 'integrated database' is proposed. Incident duration models are developed using a selected freeway segment in the Southeast Queensland, Australia network. The models include incident detection and recovery time as components of incident duration. A hazard-based duration modelling approach is applied to model incident duration as a function of a variety of factors that influence traffic incident duration. Parametric accelerated failure time survival models are developed to capture heterogeneity as a function of explanatory variables, with both fixed and random parameters specifications. The analysis reveals that factors affecting incident duration include incident characteristics (severity, type, injury, medical requirements, etc.), infrastructure characteristics (roadway shoulder availability), time of day, and traffic characteristics. The results indicate that event type durations are uniquely different, thus requiring different responses to effectively clear them. Furthermore, the results highlight the presence of unobserved incident duration heterogeneity as captured by the random parameter models, suggesting that additional factors need to be considered in future modelling efforts.

  8. Fourth-year nursing student perceptions of incidents and incident reporting.

    PubMed

    Espin, Sherry; Meikle, Diane

    2014-04-01

    This study explored how fourth-year nursing students (n = 10) from one urban baccalaureate nursing program perceived incidents potentially harmful to patients, as well as incident reporting. Individual interviews were conducted. Five scenarios were presented in the interviews, with each scenario portraying a situation that varied in terms of the severity of potential for patient harm and the clinical team members involved. Participants' responses were analyzed using a descriptive thematic approach. Of the 50 events (10 participants × 5 scenarios), participants identified 37 events as incidents. Three themes emerged regarding how participants identified an incident: scope of practice, professional roles, and harm to the patient. Regarding 48 of the 50 events, participants said they would report these incidents either informally or formally. Findings from this study suggest a need for nursing education regarding what constitutes an incident, as well as how and when to report incidents.

  9. Global prevalence and incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anoushka; Tetreault, Lindsay; Kalsi-Ryan, Suhkvinder; Nouri, Aria; Fehlings, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic event that impacts a patient’s physical, psychological, and social well-being and places substantial financial burden on health care systems. To determine the true impact of SCI, this systematic review aims to summarize literature reporting on either the incidence or prevalence of SCI. Methods A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant literature published through June 2013. We sought studies that provided regional, provincial/state, or national data on the incidence of SCI or reported estimates of disease prevalence. The level of evidence of each study was rated using a scale that evaluated study design, methodology, sampling bias, and precision of estimates. Results The initial search yielded 5,874 articles, 48 of which met the inclusion criteria. Forty-four studies estimated the incidence of SCI and nine reported the prevalence, with five discussing both. Of the incidence studies, 14 provided figures at a regional, ten at a state or provincial level and 21 at a national level. The prevalence of SCI was highest in the United States of America (906 per million) and lowest in the Rhone-Alpes region, France (250 per million) and Helsinki, Finland (280 per million). With respect to states and provinces in North America, the crude annual incidence of SCI was highest in Alaska (83 per million) and Mississippi (77 per million) and lowest in Alabama (29.4 per million), despite a large percentage of violence injuries (21.2%). Annual incidences were above 50 per million in the Hualien County in Taiwan (56.1 per million), the central Portugal region (58 per million), and Olmsted County in Minnesota (54.8 per million) and were lower than 20 per million in Taipei, Taiwan (14.6 per million), the Rhone-Alpes region in France (12.7 per million), Aragon, Spain (12.1 per million

  10. [Spatial distribution of accidents, incidents and diseases related to work in Peru, 2012-2014].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Díaz-Seijas, Deysi; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Santero, Marilina

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed geospatially accidents, incidents and diseases related to work of regional reports in Peru (2012-2014). The 52887 events were classified as work related accidents (93%), dangerous incidents (5.1%), occupational diseases (1%) and fatal accidents (0.9%). The highest rates of fatal accidents were reported in Pasco, Callao, Lima, Moquegua and Arequipa. Callao and Lima are the regions with the highest rates of occupational accidents. The highest rates of dangerous incidents were reported in Arequipa, Callao, Lima, Ica and Piura. Occupational diseases are distributed with high rates in Huancavelica, Ancash, Pasco, Callao and Cusco. The economic activities that reported most of the occupational diseases were mining and quarrying (49.2%); followed by manufacturing industry (23.4%); and construction (8%). It is concluded that there are high rates and common spatial patterns of laboral accidents in Peru that could be used by decision makers to focus interventions.

  11. SEX WORK AND HIV INCIDENCE AMONG PEOPLE WHO INJECT DRUGS

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Thomas; Shannon, Kate; Ti, Lianping; Strathdee, Steffanie; Hayashi, Kanna; Nguyen, Paul; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although the global burden of HIV infection among sex workers (SW) has been well recognized, HIV-related risks among sex workers who inject drugs (SW-IDU) have received less attention. We investigated the relationship between sex work and HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (IDU) in a Canadian setting. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Using Kaplan–Meier methods and the extended Cox regression, we compared HIV incidence among SW-IDU and non-SW-IDU in Vancouver, Canada, after adjusting for potential confounders. Results Between 1996 and 2012, 1647 participants were included in the study, including 512 (31.1%) IDU engaged in sex work. At 5 years the HIV cumulative incidence was higher among SW-IDU in comparison to other IDU (12 vs. 7%, P = 0.001). In unadjusted Cox regression analyses, HIV incidence among SW-IDU was also elevated [relative hazard: 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13–2.53]. However, in a multivariable analysis, sex work did not remain associated with HIV infection (adjusted relative hazard: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.45–1.20), with cocaine injection appearing to account for the elevated risk for HIV infection among SW-IDU. Conclusion These data suggest that local SW-IDU have elevated rates of HIV infection. However, our exploration of risk factors among SW-IDU demonstrated that drug use patterns and environmental factors, rather than sexual risks, may explain the elevated HIV incidence among SW-IDU locally. Our findings highlight the need for social and structural interventions, including increased access to harm reduction programs and addiction treatment. PMID:26558725

  12. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Portugal: trends, projections and regional differences.

    PubMed

    Pina, Francisco; Castro, Clara; Ferro, Ana; Bento, Maria J; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-08-01

    There is a large geographical variability in prostate cancer incidence and mortality trends, mostly because of heterogeneity in control efforts across regions. We aimed to describe the time trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Portugal, overall and by region, and to estimate the number of incident cases and deaths in 2020. The number of cases and incidence rates in 1998-2009 were collected from the Regional Cancer Registries. The number of deaths and mortality rates were obtained from the WHO mortality database (1988-2003 and 2007-2013) and Statistics Portugal (2004-2006; 1991-2013 by region). JoinPoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates. Incidence and mortality predictions for 2020 were performed using Poisson regression models and population projections provided by Statistics Portugal. In Portugal, prostate cancer incidence has been increasing since 1998 (1.8%/year), with the exception of the North Region, with a decrease since 2006 (-3.2%/year). An overall mortality decline has been observed since 1997 (-2.2%/year), although there were two patterns of mortality variation at the regional level: one with an inflection point or significant variation in the rates and the other without significant variation. If these trends are maintained, ∼8600 incident cases and 1700 deaths may be expected to occur in Portugal in 2020. Despite the overall increasing incidence and decreasing mortality, there is a large heterogeneity across regions. Future studies should address regional differences in the trends of prostate specific antigen screening and in the effective management of prostate cancer.

  13. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment.

  14. Antidepressant-induced hyperprolactinaemia: incidence, mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Coker, Flora; Taylor, David

    2010-07-01

    Prolactin, a polypeptide hormone, is responsible, amongst other things, for milk production during lactation and breast enlargement during pregnancy. Numerous drugs can affect prolactin levels. Most commonly, conventional antipsychotics are associated with hyperprolactinaemia but there have also been reports of antidepressants causing hyperprolactinaemia. This review sets out to establish the incidence of antidepressant-induced hyperprolactinaemia, its possible mechanism and to determine appropriate remedial actions. Nearly all antidepressants are reported to be associated with hyperprolactinaemia. Incidence rates were not clearly established and symptoms were very rare. The mechanism by which antidepressants may cause hyperprolactinaemia is not fully understood, though several theories have been postulated, such as serotonin stimulation of GABAergic neurons and indirect modulation of prolactin release by serotonin. Patients taking antidepressants presenting to their clinician with symptoms potentially related to hyperprolactinaemia, such as galactorrhoea, should have their plasma prolactin level measured and their antidepressant changed if an increased prolactin level is confirmed. Routine monitoring of prolactin levels is otherwise not appropriate.

  15. Cancer incidence and mortality in Shandong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhentao; Lu, Zilong; Li, Yingmei; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Gaohui; Chen, Xianxian; Chu, Jie; Ren, Jie; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries in Shandong province were collected by Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SDCDC). SDCDC estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Shandong province with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 21 cancer registries submitted data of cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 15 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as provincial estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+ years) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 15 cancer registries (4 urban and 11 rural registries) covered 17,189,988 populations (7,486,039 in urban and 9,703,949 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 66.12% and 2.93%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.60. A total of 253,060 new cancer cases and 157,750 cancer deaths were estimated in Shandong province in 2012. The incidence rate was 263.86/100,000 (303.29/100,000 in males, 223.23/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 192.42/100,000 and 189.50/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0.74 years old) of 22.07%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 267.64/100,000, 195.27/100,000 and 192.02/100,000 compared to 262.32/100,000, 191.26/100,000 and 188.48/100,000 in

  16. Prevention of future incidents and investigational lines

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Miguel J.; Zapatero, José; López, Mario

    2011-01-01

    All radiation devices in use nowadays are subject to cause serious incidents and accidents, with potential risks in exposed population groups. These risks may have immediate or long term health implications. The detection of radioactive incidents is a procedure that should be systematized in economically developed societies. International organizations may provide support to other states in the event of a radioactive incident. Prevention, mitigation and treatment of the radiation effects are done by anticipating the moment of exposure and by establishing new efforts for investigation of radioprotective products. In this article we will analyze the causes of radiological incidents, the means to detect them, and the current preventive and therapeutic procedures available, with special emphasis on new biodosimetry methods for triage and investigational radioprotective drugs. Finally, we will explore the most efficient measures, for future prevention. PMID:24376973

  17. Risk-based Classification of Incidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Strunk, Elisabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    As the penetration of software into safety-critical systems progresses, accidents and incidents involving software will inevitably become more frequent. Identifying lessons from these occurrences and applying them to existing and future systems is essential if recurrences are to be prevented. Unfortunately, investigative agencies do not have the resources to fully investigate every incident under their jurisdictions and domains of expertise and thus must prioritize certain occurrences when allocating investigative resources. In the aviation community, most investigative agencies prioritize occurrences based on the severity of their associated losses, allocating more resources to accidents resulting in injury to passengers or extensive aircraft damage. We argue that this scheme is inappropriate because it undervalues incidents whose recurrence could have a high potential for loss while overvaluing fairly straightforward accidents involving accepted risks. We then suggest a new strategy for prioritizing occurrences based on the risk arising from incident recurrence.

  18. 40 CFR 68.81 - Incident investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... investigation team shall be established and consist of at least one person knowledgeable in the process involved, including a contract employee if the incident involved work of the contractor, and other persons...

  19. Using Incidence Sampling to Estimate Covariances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Thomas R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the generalized symmetric means approach to the estimation of population covariances, complete with derivations and examples. Particular attention is paid to the problem of missing data, which is handled very naturally in the incidence sampling framework. (CTM)

  20. Pregnancy-Onset Panic Disorder: Incidence, Comorbidity and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    GÜLER, Özkan; KAYA, Veli; GEZGİNÇ, Kazım; KAYHAN, Fatih; ÇİÇEK, Erdinç; SÖNMEZ, Önder; UĞUZ, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to investigate the incidence rate of pregnancy-onset panic disorder (POPD) among Turkish pregnant women using a diagnostic interview. Additionally, we examined whether the independent socio-demographic or clinical risk factors were associated with the risk of panic disorder in these women. Methods The study sample comprised 1475 consecutive pregnant women who presented to the obstetric outpatient clinics of two research centers. The rate of POPD in these participants was 1.3% (Group 1, n=20). The 20 women with POPD were compared with 250 pregnant women without pregnancy-onset depression or anxiety (Group 2; controls). Panic disorder and other anxiety or mood disorders were determined by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Comorbid Axis II disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders. Results The incidence rate of panic disorder was 1.3% (n=20). In group 1, 55% (n=11) of the women with POPD had an additional mood or anxiety disorder. In addition, the prevalence rate of any cluster C personality disorder, including avoidant, passive-aggressive and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, were significantly greater in the group 1 women with POPD than the control pregnant women without a panic disorder (group 2). Conclusion The women with POPD were more likely than the controls to have a cluster C Axis II disorder and a history of a pre-existing anxiety or mood disorder.

  1. Properties And Performance Of Grazing Incidence Reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspnes, D. E.; Kelso, S. M.

    We numerically analyze at near-grazing incidence various configurations containing elliptical, toroidal, and the recently proposed common-axis rotationally symmetric anamorphic (CARSA) elements to determine the type and importance of aberrations inherent in each. CARS pairs of elliptical mirrors are shown to have negligible focusing errors for typical synchrotron source dimensions, and therefore comprise useful building blocks from which to construct grazing-incidence optical systems. To minimize aberrations, cylindrical, spherical, or toroidal elements should be avoided.

  2. Properties and performance of grazing incidence reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspnes, D. E.; Kelso, S. M.

    1982-05-01

    Various configurations containing elliptical, toroidal, and the recently proposed common-axis rotationally symmetric anamorphic (CARSA) elements are numerically analyzed at near-grazing incidence, to determine the type and importance of aberrations inherent in each. CARS pairs of elliptical mirrors are shown to have negligible focusing errors for typical synchrotron source dimensions, and therefore comprise useful building blocks from which to construct grazing-incidence optical systems. To minimize aberrations, cylindrical, spherical, or toroidal elements should be avoided.

  3. Solar Cell Angle of Incidence Corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Dale R.; Mueller, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission has three different solar arrays each of which sees changes in incidence angle during normal operation. When solar array angle of incidence effects was researched little published data was found. The small amount of-published data created a need to obtain and evaluate such data. The donation of the needed data, which was taken in the fall of 1994, was a major factor in the preparation of this paper.

  4. Estimating Insolation Incident on Tilted Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkin, R. E.; Toelle, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    ASHMET computer program estimates amount of solar insolation incident on surfaces of several types of solar collectors, including fixed-position flat-plate, monthly-tilt-adjusted flat-plat, beam-tracting, and fixed-azimuthtracker. Basic methodology employed in ASHMET is to use ASHRAE relationships to obtain clear-day total daily insolation incident on collector surface of representative day of each month of year. ASHMET is interactive program and prompts user for all required data.

  5. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  6. Establishing and operating an incident response team

    SciTech Connect

    Padgett, K.M.

    1992-09-01

    Occurrences of improprieties dealing with computer usage are on the increase. They range all the way from misuse by employees to international computer telecommunications hacking. In addition, natural disasters and other disasters such as catastrophic fires may also fall into the same category. These incidents, like any other breach of acceptable behavior, may or may not involve actual law breaking. A computer incident response team should be created as a first priority. This report discusses the establishment and operation of a response team.

  7. Increased incidence of adult pneumococcal pneumonia during school holiday periods

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Chamira; Bewick, Thomas; Sheppard, Carmen; Greenwood, Sonia; McKeever, Tricia M.; Slack, Mary; Lim, Wei Shen

    2017-01-01

    Child contact is a recognised risk factor for adult pneumococcal disease. Peaks in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence observed during winter holidays may be related to changes in social dynamics. This analysis was conducted to examine adult pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) incidence during school holiday periods. Between September 2008 and 2013, consecutive adults admitted to hospitals covering the Greater Nottingham area with a diagnosis of CAP were studied. Pneumococcal pneumonia was detected using culture and antigen detection methods. Of 2221 adults studied, 575 (25.9%) were admitted during school holidays and 643 (29.0%) had pneumococcal CAP. CAP of pneumococcal aetiology was significantly more likely in adults admitted during school holidays compared to term time (35.3% versus 26.7%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11–1.72, p=0.004). Over the 5-year period, the age-adjusted incidence of hospitalised pneumococcal CAP was higher during school holidays compared to term time (incident rate ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.14–1.60, p<0.001); there was no difference in rates of all-cause CAP or non-pneumococcal CAP. Reported child contact was higher in individuals with pneumococcal CAP admitted during school holidays compared to term time (42.0% versus 33.7%, OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.00–2.03, p=0.046). Further study of transmission dynamics in relation to these findings and to identify appropriate intervention strategies is warranted. PMID:28326311

  8. Incidence and relative risk of hearing disorders in professional musicians

    PubMed Central

    Schink, Tania; Kreutz, Gunter; Busch, Veronika; Pigeot, Iris; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background Hearing disorders have been associated with occupational exposure to music. Musicians may benefit from non-amplified and low-intensity music, but may also have high risks of music-induced hearing loss. Aims To compare the incidence of hearing loss (HL) and its subentities in professional musicians with that in the general population. Methods We performed a historical cohort study among insurants between 19 and 66 years who were employed subject to social insurance contributions. The study was conducted with data from three German statutory health insurance providers covering the years 2004–2008 with about 7 million insurants. Incidence rates with 95% CIs of HL and the subentities noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), conductive HL, sensorineural HL, conductive and sensorineural HL, as well as tinnitus were estimated stratified by age, sex and federal state. A Cox regression analysis was conducted to estimate adjusted HRs and two-sided 95% CIs for HL and its subentities. Results More than 3 million insurants were eligible, of whom 2227 were identified as professional musicians (0.07%). During the 4-year observation period, 283 697cases of HL were seen, 238 of them among professional musicians (0.08%), leading to an unadjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.27. The adjusted hazard ratio of musicians was 1.45 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.65) for HL and 3.61 (95% CI 1.81 to 7.20) for NIHL. Conclusions Professional musicians have a high risk of contracting hearing disorders. Use of already available prevention measures should reduce the incidence of HL in professional musicians. PMID:24790053

  9. Incidence of cancer in Nairobi, Kenya (2004-2008).

    PubMed

    Korir, Anne; Okerosi, Nathan; Ronoh, Victor; Mutuma, Geoffrey; Parkin, Max

    2015-11-01

    Cancer incidence rates are presented for the Nairobi Cancer Registry, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR) covering the population of the capital city of Kenya (3.2 million inhabitants in 2009). Case finding was by active methods, with standard and checks for accuracy and validity. During the period 2004-2008 a total of 8,982 cases were registered comprising 3,889 men (an age standardized incidence rate (ASR) of 161 per 100,000) and 5,093 women (ASR 231 per 1,00,000). Prostate cancer was the most common cancer in men (ASR 40.6 per 100,000) while breast cancer was the most common among women (ASR 51.7 per 100,000). Cervical cancer ranked the second most common cancer among women in Nairobi with an ASR of 46.1 per 100,000, somewhat lower than those of other registries in East Africa region. Breast and cervical cancers accounted for 44% of all cancers in women. Cancer of the oesophagus was common in both sexes, with a slight excess of cases in men (sex ratio 1.3). Unlike other regions in East Africa, the rate of Kaposi sarcoma was relatively low during the period (men 3.6/100,000; women 2.0/100,000). Although incidence rates cannot be calculated for the early years of the registry, the increase in relative frequency of prostate cancer and declines in frequency of Kaposi sarcoma may indicate underlying trends in the risk of these cancers.

  10. Incidence and prognosis of tuberculosis in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. A Danish nationwide population based study.

    PubMed Central

    Thulstrup, A. M.; Mølle, I.; Svendsen, N.; Sørensen, H. T.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the incidence rate and prognosis of tuberculosis in a cohort of patients with liver cirrhosis in Denmark. In a study cohort of 22675 patients with liver cirrhosis, we identified 151 cases of tuberculosis from 1977 to 1993. The incidence rate was 168.6 per 100000 person-years of risk, and the highest incidence rate was among men above 65 years of age, with an incidence rate of 246.0 per 100000 person-years of risk. The 30-day case-fatality rate was 27.3% and the 1-year case fatality rate was 47.7%. The results demonstrate that patients with liver cirrhosis are at increased risk of tuberculosis. Additionally, it is suggested that liver cirrhosis is an independent risk factor for tuberculosis, and that patients with liver cirrhosis who acquire tuberculosis have a poor prognosis. PMID:10813146

  11. Cancer incidence in the Middle Eastern population of California, 1988-2004.

    PubMed

    Nasseri, Kiumarss; Mills, Paul K; Allan, Mark

    2007-01-01

    International statistics suggest lower cancer inciden