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Sample records for age-standardized relative survival

  1. AgeStandardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Daoprasert, Karnchana; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Katruang, Narisara; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15year period studied. PMID:27509991

  2. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a)...

  3. A first look at relative survival by stage for colorectal and lung cancers in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chadder, J.; Dewar, R.; Shack, L.; Nishri, D.; Niu, J.; Lockwood, G.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and reporting on cancer survival provides a mechanism for understanding the effectiveness of Canada’s cancer care system. Although 5-year relative survival for colorectal cancer and lung cancer has been previously reported, only recently has pan-Canadian relative survival by stage been analyzed using comprehensive registry data. This article presents a first look at 2-year relative survival by stage for colorectal and lung cancer across 9 provinces. As expected, 2-year age-standardized relative survival ratios (arsrs) for colorectal cancer and lung cancer were higher when the cancer was diagnosed at an earlier stage. The arsrs for stage i colorectal cancer ranged from 92.2% in Nova Scotia [95% confidence interval (ci): 88.6% to 95.1%] to 98.4% in British Columbia (95% ci: 96.2% to 99.3%); for stage iv, they ranged from 24.3% in Prince Edward Island (95% ci: 15.2% to 34.4%) to 38.8% in New Brunswick (95% ci: 33.3% to 44.2%). The arsrs for stage i lung cancer ranged from 66.5% in Prince Edward Island (95% ci: 54.5% to 76.5%) to 84.8% in Ontario (95% ci: 83.5% to 86.0%). By contrast, arsrs for stage iv lung cancer ranged from 7.6% in Manitoba (95% ci: 5.8% to 9.7%) to 13.2% in British Columbia (95% ci: 11.8% to 14.6%). The available stage data are too recent to allow for meaningful comparisons between provinces, but over time, analyzing relative survival by stage can provide further insight into the known differences in 5-year relative survival. As the data mature, they will enable an assessment of the extent to which interprovincial differences in relative survival are influenced by differences in stage distribution or treatment effectiveness (or both), permitting targeted measures to improve population health outcomes to be implemented. PMID:27122976

  4. A first look at relative survival by stage for colorectal and lung cancers in Canada.

    PubMed

    Chadder, J; Dewar, R; Shack, L; Nishri, D; Niu, J; Lockwood, G

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring and reporting on cancer survival provides a mechanism for understanding the effectiveness of Canada's cancer care system. Although 5-year relative survival for colorectal cancer and lung cancer has been previously reported, only recently has pan-Canadian relative survival by stage been analyzed using comprehensive registry data. This article presents a first look at 2-year relative survival by stage for colorectal and lung cancer across 9 provinces. As expected, 2-year age-standardized relative survival ratios (arsrs) for colorectal cancer and lung cancer were higher when the cancer was diagnosed at an earlier stage. The arsrs for stage i colorectal cancer ranged from 92.2% in Nova Scotia [95% confidence interval (ci): 88.6% to 95.1%] to 98.4% in British Columbia (95% ci: 96.2% to 99.3%); for stage iv, they ranged from 24.3% in Prince Edward Island (95% ci: 15.2% to 34.4%) to 38.8% in New Brunswick (95% ci: 33.3% to 44.2%). The arsrs for stage i lung cancer ranged from 66.5% in Prince Edward Island (95% ci: 54.5% to 76.5%) to 84.8% in Ontario (95% ci: 83.5% to 86.0%). By contrast, arsrs for stage iv lung cancer ranged from 7.6% in Manitoba (95% ci: 5.8% to 9.7%) to 13.2% in British Columbia (95% ci: 11.8% to 14.6%). The available stage data are too recent to allow for meaningful comparisons between provinces, but over time, analyzing relative survival by stage can provide further insight into the known differences in 5-year relative survival. As the data mature, they will enable an assessment of the extent to which interprovincial differences in relative survival are influenced by differences in stage distribution or treatment effectiveness (or both), permitting targeted measures to improve population health outcomes to be implemented. PMID:27122976

  5. 20 CFR 234.44 - Payment to surviving relatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... designated beneficiary, the RLS is payable to surviving relatives of the employee in the following order of... equal share of the RLS. If an entitled relative of the employee dies before negotiating the RLS...

  6. 20 CFR 234.44 - Payment to surviving relatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... designated beneficiary, the RLS is payable to surviving relatives of the employee in the following order of... equal share of the RLS. If an entitled relative of the employee dies before negotiating the RLS...

  7. 20 CFR 234.44 - Payment to surviving relatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... designated beneficiary, the RLS is payable to surviving relatives of the employee in the following order of... equal share of the RLS. If an entitled relative of the employee dies before negotiating the RLS...

  8. 20 CFR 234.44 - Payment to surviving relatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... designated beneficiary, the RLS is payable to surviving relatives of the employee in the following order of... equal share of the RLS. If an entitled relative of the employee dies before negotiating the RLS...

  9. 20 CFR 234.44 - Payment to surviving relatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... designated beneficiary, the RLS is payable to surviving relatives of the employee in the following order of... equal share of the RLS. If an entitled relative of the employee dies before negotiating the RLS...

  10. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  11. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year... deemed hazardous for the employment of individuals under 18 years of age. All work in fire protection and... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601...

  12. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  13. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  14. 29 CFR 570.2 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minimum age standards. 570.2 Section 570.2 Labor... REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General § 570.2 Minimum age standards. (a) All occupations except in agriculture. (1) The Act, in section 3(1), sets a general 16-year minimum age...

  15. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year... deemed hazardous for the employment of individuals under 18 years of age. All work in fire protection and... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601...

  16. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year... deemed hazardous for the employment of individuals under 18 years of age. All work in fire protection and... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum age standards. 551.601...

  17. Poor survival of treatment-related acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Neugut, A.I. Nieves, J.; Murray, T.; Tsai, Weiyann ); Robinson, E. )

    1990-08-29

    Population-based data on more than 1 million patients registered in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Program of the National Cancer Institute, 1973-1984, were analyzed to determine the survival of patients with de novo acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) and following a first primary tumor treated (with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy) or untreated. Cases that occurred within 12 months of the first malignant neoplasm were excluded. Survival was estimated using Cox proportional-hazards modeling, with age, sex, and specific type of ANLL as covariates. The 6,271 patients with de novo ANLL had an estimated 12-month survival of 30%, while the 107 patients with treatment-related ANLL had an estimated 12-month survival of 10%. The authors conclude that ANLL that occurs after chemotherapy or radiation therapy is biologically more aggressive and/or resistant to therapy than spontaneous ANLL. This provides a rationale for current studies on treatment-induced cellular changes and on more aggressive therapy for these patients.

  18. Relative survival rates after alternative therapies for uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Seddon, J.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Egan, K.M.; Glynn, R.J.; Howard, S.; Fante, R.G.; Albert, D.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Survival in a group of 556 patients with uveal melanoma treated by proton beam irradiation with a median follow-up of 5.3 years was compared with that of 238 patients enucleated during the same 10-year period as irradiated patients (July 1975 to December 1984) with a median follow-up of 8.8 years, and 257 patients enucleated during the preceding 10 years (January 1965 to June 1975) with a median follow-up of 17.0 years. Adjustments were made for known prognostic factors including age, tumor location, tumor height, and clinical estimate of tumor diameter (for enucleated patients this was estimated in a regression equation relating histologic to clinical measurement). The overall rate ratio for all cause mortality was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.6) for the concurrent enucleation series versus proton beam, and 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.1) for the earlier enucleation series versus proton beam. Relative rates of metastatic death, cancer death, and all cause mortality comparing alternative treatments were found to vary with time after treatment. Interval-specific rate ratios were evaluated using proportional hazards models fitted to separate time intervals after treatment. For all three outcomes, rate ratios were over two and statistically significant for the first 2 years after treatment and closer to one and nonsignificant after year 6 comparing the two enucleation groups with proton beam. Results suggest that treatment choice has little overall influence on survival in patients with uveal melanoma.

  19. Model based period analysis of absolute and relative survival with R: data preparation, model fitting and derivation of survival estimates.

    PubMed

    Holleczek, Bernd; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-05-01

    Period analysis is increasingly employed in analyses of long-term survival of patients with chronic diseases such as cancer, as it derives more up-to-date survival estimates than traditional cohort based approaches. It has recently been extended with regression modelling using generalized linear models, which increases the precision of the survival estimates and enables to assess and account for effects of additional covariates. This paper provides a detailed presentation how model based period analysis may be used to derive population-based absolute and relative survival estimates using the freely available R language and statistical environment and already available R programs for period analysis. After an introduction of the underlying regression model and a description of the software tools we provide a step-by-step implementation of two regression models in R and illustrate how estimates and a test for trend over time in relative survival may be derived using data from a population based cancer registry. PMID:23116692

  20. Survival and growth of Salmonella in salsa and related ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Guodong; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Tauxe, Robert V; Doyle, Michael P

    2010-03-01

    A large outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul associated with raw jalapeño peppers, serrano peppers, and possibly tomatoes was reported in the United States in 2008. During the outbreak, two clusters of illness investigated among restaurant patrons were significantly associated with eating salsa. Experiments were performed to determine the survival and growth characteristics of Salmonella in salsa and related major ingredients, i.e., tomatoes, jalapeño peppers, and cilantro. Intact and chopped vegetables and different formulations of salsas were inoculated with a five-strain mixture of Salmonella and then stored at 4, 12, and 21 degrees C for up to 7 days. Salmonella populations were monitored during storage. Salmonella did not grow, but survived on intact tomatoes and jalapeño peppers, whereas significant growth at 12 and 21 degrees C was observed on intact cilantro. In general, growth of Salmonella occurred in all chopped vegetables when stored at 12 and 21 degrees C, with chopped jalapeño peppers being the most supportive of Salmonella growth. Regardless of differences in salsa formulation, no growth of Salmonella (initial inoculation ca. 3 log CFU/g) was observed in salsa held at 4 degrees C; however, rapid or gradual decreases in Salmonella populations were only observed in formulations that contained both fresh garlic and lime juice. Salmonella grew at 12 and 21 degrees C in salsas, except for those formulations that contained both fresh garlic and lime juice, in which salmonellae were rapidly or gradually inactivated, depending on salsa formulation. These results highlight the importance of preharvest pathogen contamination control of fresh produce and proper formulation and storage of salsa. PMID:20202327

  1. Transcriptional modules related to hepatocellular carcinoma survival: coexpression network analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinsen; Zhou, Yanyan; Miao, Runchen; Chen, Wei; Qu, Kai; Pang, Qing; Liu, Chang

    2016-06-01

    We performed weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to gain insights into the molecular aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Raw microarray datasets (including 488 samples) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) website. Data were normalized using the RMA algorithm. We utilized the WGCNA to identify the coexpressed genes (modules) after non-specific filtering. Correlation and survival analyses were conducted using the modules, and gene ontology (GO) enrichment was applied to explore the possible mechanisms. Eight distinct modules were identified by the WGCNA. Pink and red modules were associated with liver function, whereas turquoise and black modules were inversely correlated with tumor staging. Poor outcomes were found in the low expression group in the turquoise module and in the high expression group in the red module. In addition, GO enrichment analysis suggested that inflammation, immune, virus-related, and interferon-mediated pathways were enriched in the turquoise module. Several potential biomarkers, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), topoisomerase 2α (TOP2A), and serpin peptidase inhibitor clade C (antithrombin) member 1 (SERPINC1), were also identified. In conclusion, gene signatures identified from the genome-based assays could contribute to HCC stratification. WGCNA was able to identify significant groups of genes associated with cancer prognosis. PMID:27052251

  2. Improved survival in limited scleroderma-related pulmonary artery hypertension.

    PubMed

    Marini, Carlo; Formichi, Bruno; Bauleo, Carolina; Michelassi, Claudio; Pancani, Roberta; Prediletto, Renato; Miniati, Massimo; Catapano, Giosuè; Monti, Simonetta; Mannucci, Francesca; Tavoni, Antonio; D'Ascanio, Anna; Pastormerlo, Luigi Emilio; Giannoni, Alberto; Giuntini, Carlo

    2014-06-01

    Reportedly, patients with scleroderma-related pulmonary hypertension (SSc-PAH) respond poorly to new vasoactive drugs (NVD). Forty-nine SSc-PAH patients underwent right heart catheterization (RHC) and, according to NVD availability, divided as follows: Group 1 (n = 23, from 1999 to 2004, poor availability), and Group 2 (n = 26, from 2005 to 2010, good availability). Before diagnostic RHC, NVD had been given to 30 % of the patients in Group 1, and 58 % of those in Group 2 (p = 0.049). At diagnosis, patients in Group 1 had greater heart dilatation (p < 0.01), higher mean pulmonary artery pressure (p < 0.05), lower pulmonary artery capacitance (p < 0.05), and lower carbon monoxide lung diffusing capacity (DLco, p < 0.05) than those in Group 2. At a median follow-up time of 15.5 months, DLco further decreased in Group 1 (p < 0.05), whereas cardiac index increased in Group 2 (p < 0.05). At 36 months of follow-up, 72.4 % of the patients in Group 2 were still alive as opposed to 30.4 % in Group 1 (p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, DLco and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) were independent predictors of survival. A value of DLco <7.2 mL/mmHg/min was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 5.3 (p < 0.001); for SvO2 <63.8 %, the HR was 3.7 (p < 0.01).NVD have beneficial effects in patients with SSc-PAH. Both DLco and SvO2 are predictors of survival and may assist in planning treatment. PMID:23361526

  3. Standard errors of non-standardised and age-standardised relative survival of cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, L; Hakulinen, T; Brenner, H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Relative survival estimates cancer survival in the absence of other causes of death. Previous work has shown that standard errors of non-standardised relative survival may be substantially overestimated by the conventionally used method. However, evidence was restricted to non-standardised relative survival estimates using Hakulinen's method. Here, we provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the accuracy of standard errors including age-standardised survival and estimation by the Ederer II method. Methods: Five- and ten-year non-standardised and age-standardised relative survival was estimated for patients diagnosed with 25 common forms of cancer in Finland in 1989–1993, using data from the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry. Standard errors of mutually comparable non-standardised and age-standardised relative survival were computed by the conventionally used method and compared with bootstrap standard errors. Results: When using Hakulinen's method, standard errors of non-standardised relative survival were overestimated by up to 28%. In contrast, standard errors of age-standardised relative survival were accurately estimated. When using the Ederer II method, deviations of the standard errors of non-standardised and age-standardised relative survival were generally small to negligible. Conclusion: In most cases, overestimations of standard errors are effectively overcome by age standardisation and by using Ederer II rather than Hakulinen's method. PMID:22173672

  4. Personality drives physiological adjustments and is not related to survival

    PubMed Central

    Bijleveld, Allert I.; Massourakis, Georgina; van der Marel, Annemarie; Dekinga, Anne; Spaans, Bernard; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary function and maintenance of variation in animal personality is still under debate. Variation in the size of metabolic organs has recently been suggested to cause and maintain variation in personality. Here, we examine two main underlying notions: (i) that organ sizes vary consistently between individuals and cause consistent behavioural patterns, and (ii) that a more exploratory personality is associated with reduced survival. Exploratory behaviour of captive red knots (Calidris canutus, a migrant shorebird) was negatively rather than positively correlated with digestive organ (gizzard) mass, as well as with body mass. In an experiment, we reciprocally reduced and increased individual gizzard masses and found that exploration scores were unaffected. Whether or not these birds were resighted locally over the 19 months after release was negatively correlated with their exploration scores. Moreover, a long-term mark–recapture effort on free-living red knots with known gizzard masses at capture confirmed that local resighting probability (an inverse measure of exploratory behaviour) was correlated with gizzard mass without detrimental effects on survival. We conclude that personality drives physiological adjustments, rather than the other way around, and suggest that physiological adjustments mitigate the survival costs of exploratory behaviour. Our results show that we need to reconsider hypotheses explaining personality variation based on organ sizes and differential survival. PMID:24671971

  5. Contrasting extremes in water-related stresses determine species survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, R. P.; Witte, J. P. M.; van Bodegom, P. M.; van Dam, J. C.; Aerts, R.

    2012-04-01

    In temperate climates, soil moisture, in concert with nutrient availability and soil acidity, is the most important environmental filter in determining local plant species composition, as it determines the availability of both oxygen and water to plant roots. These resources are indispensable for meeting the physiological demands of plants. Especially the occurrence of both excessive dry and wet moisture conditions at a particular site has strong implications for the survival of species, because plants need traits that allow them to respond to such counteracting conditions. However, adapting to one stress may go at the cost of the other, i.e. there exists a trade-off in the tolerance for wet conditions and the tolerance for dry conditions. Until now, both large-scale (global) and plot-scale effects of soil moisture conditions on plant species composition have mostly been investigated through indirect environmental measures, which do not include the key soil physical and plant physiological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Moreover, researchers only determined effects of one of the water-related stresses, i.e. either oxygen or drought stress. In order to quantify both oxygen and drought stress with causal measures, we focused on interacting meteorological, soil physical, microbial, and plant physiological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. We simulated these plant stresses with a novel, process-based approach, incorporating in detail the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. High variability and extremes in resource availability can be highly detrimental to plant species ('you can only die once'). We show that co-occurrence of oxygen and drought stress reduces the percentage of specialists within a vegetation plot. The percentage of non-specialists within a vegetation plot, however, decreases significantly with increasing stress as long as only one of the stresses prevails, but increases significantly with an

  6. Precision and accuracy of decay constants and age standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, I. M.

    2011-12-01

    40 years of round-robin experiments with age standards teach us that systematic errors must be present in at least N-1 labs if participants provide N mutually incompatible data. In EarthTime, the U-Pb community has produced and distributed synthetic solutions with full metrological traceability. Collector linearity is routinely calibrated under variable conditions (e.g. [1]). Instrumental mass fractionation is measured in-run with double spikes (e.g. 233U-236U). Parent-daughter ratios are metrologically traceable, so the full uncertainty budget of a U-Pb age should coincide with interlaboratory uncertainty. TIMS round-robin experiments indeed show a decrease of N towards the ideal value of 1. Comparing 235U-207Pb with 238U-206Pb ages (e.g. [2]) has resulted in a credible re-evaluation of the 235U decay constant, with lower uncertainty than gamma counting. U-Pb microbeam techniques reveal the link petrology-microtextures-microchemistry-isotope record but do not achieve the low uncertainty of TIMS. In the K-Ar community, N is large; interlaboratory bias is > 10 times self-assessed uncertainty. Systematic errors may have analytical and petrological reasons. Metrological traceability is not yet implemented (substantial advance may come from work in progress, e.g. [7]). One of the worst problems is collector stability and linearity. Using electron multipliers (EM) instead of Faraday buckets (FB) reduces both dynamic range and collector linearity. Mass spectrometer backgrounds are never zero; the extent as well as the predictability of their variability must be propagated into the uncertainty evaluation. The high isotope ratio of the atmospheric Ar requires a large dynamic range over which linearity must be demonstrated under all analytical conditions to correctly estimate mass fractionation. The only assessment of EM linearity in Ar analyses [3] points out many fundamental problems; the onus of proof is on every laboratory claiming low uncertainties. Finally, sample

  7. Crisis Communication and Management: Surviving a Public Relations Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eramo, Eric M.

    2009-01-01

    Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis…

  8. General Theory of Relativity: Will It Survive the Next Decade?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge; Turyshev, Slava G.

    2006-01-01

    The nature of gravity is fundamental to our understanding of our own solar system, the galaxy and the structure and evolution of the Universe. Einstein's general theory of relativity is the standard model that is used for almost ninety years to describe gravitational phenomena on these various scales. We review the foundations of general relativity, discuss the recent progress in the tests of relativistic gravity, and present motivations for high-accuracy gravitational experiments in space. We also summarize the science objectives and technology needs for the laboratory experiments in space with laboratory being the entire solar system. We discuss the advances in our understanding of fundamental physics anticipated in the near future and evaluate discovery potential for the recently proposed gravitational experiments.

  9. Exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest in London: incidence, survival and bystander response

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Melanie J; Fothergill, Rachael T

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to (1) establish the incidence of exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in London, (2) investigate survival from exercise-related SCA and (3) examine factors related to survival. Method This retrospective observational study examined 2 years’ data from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) cardiac arrest registry for patients in whom resuscitation was attempted following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), a cardiac cause was presumed and the arrest occurred during or within 1 h of exercise. Results The incidence of exercise-related SCA in London was estimated to be 0.6 per 100 000 person-years which equated to 0.5% of all OHCA, and 1.5% of all OHCA with presumed cardiac aetiology and resuscitation attempted. The majority of cases were male and the incidence increased from age 40 years. Just under one-third of patients survived to hospital discharge. Survival in the Utstein comparator group (cases with presumed cardiac aetiology, resuscitation attempted, bystander witnessed and a presenting cardiac rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia) was higher at 42%. Survival was significantly associated with initial cardiac rhythm (χ2=17.5, df=2, p<0.001) and bystander defibrillation (Fisher's exact test, p<0.05). Conclusions Incidence of exercise-related SCA in the general population in London is rare. Survival following exercise-related SCA was considerably higher than survival for all OHCA with presumed cardiac aetiology and resuscitation attempted attended by the LAS during the same period. The major limitation of the study is the likely under identification of cases of exercise-related SCA. PMID:26468401

  10. Aerosol survival of Pasteurella tularensis and the influence of relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Cox, C S; Goldberg, L J

    1972-01-01

    The aerosol survival in air was determined for Pasteurella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) as a function of relative humidity (RH). Three different preparations of bacteria were used: (i) liquid suspension of P. tularensis LVS in spent culture medium; (ii) powders of P. tularensis LVS freeze-dried in spent culture fluid; (iii) P. tularensis LVS freeze-dried in spent culture fluid and then reconstituted with distilled water and disseminated as a liquid suspension. Preparation (i) gave greatest survival at high RH and lowest survival at intermediate RH. Preparation (ii), in contrast, gave greatest survival at low RH and minimum survival at 81% RH. Preparation (iii) was the same as preparation (i), i.e., the process of freeze-drying and reconstituting with distilled water before aerosol formation had little or no effect upon aerosol survival as a function of RH. Hence, control of aerosol survival appears to be through the water content of P. tularensis LVS at the moment of aerosol generation rather than the water content of the bacteria in the aerosol phase. PMID:4551041

  11. The Relation between Obesity and Survival after Surgical Resection of Hepatitis C Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Arimoto, Akira; Wakasa, Tomoko; Kita, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toru; Osaki, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims. We aimed to investigate the relationship between obesity and survival in hepatitis C virus-(HCV-) related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who underwent curative surgical resection (SR). Methods. A total of 233 patients with HCV-related HCC who underwent curative SR were included. They included 60 patients (25.8%) with a body mass index (BMI) of > 25 kg/m2 (obesity group) and 173 patients with a BMI of < 25 kg/m2 (control group). Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were compared. Results. The median follow-up periods were 3.6 years in the obesity group and 3.1 years in the control group. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative OS rates were 98.3%, 81.0%, and 63.9% in the obesity group and 90.0%, 70.5%, and 50.3% in the control group (P = 0.818). The corresponding RFS rates were 70.1%, 27.0%, and 12.0% in the obesity group and 70.1%, 39.0%, and 21.7% in the control group (P = 0.124). There were no significant differences between the obesity group and the control group in terms of blood loss during surgery (P = 0.899) and surgery-related serious adverse events (P = 0.813). Conclusions. Obesity itself did not affect survival in patients with HCV-related HCC after curative SR. PMID:23710167

  12. Survival potential of Phytophthora infestans sporangia in relation to meteorological factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of meteorological factors coupled with sporangia survival curves may enhance effective management of potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. We utilized a non-parametric density estimation approach to evaluate the cumulative probability of occurrence of temperature and relat...

  13. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Survival of Foodborne Viruses during Food Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Jin; Si, Jiyeon; Yun, Hyun Sun

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people suffer from foodborne diseases throughout the world every year, and the importance of food safety has grown worldwide in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and viral surrogates of human norovirus (HuNoV) (bacteriophage MS2 and murine norovirus [MNV]) in food over time. HAV, MNV, and MS2 were inoculated onto either the digestive gland of oysters or the surface of fresh peppers, and their survival on these food matrices was measured under various temperature (4°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 40°C) and relative humidity (RH) (50% and 70%) conditions. Inoculated viruses were recovered from food samples and quantified by a plaque assay at predetermined time points over 2 weeks (0, 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days). Virus survival was influenced primarily by temperature. On peppers at 40°C and at 50% RH, >4- and 6-log reductions of MNV and HAV, respectively, occurred within 1 day. All three viruses survived better on oysters. In addition, HAV survived better at 70% RH than at 50% RH. The survival data for HAV, MS2, and MNV were fit to three different mathematical models (linear, Weibull, and biphasic models). Among them, the biphasic model was optimum in terms of goodness of fit. The results of this study suggest that major foodborne viruses such as HAV and HuNoV can survive over prolonged periods of time with a limited reduction in numbers. Because a persistence of foodborne virus on contaminated foods was observed, precautionary preventive measures should be performed. PMID:25576612

  14. A Prospective Study of Survival After In-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and its Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Miranzadeh, Sedigheh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Hosseinpour, Nadimeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite several studies, there is no agreement on factors that affect survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the survival rate of in-hospital CPR and its related factors at Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan, Iran, in 2014. Patients and Methods A descriptive study was conducted on all cases of CPR performed in Kashan Shahid Beheshti hospital during a 6-month period in 2014. Through a consecutive sampling method, 250 cases of CPR were studied. A three-part researcher-made instrument was used. The outcome of CPR was documented as either survival to hospital discharge or unsuccessful (death of the patient). Chi-square test, t test, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results Of all CPR cases, 238 (95.2%) were unsuccessful and 12 (4.8%) survived to hospital discharge. Only 2.6% of patients who were resuscitated in medical units survived to hospital discharge, whereas this rate was 11.4% in the emergency department. Only 45 (18%) patients were defibrillated during resuscitation; in 11 patients, defibrillation was performed between 15 to 45 minutes after the initiation of CPR. The mean time from initiation of CPR to the first DC shock was 13.93 ± 8.88 minutes. Moreover, the mean duration of CPR was 35.11 ± 11.42 minutes. The survival rate was higher in the morning shift and lower during the time of shift change (9.4% vs. 0). The duration of CPR and speed of arrival of the CPR team were identified as factors that predicted the outcome of CPR. Conclusions The survival rate after in-hospital CPR was very low. The duration of CPR and the time of initiating CPR effects patients’ outcomes. These findings highlight the crucial role of an organized, skilled, well-established and timely CPR team. PMID:27218061

  15. Relative costs of offspring sex and offspring survival in a polygynous mammal.

    PubMed

    Froy, Hannah; Walling, Craig A; Pemberton, Josephine M; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Kruuk, Loeske E B

    2016-09-01

    Costs of reproduction are expected to be ubiquitous in wild animal populations and understanding the drivers of variation in these costs is an important aspect of life-history evolution theory. We use a 43 year dataset from a wild population of red deer to examine the relative importance of two factors that influence the costs of reproduction to mothers, and to test whether these costs vary with changing ecological conditions. Like previous studies, our analyses indicate fitness costs of lactation: mothers whose calves survived the summer subsequently showed lower survival and fecundity than those whose calves died soon after birth, accounting for 5% and 14% of the variation in mothers' survival and fecundity, respectively. The production of a male calf depressed maternal survival and fecundity more than production of a female, but accounted for less than 1% of the variation in either fitness component. There was no evidence for any change in the effect of calf survival or sex with increasing population density. PMID:27601725

  16. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt production: the relative importance of survival and body growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, G.E.; Letcher, B.H.; Bailey, M.M.; Kinnison, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The complex life history of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) coupled with interacting abiotic and biotic factors leads to extreme demographic variability across the species' range. Our goal was to evaluate the relative importance of survival and body growth in determining smolt production across space and time. We used passive integrated transponder tags and capture-mark-recapture analyses to estimate survival, emigration, and growth for six cohorts of presmolt Atlantic salmon in two streams (three cohorts per stream) in New England, USA. We observed remarkable among-cohort consistency in mean monthly survival during a 17-month period from age-0+ autumn to age-2+ spring yet high variability in monthly survival over shorter time intervals (seasons). Despite this latter variability, survival did not translate into amongcohort differences in proportions of age-2+ versus age-3+ smolts. Alternatively, the high variability across seasons and cohorts in mean individual growth rate did lead to differences in within-cohort proportions of age-2+ versus age-3+ smolts (regardless of stream). We conclude that in our two small study streams, variability in growth and size impacted smolt age and, ultimately, smolt production. Density-dependent effects on growth at the scale of the entire study site represent a possible mechanism underlying our observations.

  17. Relations between nutritional condition and survival of North American elk Cervus elaphus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Cook, J.G.; Cook, R.C.; Hall, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    We related annual and seasonal survival of four populations of elk Cervus elaphus in the Pacific Northwest, USA, to measures and indices of individual nutritional condition. Among populations, for all mortality (human and non-human causes) sources inclusive, annual survival of adult females was correlated with a rump body condition score (rs = 0.627, P = 0.071), and survival over spring-summer-autumn (SSA) was correlated with mean ingesta-free body fat (IFBF; rs = 0.567, P = 0.088) and rump body condition score (rBCS; rs = 0.615, P = 0.050). For non-human mortality sources only, survival through SSA was correlated with IFBF (rs = 0.567, P = 0.088) and rBCS (rs = 0.615, P = 0.050), and survival over winter was correlated with withers body condition score (rs = 0.677, P = 0.045). For human-caused mortality sources only, survival over SSA was correlated with rBCS (rs = 0.696, P = 0.036) and IFBF (rs = 0.696, P = 0.036). For individuals, logistic analysis found that individual likelihood of dying from all mortality sources inclusive was best predicted (??2 = 8.3, P = 0.004, ?? = -1.24) by longissimus dorsi (loin) muscle thickness, a measure of protein catabolism. For only non-human mortality sources, a model (??2 = 16.1, P = 0.0003) containing both loin muscle thickness (??2 = 5.7, P = 0.017, ??= -1.02) and percent ingesta-free body fat (??2 = 4.9, P = 0.027, ?? = -0.35) best predicted individual susceptibility to mortality. Odds ratios indicated that odds of dying increased approximately 3X for each centimeter of loin muscle catabolized and 1.4X for each percent less body fat. No condition indices at the individual level were related to survival from human-caused mortality sources. Our study populations were characterized by low-marginal condition (i.e. mean ingesta-free body fat levels of 5.9-12.3% for lactating cows in late autumn); this likely increased the prominence of measures of muscle catabolism relative to fat accretion in influencing individual elk survival

  18. A retrospective study on related factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Kyung; Lee, Ki; Lee, Yong-Sang; Park, Pil-Kyoo

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the relationship between local factors and survival rate of dental implant which had been installed and restored in Seoul Veterans Hospital dental center for past 10 years. And when the relationship is found out, it could be helpful to predict the prognosis of dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of patients receiving root-shaped screw-type dental implants placed from January 2000 to December 2009 was conducted. 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients. The following data were collected from the dental records and radiographs: patient's age, gender, implant type and surface, length, diameter, location of implant placement, bone quality, prosthesis type. The correlations between these data and survival rate were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, Chi-square test and odds ratio. RESULTS In all, 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients (3120 male, 635 female; mean age 65 ± 10.58 years). 108 implants failed and the cumulative survival rate was 96.33%. There were significant differences in age, implant type and surface, length, location and prosthesis type (P<.05). No significant differences were found in relation to the following factors: gender, diameter and bone quality (P>.05). CONCLUSION Related factors such as age, implant type, length, location and prosthesis type had a significant effect on the implant survival. PMID:22259704

  19. Cancer Statistics in Korea: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Prevalence in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Won, Young-Joo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Hyunsoon; Lee, Jong-Keun; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study described the 2013 nationwide cancer statistics in Korea, including cancer incidence, survival, prevalence, and mortality. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999-2013 were obtained from Korea National Cancer Incidence Database and followed until December 31, 2014. Mortality data from 1983-2013 were obtained from Statistics Korea. The prevalence was defined as the number of cancer patients alive on January 1, 2014 among all cancer patients diagnosed since 1999. Crude, and age-standardized and 5-year relative survival rates were also calculated. Results: In 2013, a total of 225,343 and 75,334 Koreans were newly diagnosed and died from cancer, respectively. The age-standardized rates for cancer incidence and mortality in 2013 were 290.5 and 87.9 per 100,000, respectively. The age-standardized cancer incidence rate increased 3.1% annually between 1999 and 2013. However, the overall cancer incidence rates have decreased slightly in recent years (2011 to 2013). The age-standardized rate for all-cancer mortality has decreased 2.7% annually since 2002. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rate for people diagnosed with cancer between 2009 and 2013 was 69.4%, which represents an improved survival rate as compared with 41.2% for people diagnosed between 1993 and 1995. Conclusion: Age-standardized cancer incidence rates have decreased between 2011 and 2013; mortality rates have also declined since 2002, while 5-year survival rates have improved remarkably from 1993-1995 to 2009-2013 in Korea. PMID:26987395

  20. The evolution of HPV-related anogenital cancers reported in Quebec - incidence rates and survival probabilities.

    PubMed

    Louchini, R; Goggin, P; Steben, M

    2008-01-01

    Non-cervical anogenital cancers (i.e. anal, vulvar, vaginal and penile cancers) associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV), for which HPV is known to be the necessary cause of carcinogenesis, are poorly documented due to their relatively low incidence rate. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence rates of these cancers between 1984 and 2001, and their relative survival probabilities, in Quebec (Canada) between 1984 and 1998. The incidence of these cancers is on the rise, particularly anal cancer in women and, more recently (since 1993-95), vulvar cancer. Between 1984-86 and 1993-95, the 5-year relative survival probability for men with anal cancer decreased from 57% to 46%, while that for penile cancer dropped from 75% to 59%. However, during the same period, the 5-year relative survival probability for women with anal cancer rose from 56% to 65%, and remained stable for cervical and vulvar cancers, at 74% and 82%, respectively. PMID:18341764

  1. Relative humidity preference and survival of starved Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) at various temperature and relative humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Bal K; Henderson, Gregg

    2011-10-01

    Foraging groups of Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were tested for their relative humidity (RH) preference in a humidity gradient arena in the laboratory at a constant temperature of 26°C. Five RH levels (9%, 33%, 53%, 75%, and 98%) were maintained in the test arena comprising of a series of closed containers by using dry silica gel, saturated salt solutions, or distilled water alone. Termites gradually aggregated to the highest RH chamber in the arena. After 1 h, a significantly greater percentage of termites (≈46%) aggregated to the highest RH chamber (98%) than to the lower RH chambers (≤75%). After 12 h, > 97% of the termites aggregated to the 98% RH chamber. In survival tests, where termites were exposed to 15 combinatorial treatments of five RH levels (9%, 33%, 53%, 75%, and 98%) and three temperatures (20°C, 28°C, and 36°C) for a week, the survival was significantly influenced by RH, temperature, and their interaction. A significantly higher mortality was observed on termites exposed to ≤75% RH chambers than to 98% RH chamber at the three temperatures and significantly lower survival was found at 36°C than at 28°C or 20°C. The combination of temperature and RH plays an important role in the survival of C. formosanus. PMID:22251734

  2. Surgical Stabilization Improves Survival of Spinal Fractures Related to Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Yohan; Willander, Johan; Olerud, Claes

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. National registry cohort study. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of surgical stabilization on survival of spinal fractures related to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Summary of Background Data. Spinal fractures related to AS are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Multiple studies suggest a beneficial effect of surgical stabilization in these patients. Methods. In the Swedish patient registry, all patients treated in an inpatient facility are registered with diagnosis and treatment codes. The Swedish mortality registry collects date and cause of death for all fatalities. Registry extracts of all patients with AS and spinal fractures including date of death and treatment were prepared and analyzed for epidemiological purposes. Results. Seventeen thousand two hundred ninety-seven individual patients with AS were admitted to treatment facilities in Sweden between 1987 and 2011. Nine hundred ninety patients with AS (age 66 ± 14 years) had 1131 spinal fractures, of which 534 affected cervical, 352 thoracic, and 245 lumbar vertebrae. Thirteen percent had multiple levels of injuries during the observed period. Surgically treated patients had a greater survival than those treated nonsurgically [hazard ratio (HR) 0.79, P = 0.029]. Spinal cord injury was the major factor contributing to mortality in this cohort (HR 1.55, P < 0.001). The proportion of surgically treated spinal fractures increased linearly during the last decades (r = 0.92, P < 0.001) and was 64% throughout the observed years. Conclusions. Spinal cord injury threatened the survival of patients with spinal fractures related to AS. Even though surgical treatment is associated with a considerable complication rate, it improved the survival of spinal fractures related to AS. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:26267824

  3. Prostate Specific Antigen Bounce Is Related to Overall Survival in Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinnen, Karel A.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Battermann, Jan J.; Roermund, Joep G.H. van; Frank, Steven J.; Vulpen, Marco van

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between prostate specific antigen (PSA) bounce and disease outcome after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 975 patients treated with {sup 125}I implantation monotherapy between 1992 and 2006. All patients had tumor Stage {<=}2c, Gleason score {<=}7 prostate cancer, a minimum follow-up of 2 years with at least four PSA measurements, and no biochemical failure in the first 2 years. Median follow-up was 6 years. Bounce was defined as a PSA elevation of +0.2 ng/mL with subsequent decrease to previous nadir. We used the Phoenix +2 ng/mL definition for biochemical failure. Additional endpoints were disease-specific and overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for potential confounding factors. Results: Bounce occurred in 32% of patients, with a median time to bounce of 1.6 years. More than 90% of bounces took place in the first 3 years after treatment and had disappeared within 2 years of onset. Ten-year freedom from biochemical failure, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates were, respectively, 90%, 99%, and 88% for the bounce group and 70%, 93%, and 82% for the no-bounce group. Only 1 patient (0.3%) died of prostate cancer in the bounce group, compared with 40 patients (6.1%) in the no-bounce group. Adjusted for confounding, a 70% biochemical failure risk reduction was observed for patients experiencing a bounce (hazard ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.48). Conclusions: A PSA bounce after prostate brachytherapy is strongly related to better outcome in terms of biochemical failure, disease-specific survival, and overall survival.

  4. Associations of immunity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms with overall survival among prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Fayth L; Rao, Jian-Yu; Eckhert, Curtis; Chang, Shen-Chih; Pantuck, Allan; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The progression of prostate cancer is influenced by systemic inflammation, and may be attributed, in part, to genetic predisposition. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the immune response may help mediate prostate cancer progression. We analyzed data from a hospital-based case-control study of 164 prostate cancer patients and 157 healthy male controls from the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. We evaluated associations between six immunity-related polymorphisms (CRP rs1205 and rs1800947, FGFR2 rs1219648 and rs2981582, IFNGR1 rs11914, and IL10 rs1800871) and overall survival among prostate cancer patients, calculating adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. FGFR2 rs1219648 (GG vs. AA) and rs2981582 (TT vs. CC) polymorphisms were associated with more favorable overall survival (HR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03-0.62 and HR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03-0.53, respectively) in patients with primary prostate cancer. These observations highlight the need to validate and identify these and other immunity-related polymorphisms in larger studies examining survival of prostate cancer patients. PMID:26379965

  5. The AMPK-related kinase SNARK regulates muscle mass and myocyte survival.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Sarah J; Rivas, Donato A; So, Kawai; Koh, Ho-Jin; Queiroz, André Lima; Hirshman, Michael F; Fielding, Roger A; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2016-02-01

    The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is critical for sustaining health; however, the mechanisms responsible for muscle loss with aging and chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are poorly understood. We found that expression of a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SNF1-AMPK-related kinase (SNARK, also known as NUAK2), increased with muscle cell differentiation. SNARK expression increased in skeletal muscles from young mice exposed to metabolic stress and in muscles from healthy older human subjects. The regulation of SNARK expression in muscle with differentiation and physiological stress suggests that SNARK may function in the maintenance of muscle mass. Consistent with this hypothesis, decreased endogenous SNARK expression (using siRNA) in cultured muscle cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased cell survival under conditions of metabolic stress. Likewise, muscle-specific transgenic animals expressing a SNARK dominant-negative inactive mutant (SDN) had increased myonuclear apoptosis and activation of apoptotic mediators in muscle. Moreover, animals expressing SDN had severe, age-accelerated muscle atrophy and increased adiposity, consistent with sarcopenic obesity. Reduced SNARK activity, in vivo and in vitro, caused downregulation of the Rho kinase signaling pathway, a key mediator of cell survival. These findings reveal a critical role for SNARK in myocyte survival and the maintenance of muscle mass with age. PMID:26690705

  6. The AMPK-related kinase SNARK regulates muscle mass and myocyte survival

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Sarah J.; Rivas, Donato A.; So, Kawai; Koh, Ho-Jin; Queiroz, André Lima; Hirshman, Michael F.; Fielding, Roger A.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is critical for sustaining health; however, the mechanisms responsible for muscle loss with aging and chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are poorly understood. We found that expression of a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SNF1-AMPK-related kinase (SNARK, also known as NUAK2), increased with muscle cell differentiation. SNARK expression increased in skeletal muscles from young mice exposed to metabolic stress and in muscles from healthy older human subjects. The regulation of SNARK expression in muscle with differentiation and physiological stress suggests that SNARK may function in the maintenance of muscle mass. Consistent with this hypothesis, decreased endogenous SNARK expression (using siRNA) in cultured muscle cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased cell survival under conditions of metabolic stress. Likewise, muscle-specific transgenic animals expressing a SNARK dominant-negative inactive mutant (SDN) had increased myonuclear apoptosis and activation of apoptotic mediators in muscle. Moreover, animals expressing SDN had severe, age-accelerated muscle atrophy and increased adiposity, consistent with sarcopenic obesity. Reduced SNARK activity, in vivo and in vitro, caused downregulation of the Rho kinase signaling pathway, a key mediator of cell survival. These findings reveal a critical role for SNARK in myocyte survival and the maintenance of muscle mass with age. PMID:26690705

  7. Relation of CD30 expression to survival and morphology in large cell B cell lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Noorduyn, L A; de Bruin, P C; van Heerde, P; van de Sandt, M M; Ossenkoppele, G J; Meijer, C J

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate whether CD30 expression is correlated with anaplastic morphology, and whether this correlated with a better survival in large cell B cell lymphomas, as has been described for T cell lymphomas. METHODS--CD30 expression was investigated using frozen sections in a series of 146 large cell B cell lymphomas. Clinical data and follow up information were collected from 25 lymphomas with strong CD30 expression, 30 lymphomas with partial CD30 expression, and a control group of 25 lymphomas which did not express CD30. RESULTS--Morphological distinction between anaplastic and non-anaplastic tumours was difficult. Of the cases with an anaplastic morphology, 50% were CD30 positive, as were 24% of the polymorphic centroblastic B cell lymphomas. Only 65% of the morphologically non-anaplastic tumours were completely CD30 negative. There was no difference in survival among patients with lymphomas expressing CD30 and those that did not. Patients with morphologically anaplastic B cell lymphomas did not differ in their survivals from those with other high grade B cell lymphomas. Clinical stage at presentation was the only variable that was significantly associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS--CD30 expression occurs frequently in large cell B cell lymphomas and is poorly related to anaplastic morphology. Morphological distinction between anaplastic and non-anaplastic tumours is difficult. In contrast to T cell lymphomas, CD30 positive B cell lymphomas do not show a relatively favourable clinical course. The results presented here raise serious doubts as to whether large cell B cell lymphoma, based on the expression of CD30 or anaplastic morphology, can really be termed a separate entity. Images PMID:8132806

  8. Incidence, mortality and survival patterns of prostate cancer among residents in Singapore from 1968 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Sin Eng; Tan, Chuen Seng; Lim, Gek Hsiang; Sim, Xueling; Pawitan, Yudi; Reilly, Marie; Mohamed Ali, Safiyya; Lau, Weber; Chia, Kee Seng

    2008-01-01

    Background From 1968 to 2002, Singapore experienced an almost four-fold increase in prostate cancer incidence. This paper examines the incidence, mortality and survival patterns for prostate cancer among all residents in Singapore from 1968 to 2002. Methods This is a retrospective population-based cohort study including all prostate cancer cases aged over 20 (n = 3613) reported to the Singapore Cancer Registry from 1968 to 2002. Age-standardized incidence, mortality rates and 5-year Relative Survival Ratios (RSRs) were obtained for each 5-year period. Follow-up was ascertained by matching with the National Death Register until 2002. A weighted linear regression was performed on the log-transformed age-standardized incidence and mortality rates over period. Results The percentage increase in the age-standardized incidence rate per year was 5.0%, 5.6%, 4.0% and 1.9% for all residents, Chinese, Malays and Indians respectively. The percentage increase in age-standardized mortality rate per year was 5.7%, 6.0%, 6.6% and 2.5% for all residents, Chinese, Malays and Indians respectively. When all Singapore residents were considered, the RSRs for prostate cancer were fairly constant across the study period with slight improvement from 1995 onwards among the Chinese. Conclusion Ethnic differences in prostate cancer incidence, mortality and survival patterns were observed. There has been a substantial improvement in RSRs since the 1990s for the Chinese. PMID:19087276

  9. Genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D pathway in relation to lung cancer risk and survival

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jinyu; Xu, Fangxiu; Qu, Jinli; Wang, Yu; Gao, Ming; Yu, Herbert; Qian, Biyun

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested that vitamin D may have protective effects against cancer development or tumor progression. To search for additional evidence, we investigated the role of genetic polymorphisms involved in the vitamin D pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated common genetic polymorphisms associated with the vitamin D pathway in relation to NSCLC in a case-control study of 603 newly diagnosed NSCLC patients and 661 matched healthy controls. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, the expression of CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 were measured in 153 tumor samples and their associations with genotypes and patient survival were also analyzed. In the case-control comparison, we found SNP rs3782130 (CYP27B1), rs7041 (GC), rs6068816 and rs4809957 (CYP24A1) associated with NSCLC risk. The risk of NSCLC was increased with the number of risk alleles. CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression were significantly different between tumor and normal tissues in NSCLC. High CYP27B1 expression was associated with better overall survival, and the expression was different by the rs3782130 genotype. The study suggests that some genetic polymorphisms involved in the vitamin D pathway may associate with NSCLC risk, and one of the polymorphisms (rs3782130) may affect gene expression and patient survival. PMID:25544771

  10. Effect of relative humidity and air temperature on survival of hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Mbithi, J N; Springthorpe, V S; Sattar, S A

    1991-01-01

    Stainless steel disks (diameter, 1 cm) were contaminated with fecally suspended hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM-175) and held at low (25% +/- 5%), medium (55% +/- 5%), high (80% +/- 5%), or ultrahigh (95% +/- 5%) relative humidity (RH) at an air temperature of 5,20, or 35 degrees C. HAV survival was inversely proportional to the level of RH and temperature, and the half-lives of the virus ranged from greater than 7 days at the low RH and 5 degrees C to about 2 h at the ultrahigh RH and 35 degrees C. In parallel tests with fecally suspended Sabin poliovirus (PV) type 1 at the low and ultrahigh RH, all PV activity was lost within 4 h at the low RH whereas at the ultrahigh RH it remained detectable up to 12 h. HAV could therefore survive much better than PV on nonporous environmental surfaces. Moreover, the ability of HAV to survive better at low levels of RH is in direct contrast to the behavior of other enteroviruses. These findings should help in understanding the genesis of HAV outbreaks more clearly and in designing better measures for their control and prevention. PMID:1649579

  11. Effect of Relative Humidity on the Survival of Airborne Unicellular Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ehresmann, Douglas W.; Hatch, Melvin T.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described which is suitable for assessing the effects of relative humidity (RH) on the viability of two unicellular algae in experimental aerosols. Viable cells of Nannochloris atomus collected from the airborne state were detected by plating onto agar surfaces of an appropriate growth medium, whereas viable airborne cells of Synechococcus sp., because of unreliable growth on solid media, were determined by a liquid assay system. The assays were performed at intervals during short-term and prolonged storage of algal aerosols in chambers preconditioned to a selected RH and temperature. Both species showed the greatest loss in viability during the first minute after atomization, and the extent of this inactivation, as a function of RH, reflected the subsequent long-term survival. The airborne eukaryotic alga was unable to survive at an RH below 91%, whereas the airborne prokaryotic alga was comparatively stable over a wide humidity range. Initial inactivation was least and long-term survival best, for both species, at 94% RH. Images PMID:1115506

  12. Military Service, Deployments, and Exposures in Relation to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Etiology and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Kamel, Freya

    2015-01-01

    Rates of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been reported to be higher among US military veterans, who currently number more than 21 million, but the causal factor(s) has not been identified. We conducted a review to examine the weight of evidence for associations between military service, deployments, and exposures and ALS etiology and survival. Thirty articles or abstracts published through 2013 were reviewed. Although the current evidence suggests a positive association with ALS etiology, it is too limited to draw firm conclusions regarding associations between military service and ALS etiology or survival. Some evidence suggests that deployment to the 1990–1991 Persian Gulf War may be associated with ALS etiology, but there is currently no strong evidence that any particular military exposure is associated with ALS etiology. Future studies should address the limitations of previous ones, such as reliance on mortality as a surrogate for incidence, a dearth of survival analyses, lack of clinical data, low statistical power, and limited exposure assessment. The Genes and Environmental Exposures in Veterans with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (GENEVA) Study is one such study, but additional research is needed to determine whether military-related factors are associated with ALS and to assess potential prevention strategies. PMID:25365170

  13. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand deficiency enhances survival in murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Katharina; Stollhof, Laura; Poetschke, Christian; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Diedrich, Stephan; Maier, Stefan; Bröker, Barbara M; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background Apart from inducing apoptosis in tumor cells, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) influences inflammatory reactions. Murine colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) represents a model of diffuse peritonitis. Recently, it has been demonstrated that administration of exogenous TRAIL not only induces apoptosis in neutrophils but also enhances survival in this model. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of genetic TRAIL deficiency on the course of CASP. Methods Peritonitis was induced in 6- to 8-week-old female TRAIL−/− mice as well as in wild-type mice. The sepsis severity score and survival of mice were monitored. Bacterial loads in blood as well as in the lymphoid organs were examined. Additionally, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was determined. Results As early as 8 hours postinduction of CASP, TRAIL−/− mice were significantly more affected by sepsis than wild-type mice, as measured by the sepsis severity score. However, during the further course of sepsis, TRAIL deficiency led to significantly decreased sepsis severity scores, resulting in an enhanced overall survival in TRAIL−/− mice. The better survival of TRAIL−/− mice was accompanied by a decreased bacterial load within the blood. In marked contrast, the number of apoptotic cells within the lymphoid organs was highly increased in TRAIL−/− mice 20 hours after induction of CASP. Conclusion Hence, exogenous and endogenous TRAIL is protective during the early phase of sepsis, while endogenous TRAIL appears to be detrimental in the later course of this disease. PMID:27366100

  14. Egg Hatch and Survival and Development of Beet Webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Larvae at Different Combinations of Temperature and Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jihong; Cheng, Yunxia; Sappington, Thomas W; Jiang, Xingfu; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Lizhi

    2016-08-01

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatch, survival of first-fifth instars, survival of the full larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were investigated at combinations of four temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) and five relative humidities (RH; 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). We found that greatest egg hatch rate, survival rates of the first and second instars, and survival rate of the complete larval stage occurred at 22°C and 60-80% RH; the lowest values for these parameters were observed at 30°C and 20% RH. Survival of first instars was significantly affected by the interaction of temperature and relative humidity. However, survival of third and fourth instars was neither affected by temperature nor relative humidity, and that of fifth instars was significantly affected only by relative humidity level. The survival curve for larvae was well described by a type III Weibull distribution. Duration of larval stage decreased as temperature increased, but was not affected by relative humidity. We therefore conclude that eggs and early instars are the most critical stages for survival to the pupal stage, and 22-26°C and 60-80% RH are the optimum conditions for their survival and development. These findings confirm that temperature and relative humidity are the critical environmental factors affecting the population growth of L. sticticalis, with temperature being more important. PMID:27329620

  15. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Regehr, E.V.; Hunter, C.M.; Caswell, H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2010-01-01

    1. Observed and predicted declines in Arctic sea ice have raised concerns about marine mammals. In May 2008, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed polar bears (Ursus maritimus) - one of the most ice-dependent marine mammals - as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. 2. We evaluated the effects of sea ice conditions on vital rates (survival and breeding probabilities) for polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Although sea ice declines in this and other regions of the polar basin have been among the greatest in the Arctic, to date population-level effects of sea ice loss on polar bears have only been identified in western Hudson Bay, near the southern limit of the species' range. 3. We estimated vital rates using multistate capture-recapture models that classified individuals by sex, age and reproductive category. We used multimodel inference to evaluate a range of statistical models, all of which were structurally based on the polar bear life cycle. We estimated parameters by model averaging, and developed a parametric bootstrap procedure to quantify parameter uncertainty. 4. In the most supported models, polar bear survival declined with an increasing number of days per year that waters over the continental shelf were ice free. In 2001-2003, the ice-free period was relatively short (mean 101 days) and adult female survival was high (0 ∙ 96-0 ∙ 99, depending on reproductive state). In 2004 and 2005, the ice-free period was longer (mean 135 days) and adult female survival was low (0 ∙ 73-0 ∙ 79, depending on reproductive state). Breeding rates and cub litter survival also declined with increasing duration of the ice-free period. Confidence intervals on vital rate estimates were wide. 5. The effects of sea ice loss on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea may apply to polar bear populations in other portions of the polar basin that have similar sea ice dynamics and have experienced similar, or more severe, sea ice declines. Our findings

  16. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice.

    PubMed

    Regehr, Eric V; Hunter, Christine M; Caswell, Hal; Amstrup, Steven C; Stirling, Ian

    2010-01-01

    1. Observed and predicted declines in Arctic sea ice have raised concerns about marine mammals. In May 2008, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed polar bears (Ursus maritimus) - one of the most ice-dependent marine mammals - as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. 2. We evaluated the effects of sea ice conditions on vital rates (survival and breeding probabilities) for polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Although sea ice declines in this and other regions of the polar basin have been among the greatest in the Arctic, to date population-level effects of sea ice loss on polar bears have only been identified in western Hudson Bay, near the southern limit of the species' range. 3. We estimated vital rates using multistate capture-recapture models that classified individuals by sex, age and reproductive category. We used multimodel inference to evaluate a range of statistical models, all of which were structurally based on the polar bear life cycle. We estimated parameters by model averaging, and developed a parametric bootstrap procedure to quantify parameter uncertainty. 4. In the most supported models, polar bear survival declined with an increasing number of days per year that waters over the continental shelf were ice free. In 2001-2003, the ice-free period was relatively short (mean 101 days) and adult female survival was high (0.96-0.99, depending on reproductive state). In 2004 and 2005, the ice-free period was longer (mean 135 days) and adult female survival was low (0.73-0.79, depending on reproductive state). Breeding rates and cub litter survival also declined with increasing duration of the ice-free period. Confidence intervals on vital rate estimates were wide. 5. The effects of sea ice loss on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea may apply to polar bear populations in other portions of the polar basin that have similar sea ice dynamics and have experienced similar, or more severe, sea ice declines. Our findings therefore are

  17. HPV-related methylation signature predicts survival in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kostareli, Efterpi; Holzinger, Dana; Bogatyrova, Olga; Hielscher, Thomas; Wichmann, Gunnar; Keck, Michaela; Lahrmann, Bernd; Grabe, Niels; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Schmidt, Christopher R; Seiwert, Tanguy; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Dietz, Andreas; Höfler, Daniela; Pawlita, Michael; Benner, Axel; Bosch, Franz X; Plinkert, Peter; Plass, Christoph; Weichenhan, Dieter; Hess, Jochen

    2013-06-01

    High-risk types of human papilloma virus (HPV) are increasingly associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Strikingly, patients with HPV-positive OPSCC are highly curable with ionizing radiation and have better survival compared with HPV-negative patients, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We applied an array-based approach to monitor global changes in CpG island hypermethylation between HPV-negative and HPV-positive OPSCCs and identified a specific pattern of differentially methylated regions that critically depends on the presence of viral transcripts. HPV-related alterations were confirmed for the majority of candidate gene promoters by mass spectrometric, quantitative methylation analysis. There was a significant inverse correlation between promoter hypermethylation of ALDH1A2, OSR2, GATA4, GRIA4, and IRX4 and transcript levels. Interestingly, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that a combined promoter methylation pattern of low methylation levels in ALDH1A2 and OSR2 promoters and high methylation levels in GATA4, GRIA4, and IRX4 promoters was significantly correlated with improved survival in 3 independent patient cohorts. ALDH1A2 protein levels, determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, confirmed the association with clinical outcome. In summary, our study highlights specific alterations in global gene promoter methylation in HPV-driven OPSCCs and identifies a signature that predicts the clinical outcome in OPSCCs. PMID:23635773

  18. Human chorionic gonadotropin and its relation to grade, stage and patient survival in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An influence of gonadotropins (hCG) on the development of ovarian cancer has been discussed. Therefore, we quantified serum hCG levels in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors and the hCG expression in ovarian cancer tissue in order to analyze its relation to grade, stage, gonadotropin receptor (LH-R, FSH-R) expression and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Methods Patients diagnosed and treated for ovarian tumors from 1990 to 2002 were included. Patient characteristics, histology including histological subtype, tumor stage, grading and follow-up data were available. Serum hCG concentration measurement was performed with ELISA technology, hCG tissue expression determined by immunohistochemistry. Results HCG-positive sera were found in 26.7% of patients with benign and 67% of patients with malignant ovarian tumors. In addition, significantly higher hCG serum concentrations were observed in patients with malignant compared to benign ovarian tumors (p = 0.000). Ovarian cancer tissue was positive for hCG expression in 68%. We identified significant differences in hCG tissue expression related to tumor grade (p = 0.022) but no differences with regard to the histological subtype. In addition, mucinous ovarian carcinomas showed a significantly increased hCG expression at FIGO stage III compared to stage I (p = 0.018). We also found a positive correlation of hCG expression to LH-R expression, but not to FSH-R expression. There was no significant correlation between tissue hCG expression and overall ovarian cancer patient survival, but subgroup analysis revealed an increased 5-year survival in LH-R positive/FSH-R negative and hCG positive tumors (hCG positive 75.0% vs. hCG negative 50.5%). Conclusions Serum human gonadotropin levels differ in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors. HCG is often expressed in ovarian cancer tissue with a certain variable relation to grade and stage. HCG expression correlates with LH-R expression in ovarian

  19. Influence of Age-Related Versus Non-Age-Related Renal Dysfunctionon Survival in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Testani, Jeffrey M.; Brisco, Meredith A.; Han, Gang; Laur, Olga; Kula, Alexander J.; Cheng, Susan J.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2013-01-01

    Normal aging results in a predictable decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and low GFR is associated with worsened survival. If this survival disadvantage is directly caused by the low GFR, as opposed to the disease causing the low GFR, the risk should be similar regardless of the underlying mechanism. Our objective was to determine if age related declines in estimated GFR (eGFR) carry the same prognostic importance as disease attributable losses in patients with ventricular dysfunction. We analyzed the Studies Of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) limited data set (n=6337). The primary analysis focused on determining if the eGFR mortality relationship differed by the extent the eGFR was consistent with normal ageing. Mean eGFR was 65.7 ± 19.0ml/min/1.73m2. Across the range of age in the population (27 to 80 years), baseline eGFR decreased by 0.67 ml/min/1.73m2 per year (95% CI 0.63 to 0.71). The risk of death associated with eGFR was strongly modified by the degree to which the low eGFR could be explained by aging (p interaction <0.0001). For example, in a model incorporating the interaction, uncorrected eGFR was no longer significantly related to mortality (adjusted HR=1.0 per 10 ml/min/1.73m2, 95% CI 0.97–1.1, p=0.53) whereas a disease attributable decrease in eGFR above the median carried significant risk (adjusted HR=2.8, 95% CI 1.6–4.7, p<0.001). In conclusion, in the setting of LV dysfunction, renal dysfunction attributable to normal aging had a limited risk for mortality, suggesting that the mechanism underlying renal dysfunction is critical in determining prognosis. PMID:24216124

  20. Hendra virus survival does not explain spillover patterns and implicates relatively direct transmission routes from flying foxes to horses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Gerardo; Plowright, Raina; Chen, Carla; Kault, David; Selleck, Paul; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-06-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is lethal to humans and horses, and little is known about its epidemiology. Biosecurity restrictions impede advances, particularly on understanding pathways of transmission. Quantifying the environmental survival of HeV can be used for making decisions and to infer transmission pathways. We estimated HeV survival with a Weibull distribution and calculated parameters from data generated in laboratory experiments. HeV survival rates based on air temperatures 24 h after excretion ranged from 2 to 10 % in summer and from 12 to 33 % in winter. Simulated survival across the distribution of the black flying fox (Pteropus alecto), a key reservoir host, did not predict spillover events. Based on our analyses we concluded that the most likely pathways of transmission did not require long periods of virus survival and were likely to involve relatively direct contact with flying fox excreta shortly after excretion. PMID:25667321

  1. Hypocretinergic neurons are activated in conjunction with goal-oriented survival-related motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Ramos, Oscar V; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2011-10-24

    Hypocretinergic neurons are located in the area of the lateral hypothalamus which is responsible for mediating goal-directed, survival-related behaviors. Consequently, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system functions to promote these behaviors including those patterns of somatomotor activation upon which they are based. Further, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system is not involved with repetitive motor activities unless they occur in conjunction with the goal-oriented behaviors that are governed by the lateral hypothalamus. In order to determine the veracity of these hypotheses, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (as a marker of neuronal activity) in hypocretinergic neurons in the cat during: a) Exploratory Motor Activity; b) Locomotion without Reward; c) Locomotion with Reward; and d) Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Significantly greater numbers of hypocretinergic neurons expressed c-fos when the animals were exploring an unknown environment during Exploratory Motor Activity compared with all other paradigms. In addition, a larger number of Hcrt+Fos+neurons were activated during Locomotion with Reward than during Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Finally, very few hypocretinergic neurons were activated during Locomotion without Reward and Wakefulness without Motor Activity, wherein there was an absence of goal-directed activities. We conclude that the hypocretinergic system does not promote wakefulness per se or motor activity per se but is responsible for mediating specific goal-oriented behaviors that take place during wakefulness. Accordingly, we suggest that the hypocretinergic system is responsible for controlling the somatomotor system and coordinating its activity with other systems in order to produce successful goal-oriented survival-related behaviors that are controlled by the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:21839102

  2. Survival trade-offs in plant roots during colonization by closely related beneficial and pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Hiruma, Kei; Münch, Philipp C; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Thon, Michael R; Weimann, Aaron; Damm, Ulrike; Dallery, Jean-Félix; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; Lespinet, Olivier; Sacristán, Soledad; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Kemen, Eric; McHardy, Alice C; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; O'Connell, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The sessile nature of plants forced them to evolve mechanisms to prioritize their responses to simultaneous stresses, including colonization by microbes or nutrient starvation. Here, we compare the genomes of a beneficial root endophyte, Colletotrichum tofieldiae and its pathogenic relative C. incanum, and examine the transcriptomes of both fungi and their plant host Arabidopsis during phosphate starvation. Although the two species diverged only 8.8 million years ago and have similar gene arsenals, we identify genomic signatures indicative of an evolutionary transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles, including a narrowed repertoire of secreted effector proteins, expanded families of chitin-binding and secondary metabolism-related proteins, and limited activation of pathogenicity-related genes in planta. We show that beneficial responses are prioritized in C. tofieldiae-colonized roots under phosphate-deficient conditions, whereas defense responses are activated under phosphate-sufficient conditions. These immune responses are retained in phosphate-starved roots colonized by pathogenic C. incanum, illustrating the ability of plants to maximize survival in response to conflicting stresses. PMID:27150427

  3. Survival trade-offs in plant roots during colonization by closely related beneficial and pathogenic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hacquard, Stéphane; Kracher, Barbara; Hiruma, Kei; Münch, Philipp C.; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Thon, Michael R.; Weimann, Aaron; Damm, Ulrike; Dallery, Jean-Félix; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; Lespinet, Olivier; Sacristán, Soledad; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Kemen, Eric; McHardy, Alice C.; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; O'Connell, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The sessile nature of plants forced them to evolve mechanisms to prioritize their responses to simultaneous stresses, including colonization by microbes or nutrient starvation. Here, we compare the genomes of a beneficial root endophyte, Colletotrichum tofieldiae and its pathogenic relative C. incanum, and examine the transcriptomes of both fungi and their plant host Arabidopsis during phosphate starvation. Although the two species diverged only 8.8 million years ago and have similar gene arsenals, we identify genomic signatures indicative of an evolutionary transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles, including a narrowed repertoire of secreted effector proteins, expanded families of chitin-binding and secondary metabolism-related proteins, and limited activation of pathogenicity-related genes in planta. We show that beneficial responses are prioritized in C. tofieldiae-colonized roots under phosphate-deficient conditions, whereas defense responses are activated under phosphate-sufficient conditions. These immune responses are retained in phosphate-starved roots colonized by pathogenic C. incanum, illustrating the ability of plants to maximize survival in response to conflicting stresses. PMID:27150427

  4. Synergistic Interactions within Disturbed Habitats between Temperature, Relative Humidity and UVB Radiation on Egg Survival in a Diadromous Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hickford, Michael J. H.; Schiel, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts, including urbanization, deforestation, farming, and livestock grazing have altered riparian margins worldwide. One effect of changes to riparian vegetation is that the ground-level light, temperature, and humidity environment has also been altered. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, lays eggs almost exclusively beneath riparian vegetation in tidally influenced reaches of rivers. We hypothesized that the survival of these eggs is greatly affected by the micro-environment afforded by vegetation, particularly relating to temperature, humidity and UVB radiation. We experimentally reduced riparian vegetation height and altered shading characteristics, tracked egg survival, and used small ground-level temperature, humidity and UVB sensors to relate survival to ground-level effects around egg masses. The ground-level physical environment was markedly different from the surrounding ambient conditions. Tall dense riparian vegetation modified ambient conditions to produce a buffered temperature regime with constant high relative humidity, generally above 90%, and negligible UVB radiation at ground-level. Where vegetation height was reduced, frequent high temperatures, low humidity, and high UVB irradiances reduced egg survival by up to 95%. Temperature effects on egg survival were probably indirect, through reduced humidity, because developing eggs are known to survive in a wide range of temperatures. In this study, it was remarkable how such small variations in relatively small sites could have such a large effect on egg survival. It appears that modifications to riparian vegetation and the associated changes in the physical conditions of egg laying sites are major mechanisms affecting egg survival. The impacts associated with vegetational changes through human-induced disturbances are complex yet potentially devastating. These effects are particularly important because they affect a very small

  5. Synergistic interactions within disturbed habitats between temperature, relative humidity and UVB radiation on egg survival in a diadromous fish.

    PubMed

    Hickford, Michael J H; Schiel, David R

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic impacts, including urbanization, deforestation, farming, and livestock grazing have altered riparian margins worldwide. One effect of changes to riparian vegetation is that the ground-level light, temperature, and humidity environment has also been altered. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, lays eggs almost exclusively beneath riparian vegetation in tidally influenced reaches of rivers. We hypothesized that the survival of these eggs is greatly affected by the micro-environment afforded by vegetation, particularly relating to temperature, humidity and UVB radiation. We experimentally reduced riparian vegetation height and altered shading characteristics, tracked egg survival, and used small ground-level temperature, humidity and UVB sensors to relate survival to ground-level effects around egg masses. The ground-level physical environment was markedly different from the surrounding ambient conditions. Tall dense riparian vegetation modified ambient conditions to produce a buffered temperature regime with constant high relative humidity, generally above 90%, and negligible UVB radiation at ground-level. Where vegetation height was reduced, frequent high temperatures, low humidity, and high UVB irradiances reduced egg survival by up to 95%. Temperature effects on egg survival were probably indirect, through reduced humidity, because developing eggs are known to survive in a wide range of temperatures. In this study, it was remarkable how such small variations in relatively small sites could have such a large effect on egg survival. It appears that modifications to riparian vegetation and the associated changes in the physical conditions of egg laying sites are major mechanisms affecting egg survival. The impacts associated with vegetational changes through human-induced disturbances are complex yet potentially devastating. These effects are particularly important because they affect a very small

  6. Struggling to survive: early life challenges in relation to the backtest in pigs.

    PubMed

    Camerlink, I; Ursinus, W W; Bolhuis, J E

    2014-07-01

    Intensively reared piglets may face many early life challenges and these may affect behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between piglets' early life circumstances and their behavioral response in a backtest. Here, 992 piglets of 14 d of age were subjected to a backtest, in which they were restrained for 1 min in a supine position. The number of struggles in the backtest was assessed in relation to data on ADG, BW, BW relative to litter mates, teat order, litter size, and health. Piglets that had a lower ADG from birth until the test day were struggling more (b = -2.4 g ADG/struggle; P = 0.03). Also, piglets with a lower BW at 14 d of age tended to respond more actively in the backtest (b = -0.03 kg/struggle; P = 0.08). The response to the backtest was unrelated to ADG from birth until weaning, birth weight, weaning weight, teat order, litter size, and health. ADG and BW were unrelated to the variation of backtest responses within the litter. The weak though significant relationship suggests that smaller, slower-growing piglets more actively respond to a challenge, either because piglets born with such a behavioral response were better able to survive, or because piglets adapted their behavioral response to their physical condition. PMID:24879763

  7. Incidence and Survival of Childhood Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Yoon, Ju Young; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Park, Byung Kiu; Shin, Hee Young; Won, Young-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose An epidemiologic study of childhood cancer would provide useful information on cancer etiology and development of management guidelines. Materials and Methods Data from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database were used to examine the incidence and survival of cancer in patients aged 0-14 years. Patients were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, 3rd edition. Age-specific and age-standardized incidences per million and estimated annual percentage change (APC) were calculated by sex and age. Five-year relative survival was calculated for four periods from 1993 to 2011. Results The study comprised 15,113 patients with malignant neoplasms. Age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers were 134.9 per million children in 1999-2011 and 144.0 and 124.9 per million for males and females, respectively (M/F ratio, 1.2; p < 0.05). The highest incidences were observed for ‘leukemias, myeloproliferative diseases, and myelodysplastic diseases’ (group I) (46.4), ‘central nervous system neoplasms’ (group III) (18.3), and ‘lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms’ (group II) (13.4). Age-standardized incidence increased from 117.9 in 1999 to 155.3 in 2011, with an APC of 2.4% (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 2.7). There was a significant increase of APC in ‘neuroblastoma and other peripheral nervous cell tumors’ (group IV) (5.6%) and ‘other malignant epithelial neoplasms and malignant melanomas’ (group XI) (5.6%). The 5-year relative survival rate for all childhood cancers improved significantly from 56.2% (1993-1995) to 78.2% (2007-2011) (males, 56.7% to 77.7%; females, 55.5% to 78.8%). Conclusion This study provides reliable information on incidence and survival trends for childhood cancer in Korea. PMID:26790965

  8. Survival of radio-implanted drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake) in relation to body size and sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyslop, N.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Cooper, R.J.; Norton, Terry M.

    2009-01-01

    Drymarchon couperi (eastern indigo snake) has experienced population declines across its range primarily as a result of extensive habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation. Conservation efforts for D. couperi have been hindered, in part, because of informational gaps regarding the species, including a lack of data on population ecology and estimates of demographic parameters such as survival. We conducted a 2- year radiotelemetry study of D. couperi on Fort Stewart Military Reservation and adjacent private lands located in southeastern Georgia to assess individual characteristics associated with probability of survival. We used known-fate modeling to estimate survival, and an information-theoretic approach, based on a priori hypotheses, to examine intraspecific differences in survival probabilities relative to individual covariates (sex, size, size standardized by sex, and overwintering location). Annual survival in 2003 and 2004 was 0.89 (95% CI = 0.73-0.97, n = 25) and 0.72 (95% CI = 0.52-0.86; n = 27), respectively. Results indicated that body size, standardized by sex, was the most important covariate determining survival of adult D. couperi, suggesting lower survival for larger individuals within each sex. We are uncertain of the mechanisms underlying this result, but possibilities may include greater resource needs for larger individuals within each sex, necessitating larger or more frequent movements, or a population with older individuals. Our results may also have been influenced by analysis limitations because of sample size, other sources of individual variation, or environmental conditions. ?? 2009 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  9. Transcriptional and functional studies of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans genes related to survival in the presence of copper.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Claudio A; Orellana, Luis H; Mauriaca, Cecilia; Jerez, Carlos A

    2009-10-01

    The acidophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans can resist exceptionally high copper (Cu) concentrations. This property is important for its use in biomining processes, where Cu and other metal levels range usually between 15 and 100 mM. To learn about the mechanisms that allow A. ferrooxidans cells to survive in this environment, a bioinformatic search of its genome showed the presence of at least 10 genes that are possibly related to Cu homeostasis. Among them are three genes coding for putative ATPases related to the transport of Cu (A. ferrooxidans copA1 [copA1(Af)], copA2(Af), and copB(Af)), three genes related to a system of the resistance nodulation cell division family involved in the extraction of Cu from the cell (cusA(Af), cusB(Af), and cusC(Af)), and two genes coding for periplasmic chaperones for this metal (cusF(Af) and copC(Af)). The expression of most of these open reading frames was studied by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR using A. ferrooxidans cells adapted for growth in the presence of high concentrations of Cu. The putative A. ferrooxidans Cu resistance determinants were found to be upregulated when this bacterium was exposed to Cu in the range of 5 to 25 mM. These A. ferrooxidans genes conferred to Escherichia coli a greater Cu resistance than wild-type cells, supporting their functionality. The results reported here and previously published data strongly suggest that the high resistance of the extremophilic A. ferrooxidans to Cu may be due to part or all of the following key elements: (i) a wide repertoire of Cu resistance determinants, (ii) the duplication of some of these Cu resistance determinants, (iii) the existence of novel Cu chaperones, and (iv) a polyP-based Cu resistance system. PMID:19666734

  10. Towards Synthesis and Usage of Actinide-Bearing REE Phosphate age Standards: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, J. M.; Cherniak, D. J.

    2006-05-01

    Electron microprobe (EMP) dates result from a concentration-time unit conversion, so use of a concentration- based (rather than isotope-ratio based) fictive age standard is warranted. This observation has motivated our mineral synthesis program, aimed at producing actinide-doped REE phosphate EMP dating standards that meet the following criteria: 1) known concentrations of U, Th, and Pb; 2) homogeneous intragrain distribution of all components; 3) of suitable size, either as a single-crystal or polycrystalline sintered ceramic. Single-crystal synthesis of actinide-doped LaPO4 by flux-growth methods results in disproportionation of lanthanide and flux, alkali, and actinide components into phosphate and oxide phases, respectively, and flux- growth methods were abandoned. Actinide-doped La phosphate is successfully prepared by high-T annealing and hydrothermal processing of microcrystalline phosphate; both homogeneity and charge-balance of (Ca, Th, Pb)-bearing LaPO4 increase with increasing solvent acidity during cold-seal hydrothermal synthesis. A combination of pressing and high-T (1400° C) sintering transforms fine-grained (0.1-10 μm) run- products to ceramic pellets with 90-95% theoretical density. Our most recent runs focused on a target composition of La80(CaTh)17(CaU)2(PbTh)1PO4 processed with 6% 2M HCl at 820° C, 0.75 kbar for 1 week. The run products are 0.1-2 μm crystals identified by XRD as La-actinide phosphate solid solution. 2 μm grains (N=16) give a composition (mean±2 sd) of La79.77(1.26)(CaTh)17.87(1.00)(CaU)1.53(0.42)(PbTh)0.82(0.09)PO4. Th (8.07-9.13 wt. %) is homogeneous at the level of analytical precision, and the Pb concentration range (3500-4350 ppm) is restricted relative to untreated precipitate. Uranium concentration values are more variable (6500-10000 ppm). This run yields a fictive age of 702±4 Ma (mean±2 se), compared to the fictive age of 794 Ma for the target composition.

  11. Comparison of the partitioning of pesticides relative to the survival and behaviour of exposed amphipods.

    PubMed

    Hellou, Jocelyne; Leonard, Jim; Cook, Art; Doe, Ken; Dunphy, Kathryn; Jackman, Paula; Tremblay, Laurie; Flemming, Joanna Mills

    2009-01-01

    Pesticides sprayed on farmlands can end up in rivers and be transported into estuaries, where they could affect aquatic organisms in freshwater and marine habitats. A series of experiments were conducted using the amphipod Corophium volutator Pallas (Amphipoda, Corophiidae) and single pesticides, namely atrazine (AT), azinphos-methyl (AZ), carbofuran (CA) and endosulfan (EN) that were added to sediments and covered with seawater. Our goal was to compare the concentrations affecting the survival of the animals relative to potential attractant or repellent properties of sediment-spiked pesticides. The avoidance/preference of contaminated/reference sediments by amphipods was examined after 48 and 96 h of exposure using sediments with different organic carbon content. The octanol-water partition coefficients (log K(ow)) ranked the pesticides binding to sediments as EN > AZ > AT > CA. LC(50) and LC(20) covered a wide range of nominal concentrations and ranked toxicity as CA-AZ > EN > AT. Under the experimental set up, only EN initiated an avoidance response and the organic carbon normalised concentration provided consistent results. Using the present data with wide confidence limits, >20% of a population of C. volutator could perish due to the presence of EN before relocation or detecting CA or AZ in sediments by chemical analysis. PMID:18785007

  12. Apolipoprotein E promotes subretinal mononuclear phagocyte survival and chronic inflammation in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Olivier; Calippe, Bertrand; Lavalette, Sophie; Hu, Shulong J; Raoul, William; Dominguez, Elisa; Housset, Michael; Paques, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Combadiere, Christophe; Guillonneau, Xavier; Sennlaub, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Physiologically, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) expresses immunosuppressive signals such as FAS ligand (FASL), which prevents the accumulation of leukocytes in the subretinal space. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with a breakdown of the subretinal immunosuppressive environment and chronic accumulation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs). We show that subretinal MPs in AMD patients accumulate on the RPE and express high levels of APOE. MPs of Cx3cr1−/− mice that develop MP accumulation on the RPE, photoreceptor degeneration, and increased choroidal neovascularization similarly express high levels of APOE. ApoE deletion in Cx3cr1−/− mice prevents pathogenic age- and stress-induced subretinal MP accumulation. We demonstrate that increased APOE levels induce IL-6 in MPs via the activation of the TLR2-CD14-dependent innate immunity receptor cluster. IL-6 in turn represses RPE FasL expression and prolongs subretinal MP survival. This mechanism may account, in part, for the MP accumulation observed in Cx3cr1−/− mice. Our results underline the inflammatory role of APOE in sterile inflammation in the immunosuppressive subretinal space. They provide rationale for the implication of IL-6 in AMD and open avenues toward therapies inhibiting pathogenic chronic inflammation in late AMD. PMID:25604058

  13. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  14. Movement and survival of an amphibian in relation to sediment and culvert design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeycutt, R.K; Lowe, W.H.; Hossack, Blake R.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat disturbance from stream culverts can affect aquatic organisms by increasing sedimentation or forming barriers to movement. Land managers are replacing many culverts to reduce these negative effects, primarily for stream fishes. However, these management actions are likely to have broad implications for many organisms, including amphibians in small streams. To assess the effects of culverts on movement and survival of the Idaho giant salamander (Dicamptodon aterrimus), we used capture-mark-recapture surveys and measured sediment in streams with 2 culvert types (i.e., unimproved culverts, improved culverts) and in streams without culverts (i.e., reference streams). We predicted culverts would increase stream sediment levels, limit movement, and reduce survival of Idaho giant salamanders. We also determined the effect of sediment levels on survival of salamanders because although sediment is often associated with distribution and abundance of stream amphibians, links with vital rates remain unclear. To estimate survival, we used a spatial Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) model that explicitly incorporated information on movement, eliminating bias in apparent survival estimated from traditional (i.e., non-spatial) CJS models caused by permanent emigration beyond the study area. To demonstrate the importance of using spatial data in studies of wildlife populations, we compared estimates from the spatial CJS to estimates of apparent survival from a traditional CJS model. Although high levels of sediment reduced survival of salamanders, culvert type was unrelated to sediment levels or true survival of salamanders. Across all streams, we documented only 15 movement events between study reaches. All movement events were downstream, and they occurred disproportionately in 1 stream, which precluded measuring the effect of culvert design on movement. Although movement was low overall, the variance among streams was high enough to bias estimates of apparent survival

  15. Survival of postfledging Forster's terns in relation to mercury exposure in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Takekawa, John Y; Iverson, Samuel A

    2008-11-01

    We examined factors influencing mercury concentrations in 90 fledgling Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and evaluated whether mercury influenced postfledging survival in San Francisco Bay, California. Mercury concentrations (+/- SE) in chicks 21-29 days old (just before fledging) were 0.33 +/- 0.01 microg g(-1) ww for blood and 6.44 +/- 0.28 microg g(-1) fw for breast feathers. Colony site had an overriding influence on fledgling contamination, however hatching date and age also affected blood, but not feather, mercury concentrations. Blood mercury concentrations decreased by 28% during the 50-day hatching period and increased with chick age by 30% during the last week prior to fledging. Using radio-telemetry, we calculated that cumulative survival during the 35-day postfledging time period was 0.81 +/- 0.09 (SE). Postfledging survival rates increased with size-adjusted mass, and cumulative survival probability was 61% lower for terns with the lowest, compared to the highest, observed masses. Conversely, survival was not influenced by blood mercury concentration, time since fledging, sex, or hatch date. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of fledglings found dead at nesting colonies also were no different than those in live chicks. Our results indicate that colony site, hatching date, and age influenced mercury concentrations in fledgling Forster's terns, but that mercury did not influence postfledging survival. PMID:18563558

  16. SURVIVAL IN INFECTION-RELATED ACUTE-ON-CHRONIC LIVER FAILURE IS DEFINED BY EXTRA-HEPATIC ORGAN FAILURES

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; O’Leary, Jacqueline G; Reddy, K Rajender; Wong, Florence; Biggins, Scott W.; Patton, Heather; Fallon, Michael B; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Maliakkal, Benedict; Malik, Raza; Subramanian, Ram M; Thacker, Leroy R; Kamath, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections worsen survival in cirrhosis; however, simple predictors of survival in infection-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (I-ACLF) derived from multi-center studies are required in order to improve prognostication and resource allocation. Methods Using the NACSELD database, data from 18 centers were collected for survival analysis of prospectively enrolled cirrhotic patients hospitalized with an infection. We defined organ failures as (i) shock, (ii) grade III/IV hepatic encephalopathy(HE), (iii) need for dialysis (iv) mechanical ventilation. Determinants of survival with these organ failures were analyzed. Results 507 patients were included (55 yrs, 52% HCV, 15.8% nosocomial infection, 96% Child score≥7) and 30-day evaluations were available in 453 patients. Urinary tract infection (UTI) (28.5%), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) (22.5%) were most prevalent. During hospitalization, 55.7% developed HE, 17.6% shock, 15.1% required renal replacement, and 15.8% needed ventilation; 23% died within 30-days and 21.6% developed second infections. Admitted patients developed none (38.4%), one (37.3%), two (10.4%), three (10%) or four (4%) organ failures. 30-day survival worsened with higher number of extra-hepatic organ failures, none (92%), one (72.6%), two (51.3%), three (36%) and all four (23%). I-ACLF was defined as ≥2 organ failures given the significant change in survival probability associated at this cutoff. Baseline independent predictors for development of ACLF were nosocomial infections, MELD score, low mean arterial pressure (MAP), and non-SBP infections. Independent predictors of poor 30-day survival were I-ACLF, second infections, and admission values of high MELD, low MAP, high white blood count and low albumin. In conclusion, using multi-center study data in hospitalized decompensated infected cirrhotic patients, I-ACLF defined by the presence of two or more organ failures using simple definitions is predictive of poor

  17. A Systemic Review of Autologous Fat Grafting Survival Rate and Related Severe Complications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nan-Ze; Huang, Jiu-Zuo; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhao, Ru; Bai, Ming; Long, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Clinical application of autologous fat grafting (AFG) is quickly expanding. Despite the widely acceptance, long-term survival rate (SR) of AFG remains a question not yet solved. Meanwhile, although rare, severe complications related to AFG including vision loss, stroke even death could be seen in the literature. Data Sources: A comprehensive research of PubMed database to June 2013 was performed according to guidelines of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force Assessment Methodology. Articles were screened using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study Selection: Data collected included patient characteristics, surgical technique, donor site, recipient site, graft amount, and quantified measurement methods. Patient cohorts were pooled, and SR was calculated. All the severe complications were also summarized according to the different clinical characteristics. Results: Of 550 articles, 16 clinical articles and 10 animal studies met the inclusion criteria and provided quantified measurement methods. Totally, 596 patients were included. SR varied from 34% to 82% in breast and 30–83% in the facial area. Nude mice were applied to investigate human fat grafting SR (38.3–52.5% after 15 weeks). Rabbits were commonly used to study animal AFG SR (14.00–14.56% after 1-year). Totally, 21 severe complications were reported, including death (2), stroke (10), vision loss (11, 8 of which accompanied with stroke), sepsis (3), multiple abscess (1) and giant fat necrotic cyst (2). Ten of these complications happened within 10 years. Conclusions: There is no unified measurement method to evaluate fat graft SR until now and no clinical evidence to show better SR according to different donor and recipient cite. Body mass index change between pre- and postoperation may be the bias factor in evaluating fat SR. Fat embolisms of the ophthalmic artery and the middle cerebral artery are the most severe complication of AFG and still lack of

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF MODEL TIME STEP ON THE RELATIVE SENSITIVITY OF POPULATION GROWTH TO SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Matrix population models are often used to extrapolate from life stage-specific stressor effects on survival and reproduction to population-level effects. Demographic elasticity analysis of a matrix model allows an evaluation of the relative sensitivity of population growth rate ...

  19. Functional Class and Targeted Therapy Are Related to the Survival in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yae Min; Choi, Deok Young; Baek, Han Joo; Jung, Sung Hwan; Choi, In Suck; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an orphan disease showing poor prognosis. The purpose of study was to evaluate clinical factors influencing outcomes in PAH. Materials and Methods Patients who were diagnosed with PAH at a single center were reviewed retrospectively. Forty patients (34.9±14.5 years, 80% of female) were enrolled. Results Causes were congenital heart disease in 24 (60%), connective tissue disease in 8 (20%) and idiopathic PAH in 6 (15%). Sixteen patients (40%) were WHO functional class III or IV at the time of diagnosis. Twenty seven patients (67.5%) received molecular targeted therapy. During follow-up (53.6±45.5 months), 10 patients (25%) died and 1-, 2-, and 8 year survival rates were 91.3%, 78.7%, and 66.8%, respectively. As expected, median survival of patients with functional class I or II were significantly longer than patients with III or IV (p=0.041). Interestingly, patients with molecular targeted therapy showed longer survival than conventional therapy (p=0.021). Conclusion WHO functional class at the time of diagnosis was the strong predictor of survival, and molecular targeted therapy could significantly improve the survival. Therefore, early screening and intensive management would be crucial to improve the prognosis in the patient with PAH. PMID:25323888

  20. Nest survival of clay-colored and vesper sparrows in relation to woodland edge in mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, T.A.; Madden, E.M.; Shaffer, T.L.; Pietz, P.J.; Berkey, G.B.; Kadrmas, N.J.

    2006-01-01

    The quantity and quality of northern mixed-grass prairie continues to decline because of conversion to agriculture, invasion of woody and exotic plants, and disruption of important ecological processes that shape grasslands. Declines in grassland bird populations in North Dakota, USA, have coincided with these largely anthropogenic alterations to prairie habitat. In grasslands of north-central and northwestern North Dakota, woody plants have increased due primarily to fire suppression, extirpation of bison (Bos bison), and widescale planting of tree shelter belts. In northern grasslands, effects of woody vegetation on survival of grassland birds are poorly understood, and conclusions are based mainly on studies conducted outside the region. We examined nest survival of clay-colored sparrows (Spizella pallida) and vesper sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus) relative to the distance nests were located from aspen (Populus tremuloides,) woodland edges and relative to other habitat features near the nest. Clay-colored and vesper sparrow nest survival was higher for nests located near woodland edges, nests with greater cover of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), and nests more concealed by vegetation. Vesper sparrow nest survival increased as the percent cover of tall shrubs near the nest increased. Based on video-camera data, the 13-lined ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus,) was the most common predator of sparrow eggs and young. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels were more common far from woodland edges than near, and this pattern may, in part, explain clay-colored and vesper sparrow nest survival in relation to woodland edges. In contrast to our results, studies conducted in other grassland systems generally report lower nest survival for grassland birds nesting near trees and shrubs. This disparity in results demonstrates the need to identify specific nest predators and their distributions with respect to important habitat features because these data can be

  1. Content of low density lipoprotein receptors in breast cancer tissue related to survival of patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rudling, M J; Ståhle, L; Peterson, C O; Skoog, L

    1986-01-01

    The content of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in tissue from primary breast cancers was determined and its prognostic information compared with that of variables of established prognostic importance. Frozen tumour specimens were selected, and tissue from 72 patients (32 of whom had died) were studied. The LDL receptor content showed an inverse correlation with the survival time. Analysis by a multivariate statistical method showed that the presence of axillary metastasis, content of receptors for oestrogen and LDL, diameter of the tumour, and DNA pattern were all of prognostic value with regard to patient survival. Improved methods of predicting survival time in patients with breast cancer may be of value in the choice of treatment for individual patients. PMID:3081176

  2. Assessing the relative importance of local and regional processes on the survival of a threatened salmon population.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jessica A; Teel, David J; Peterson, William T; Baptista, Antonio M

    2014-01-01

    Research on regulatory mechanisms in biological populations often focuses on environmental covariates. An integrated approach that combines environmental indices with organismal-level information can provide additional insight on regulatory mechanisms. Survival of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is consistently low whereas some adjacent populations with similar life histories experience greater survival. It is not known if populations with differential survival respond similarly during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history. Ocean collections, genetic stock identification, and otolith analyses were combined to evaluate the growth-mortality and match-mismatch hypotheses during early marine residence of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon. Interannual variation in juvenile attributes, including size at marine entry and marine growth rate, was compared with estimates of survival and physical and biological metrics. Multiple linear regression and multi-model inference were used to evaluate the relative importance of biological and physical metrics in explaining interannual variation in survival. There was relatively weak support for the match-mismatch hypothesis and stronger evidence for the growth-mortality hypothesis. Marine growth and size at capture were strongly, positively related to survival, a finding similar to spring Chinook salmon from the Mid-Upper Columbia River. In hindcast models, basin-scale indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)) and biological indices (juvenile salmon catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and a copepod community index (CCI)) accounted for substantial and similar portions of variation in survival for juvenile emigration years 1998-2008 (R2>0.70). However, in forecast models for emigration years 2009-2011, there was an increasing discrepancy between predictions based on the PDO (50-448% of observed value) compared with those based on

  3. Assessing the Relative Importance of Local and Regional Processes on the Survival of a Threatened Salmon Population

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jessica A.; Teel, David J.; Peterson, William T.; Baptista, Antonio M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on regulatory mechanisms in biological populations often focuses on environmental covariates. An integrated approach that combines environmental indices with organismal-level information can provide additional insight on regulatory mechanisms. Survival of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is consistently low whereas some adjacent populations with similar life histories experience greater survival. It is not known if populations with differential survival respond similarly during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history. Ocean collections, genetic stock identification, and otolith analyses were combined to evaluate the growth-mortality and match-mismatch hypotheses during early marine residence of spring/summer Snake River Chinook salmon. Interannual variation in juvenile attributes, including size at marine entry and marine growth rate, was compared with estimates of survival and physical and biological metrics. Multiple linear regression and multi-model inference were used to evaluate the relative importance of biological and physical metrics in explaining interannual variation in survival. There was relatively weak support for the match-mismatch hypothesis and stronger evidence for the growth-mortality hypothesis. Marine growth and size at capture were strongly, positively related to survival, a finding similar to spring Chinook salmon from the Mid-Upper Columbia River. In hindcast models, basin-scale indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO)) and biological indices (juvenile salmon catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and a copepod community index (CCI)) accounted for substantial and similar portions of variation in survival for juvenile emigration years 1998–2008 (R2>0.70). However, in forecast models for emigration years 2009–2011, there was an increasing discrepancy between predictions based on the PDO (50–448% of observed value) compared with those

  4. Gene expressions of TRP channels in glioblastoma multiforme and relation with survival.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, M; Eroglu, S; Tutar, E; Sencan, S; Geyik, M A; Ulasli, M; Demiryurek, A T; Camci, C

    2015-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer in humans, with a median survival of 10 to 12 months. Glioblastoma is highly malignant since the cells are supported by a great number of blood vessels. Although new treatments have been developed by increasing knowledge of molecular nature of the disease, surgical operation remains the standard of care. The TRP (transient receptor potential) superfamily consists of cation-selective channels that have roles in sensory physiology such as thermo- and osmosensation and in several complex diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, and neuronal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression levels of TRP channel genes in patients with glioblastoma multiforme and to evaluate the relationship between TRP gene expressions and survival of the patients. Thirty-three patients diagnosed with glioblastoma were enrolled to the study. The expression levels of 21 TRP genes were quantified by using qRT-PCR with dynamic array 48 × 48 chip (BioMark HD System, Fluidigm, South San Francisco, CA, USA). TRPC1, TRPC6, TRPM2, TRPM3, TRPM7, TRPM8, TRPV1, and TRPV2 were found significantly higher in glioblastoma patients. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the overexpression of TRP genes and the survival of the patients. These results demonstrate for the first time that TRP channels contribute to the progression and survival of the glioblastoma patients. PMID:26088448

  5. Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen is related to tumour stage and long-term survival in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, M. A.; Buckley, D.; Henson, D. B.; Armitage, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence as to the value of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in guiding treatment for patients with colorectal cancer is conflicting. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the value of preoperative CEA in predicting tumour factors of proven prognostic value and long-term survival in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. Preoperative serum CEA, tumour ploidy, stage and grade were ascertained in 277 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. This cohort of patients were followed up for a minimum of 5 years, or until death, in a dedicated colorectal clinic. Patients with an elevated CEA had a 5 year survival of 39%. This increased to 57% if the CEA was normal (P=0.001). The proportion of patients with a raised CEA increased with a more advanced tumour stage (P < 0.000001) and a poorly differentiated tumour grade (P < 0.005). Once stage had been controlled for, CEA was not a predictor of survival. No relationship between tumour ploidy and CEA was found. In conclusion, a raised preoperative serum CEA is likely to be associated with advanced tumour stage and poor long-term survival, compared with patients with a normal value. PMID:9823977

  6. A Longitudinal Analysis of Factors Related to Survival in Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahtahmasebi, Said; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Used data from a longitudinal study of elderly which began in 1979 with 534 individuals in rural North Wales to study relationship between social circumstances and longevity. Multivariate analysis demonstrated there is no prima facie evidence that survival is affected by social networks or quality of life factors. However, socioeconomic factors…

  7. Inventorying the molecular potential of Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains surviving harsh space-related environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijnendonckx, Kristel; van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Bossus, Albert; Ott, C. Mark; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Leys, Natalie

    isolates survived exposure to 2µM AgNO3 for up to 5 weeks. All strains were able to grow on kanamycin (50µg/ml) and chloramphenicol (30 µg/ml and up to 150 µg/ml for the Cupriavidus strains). C. metallidurans IV (0502478) was not able to grow on ampicillin (100µg/ml). All Ralstonia and two Cupriavidus isolates were able to grow on carbenicilllin (100µg/ml). None of the isolates were able to grow on tetracycline (20µg/ml). These antibiotic concentrations are typically used for selection of the relevant resistance markers in a wide range of gram-negative bacteria. In addition, all isolates carried at least one large plasmid. The differences in the plasmid profile might be related to the differences in heavy metal and antibiotic resistance of the isolates. In general, these Ralstonia and Cupriavidus strains seemed to be well adapted to persist in these harsh and oligotrophic spacecraft-related environments. Moreover, these bacteria clearly possessed large plasmids, which are known to carry specific traits, such as metal and antibiotics resistance systems. It is therefore hypothesised that thanks to these plasmids the strains were specifically adapted to their rapid changing environment. These first results justify a more detailed study of the genetic content and the survival and proliferation strategies of these strains to improve the prevention of bacterial contamination, monitoring and disinfection tools for future manned space exploration. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the European Space Agency (ESA-PRODEX) and the Belgian Science Policy (Belspo) through the MISSEX and COMICS projects.

  8. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission-track age standards: Fission-track workshop-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Hurford, A.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Five samples were made available as standards for the 1984 Fission Track Workshop held in the summer of 1984 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York). Two zircons, two apatites and a sphene were distributed prior to the meeting to 40 different laboratories. To date, 24 different analysts have reported results. The isotopic ages of the standards ranged from 16.8 to 98.7 Myr. Only the statement that the age of each sample was less than 200 Myr was provided with the set of standards distributed. Consequently, each laboratory was required to use their laboratory's accepted treatment (irradiation level, etching conditions, counting conditions, etc.) for these samples. The results show that some workers have serious problems in achieving accurate age determinations. This emphasizes the need to calibrate experimental techniques and counting procedures against age standards before unknown ages are determined. Any fission-track age determination published or submitted for publication can only be considered reliable if it is supported by evidence of consistent determinations on age standards. Only this can provide the scientific community with the background to build up confidence concerning the validity of the fission-track method. ?? 1985.

  9. Survival in patients with human papillomavirus positive tonsillar cancer in relation to treatment.

    PubMed

    Attner, Per; Näsman, Anders; Du, Juan; Hammarstedt, Lalle; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Lindholm, Johan; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Dalianis, Tina; Marklund, Linda

    2012-09-01

    The incidence of tonsillar cancer and the proportion of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive tonsillar cancer cases have increased in the last decades. In parallel, treatment for tonsillar cancer has been intensified e.g., by accelerated radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, resulting in more side effects. Patients with HPV-positive tonsillar cancer have better prognosis than those with HPV-negative tumors, and the former group could hypothetically benefit from reduced, less-toxic treatment without compromising survival. Here, we therefore evaluated possible differences in overall and disease-specific survival after different oncological treatments in 153 patients with HPV DNA- and P16-positive tonsillar cancer who were diagnosed and treated with intent to cure between 2000 and 2007, in Stockholm, Sweden. Of these patients, 86 were treated with conventional radiotherapy, 40 were treated with accelerated radiotherapy and 27 were treated with chemoradiotherapy. There were no significant differences in overall or disease-free survival between the groups. However, there was a trend, implying a beneficial effect of the intensified treatment, with chemoradiotherapy being better than radiotherapy despite that more patients had stage IV disease in the former group; and accelerated radiotherapy being better than conventional radiotherapy. This needs to be followed further in larger more homogenous groups of patients. In conclusion, patients with HPV-positive tonsillar cancer treated with conventional- or accelerated radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy disclosed similar survival rates. The trend for better survival and less metastasis after intensified treatment underlines the need for large prospective studies comparing less intense to more intense treatment (chemoradiotherapy). PMID:22038860

  10. Winter survival of adult female harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Schmutz, J.A.; Jarvis, R.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) life-history characteristics make their populations particularly vulnerable to perturbations during nonbreeding periods. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill was a major perturbation to nonbreeding habitats of harlequin ducks in Prince William Sound, Alaska, which resulted in population injury. To assess the status of population recovery from the oil spill and to evaluate factors potentially constraining full recovery, we used radiotelemetry to examine survival of adult female harlequin ducks during winters of 1995-96, 1996-97, and 1997-98. We implanted 294 harlequin ducks (154 and 140 in oiled and unoiled areas, respectively) with transmitters and tracked their signals from aircraft during October through March. We examined variation in survival rates relative to area and season (early, mid, and late winter) through comparisons of models using Akaike's information criterion (AIC(c)) values. The 3 models best supported by the data indicated that survival of birds in oiled areas was lower than in unoiled areas. Inclusion of standardized body mass during wing molt in the 3 best models did not improve their fit, indicating that body mass during wing molt did not affect subsequent winter survival. In the model that best fit our data, survival was high in early winter for both areas, lower during mid and late winter seasons, and lowest in oiled areas during mid winter. Cumulative winter survival estimated from this model was 78.0% (SE = 3.3%) in oiled areas and 83.7% (SE = 2.9%) in unoiled areas. We determined that area differences in survival were more likely related to oiling history than intrinsic geographic differences. Based on a demographic model, area differences in survival offer a likely mechanism for observed declines in populations on oiled areas. Concurrent studies indicated that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil as much as 9 years after the spill. We suggest that oil exposure

  11. Environmental microbiology as related to planetary quarantine. [water activity and temperature effects on bacterial spore survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1972-01-01

    The survival of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores suspended in solutions of sucrose and glycerol at calculated water activities and varying temperatures was studied. The overall results indicated that as the water activity of the liquid decreased from .99 to .85, the heat resistance of the spores increased. The nature of the substance controlling the water activity, and the history of the spores prior to treatment also had an affect on their heat resistance.

  12. Relation of Obesity to Survival After In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tanush; Kolte, Dhaval; Mohananey, Divyanshu; Khera, Sahil; Goel, Kashish; Mondal, Pratik; Aronow, Wilbert S; Jain, Diwakar; Cooper, Howard A; Iwai, Sei; Frishman, William H; Bhatt, Deepak L; Fonarow, Gregg C; Panza, Julio A

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that obesity is paradoxically associated with improved outcomes in many cardiovascular (CV) disease states; however, whether obesity affects survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) has not been well examined. We queried the 2003 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients aged ≥18 years who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation for IHCA. Obese patients were identified using the co-morbidity variable for obesity, as defined in Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases. Survival to hospital discharge was compared between obese and nonobese patients using multivariate regression models. Of 836,289 patients with IHCA, 67,216 (8.0%) were obese. Obese patients were younger and more likely to be women compared with nonobese patients. Despite being younger, obese patients had significantly higher prevalence of most CV co-morbidities such as dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, previous myocardial infarction, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, and chronic renal failure (p <0.001 for all). Obese patients were more likely to have ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation as the initial cardiac arrest rhythm (22.3% vs 20.9%; p <0.001). After multivariate risk adjustment, obese patients had improved survival to hospital discharge compared with nonobese patients (31.4% vs 24.1%; unadjusted odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.47, p <0.001; adjusted odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.17, p <0.001). Similar results were seen in patients with CV or non-CV conditions as the primary diagnosis and in those with ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation or pulseless electrical activity/asystole as the cardiac arrest rhythm. In conclusion, this large retrospective analysis of a nationwide cohort of patients with IHCA demonstrated higher risk-adjusted odds of survival in obese patients, consistent with an "obesity paradox." PMID:27381664

  13. Reproduction and survival of tawny owls in relation to persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Yoccoz, Nigel G; Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Skaare, Jannech Utne

    2009-01-01

    The potential effects of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants on reproduction and survival were studied in tawny owls (Strix aluco) in Central Norway over a period of 19 years (1986-2004). Concentrations of 14 OCs and five polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in eggs (n=104), and Principal Component Analysis was used to produce composite measurements of pollutants; i.e. PC1 and PC2, which accounted for 85% of the variation in contaminant concentrations. There was no evidence for adverse associations between pollutants (PC scores) and life-history traits such as clutch size, probability of producing fledglings and survival, when controlling for potentially confounding variables. Moreover, there was no evidence for interactions between pollutants and vole abundance suggesting no synergistic effects of food stress and pollutants on these life-history traits. There was, however, some evidence for a non-linear negative association between p,p'-DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene) and eggshell thickness. This suggests that the concentrations of pollutants in this ecosystem were too low to affect reproduction and survival in an owl predominantly consuming prey at low trophic levels, but may be sufficient to cause eggshell thinning at the highest concentrations. PMID:18930319

  14. Survival in macaroni penguins and the relative importance of different drivers: individual traits, predation pressure and environmental variability.

    PubMed

    Horswill, Catharine; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Green, Jonathan A; Meredith, Michael P; Forcada, Jaume; Peat, Helen; Preston, Mark; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the demographic response of free-living animal populations to different drivers is the first step towards reliable prediction of population trends. Penguins have exhibited dramatic declines in population size, and many studies have linked this to bottom-up processes altering the abundance of prey species. The effects of individual traits have been considered to a lesser extent, and top-down regulation through predation has been largely overlooked due to the difficulties in empirically measuring this at sea where it usually occurs. For 10 years (2003-2012), macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) were marked with subcutaneous electronic transponder tags and re-encountered using an automated gateway system fitted at the entrance to the colony. We used multistate mark-recapture modelling to identify the different drivers influencing survival rates and a sensitivity analysis to assess their relative importance across different life stages. Survival rates were low and variable during the fledging year (mean = 0·33), increasing to much higher levels from age 1 onwards (mean = 0·89). We show that survival of macaroni penguins is driven by a combination of individual quality, top-down predation pressure and bottom-up environmental forces. The relative importance of these covariates was age specific. During the fledging year, survival rates were most sensitive to top-down predation pressure, followed by individual fledging mass, and finally bottom-up environmental effects. In contrast, birds older than 1 year showed a similar response to bottom-up environmental effects and top-down predation pressure. We infer from our results that macaroni penguins will most likely be negatively impacted by an increase in the local population size of giant petrels. Furthermore, this population is, at least in the short term, likely to be positively influenced by local warming. More broadly, our results highlight the importance of considering multiple causal effects across

  15. Cancer survival in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sriamporn, S; Black, R J; Sankaranarayanan, R; Kamsa-ad, S; Parkin, D M; Vatanasapt, V

    1995-05-01

    Thailand is one of the few developing countries for which population-based cancer survival data are available. Using clinical follow-up information and reply-paid postal enquiries, 10,333 residents of Khon Kaen province registered with cancer in the period 1985-1992 were followed-up to the end of 1993. The sites of the most common cancers in the province were liver (5-year relative survival rate 9.2%), cervix (60.1%), lung (15.4%), breast (48.1%) and large bowel (41.9%). Results for Khon Kaen were compared with age-standardized survival data for the US and Scotland. Survival was consistently higher for US whites compared to Khon Kaen residents for those cancers whose prognosis is associated with early diagnosis (breast, cervix and large bowel) or the availability of intensive therapy (leukaemia and lymphoma). The main implication of these results for cancer control in Thailand is that the interventions of greatest potential benefit are those designed to promote early detection. More than one-third of all cancers in Thailand are liver tumours: primary prevention through control of hepatitis-B infection and liver fluke infestation is the only effective strategy for their control. PMID:7729937

  16. Effect of smokeless tobacco and tobacco-related chemical carcinogens on survival of ultraviolet light-inactivated herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Dokko, H.; Min, P.S.; Cherrick, H.M.; Park, N.H. )

    1991-04-01

    Low doses of ultraviolet (UV) light, x-rays, photodynamic treatment, or aflatoxins increase the survival of UV-irradiated virus in cells. This effect is postulated to occur by enhancement of the error-prone cellular repair function, which could also be associated with oncogenic cell transformation. The present study was designed to investigate whether treatment of green monkey kidney cells with water extract of snuff (snuff extract), benzo(a)pyrene, nicotine, or tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines would result in enhanced survival of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus (HSV). Exposure of the cells with snuff extract, benzo(a)pyrene, N'-nitrosonornicotine, or 4-(N-methyl-N'-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone resulted in an enhancement of survival of UV-irradiated HSV type 1 compared with the control whereas exposure of the cells with nicotine did not. These data indicate that the water-extractable component of snuff and tobacco-related chemical carcinogens increase the cellular repair mechanism and provides for increased survival of UV-irradiated HSV.

  17. Heat shock protein expression in relation to reproductive cycle in land snails: Implications for survival.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Tal; Heller, Joseph; Goldenberg, Shoshana; Arad, Zeev

    2011-10-01

    Land snails are subject to daily and seasonal variations in temperature and in water availability and use heat shock proteins (HSPs) as part of their survival strategy. We tested whether the reproductive cycle of land snails affects the endogenous levels of HSPs, and their involvement in the reproductive process. We examined HSP levels in the foot tissue of two Sphincterochila species, S. cariosa and S. zonata, before and after laying eggs, and analyzed the albumen gland (reproductive organ) of both species and eggs of S. cariosa for the presence and quantity of various HSPs. Our study shows reduction in the expression level of Hsp70 isoforms and Hsp90 in S. zonata foot and of Hsp74 in S. cariosa foot during the period preceding egg laying compared to the post-reproductive stage. Hsp70 isoforms and Hsp25 were highly expressed in both large albumen glands and in freshly laid eggs of S. cariosa, whereas large albumen glands of S. zonata expressed mainly Hsp70 isoforms. We conclude that a trade-off between survival and fertility is responsible for the expression level of HSPs in the foot tissue of Sphincterochila snails. Our study shows that HSPs are involved in the reproductive process. We propose that parental provision of HSPs may be part of a "be prepared" strategy of Sphincterochila snails, and that HSPs may play important roles in the survival strategy of land snails during the early life stages. Our observations also highlight the importance of the reproductive status in study of whole organisms, especially when assessing the HSP response to stress. PMID:21664480

  18. Nest survival of American Coots relative to grazing, burning, and water depths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Water and emergent vegetation are key features influencing nest site selection and success for many marsh-nesting waterbirds. Wetland management practices such as grazing, burning, and water-level manipulations directly affect these features and can influence nest survival. We used model selection and before-after-control-impact approaches to evaluate the effects of water depth and four common land-management practices or treatments, i.e., summer grazing, fall grazing, fall burning, and idle (no active treatment) on nest survival of American coots (Fulica americana) nesting at Grays Lake, a large montane wetland in southeast Idaho. The best model included the variables year × treatment, and quadratic functions of date, water depth, and nest age; height of vegetation at the nest did not improve the best model. However, results from the before-after-control-impact analysis indicate that management practices affected nest success via vegetation and involved interactions of hydrology, residual vegetation, and habitat composition. Nest success in idled fields changed little between pre- and post-treatment periods, whereas nest success declined in fields that were grazed or burned, with the most dramatic declines the year following treatments. The importance of water depth may be amplified in this wetland system because of rapid water-level withdrawal during the nesting season. Water and land-use values for area ranchers, management for nesting waterbirds, and long-term wetland function are important considerations in management of water levels and vegetation.

  19. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H. L.; Xue, J. M.; Lai, J. N.; Wang, J. Y.; Zhang, W. M.; Miao, Q.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W. J.; He, F.; Gu, H. Y.; Wang, Y. G.

    2006-04-01

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 × 109-1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper.

  20. Intraperitoneal adipose tissue is strongly related to survival rate in a mouse cecal ligation and puncture model

    PubMed Central

    Niiyama, Shuhei; Takasu, Osamu; Sakamoto, Teruo; Ushijima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) models exhibiting polymicrobial sepsis are considered as the gold standard in sepsis research. However, despite meticulous research being conducted in this field, only few treatment drugs are available, indicating that CLP sepsis models do not completely mimic human sepsis models. The greatest flaw in CLP models is abscess formation because the localization of inflammation caused by abscess formation increases the survival rate. Therefore, by resecting intraperitoneal adipose tissue, we developed a mouse CLP model wherein abscess formation was unlikely. Survival rates at 7 days postoperatively were compared using the Kaplan–Meier method for an intraperitoneal adipose tissue resection group (resection group, n=34), an intraperitoneal adipose tissue non-resection group (non-resection group, n=35) and a sham group (n=10). Results indicated that the survival rate was significantly higher in the non-resection group compared with the resection group. Intraperitoneal macroscopic findings in the non-resection group revealed the localization of inflammation caused by abscesses formation covered in adipose tissue. The survival rate for the sham group was 100%. Measurement of interleukin 6 (IL-6) indicated that during the 12 h after the creation of the CLP model, the median level of IL-6 was 1300 (552–3000) pg ml−1 in the non-resection group (n=19) and 3000 (1224–8595) pg ml−1 in the resection group (n=19). Meanwhile, for the sham group, IL-6 values were below measurement sensitivity in most cases (9/10 mice). Thus our results suggest that, in CLP models, intraperitoneal adipose tissue has an important role in abscess formation and is strongly related to the survival rate. PMID:26962454

  1. Prevalence and associated survival of high-risk HPV-related adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Chen, Chao; Tzamalis, Georgios; Hofmann, Veit M; Keilholz, Ulrich; Hummel, Michael; Albers, Andreas E

    2016-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) is a rare malignancy, but a frequent subtype in minor and major salivary glands. The molecular alterations or biomarkers that underlie its development and progression as well as therapy outcomes are poorly characterized. The main study goal was to investigate reliable biomarkers and patient-related factors that may have impact on recurrence and long-term survival of SACC. The prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in SACC was determined by HPV-DNA genotyping and p16 immunostaining. Epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), p53 and Ki-67 expression were also evaluated. Twenty-eight (42%) of 67 patients were HPV-DNA positive. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that SACC patients with metastases (P=0.03) had a poor overall survival (OS) and a shorter recurrence-free survival (P<0.001). Positive resection margins significantly predicted shorter recurrence-free survival (P=0.01). In the multivariate analysis, non-metastatic disease (P=0.033) and p16 positivity (P=0.005) have shown their prediction value for OS while non-metastatic disease (P=0.002), HPV positivity (P=0.041) and negative resection margin predicted a better recurrence-free survival. The present study documents for the first time the positivity for HPV infection and overexpression of certain markers (p16, Ki-67, EGFR and p53) used in diagnostics in SACC as well as characterizes clinical entities. These factors might be exploited in the future as biomarkers for its prognostic value. Using the clinical and pathological basis for predicting different outcomes could significantly facilitate SACC stratification and potentially directing treatment. PMID:27279281

  2. The NER-related gene GTF2H5 predicts survival in high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamieniak, Marta M.; Muñoz-Repeto, Ivan; Borrego, Salud; Hernando, Susana; Hernández-Agudo, Elena; Heredia Soto, Victoria; Márquez-Rodas, Ivan; Echarri, María José; Lacambra-Calvet, Carmen; Sáez, Raquel; Redondo, Andrés; Benítez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of the nucleotide excision repair-related gene GTF2H5, which is localized at the 6q24.2-26 deletion previously reported by our group to predict longer survival of high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients. Methods In order to test if protein levels of GTF2H5 are associated with patients' outcome, we performed GTF2H5 immunohistochemical staining in 139 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas included in tissue microarrays. Upon stratification of cases into high- and low-GTF2H5 staining categories (> and ≤ median staining, respectively) Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test were used to estimate patients’ survival and assess statistical differences. We also evaluated the association of GTF2H5 with survival at the transcriptional level by using the on-line Kaplan-Meier plotter tool, which includes gene expression and survival data of 855 high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients from 13 different datasets. Finally, we determined whether stable short hairpin RNA-mediated GTF2H5 downregulation modulates cisplatin sensitivity in the SKOV3 and COV504 cell lines by using cytotoxicity assays. Results Low expression of GTF2H5 was associated with longer 5-year survival of patients at the protein (hazard ratio [HR], 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.93; p=0.024) and transcriptional level (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.97; p=0.023) in high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients. We confirmed the association with 5-year overall survival (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.78; p=0.0007) and also found an association with progression-free survival (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.96; p=0.026) in a homogenous group of 388 high-stage (stages III-IV using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system), optimally debulked high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients. GTF2H5-silencing induced a decrease of the half maximal inhibitory concentration upon cisplatin treatment in GTF2H5-silenced ovarian cancer cells. Conclusion Low

  3. Stocking of hatchery-reared striped bass in the Patuxent River, Maryland: survival, relative abundance, and cost-effectiveness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.; Florence, B.M.; Wooley, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Hatchery-reared fingerlings of striped bass Morone saxatilis were tagged, stocked, and recovered in the Patuxent River, Maryland, to estimate their survival and abundance relative to wild young of the year and to compare the costs and benefits of stocking phase-I (35–50 mm, total length) and phase-II (150–200 mm) fish. About 100,000 phase-I fingerlings were tagged and released each year during midsummer 1988 and 1989. Both tagged and untagged (wild) young of the year were recovered by alongshore seining in the river through 80 d poststocking. Mortality rates of wild and hatchery-reared young of the year were not significantly different-about 3%/d. Wild young of the year were more abundant in 1989 than in 1988. In 1988, phase-I fingerlings composed 56% of all young-of-the-year striped bass in the river. In 1989 wild young-of-the-year striped bass outnumbered hatchery-reared fingerlings by about 11 to 1. Whether phase-I or phase-II stocking was more cost-effective depended on the relative magnitudes of fingerling survival and on hatchery production costs. The range of phase-II survival (5–50%) observed among different hatcheries and years of production was too broad to support generalizations about cost-effectiveness, given the fivefold difference in the unit costs of phase-I and phase-II production.

  4. RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND THE KILLING OF BACTERIA: THE SURVIVAL OF SERRATIA MARCESCENS DEHYDRATED BY CONCENTRATED GLYCEROL AND SUCROSE SOLUTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, J. B.; White, F. Elizabeth

    1963-01-01

    Bateman, J. B. (U.S. Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and F. Elizabeth White. Effect of relative humidity on the survival of Serratia marcescens in concentrated glycerol and sucrose solutions. J. Bacteriol. 85:918–926. 1963.—The effects of sucrose and glycerol upon the ability of Serratia marcescens to grow when restored to a normal medium after exposure to solutions of these substances were examined, with special attention to the prevailing thermodynamic activity of water in these solutions as a factor of supposed primary importance in influencing survival or death of cells. The data were notable for the absence of any zones of instability such as those found when the water activity is changed by exposure of washed cells to water vapor at controlled relative humidities (RH). The cells survived indefinitely at room temperature in concentrated sucrose solutions; in glycerol solutions of equilibrium RH values from 20 to 90, the first-order decay constants were about 0.03 to 0.1 hr−1. These results, considered together with the contrasting phenomenon of narrow lethal humidity zones found in vapor-phrase equilibration experiments, were explained generally in terms of competitive interactions involving concentrated intrinsic and adventitious solutes, the cell water, and the organized structures of the cell, whose integrity was considered to depend ultimately upon the net effect of these various interactions. PMID:14044963

  5. Circulating Biomarkers of One-Carbon Metabolism in Relation to Renal Cell Carcinoma Incidence and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Mattias; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David C.; Bassett, Julie K.; Midttun, Øivind; Vollset, Stein Emil; Travis, Ruth C.; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Sieri, Sabina; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ljungberg, Börje; Hallmans, Göran; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; González, Carlos A.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Ros, Martine M.; Boutron Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Clavel, Françoise; Sánchez, María-José; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Navarro, Carmen; Quiros, J. Ramon; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Aleksandrova, Krassimira; Vineis, Paolo; Gunter, Marc J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Giles, Graham; Relton, Caroline; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner; Ueland, Per Magne; Severi, Gianluca; Brennan, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The etiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is only partially understood, but a metabolic component appears likely. We investigated biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism and RCC onset and survival. Methods The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited 385747 participants with blood samples between 1992 and 2000, and this analysis included 556 RCC case-control pairs. A subsequent replication study included 144 case-control pairs nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS). Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, methionine and homocysteine were measured in prediagnostic samples and evaluated with respect to RCC risk using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models, and to all-cause mortality in RCC cases using Cox regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results EPIC participants with higher plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 had lower risk of RCC, the odds ratio comparing the 4th and 1st quartiles (OR4vs1) being 0.40 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28 to 0.57, P trend < .001. We found similar results after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted P trend < .001). In survival analysis, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality in RCC cases when comparing the 4th and 1st quartiles (HR4vs1) of vitamin B6 was 0.57 (95% CI = 0.37 to 0.87, P trend < .001). Subsequent replication of these associations within the MCCS yielded very similar results for both RCC risk (OR4vs1 = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.23 to 0.99, P trend = .07) and all-cause mortality (HR4vs1 = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.27 to 1.17, P trend = .02). No association was evident for the other measured biomarkers. Conclusion Study participants with higher circulating concentrations of vitamin B6 had lower risk of RCC and improved survival following diagnosis in two independent cohorts. PMID:25376861

  6. Mucin-1 and its relation to grade, stage and survival in ovarian carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mucin-1 is known to be over-expressed by various human carcinomas and is shed into the circulation where it can be detected in patient’s serum by specific anti-Mucin-1 antibodies, such as the tumour marker assays CA 15–3 and CA 27.29. The prognostic value of Mucin-1 expression in ovarian carcinoma remains uncertain. One aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of Mucin-1 in a cohort of patients with either benign or malignant ovarian tumours detected by CA 15–3 and CA 27.29. Another aim of this study was to evaluate Mucin-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in a different cohort of ovarian carcinoma patients with respect to grade, stage and survival. Methods Patients diagnosed with and treated for ovarian tumours were included in the study. Patient characteristics, histology including histological subtype, tumour stage, grading and follow-up data were available from patient records. Serum Mucin-1 concentrations were measured with ELISA technology detecting CA 15–3 and CA 27.29, Mucin-1 tissue expression was determined by immunohistochemistry using the VU4H5 and VU3C6 anti-Mucin-1 antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 18.0. Results Serum samples of 118 patients with ovarian tumours were obtained to determine levels of Mucin-1. Median CA 15–3 and CA 27.29 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with malignant disease (p< 0.001) than in patients with benign disease. Paraffin-embedded tissue of 154 patients with ovarian carcinoma was available to determine Mucin-1 expression. The majority of patients presented with advanced stage disease at primary diagnosis. Median follow-up time was 11.39 years. Immunohistochemistry results for VU4H5 showed significant differences with respect to tumour grade, FIGO stage and overall survival. Patients with negative expression had a mean overall survival of 9.33 years compared to 6.27 years for patients with positive Mucin-1 expression. Conclusions This study found

  7. Incidence, mortality and survival of female breast cancer during 2003-2011 in Jiangsu province, China

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xinran; Han, Renqiang; Zhou, Jinyi; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the incidence, mortality and survival status of female breast cancer in Jiangsu province of China. Methods Population-based cancer registry data in Jiangsu province were collected during 2003-2011. Crude rates, age-specific rates, age-standardized rates and annual percent changes of incidence and mortality were calculated to describe the epidemiologic characteristics and time trends. Patients diagnosed from 2003 to 2005 were chosen for analyzing the survival status of breast cancer. Results From 2003 to 2011, 17,605 females were diagnosed with breast cancer and 4,883 died in selected registry areas in Jiangsu province. The crude incidence rate was 25.18/100,000, and the age-standardized rates by Chinese population (ASRC) and by world population (ASRW) were 19.03/100,000 and 17.92/100,000, respectively. During the same period, the crude mortality rate was 6.98/100,000 and the ASRC and ASRW were 4.93/100,000 and 4.80/100,000, respectively. From 2003 to 2011, the incidence and mortality increased with annual percent change of 11.37% and 5.78%, respectively. For survival analysis, 1,392 patients in 7 areas were identified in 2003-2005 and finished 5 years of follow-up. Survival rates were found to decrease with survival years, the 5-year observed survival rate was 45.9% and the relative survival rate was 52.0%. We also found that the survival rate varied across the province, which was lower in the north and higher in the south of Jiangsu province. Conclusions Breast cancer has become a significant public health problem in Jiangsu province and China. More resources should be invested in primary prevention, earlier diagnosis and better health services in order to increase survival rates among Chinese females. PMID:27478317

  8. Cancer survival in Barshi, India, 1993-2000.

    PubMed

    Jayant, K; Nene, B M; Dinshaw, K A; Badwe, R A; Panse, N S; Thorat, R V

    2011-01-01

    The rural cancer registry of Barshi, Paranda and Bhum, was the first of its kind in India and was established in 1987. Registration of cases is carried out entirely by active methods. Data on survival from 15 cancer sites or types registered during 1993-2000 are reported in this study. Follow-up has been carried out predominantly by active methods, with median follow-up time ranging between 2-49 months for different cancers. The proportion of histologically verified diagnosis for various cancers ranged between 73-98%; death certificates only (DCOs) comprised 0-2%; 98-100% of total registered cases were included for survival analysis. Complete follow-up at five years ranged between 96-100% for different cancers. The 5-year age-standardized relative survival rates for selected cancers were non-melanoma skin (86%), penis (63%), breast (61%), cervix (32%), mouth (23%), hypopharynx (11%) and oesophagus (4%). The 5-year relative survival by age group did not display any particular pattern. Five-year relative survival trend between 1988-1992 and 1993-2000 showed a marked decrease for cancers of the tongue, hypopharynx, stomach, rectum, larynx, lung and penis; but a notable increase for breast and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:21675411

  9. Post-relapse survival after haploidentical transplantation vs matched-related or matched-unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Solh, M; Zhang, X; Connor, K; Brown, S; Solomon, S R; Morris, L E; Holland, H K; Bashey, A

    2016-07-01

    Relapse remains a major cause of mortality among patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The impact of donor type on post-relapse survival (PRS) has not been widely examined. We compared the survival outcomes for patients relapsing after haploidentical donor transplantation (HIDT) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide with those relapsing after matched-related donor transplantation (MRDT) or matched-unrelated donor transplantation (MUDT) at our institution. Two hundred and thirty-seven consecutive HCT recipients with relapse occurring after HIDT (N=48), MUDT (N=87) and MRDT (N=102) were included in this analysis. Median age was 49 years (19-77 years) and the median time to relapse was 156 days (12-2465) after HCT. HIDT recipients had similar median time to relapse (5.8 vs 4.8 vs 5.5 months, P=0.638) compared with MUDT and MRDT, respectively. One-year PRS was worse among HIDT recipients compared with MRDT and MUDT (17% vs 46% vs 40%, P<0.05). In a multivariate analysis, time to relapse (<3 vs >3 months post transplant), no use of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) following relapse, higher Dana Farber disease risk index and HCT comorbidity index scores at the time of transplant and delayed platelet engraftment post transplant were all predictive of worse PRS. This analysis shows that 1-year PRS is inferior among HIDT when compared with MRDT or MUDT. Lower use of DLI after HIDT may have contributed to this inferior survival. PMID:26999464

  10. Characterization of the survival ability of Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ralstonia pickettii from space-related environments.

    PubMed

    Mijnendonckx, K; Provoost, A; Ott, C M; Venkateswaran, K; Mahillon, J; Leys, N; Van Houdt, R

    2013-02-01

    Four Cupriavidus metallidurans and eight Ralstonia pickettii isolates from the space industry and the International Space Station (ISS) were characterized in detail. Nine of the 12 isolates were able to form a biofilm on plastics and all were resistant to several antibiotics. R. pickettii isolates from the surface of the Mars Orbiter prior to flight were 2.5 times more resistant to UV-C(254nm) radiation compared to the R. pickettii type strain. All isolates showed moderate to high tolerance against at least seven different metal ions. They were tolerant to medium to high silver concentrations (0.5-4 μM), which are higher than the ionic silver disinfectant concentrations measured regularly in the drinking water aboard the ISS. Furthermore, all isolates survived a 23-month exposure to 2 μM AgNO(3) in drinking water. These resistance properties are putatively encoded by their endogenous megaplasmids. This study demonstrated that extreme resistance is not required to withstand the disinfection and sterilization procedures implemented in the ISS and space industry. All isolates acquired moderate to high tolerance against several stressors and can grow in oligotrophic conditions, enabling them to persist in these environments. PMID:23212653

  11. Survival motor neuron (SMN) polymorphism in relation to congenital arthrogryposis in two Piedmont calves (piemontese)

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    The term arthrogryposis refers to a symptom complex that is characterised by congenital limb contractures. Arthrogryposis has been reported in man, in farm animals and in pets. Several forms have been reported to have a genetic origin in man. In Brown Swiss and Holstein Friesian cattle, congenital contractures have been recorded and classified as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). The survival motor neuron gene (SMN) has been suggested as a candidate gene for SMA. In the last 20 years, the National Association of Piedmont Cattle have recorded arthrogryposis cases. We cloned and sequenced SMN cDNA extracted from the spinal cord samples of two animals: one Piedmont calf showing a severe clinical form of arthrogryposis and one normal Piedmont calf. In the affected calf, more than 50% of the 5'end clones showed a ATG > TTG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 1 that should determine a Met > Leu aminoacid change (single point mutation M3L). This mutation is associated with a 9 bp increase length of 5'UTR and to a TTC → TTT silent mutation in exon 1. No single point mutation or 5'end polymorphism was shown in healthy animals and in the remaining 50% of the clones from the affected calf. We hypothesise a possible pathogenic effect of the 5'end-exon 1 polymorphism. PMID:12927089

  12. Survival in macaroni penguins and the relative importance of different drivers: individual traits, predation pressure and environmental variability

    PubMed Central

    Horswill, Catharine; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Green, Jonathan A; Meredith, Michael P; Forcada, Jaume; Peat, Helen; Preston, Mark; Trathan, Phil N; Ratcliffe, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the demographic response of free-living animal populations to different drivers is the first step towards reliable prediction of population trends. Penguins have exhibited dramatic declines in population size, and many studies have linked this to bottom-up processes altering the abundance of prey species. The effects of individual traits have been considered to a lesser extent, and top-down regulation through predation has been largely overlooked due to the difficulties in empirically measuring this at sea where it usually occurs. For 10 years (2003–2012), macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) were marked with subcutaneous electronic transponder tags and re-encountered using an automated gateway system fitted at the entrance to the colony. We used multistate mark–recapture modelling to identify the different drivers influencing survival rates and a sensitivity analysis to assess their relative importance across different life stages. Survival rates were low and variable during the fledging year (mean = 0·33), increasing to much higher levels from age 1 onwards (mean = 0·89). We show that survival of macaroni penguins is driven by a combination of individual quality, top-down predation pressure and bottom-up environmental forces. The relative importance of these covariates was age specific. During the fledging year, survival rates were most sensitive to top-down predation pressure, followed by individual fledging mass, and finally bottom-up environmental effects. In contrast, birds older than 1 year showed a similar response to bottom-up environmental effects and top-down predation pressure. We infer from our results that macaroni penguins will most likely be negatively impacted by an increase in the local population size of giant petrels. Furthermore, this population is, at least in the short term, likely to be positively influenced by local warming. More broadly, our results highlight the importance of considering multiple causal

  13. Hormonal and metabolic regulation of source-sink relations under salinity and drought: from plant survival to crop yield stability.

    PubMed

    Albacete, Alfonso A; Martínez-Andújar, Cristina; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Securing food production for the growing population will require closing the gap between potential crop productivity under optimal conditions and the yield captured by farmers under a changing environment, which is termed agronomical stability. Drought and salinity are major environmental factors contributing to the yield gap ultimately by inducing premature senescence in the photosynthetic source tissues of the plant and by reducing the number and growth of the harvestable sink organs by affecting the transport and use of assimilates between and within them. However, the changes in source-sink relations induced by stress also include adaptive changes in the reallocation of photoassimilates that influence crop productivity, ranging from plant survival to yield stability. While the massive utilization of -omic technologies in model plants is discovering hundreds of genes with potential impacts in alleviating short-term applied drought and salinity stress (usually measured as plant survival), only in relatively few cases has an effect on crop yield stability been proven. However, achieving the former does not necessarily imply the latter. Plant survival only requires water status conservation and delayed leaf senescence (thus maintaining source activity) that is usually accompanied by growth inhibition. However, yield stability will additionally require the maintenance or increase in sink activity in the reproductive structures, thus contributing to the transport of assimilates from the source leaves and to delayed stress-induced leaf senescence. This review emphasizes the role of several metabolic and hormonal factors influencing not only the source strength, but especially the sink activity and their inter-relations, and their potential to improve yield stability under drought and salinity stresses. PMID:24513173

  14. Increasing Sibling Relative Risk of Survival to Older and Older Ages and the Importance of Precise Definitions of "Aging," "Life Span," and "Longevity".

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, Paola; Nussbaum, Lisa; Andersen, Stacy L; Black, Mara J; Perls, Thomas T

    2016-03-01

    The lack of a formal definition of human longevity continues to generate confusion about its genetic and nongenetic determinants. In order to characterize how differences in birth year cohorts and percentiles of survival are associated with familial contribution to variation in survival, we estimated sibling relative risk of living to increasingly rare percentiles of survival based on a dataset of 1,917 validated sibships each containing at least one individual living to age 90 years. About 1,042 of the sibships included at least one individual who survived to age 100 and 511 included at least one individual who survived to age 105 and older. We show that sibling relative risk increases with older ages, sex, and earlier birth year cohorts of the proband and siblings of male 90-year-olds (5th percentile of survival) have 1.73 (95% CI: 1.5; 2.0) times the chance of living to age 90, while siblings of both male and female probands who survived to age 105 years (~0.01 percentile of survival) have 35.6 (95%CI: 15.1; 67.7) times the chance of living to age 105 compared with population controls. These results emphasize the importance of consistently defining the longevity phenotype in terms of rarity of survival for appropriate comparisons across studies. PMID:25814633

  15. Reduced density and nest survival of ground-nesting songbirds relative to earthworm invasions in northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    Loss, Scott R; Blair, Robert B

    2011-10-01

    European earthworms (Lumbricus spp.) are spreading into previously earthworm-free forests in the United States and Canada and causing substantial changes, including homogenization of soil structure, removal of the litter layer, and reduction in arthropod abundance and species richness of understory plants. Whether these changes affect songbirds that nest and forage on the forest floor is unknown. In stands with and without earthworms in the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Wisconsin (U.S.A.), we surveyed for, monitored nests of, and measured attributes of habitat of Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapillus) and Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus), both ground-dwelling songbirds, and we sampled earthworms at survey points and nests. Bird surveys indicated significantly lower densities of Ovenbirds and Hermit Thrushes in relation to Lumbricus invasions at survey point and stand extents (3.1 and 15-20 ha, respectively). Modeling of Ovenbird nest survival (i.e., the probability that nestlings successfully fledge) indicated that lower survival probabilities were associated with increased sedge cover and decreased litter depth, factors that are related to Lumbricus invasions, possibly due to reduced nest concealment or arthropod abundance. Our findings provide compelling evidence that earthworm invasions may be associated with local declines of forest songbird populations. PMID:21797927

  16. Survival relative to new and ancestral host plants, phytoplasma infection, and genetic constitution in host races of a polyphagous insect disease vector

    PubMed Central

    Maixner, Michael; Albert, Andreas; Johannesen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    Dissemination of vectorborne diseases depends strongly on the vector's host range and the pathogen's reservoir range. Because vectors interact with pathogens, the direction and strength of a vector's host shift is vital for understanding epidemiology and is embedded in the framework of ecological specialization. This study investigates survival in host-race evolution of a polyphagous insect disease vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus, whether survival is related to the direction of the host shift (from field bindweed to stinging nettle), the interaction with plant-specific strains of obligate vectored pathogens/symbionts (stolbur phytoplasma), and whether survival is related to genetic differentiation between the host races. We used a twice repeated, identical nested experimental design to study survival of the vector on alternative hosts and relative to infection status. Survival was tested with Kaplan–Meier analyses, while genetic differentiation between vector populations was quantified with microsatellite allele frequencies. We found significant direct effects of host plant (reduced survival on wrong hosts) and sex (males survive longer than females) in both host races and relative effects of host (nettle animals more affected than bindweed animals) and sex (males more affected than females). Survival of bindweed animals was significantly higher on symptomatic than nonsymptomatic field bindweed, but in the second experiment only. Infection potentially had a positive effect on survival in nettle animals but due to low infection rates the results remain suggestive. Genetic differentiation was not related to survival. Greater negative plant-transfer effect but no negative effect of stolbur in the derived host race suggests preadaptation to the new pathogen/symbiont strain before strong diversifying selection during the specialization process. Physiological maladaptation or failure to accept the ancestral plant will have similar consequences, namely positive assortative

  17. Survival relative to new and ancestral host plants, phytoplasma infection, and genetic constitution in host races of a polyphagous insect disease vector.

    PubMed

    Maixner, Michael; Albert, Andreas; Johannesen, Jes

    2014-08-01

    Dissemination of vectorborne diseases depends strongly on the vector's host range and the pathogen's reservoir range. Because vectors interact with pathogens, the direction and strength of a vector's host shift is vital for understanding epidemiology and is embedded in the framework of ecological specialization. This study investigates survival in host-race evolution of a polyphagous insect disease vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus, whether survival is related to the direction of the host shift (from field bindweed to stinging nettle), the interaction with plant-specific strains of obligate vectored pathogens/symbionts (stolbur phytoplasma), and whether survival is related to genetic differentiation between the host races. We used a twice repeated, identical nested experimental design to study survival of the vector on alternative hosts and relative to infection status. Survival was tested with Kaplan-Meier analyses, while genetic differentiation between vector populations was quantified with microsatellite allele frequencies. We found significant direct effects of host plant (reduced survival on wrong hosts) and sex (males survive longer than females) in both host races and relative effects of host (nettle animals more affected than bindweed animals) and sex (males more affected than females). Survival of bindweed animals was significantly higher on symptomatic than nonsymptomatic field bindweed, but in the second experiment only. Infection potentially had a positive effect on survival in nettle animals but due to low infection rates the results remain suggestive. Genetic differentiation was not related to survival. Greater negative plant-transfer effect but no negative effect of stolbur in the derived host race suggests preadaptation to the new pathogen/symbiont strain before strong diversifying selection during the specialization process. Physiological maladaptation or failure to accept the ancestral plant will have similar consequences, namely positive assortative

  18. The AMPK-related kinase SNARK regulates muscle mass and myocyte survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is critical for sustaining health; however, the mechanisms responsible for muscle loss with aging and chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are poorly understood. We found that expression of a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, the SNF1-AMPK-r...

  19. Survival potential of Phytophthora infestans in relation to environmental factors and late blight occurrence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is an important crop globally and late blight (Phytophthora infestans) often results in severe crop loss. The cost for late blight control can be in excess of $210 million in the United States. We utilized a non-parametric density distribution analysis of local temperature (Temp) and relative...

  20. A method for assessing age-standardized weight-for-height in children seen cross-sectionally.

    PubMed

    Cole, T J

    1979-01-01

    Weight-for-height standards in children are usually constructed on the basis that the expected weight for a given height does not depend on age, an assumption which is unjustified. The present paper investigates regression standards of age-standardized weight for age-standardized height, the standardization being achieved by expressing weight and height as fractions of the 50th centile for age from a suitable growth standard. The precise choice of standard is not critical. Data on 4631 children from five different countries, exhibiting a wide spectrum of growth status, show that throughout childhood until puberty, the following ratio is appropriate as a simple and convenient index of weight-for-height: age-standardized weight/(age-standardized height)2. During puberty a larger power than 2 is required, so the index as specified is inappropriate. Approximate values for the distribution centiles of the index are suggested. The index may be used to assess degree of malnutrition or obesity, for individuals or groups seen on a single occasion. A slide-rule is described which calculates the index directly, given the child's sex, age, height and weight. PMID:496386

  1. Genetics of aging, health, and survival: dynamic regulation of human longevity related traits

    PubMed Central

    Yashin, Anatoliy I.; Wu, Deqing; Arbeeva, Liubov S.; Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Kulminski, Alexander M.; Akushevich, Igor; Kovtun, Mikhail; Culminskaya, Irina; Stallard, Eric; Li, Miaozhu; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The roles of genetic factors in human longevity would be better understood if one can use more efficient methods in genetic analyses and investigate pleiotropic effects of genetic variants on aging and health related traits. Data and methods: We used EMMAX software with modified correction for population stratification to perform genome wide association studies (GWAS) of female lifespan from the original FHS cohort. The male data from the original FHS cohort and male and female data combined from the offspring FHS cohort were used to confirm findings. We evaluated pleiotropic effects of selected genetic variants as well as gene-smoking interactions on health and aging related traits. Then we reviewed current knowledge on functional properties of genes related to detected variants. Results: The eight SNPs with genome-wide significant variants were negatively associated with lifespan in both males and females. After additional QC, two of these variants were selected for further analyses of their associations with major diseases (cancer and CHD) and physiological aging changes. Gene-smoking interactions contributed to these effects. Genes closest to detected variants appear to be involved in similar biological processes and health disorders, as those found in other studies of aging and longevity e.g., in cancer and neurodegeneration. Conclusions: The impact of genes on longevity may involve trade-off-like effects on different health traits. Genes that influence lifespan represent various molecular functions but may be involved in similar biological processes and health disorders, which could contribute to genetic heterogeneity of longevity and the lack of replication in genetic association studies. PMID:25918517

  2. Chromosomal islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: molecular switches for survival and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Scott V.; McShan, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5′ end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithmic growth, SpyCI excise from the bacterial chromosome and replicate as episomes, relieving the mutator phenotype. As growth slows and the cells enter stationary phase, SpyCI reintegrate into the chromosome, again silencing the MMR operon. This system creates a unique growth-dependent and reversible mutator phenotype. Additional CI using the identical attachment site in mutL have been identified in related species, including Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus canis. These CI have small genomes, which range from 13 to 20 kB, conserved integrase and DNA replication genes, and no identifiable genes encoding capsid proteins. SpyCI may employ a helper phage for packaging and dissemination in a fashion similar to the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). Outside of the core replication and integration genes, SpyCI and related CI show considerable diversity with the presence of many indels that may contribute to the host cell phenotype or fitness. SpyCI are a subset of a larger family of streptococcal CI who potentially regulate the expression of other host genes. The biological and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcal chromosomal islands provides important clues as to how these chromosomal islands help S. pyogenes and other streptococcal species persist in human populations in spite of antibiotic therapy and immune challenges. PMID:25161960

  3. Chromosomal islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: molecular switches for survival and virulence.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Scott V; McShan, William M

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5' end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithmic growth, SpyCI excise from the bacterial chromosome and replicate as episomes, relieving the mutator phenotype. As growth slows and the cells enter stationary phase, SpyCI reintegrate into the chromosome, again silencing the MMR operon. This system creates a unique growth-dependent and reversible mutator phenotype. Additional CI using the identical attachment site in mutL have been identified in related species, including Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus canis. These CI have small genomes, which range from 13 to 20 kB, conserved integrase and DNA replication genes, and no identifiable genes encoding capsid proteins. SpyCI may employ a helper phage for packaging and dissemination in a fashion similar to the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). Outside of the core replication and integration genes, SpyCI and related CI show considerable diversity with the presence of many indels that may contribute to the host cell phenotype or fitness. SpyCI are a subset of a larger family of streptococcal CI who potentially regulate the expression of other host genes. The biological and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcal chromosomal islands provides important clues as to how these chromosomal islands help S. pyogenes and other streptococcal species persist in human populations in spite of antibiotic therapy and immune challenges. PMID:25161960

  4. Beta 1-integrin-c-Met cooperation reveals an inside-in survival signalling on autophagy-related endomembranes.

    PubMed

    Barrow-McGee, Rachel; Kishi, Naoki; Joffre, Carine; Ménard, Ludovic; Hervieu, Alexia; Bakhouche, Bakhouche A; Noval, Alejandro J; Mai, Anja; Guzmán, Camilo; Robert-Masson, Luisa; Iturrioz, Xavier; Hulit, James; Brennan, Caroline H; Hart, Ian R; Parker, Peter J; Ivaska, Johanna; Kermorgant, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and integrins cooperate to stimulate cell migration and tumour metastasis. Here we report that an integrin influences signalling of an RTK, c-Met, from inside the cell, to promote anchorage-independent cell survival. Thus, c-Met and β1-integrin co-internalize and become progressively recruited on LC3B-positive 'autophagy-related endomembranes' (ARE). In cells growing in suspension, β1-integrin promotes sustained c-Met-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation on ARE. This signalling is dependent on ATG5 and Beclin1 but not on ATG13, suggesting ARE belong to a non-canonical autophagy pathway. This β1-integrin-dependent c-Met-sustained signalling on ARE supports anchorage-independent cell survival and growth, tumorigenesis, invasion and lung colonization in vivo. RTK-integrin cooperation has been assumed to occur at the plasma membrane requiring integrin 'inside-out' or 'outside-in' signalling. Our results report a novel mode of integrin-RTK cooperation, which we term 'inside-in signalling'. Targeting integrin signalling in addition to adhesion may have relevance for cancer therapy. PMID:27336951

  5. Beta 1-integrin–c-Met cooperation reveals an inside-in survival signalling on autophagy-related endomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Barrow-McGee, Rachel; Kishi, Naoki; Joffre, Carine; Ménard, Ludovic; Hervieu, Alexia; Bakhouche, Bakhouche A.; Noval, Alejandro J.; Mai, Anja; Guzmán, Camilo; Robert-Masson, Luisa; Iturrioz, Xavier; Hulit, James; Brennan, Caroline H.; Hart, Ian R.; Parker, Peter J.; Ivaska, Johanna; Kermorgant, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and integrins cooperate to stimulate cell migration and tumour metastasis. Here we report that an integrin influences signalling of an RTK, c-Met, from inside the cell, to promote anchorage-independent cell survival. Thus, c-Met and β1-integrin co-internalize and become progressively recruited on LC3B-positive ‘autophagy-related endomembranes' (ARE). In cells growing in suspension, β1-integrin promotes sustained c-Met-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation on ARE. This signalling is dependent on ATG5 and Beclin1 but not on ATG13, suggesting ARE belong to a non-canonical autophagy pathway. This β1-integrin-dependent c-Met-sustained signalling on ARE supports anchorage-independent cell survival and growth, tumorigenesis, invasion and lung colonization in vivo. RTK–integrin cooperation has been assumed to occur at the plasma membrane requiring integrin ‘inside-out' or ‘outside-in' signalling. Our results report a novel mode of integrin–RTK cooperation, which we term ‘inside-in signalling'. Targeting integrin signalling in addition to adhesion may have relevance for cancer therapy. PMID:27336951

  6. Egg hatch and survival and development of beet webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae at different combinations of temperature and relative humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatchability, survival of 1st - 5th instars, survival of the complete larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were inve...

  7. Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Biliary Atresia Surviving with their Native Liver

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Shikha S.; Alonso, Estella M.; Haber, Barbara; Magee, John C.; Fredericks, Emily; Kamath, Binita; Kerkar, Nanda; Rosenthal, Philip; Shepherd, Ross; Limbers, Christine; Varni, James W.; Robuck, Patricia; Sokol, Ronald J.; Liver, Childhood

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To quantify health related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with biliary atresia with their native livers and compare them with healthy children and patients with biliary atresia post-liver transplant (LT) and to examine the relationship between HRQOL and medical variables. Study design A cross-sectional HRQOL study of patients with biliary atresia with their native livers (ages 2-25 years) was conducted and compared with healthy and post-LT biliary atresia samples using PedsQL™ 4.0 child self and parent proxy reports, a validated measure of physical/psychosocial functioning. Results 221 patients with biliary atresia with native livers (54% female, 67% white) were studied. patient self and parent proxy reports showed significantly poorer HRQOL than healthy children across all domains (p < 0.001), particularly in emotional and psychosocial functioning. Child self and parent proxy HRQOL scores from patients with biliary atresia with their native livers and post-LT biliary atresia were similar across all domains (p=NS). Child self and parent proxy reports showed moderate agreement across all scales, except social functioning (poor to fair agreement). On multivariate regression analysis, black race and elevated total bilirubin were associated with lower Total and Psychosocial HRQOL summary scores. Conclusions HRQOL in patients with biliary atresia with their native livers is significantly poorer than healthy and similar to post-LT biliary atresia children. These findings identify significant opportunities to optimize the overall health of patients with biliary atresia. PMID:23746866

  8. Sudden cardiac death in the young: the molecular autopsy and a practical approach to surviving relatives.

    PubMed

    Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2015-06-01

    The sudden death of a young, apparently fit and healthy person is amongst the most challenging scenarios in clinical medicine. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a devastating and tragic outcome of a number of underlying cardiovascular diseases. While coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction are the most common causes of SCD in older populations, genetic (inherited) cardiac disorders comprise a substantial proportion of SCD cases aged 40 years and less. This includes the primary arrhythmogenic disorders such as long QT syndromes and inherited cardiomyopathies, namely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In up to 30% of young SCD, no cause of death is identified at postmortem, so-called autopsy-negative or sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). Management of families following SCD begins with a concerted effort to identify the cause of death in the decedent, based on either premorbid clinical details or the pathological findings at postmortem. Where no cause of death is identified, genetic testing of deoxyribonucleic acid extracted from postmortem blood (the molecular autopsy) may identify a cause of death in up to 30% of SADS cases. Irrespective of the genetic testing considerations, all families in which a sudden unexplained death has occurred require targeted and standardized clinical testing in an attempt to identify relatives who may be at-risk of having the same inherited heart disease and therefore also predisposed to an increased risk of SCD. Optimal care of SCD families therefore requires dedicated and appropriately trained staff in the setting of a specialized multidisciplinary cardiac genetic clinic. PMID:25765769

  9. Cancer survival in Eastern and Western Germany after the fall of the iron curtain.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Gondos, Adam; Eberle, Andrea; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Brenner, Hermann

    2012-09-01

    Prior to the German reunification, cancer survival was much lower in East than in West Germany. We compare cancer survival between Eastern and Western Germany in the early twenty-first century, i.e. the second decade after the German reunification. Using data from 11 population-based cancer registries covering a population of 33 million people, 5-year age-standardized relative survival for the time period 2002-2006 was estimated for the 25 most common cancers using model-based period analysis. In 2002-2006, 5-year relative survival was very similar for most cancers, with differences below 3% units for 20 of 25 cancer sites. Larger, statistically significant survival advantages were seen for oral cavity, oesophagus, and gallbladder cancer and skin melanoma in the West and for leukemia in the East. Our study shows that within two decades after the assimilation of political and health care systems, the former major survival gap of cancer patients in Eastern Germany has been essentially overcome. This result is encouraging as it suggests that, even though economic conditions have remained difficult in Eastern Germany, comparable health care provision may nevertheless enable comparable levels of cancer survival within a relatively short period of time. PMID:22911023

  10. Phosphorylation of immunity-related GTPases by a Toxoplasma gondii secreted kinase promotes macrophage survival and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Fentress, Sarah J.; Behnke, Michael S.; Dunay, Ildiko R.; Mashayekhi, Mona; Rommereim, Leah M.; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.; Taylor, Gregory A.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Townsend, R. Reid; Qiu, Wei; Hui, Raymond; Beatty, Wandy L.; Sibley, L. David

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Macrophages are specialized to detect and destroy intracellular microbes and yet a number of pathogens have evolved to exploit this hostile niche. Here we demonstrate that the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii disarms macrophage innate clearance mechanisms by secreting a serine threonine kinase called ROP18, which binds to and phosphorylates immunity-related GTPases (IRGs). Substrate profiling of ROP18 revealed a preference for a conserved motif within switch region I of the GTPase domain, a modification predicted to disrupt IRG function. Consistent with this, expression of ROP18 was both necessary and sufficient to block recruitment of Irgb6, which was in turn required for parasite destruction. ROP18 phosphorylation of IRGs prevented clearance within inflammatory monocytes and IFN-γ-activated macrophages, conferring parasite survival in vivo and promoting virulence. IRGs are implicated in clearance of a variety of intracellular pathogens, suggesting that other virulence factors may similarly thwart this innate cellular defense mechanism. PMID:21147463

  11. Phosphorylation of immunity-related GTPases by a Toxoplasma gondii-secreted kinase promotes macrophage survival and virulence.

    PubMed

    Fentress, Sarah J; Behnke, Michael S; Dunay, Ildiko R; Mashayekhi, Mona; Rommereim, Leah M; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J; Taylor, Gregory A; Turk, Benjamin E; Lichti, Cheryl F; Townsend, R Reid; Qiu, Wei; Hui, Raymond; Beatty, Wandy L; Sibley, L David

    2010-12-16

    Macrophages are specialized to detect and destroy intracellular microbes and yet a number of pathogens have evolved to exploit this hostile niche. Here we demonstrate that the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii disarms macrophage innate clearance mechanisms by secreting a serine threonine kinase called ROP18, which binds to and phosphorylates immunity-related GTPases (IRGs). Substrate profiling of ROP18 revealed a preference for a conserved motif within switch region I of the GTPase domain, a modification predicted to disrupt IRG function. Consistent with this, expression of ROP18 was both necessary and sufficient to block recruitment of Irgb6, which was in turn required for parasite destruction. ROP18 phosphorylation of IRGs prevented clearance within inflammatory monocytes and IFN-γ-activated macrophages, conferring parasite survival in vivo and promoting virulence. IRGs are implicated in clearance of a variety of intracellular pathogens, suggesting that other virulence factors may similarly thwart this innate cellular defense mechanism. PMID:21147463

  12. A ribosome-related signature in peripheral blood CLL B cells is linked to reduced survival following treatment.

    PubMed

    Sbarrato, T; Horvilleur, E; Pöyry, T; Hill, K; Chaplin, L C; Spriggs, R V; Stoneley, M; Wilson, L; Jayne, S; Vulliamy, T; Beck, D; Dokal, I; Dyer, M J S; Yeomans, A M; Packham, G; Bushell, M; Wagner, S D; Willis, A E

    2016-01-01

    We have used polysome profiling coupled to microarray analysis to examine the translatome of a panel of peripheral blood (PB) B cells isolated from 34 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients. We have identified a 'ribosome-related' signature in CLL patients with mRNAs encoding for ribosomal proteins and factors that modify ribosomal RNA, e.g. DKC1 (which encodes dyskerin, a pseudouridine synthase), showing reduced polysomal association and decreased expression of the corresponding proteins. Our data suggest a general impact of dyskerin dysregulation on the translational apparatus in CLL and importantly patients with low dyskerin levels have a significantly shorter period of overall survival following treatment. Thus, translational dysregulation of dyskerin could constitute a mechanism by which the CLL PB B cells acquire an aggressive phenotype and thus have a major role in oncogenesis. PMID:27253413

  13. The Effect of Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Virus Infection Status on off-host Survival of the Wheat Curl Mite (Acari: Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Wosula, E N; McMechan, A J; Hein, G L

    2015-08-01

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, is an eriophyid pest of wheat, although its primary economic impact on wheat is due to the transmission of Wheat streak mosaic (WSMV), Wheat mosaic (also known as High Plains virus), and Triticum mosaic (TriMV) viruses. These viruses cause significant annual losses in winter wheat production throughout the western Great Plains. Temperature and humidity are factors that often influence arthropod survival, especially during dispersal from their hosts, yet the impact of these two factors on off-host survival has not been documented for wheat curl mite. Pathogen-infected host plants often influence the biology and behavior of vectors, yet it is not known if virus-infected wheat affects off-host survival of wheat curl mite. The objectives of this study were to 1) determine if temperature, relative humidity, and mite genotype impact off-host survival of wheat curl mite and 2) determine the effect of WSMV- and TriMV-infected host plants on off-host survival of wheat curl mite. Temperature and relative humidity significantly affected off-host survival of wheat curl mite. Length of survival decreased with increasing temperature (106.2 h at 10°C and 17.0 h at 30°C) and decreasing relative humidity (78.1 h at 95 and 21.3 h at 2%). Mites from TriMV-infected host plants had ∼20% reduction in survival at 20°C compared with those from WSMV-infected plants. The duration of off-host survival of wheat curl mite is influenced by environmental conditions. Management strategies that target a break in host presence will greatly reduce mite densities and virus spread and need to account for these limits. PMID:26470294

  14. Population-related variation in plant defense more strongly affects survival of an herbivore than its solitary parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Gols, Rieta

    2011-10-01

    The performance of natural enemies, such as parasitoid wasps, is affected by differences in the quality of the host's diet, frequently mediated by species or population-related differences in plant allelochemistry. Here, we compared survival, development time, and body mass in a generalist herbivore, the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae, and its solitary endoparasitoid, Microplitis mediator, when reared on two cultivated (CYR and STH) and three wild (KIM, OH, and WIN) populations of cabbage, Brassica oleracea. Plants either were undamaged or induced by feeding of larvae of the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae. Development and biomass of M. brassicae and Mi. mediator were similar on both cultivated and one wild cabbage population (KIM), intermediate on the OH population, and significantly lower on the WIN population. Moreover, development was prolonged and biomass was reduced on herbivore-induced plants. However, only the survival of parasitized hosts (and not that of healthy larvae) was affected by induction. Analysis of glucosinolates in leaves of the cabbages revealed higher levels in the wild populations than cultivars, with the highest concentrations in WIN plants. Multivariate statistics revealed a negative correlation between insect performance and total levels of glucosinolates (GS) and levels of 3-butenyl GS. However, GS chemistry could not explain the reduced performance on induced plants since only indole GS concentrations increased in response to herbivory, which did not affect insect performance based on multivariate statistics. This result suggests that, in addition to aliphatic GS, other non-GS chemicals are responsible for the decline in insect performance, and that these chemicals affect the parasitoid more strongly than the host. Remarkably, when developing on WIN plants, the survival of Mi. mediator to adult eclosion was much higher than in its host, M. brassicae. This may be due to the fact that hosts parasitized by Mi. mediator pass through fewer

  15. Prediagnostic serum inflammatory markers in relation to breast cancer risk, severity at diagnosis and survival in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Holmberg, Lars; Garmo, Hans; Malmstrom, Håkan; Lambe, Mats; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation has been linked to cancer but its role in breast cancer is unclear. We investigated common serum markers of inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, haptoglobin and white blood cells (WBC) in relation to breast cancer incidence, severity and survival. A total of 155179 women aged 20 and older without any history of cancer were selected from a large Swedish cohort. Hazard ratios (HRs) for breast cancer were estimated with Cox regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Ordered and binomial logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of serum inflammatory markers with breast cancer severity and oestrogen receptor (ER) positivity at diagnosis, on the other. Cumulative incidence functions by levels of inflammatory markers were assessed for early death from breast cancer and all causes. During a mean follow-up of 18.3 years, 6606 women were diagnosed with breast cancer, of whom 1474 died. A positive association with incident breast cancer was seen for haptoglobin ≥ 1.4g/l [HR 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.18] compared to lower levels. No association was observed between inflammatory markers and breast cancer severity or ER positivity. Higher haptoglobin was linked to risk of early death from breast cancer (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.02-1.59), whereas higher risk of early death from all causes was additionally found with CRP ≥ 10mg/l (HR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.04-1.36) and WBC ≥ 10×10(9)/l (HR: 1.57, 1.14-2.16). Our findings indicate that prediagnostic serum inflammatory markers were weakly linked to incident breast cancer but corresponded to worse survival after diagnosis. PMID:26130675

  16. Overwinter survival of juvenile lake herring in relation to body size, physiological condition, energy stores, and food ration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, Kevin L.; Sutton, Trent M.; Kinnunen, Ronald E.; Hoff, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Populations of lake herring Coregonus artedi in Lake Superior have exhibited high recruitment variability over the past three decades. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms which influence year-class strength, we conducted a 225-d laboratory experiment to evaluate the effects of body size, physiological condition, energy stores, and food ration on the winter survival of age-0 lake herring. Small (total length (TL) range = 60–85 mm) and large (TL range = 86–110 mm) fish were maintained under thermal and photoperiod regimes that mimicked those in Lake Superior from October through May. Fish in each size-class were maintained at two feeding treatments: brine shrimp Artemiaspp. ad libitum and no food. The mortality of large lake herring (fed, 3.8%; starved, 20.1%) was significantly less than that of small fish (fed, 11.7%; starved, 32.0%). Body condition and crude lipid content declined for all fish over the experiment; however, these variables were significantly greater for large fed (0.68% and 9.8%) and small fed (0.65% and 7.3%) fish than large starved (0.49% and 5.7%) and small starved (0.45% and 4.8%) individuals. Final crude protein and gross energy contents were also significantly greater in large fed lake herring (17.6% and 1,966 cal/g), followed by small fed (17.1% and 1,497 cal/g), large starved (15.4% and 1,125 cal/g), and small starved (13.2% and 799 cal/g) fish. Lake herring that died during the experiment had significantly lower body condition and energy stores relative to those of the surviving fish. These results suggest that the depletion of energy stores contributes to greater winter mortality of small lake herring with limited energy uptake and may partially explain the variability in recruitment observed in Lake Superior.

  17. The effect of nitrogen and glyphosate on survival and colonisation of perennial grass species in an agro-ecosystem: does the relative importance of survival decrease with competitive ability?

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Christian; Strandberg, Beate; Mathiassen, Solvejg K; Kudsk, Per

    2013-01-01

    The ecological success of a plant species is typically described by the observed change in plant abundance or cover, but in order to more fully understand the fundamental plant ecological processes, it is necessary to inspect the underlying processes of survival and colonization and how they are affected by environmental conditions. A general ecological hypothesis on the effect of environmental gradients on demographic parameters is proposed and tested. The hypothesis is that decreasing fitness or competitive ability along an environmental gradient is associated with an increasing importance of survival for regulating the abundance of the species. The tested hypothesis is related to both the stress gradient hypothesis and whether the importance of competition increases along productivity gradients. The combined effect of nitrogen and glyphosate on the survival and colonization probability of two perennial grass species, Festuca ovina and Agrostis capillaris, which are known to differ in their responses to both glyphosate and nitrogen treatments, is calculated using pin-point cover data in permanent frames. We found that the relative importance of survival increased with the level of glyphosate for the glyphosate sensitive A. capillaris and decreased for the glyphosate tolerant F. ovina. Likewise, increasing levels of nitrogen increased the importance of survival for the relative nitrophobic F. ovina. Consequently, the proposed hypothesis was corroborated in this specific study. The proposed method will enable predictions of the effects of agricultural practices on community dynamics in a relatively simple setup eliminating the need to quantify all the interaction among the species in the plant community. The method will be immediately useful for the regulation of non-cultivated buffer strips between agricultural fields and semi-natural and natural biotopes such as hedgerows and waterways. PMID:23593371

  18. The ability to survive intracellular freezing in nematodes is related to the pattern and distribution of ice formed.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Méliane R; Wharton, David A

    2016-07-01

    A few species of nematodes can survive extensive intracellular freezing throughout all their tissues, an event that is usually thought to be fatal to cells. How are they able to survive in this remarkable way? The pattern and distribution of ice formed, after freezing at -10°C, can be observed using freeze substitution and transmission electron microscopy, which preserves the former position of ice as white spaces. We compared the pattern and distribution of ice formed in a nematode that survives intracellular freezing well (Panagrolaimus sp. DAW1), one that survives poorly (Panagrellus redivivus) and one with intermediate levels of survival (Plectus murrayi). We also examined Panagrolaimus sp. in which the survival of freezing had been compromised by starvation. Levels of survival were as expected and the use of vital dyes indicated cellular damage in those that survived poorly (starved Panagrolaimus sp. and P. murrayi). In fed Panagrolaimus sp. the intracellular ice spaces were small and uniform, whereas in P. redivivus and starved Panagrolaimus sp. there were some large spaces that may be causing cellular damage. The pattern and distribution of ice formed was different in P. murrayi, with a greater number of individuals having no ice or only small intracellular ice spaces. Control of the size of the ice formed is thus important for the survival of intracellular freezing in nematodes. PMID:27143749

  19. Relative influence of human harvest, carnivores, and weather on adult female elk survival across western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodie, Jedediah; Johnson, Heather; Mitchell, Michael; Zager, Peter; Proffitt, Kelly; Hebblewhite, Mark; Kauffman, Matthew; Johnson, Bruce; Bissonette, John; Bishop, Chad; Gude, Justin; Herbert, Jeff; Hersey, Kent; Hurley, Mark; Lukacs, Paul M.; McCorquodale, Scott; McIntire, Eliot; Nowak, Josh; Sawyer, Hall; Smith, Douglas; White, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Well-informed management of harvested species requires understanding how changing ecological conditions affect demography and population dynamics, information that is lacking for many species. We have limited understanding of the relative influence of carnivores, harvest, weather and forage availability on elk Cervus elaphus demography, despite the ecological and economic importance of this species. We assessed adult female survival, a key vital rate for population dynamics, from 2746 radio-collared elk in 45 populations across western North America that experience wide variation in carnivore assemblage, harvest, weather and habitat conditions. Proportional hazard analysis revealed that 'baseline' (i.e. not related to human factors) mortality was higher with very high winter precipitation, particularly in populations sympatric with wolves Canis lupus. Mortality may increase via nutritional stress and heightened vulnerability to predation in snowy winters. Baseline mortality was unrelated to puma Puma concolor presence, forest cover or summer forage productivity. Cause-specific mortality analyses showed that wolves and all carnivore species combined had additive effects on baseline elk mortality, but only reduced survival by <2%. When human factors were included, ‘total’ adult mortality was solely related to harvest; the influence of native carnivores was compensatory. Annual total mortality rates were lowest in populations sympatric with both pumas and wolves because managers reduced female harvest in areas with abundant or diverse carnivores. Mortality from native carnivores peaked in late winter and early spring, while harvest-induced mortality peaked in autumn. The strong peak in harvest-induced mortality during the autumn hunting season decreased as the number of native carnivore species increased. Synthesis and applications. Elevated baseline adult female elk mortality from wolves in years with high winter precipitation could affect elk abundance as

  20. Aspartate aminotransferase-lymphocyte ratio index and systemic immune-inflammation index predict overall survival in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zongguo; Zhang, Jianliang; Lu, Yunfei; Xu, Qingnian; Tang, Bozong; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Wensi; Chen, Shishi; Lu, Lingqing; Chen, Xiaorong

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that lymphocytes play central roles in host antitumor immune responses and control cancer outcome. We reviewed the clinical parameters of 189 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and investigated the prognostic significance of lymphocyte-related scores in HCC patients following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Survival analysis revealed that an elevated aspartate aminotransferase-lymphocyte ratio index (ALRI) > 57 and a systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) > 300 were negatively associated with overall survival in HBV-related HCC (HR = 2.181, P = 0.003 and HR = 2.453, P = 0.003; respectively). Spearman chi-square analysis showed that ALRI had a specificity of 82.4% and that SII index had a sensitivity of 71.9% for HCC overall survival. ALRI and SII had negative predictive values of 74.6% and 80%, respectively for HCC overall survival. Additionally, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C patients had significantly higher ALRI and SII scores (both P < 0.0001) and poorer overall survival (HR = 3.618, P < 0.001). Additionally, HCC patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) had higher ALRI and SII scores (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0059, respectively). In conclusion, as noninvasive, low cost, easily assessable and reproducible parameters, elevated ALRI and SII should be used as negative predictive factors for overall survival in HBV-related HCC in clinical practice. PMID:26506519

  1. A phenomenological relative biological effectiveness (RBE) model for proton therapy based on all published in vitro cell survival data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Aimee L.; Schuemann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2015-11-01

    Proton therapy treatments are currently planned and delivered using the assumption that the proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) relative to photons is 1.1. This assumption ignores strong experimental evidence that suggests the RBE varies along the treatment field, i.e. with linear energy transfer (LET) and with tissue type. A recent review study collected over 70 experimental reports on proton RBE, providing a comprehensive dataset for predicting RBE for cell survival. Using this dataset we developed a model to predict proton RBE based on dose, dose average LET (LETd) and the ratio of the linear-quadratic model parameters for the reference radiation (α/β)x, as the tissue specific parameter. The proposed RBE model is based on the linear quadratic model and was derived from a nonlinear regression fit to 287 experimental data points. The proposed model predicts that the RBE increases with increasing LETd and decreases with increasing (α/β)x. This agrees with previous theoretical predictions on the relationship between RBE, LETd and (α/β)x. The model additionally predicts a decrease in RBE with increasing dose and shows a relationship between both α and β with LETd. Our proposed phenomenological RBE model is derived using the most comprehensive collection of proton RBE experimental data to date. Previously published phenomenological models, based on a limited data set, may have to be revised.

  2. Age-related changes to TNF receptors affect neuron survival in the presence of beta-amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jigisha R.; Brewer, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    Inflammation including local accumulations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a part of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology and may exacerbate age-related neurodegeneration. Most studies on TNFα and TNF neuronal receptors are conducted using embryonic neurons. Few studies consider age-related deficits that may occur in neurons. Age-related changes in susceptibility to TNFα through TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and receptor 2 (TNFR2) expression could increase susceptibility to β-amyloid (1-42, Abeta42). Evidence is conflicting about which receptor mediates survival and/or apoptosis. We determined how aging affects receptor expression in cultured adult rat cortical neurons. Old neurons were more susceptible to Abeta42 toxicity than middle-age neurons and the addition of TNFα was neuroprotective in middle-age, but exacerbated the toxicity from Abeta42 in old neurons. These pathologic and protective responses in old and middle-age neurons respectively correlated with higher starting TNFR1 and TNFR2 mRNA levels in old versus middle-age neurons. Middle-age neurons treated with TNFα plus Abeta42 did not show an increase in either TNFR1 or TNFR2 mRNA but old neurons showed an upregulation in TNFR2 mRNA and not TNFR1 mRNA. Despite these mRNA changes, surface immunoreactivity of both TNFR1 and TNFR2 increased with dose of TNFα in middle-age neurons. However, middle-age neurons treated with TNFα plus Abeta42 showed an upregulation in both TNFR1 and TNFR2 surface expression, whereas old neurons failed to upregulate surface expression of either receptor. These findings support the hypothesis that age-related changes in TNFα surface receptor expression contribute to the neuronal loss associated with inflammation in AD. PMID:18418902

  3. Relative survival of patients with non-malignant central nervous system tumours: a descriptive study by the Austrian Brain Tumour Registry

    PubMed Central

    Woehrer, A; Hackl, M; Waldhör, T; Weis, S; Pichler, J; Olschowski, A; Buchroithner, J; Maier, H; Stockhammer, G; Thomé, C; Haybaeck, J; Payer, F; von Campe, G; Kiefer, A; Würtz, F; Vince, G H; Sedivy, R; Oberndorfer, S; Marhold, F; Bordihn, K; Stiglbauer, W; Gruber-Mösenbacher, U; Bauer, R; Feichtinger, J; Reiner-Concin, A; Grisold, W; Marosi, C; Preusser, M; Dieckmann, K; Slavc, I; Gatterbauer, B; Widhalm, G; Haberler, C; Hainfellner, J A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unlike malignant primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours outcome data on non-malignant CNS tumours are scarce. For patients diagnosed from 1996 to 2002 5-year relative survival of only 85.0% has been reported. We investigated this rate in a contemporary patient cohort to update information on survival. Methods: We followed a cohort of 3983 cases within the Austrian Brain Tumour Registry. All patients were newly diagnosed from 2005 to 2010 with a histologically confirmed non-malignant CNS tumour. Vital status, cause of death, and population life tables were obtained by 31 December 2011 to calculate relative survival. Results: Overall 5-year relative survival was 96.1% (95% CI 95.1–97.1%), being significantly lower in tumours of borderline (90.2%, 87.2–92.7%) than benign behaviour (97.4%, 96.3–98.3%). Benign tumour survival ranged from 86.8 for neurofibroma to 99.7% for Schwannoma; for borderline tumours survival rates varied from 83.2 for haemangiopericytoma to 98.4% for myxopapillary ependymoma. Cause of death was directly attributed to the CNS tumour in 39.6%, followed by other cancer (20.4%) and cardiovascular disease (15.8%). Conclusion: The overall excess mortality in patients with non-malignant CNS tumours is 5.5%, indicating a significant improvement in survival over the last decade. Still, the remaining adverse impact on survival underpins the importance of systematic registration of these tumours. PMID:24253501

  4. Diversity of Survival Patterns among Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes Subjected to Food-Related Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Elhadidy, Mohamed; Álvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resistance patterns to food-related stresses of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains belonging to specific genotypes. A total of 33 E. coli O157:H7 strains were exposed to seven different stress conditions acting as potential selective pressures affecting the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to humans through the food chain. These stress conditions included cold, oxidative, osmotic, acid, heat, freeze-thaw, and starvation stresses. The genotypes used for comparison included lineage-specific polymorphism, Shiga-toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites, clade type, tir (A255T) polymorphism, Shiga toxin 2 subtype, and antiterminator Q gene allele. Bacterial resistance to different stressors was calculated by determining D-values (times required for inactivation of 90% of the bacterial population), which were then subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses. In addition, a relative stress resistance value, integrating resistance values to all tested stressors, was calculated for each bacterial strain and allowed for a ranking-type classification of E. coli O157:H7 strains according to their environmental robustness. Lineage I/II strains were found to be significantly more resistant to acid, cold, and starvation stress than lineage II strains. Similarly, tir (255T) and clade 8 encoding strains were significantly more resistant to acid, heat, cold, and starvation stress than tir (255A) and non-clade 8 strains. Principal component analysis, which allows grouping of strains with similar stress survival characteristics, separated strains of lineage I and I/II from strains of lineage II, which in general showed reduced survival abilities. Results obtained suggest that lineage I/II, tir (255T), and clade 8 strains, which have been previously reported to be more frequently associated with human disease cases, have greater multiple stress resistance than strains of other genotypes. The results from this

  5. Diversity of Survival Patterns among Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes Subjected to Food-Related Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Elhadidy, Mohamed; Álvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resistance patterns to food-related stresses of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains belonging to specific genotypes. A total of 33 E. coli O157:H7 strains were exposed to seven different stress conditions acting as potential selective pressures affecting the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to humans through the food chain. These stress conditions included cold, oxidative, osmotic, acid, heat, freeze-thaw, and starvation stresses. The genotypes used for comparison included lineage-specific polymorphism, Shiga-toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites, clade type, tir (A255T) polymorphism, Shiga toxin 2 subtype, and antiterminator Q gene allele. Bacterial resistance to different stressors was calculated by determining D-values (times required for inactivation of 90% of the bacterial population), which were then subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses. In addition, a relative stress resistance value, integrating resistance values to all tested stressors, was calculated for each bacterial strain and allowed for a ranking-type classification of E. coli O157:H7 strains according to their environmental robustness. Lineage I/II strains were found to be significantly more resistant to acid, cold, and starvation stress than lineage II strains. Similarly, tir (255T) and clade 8 encoding strains were significantly more resistant to acid, heat, cold, and starvation stress than tir (255A) and non-clade 8 strains. Principal component analysis, which allows grouping of strains with similar stress survival characteristics, separated strains of lineage I and I/II from strains of lineage II, which in general showed reduced survival abilities. Results obtained suggest that lineage I/II, tir (255T), and clade 8 strains, which have been previously reported to be more frequently associated with human disease cases, have greater multiple stress resistance than strains of other genotypes. The results from this

  6. Class IA PI3Kinase Regulatory Subunit, p85α, Mediates Mast Cell Development through Regulation of Growth and Survival Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Subha; Mali, Raghuveer Singh; Koehler, Karl R.; Vemula, Sasidhar; Chatterjee, Anindya; Ghosh, Joydeep; Ramdas, Baskar; Ma, Peilin; Hashino, Eri; Kapur, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) mediated KIT receptor activation plays a pivotal role in mast cell growth, maturation and survival. However, the signaling events downstream from KIT are poorly understood. Mast cells express multiple regulatory subunits of class 1A PI3Kinase (PI3K) including p85α, p85β, p50α, and p55α. While it is known that PI3K plays an essential role in mast cells; the precise mechanism by which these regulatory subunits impact specific mast cell functions including growth, survival and cycling are not known. We show that loss of p85α impairs the growth, survival and cycling of mast cell progenitors (MCp). To delineate the molecular mechanism (s) by which p85α regulates mast cell growth, survival and cycling, we performed microarray analyses to compare the gene expression profile of MCps derived from WT and p85α-deficient mice in response to SCF stimulation. We identified 151 unique genes exhibiting altered expression in p85α-deficient cells in response to SCF stimulation compared to WT cells. Functional categorization based on DAVID bioinformatics tool and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software relates the altered genes due to lack of p85α to transcription, cell cycle, cell survival, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and signal transduction. Our results suggest that p85α is involved in mast cell development through regulation of expression of growth, survival and cell cycle related genes. PMID:22238586

  7. A refined risk score for acute GVHD that predicts response to initial therapy, survival and transplant-related mortality

    PubMed Central

    MacMillan, Margaret L.; Robin, Marie; Harris, Andrew C.; DeFor, Todd E.; Martin, Paul J.; Alousi, Amin; Ho, Vincent T.; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Ferrara, James L.M.; Jones, Richard; Arora, Mukta; Blazar, Bruce R.; Holtan, Shernan G.; Jacobsohn, David; Pasquini, Marcelo; Socie, Gerard; Antin, Joseph H.; Levine, John E.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    To develop a novel acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) Risk Score, we examined the GVHD clinical stage and grade of 1723 patients at the onset of treatment with systemic steroids. Using clinical grouping, descriptive statistics and recursive partitioning, we identified poorly responsive, high-risk (HR) acute GVHD by the number of involved organs and severity of GVHD at onset. The overall response [(complete response/partial response (CR/PR)] rate 28 days after initiation of steroid therapy for acute GVHD was lower in the 269 patients with HR-GVHD than in the 1454 patients with standard risk (SR)-GVHD [44% (95% CI 38–50%) vs. 68% (95% CI 66–70%), p<0.001. Patients with HR-GVHD were less likely to respond at day 28 [odds ratio (OR), 0.3, 95% CI 0.2–0.4, p<0.001], and had higher risks of mortality [relative risk (RR) 2.1, 95% CI 1.7–2.6, P<0.001] and transplant-related mortality (RR 2.5, 95% CI 2.0–3.2%, p<0.001) compared to patients with SR-GVHD. This refined definition of acute GVHD risk is a better predictor of response, survival and transplant-related mortality than other published acute GVHD risk scores. Patients with HR-GVHD are candidates for studies investigating new treatment approaches. Likewise, patients with SR-GVHD are candidates for studies investigating less toxic therapy. PMID:25585275

  8. Effects of Delayed Metamorphosis on Larval Survival, Metamorphosis, and Juvenile Performance of Four Closely Related Species of Tropical Sea Urchins (Genus Echinometra)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Aminur; Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Arshad, A.; Uehara, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We report here, the effects of extended competency on larval survival, metamorphosis, and postlarval juvenile growth of four closely related species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. A (Ea), E. mathaei (Em), Echinometra sp. C (Ec), and E. oblonga (Eo). Planktotrophic larvae of all four species fed on cultured phytoplankton (Chaetoceros gracilis) attained metamorphic competence within 22–24 days after fertilization. Competent larvae were forced to delay metamorphosis for up to 5 months by preventing them from settling in culture bottles with continuous stirring on a set of 10 rpm rotating rollers and larval survival per monthly intervals was recorded. Larval survival was highest at 24 days, when competence was attained (0 delayed period), and there were no significant differences among the four species. Larvae that had experienced a prolonged delay had reduced survival rate, metamorphosis success, and juvenile survival, but among older larvae, Em had the highest success followed by Ea, Eo, and Ec. Juveniles from larvae of all four species that metamorphosed soon after becoming competent tended to have higher growth rates (test diameter and length of spines) than juveniles from larvae that metamorphosed after a prolonged period of competence with progressively slower growth the longer the prolonged period. Despite the adverse effects of delaying metamorphosis on growth parameters, competent larvae of all four species were able to survive up to 5 months and after metamorphosis grew into 1-month-old juveniles in lab condition. Overall, delayed larvae of Em showed significantly higher larval survival, metamorphosis, and juvenile survival than Ea and Eo, while Ec showed the lowest values in these performances. Em has the most widespread distribution of these species ranging from Africa to Hawaii, while Ec probably has the most restricted distribution. Consequently, differences in distribution may be related to differences in the ability to delay metamorphosis

  9. BAALC and ERG Expression in Egyptian Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Relation to Survival and Response to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Aml; Aal, Asmaa Abdel; Afify, Reham; Ibrahim, Noha

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Aim was to detect Brain and Acute Leukemia, Cytoplasmic (BAALC) and ETS-related gene (ERG) expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as well as to study their biologic and prognostic impact on the disease outcome and survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The current study was carried out on 44 patients with denovo acute myeloid leukemia, as well as 44 age and sex matched controls. The quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed for estimation of BAALC and ERG expression. RESULTS: The current study was carried out on 44 patients with denovo acute myeloid leukemia, as well as 44 age and sex matched controls. The quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed for estimation of BAALC and ERG expression. BAALC was expressed in 36 (81.82%) of AML cases versus 10 (22.72%) of the control group which was highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). While ERG was positive in 39(88.64%) of cases and 8(18.18 %) of controls and that was also highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Further researches still needed to clarify the role of BAALC and ERG in the pathogenesis of leukemia and their importance as targets for treatment of AML. PMID:27335598

  10. Breast Cancer Laterality Does Not Influence Survival in a Large Modern Cohort: Implications for Radiation-Related Cardiac Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Rutter, Charles E.; Chagpar, Anees B.; Evans, Suzanne B.

    2014-10-01

    Objectives: Radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer has been associated with an elevated risk of cardiac mortality, based on studies predating treatment planning based on computed tomography. This study assessed the impact of tumor laterality on overall survival (OS) in a large cohort treated with modern techniques, to indirectly determine whether left-sided treatment remains associated with increased cardiac mortality. Methods and Materials: Patients treated for breast cancer with breast conserving surgery and adjuvant external beam radiation therapy were identified in the National Cancer Database, and OS was compared based on tumor laterality using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Separate analyses were performed for noninvasive and invasive carcinoma and for breast-only and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy. Multivariate regression analysis of OS was performed with demographic, pathologic, and treatment variables as covariates to adjust for factors associated with breast cancer–specific survival. Results: We identified 344,831 patients whose cancer was diagnosed from 1998 to 2006 with a median follow-up time of 6.04 years (range, 0-14.17 years). Clinical, tumor, and treatment characteristics were similar between laterality groups. Regional nodal radiation was used in 14.2% of invasive cancers. No OS difference was noted based on tumor laterality for patients treated with breast-only (hazard ratio [HR] 0.984, P=.132) and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy (HR 1.001, P=.957). In multivariate analysis including potential confounders, OS was identical between left and right sided cancers (HR 1.002, P=.874). No significant OS difference by laterality was observed when analyses were restricted to patients with at least 10 years of follow-up (n=27,725), both in patients treated with breast-only (HR 0.955, P=.368) and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy (HR 0.859, P=.155). Conclusions: Radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer does

  11. The relative importance of waterborne and dietborne arsenic exposure on survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Russell J; Mount, David R; Highland, Terry L; Russell Hockett, J; Jenson, Correne T

    2011-07-01

    Previous work demonstrated reduced growth of rainbow trout receiving diets containing environmentally relevant concentrations of arsenic, but did not address the relative and combined potency of waterborne and dietborne exposures. In the current study, juvenile rainbow trout were exposed for 28d to a range of arsenic concentrations in water and in a live oligochaete diet, separately and in combination. In clean water, fish fed worms previously exposed to arsenate at 4 or 8mg As/L showed pronounced reductions in growth, but fish exposed to these same water concentrations and a clean diet experienced less or no effect. Increasing waterborne arsenate to 16 or 32mg As/L had substantial effects on both growth and survival, and simultaneous exposure via both routes intensified growth effects, but not mortality. Growth reduction was strongly correlated to total arsenic accumulation in the fish tissue, regardless of the route of exposure, but mortality was better correlated to waterborne arsenic concentration. The relative concentration of total arsenic in fish viscera and in the remaining carcass was not a useful indicator of exposure route. Speciation analysis showed that most arsenate was converted to arsenite within the worms, but organoarsenic species were not found. The greater toxicity of dietborne exposure when fish and prey were exposed to the same waterborne arsenate concentration emphasizes the need to address dietborne exposure when assessing the aquatic risks of arsenic contamination. This is of particular concern because risk from dietary exposure may occur at even lower water concentrations than used here when prey organisms are exposed for longer periods and via multiple routes. PMID:21549662

  12. Physical Activity at Mid-Life in Relation to Successful Survival in Women at Age 70 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qi; Townsend, Mary K.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hu, Frank B.; Grodstein, Francine

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with reduced risks of chronic diseases and premature death. Whether physical activity is also associated with improved overall health among those who survive to older ages is unclear. Methods A total of 13,535 Nurses’ Health Study participants who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline in 1986 and had survived to age 70 years or older as of 1995–2001 comprised the study population. We defined successful survival as no history of 11 major chronic diseases and no cognitive impairment, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results After multivariate adjustment for covariates, higher physical activity levels at mid-life, as measured by metabolic equivalent tasks, were significantly associated with better odds of successful survival. Significant increases in successful survival were observed beginning at the third quintile of activity: Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) in the lowest to highest quintiles were 1.00 (reference), 0.98 (0.80, 1.20), 1.37 (1.13, 1.65), 1.34 (1.11, 1.61), and 1.99 (1.66, 2.38; P for trend < 0.0001). Increasing energy expenditure from walking was associated with a similar elevation in odds of successful survival: The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of successful survival across quintiles of walking were 1.00 (reference), 0.99 (0.80, 1.21), 1.19 (0.97, 1.45), 1.50 (1.24, 1.82), and 1.47 (1.22, 1.79; P for trend < 0.0001). Conclusion These data provide evidence that higher levels of mid-life physical activity are associated with exceptional health status among women who survive to older ages, and corroborate the potential role of physical activity in improving overall health. PMID:20101015

  13. The CES-2-related transcription factor E4BP4 is an intrinsic regulator of motoneuron growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Dirk; Chauvet, Sophie; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Dudley, Keith; Sykes, Toby; Henderson, Christopher E

    2004-09-01

    The regulation of neuronal growth and survival during development requires interplay between extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Among the latter, transcription factors play a key role. In the nematode, the transcription factor CES-2 predisposes neurosecretory motoneurons to death, whereas E4BP4 (NFIL3), one of its vertebrate homologs, regulates survival of pro-B lymphocytes. We show that E4BP4 is expressed by embryonic rat and chicken motoneurons in vivo, with levels being highest in neurons that survive the period of naturally occurring cell death. Overexpression of E4BP4 by electroporation of purified motoneurons in culture protected them almost completely against cell death triggered by removal of neurotrophic factors or activation of death receptors. Moreover, E4BP4 strongly enhanced neuronal cell size and axonal growth. Axons of motoneurons transfected with E4BP4 were 3.5-fold longer than control neurons grown on laminin; this effect required the activity of PI3 kinase. In vivo, overexpression of E4BP4 in chicken embryos reduced the number of dying motoneurons by 45%. Our results define E4BP4 as a novel intrinsic regulator of motoneuron growth and survival. Pathways regulated by E4BP4 are of potential interest both for understanding neuromuscular development and for promoting neuronal survival and regeneration in pathological situations. PMID:15306565

  14. Somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5 are associated with better survival in operable hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma following octreotide long-acting release treatment

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YAO; JIANG, LI; MU, YI

    2013-01-01

    Liver resections for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic livers are associated with early recurrence and poor survival. Somatostatin analogues (SSAs) have been reported to inhibit cell proliferation by interacting with specific somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) 2 and 5. The present study investigated whether SSTR expression in HCC was associated with the clinical outcome following octreotide long-acting release (LAR) treatment. Paired tumor and cirrhotic liver samples were obtained following a liver resection from 99 patients with stage I–II HCC and HBV-related cirrhosis. The expression of SSTR2 and 5 was assessed using quantitative (q)PCR and immunohistochemistry. The patients were classified into two groups, the high expression (n=47) and low expression (n=52) groups, based on the gene expression levels. The clinicopathological data and survival results of the two groups were compared. When compared with the surrounding cirrhotic tissue, the SSTR2 and 5 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the HCC tissue. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the baseline characteristics. The tumor recurrence rate was significantly lower in the high expression group compared with that of the low expression group (63.83% vs. 82.69%; P=0.033). The 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates of the high expression group were 97, 89 and 71% and 98, 89 and 74%, respectively. The survival time of the members of the high expression group was longer compared with that of the low expression group. The multivariate analysis revealed that the TNM-7 stage and SSTR2 expression were independent prognostic factors for survival. In conclusion, SSTR mRNA expression correlated with survival in patients with early-stage hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC who were treated with octreotide LAR following surgery. The inhibitory effects of SSAs on tumor growth may be mediated by SSTR expression. PMID:24137418

  15. Improvements in observed and relative survival in follicular grade 1-2 lymphoma during 4 decades: the Stanford University experience

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Daryl; Horning, Sandra J.; Hoppe, Richard T.; Levy, Ronald; Rosenberg, Saul A.; Sigal, Bronislava M.; Warnke, Roger A.; Natkunam, Yasodha; Han, Summer S.; Yuen, Alan; Plevritis, Sylvia K.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies report an improvement in overall survival (OS) of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). Previously untreated patients with grade 1 to 2 FL treated at Stanford University from 1960-2003 were identified. Four eras were considered: era 1, pre-anthracycline (1960-1975, n = 180); era 2, anthracycline (1976-1986, n = 426); era 3, aggressive chemotherapy/purine analogs (1987-1996, n = 471); and era 4, rituximab (1997-2003, n = 257). Clinical characteristics, patterns of care, and survival were assessed. Observed OS was compared with the expected OS calculated from Berkeley Mortality Database life tables derived from population matched by gender and age at the time of diagnosis. The median OS was 13.6 years. Age, gender, and stage did not differ across the eras. Although primary treatment varied, event-free survival after the first treatment did not differ between eras (P = .17). Median OS improved from 11 years in eras 1 and 2 to 18.4 years in era 3 and has not yet been reached for era 4 (P < .001), with no suggestion of a plateau in any era. These improvements in OS exceeded improvements in survival in the general population during the same period. Several factors, including better supportive care and effective therapies for relapsed disease, are likely responsible for this improvement. PMID:23777769

  16. Survival by Stage of Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic How are soft tissue sarcomas treated? Survival by stage of soft tissue sarcoma Survival rates ... observed, not relative survival): Stage 5-year observed survival rate I 90% II 81% III 56% IV ...

  17. Ruptured yolk sacs and visceral fungi in emergent pink salmon alevins: histopathology and relation to marine survival.

    PubMed

    Marty, Gary D; Heintz, Ronald A

    2010-01-25

    Marine survival of anadromous salmon species is highly variable, and causes of this variability are often unknown. In the 1990s, cultured pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha alevins from 2 different regions in Alaska, USA, had years with increased postemergent mortality that could not be attributed to viruses, bacteria, or parasites. In both regions, lifetime marine survival of the most severely affected fish groups was as low as 1.1% in 1 region and 0.13% in the other region. To determine causes of morbidity, alevins from both regions were sampled for detailed histopathology (n = 144 and 36). Microscopic lesions associated with increased postemergent mortality included ruptured yolk sacs or 'coagulated yolk' (up to 38% of abnormal fish affected) and invasive fungi in the stomach or swimbladder (up to 39% of abnormal fish affected). The diagnosis of a ruptured yolk sac was based on the presence of yolk protein in the peritoneal cavity. Putative yolk proteins sometimes also distended peritoneal macrophages, systemic vessels, hepatocyte cytoplasm, splenic macrophages, and renal ducts. The most severe case of visceral fungi had hyphae invading from the stomach into the swimbladder and kidney. In the hatchery with the greatest postemergent mortality, 38% of the abnormal fish sampled had no significant microscopic lesions. We hypothesize that ruptured yolk sacs and visceral fungi occurred in fish that were predisposed to develop these lesions because of poor body condition. High prevalence of these lesions might be a useful marker for predicting poor marine survival. PMID:20225673

  18. Survival and Migration Behavior of Juvenile Coho Salmon in the Klamath River Relative to Discharge at Iron Gate Dam, Northern California, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Juhnke, Steve; Stutzer, Greg; Hetrick, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    discharge at IGD was 1,518 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and ranged from 1,020 to 2,460 ft3/s. Average daily discharge near the estuary at river kilometer (rkm) 13 was 9,820 ft3/s and ranged from 3,270 to 20,500 ft3/s. This study was based on hatchery fish taken directly from a holding tank at IGH. Wild fish were not available in numbers sufficient for use in 2007. Fish tagging began on April 9 and concluded on May 17, 2007. A total of 246 hatchery coho salmon were tagged and released, split evenly between releases in the Klamath River near IGH (rkm 309) and near the Tree of Heaven campground at rkm 280. The two release sites were used to enable estimation of a relative survival between IGH and the campground using the paired-release design, because potential effects of tagging and handling can be cancelled out with this method. However, the assumption that the survival probabilities of fish from each release site are equal in the reaches they have in common was violated, preventing its use in 2007. All estimates of survival were therefore calculated using the single-release design. The reach-specific estimates of survival were lower in 2007 than in 2006, but a similar survival pattern was evident among reaches in each year. The survival from IGH to rkm 33 was 0.653 [standard error (SE) 0.039] in 2006 and 0.497 (SE 0.044) in 2007. In each year, the reaches with the lowest survivals were upstream of the Scott River, which also is the area with the greatest differences in survivals between years. The reach with the highest survivals were in the Salmon River-to-Trinity River reach (at or near 1.0 in each year). The cause of the difference in survivals in each year were not identified, but could be related to differences in discharge or turbidity, as these are the primary differences between the years. These differences and other effects will be analyzed when the data from all study years (initially planned for 2006 through 2008) are available. Models of su

  19. Quantitative trait loci affecting survival and fertility-related traits in Caenorhabditis elegans show genotype-environment interactions, pleiotropy and epistasis.

    PubMed Central

    Shook, D R; Johnson, T E

    1999-01-01

    We have identified, using composite interval mapping, quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting a variety of life history traits (LHTs) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using recombinant inbred strains assayed on the surface of agar plates, we found QTL for survival, early fertility, age of onset of sexual maturity, and population growth rate. There was no overall correlation between survival on solid media and previous measures of survival in liquid media. Of the four survival QTL found in these two environments, two have genotype-environment interactions (GEIs). Epistatic interactions between markers were detected for four traits. A multiple regression approach was used to determine which single markers and epistatic interactions best explained the phenotypic variance for each trait. The amount of phenotypic variance accounted for by genetic effects ranged from 13% (for internal hatching) to 46% (for population growth). Epistatic effects accounted for 9-11% of the phenotypic variance for three traits. Two regions containing QTL that affected more than one fertility-related trait were found. This study serves as an example of the power of QTL mapping for dissecting the genetic architecture of a suite of LHTs and indicates the potential importance of environment and GEIs in the evolution of this architecture. PMID:10545455

  20. A Prospective Study Assessing Tumour Response, Survival, and Palliative Care Outcomes in Patients with HIV-Related Kaposi's Sarcoma at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Francis, H.; Bates, M. J.; Kalilani, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus- (HIV-) related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has a high prevalence in Africa; however, there is minimal published data on treatment and outcomes in this population. Objective and Design. This was a prospective study of 50 patients, aiming to assess the impact of vincristine therapy on tumour response and survival and to assess palliative care outcomes in patients with HIV-related KS. Methods. 50 consecutive patients were recruited during 2008. Vincristine therapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were given. Tumour response, survival, and chemotherapy-related toxicities were documented. Palliative care outcomes were assessed using the African Palliative Care Association (APCA) Palliative Outcome Scale (POS). Results. The majority of patients were male, and the median age was 33 years. At baseline assessment, the median CD4 T-cell count was 263, and 50% patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy. The overall response rate was 64% at 6 weeks, and median progression-free survival was 30 weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with peripheral neuropathy the main dose-limiting toxicity. Conclusion. The combination of vincristine and HAART is feasible and effective in a low resource setting, although peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting factor. This patient group carries a high mortality and as such adequate access to palliative care is crucial. PMID:22496970

  1. Ras-Related Small GTPases RalA and RalB Regulate Cellular Survival After Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, Ambrose R.; Snider, Jared L.; Martin, Timothy D.; Graboski, Sarah F.; Der, Channing J.; Cox, Adrienne D.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: Oncogenic activation of Ras renders cancer cells resistant to ionizing radiation (IR), but the mechanisms have not been fully characterized. The Ras-like small GTPases RalA and RalB are downstream effectors of Ras function and are critical for both tumor growth and survival. The Ral effector RalBP1/RLIP76 mediates survival of mice after whole-body irradiation, but the role of the Ral GTPases themselves in response to IR is unknown. We have investigated the role of RalA and RalB in cellular responses to IR. Methods and Materials: RalA, RalB, and their major effectors RalBP1 and Sec5 were knocked down by stable expression of short hairpin RNAs in the K-Ras-dependent pancreatic cancer-derived cell line MIA PaCa-2. Radiation responses were measured by standard clonogenic survival assays for reproductive survival, {gamma}H2AX expression for double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs), and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage for apoptosis. Results: Knockdown of K-Ras, RalA, or RalB reduced colony-forming ability post-IR, and knockdown of either Ral isoform decreased the rate of DSB repair post-IR. However, knockdown of RalB, but not RalA, increased cell death. Surprisingly, neither RalBP1 nor Sec5 suppression affected colony formation post-IR. Conclusions: Both RalA and RalB contribute to K-Ras-dependent IR resistance of MIA PaCa-2 cells. Sensitization due to suppressed Ral expression is likely due in part to decreased efficiency of DNA repair (RalA and RalB) and increased susceptibility to apoptosis (RalB). Ral-mediated radioresistance does not depend on either the RalBP1 or the exocyst complex, the two best-characterized Ral effectors, and instead may utilize an atypical or novel effector.

  2. Risk Factors Associated With Complication Rates of Becker-Type Expander Implants in Relation to Implant Survival: Review of 314 Implants in 237 Patients.

    PubMed

    Taboada-Suarez, Antonio; Brea-García, Beatriz; Magán-Muñoz, Fernando; Couto-González, Iván; González-Álvarez, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Although autologous tissue reconstruction is the best option for breast reconstruction, using implants is still a reliable and simple method, offering acceptable aesthetic results. Becker-type implants are permanent implants that offer a 1-stage reconstructive option. A retrospective study was carried out in our center reviewing the clinical reports of 237 patients, in whom a total of 314 Becker-type prostheses were implanted. Overall survival was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier estimate. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios. At the end of the study, 214 expanders (68.15%) presented no complications, 40 (12.47%) developed significant capsular contracture, in 27 (8.60%) infection occurred, 24 (7.64%) suffered minor complications, and 9 (2.87%) ruptured. The mean survival time of the expanders was 120.41 months (95% CI: 109.62, 131.19). Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, high Molecular Immunology Borstel, age, mastectomy performed previously to the implant, ductal carcinoma, advanced tumoral stage, experience of the surgeon, and Becker 35-type implants were significantly related to a high number of complications in relation to the survival of the implants. Cox regression analysis revealed that the main risk factors for the survival of expander implants included radiotherapy and surgeon experience. The complication hazard ratio or relative risk caused by these 2 factors was 1.976 and 1.680, respectively. One-stage reconstruction using Becker-type expanders is an appropriate, simple, and reliable option in delayed breast reconstruction in patients who have not received radiotherapy and as long as the procedure is carried out by surgeons skilled in the technique. PMID:25003425

  3. Two Bioactive Molecular Weight Fractions of a Conditioned Medium Enhance RPE Cell Survival on Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Aged Bruch's Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sugino, Ilene K.; Sun, Qian; Springer, Carola; Cheewatrakoolpong, Noounanong; Liu, Tong; Li, Hong; Zarbin, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize molecular weight fractions of bovine corneal endothelial cell conditioned medium (CM) supporting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell survival on aged and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) Bruch's membrane. Methods CM was subject to size separation using centrifugal filters. Retentate and filtrate fractions were tested for bioactivity by analyzing RPE survival on submacular Bruch's membrane of aged and AMD donor eyes and behavior on collagen I-coated tissue culture wells. Protein and peptide composition of active fractions was determined by mass spectrometry. Results Two bioactive fractions, 3-kDa filtrate and a 10-50–kDa fraction, were necessary for RPE survival on aged and AMD Bruch's membrane. The 3-kDa filtrate, but not the 10-50–kDa fraction, supported RPE growth on collagen 1‐coated tissue culture plates. Mass spectrometry of the 10-50–kDa fraction identified 175 extracellular proteins, including growth factors and extracellular matrix molecules. Transforming growth factor (TGF)β-2 was identified as unique to active CM. Peptides representing 29 unique proteins were identified in the 3-KDa filtrate. Conclusions These results indicate there is a minimum of two bioactive molecules in CM, one found in the 3-kDa filtrate and one in the 10-50–kDa fraction, and that bioactive molecules in both fractions must be present to ensure RPE survival on Bruch's membrane. Mass spectrometry analysis suggested proteins to test in future studies to identify proteins that may contribute to CM bioactivity. Translational Relevance Results of this study are the first steps in development of an adjunct to cell-based therapy to ensure cell transplant survival and functionality in AMD patients. PMID:26933521

  4. Patient features predicting long‐term survival and health‐related quality of life after radical surgery for non‐small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rauma, Ville; Sintonen, Harri; Räsänen, Jari; Ilonen, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This study presents a retrospective evaluation of patient, disease, and treatment features predicting long‐term survival and health‐related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients who underwent surgery for non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Between January 2000 and June 2009, 586 patients underwent surgery at the Helsinki University Hospital. The 276 patients still alive in June 2011 received two validated quality of life questionnaires (QLQ): the generic 15D and the cancer‐specific EORTC QLQ‐C30 + QLQ‐LC13. We used binary and linear regression analysis modeling to identify patient, disease, and treatment characteristics that predicted survival and long‐term HRQoL. Results When taking into account patient, disease, and treatment characteristics, long‐term survival was quite predictable (69.5% correct), but not long‐term HRQoL (R 2 between 0.041 and 0.119). Advanced age at the time of surgery, male gender, comorbidity (measured with the Charlson comorbidity index), clinical and pathological stages II‐IV, and postoperative infectious complications predicted a lower survival rate. Features associated with poorer long‐term HRQoL (measured with the 15D) were comorbidity, postoperative complications, and the use of the video‐assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) technique. Conclusions Long‐term HRQoL is only moderately predictable, while prediction of long‐term survival is more reliable. Lower HRQoL is associated with comorbidities, complications, use of the VATS technique, and reduced pulmonary function, while adjuvant therapy is associated with higher HRQoL. PMID:27148419

  5. Outcome after Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Depends on Age in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease – An Analysis of Relative Survival in a Multicenter Cohort and an OCT Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Christian; Gangl, Clemens; Dalos, Daniel; Krenn, Lisa; Scherzer, Sabine; Gerken, Anna; Reinwein, Martin; Zhang, Chao; Hagmann, Michael; Wrba, Thomas; Delle-Karth, Georg; Neunteufl, Thomas; Maurer, Gerald; Vock, Paul; Mayr, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Background Age is a strong predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease. In elder patients with increasing co-morbidities percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with more complications and worse outcome. The calculation of relative survival rates adjusts for the “background” mortality in the general population by correcting for age and gender. We analyzed if elder patients after elective PCI have a worse relative survival compared to younger patient groups. Methods A total of 8,342 patients who underwent elective PCI at two high volume centers between 1998 and 2009 were analyzed. Results The survival of our patients after PCI (observed survival) was slightly lower compared to the general population (expected survival) resulting in a slightly decreasing relative survival curve. In a multivariate Cox regression model age amongst others was a strong predictor of survival. Stratifying patients according to their age the relative survival curves of younger patients (Quartile 1: <58 years; 2,046 patients), elder patients (Quartile 3: 66–73 years; 2,090 patients) and very old patients (Quartile 4: >73 years; 2,307 patients) were similar. The relative survival of mid-aged patients (Quartile 2: 58–65 years; 1,899 patients) was better than that of all other patient groups. The profile of cardiovascular risk factors differs between the various groups resulting in different composition and burden of coronary plaques in an optical coherence tomography sub-study. Conclusion Patients after elective PCI have a slightly worse long-term survival compared to the age- and sex-matched general population. This is also true for different groups of age except for mid-aged patients between 58 and 63 years. Elder patients between 66 and 73 years and above 73 years have a similar relative survival compared to younger patients below 58 years, and might therefore have similar benefit from elective PCI. PMID:27105207

  6. Occupational Survival Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, James A.; Nelson, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    The author describes a set of twelve curriculum modules called "Occupational Survival Skills" relating to the "human" aspects of work organizations. The modules were based on information from opinion surveys of workers, students, parents, and teachers on what occupational survival skills are and how to teach them. (MF)

  7. EVALUATION OF THE MORTALITY RATE ONE YEAR AFTER HIP FRACTURE AND FACTORS RELATING TO DIMINISHED SURVIVAL AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Guilherme; Longaray, Maurício Portal; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Neto, Ary da Silva Ungaretti; Manente, Marislei; Barbosa, Luíza Barbosa Horta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate after one year and correlated preoperative factors, among patients with hip fractures. Methods: We prospectively studied 202 out of a total of 376 patients with a diagnosis of hip fracture who were admitted to the Hospital Cristo Redentor, between October 2007 and March 2009. The database with the epidemiological analysis was set up during their hospitalization, and follow–up data were obtained preferentially by phone. Results: The overall mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7% or 58 deaths, among which 11 (5.45%) occurred during hospitalization. Fractures were more prevalent among women (71.3%) and rare among blacks (5%). Among the comorbidities, dementia and depression showed a statistically significant reduction in survival (p = 0.018 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusion: The mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7%. Dementia and depression increased this rate. PMID:27042638

  8. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  9. The Relation of the Level of Serum Anti-TF, -Tn and -Alpha-Gal IgG to Survival in Gastrointestinal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Smorodin, Eugeniy; Sergeyev, Boris; Klaamas, Kersti; Chuzmarov, Valentin; Kurtenkov, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation of the level of serum anti-TF, -Tn and -αGal carbohydrate antibodies to survival in gastrointestinal cancer patients. Methods: The level of anti-TF (Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen), -Tn and -αGal IgG was analysed in the serum of patients with gastric (n = 83) and colorectal (n = 51) cancers in the long-term follow-up, using ELISA with polyacrylamide glycoconjugates. To evaluate overall survival and the risk of death, the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used in the univariate analysis of patients groups. Results: A significantly better survival was observed: (1) in patients with an increased level of anti-TF antibodies (all, stage III, T2-4, N1-2 and G3; P = 0.004-0.038, HR = 0.16-0.46); and (2) in patients with an increased level of anti-Tn antibodies (G1-2 tumors; P = 0.034-0.042, HR = 0.34-0.47). A significantly worse survival was observed in gastrointestinal, gastric and colorectal groups with an increased level of serum anti-αGal antibodies. This association depended on the patho-morphology of tumors (all, stages I-II, III, T2-4, N0, N1-2 and G1-2; P = 0.006-0.048, HR = 1.99-2.33). In the combined assessment of the anti-TF and -αGal antibodies level of the whole gastrointestinal group (n = 53), P = 0.002, HR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.094-0.655. In the follow-up, the survival time was shorter in patients whose level of anti-αGal antibodies rose (P = 0.009-0.040, HR = 2.18-4.27). The level of anti-TF antibodies inversely correlated with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR, r = - 0.401, P = 0.004, n = 49). Patients with a higher level of anti-αGal antibodies and NLR values demonstrated a significantly worse survival (P = 0.009, HR = 2.98, n = 48). Conclusions: The preoperative levels of anti-TF, -Tn and -αGal antibodies and their dynamics are of prognostic significance. The method for the determination of circulating anti-carbohydrate antibodies may be a useful supplement in clinical outcome assessment

  10. High expression of the Ets-related gene (ERG) is an independent prognostic marker for relapse-free survival in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Anna; Nowak, Daniel; Nowak, Verena; Hanfstein, Benjamin; Faldum, Andreas; Büchner, Thomas; Spiekermann, Karsten; Sauerland, Cristina; Lengfelder, Eva; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Nolte, Florian

    2013-04-01

    In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), relapse occurs in about 15 % of cases and is a major cause for death. Molecular markers identifying patients at high risk for relapse are not well established. High expression of the transcription factor Ets-related gene (ERG) is associated with inferior overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival in different types of hematologic malignancies. There are no data available about the impact of ERG expression in APL. ERG expression levels were analyzed in bone marrow samples of 86 APL patients at initial diagnosis. High ERG expression was significantly associated with an inferior OS in patients who had reached first complete remission. It was also significantly correlated with inferior relapse-free survival (RFS) and time to relapse (i.e., relapse-free interval, RFI). In multivariate analysis, high ERG expression had an independent negative impact on RFS and RFI. High ERG expression was significantly associated with inferior OS, RFS, and RFI. Moreover, in multivariate analysis, it maintained its value as an independent negative prognostic factor with regard to RFS and RFI. Therefore, ERG expression might serve as a molecular marker for risk stratification in APL and might identify patients who could benefit from intensified treatment regimens. PMID:23250622

  11. The survival and growth of Bacillus cereus in boiled and fried rice in relation to outbreaks of food poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R. J.; Stringer, M. F.; Peace, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    A number of outbreaks of food poisoning attributed to Bacillus cereus have been reported recently and all have been associated with cooked rice usually from Chinese restaurants and `take-away' shops. Tests were made to assess the heat resistance of B. cereus spores in aqueous suspension, the growth of the organism in boiled rice stored at temperatures in the range 4-55° C., and the effect of cooking and storage on the growth of the organism in boiled and fried rice. The spores of B. cereus survived cooking and were capable of germination and outgrowth. The optimum temperature for growth in boiled rice was between 30° and 37° C. and growth also occurred during storage at 15° and 43° C. To prevent further outbreaks it is suggested that rice should be boiled in smaller quantities on several occasions during the day, thereby reducing the storage time before frying. After boiling the rice should either be kept hot (> 63° C.) or cooled quickly and transferred to a refrigerator within 2 hr. of cooking. Boiled or fried rice must not be stored under warm conditions especially in the range 15-50° C. PMID:4216605

  12. The survival and growth of Bacillus cereus in boiled and fried rice in relation to outbreaks of food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, R J; Stringer, M F; Peace, T C

    1974-12-01

    A number of outbreaks of food poisoning attributed to Bacillus cereus have been reported recently and all have been associated with cooked rice usually from Chinese restaurants and ;take-away' shops.Tests were made to assess the heat resistance of B. cereus spores in aqueous suspension, the growth of the organism in boiled rice stored at temperatures in the range 4-55 degrees C., and the effect of cooking and storage on the growth of the organism in boiled and fried rice. The spores of B. cereus survived cooking and were capable of germination and outgrowth. The optimum temperature for growth in boiled rice was between 30 degrees and 37 degrees C. and growth also occurred during storage at 15 degrees and 43 degrees C.To prevent further outbreaks it is suggested that rice should be boiled in smaller quantities on several occasions during the day, thereby reducing the storage time before frying. After boiling the rice should either be kept hot (> 63 degrees C.) or cooled quickly and transferred to a refrigerator within 2 hr. of cooking. Boiled or fried rice must not be stored under warm conditions especially in the range 15-50 degrees C. PMID:4216605

  13. Immunoglobulin G Fc N-glycan profiling in patients with gastric cancer by LC-ESI-MS: relation to tumor progression and survival.

    PubMed

    Kodar, Kristel; Stadlmann, Johannes; Klaamas, Kersti; Sergeyev, Boris; Kurtenkov, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    The IgG Fc glycans strongly influence the Fcγ receptor interactions and Fc-mediated effector mechanisms. Changes in the structure of IgG glycans are associated with various diseases, such as infections and autoimmunity. However, the possible role of Fc glycans in tumor immunity is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to profile the Fc N-glycans of IgG samples from patients with gastric cancer (n = 80) and controls (n = 51) using LC-ESI-MS method to correlate the findings with stage of cancer and patients survival. Analysis of 32 different IgG N-glycans revealed significant increase of agalactosylated (GnGnF, GnGn(bi)F), and decrease of galactosylated (AGn(bi), AGn(bi)F, AA(bi), AAF) and monosialylated IgG glycoforms (NaAF, NaA(bi)) in cancer patients. A statistically significant increase of Fc fucosylation was observed in tumor stage II and III whereas reverse changes were found for the presence of bisecting GlcNAc. Higher level of fully sialylated glycans and elevated expression of glycans with bisecting GlcNAc were associated with better survival rate. Our findings provide the first evidence that the changes in Fc glycan profile may predict the survival of patients with gastric cancer. Cancer stage-dependent changes in Fc fucosylation and the bisecting N-acteylglucosamine expression as well as an association of several IgG glycoforms with the survival suggest that IgG glycosylation is related to pathogenesis of cancer and progression of the disease. PMID:22179780

  14. Biochemical and anatomical responses related to the in vitro survival of the tropical bromeliad Nidularium minutum to low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Camila Pereira; Hayashi, Adriana Hissae; Braga, Marcia Regina; Nievola, Catarina Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Nidularium minutum is a tropical bromeliad that grows in natural environment with temperatures ranging from 2 to 30 °C. In the present work we cultivated this species in vitro at 5, 10, 15, and 25 °C for 3 and 6 months aiming at assessing biochemical and morphological responses that allow its survival under low temperatures. No survival was observed for plants cultured constantly at 5 °C and the lowest biometric parameters were found for those grown at 10 °C. A thick aquiferous parenchyma, accumulation of reducing sugars, and increased pectin content in the cell walls were observed in plants grown at 10 and 15 °C when compared to those maintained at 25 °C. In plants cultured at 10 °C, leaf bleaching correlated with low chlorophyll content and lower survival rate after 6 months when compared to those grown at 15 °C. The best in vitro culture condition for slow growth and plant acclimatization was found to be at 15 °C. This probably correlated with the immediate availability of carbon to restore growth during acclimatization and also with higher root initiation under this condition. This study brings information about the responses related to functional adaptation to low temperatures in N. minutum cultured in vitro that can also be implicated in its survival under natural conditions. Additionally, it suggests the best temperature to form a minimal growth collection to be used in restocking and conservation programs for endangered tropical bromeliads. PMID:23917072

  15. Polymorphisms of MUC16 (CA125) and MUC1 (CA15.3) in Relation to Ovarian Cancer Risk and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristina A.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Titus, Linda J.; Cramer, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in MUC16 (CA125) and MUC1 (CA15.3) in relation to ovarian cancer risk and survival. Methods We genotyped germline variants of MUC16 (rs2547065, rs1559168, rs12984471, rs2121133) and MUC1 (rs2070803, rs4072037, rs1045253) using samples collected from 758 ovarian cancer cases and 788 controls enrolled in the New England Case-Control Study between 2003 and 2008. We calculated age-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disease risk using unconditional and polytomous logistic regression and hazard ratios (HR) for survival using Cox proportional hazard ratios. In a subset of cases, we compared log-normalized CA125 values by genotype using generalized linear models. Results Cases homozygous for the variant allele of MUC16 SNP, rs12984471, had poorer overall survival (log-rank p = 0.03) and higher CA125 levels, especially cases over age 65 (p = 0.01). For MUC1 SNP, rs4072037, women homozygous for the G variant had a non-significantly decreased risk for serous invasive types but elevated risk for serous borderline tumors, mucinous borderline and invasive tumors, and endometrioid tumors. Women with the variant allele of MUC16 SNP, rs2547065, especially those who were homozygous had an elevated risk for ovarian cancer; but this association was not confirmed in an independent dataset. Conclusion This targeted screen of seven polymorphisms of MUC16 and MUC1 genes failed to identify and confirm effects on ovarian cancer risk overall. However, there may be effects of MUC16 rs12984471 on survival and MUC1 rs4072037 on risk for histologic types of ovarian cancer other than invasive serous. Further study is warranted. PMID:24551091

  16. Population-based survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients in Singapore, 1968-1992.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Bo; Chia, Kee-Seng; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Sankila, Risto; Seow, Adeline; Lee, Hin-Peng

    2002-05-20

    Since the 1980s, colorectal cancer incidence in Singapore has ranked second to lung in males and females. We describe a population-based analysis of survival of colorectal cancer patients diagnosed from 1968 to 1992 in Singapore. Data of colorectal cancer patients diagnosed during 1968-1992 were retrieved from the Singapore Cancer Registry. Patients were passively followed up for death to the end of 1997. The final dataset consisted of 10,114 subjects. Observed and relative survival rates were calculated by stage (localized, regional metastases and distant metastases), age, ethnicity and calendar period for both genders. Over the study period, a significant progress in survival of colorectal cancer patients was observed. For localized cancer of the colon, the 5-year age-standardized relative survival (ASRS) increased from 36% in 1968-1972 to 66% in 1988-1992 for males and from 32 to 71% for females. For localized rectal cancer, the 5-year ASRS improved from 25 to 66% for males and from 23 to 66% in females. Similarly, improvement was observed in colorectal cancer patients with regional metastases, but not in those with distant metastases. Calendar year period and clinical stage of disease were identified as major significant prognostic factors of survival for colorectal cancer. The substantially improved colorectal cancer survival rates reflected the interplay of cancer control activities in various areas, such as health promotion, early diagnosis and treatment. Our study shows a unique changing pattern of survival experience for colorectal patients from a country undergoing rapid economic development. PMID:11992418

  17. High total antioxidant capacity of the porcine seminal plasma (SP-TAC) relates to sperm survival and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The study attempted to clarify the role of total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma (SP-TAC) on boar sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). SP-TAC differed (P < 0.001) among boars (n° = 15) and, to a lesser degree, among ejaculates within male (4 ejaculates/boar). SP-TAC also differed (P < 0.001) among ejaculate fractions (43 ejaculates and 3 fractions per ejaculate), of which the sperm-peak portion of the sperm rich ejaculate fraction (SRF) had the highest SP-TAC. SP-TAC was not correlated with sperm quality (motility and viability) or functionality (intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation) of liquid AI-semen samples stored at 17 °C for 72 h (90 AI-samples), but the decline in sperm quality was larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates with low, compared with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped). The SP-TAC differences among ejaculate portions agree with sperm cryosurvival rates (14 ejaculates from 7 boars), showing sperm from sperm-peak portion better (P < 0.01) post-thaw quality and functionality than those from the entire ejaculate (mainly post-SRF). Boars (n° = 18) with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped) had higher (P < 0.05) fertility outcomes (5,546 AI-sows) than those with low SP-TAC. Measurement of SP-TAC ought to be a discriminative tool to prognosis fertility in breeding boars. PMID:26688188

  18. Possible secondary apatite fission track age standard from altered volcanic ash beds in the middle Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowallis, B.J.; Christiansen, E.H.; Everett, B.H.; Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Miller, D.S.; Deino, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary age standards are valuable in intra- and interlaboratory calibration. At present very few such standards are available for fission track dating that is older than Tertiary. Several altered volcanic ash beds occur in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation in southwestern Utah. The formation was deposited in a shallow marine/sabhka environment. Near Gunlock, Utah, eight ash beds have been identified. Sanidines from one of the ash beds (GUN-F) give a single-crystal laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar age of 166.3??0.8 Ma (2??). Apatite and zircon fission track ages range from 152-185 Ma with typically 15-20 Ma errors (2??). Track densities in zircons are high and most grains are not countable. Apatites are fairly common in most of the ash beds and have reasonable track densities ranging between 1.2-1.5 ?? 106 tracks/cm2. Track length distributions in apatites are unimodal, have standard deviations <1??m, and mean track lengths of about 14-14.5 ??m. High Cl apatites (F:Cl:OH ratio of 39:33:28) are particularly abundant and large in ash GUN-F, and are fairly easy to concentrate, but the concentrates contain some siderite, most of which can be removed by sieving. GUN-F shows evidence of some reworking and detriaal contamination based on older single grain 40Ar/39Ar analyses and some rounding of grains, but the apatite population appears to be largely uncontaminated. At present BJK has approximately 12 of apatite separate from GUN-F. ?? 1993.

  19. The Relative Importance of Waterborne and Dietborne Arsenic Exposure on Survival and Growth of Juvenile Rainbow Trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated toxicity to rainbow trout fed oligochaetes contaminated with arsenic via waterborne exposure. While this demonstrated the potential hazard of dietborne exposure, it did not address the relative and combined potency of waterborne and d...

  20. Relative abundance, site fidelity, and survival of adult lake trout in Lake Michigan from 1999 to 2001: Implications for future restoration strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, C.R.; Holey, M.E.; Madenjian, C.P.; Jonas, J.L.; Claramunt, R.M.; McKee, P.C.; Toneys, M.L.; Ebener, M.P.; Breidert, B.; Fleischer, G.W.; Hess, R.; Martell, A.W.; Olsen, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the relative abundance of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawners in gill nets during fall 1999–2001 in Lake Michigan at 19 stocked spawning sites with that at 25 unstocked sites to evaluate how effective site-specific stocking was in recolonizing historically important spawning reefs. The abundance of adult fish was higher at stocked onshore and offshore sites than at unstocked sites. This suggests that site-specific stocking is more effective at establishing spawning aggregations than relying on the ability of hatchery-reared lake trout to find spawning reefs, especially those offshore. Spawner densities were generally too low and too young at most sites to expect significant natural reproduction. However, densities were sufficiently high at some sites for reproduction to occur and therefore the lack of recruitment was attributable to other factors. Less than 3% of all spawners could have been wild fish, which indicates that little natural reproduction occurred in past years. Wounding by sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus was generally lower for Seneca Lake strain fish and highest for strains from Lake Superior. Fish captured at offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan had the lowest probability of wounding, while fish at onshore sites in northern Lake Michigan had the highest probability. The relative survival of the Seneca Lake strain was higher than that of the Lewis Lake or the Marquette strains for the older year-classes examined. Survival differences among strains were less evident for younger year-classes. Recaptures of coded-wire-tagged fish of five strains indicated that most fish returned to their stocking site or to a nearby site and that dispersal from stocking sites during spawning was about 100 km. Restoration strategies should rely on site-specific stocking of lake trout strains with good survival at selected historically important offshore spawning sites to increase egg deposition and the probability of natural reproduction in Lake

  1. Pre-diagnostic meat and fibre intakes in relation to colorectal cancer survival in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Skeie, Guri; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Carbonnel, Franck; Affret, Aurélie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Aleksandrova, Krassimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Åsli, Lene Angell; Jakszyn, Paula; Ramón Quirós, J; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Jirström, Karin; Ericson, Ulrika; Johansson, Ingegerd; Gylling, Björn; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Stepien, Magdalena; Freisling, Heinz; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio

    2016-07-01

    Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with greater risk of developing CRC, but there is limited evidence regarding associations with survival after CRC diagnosis. Among 3789 CRC cases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, pre-diagnostic consumption of red meat, processed meat, poultry and dietary fibre was examined in relation to CRC-specific mortality (n 1008) and all-cause mortality (n 1262) using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for CRC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic red meat, processed meat or fibre intakes (defined as quartiles and continuous grams per day) were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC survivors; however, a marginal trend across quartiles of processed meat in relation to CRC mortality was detected (P 0·053). Pre-diagnostic poultry intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality among women (hazard ratio (HR)/20 g/d 0·92; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00), but not among men (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·09) (P for heterogeneity=0·10). Pre-diagnostic intake of red meat or fibre is not associated with CRC survival in the EPIC cohort. There is suggestive evidence of an association between poultry intake and all-cause mortality among female CRC survivors and between processed meat intake and CRC-specific mortality; however, further research using post-diagnostic dietary data is required to confirm this relationship. PMID:27193442

  2. Human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells limit breast cancer growth by modulating cell survival-, apoptosis-related molecules and microenvironment in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Reeva; Lu, Jingwei; Kanji, Suman; Das, Manjusri; Joseph, Matthew; Lustberg, Maryam B.; Ray, Alo; Pompili, Vincent J.; Shapiro, Charles L.; Das, Hiranmoy

    2013-01-01

    Innate immune system has been known to play an important role in inhibiting the malignant transformation, tumor progression and invasion. However, the mechanistic basis remains ambiguous. Despite polyclonality of human γδ T cells, Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset was shown to recognize and limit the growth of various tumors at various degrees. The differential recognition of the tumor cells by Vγ2Vδ2 T cells are yet to be defined. Our study reveals that γδ T cells limit in vitro growth of most breast tumor cells, such as SkBr7 (HER2+), MCF7 (ER+) and MDA-MB-231 (ER−) by inhibiting their survival and inducing apoptosis, except BrCa-MZ01 (PR+) cells. To investigate detail mechanisms of antineoplastic effects, we found that cell death was associated with the surface expression levels of MICA/B and ICAM1. Molecular signaling analysis demonstrated that inhibition of cell growth by γδ T cells was associated with the lower expression levels of cell survival-related molecules such as AKT, ERK and concomitant upregulation of apoptosis-related molecules, such as PARP, cleaved caspase 3 and tumor suppressor genes PTEN and P53. However, opposite molecular signaling was observed in the resistant cell line after coculture with γδ T cells. In vivo, antineoplastic effects of γδ T cells were also documented, where tumor growth was inhibited due to the downregulation of survival signals, strong induction of apoptotic molecules, disruption of microvasculature and increased infiltration of tumor associated macrophages. These findings reveal that a complex molecular signaling is involved in γδ T cell-mediated antineoplastic effects. PMID:23595559

  3. Behenoyl cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin, 6-mercaptopurine, and prednisolone combination therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia in adults and prognostic factors related to remission duration and survival length.

    PubMed

    Ohno, R; Kato, Y; Nagura, E; Murase, T; Okumura, M; Yamada, H; Ogura, M; Minami, S; Suzuki, H; Morishima, Y

    1986-12-01

    Fifty-one consecutive previously untreated adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were treated with BHAC-DMP (N4-behenoyl-I-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine, daunorubicin, 6-mercaptopurine, and prednisolone) therapy. Forty-two patients (82.4%) achieved complete remission (CR). The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a probability for remaining in remission of 14% and for survival of 23% at 6 years. Pretreatment factors related to the achievement of CR, such as age, French-American-British (FAB) classification and WBC at the start of treatment, were not identified. Factors related to the CR duration and survival time of the patients who had achieved CR were first analyzed by a univariate analysis with the generalized Wilcoxon test. WBC count at the start of treatment, percent of blasts in the marrow at 1 and 2 weeks after the initiation of therapy, days required until CR, number of courses of induction therapy required until CR, and days required for the disappearance of circulating blasts were identified as statistically significant prognostic factors. When these characteristics were further analyzed by the Cox multivariate regression model, the percent of blasts in the bone marrow at 2 weeks was the most important prognostic factor with a statistical significance, and WBC count at the start of treatment and days required until CR (or number of courses required to achieve CR) were also important factors, with borderline significance. PMID:3465875

  4. Secreted frizzled related protein 2 (Sfrp2) is the key Akt-mesenchymal stem cell-released paracrine factor mediating myocardial survival and repair

    PubMed Central

    Mirotsou, Maria; Zhang, Zhongyan; Deb, Arjun; Zhang, Lunan; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Noiseux, Nicolas; Mu, Hui; Pachori, Alok; Dzau, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising tool for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Previously, we have shown that Akt-modified mesenchymal stem cells mediate tissue repair through paracrine mechanisms. Using a comprehensive functional genomic strategy, we show that secreted frizzled related protein 2 (Sfrp2) is the key stem cell paracrine factor that mediates myocardial survival and repair after ischemic injury. Sfrp2 is known to modulate Wnt signaling, and we demonstrate that cardiomyocytes treated with secreted frizzled related protein increase cellular β-catenin and up-regulate expression of antiapoptotic genes. These findings reveal the key role played by Sfrp2 in mediating the paracrine effects of Akt-mesenchymal stem cells on tissue repair and identify modulation of Wnt signaling as a therapeutic target for heart disease. PMID:17251350

  5. PD-L1 is remarkably over-expressed in EBV-associated pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma and related to poor disease-free survival

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaobo; Zhan, Jianhua; Qin, Tao; Zhou, Ting; Hu, Zhihuang; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Tian, Ying; Yang, Yunpeng; Xue, Cong; Tang, Yanna; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Hongyun; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Backgroud Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and driver mutations are commonly seen in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prevelance of PD-L1 over-expression and its prognostic value in Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) associated pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) remains poorly understood. Methods A total of 214 NSCLC patients and 113 surgically treated pulmonary LELC patients were included. Paraffin-embedded tumor sections were stained with PD-L1 antibody. Correlations between PD-L1 expression and clinicopathological features as well as survival outcomes were analyzed. Results The frequency of PD-L1 over-expression in NSCLC was 51.4%. No significant association was observed between common driver mutations and PD-L1 over-expression. Remakably, the positive rate of PD-L1 in pulmonary LELC was 74.3%. High PD-L1 expression was associated with impaired diseas-free survival (DFS) compared with low PD-L1 expression (p = 0.008). Multivariate analysis shows that PD-L1 expression level, N stage and M stage were independent prognostic factors for DFS. N stage and M stage but not PD-L1 expression level were significantly associated with overall survival (OS). Conclusions PD-L1 over-expression was not related to common driver mutations in NSCLC. Pulmonary LELC have remarkably high incidence of PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 was a negative prognostic factor for DFS in surgically resected pulmonary LELC. These findings may provide a rationale for immunotarget therapy in this virus-associated lung cancer. PMID:26361045

  6. Survival of foodborne pathogens at different relative humidities and temperatures and the effect of sanitizers on apples with different surface conditions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun-Qi; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Sun-Young

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the effects of factors such as relative humidity (RH) and temperature on pathogen survival on apples with different surface conditions. Apples with different surface conditions (unblemished, bruised, or cut) were inoculated with three pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) and stored at different RH levels (RH 100, 85, or 68%) at 4 °C or 15 °C for 2 days. S. aureus survived most readily on apple surfaces; it had no significant reduction on any of the apple surfaces for any of the three RH levels after 2 days of storage. The reduction levels of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium on unblemished and bruised apple surfaces were higher at RH of 85% and 68% than at RH of 100% at 15 °C; and reduction levels were approximately 3 log(10) CFU/apple at 4 °C in RH of 68%. No significant reduction in any of the three pathogens on cut apple surfaces was observed for any RH level. The effectiveness of chemical sanitizers (chlorine sanitizer and 2% lactic acid) in reducing pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and S. aureus) on apple surfaces (unblemished, bruised, or cut) was also evaluated. Treatment with chlorine sanitizer and 2% lactic acid for 5 min significantly reduced pathogen levels on unblemished and bruised apple surfaces but not on cut apple surfaces. In conclusion, the surface conditions of the apple significantly affected pathogen survival and the effectiveness of sanitizing methods. PMID:23628610

  7. Relative acute effects of low pH and high iron on the hatching and survival of the water mite (Arrenurus manubriator) and the aquatic insect (Chironomus riparius)

    SciTech Connect

    Rousch, J.M.; Simmons, T.W.; Kerans, B.L.; Smith, B.P.

    1997-10-01

    The authors investigated the relative effects of low pH and high iron on a water mite, Arrenurus manubriator and an aquatic insect, Chironomus riparius. Eggs and active stages were exposed in static renewal toxicity tests to pH 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2, made by adding sulfuric acid to reconstituted soft water, or to iron levels of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/L, made by adding ferrous sulfate to soft water at pH 4. Experiments were conducted at 22 C with a 16:8-h photoperiod, and treatments were replicated three times with at least nine individuals per treatment. Data were analyzed with a logistic response function and one-way ANOVA for pH and iron tests, respectively. Egg hatching was reduced at pH 2 for midges and at pH 3 for mites. Iron had no effect on hatching for either species. Survival of midge larvae was partially reduced at pH 4, and survival of mite deutonymphs, larvae, female and male adults was reduced at pH 3. Survival of midge larvae, and mite deutonymphs and male adults was reduced at 400, 200, and 1,000 mg Fe/L, respectively. Mite female adults and larvae were unaffected by iron. Higher metabolic requirements of unfed immature stages, the gelatinous covering of mite and insect eggs, the longer incubation period of mite eggs, and the greater osmoregulatory potential of adult mites may have contributed to the differences observed.

  8. Relative survivability of human osteoblasts is enhanced by 39 °C and ascorbic acid after exposure to photopolymerization ingredients.

    PubMed

    Dua, Rupak; Ramaswamy, Sharan

    2013-08-01

    Photopolymerizable hydrogels offer great potential in cartilage tissue engineering due to their ability to conform to irregular defect shapes and be applied in a potentially minimally invasive manner. An important process requirement in the use of photopolymerizable hydrogels is the ability of the suspended cells to withstand low intensity ultraviolet light (UV) exposure (4-5 mW/cm(2)) and photoinitiator concentrations. For cartilage integration with underlying subchondral bone tissue, robust localized osteoblast activity is necessary. Yet, while it is known that osteoblasts do not respond well to UV light, limited work has been conducted to improve their survivability. In this study, we evaluated the cellular cytotoxicity of five different human cell sources at different UV exposure times, with and without a commercially used photoinitiator. We were able to confirm that human osteoblasts were the least tolerant to varying UV exposure times in comparison to bone marrow stem cell, periodontal ligament cell, smooth muscle and endothelial cell lineages. Moreover osteoblasts cultured at 39 °C did not deteriorate in terms of alkaline phosphatase expression or calcium deposition within the extracellular matrix (ECM), but did reduce cell proliferation. We believe however that the lower proliferation diminished osteoblast sensitivity to UV and the photoinitiator. In fact, the relative survivability of osteoblasts was found to be augmented by the combination of a biochemical factor and an elevated incubation temperature; specifically, the use of 50 mg/l of the anti-oxidant, ascorbic acid significantly (P < 0.05) increased the survivability of osteoblasts when cultured at 39 °C. We conclude that ascorbic acid at an incubation temperature of 39 °C can be included in in vitro protocols used to assess cartilage integration with bone ECM. Such inclusion will enhance conditions of the engineered tissue model system in recapitulating in vivo osteoblast activity. PMID

  9. Depletion of autophagy-related genes ATG3 and ATG5 in Tenebrio molitor leads to decreased survivability against an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Tindwa, Hamisi; Jo, Yong Hun; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Noh, Mi Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Iksoo; Han, Yeon Soo; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Bok Luel; Kim, Nam Jung

    2015-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process involved in physiological and developmental processes including cell survival, death, and innate immunity. Homologues of most of 36 originally discovered autophagy-related (ATG) genes in yeast have been characterized in higher eukaryotes including insects. In this study, the homologues of ATG3 (TmATG3) and ATG5 (TmATG5) were isolated from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor by expressed sequence tag and RNAseq approaches. The cDNA of TmATG3 and TmATG5 comprise open-reading frame sizes of 963 and 792 bp encoding polypeptides of 320 and 263 amino acid residues, respectively. TmATG3 and TmATG5 mRNA are expressed in all developmental stages, and mainly in fat body and hemocytes of larvae. TmATG3 and TmATG5 showed an overall sequence identity of 58-95% to other insect Atg proteins. There exist clear one-to-one orthologs of TmATG3 and TmATG5 in Tribolium and that they clustered together in the gene tree. Depletion of TmATG3 and TmATG5 by RNA interference led to a significant reduction in survival ability of T. molitor larvae against an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. Six days post-Listeria challenge, the survival rate in the dsEGFP-injected (where EGFP is enhanced green fluorescent protein) control larvae was significantly higher (55%) compared to 4 and 3% for TmATG3 and TmATG5 double-stranded RNA injected larvae, respectively. These data suggested that TmATG3 and TmATG5 may play putative role in mediating autophagy-based clearance of Listeria in T. molitor model. PMID:25403020

  10. Variations in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and survival 1 year after stroke: five European population-based registers

    PubMed Central

    Ayis, Salma; Wellwood, Ian; Rudd, Anthony G; McKevitt, Christopher; Parkin, David; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2015-01-01

    Objective There were two main objectives: to describe and compare clinical outcomes and Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) collected using standardised procedures across the European Registers of Stroke (EROS) at 3 and 12 months after stroke; and to examine the relationship between patients’ Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) at 3 months after stroke and survival up to 1 year across the 5 populations. Design Analysis of data from population-based stroke registers. Setting European populations in Dijon (France); Kaunas (Lithuania); London (UK); Warsaw (Poland) and Sesto Fiorentino (Italy). Participants Patients with ischaemic or intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) stroke, registered between 2004 and 2006. Outcome measures (1) HRQoL, assessed by the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), mapped into the EQ-5D to estimate responses on 5 dimensions (mobility, activity, pain, anxiety and depression, and self-care) and utility scores. (2) Mortality within 3 months and within 1 year of stroke. Results Of 1848 patients, 325 were lost to follow-up and 500 died within a year of stroke. Significant differences in mortality, HRQoL and utility scores were found, and remained after adjustments. Kaunas had an increased risk of death; OR 2.34, 95% CI (1.32 to 4.14) at 3 months after stroke in Kaunas, compared with London. Sesto Fiorentino had the highest adjusted PCS: 43.54 (SD=0.96), and Dijon had the lowest adjusted MCS: 38.67 (SD=0.67). There are strong associations between levels of the EQ-5D at 3 months and survival within the year. The trend across levels suggests a dose–response relationship. Conclusions The study demonstrated significant variations in survival, HRQoL and utilities across populations that could not be explained by stroke severity and sociodemographic factors. Strong associations between HRQoL at 3 months and survival to 1 year after stroke were identified

  11. Identification of the collagen type 1 alpha 1 gene (COL1A1) as a candidate survival-related factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major causes of cancer-related death especially among Asian and African populations. It is urgent that we identify carcinogenesis-related genes to establish an innovative treatment strategy for this disease. Methods Triple-combination array analysis was performed using one pair each of HCC and noncancerous liver samples from a 68-year-old woman. This analysis consists of expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism array and methylation array. The gene encoding collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1) was identified and verified using HCC cell lines and 48 tissues from patients with primary HCC. Results Expression array revealed that COL1A1 gene expression was markedly decreased in tumor tissues (log2 ratio –1.1). The single nucleotide polymorphism array showed no chromosomal deletion in the locus of COL1A1. Importantly, the methylation value in the tumor tissue was higher (0.557) than that of the adjacent liver tissue (0.008). We verified that expression of this gene was suppressed by promoter methylation. Reactivation of COL1A1 expression by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment was seen in HCC cell lines, and sequence analysis identified methylated CpG sites in the COL1A1 promoter region. Among 48 pairs of surgical specimens, 13 (27.1%) showed decreased COL1A1 mRNA expression in tumor sites. Among these 13 cases, 10 had promoter methylation at the tumor site. The log-rank test indicated that mRNA down-regulated tumors were significantly correlated with a poor overall survival rate (P = 0.013). Conclusions Triple-combination array analysis successfully identified COL1A1 as a candidate survival-related gene in HCCs. Epigenetic down-regulation of COL1A1 mRNA expression might have a role as a prognostic biomarker of HCC. PMID:24552139

  12. Using relative survival measures for cross-sectional and longitudinal benchmarks of countries, states, and districts: the BenchRelSurv- and BenchRelSurvPlot-macros

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of screening programs is to discover life threatening diseases in as many patients as early as possible and to increase the chance of survival. To be able to compare aspects of health care quality, methods are needed for benchmarking that allow comparisons on various health care levels (regional, national, and international). Objectives Applications and extensions of algorithms can be used to link the information on disease phases with relative survival rates and to consolidate them in composite measures. The application of the developed SAS-macros will give results for benchmarking of health care quality. Data examples for breast cancer care are given. Methods A reference scale (expected, E) must be defined at a time point at which all benchmark objects (observed, O) are measured. All indices are defined as O/E, whereby the extended standardized screening-index (eSSI), the standardized case-mix-index (SCI), the work-up-index (SWI), and the treatment-index (STI) address different health care aspects. The composite measures called overall-performance evaluation (OPE) and relative overall performance indices (ROPI) link the individual indices differently for cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Results Algorithms allow a time point and a time interval associated comparison of the benchmark objects in the indices eSSI, SCI, SWI, STI, OPE, and ROPI. Comparisons between countries, states and districts are possible. Exemplarily comparisons between two countries are made. The success of early detection and screening programs as well as clinical health care quality for breast cancer can be demonstrated while the population’s background mortality is concerned. Conclusions If external quality assurance programs and benchmark objects are based on population-based and corresponding demographic data, information of disease phase and relative survival rates can be combined to indices which offer approaches for comparative analyses between

  13. Home-loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in Iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing

    PubMed Central

    Melo-Ferreira, J; Farelo, L; Freitas, H; Suchentrunk, F; Boursot, P; Alves, P C

    2014-01-01

    Genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. Cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus Lepus) in Iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove because the donor populations are generally extinct. In the Pyrenean foothills, Lepus europaeus presumably replaced Lepus granatensis recently and the present species border is parallel to the direction of invasion, so that populations of L. granatensis in the contact zone represent proxies of existing variation before the invasion. Among three pairs of populations sampled across this border, we find less differentiation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) across than along it, as predicted under recurrent hybridisation at the invasion front. Using autosomal microsatellite loci and X- and Y-linked diagnostic loci, we show that admixture across the border is quasi-absent, making it unlikely that lack of interspecific mtDNA differentiation results from ongoing gene flow. Furthermore, we find that the local species ranges are climatically contrasted, making it also unlikely that ongoing ecology-driven movement of the contact account for mtDNA introgression. The lack of mtDNA differentiation across the boundary is mostly due to sharing of mtDNA from a boreal species currently extinct in Iberia (Lepus timidus) whose mitochondria have thus remained in place since the last deglaciation despite successive invasions by two other species. Home-loving mitochondria thus witness past species distribution rather than ongoing exchanges across stabilised contact zones. PMID:24149657

  14. Surviving Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Watch the video to learn more about these breast cancer survivors. To enlarge the video, click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner. To reduce the video, press the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Age and Health May Affect Survival A person's age, and more importantly his or ...

  15. Beyond Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffenson, Dave

    1975-01-01

    The author argues that environmentalists need to realize that the present ecological crisis is essentially a value crisis, not merely a fight for survival alone. He envisions a complete value change for the human population and advocates the incorporation of value strategies into all environmental education programs immediately. (MA)

  16. Unrelated donors are associated with improved relapse-free survival compared to related donors in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yam, Clinton; Crisalli, Lisa; Luger, Selina M; Loren, Alison W; Hexner, Elizabeth O; Frey, Noelle V; Mangan, James K; Gao, Amy; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Porter, David L; Reshef, Ran

    2016-09-01

    Reduced intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation (RI alloSCT) is a potentially curative treatment approach for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). It is currently unclear if older related donors are better than younger unrelated donors for patients with MDS undergoing RI alloSCT. We retrospectively studied 53 consecutive MDS patients who underwent RI alloSCT between April 2007 and June 2014 and evaluated associations between donor type and outcomes with adjustment for significant covariates. 34 patients (median age: 64 years) and 19 patients (median age: 60 years) received allografts from unrelated and related donors, respectively. Unrelated donors were younger than related donors (median age: 32 vs. 60 years, P < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in baseline disease characteristics of patients receiving allografts from related or unrelated donors. Patients who received allografts from unrelated donors had a lower relapse risk (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.35, P = 0.012) and improved relapse-free survival (aHR = 0.47, P = 0.018). HLA mismatched unrelated donors were associated with a higher risk of grade 2-4 acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) (HR = 4.64, P = 0.002) without an accompanying increase in the risk of non-relapse mortality (P = 0.56). Unrelated donors provided a higher mean CD8 cell dose (P = 0.014) and were associated with higher median donor T cell chimerism at day 60 (P = 0.003) and day 100 (P = 0.03). In conclusion, patients with MDS who received allografts from unrelated donors had a lower risk of relapse and improved relapse-free survival when compared to patients who received allografts from related donors. These findings should be confirmed in a prospective study. Am. J. Hematol. 91:883-887, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27197602

  17. Postfledging survival of European starlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that mass at fledging and fledge date within the breeding season affect postfledging survival in European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Nestlings were weighed on day 18 after hatch and tagged with individually identifiable patagial tags. Fledge date was recorded. Marked fledglings were resighted during weekly two-day intensive observation periods for 9 weeks postfledging. Post-fledging survival and sighting probabilities were estimated for each of four groups (early or late fledging by heavy or light fledging mass). Body mass was related to post-fledging survival for birds that fledged early. Results were not clear-cut for relative fledge date, although there was weak evidence that this also influenced survival. Highest survival probability estimates occurred in the EARLY-HEAVY group, while the lowest survival estimate occurred in the LATE-LIGHT group. Sighting probabilities differed significantly among groups, emphasizing the need to estimate and compare survival using models which explicitly incorporate sighting probabilities.

  18. Patron Relations: A Survival Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Bonnie L., Comp.; Downs, Rondi, Comp.

    Recognizing the responsibility of library staff members of maintain a pleasant environment for the public in the library, this manual discusses the library user's and library employee's rights under the law and how to protect them. It is arranged alphabetically by the type of problem or emergency that may be encountered. The procedure for handling…

  19. Sequential FOLFIRI.3 + Gemcitabine Improves Health-Related Quality of Life Deterioration-Free Survival of Patients with Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Randomized Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Anota, Amélie; Mouillet, Guillaume; Trouilloud, Isabelle; Dupont-Gossart, Anne-Claire; Artru, Pascal; Lecomte, Thierry; Zaanan, Aziz; Gauthier, Mélanie; Fein, Francine; Dubreuil, Olivier; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Taieb, Julien; Bonnetain, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Background A randomized multicenter phase II trial was conducted to assess the sequential treatment strategy using FOLFIRI.3 and gemcitabine alternately (Arm 2) compared to gemcitabine alone (Arm 1) in patients with metastatic non pre-treated pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 6 months. It concludes that the sequential treatment strategy appears to be feasible and effective with a PFS rate of 43.5% in Arm 2 at 6 months (26.1% in Arm 1). This paper reports the results of the longitudinal analysis of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as a secondary endpoint of this study. Methods HRQoL was evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-C30 at baseline and every two months until the end of the study or death. HRQoL deterioration-free survival (QFS) was defined as the time from randomization to a first significant deterioration as compared to the baseline score with no further significant improvement, or death. A propensity score was estimated comparing characteristics of partial and complete responders. Analyses were repeated with inverse probability weighting method using the propensity score. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify independent factors influencing QFS. Results 98 patients were included between 2007 and 2011. Adjusting on the propensity score, patients of Arm 2 presented a longer QFS of Global Health Status (Hazard Ratio: 0.52 [0.31-0.85]), emotional functioning (0.35 [0.21–0.59]) and pain (0.50 [0.31 – 0.81]) than those of Arm 1. Conclusion Patients of Arm 2 presented a better HRQoL with a longer QFS than those of Arm 1. Moreover, the propensity score method allows to take into account the missing data depending on patients’ characteristics. Trial registration information Eudract N° 2006-005703-34. (Name of the Trial: FIRGEM). PMID:26010884

  20. Relation of platelet density to platelet age: survival of low- and high-density 111indium-labeled platelets in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, B.; McFadden, P.R.; Hanson, S.R.; Harker, L.A.

    1986-08-01

    The relationship between platelet density and platelet age has been studied using continuous linear Percoll density gradients and 111In-labeling of autologous platelets in baboons. To investigate changes in platelet density during senescence in the circulation, baboons were infused with 111In-labeled autologous platelets, and blood was collected at one hour postinfusion and twice daily thereafter for six days. Platelets were isolated from these samples in high yield (greater than 95%) and separated in continuous linear Percoll density gradients following density equilibrium centrifugation. Although at one hour postinfusion the density distribution of radiolabeled platelets coincided closely with the distribution of the total platelet population, a detectable symmetrical shift toward higher densities was observed after five days. The relative specific radioactivity (RSR) of high-density platelets (1.064 to 1.067 g/mL) decreased at a slower rate than that of the total platelet population (platelets of all densities), whereas the RSR of low-density platelets (1.053 to 1.056 g/mL) showed a more immediate and rapid decrease. These results give rise to one of two interpretations: (1) low-density platelets have a shorter survival time than more dense platelets and are therefore cleared from the circulation at a faster rate, or (2) platelets of all densities increase in density upon aging in the circulation. To determine the explanation for changing RSR of different density fractions we studied the in vivo disappearance characteristics of low- and high-density 111In-labeled platelets. There were no significant differences between the mean survival times of low-density platelets (5.0 +/- 0.49 days, +/- 1 SD, n = 6), high-density platelets (4.9 +/- 0.56 days, n = 6), or control platelets representing platelets of all densities (4.9 +/- 0.38 days, n = 6).

  1. Hypothermal effects on survival, energy homeostasis and expression of energy-related genes of swimming crabs Portunus trituberculatus during air exposure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunliang; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-08-01

    Previously, dry or semi-dry approach under the hypothermal condition is proved to be an alternative method in transport of live swimming crabs Portunus trituberculatus. However, we wondered whether this method can improve crab survival when temperature is kept as cool as possible. In this study, we hypothesized that there is a thermal threshold below which dry or semi-dry approach (air exposure) could cause crab physiological disruption and therefore aggravate their mortality. To test the above hypothesis, crabs (23°C) were exposed to air at temperatures ranging from 4 to 16°C. Results showed that crabs had a worse survival and vigor at temperatures below 12°C. Then we tested crab energy metabolism to explore the possible reason. It was shown that total adenine nucleotide and adenylate energy charge in gills were remarkably reduced by air exposure of below 12°C. This increased the need for crabs to re-balance energy metabolism, which was indicated by the upregulation of AMPKα and HIF-1α. Meanwhile, there was a significant increase of the expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, V-type ATPase and HSP90 at temperatures below 12°C, while all treatments shared a similar level of hemocyanin, urate and lactate in hemolymph and expression of cytochrome c oxidase and NADH-ubiquinone reductase in gills. These results implied that dry or semi-dry approach below 12°C could exert detrimental effects on P. trituberculatus, and perturbation of energy homeostasis, which is more related with changes of energy-demanding physiological pathways, is a possible reason of crab death and poor vigor. PMID:27503714

  2. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is a novel modulator of radial glia stem cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Safina, Dina; Schlitt, Frederik; Romeo, Ramona; Pflanzner, Thorsten; Pietrzik, Claus U; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Edenhofer, Frank; Faissner, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The LDL family of receptors and its member low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) have classically been associated with a modulation of lipoprotein metabolism. Current studies, however, indicate diverse functions for this receptor in various aspects of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. LRP1 is essential for normal neuronal function in the adult CNS, whereas the role of LRP1 in development remained unclear. Previously, we have observed an upregulation of LewisX (LeX) glycosylated LRP1 in the stem cells of the developing cortex and demonstrated its importance for oligodendrocyte differentiation. In the current study, we show that LeX-glycosylated LRP1 is also expressed in the stem cell compartment of the developing spinal cord and has broader functions in the developing CNS. We have investigated the basic properties of LRP1 conditional knockout on the neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) from the cortex and the spinal cord, created by means of Cre-loxp-mediated recombination in vitro. The functional status of LRP1-deficient cells has been studied using proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis assays. LRP1 deficient NSPCs from both CNS regions demonstrated altered differentiation profiles. Their differentiation capacity toward oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), mature oligodendrocytes and neurons was reduced. In contrast, astrocyte differentiation was promoted. Moreover, LRP1 deletion had a negative effect on NSPCs proliferation and survival. Our observations suggest that LRP1 facilitates NSPCs differentiation via interaction with apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Upon ApoE4 stimulation wild type NSPCs generated more oligodendrocytes, but LRP1 knockout cells showed no response. The effect of ApoE seems to be independent of cholesterol uptake, but is rather mediated by downstream MAPK and Akt activation. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2016;64:1363-1380. PMID:27258849

  3. Endothelium-mediated survival of leukemic cells and angiogenesis-related factors are affected by lenalidomide treatment in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Rossana; Fiorcari, Stefania; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Rizzotto, Lara; Martinelli, Silvia; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Debbia, Giulia; Castelli, Ilaria; Bonacorsi, Goretta; Santachiara, Rita; Forconi, Francesco; Rossi, Davide; Laurenti, Luca; Palumbo, Giuseppe A; Vallisa, Daniele; Cuneo, Antonio; Gaidano, Gianluca; Luppi, Mario; Marasca, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Lenalidomide is an IMID immunomodulatory agent clinically active in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We evaluated the activity of lenalidomide inside an in vitro coculture system of endothelial and CLL cells. Lenalidomide was able to inhibit CLL survival advantage mediated by endothelial contact. Moreover, the marked increase of in vitro angiogenesis determined by CLL-derived conditioned media was reduced by lenalidomide. We also analyzed peripheral blood collected from 27 patients with relapsed or refractory CLL being treated with lenalidomide within a phase II trial. Plasma levels of VEGF and THBS-1 decreased, whereas Ang2 and Ang increased during treatment. Patients who respond to lenalidomide showed a more pronounced decrease of VEGF and bFGF than did patients with stable or progressive disease (p = 0.007 and p = 0.005). Furthermore, lenalidomide reduced circulating endothelial cells and endothelial progenitors by increasing the percentage of apoptotic cells. Conversely, for six matched bone marrow biopsies available before and after treatment, we did not detect any modification in vessel density, suggesting a possible mechanism of vessel normalization rather than regression. In conclusion, our study provides further evidence that the anti-CLL effect of lenalidomide is mediated through the alteration of microenvironmental elements, implying the modulation of several angiogenesis-related factors and disruption of CLL crosstalk with endothelial cells. PMID:24212063

  4. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates expression of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 related transcription factor-1 (Nrf1) and inhibits pro-survival function of Nrf1

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Madhurima; Kwong, Erick K.; Park, Eujean; Nagra, Parminder; Chan, Jefferson Y.

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor-1 (Nrf1) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is known to regulate antioxidant and cytoprotective gene expression. It was recently shown that Nrf1 is regulated by SCF–Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. However our knowledge of upstream signals that targets Nrf1 for degradation by the UPS is not known. We report here that Nrf1 expression is negatively regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in Fbw7-dependent manner. We show that GSK3 interacts with Nrf1 and phosphorylates the Cdc4 phosphodegron domain (CPD) in Nrf1. Mutation of serine residue in the CPD of Nrf1 to alanine (S350A), blocks Nrf1 from phosphorylation by GSK3, and stabilizes Nrf1. Knockdown of Nrf1 and expression of a constitutively active form of GSK3 results in increased apoptosis in neuronal cells in response to ER stress, while expression of the GSK3 phosphorylation resistant S350A–Nrf1 attenuates apoptotic cell death. Together these data suggest that GSK3 regulates Nrf1 expression and cell survival function in response to stress activation. Highlights: • The effect of GSK3 on Nrf1 expression was examined. • GSK3 destabilizes Nrf1 protein via Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. • GSK3 binds and phosphorylates Nrf1. • Protection from stress-induced apoptosis by Nrf1 is inhibited by GSK3.

  5. Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 is a novel survival-related biomarker for human patients with renal pelvis carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Tian, Dawei; Chen, Tao; Han, Ruifa; Sun, Yan; Wu, Changli

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has recently been identified as a novel independent prognostic indicator for metastasis occurrence, overall survival and cancer-free survival for patients with colon cancer and other solid tumors. In this study, we investigated the role of MACC1 in the development and progression of renal pelvis carcinoma, a form of upper tract urothelial carcinomas. MACC1 protein has been found in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus of the transitional epithelial cells of the normal renal pelvis in immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Quantitative IHC examinations revealed that MACC1 abnormal abundance in cancerous tissues might represent a biological indicator clinically suggestive of tumor malignancy in the renal pelvis. Furthermore, investigation of the association of MACC1 protein levels with clinicopathological parameters in this study has suggested a correlation of MACC1 expression with tumor-node-metastasis stage and histopathological grade of patients with renal pelvis carcinoma, with elevated MACC1 protein levels frequently associated with higher aggressiveness of the disease. Moreover, both disease-free survival and overall survival for the patients in the high MACC1 expression group were significantly lower than those in the low expression group. Multivariate analysis with a Cox proportional-hazards model suggested that MACC1 is indeed an independent prognostic indicator of overall survival and cancer-free survival for patients with renal pelvis carcinoma. Thus, MACC1 may represent a promising prognostic biomarker candidate, as well as a potential therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:24949951

  6. Metastasis-Associated in Colon Cancer 1 Is a Novel Survival-Related Biomarker for Human Patients with Renal Pelvis Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Han, Ruifa; Sun, Yan; Wu, Changli

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has recently been identified as a novel independent prognostic indicator for metastasis occurrence, overall survival and cancer-free survival for patients with colon cancer and other solid tumors. In this study, we investigated the role of MACC1 in the development and progression of renal pelvis carcinoma, a form of upper tract urothelial carcinomas. MACC1 protein has been found in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus of the transitional epithelial cells of the normal renal pelvis in immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Quantitative IHC examinations revealed that MACC1 abnormal abundance in cancerous tissues might represent a biological indicator clinically suggestive of tumor malignancy in the renal pelvis. Furthermore, investigation of the association of MACC1 protein levels with clinicopathological parameters in this study has suggested a correlation of MACC1 expression with tumor-node-metastasis stage and histopathological grade of patients with renal pelvis carcinoma, with elevated MACC1 protein levels frequently associated with higher aggressiveness of the disease. Moreover, both disease-free survival and overall survival for the patients in the high MACC1 expression group were significantly lower than those in the low expression group. Multivariate analysis with a Cox proportional-hazards model suggested that MACC1 is indeed an independent prognostic indicator of overall survival and cancer-free survival for patients with renal pelvis carcinoma. Thus, MACC1 may represent a promising prognostic biomarker candidate, as well as a potential therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:24949951

  7. Survival of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) estimated by capture-recapture models in relation to age, sex, color morph, time, and birthplace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, W.S.; Kery, M.; Hines, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile survival is one of the least known elements of the life history of many species, in particular snakes. We conducted a mark-recapture study of Crotalus horridus from 1978-2002 in northeastern New York near the northern limits of the species' range. We marked 588 neonates and estimated annual age-, sex-, and morph-specific recapture and survival rates using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model. Wild-caught neonates (field-born, n = 407) and neonates produced by captive-held gravid females (lab-born, n = 181) allowed comparison of the birthplace, or lab treatment effect, in estimated survival. Recapture rates declined from about 10-20% over time while increasing from young to older age classes. Estimated survival rates (S ' 1 SE) in the first year were significantly higher among field-born (black morph: S = 0.773 ' 0.203; yellow morph: S = 0.531 ' 0.104) than among lab-born snakes (black morph: S = 0.411 ' 0.131; yellow morph: S = 0.301 ' 0.081). Lower birth weights combined with a lack of field exposure until release apparently contributed to the lower survival rate of lab-born snakes. Subsequent survival estimates for 2-4-yr-old snakes were S = 0.845 ' 0.084 for the black morph and S = 0.999 (SE not available) for the yellow morph, and for >= 5-yr-old snakes S = 0.958 ' 0.039 (black morph) and S = 0.822 ' 0.034 (yellow morph). The most parsimonious model overall contained an independent time trend for survival of each age, morph, and lab-treatment group. For snakes of the first two age groups (ages 1 yr and 2-4 yr), survival tended to decline over the years for both morphs, while for adult snakes (5 yr and older), survival was constant or even slightly increased. Our data on survival and recapture are among the first rigorous estimates of these parameters in a rattlesnake and among the few yet available for any viperid snake. These data are useful for analyses of the life-history strategy, population dynamics, and conservation of this long-lived snake.

  8. Survival of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) estimated by capture-recapture models in relation to age, sex, color morph, time, and birthplace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, W.S.; Kery, M.; Hines, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile survival is one of the least known elements of the life history of many species, in particular snakes. We conducted a mark-recapture study of Crotalus horridus from 1978-2002 in northeastern New York near the northern limits of the species' range. We marked 588 neonates and estimated annual age-, sex-, and morph-specific recapture and survival rates using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model. Wild-caught neonates (field-born, n = 407) and neonates produced by captive-held gravid females (lab-born, n = 181) allowed comparison of the birthplace, or lab treatment effect, in estimated survival. Recapture rates declined from about 10-20% over time while increasing from young to older age classes. Estimated survival rates (S ?? 1 SE) in the first year were significantly higher among field-born (black morph: S = 0.773 ?? 0.203; yellow morph: S = 0.531 ?? 0.104) than among lab-born snakes (black morph: S = 0.411 ?? 0.131; yellow morph: S = 0.301 ?? 0.081). Lower birth weights combined with a lack of field exposure until release apparently contributed to the lower survival rate of labborn snakes. Subsequent survival estimates for 2-4-yr-old snakes were S = 0.845 ?? 0.084 for the black morph and S = 0.999 (SE not available) for the yellow morph, and for ???5-yr-old snakes S = 0.958 ?? 0.039 (black morph) and S = 0.822 ?? 0.034 (yellow morph). The most parsimonious model overall contained an independent time trend for survival of each age, morph, and lab-treatment group. For snakes of the first two age groups (ages 1 yr and 2-4 yr), survival tended to decline over the years for both morphs, while for adult snakes (5 yr and older), survival was constant or even slightly increased. Our data on survival and recapture are among the first rigorous estimates of these parameters in a rattlesnake and among the few yet available for any viperid snake. These data are useful for analyses of the life-history strategy, population dynamics, and conservation of this long-lived snake

  9. Relation of hypoxia inducible factor 1α and 2α in operable non-small cell lung cancer to angiogenic/molecular profile of tumours and survival

    PubMed Central

    Giatromanolaki, A; Koukourakis, M I; Sivridis, E; Turley, H; Talks, K; Pezzella, F; Gatter, K C; Harris, A L

    2001-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factors HIF1α and HIF2α are important proteins involved in the regulation of the transcription of a variety of genes related to erythropoiesis, glycolysis and angiogenesis. Hypoxic stimulation results in rapid increase of the HIF1α and 2α protein levels, as a consequence of a redox-sensitive stabilization. The HIFαs enter the nucleus, heterodimerize with the HIF1β protein, and bind to DNA at the hypoxia response elements (HREs) of target genes. In this study we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins in 108 tissue samples from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in normal lung tissues. Both proteins showed a mixed cytoplasmic/nuclear pattern of expression in cancer cells, tumoural vessels and tumour-infiltrating macrophages, as well as in areas of metaplasia, while normal lung components showed negative or very weak cytoplasmic staining. Positive HIF1α and HIF2α expression was noted in 68/108 (62%) and in 54/108 (50%) of cases respectively. Correlation analysis of HIF2α expression with HIF1α expression showed a significant association (P < 0.0001, r = 0.44). A strong association of the expression of both proteins with the angiogenic factors VEGF (P < 0.004), PD-ECGF (P < 0.003) and bFGF (P < 0.04) was noted. HIF1α correlated with the expression of bek-bFGF receptor expression (P = 0.01), while HIF2α was associated with intense VEGF/KDR-activated vascularization (P = 0.002). HIF2α protein was less frequently expressed in cases with a medium microvessel density (MVD); a high rate of expression was noted in cases with both low and high MVD (P = 0.006). Analysis of overall survival showed that HIF2α expression was related to poor outcome (P = 0.008), even in the group of patients with low MVD (P = 0.009). HIF1α expression was marginally associated with poor prognosis (P = 0.08). In multivariate analysis HIF2α expression was an independent prognostic indicator (P = 0.006, t-ratio 2.7). We conclude that HIF1

  10. Preexisting Levels of CD4 T Cells Expressing PD-1 Are Related to Overall Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Ipilimumab.

    PubMed

    Kwek, Serena S; Lewis, Jera; Zhang, Li; Weinberg, Vivian; Greaney, Samantha K; Harzstark, Andrea L; Lin, Amy M; Ryan, Charles J; Small, Eric J; Fong, Lawrence

    2015-09-01

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) blockade can induce tumor regression and improved survival in cancer patients. This treatment can enhance adaptive immune responses without an exogenous vaccine, but the immunologic biomarkers associated with improved clinical outcome in cancer patients are not fully established. A phase Ib trial in patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer was performed combining ipilimumab with sargramostim (GM-CSF). In addition to evaluating ipilimumab dose, patients were followed clinically for response and overall survival, and for immunomodulation of circulating T cells. PSA declines of ≥50% and radiographic responses were observed at doses of ≥3 mg/kg/dose. Timing of clinical responses could be either immediate or delayed. Durable responses were also observed off treatment. A subset of patients experienced long-term survival with or without objective clinical responses. The relationship between T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood and overall survival was examined retrospectively. We found that the treatment induced an increase in the levels of CD4(+) effector T (Teff) cells, regulatory T cells, PD-1(+) CD4 Teff cells, and PD-1(+) CD8 T cells. However, these increased levels were not associated with overall survival. Instead, low pretreatment baseline levels of PD-1(+) CD4 Teff cells were found to correlate with longer overall survival. Furthermore, baseline levels of PD-1(+) CD4 Teff cells from patients with shorter overall survival were higher than from cancer-free male control subjects. These results suggest that preexisting expression of immunologic checkpoint marker PD-1 on CD4 Teff cells may help identify patients that may benefit from ipilimumab treatment. PMID:25968455

  11. Cancer net survival on registry data: use of the new unbiased Pohar-Perme estimator and magnitude of the bias with the classical methods.

    PubMed

    Roche, Laurent; Danieli, Coraline; Belot, Aurélien; Grosclaude, Pascale; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Velten, Michel; Iwaz, Jean; Remontet, Laurent; Bossard, Nadine

    2013-05-15

    Net survival, the survival which might occur if cancer was the only cause of death, is a major epidemiological indicator required for international or temporal comparisons. Recent findings have shown that all classical methods used for routine estimation of net survival from cancer-registry data, sometimes called "relative-survival methods," provide biased estimates. Meanwhile, an unbiased estimator, the Pohar-Perme estimator (PPE), was recently proposed. Using real data, we investigated the magnitude of the errors made by four "relative-survival" methods (Ederer I, Hakulinen, Ederer II and a univariable regression model) vs. PPE as reference and examined the influence of time of follow-up, cancer prognosis, and age on the errors made. The data concerned seven cancer sites (2,51,316 cases) collected by FRANCIM cancer registries. Net survivals were estimated at 5, 10 and 15 years postdiagnosis. At 5 years, the errors were generally small. At 10 years, in good-prognosis cancers, the errors made in nonstandardized estimates with all classical methods were generally great (+2.7 to +9% points in prostate cancer) and increased in age-class estimations (vs. 5-year ones). At 15 years, in bad- or average-prognosis cancers, the errors were often substantial whatever the nature of the estimation. In good-prognosis cancers, the errors in nonstandardized estimates of all classical methods were great and sometimes very important. With all classical methods, great errors occurred in age-class estimates resulting in errors in age-standardized estimates (+0.4 to +3.2% points in breast cancer). In estimating net survival, cancer registries should abandon all classical methods and adopt the new Pohar-Perme estimator. PMID:22961565

  12. Secretarial Administration: Secretarial Survival Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Jane M.

    1978-01-01

    Secretarial survival skills of communication, organization, and decision making should be incorporated into the secretarial training program, according to the author. She discusses these skills in relation to career mobility. (MF)

  13. Radial fast-neutron fluence gradients during rotating 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation recorded with metallic fluence monitors and geological age standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutte, Daniel; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Koleška, Michal; Jonckheere, Raymond; Unterricker, Sepp

    2015-01-01

    the neutron-irradiation parameter J is one of the major uncertainties in 40Ar/39Ar dating. The associated uncertainty of the individual J-value for a sample of unknown age depends on the accuracy of the age of the geological standards, the fast-neutron fluence distribution in the reactor, and the distances between standards and samples during irradiation. While it is generally assumed that rotating irradiation evens out radial neutron fluence gradients, we observed axial and radial variations of the J-values in sample irradiations in the rotating channels of two reactors. To quantify them, we included three-dimensionally distributed metallic fast (Ni) and thermal- (Co) neutron fluence monitors in three irradiations and geological age standards in three more. Two irradiations were carried out under Cd shielding in the FRG1 reactor in Geesthacht, Germany, and four without Cd shielding in the LVR-15 reactor in Řež, Czech Republic. The 58Ni(nf,p)58Co activation reaction and γ-spectrometry of the 811 keV peak associated with the subsequent decay of 58Co to 58Fe allow one to calculate the fast-neutron fluence. The fast-neutron fluences at known positions in the irradiation container correlate with the J-values determined by mass-spectrometric 40Ar/39Ar measurements of the geological age standards. Radial neutron fluence gradients are up to 1.8 %/cm in FRG1 and up to 2.2 %/cm in LVR-15; the corresponding axial gradients are up to 5.9 and 2.1 %/cm. We conclude that sample rotation might not always suffice to meet the needs of high-precision dating and gradient monitoring can be crucial.

  14. Incidence and survival of stomach cancer in a high-risk population of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Katy; Bertran, Enriqueta; Andia, Marcelo E; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the incidence and survival rate of stomach cancer (SC) and its associated factors in a high risk population in Chile. METHODS: The population-based cancer registry of Valdivia, included in the International Agency for Research on Cancer system, covers 356 396 residents of Valdivia Province, Southern Chile. We studied all SC cases entered in this Registry during 1998-2002 (529 cases). Population data came from the Chilean census (2002). Standardized incidence rates per 100 000 inhabitants (SIR) using the world population, cumulative risk of developing cancer before age 75, and rate ratios by sex, age, ethnicity and social factors were estimated. Relative survival (Ederer II method) and age-standardized estimates (Brenner method) were calculated. Specific survival rates (Kaplan-Meier) were measured at 3 and 5 years and survival curves were analyzed with the Logrank and Breslow tests. Survival was studied in relation to demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory results and medical management of the cases. Those variables significantly associated with survival were later included in a Cox multivariate model. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2002, 529 primary gastric cancers occurred in Valdivia (crude incidence rate 29.2 per 100 000 inhabitants). Most cases were male (69.0%), residents of urban areas (57.5%) and Hispanic (83.2%), with a low education level (84.5% < 8 school years). SC SIR was higher in men than women (40.8 and 14.8 respectively, P < 0.001), risk factors were low education RR 4.4 (95% CI: 2.9-6.8) and 1.6, (95% CI: 1.1-2.1) for women and men respectively and Mapuche ethnicity only significant for women (RR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.7). Of all cases, 76.4% were histologically confirmed, 11.5% had a death certificate only (DCO), 56.1% were TNM stage IV; 445 cases (84.1%) were eligible for survival analysis, all completed five years follow-up; 42 remained alive, 392 died of SC and 11 died from other causes. Specific 5-year survival, excluding cases

  15. Piscivory in juvenile walleyes: Relative importance of prey species, timing of spawning of prey fish, and density on growth and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolar, C.S.; Wahl, David H.; Hooe, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effect of the timing of spawning by prey fish and the species of prey fish on the growth and survival of juvenile walleye Stizostedion vitreum. We expected that age-0 walleyes would grow more in ponds when stocked about the same time as the spawning of gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum than when stocked about 6 weeks after spawning. We found, however, that the timing of larval gizzard shad presence did not affect walleye growth or survival. Also contrary to our expectations, walleyes from ponds with bluegill Lepomis macrochirus grew more (by 9% in total length and 38% in mass) than those from ponds with gizzard shad. However, the density of gizzard shad was lower than that of bluegills, particularly after the first few weeks of the experiment. Bluegills remained within the gape limits of walleyes throughout the experiment, whereas gizzard shad outgrew their vulnerability to predation. Late-spawned gizzard shad remained vulnerable to walleye predation only slightly longer than did those from early spawned ponds. The survival of age-0 walleyes was unaffected by water temperature, the timing of spawning by prey fish, prey species, or density. Our results suggest that even though walleyes typically grow faster in systems with gizzard shad as prey than in those with bluegills, juvenile walleyes can still grow well in bluegill-dominated systems. In some systems, high densities of a less beneficial prey (e.g., abundant bluegills rather than less abundant gizzard shad) may overcome the growth differences of juvenile walleyes that would be expected based on the differences in prey species alone. A wide variation in individual walleye growth in our ponds, even within prey treatments, indicated the complexity of interactions among the factors affecting juvenile walleye growth.

  16. Carbonaceous Survivability on Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge about the potential contributions of comets and cosmic dust to the origin of life on Earth, we need to explore the survivability of their potential organic compounds on impact and the formation of secondary products that may have arisen from the chaotic events sustained by the carriers as they fell to Earth. We have performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, kerogens, PAH crystals, and Murchison and Nogoya meteorites) into Al plate targets at velocities - 6 km/s. Estimated peak shock pressures probably did not exceed 120 GPa and peak shock temperatures were probably less than 4000 K for times of nano- to microsecs. Nominal crater dia. are less than one mm. The most significant results of these experiments are the preservation of the higher mass PAHs (e. g., pyrene relative to napthalene) and the formation of additional alkylated PAHs. We have also examined the residues of polystyrene projectiles impacted by a microparticle accelerator into targets at velocities up to 15 km/s. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and their implications with respect to the survival of carbonaceous deliverables to early Earth. The prospects of survivability of organic molecules on "intact" capture of cosmic dust in space via soft: and hard cosmic dust collectors will also be discussed.

  17. Migrational Characteristics, Biological Observations, and Relative Survival of Juvenile Salmonids Entering the Columbia River Estuary, 1966-1983, 1985 Final Report of Research.

    SciTech Connect

    Dawley, Earl M.

    1986-04-01

    Natural runs of salmonids in the Columbia River basin have decreased as a result of hydroelectric-dam development, poor land- and forest-management, and over-fishing. This has necessitated increased salmon culture to assure adequate numbers of returning adults. Hatchery procedures and facilities are continually being modified to improve both the efficiency of production and the quality of juveniles produced. Initial efforts to evaluate changes in hatchery procedures were dependent upon adult contributions to the fishery and returns to the hatchery. Procedures were developed for sampling juvenile salmon and steelhead entering the Columbia River estuary and ocean plume. The sampling of hatchery fish at the terminus of their freshwater migration assisted in evaluating hatchery production techniques and identifying migrational or behavioral characteristics that influence survival to and through the estuary. The sampling program attempted to estimate survival of different stocks and define various aspects of migratory behavior in a large river, with flows during the spring freshet from 4 to 17 thousand cubic meters per second (m/sup 3//second).

  18. Review and hypothesis: syndromes with severe intrauterine growth restriction and very short stature--are they related to the epigenetic mechanism(s) of fetal survival involved in the developmental origins of adult health and disease?

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith G

    2010-02-01

    Diagnosing the specific type of severe intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) that also has post-birth growth restriction is often difficult. Eight relatively common syndromes are discussed identifying their unique distinguishing features, overlapping features, and those features common to all eight syndromes. Many of these signs take a few years to develop and the lifetime natural history of the disorders has not yet been completely clarified. The theory behind developmental origins of adult health and disease suggests that there are mammalian epigenetic fetal survival mechanisms that downregulate fetal growth, both in order for the fetus to survive until birth and to prepare it for a restricted extra-uterine environment, and that these mechanisms have long lasting effects on the adult health of the individual. Silver-Russell syndrome phenotype has recently been recognized to be related to imprinting/methylation defects. Perhaps all eight syndromes, including those with single gene mutation origin, involve the mammalian mechanism(s) of fetal survival downsizing. Insights into those mechanisms should provide avenues to understanding the natural history, the heterogeneity and possible therapy not only for these eight syndromes, but for the common adult diseases with which IUGR is associated. PMID:20101705

  19. Retrospective Analysis of the Efficacy and Safety of Sorafenib in Chinese Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma and Prognostic Factors Related to Overall Survival

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoteng; Guo, Gang; Li, Xuesong; Zhang, Cuijian; Huang, Lihua; Fang, Dong; Song, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sorafenib has been recommended as first- or second-line treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) by several guidelines. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of sorafenib monotherapy in Chinese patients with mRCC and determine the prognostic clinicopathologic factors associated with survival in these patients. This is a single-arm retrospective study conducted in 2 tertiary medical centers; 140 mRCC patients were enrolled between January 2007 and June 2014. Sorafenib was administered at a dose of 400 mg twice daily, and continued until disease progression, at which point the dose was increased to 600 or 800 mg twice daily, or the onset of an intolerable adverse drug event (ADE) that required dose reduction or temporary suspension of treatment. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and the secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety. The median follow-up time was 32 months. The median OS and PFS were 24 months (range, 3–88 months) and 16 months (range, 0–88 months), respectively. Patients with clear cell carcinoma had a greater OS (P = 0.001) whereas sarcomatoid differentiation (P = 0.045) and disease progression (P = 0.010) negatively impacted OS; time from kidney surgery or biopsy to initiation of sorafenib treatment was associated with PFS (P = 0.027). Efficacy analysis revealed that 3 (2.1%) patients achieved complete responses, 28 (20.0%) patients experienced partial responses, 88 (62.9%) patients had stable disease, and 21 (15.0%) patients developed progressive disease. Moreover, the ORR was 22.1%, and the DCR was 85.0%. Most ADEs were classified as grades 1 or 2 with only 14 (10.0%) patients experiencing a severe ADE (grade 3). Sorafenib monotherapy can achieve promising OS and PFS for Chinese patients with mRCC, especially in those with clear cell carcinoma, with manageable adverse events. PMID

  20. The Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen and alphaGal-specific human IgG glycoforms: concanavalin A reactivity and relation to survival of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kodar, Kristel; Kurtenkov, Oleg; Klaamas, Kersti

    2009-01-01

    Glycan structures of IgG strongly influence the affinity for Fcgamma receptors and antibody effector functions. However, no particular attention has been paid yet to the glycosylation of tumor antigen-specific IgG. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the concanavalin A lectin (ConA) reactivity of human anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) and anti-alphaGal specific IgG in gastric cancer patients and healthy controls and (ii) to evaluate whether the ConA-reactivity of anti-TF and anti-alphaGal specific IgG is associated with the survival rate of patients with cancer. Total IgG was purified from the sera of patients with gastric cancer and healthy blood donors. The anti-TF and anti-alphaGal glycotope specific IgG were detected with ELISA using synthetic saccharide-polyacrylamide conjugates as antigen. In parallel plate, the ConA reactivity of the anti-TF or anti-alphaGal IgG was determined and the ConA index was calculated. Results show that serum anti-TF specific IgG antibodies of patients with cancer contain significantly higher content of ConA positive IgG glycoform compared to IgG of controls. No correlation between the ConA reactivity of anti-TF IgG and anti-alphaGal IgG was observed. High level of anti-TF IgG ConA reactivity was associated with a significantly lower survival rate of patients with gastric cancer. PMID:19860583

  1. Serum lactate dehydrogenase levels at presentation in stage IV non-small cell lung cancer: predictive value of metastases and relation to survival outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Soo; Park, Kyung Ran; Kim, Seung Joon; Chung, Mi Joo; Lee, Yun Hee; Chang, Ji Hyun; Kang, Jin Hyoung; Hong, Sook Hee; Kim, Myung Sin; Kim, Yeon Sil

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical correlations between serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and tumor characteristics and to investigate the prognostic impact of serum LDH levels in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 394 patients were included in the present study between June 2007 and January 2013. All eligible patients had serum LDH levels available before treatment, and whole-body metastatic extent was measured using whole-body metastatic scores, as determined by 18(F)-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans from 1 to 7 as the sum of each metastatic region. The diagnostic cutoff value for an abnormal serum LDH level was 450 IU/L. The median serum LDH level was 477 IU/L (range, 113-2850), and 224 (56.9 %) patients had abnormal serum LDH levels. The serum LDH levels showed no significant associations with age, gender, histology, tumor differentiation, and smoking history. However, the proportion of patients with abnormal serum LDH levels was statistically significantly higher in the high total metastatic score group (scores 3-7) than in the low total metastatic score group (scores 1-2) (65.3 vs 50.4 %, p = 0.001). In a multivariate survival analysis, age (p = 0.001), gender (p = 0.001), histology (p = 0.003), tumor differentiation (p = 0.001), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (p = 0.001), LDH levels (p = 0.046), and treatment factors (p = 0.001) proved to be independent prognostic factors for survival outcomes. The results of this study suggest that the serum LDH levels at presentation may be significantly correlated with whole-body tumor extent and might independently but modestly prognosticate OS in stage IV NSCLC. PMID:26240025

  2. Defensive platform size and survivability. [Platform survivability

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H.

    1988-06-01

    This report discusses the survivability of space platforms, concentrating on space based kinetic energy interceptors. It evaluates the efficacy of hardening, maneuver, self-defense, and deception in extending the survivability of platforms of varying sizes to expected threats, concluding that they should be adequate in the near and mid terms.

  3. Weight-for-age standard score - distribution and effect on in-hospital mortality: A retrospective analysis in pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    George, Antony; Jagannath, Pushpa; Joshi, Shreedhar S.; Jagadeesh, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of weight for age standard score (Z score) in pediatric cardiac surgery and its effect on in-hospital mortality. Introduction: WHO recommends Standard Score (Z score) to quantify and describe anthropometric data. The distribution of weight for age Z score and its effect on mortality in congenital heart surgery has not been studied. Methods: All patients of younger than 5 years who underwent cardiac surgery from July 2007 to June 2013, under single surgical unit at our institute were enrolled. Z score for weight for age was calculated. Patients were classified according to Z score and mortality across the classes was compared. Discrimination and calibration of the for Z score model was assessed. Improvement in predictability of mortality after addition of Z score to Aristotle Comprehensive Complexity (ACC) score was analyzed. Results: The median Z score was -3.2 (Interquartile range -4.24 to -1.91] with weight (mean±SD) of 8.4 ± 3.38 kg. Overall mortality was 11.5%. 71% and 52.59% of patients had Z score < -2 and < -3 respectively. Lower Z score classes were associated with progressively increasing mortality. Z score as continuous variable was associated with O.R. of 0.622 (95% CI- 0.527 to 0.733, P < 0.0001) for in-hospital mortality and remained significant predictor even after adjusting for age, gender, bypass duration and ACC score. Addition of Z score to ACC score improved its predictability for in-hosptial mortality (δC - 0.0661 [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.0169], IDI- 3.83% [95% CI - 0.017 to 0.0595, P = 0.00042]). Conclusion: Z scores were lower in our cohort and were associated with in-hospital mortality. Addition of Z score to ACC score significantly improves predictive ability for in-hospital mortality. PMID:26139742

  4. No sex-related differences in mortality in bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) exposed to deltamethrin, and surviving bed bugs can recover.

    PubMed

    Feldlaufer, Mark F; Ulrich, Kevin R; Kramer, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    Exposure of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to varying concentrations of deltamethrin for 24 h indicated no significant difference in mortality between males, females, and nymphs at 24 nor at 168 h postexposure when bed bugs were removed to untreated surfaces at 24 h. In addition, many bed bugs classified as morbid or moribund at 24 h and removed to untreated surfaces at this time, recovered by 336 h (2 wk) and were capable of feeding when given the opportunity. Adult female bed bugs that survived were able to lay eggs and the resulting nymphs blood-fed. By contrast, all bed bugs classified as morbid or moribund at 24 h that remained on deltamethrin-treated surfaces for 336 h either died or were still classified as morbid or moribund at the end of this time. No bed bugs classified as morbid or moribund blood-fed when given the opportunity at 2 wk, regardless of whether they remained on the treated surfaces or were removed to untreated surfaces. A power analysis demonstrated we would have detected even moderate differences in mortality between males and females, had differences existed. Therefore, using males exclusively in efficacy assays is a suitable strategy to preserve females for laboratory colony purposes. Results also indicated there is little reason to assess efficacy beyond 1 wk, even when bed bugs are exposed for only 24 h. PMID:23786091

  5. Lessons for Everyone: How Students with Reading-Related Learning Disabilities Survive and Excel in College Courses with Heavy Reading Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzic, Roxanne

    A study investigated what reading and study strategies students with identified reading-related learning disabilities employ at the post-secondary setting and how the use of strategies differ for students who succeed in particular courses versus those who do not do as well. Nine students with reading-related learning disabilities participated in…

  6. Host response during Yersinia pestis infection of human bronchial epithelial cells involves negative regulation of autophagy and suggests a modulation of survival-related and cellular growth pathways

    PubMed Central

    Alem, Farhang; Yao, Kuan; Lane, Douglas; Calvert, Valerie; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Kramer, Liana; Hale, Martha L.; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G.; Hakami, Ramin M.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis (Yp) causes the re-emerging disease plague, and is classified by the CDC and NIAID as a highest priority (Category A) pathogen. Currently, there is no approved human vaccine available and advances in early diagnostics and effective therapeutics are urgently needed. A deep understanding of the mechanisms of host response to Yp infection can significantly advance these three areas. We employed the Reverse Phase Protein Microarray (RPMA) technology to reveal the dynamic states of either protein level changes or phosphorylation changes associated with kinase-driven signaling pathways during host cell response to Yp infection. RPMA allowed quantitative profiling of changes in the intracellular communication network of human lung epithelial cells at different times post infection and in response to different treatment conditions, which included infection with the virulent Yp strain CO92, infection with a derivative avirulent strain CO92 (Pgm-, Pst-), treatment with heat inactivated CO92, and treatment with LPS. Responses to a total of 111 validated antibodies were profiled, leading to discovery of 12 novel protein hits. The RPMA analysis also identified several protein hits previously reported in the context of Yp infection. Furthermore, the results validated several proteins previously reported in the context of infection with other Yersinia species or implicated for potential relevance through recombinant protein and cell transfection studies. The RPMA results point to strong modulation of survival/apoptosis and cell growth pathways during early host response and also suggest a model of negative regulation of the autophagy pathway. We find significant cytoplasmic localization of p53 and reduced LC3-I to LC3-II conversion in response to Yp infection, consistent with negative regulation of autophagy. These studies allow for a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis mechanisms and the discovery of innovative approaches for prevention, early diagnosis, and

  7. Improvement of survival in Polish stroke patients is related to reduced stroke severity and better control of risk factors: the Krakow Stroke Database

    PubMed Central

    Swarowska, Marta; Burkot, Jacek; Janowska, Aleksandra; Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra; Pera, Joanna; Slowik, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the last decade, the stroke mortality rate in Poland significantly decreased. We hypothesised that stroke severity, the major determinant of outcome, is lowered in Polish stroke patients. Material and methods We compared the stroke severity in two cohorts of first-ever ischaemic stroke patients admitted within 24 h after stroke onset to the Department of Neurology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow in the years 1994–2000 and 2008–2012. To assess stroke severity we used the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We defined mild stroke as an NIHSS score ≤ 4. Results We included 816 patients hospitalised in the years 1994–2000 and 569 patients hospitalised in the years 2008–2012. NIHSS score on admission was higher in the former (mean: 12.0 ±7.0 vs. 8.0 ±6.0, p < 0.01), and the frequency of mild stroke was higher in the latter (12.7% vs. 41.8%, p < 0.01). Although the frequency of hypertension (67.3% vs. 81.2%, p < 0.01), diabetes mellitus (20.8% vs. 26.4%, p = 0.02) and atrial fibrillation (20.7% vs. 26.2%, p = 0.02) was higher in patients hospitalised in the years 2008–2012, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and the frequency of fasting hyperglycaemia were lower in this cohort. This cohort also less frequently suffered from hypercholesterolaemia (25.4% vs. 16.3%, p < 0.01). Conclusions Reduced stroke severity is associated with better recognition and control of risk factors and explains the improvement of survival in Polish stroke patients. PMID:27279847

  8. Combined thermotherapy and cryotherapy for efficient virus eradication: relation of virus distribution, subcellular changes, cell survival and viral RNA degradation in shoot tips.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaochun; Cuellar, Wilmer J; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Hirata, Yukimasa; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2008-03-01

    Accumulation of viruses in vegetatively propagated plants causes heavy yield losses. Therefore, supply of virus-free planting materials is pivotal to sustainable crop production. In previous studies, Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) was difficult to eradicate from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) using the conventional means of meristem tip culture. As shown in the present study, it was probably because this pollen-transmitted virus efficiently invades leaf primordia and all meristematic tissues except the least differentiated cells of the apical dome. Subjecting plants to thermotherapy prior to meristem tip culture heavily reduced viral RNA2, RNA3 and the coat protein in the shoot tips, but no virus-free plants were obtained. Therefore, a novel method including thermotherapy followed by cryotherapy was developed for efficient virus eradication. Heat treatment caused subcellular alterations such as enlargement of vacuoles in the more developed, virus-infected cells, which were largely eliminated following subsequent cryotherapy. Using this protocol, 20-36% of the treated shoot tips survived, 30-40% regenerated and up to 35% of the regenerated plants were virus-free, as tested by ELISA and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Novel cellular and molecular insights into RBDV-host interactions and the factors influencing virus eradication were obtained, including invasion of shoot tips and meristematic tissues by RBDV, enhanced viral RNA degradation and increased sensitivity to freezing caused by thermotherapy, and subcellular changes and subsequent death of cells caused by cryotherapy. This novel procedure should be helpful with many virus-host combinations in which virus eradication by conventional means has proven difficult. PMID:18705855

  9. HBx-related long non-coding RNA DBH-AS1 promotes cell proliferation and survival by activating MAPK signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin-lan; Ren, Ting-yu; Cao, Shun-wang; Zheng, Shi-hao; Hu, Xiu-mei; Hu, Yan-wei; Lin, Li; Chen, Jing; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2015-10-20

    Accumulating evidence supports an important role for the hepatitis B virus x protein (HBx) in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. Here, we identified a novel long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) DBH-AS1 involved in the HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. The levels of DBH-AS1 were positively correlated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and tumor size in HCC tissues. Functionally, transgenic expression of DBH-AS1 significantly enhanced cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, whereas short hairpin RNA knockdown of DBH-AS1 caused an inhibition of cell proliferation. Mechanistically, overexpression of DBH-AS1 induced cell cycle progression by accelerating G1/S and G2/M transition concomitantly with upregulation of CDK6, CCND1, CCNE1 and downregulation of p16, p21 and p27. We also found that enhanced DBH-AS1 expression inhibited serum starvation-induced apoptosis of HCC cells. In contrast, suppressed DBH-AS1 expression had opposite effects. Furthermore, DBH-AS1 was shown to activate MAPK pathway. We also provide evidence that DBH-AS1 could be significantly induced by HBx protein and markedly down-regulated by p53. Thus, we concluded that DBH-AS1 can be induced by HBx and inactivated by p53, and consequently promote cell proliferation and cell survival through activation of MAPK signaling in HCC. Our study suggests that DBH-AS1 acts as an oncogene for HCC. PMID:26393879

  10. Survivability Versus Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    Develop Survivability vs Time Model as a decision-evaluation tool to assess various emergency egress methods used at Launch Complex 39B (LC 39B) and in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) on NASAs Kennedy Space Center. For each hazard scenario, develop probability distributions to address statistical uncertainty resulting in survivability plots over time and composite survivability plots encompassing multiple hazard scenarios.

  11. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

  12. Nationwide statistical analysis of myeloid malignancies in Korea: incidence and survival rate from 1999 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Hye; Lee, Hyewon; Won, Young-Joo; Ju, Hee Young; Oh, Chang-Mo; Ingabire, Cecile; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Park, Byung-Kiu; Yoon, Ju Young; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Lee, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-scale epidemiologic analysis for hematologic malignancies will be helpful to understand the trends in incidence and survival. Methods The Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) updated the nationwide analysis on the incidence and survival of myeloid malignancies, from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database between 1999 and 2012. Myeloid malignancies were classified based on the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology 3rd edition (ICD-O-3). Results Overall 3,771 cases of myeloid diseases, which was 1.7% of all cancers, were identified in 2012. The highest incidence of myeloid malignancies was observed in age 70s and male predominance was noted (1.3:1). Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was the most frequent subtype, followed by myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and MDS/MPN: age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) in 2012 for each disease were 2.02, 1.95, 1.13, and 0.12 per 100,000 persons, respectively. The ASR for all myeloid malignancies was increased from 3.31 in 1999 to 5.70 in 2012 with the annual percentage change (APC) of 5.4 %. Five-year relative survival rate (RS) for myeloid malignancies has gradually improved for decades. RS changed from 26.3% to 34.8% in AML, specifically from 51.6% to 69.6% in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and from 23.8% to 29.9% in non-APL AML, between 1996-2000 and 2008-2012. RS also increased from 81.8% to 87.1% in MPN, with a significant improvement in CML (from 74.5% to 85.5%), and from 27.3% to 31.7% in MDS/MPN between 2001-2005 and 2008-2012. However, there was no survival improvement in MDS during the study period (45.6% in 2001-2005 to 44.4% in 2008-2012). Conclusion This report updated the nationwide statistical analysis on myeloid malignancies since 2008, showing increasing incidence and improving trends in survival. PMID:26770948

  13. The influence of folate pathway polymorphisms on high-dose methotrexate-related toxicity and survival in children with non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Erculj, Nina; Kotnik, Barbara Faganel; Debeljak, Marusa; Jazbec, Janez; Dolzan, Vita

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the influence of folate pathway polymorphisms on high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) related toxicity in paediatric patients with T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Patients and methods In total, 30 NHL patients were genotyped for selected folate pathway polymorphisms. Results Carriers of at least one MTHFR 677T allele had significantly higher MTX area under the time-concentration curve levels at third MTX cycle (P = 0.003). These patients were also at higher odds of leucopoenia (P = 0.006) or thrombocytopenia (P = 0.041) and had higher number of different HD-MTX-related toxicity (P = 0.035) compared to patients with wild-type genotype. Conclusions Our results suggest an important role of MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in the development of HD-MTX-related toxicity in children with NHL. PMID:25177243

  14. Surviving Atmospheric Spacecraft Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    In essence, to survival a spacecraft breakup an animal must not experience a lethal event. Much as with surviving aircraft breakup, dissipation of lethal forces via breakup of the craft around the organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. As spacecraft can travel higher and faster than aircraft, it is often assumed that spacecraft breakup is not a survivable event. Similarly, the belief that aircraft breakup or crashes are not survivable events is still prevalent in the general population. As those of us involved in search and rescue know, it is possible to survive both aircraft breakup and crashes. Here we make the first report of an animal, C. elegans, surviving atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications implied for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  15. Differential Survival in Europe and the United States: Estimates Based on Subjective Probabilities of Survival

    PubMed Central

    Delavande, Adeline; Rohwedder, Susann

    2013-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of differential survival by socioeconomic status (SES) are useful in many domains. Yet, to date, such studies have been rare. Reliably estimating differential survival in a single country has been challenging because it requires rich panel data with a large sample size. Cross-country estimates have proven even more difficult because the measures of SES need to be comparable internationally. We present an alternative method for acquiring information on differential survival by SES. Rather than using observations of actual survival, we relate individuals’ subjective probabilities of survival to SES variables in cross section. To show that subjective survival probabilities are informative proxies for actual survival when estimating differential survival, we compare estimates of differential survival based on actual survival with estimates based on subjective probabilities of survival for the same sample. The results are remarkably similar. We then use this approach to compare differential survival by SES for 10 European countries and the United States. Wealthier people have higher survival probabilities than those who are less wealthy, but the strength of the association differs across countries. Nations with a smaller gradient appear to be Belgium, France, and Italy, while the United States, England, and Sweden appear to have a larger gradient. PMID:22042664

  16. Dual-energy precursor and nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 activator treatment additively improve redox glutathione levels and neuron survival in aging and Alzheimer mouse neurons upstream of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debolina; LeVault, Kelsey R; Brewer, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether glutathione (GSH) loss or increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) are more important to neuron loss, aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we stressed or boosted GSH levels in neurons isolated from aging 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those from age-matched nontransgenic (non-Tg) neurons. Here, using titrating with buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCL), we observed that GSH depletion increased neuronal death of 3xTg-AD cultured neurons at increasing rates across the age span, whereas non-Tg neurons were resistant to GSH depletion until old age. Remarkably, the rate of neuron loss with ROS did not increase in old age and was the same for both genotypes, which indicates that cognitive deficits in the AD model were not caused by ROS. Therefore, we targeted for neuroprotection activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by 18 alpha glycyrrhetinic acid to stimulate GSH synthesis through GCL. This balanced stimulation of a number of redox enzymes restored the lower levels of Nrf2 and GCL seen in 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those of non-Tg neurons and promoted translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus. By combining the Nrf2 activator together with the NADH precursor, nicotinamide, we increased neuron survival against amyloid beta stress in an additive manner. These stress tests and neuroprotective treatments suggest that the redox environment is more important for neuron survival than ROS. The dual neuroprotective treatment with nicotinamide and an Nrf2 inducer indicates that these age-related and AD-related changes are reversible. PMID:23954169

  17. Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Improving the Odds of Surviving Sepsis ... Threatening Bacterial Infection Remains Mysterious This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  18. Activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 in hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 and its role in survival and tumor development.

    PubMed

    Marhenke, Silke; Lamlé, Jutta; Buitrago-Molina, Laura Elisa; Cañón, José Manuel Fernández; Geffers, Robert; Finegold, Milton; Sporn, Michael; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Manns, Michael P; Grompe, Markus; Vogel, Arndt

    2008-08-01

    In tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1), accumulation of toxic metabolites results in oxidative stress and DNA damage, leading to a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor important for cellular protection against oxidative stress and chemical induced liver damage. To specifically address the role of Nrf2 in HT1, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah)/Nrf2(-/-) mice were generated. In acute HT1, loss of Nrf2 elicited a strong inflammatory response and dramatically increased the mortality of mice. Following low grade injury, Fah/Nrf2(-/-) mice develop a more severe hepatitis and liver fibrosis. The glutathione and cellular detoxification system was significantly impaired in Fah/Nrf2(-/-) mice, resulting in increased oxidative stress and DNA damage. Consequently, tumor development was significantly accelerated by loss of Nrf2. Potent pharmacological inducers of Nrf2 such as the triterpenoid analogs 1[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole have been developed as cancer chemoprevention agents. Pretreatment with 1[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole dramatically protected Fah(-/-) mice against fumarylacetoacetate (Faa)-induced toxicity. Our data establish a central role for Nrf2 in the protection against Faa-induced liver injury; the Nrf2 regulated cellular defense not only prevents acute Faa-induced liver failure but also delays hepatocarcinogenesis in HT1. PMID:18666252

  19. [Neural activity related to emotional and empathic deficits in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder who survived the L'Aquila (Central Italy) 2009 earthquake].

    PubMed

    Mazza, Monica; Pino, Maria Chiara; Tempesta, Daniela; Catalucci, Alessia; Masciocchi, Carlo; Ferrara, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a chronic anxiety disorder. The continued efforts to control the distressing memories by traumatized individuals, together with the reduction of responsiveness to the outside world, are called Emotional Numbing (EN). The EN is one of the central symptoms in PTSD and it plays an integral role not only in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic symptomatology, but also in the disability of emotional regulation. This disorder shows an abnormal response of cortical and limbic regions which are normally involved in understanding emotions since the very earliest stages of the development of processing ability. Patients with PTSD exhibit exaggerated brain responses to emotionally negative stimuli. Identifying the neural correlates of emotion regulation in these subjects is important for elucidating the neural circuitry involved in emotional and empathic dysfunction. We showed that PTSD patients, all survivors of the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake, have a higher sensitivity to negative emotion and lower empathy levels. These emotional and empathic deficits are accompanied by neural brain functional correlates. Indeed PTSD subjects exhibit functional abnormalities in brain regions that are involved in stress regulation and emotional responses. The reduced activation of the frontal areas and a stronger activation of the limbic areas when responding to emotional stimuli could lead the subjects to enact coping strategies aimed at protecting themselves from the re-experience of pain related to traumatic events. This would result in a dysfunctional hyperactivation of subcortical areas, which may cause emotional distress and, consequently, impaired social relationships often reported by PTSD patients. PMID:27291207

  20. Survival after stereotactic biopsy of malignant gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, R.J.; Lunsford, L.D.; Taylor, F.H.

    1988-03-01

    For many patients with malignant gliomas in inaccessible or functionally important locations, stereotactic biopsy followed by radiation therapy (RT) may be a more appropriate initial treatment than craniotomy and tumor resection. We studied the long term survival in 91 consecutive patients with malignant gliomas diagnosed by stereotactic biopsy: 64 had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and 27 had anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). Sixty-four per cent of the GBMs and 33% of the AAs involved deep or midline cerebral structures. The treatment prescribed after biopsy, the tumor location, the histological findings, and the patient's age at presentation (for AAs) were statistically important factors determining patient survival. If adequate RT (tumor dose of 5000 to 6000 cGy) was not prescribed, the median survival was less than or equal to 11 weeks regardless of tumor histology or location. The median survival for patients with deep or midline tumors who completed RT was similar in AA (19.4 weeks) and GBM (27 weeks) cases. Histology was an important predictor of survival only for patients with adequately treated lobar tumors. The median survival in lobar GBM patients who completed RT was 46.9 weeks, and that in lobar AA patients who completed RT was 129 weeks. Cytoreductive surgery had no statistically significant effect on survival. Among the clinical factors examined, age of less than 40 years at presentation was associated with prolonged survival only in AA patients. Constellations of clinical features, tumor location, histological diagnosis, and treatment prescribed were related to survival time.

  1. Factors predictive of survival in ampullary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Howe, J R; Klimstra, D S; Moccia, R D; Conlon, K C; Brennan, M F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the recent Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater and to identify clinicopathologic factors that have an impact on patient survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The prognosis for patients with tumors of the ampulla of Vater is improved relative to other periampullary neoplasms. Identification of independent prognostic factors in ampullary tumors has been limited by small numbers of tumors and a lack of pathologic review. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively for patients presenting with periampullary carcinomas to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between October 15, 1983 and June 30, 1995. The correlation between clinicopathologic variables and survival of ampullary carcinoma was tested by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression. Survival of patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas was compared by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: In 123 patients presenting with ampullary carcinoma, 101 tumors (82.1%) were resected. Factors significantly correlated with improved survival were resection (p < 0.01), and in resected tumors, negative nodes (p = 0.04) and margins (p = 0.02) independently predicted for improved survival. In periampullary tumors, the highest rates of resection and overall survival (median, 43.6 months) were found in ampullary carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS: Factors predictive of improved survival in ampullary carcinoma include resection, negative margins, and negative nodes. Improved overall survival in ampullary relative to periampullary adenocarcinoma is due in part to a significantly higher rate of resection. Images Figure 1. PMID:9671071

  2. AIAA Survivability Technical Committee Draft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Jim; Williamson, Joel

    1997-01-01

    A relatively new area of interest in aerospace systems survivability is the growing threat of spacecraft penetration by orbital debris. Orbital debris, or "space junk", is composed of the man-made remnants of non-functioning spacecraft still orbiting the Earth. NASA estimates that there are currently over 100,000 orbital debris particles 1 centimeter in diameter or larger that cannot be tracked by existing radar, with the population growing at approximately 4% per year in low earth orbits. With an average velocity of over 8.7 km/sec, these projectiles can penetrate and disable many vulnerable spacecraft systems. Since the likelihood of spacecraft penetration increases with spacecraft surface area, large spacecraft (such as the International Space Station) and communication satellite fleets (such as Iridium) have begun to adopt survivability enhancement strategies similar to those employed by combat aircraft. Collision avoidance maneuvers are commonly practiced by the Space Shuttle and are planned by the International Space Station to decrease their susceptibility to impact by trackable orbital debris; likewise, improved shielding, internal equipment placement, and improved crew operations following penetration can reduce the vulnerability of spacecraft to loss following orbital debris impact. Computer simulations such as the Manned Spacecraft and Crew Survivability (MSCSurv) program at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center have recently been developed to quantify and reduce the likelihood of crew or spacecraft loss following orbital debris penetration. The AIAA Survivability Technical Committee is working to enable the transfer of military-developed survivability technologies to help the aerospace industry cope with this growing threat.

  3. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  4. Survival Skills: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviewed are five programs (textbooks, audiovisual materials, workbooks, video-cassettes) designed to improve academic survival skills in secondary students. Content emphasis, reading level, rationale, objectives, organization, instructional method, student evaluation, physical features, and recommendations are listed for each. (KC)

  5. Survival at Isle Royale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballone, Lena M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a simulation based on the popular television show "Survivor" in which students work in groups and study physiological needs for human survival. Focuses on communication skills, problem solving, and cooperative learning. (YDS)

  6. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  7. Surviving at extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougan, Lorna

    2015-11-01

    Wherever we look on Earth - even in the most inhospitable places - we find life. But how do organisms manage to survive such difficult conditions? Lorna Dougan explains how physicists are helping to unravel the properties of “extremophile” life.

  8. Surviving Operation Desert Storm

    SciTech Connect

    Vice, J. )

    1992-08-01

    The importance of aircraft survivability during the invasion of Iraq is examined detailing anecdotal evidence of susceptibility and vulnerability reduction. Among the aircraft used that were designed to be more survivable than their predecessors were the F-117, A-10, F/A-18, and the AH-64. Reduced vulnerability is incorporated into the aircraft designs in the form of damage tolerant components, redundancy, self-sealing fluid systems, and miniaturization.

  9. Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... staged? Next Topic How is thymus cancer treated? Survival rates for thymus cancer Survival rates are often ... into account. Stage of thymoma 5-year observed survival rate I 74% II 73% III 64% IV ...

  10. Survival of Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, William R.

    1996-06-01

    Recent low frequency results from attempts to detect Jupiter-sized planets around nearby stars have raised a question as to whether such objects are all that common. In the over 200 stars observed so far, the yield has been 3%. And, the close orbit (0.05 AU) of the nearly Jupiter-sized object around Peg 51 places the object in an environment where the current paradigm of planetary formation would not predict planets to form at all. Other newly discovered candidates, such a Vir 70 and HR3522, also have suspiciously small semi-major axes for gas giants. Of course, the low yield may be strongly influenced by selection effects since massive planets close to their primaries are more easily detected. Nevertheless, given the results to date, it is natural to wonder whether a planetary system like ours is such a natural outgrowth of a circumplantary disk. In particular, could there be forces absent from the existing paradigm that tend to destroy a planetary system once formed? We point out that strong gravitational interactions (i.e., disk tides) between a newly formed protoplanet and its precursor disk give rise to a net torque that drains angular momentum from the protoplanet's orbit. As a result, protoplanetary objects suffer orbital decay as the disk attempts to destroy the very system it spawns. Strong interaction (type I) leads to gap formation and co-evolution with the disk; weak inter- action (type II) leads to drift relative to the disk and in some cases, a much more rapid decay. Survival of a planetary system may be a comparatively uncommon outcome. Newly discovered planets such as Peg 51b may be evidence of such large-scale orbit migration due to disk tidal torques (i.e., Lin et al., 1996).

  11. Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, Hans

    2004-02-01

    Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse

  12. Surviving atmospheric spacecraft breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; McLamb, William

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft travel higher and faster than aircraft, making breakup potentially less survivable. As with aircraft breakup, the dissipation of lethal forces via spacecraft breakup around an organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. By employing a knowledge of space and aviation physiology, comparative physiology, and search-and-rescue techniques, we were able to correctly predict and execute the recovery of live animals following the breakup of the space shuttle Columbia. In this study, we make what is, to our knowledge, the first report of an animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, surviving the atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft that was supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  13. Survival after judicial hanging.

    PubMed

    Sabermoghaddam, Mohsen; Abad, Mohsen; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Mozaffari, Nasrollah

    2015-06-01

    Hanging is known not only as a common method of suicide but also as a capital punishment method in some countries. Although several cases have been reported to survive after the attempted suicidal/accidental hanging, to the extent of our knowledge, no modern case of survival after judicial hanging exists. We reported a case of an individual who revived after modern judicial hanging despite being declared dead. The case was admitted with poor clinical presentations and the Glasgow Coma Scale of 6/15. The victim received all the standard supportive intensive care and gained complete clinical recovery. PMID:25747958

  14. Metabolic Response of Lymph Nodes Immediately After RT Is Related With Survival Outcome of Patients With Pelvic Node-Positive Cervical Cancer Using Consecutive [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Mee Sun; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Nah, Byung-Sik; Chung, Woong-Ki; Song, Ho-Chun; Yoo, Su Woong; Song, Ju-Young; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Nam, Taek-Keun

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the metabolic response of uterine cervix and pelvic lymph nodes (LNs) using consecutive {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) immediately after RT and to correlate survival outcome with the metabolic response. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 48 patients with cervical cancer who had positive pelvic LNs by preradiation therapy (pre-RT) PET/CT. All patients underwent PET/CT scans immediately after RT (inter-RT PET/CT) after median 63 Gy to the gross LNs. The metabolic response of the LNs was assessed quantitatively and semiquantitatively by measurement of the maximal standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}). Results: Classifying the metabolic response of all nodal lesions, 37 patients (77%) had LNs with complete metabolic response on the inter-RT PET/CT (LNCMRi), and 11 patients had a non-LNCMRi, including 4 patients with progressive metabolic disease. The overall 3-year survival rates were 83% for the patients with LNCMRi and 73% for the non-LNCMRi group (P=.038). The disease-free survival for patients with LNCMRi were significantly better than that for the non-LNCMRi group (71% vs 18%, respectively, P<.001). The 3-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 79% for the patients with LNCMRi and 27% for the non-LNCMRi group (P<.001). There were no statistically significant differences in overall survival (76% vs 86%, respectively, P=.954) and disease-free survival rates (58% vs 61%, respectively, P=.818) between the CMR of primary cervical tumor and the non-CMR groups. Conclusions: The results showed a significant correlation between survival outcome and the interim metabolic response of pelvic LNs. CMR of nodal lesion on inter-RT PET/CT had excellent overall survival, disease-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival rates. This suggested that PET/CT immediately after RT can be a useful tool for the evaluation of the interim response of the LNs and identify a subset

  15. The Option for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, R. Stephen

    1971-01-01

    Suggests formula for survival that takes a thermodynamic view which holds that we must recycle waste while the thermodynamic potential still is moderately high. Otherwise they are lost, as helium is lost when it leaves Earth's atmosphere and goes into space. The idea that the Earth is a closed system is a myth; it collapses each time we put our…

  16. Independence and Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, H. Thomas

    Independent schools that are of viable size, well managed, and strategically located to meet competition will survive and prosper past the current financial crisis. We live in a complex technological society with insatiable demands for knowledgeable people to keep it running. The future will be marked by the orderly selection of qualified people,…

  17. A Profile of Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimrin, Hanita

    1986-01-01

    Abused children who survived the trauma of their childhood and grew up to be well-adjusted were compared with a matched group who showed a high degree of psychosocial pathology. The variables which distinguished the two groups were fatalism, self-esteem, cognitive abilities, self-destructiveness, hope and fantasy, behavior patterns and external…

  18. Survivability via Control Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  19. Education for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    In this address, James E. Allen, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses the relationship of education to the problem of ecological destruction. He states that the solutions to the problems of air, water, and soil pollution may be found in redirected education. This "education for survival" can serve to…

  20. Survival Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert M.; Barnes, Marcia M.

    This booklet is designed to provide some starter ideas for teachers to use in developing their own packet of learning materials. The procedures suggested and the examples included are literally starters. "Introduction to Survival Learning Materials" presents some procedures to help teachers get started in developing materials. "Following…

  1. Comparing net survival estimators of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Seppä, Karri; Hakulinen, Timo; Läärä, Esa; Pitkäniemi, Janne

    2016-05-20

    The net survival of a patient diagnosed with a given disease is a quantity often interpreted as the hypothetical survival probability in the absence of causes of death other than the disease. In a relative survival framework, net survival summarises the excess mortality that patients experience compared with their relevant reference population. Based on follow-up data from the Finnish Cancer Registry, we derived simulation scenarios that describe survival of patients in eight cancer sites reflecting different excess mortality patterns in order to compare the performance of the classical Ederer II estimator and the new estimator proposed by Pohar Perme et al. At 5 years, the age-standardised Ederer II estimator performed equally well as the Pohar Perme estimator with the exception of melanoma in which the Pohar Perme estimator had a smaller mean squared error (MSE). At 10 and 15 years, the age-standardised Ederer II performed most often better than the Pohar Perme estimator. The unstandardised Ederer II estimator had the largest MSE at 5 years. However, its MSE was often superior to those of the other estimators at 10 and 15 years, especially in sparse data. Both the Pohar Perme and the age-standardised Ederer II estimator are valid for 5-year net survival of cancer patients. For longer-term net survival, our simulation results support the use of the age-standardised Ederer II estimator. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26707551

  2. Linking age, survival, and transit time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Salvatore; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-10-01

    Although the concepts of age, survival, and transit time have been widely used in many fields, including population dynamics, chemical engineering, and hydrology, a comprehensive mathematical framework is still missing. Here we discuss several relationships among these quantities by starting from the evolution equation for the joint distribution of age and survival, from which the equations for age and survival time readily follow. It also becomes apparent how the statistical dependence between age and survival is directly related to either the age dependence of the loss function or the survival-time dependence of the input function. The solution of the joint distribution equation also allows us to obtain the relationships between the age at exit (or death) and the survival time at input (or birth), as well as to stress the symmetries of the various distributions under time reversal. The transit time is then obtained as a sum of the age and survival time, and its properties are discussed along with the general relationships between their mean values. The special case of steady state case is analyzed in detail. Some examples, inspired by hydrologic applications, are presented to illustrate the theory with the specific results. This article was corrected on 11 Nov 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  3. Socioeconomic Disparity in Survival after Breast Cancer in Ireland: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Paul M.; Byrne, Julianne; Kelly, Maria; McDevitt, Joe; Comber, Harry

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between breast cancer survival and deprivation using data from the Irish National Cancer Registry. Cause-specific survival was compared between five area-based socioeconomic deprivation strata using Cox regression. Patient and tumour characteristics and treatment were compared using modified Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. Based on 21356 patients diagnosed 1999–2008, age-standardized five-year survival averaged 80% in the least deprived and 75% in the most deprived stratum. Age-adjusted mortality risk was 33% higher in the most deprived group (hazard ratio 1.33, 95% CI 1.21–1.45, P<0.001). The most deprived groups were more likely to present with advanced stage, high grade or hormone receptor-negative cancer, symptomatically, or with significant comorbidity, and to be smokers or unmarried, and less likely to have breast-conserving surgery. Cox modelling suggested that the available data on patient, tumour and treatment factors could account for only about half of the survival disparity (adjusted hazard ratio 1.18, 95% CI 0.97–1.43, P = 0.093). Survival disparity did not diminish over time, compared with the period 1994–1998. Persistent survival disparities among Irish breast cancer patients suggest unequal use of or access to services and highlight the need for further research to understand and remove the behavioural or other barriers involved. PMID:25372837

  4. Expression of coinhibitory receptors on T cells in the microenvironment of usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is related to proinflammatory effector T cells and an increased recurrence-free survival.

    PubMed

    van Esch, Edith M G; van Poelgeest, Mariette I E; Kouwenberg, Simone; Osse, E Michelle; Trimbos, J Baptist M Z; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2015-02-15

    Human papillomavirus-induced usual-type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) are infiltrated by immune cells but apparently not cleared. A potential explanation for this is an impaired T cell effector function by an immunesuppressive milieu, coinfiltrating regulatory T cells or the expression of coinhibitory molecules. Here, the role of these potential inhibitory mechanisms was evaluated by a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of T cell infiltration in the context of FoxP3, Tbet, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, programmed cell death 1, T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (TIM3), natural killer cell lectin-like receptor A (NKG2A) and galectins-1, -3 and -9. Paraffin-embedded tissues of primary uVIN lesions (n=43), recurrent uVIN lesions (n=20), vulvar carcinoma (n=21) and healthy vulvar tissue (n=26) were studied. We show that the vulva constitutes an area intensely surveyed by CD8+, CD4+, Tbet+ and regulatory T cell populations, parts of which express the examined coinhibitory molecules. In uVIN especially, the number of regulatory T cells and TIM3+ T cells increased. The expression of the coinhibitory markers TIM3 and NKG2A probably reflected a higher degree of T cell activation as a dense infiltration with stromal CD8+TIM3+ T cells and CD3+NKG2A+ T cells was related to the absence of recurrences and/or a prolonged recurrence-free survival. A dense coinfiltrate with regulatory T cells was negatively associated with the time to recurrence, most dominantly when the stromal CD8+TIM3+ infiltration was limited. This notion was sustained in vulvar carcinoma's where the numbers of regulatory T cells progressively increased to outnumber coinfiltrating CD8+TIM3+ T cells and CD3+NKG2A+ T cells. PMID:25220367

  5. Optimizing nest survival and female survival: Consequences of nest site selection for Canada Geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Grand, J.B.; Fondell, T.F.; Anthony, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between attributes of nest sites used by Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the Copper River Delta, Alaska, and patterns in nest and female survival. We aimed to determine whether nest site attributes related to nest and female survival differed and whether nest site attributes related to nest survival changed within and among years. Nest site attributes that we examined included vegetation at and surrounding the nest, as well as associations with other nesting birds. Optimal nest site characteristics were different depending on whether nest survival or female survival was examined. Prior to 25 May, the odds of daily survival for nests in tall shrubs and on islands were 2.92 and 2.26 times greater, respectively, than for nests in short shrub sites. Bald Eagles (Halieaeetus leucocephalus) are the major predator during the early breeding season and their behavior was likely important in determining this pattern. After 25 May, when eagle predation is limited due to the availability of alternative prey, no differences in nest survival among the nest site types were found. In addition, nest survival was positively related to the density of other Canada Goose nests near the nest site. Although the number of detected mortalities for females was relatively low, a clear pattern was found, with mortality three times more likely at nest sites dominated by high shrub density within 50 m than at open sites dominated by low shrub density. The negative relationship of nest concealment and adult survival is consistent with that found in other studies of ground-nesting birds. Physical barriers that limited access to nest sites by predators and sites that allowed for early detection of predators were important characteristics of nest site quality for Canada Geese and nest site quality shifted within seasons, likely as a result of shifting predator-prey interactions.

  6. Survival of extreme opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Huang, Ding-wei

    2009-12-01

    We study the survival of extreme opinions in various processes of consensus formation. All the opinions are treated equally and subjected to the same rules of changing. We investigate three typical models to reach a consensus in each case: (A) personal influence, (B) influence from surroundings, and (C) influence to surroundings. Starting with uniformly distributed random opinions, our calculated results show that the extreme opinions can survive in both models (A) and (B), but not in model (C). We obtain a conclusion that both personal influence and passive adaptation to the environment are not sufficient enough to eradicate all the extreme opinions. Only the active persuasion to change the surroundings eliminates the extreme opinions completely.

  7. Doubly robust survival trees.

    PubMed

    Steingrimsson, Jon Arni; Diao, Liqun; Molinaro, Annette M; Strawderman, Robert L

    2016-09-10

    Estimating a patient's mortality risk is important in making treatment decisions. Survival trees are a useful tool and employ recursive partitioning to separate patients into different risk groups. Existing 'loss based' recursive partitioning procedures that would be used in the absence of censoring have previously been extended to the setting of right censored outcomes using inverse probability censoring weighted estimators of loss functions. In this paper, we propose new 'doubly robust' extensions of these loss estimators motivated by semiparametric efficiency theory for missing data that better utilize available data. Simulations and a data analysis demonstrate strong performance of the doubly robust survival trees compared with previously used methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037609

  8. How worms survive desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Cihan; Penkov, Sider; Fahmy, Karim; Kurzchalia, Teymuras V.

    2012-01-01

    While life requires water, many organisms, known as anhydrobiotes, can survive in the absence of water for extended periods of time. Although discovered 300 years ago, we know very little about the fascinating phenomenon of anhydrobiosis. In this paper, we summarize our previous findings on the desiccation tolerance of the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva. A special emphasis is given to the role of trehalose in protecting membranes against desiccation. We also propose a simple mechanism for this process. PMID:24058825

  9. Cracking the survival code

    PubMed Central

    Füllgrabe, Jens; Heldring, Nina; Hermanson, Ola; Joseph, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Modifications of histones, the chief protein components of the chromatin, have emerged as critical regulators of life and death. While the “apoptotic histone code” came to light a few years ago, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy, a cell survival pathway, is also heavily regulated by histone-modifying proteins. In this review we describe the emerging “autophagic histone code” and the role of histone modifications in the cellular life vs. death decision. PMID:24429873

  10. Survivable Optical WDM Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Canhui (Sam); Mukherjee, Biswanath

    Survivable Optical WDM Networks investigates different approaches for designing and operating an optical network with the objectives that (1) more connections can be carried by a given network, leading to more revenue, and (2) connections can recover faster in case of failures, leading to better services. Different networks - wavelength-routed WDM networks, wavelength-routed WDM networks with sub-wavelength granularity grooming, and data over next-generation SONET/SDH over WDM networks - are covered.

  11. Survival probability in patients with liver trauma.

    PubMed

    Buci, Skender; Kukeli, Agim

    2016-08-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to assess the survival probability among patients with liver trauma injury using the anatomical and psychological scores of conditions, characteristics and treatment modes. Design/methodology/approach - A logistic model is used to estimate 173 patients' survival probability. Data are taken from patient records. Only emergency room patients admitted to University Hospital of Trauma (former Military Hospital) in Tirana are included. Data are recorded anonymously, preserving the patients' privacy. Findings - When correctly predicted, the logistic models show that survival probability varies from 70.5 percent up to 95.4 percent. The degree of trauma injury, trauma with liver and other organs, total days the patient was hospitalized, and treatment method (conservative vs intervention) are statistically important in explaining survival probability. Practical implications - The study gives patients, their relatives and physicians ample and sound information they can use to predict survival chances, the best treatment and resource management. Originality/value - This study, which has not been done previously, explores survival probability, success probability for conservative and non-conservative treatment, and success probability for single vs multiple injuries from liver trauma. PMID:27477933

  12. The survival of Coxiella burnetii in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstigneeva, A. S.; Ul'Yanova, T. Yu.; Tarasevich, I. V.

    2007-05-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen of Q-fever—a widespread zoonosis. The effective adaptation of C. burnetii to intracellular existence is in contrast with its ability to survive in the environment outside the host cells and its resistance to chemical and physical agents. Its mechanism of survival remains unknown. However, its survival appears to be related to the developmental cycle of the microorganism itself, i.e., to the formation of its dormant forms. The survival of Coxiella burnetii was studied for the first time. The pathogenic microorganism was inoculated into different types of soil and cultivated under different temperatures. The survival of the pathogen was verified using a model with laboratory animals (mice). Viable C. burnetii were found in the soil even 20 days after their inoculation. The relationship between the organic carbon content in the soils and the survival of C. burnetii was revealed. Thus, the results obtained were the first to demonstrate that the soil may serve as a reservoir for the preservation and further spreading of the Q-fever pathogen in the environment, on the one hand, and reduce the risk of epidemics, on the other.

  13. Relative survival of four serotypes of Salmonella enterica in low-water activity whey protein powder held at 36 and 70°C at various water activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of health burdens in the United States. Although the pathogen is not able to grow at aw levels below 0.94, it can survive in low-moisture foods for long periods of time. Temperature, aw, substrate and serotype affect its persistence. The aim of this study was...

  14. Understanding Cancer: Survivability and Hope

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Survivability and Hope Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... More "Understanding Cancer" Articles Understanding Cancer / Cancer Today / Survivability and Hope / Sam Donaldson: Tips From a Cancer ...

  15. Classification Schemes: Developments and Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocock, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the growth, survival and future of library classification schemes. Concludes that to survive, a scheme must constantly update its policies, and readily adapt itself to accommodate growing disciplines and changing terminology. (AEF)

  16. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    SciTech Connect

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  17. Survival in MS

    PubMed Central

    Reder, A.T.; Ebers, G.C.; Cutter, G.; Kremenchutzky, M.; Oger, J.; Langdon, D.; Rametta, M.; Beckmann, K.; DeSimone, T.M.; Knappertz, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of interferon beta (IFNβ)-1b on all-cause mortality over 21 years in the cohort of 372 patients who participated in the pivotal randomized clinical trial (RCT), retaining (in the analysis) the original randomized treatment-assignments. Methods: For this randomized long-term cohort study, the primary outcome, defined before data collection, was the comparison of all-cause mortality between the IFNβ-1b 250 μg and placebo groups from the time of randomization through the entire 21-year follow-up interval (intention-to-treat, log-rank test for Kaplan-Meier survival curves). All other survival outcomes were secondary. Results: After a median of 21.1 years from RCT enrollment, 98.4%(366 of 372) of patients were identified, and, of these, 81 deaths were recorded (22.1% [81 of 366]). Patients originally randomly assigned to IFNβ-1b 250 μg showed a significant reduction in all-cause mortality over the 21-year period compared with placebo (p = 0.0173), with a hazard ratio of 0.532 (95% confidence interval 0.314–0.902). The hazard rate of death at long-term follow-up by Kaplan-Meier estimates was reduced by 46.8% among IFNβ-1b 250 μg–treated patients (46.0% among IFNβ-1b 50 μg–treated patients) compared with placebo. Baseline variables did not influence the observed treatment effect. Conclusions: There was a significant survival advantage in this cohort of patients receiving early IFNβ-1b treatment at either dose compared with placebo. Near-complete ascertainment, together with confirmatory findings from both active treatment groups, strengthens the evidence for an IFNβ-1b benefit on all-cause mortality. Classification of Evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that early treatment with IFNβ-1b is associated with prolonged survival in initially treatment-naive patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. PMID:22496198

  18. Nocturnality and species survival.

    PubMed Central

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R

    1996-01-01

    Surveys of butterfly and moth diversity in tropical forest fragments suggest that nocturnality confers a dispersal, and possibly a survival, advantage. The butterfly faunas of smaller fragments were depauperate; in contrast, the species richness of nocturnal moths was similar in all fragments and even in pasture. The lack of correlation between butterfly and moth species richness among fragments (r2 = 0.005) is best explained by movements of moths at night when ambient conditions in forest and pasture are most similar; butterflies face substantial daytime temperature, humidity, and solar radiation barriers. This interpretation is supported by information on birds, beetles, and bats. PMID:8876201

  19. Perceptions Concerning Occupational Survival Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert E.

    This volume presents the reports of a series of interrelated studies which were part of a study that developed curriculum materials for teaching occupational survival skills. The first of six sections, Need for Teaching Occupational Survival Skills and Attitudes, discusses the importance of survival skills and describes twelve general topics which…

  20. SURVIV for survival analysis of mRNA isoform variation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shihao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Chengyang; Wu, Ying Nian; Xing, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid accumulation of clinical RNA-seq data sets has provided the opportunity to associate mRNA isoform variations to clinical outcomes. Here we report a statistical method SURVIV (Survival analysis of mRNA Isoform Variation), designed for identifying mRNA isoform variation associated with patient survival time. A unique feature and major strength of SURVIV is that it models the measurement uncertainty of mRNA isoform ratio in RNA-seq data. Simulation studies suggest that SURVIV outperforms the conventional Cox regression survival analysis, especially for data sets with modest sequencing depth. We applied SURVIV to TCGA RNA-seq data of invasive ductal carcinoma as well as five additional cancer types. Alternative splicing-based survival predictors consistently outperform gene expression-based survival predictors, and the integration of clinical, gene expression and alternative splicing profiles leads to the best survival prediction. We anticipate that SURVIV will have broad utilities for analysing diverse types of mRNA isoform variation in large-scale clinical RNA-seq projects. PMID:27279334

  1. SURVIV for survival analysis of mRNA isoform variation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shihao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Chengyang; Wu, Ying Nian; Xing, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The rapid accumulation of clinical RNA-seq data sets has provided the opportunity to associate mRNA isoform variations to clinical outcomes. Here we report a statistical method SURVIV (Survival analysis of mRNA Isoform Variation), designed for identifying mRNA isoform variation associated with patient survival time. A unique feature and major strength of SURVIV is that it models the measurement uncertainty of mRNA isoform ratio in RNA-seq data. Simulation studies suggest that SURVIV outperforms the conventional Cox regression survival analysis, especially for data sets with modest sequencing depth. We applied SURVIV to TCGA RNA-seq data of invasive ductal carcinoma as well as five additional cancer types. Alternative splicing-based survival predictors consistently outperform gene expression-based survival predictors, and the integration of clinical, gene expression and alternative splicing profiles leads to the best survival prediction. We anticipate that SURVIV will have broad utilities for analysing diverse types of mRNA isoform variation in large-scale clinical RNA-seq projects. PMID:27279334

  2. Process control for survival

    SciTech Connect

    Yocom, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    Increasing competition for a decreasing market mandates that the success of a company be determined by the manner in which it embraces quality. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is the most efficient means of dramatically improving quality and is essential to survival in the emerging electronic marketplace. During the three years that industry practitioners assembled to write IPC-PC-90, General Requirements for the Implementation of statistical Process Control, many heated discussions ensued about the actual definition of SPC. Some people view SPC as the application of Control Chart methods, others view it as the use of Statistical Experimental Design. Both are in some ways wrong and are limiting the scope of application. Those companies that have successfully applied SPC view it as a philosophy of statistical principles that will reduce variation in every phase of their business. 2 figs.

  3. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  4. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  5. Improvement in High-Grade Osteosarcoma Survival

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Yen, Chueh-Chuan; Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Chen, Paul C-H; Wu, Hung-Ta H.; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare survival before and after 2004 and define the prognostic factors for high-grade osteosarcomas beyond those of typical young patients with localized extremity disease. Few studies have reported the long-term treatment outcomes of high-grade osteosarcoma in Taiwan. A total of 202 patients with primary high-grade osteosarcoma who received primary chemotherapy at Taipei Veterans General Hospital between January 1995 and December 2011 were retrospectively evaluated and compared by period (1995–2003 vs 2004–2011). Patients of all ages and tumor sites and those following or not following controlled protocols were included in analysis of demographic, tumor-related, and treatment-related variables and survival. Overall survival and progression-free survival at 5 years were, respectively, 67.7% and 48% for all patients (n = 202), 77.3% and 57.1% for patients without metastasis (n = 157), and 33.9% and 14.8% for patients with metastasis (n = 45). The survival rates of patients treated after 2004 were significantly higher (by 13%–16%) compared with those of patients treated before 2004, with an accompanying 30% increase in histological good response rate (P = .002). Factors significantly contributing to inferior survival in univariate and multivariate analyses were diagnosis before 2004, metastasis at diagnosis, and being a noncandidate for a controlled treatment protocol. By comparison with the regimens used at our institution before 2004, the current results support the effectiveness of the post-2004 regimens, which consisted of substantially reduced cycles of high-dose methotrexate and a higher dosage of ifosfamide per cycle, cisplatin, and doxorubicin, for treating high-grade osteosarcoma in Asian patients. PMID:27082623

  6. Survival of variola virus in raw cotton

    PubMed Central

    MacCallum, F. O.; McDonald, J. R.

    1957-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to establish the survival period of variola virus in relation to its importation into Great Britain in raw cotton. Under the conditions of the experiments described here, variola virus in scabs from a single patient survived for a maximum of three to four months at a relative humidity of 58, and for only two to four months at 30°C and humidities of 73 and 84. Exposed virus in the form of vesicle fluid in capillaries did not survive for three months at this temperature in any of these humidities. These results suggest that variola virus in scabs or seeds in tropical climates—i.e., at temperatures of from 30°C to 40°C or higher—is unlikely to survive for as long as six months. Thus, if the period of storage of cotton were at least six months after ginning and before shipment from cotton-producing countries in the tropics where smallpox is endemic, the chances of importation of viable variola virus on raw cotton into areas free from infection would be very small. However, if cotton can become contaminated with smallpox scabs in temperate climates (20°-25°C) or is already contaminated when imported at this temperature, the experiments indicate that a few particles of virus may survive for as long as 18 months. The virus can, of course, survive for many years, ten or more, at from 4°C to 5°C in closed tubes or bottles, with little decrease in titre. PMID:13426756

  7. Pathologic factors affecting postsplenectomy survival in dogs.

    PubMed

    Spangler, W L; Kass, P H

    1997-01-01

    The apparently high prevalence of splenomegaly in dogs, along with the surgical accessibility of the spleen, results in a relatively large number of splenectomies in dogs in clinical veterinary practice. Splenic nodular lesions are widely considered to be indicative of hemangiosarcoma and thus a disease that is ultimately fatal. This study correlates the results of complete pathologic evaluation and classification of 500 spleens obtained by splenectomy with survival information for each dog. Among the spleens examined, 257 of 500 (51.4%) were classified nonneoplastic and 241 (48.2%) were neoplastic; 2 (0.4%) were unclassified. Miscellaneous non-nodular splenomegaly accounted for 46 of 257 (18%) of the nonneoplastic lesions; nodular splenomegaly accounted for 206 of 257 (79%) of nonneoplastic splenic lesions and was composed of lymphoid hyperplastic nodules and associated hematomas, hyperplastic lymphoid nodules alone, or hematomas with no apparent underlying cause. Nodular neoplastic diseases of the spleen were divided among benign tumors (11.5%) and a variety of primary sarcomas. Hemangiosarcoma made up 51% of splenic malignancies but accounted for less than 25% of the spleens evaluated. Survival of dogs with hematomas associated with nonneoplastic conditions of the spleen was markedly different from that in dogs with hemangiosarcoma-associated hematomas, even though most could not be effectively differentiated on gross inspection. Two month postoperative survival was 83% for dogs with nonneoplastic-related hematomas, whereas only 31% of dogs with hemangiosarcoma, with or without associated hematomas, were alive after 2 months. Twelve-month survival times were 64% and 7%, respectively. An overall postsplenectomy survival rate of 52% was based on the number of dogs surviving for a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. PMID:9183768

  8. Optics survivability support, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, N.; Simpson, T.; Busdeker, A.; Doft, F.

    1993-03-01

    This final report is a documentation of the activities and work performed by JAYCOR during the period from June 11, 1992 through March 10, 1993 to support Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the development of radiation tolerant optical subsystems and components for use under the Advanced Implementation Technology (AIT) effort. The work is primarily directed towards: performance of above-ground testing and analysis of the LLNL space-based LIDAR (Laser Illuminated Detection and Ranging) system and components, and compilation of a radiation effects data base for bulk optical materials, i.e., glasses. The objective is to support LLNL activities in the area of optics survivability and in engineering a radiation hardened LIDAR that can survive and operate through natural, as well as hostile, space environments (primary emphasis is on operation in electron, proton, and total dose environment). An analysis of the LIDAR design as developed by Kigre, Inc. for LLNL shows that the most susceptible components in terms of radiation susceptibility are the doubling crystal and laser rod materials. The radiation susceptibility analysis of the Kigre design (pulsed Q-switch mode) is performed using data obtained from above-ground testing of each individual component material. A passive Q-switch material is evaluated and found to degrade via a decrease in the amount of saturable absorption relative to an un-irradiated sample. Several different doubling crystal types (LBO, KTP, KD*P) are also evaluated for both total dose and high energy proton susceptibility. LBO is the least susceptible and KTP is the most affected by exposure to ionizing radiation. An analysis of the Kigre system response as a function of total dose is made, including the effects on thin film anti-reflection and band-pass filter coatings.

  9. Maternal nutrition, health, and survival.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul

    2002-05-01

    The burden of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries is high. Each year, 600,000 women die from pregnancy-related causes and 62 million women suffer from morbidity and complications of pregnancy. The extent to which maternal nutrition can improve maternal health and survival is not well understood. Excluding deaths due to induced abortions, the other four main causes of maternal mortality (preeclampsia, hemorrhage, obstructed labor, and infection) may be amenable to nutrition interventions. The role of calcium in reducing the incidence of preeclampsia and hypertension is promising, but more research in deficient populations is urgently needed. Antenatal iron supplementation, although frequently recommended to prevent anemia during pregnancy, has had little program success. Severe anemia may be an important cause of maternal mortality, but convincing evidence is lacking on the health consequences of mild-to-moderate maternal anemia. Knowledge of the etiology of anemia is important in identifying effective strategies for combating it. Other vitamins such as folate, B12, and vitamin A may enhance the effect of iron supplementation in populations where multiple nutrition deficiencies exist. Maternal night blindness is widespread in South Asian women. In Nepal, this condition is associated with markedly increased risks of vitamin A deficiency, anemia, morbidity, and maternal and infant mortality. These findings need to be replicated elsewhere in South Asia. One study has shown vitamin A and beta carotene supplementation to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. These findings need testing in different settings with emphasis on investigating the mechanisms of the effect. The area of prepregnancy nutrition and its influence on prolonged and obstructed labor is wide open for investigation. The scope for research in the area of maternal nutrition and health is large and the onus is on nutritionists to bring to the forefront the role of nutrition in

  10. Maternal nutrition and perinatal survival.

    PubMed

    Rush, D

    2001-09-01

    This review addresses the relationship between maternal nutrition and the survival of the foetus and infant. This survey was undertaken because wide-scale programmes on maternal feeding are in process, based, not on a critical synthesis of currently-available empirical research, but on a series of nested and, at times, weakly supported, assumptions. It is concluded that: (i) maternal weight and weight gain are remarkably resistant to either dietary advice or supplementation; (ii) nutritionally-induced increased birth-weight does not universally increase the chance of survival of the offspring, since pre-pregnancy weight, at least in affluent, industrialized societies-while associated with increased birth-weight-is also associated with higher perinatal mortality; (iii) while dietary supplements during pregnancy do have a modest effect on birth-weight, in contrast to a large effect in famine or near-famine conditions, this is not mediated by maternal energy deposition; and (iv) declining peripheral fat stores in late pregnancy are associated with accelerated foetal growth, and improved nutrition can lead to lower fat stores. Rather, the component of maternal weight gain associated with accelerated foetal growth is water, and, presumably, plasma volume. In the few studies, large and thorough enough to adequately address the issues, maternal feeding--both in famine and non-famine conditions--has led to lower perinatal, primarily foetal, mortality; the mechanisms are not likely to have been due only to the acceleration of foetal growth. It is concluded that there is currently an inadequate base of secure knowledge to foster improvement in the health and nutrition of poor mothers and children. The public and policy-makers alike must be informed that greater knowledge relating maternal nutrition to perinatal outcome is urgently needed to create sound health advice and to mount effective programmes. PMID:11761778

  11. Bacterial survival in turfgrass as predicted from the UV environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter-Shea, Elizabeth; Yuen, Gary; Hubbard, Kenneth; Horst, Garald

    2002-01-01

    Phylloplane microorganism survival is presumably affected by ultraviolet radiation (UV) penetrating into plant canopies, but little field data exist relating microorganism population dynamics to canopy UV level. Recent advances in field measurements involving the use of biological dosimeters and miniature radiometers make possible data sets for use in assessing the impact of UV on phylloplane microbe survival. The objective of this study was to compare field survival of a bacterial species, applied to turfgrass as a biological disease control agent, with predicted survival based on the prevailing UV-B environment under natural and attenuated UV conditions. Derived survival curves and radiation penetration equations (based on radiometer and biodosimeter field measurements of UV-B transmittance) were applied to predict bacterial survival within a turfgrass canopy at different leaf area indices. Due to the range in UV levels within a canopy, as indicated by the maximum (sunfleck areas) and minimum (shaded areas) transmitted irradiance values, bacterial survival can vary; predicted bacterial survival based only on average light penetration tended to underestimate survival. Further study should address contributions due to microenvironmental effects (e.g., canopy temperature, leaf wetness, and canopy structure), the spatial distribution of bacterium leaf microsites and bacterium survival on leaf surfaces.

  12. On the Plasticity of the Survival Processing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroneisen, Meike; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007) discovered a strong and rather general memory advantage for word material processed in a survival-related context. One possible explanation of this effect conceives survival processing as a special form of encoding: Nature specifically "tuned" our memory systems to process and remember fitness-relevant…

  13. Tlingit Survival Practices and Stories with Activity Folder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank

    Students learn Tlingit survival practices and lore in this booklet of stories and learning activities. Five readings discuss fire making methods, edible wild foods, weather conditions, and shelter; information is related to the resources of Southeast Alaska and to typical survival situations; e.g., storms at sea and dense fogs. Narratives relate…

  14. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  15. Determination of Survivable Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Niehaus, J. E.; Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Takahashi, F.; Easton, J. W.; Abbott, A. A.; Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA, there exists no standardized design or testing protocol for spacecraft fire suppression systems (either handheld or total flooding designs). An extinguisher's efficacy in safely suppressing any reasonable or conceivable fire is the primary benchmark. That concept, however, leads to the question of what a reasonable or conceivable fire is. While there exists the temptation to over-size' the fire extinguisher, weight and volume considerations on spacecraft will always (justifiably) push for the minimum size extinguisher required. This paper attempts to address the question of extinguisher size by examining how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or other accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). Estimates of these quantities are determined as a function of fire size and mass of material burned. This then becomes the basis for determining the maximum size of a target fire for future fire extinguisher testing.

  16. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor. PMID:27602193

  17. Hypervelocity impact survivability experiments for carbonaceous impactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Bada, Jeffrey; Macklin, John; Radicatidibrozolo, Filippo; Fleming, R. H.; Erlichman, Jozef

    1993-01-01

    We performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, fullerenes, phthalic acid crystals, and Murchison meteorite) into Al plate at velocities between 4.2 and 6.1 km/s. These tests were made to do the following: (1) determine the survivability of carbon forms and organize molecules in low hypervelocity impact; (2) characterize carbonaceous impactor residues; and (3) determine whether or not fullerenes could form from carbonaceous impactors, under our experimental conditions, or survive as impactors. An analytical protocol of field emission SEM imagery, SEM-EDX, laser Raman spectroscopy, single and 2-stage laser mass spectrometry, and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) found the following: (1) diamonds did not survive impact at 4.8 km/s, but were transformed into various forms of disordered graphite; (2) intact, well-ordered graphite impactors did survive impact at 5.9 km/sec, but were only found in the crater bottom centers; the degree of impact-induced disorder in the graphite increases outward (walls, rims, ejecta); (3) phthalic acid crystals were destroyed on impact (at 4.2 km/s, although a large proportion of phthalic acid molecules did survive impact); (4) fullerenes did not form as products of carbonaceous impactors (5.9 - 6.1 km/s, fullerene impactor molecules mostly survived impact at 5.9 km/s; and (5) two Murchison meteorite samples (launched at 4.8 and 5.9 km/s) show preservation of some higher mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared with the non-impacted sample. Each impactor type shows unique impactor residue morphologies produced at a given impact velocity. An expanded methodology is presented to announce relatively new analytical techniques together with innovative modifications to other methods that can be used to characterize small impact residues in LDEF craters, in addition to other acquired extraterrestrial samples.

  18. Predicting Survival in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Karnik, Niteen D; Gupta, Anish V

    2015-11-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a fulminant clinical disorder of varied etiology, characterized by diffuse lung injury and severe hypoxemia. It is a leading cause of ICU admission and the associated high mortality has sparked a lot of research on etiology, outcome, scoring systems, mortality predictors, biomarkers including inflammatory cytokines and even genomics in ARDS. The previously used AECC (American European Consensus Conference) definition (1994) of ARDS was replaced by the recent Berlin definition (2012) so as to improve its validity and reliability.1,2 This would not only standardize patient enrollment into clinical trials but also help implement the results of these trials into clinical practice. Although various studies have shown a reduction in mortality due to ARDS, it has been largely attributed to the general improvement in critical care and the use of lung protection ventilation strategies.3-6 Hence focus on the etiology, co-morbidities, risk factors, complications and mortality predictors, is the need of the hour so as to improve survival. ARDS can occur secondary to multiple causes i.e. either due to direct lung involvement (pneumonia, lung contusion etc) or indirect alveolar damage by inflammatory cytokines (sepsis, trauma, burns, pancreatitis etc.). The causes of ARDS in tropical countries are varied with seasonal variation. Acute febrile illnesses (AFI) like malaria, leptospirosis and dengue usually predominate in the monsoons while H1N1 infection and pneumonias typically peak in the colder winter months. However, malaria, dengue and H1N1 have a potential to be perennial. PMID:27608777

  19. Survival After Relapse of Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Koschmann, Carl; Bloom, Karina; Upadhyaya, Santhosh; Geyer, J Russell; Leary, Sarah E S

    2016-05-01

    Survival after recurrence of medulloblastoma has not been reported in an unselected cohort of patients in the contemporary era. We reviewed 55 patients diagnosed with medulloblastoma between 2000 and 2010, and treated at Seattle Children's Hospital to evaluate patterns of relapse treatment and survival. Fourteen of 47 patients (30%) over the age of 3 experienced recurrent or progressive medulloblastoma after standard therapy. The median time from diagnosis to recurrence was 18.0 months (range, 3.6 to 62.6 mo), and site of recurrence was metastatic in 86%. The median survival after relapse was 10.3 months (range, 1.3 to 80.5 mo); 3-year survival after relapse was 18%. There were trend associations between longer survival and having received additional chemotherapy (median survival 12.8 vs. 1.3 mo, P=0.16) and radiation therapy (15.4 vs. 5.9 mo, P=0.20). Isolated local relapse was significantly associated with shorter survival (1.3 vs. 12.8 mo, P=0.009). Recurrence of medulloblastoma is more likely to be metastatic than reported in previous eras. Within the limits of our small sample, our data suggest a potential survival benefit from retreatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation even in heavily pretreated patients. This report serves as a baseline against which to evaluate novel therapy combinations. PMID:26907655

  20. Validation of survivability validation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, T.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Issues associated with the validation of survivability protocols are discussed. Both empirical and analytical approaches to protocol validation are included. The use of hybrid simulations (hardware-in-the-loop, scene generators, software generators, man-in-the-loop, etc.) for the validation of survivability protocols is discussed.

  1. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  2. Survival analysis of patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, A; Ramakrishnan, S; Rangarajan, D

    2014-07-01

    Despite the continuous improvement of dialysis technology and pharmacological treatment, mortality rates for dialysis patients are still high. A 2-year prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital to determine the factors influencing survival among patients on maintenance hemodialysis. 96 patients with end-stage renal disease surviving more than 3 months on hemodialysis (8-12 h/week) were studied. Follow-up was censored at the time of death or at the end of 2-year study period, whichever occurred first. Of the 96 patients studied (mean age 49.74 ± 14.55 years, 75% male and 44.7% diabetics), 19 died with an estimated mortality rate of 19.8%. On an age-adjusted multivariate analysis, female gender and hypokalemia independently predicted mortality. In Cox analyses, patient survival was associated with delivered dialysis dose (single pool Kt/V, hazard ratio [HR] =0.01, P = 0.016), frequency of hemodialysis (HR = 3.81, P = 0.05) and serum albumin (HR = 0.24, P = 0.005). There was no significant difference between diabetes and non-diabetes in relation to death (Relative Risk = 1.109; 95% CI = 0.49-2.48, P = 0.803). This study revealed that mortality among hemodialysis patients remained high, mostly due to sepsis and ischemic heart disease. Patient survival was better with higher dialysis dose, increased frequency of dialysis and adequate serum albumin level. Efforts at minimizing infectious complications, preventing cardiovascular events and improving nutrition should increase survival among hemodialysis patients. PMID:25097332

  3. Survival analysis of patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Rangarajan, D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the continuous improvement of dialysis technology and pharmacological treatment, mortality rates for dialysis patients are still high. A 2-year prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital to determine the factors influencing survival among patients on maintenance hemodialysis. 96 patients with end-stage renal disease surviving more than 3 months on hemodialysis (8-12 h/week) were studied. Follow-up was censored at the time of death or at the end of 2-year study period, whichever occurred first. Of the 96 patients studied (mean age 49.74 ± 14.55 years, 75% male and 44.7% diabetics), 19 died with an estimated mortality rate of 19.8%. On an age-adjusted multivariate analysis, female gender and hypokalemia independently predicted mortality. In Cox analyses, patient survival was associated with delivered dialysis dose (single pool Kt/V, hazard ratio [HR] =0.01, P = 0.016), frequency of hemodialysis (HR = 3.81, P = 0.05) and serum albumin (HR = 0.24, P = 0.005). There was no significant difference between diabetes and non-diabetes in relation to death (Relative Risk = 1.109; 95% CI = 0.49-2.48, P = 0.803). This study revealed that mortality among hemodialysis patients remained high, mostly due to sepsis and ischemic heart disease. Patient survival was better with higher dialysis dose, increased frequency of dialysis and adequate serum albumin level. Efforts at minimizing infectious complications, preventing cardiovascular events and improving nutrition should increase survival among hemodialysis patients. PMID:25097332

  4. Satellite Survivability Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, P.; Smith, J.

    The Satellite Survivability Module (SSM) is an end-to-end, physics-based, performance prediction model for directed energy engagement of orbiting spacecraft. SSM was created as an add-on module for the Satellite Tool Kit (STK). Two engagement types are currently supported: laser engagement of the focal plane array of an imaging spacecraft; and Radio Frequency (RF) engagement of spacecraft components. This paper will focus on the laser engagement scenario, the process by which it is defined, and how we use this tool to support a future laser threat detection system experiment. For a laser engagement, the user creates a spacecraft, defines its optical system, adds any protection techniques used by the optical system, introduces a laser threat, and then defines the atmosphere through which the laser will pass. SSM models the laser engagement and its impact on the spacecraft's optical system using four impact levels: degradation, saturation, damage, and destruction. Protection techniques, if employed, will mitigate engagement effects. SSM currently supports two laser protection techniques. SSM allows the user to create and implement a variety of "what if" scenarios. Satellites can be placed in a variety of orbits. Threats can be placed anywhere on the Earth or, for version 2.0, on other satellites. Satellites and threats can be mixed and matched to examine possibilities. Protection techniques for a particular spacecraft can be turned on or off individually; and can be arranged in any order to simulate more complicated protection schemes. Results can be displayed as 2-D or 3-D visualizations, or as textual reports. A new report feature available in version 2.0 will allow laser effects data to be displayed dynamically during scenario execution. In order to test SSM capabilities, the Ball team used SSM to model several engagement scenarios for our future laser threat detection system experiment. Actual test sites, along with actual laser, optics, and detector

  5. Marketing child survival.

    PubMed

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  6. Survival of an Enveloped Virus on Toys.

    PubMed

    Bearden, Richard L; Casanova, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    Children's toys may carry respiratory viruses. Inactivation of a lipid-enveloped bacteriophage, Φ6, was measured on a nonporous toy at indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH). Inactivation was approximately 2log10 after 24 hours at 60% RH and 6.8log10 at 10 hours at 40% RH. Enveloped viruses can potentially survive on toys long enough to result in exposures. PMID:27144972

  7. Survival of the Fittest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Tina M.

    1991-01-01

    College and university public relations officials need to be aware of the potential problems associated with institutional research programs using animals and conflicts with animal welfare activists. Steps to take include anticipating and planning for a crisis, knowing campus research projects, and educating the various constituencies affected,…

  8. Mathematics and Global Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    This resource was written to provide students with an awareness of critical issues facing the world today. In courses for college students, it can motivate their study of mathematics, teach them how to solve mathematical problems related to current global issues, provide coherence to mathematical studies through a focus on issues of human…

  9. Surviving Small-Town Practice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Merv

    1987-01-01

    To cope and to survive family medicine in a small town has been, and continues to be, a problem. This article presents one physician's means and methods of staying in a difficult, but extremely exciting, profession. PMID:21263791

  10. SURVIVAL OF BACTERIA DURING AEROSOLIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One form of commercial application of microorganisms, including genetically engineered microorganisms is as an aerosol. To study the effect of aerosol-induced stress on bacterial survival, nonrecombinant spontaneous antibiotic-resistant mutants of four organisms, Enterobacter clo...

  11. Survivability of Deterministic Dynamical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hellmann, Frank; Schultz, Paul; Grabow, Carsten; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The notion of a part of phase space containing desired (or allowed) states of a dynamical system is important in a wide range of complex systems research. It has been called the safe operating space, the viability kernel or the sunny region. In this paper we define the notion of survivability: Given a random initial condition, what is the likelihood that the transient behaviour of a deterministic system does not leave a region of desirable states. We demonstrate the utility of this novel stability measure by considering models from climate science, neuronal networks and power grids. We also show that a semi-analytic lower bound for the survivability of linear systems allows a numerically very efficient survivability analysis in realistic models of power grids. Our numerical and semi-analytic work underlines that the type of stability measured by survivability is not captured by common asymptotic stability measures. PMID:27405955

  12. Survivability of Deterministic Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, Frank; Schultz, Paul; Grabow, Carsten; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    The notion of a part of phase space containing desired (or allowed) states of a dynamical system is important in a wide range of complex systems research. It has been called the safe operating space, the viability kernel or the sunny region. In this paper we define the notion of survivability: Given a random initial condition, what is the likelihood that the transient behaviour of a deterministic system does not leave a region of desirable states. We demonstrate the utility of this novel stability measure by considering models from climate science, neuronal networks and power grids. We also show that a semi-analytic lower bound for the survivability of linear systems allows a numerically very efficient survivability analysis in realistic models of power grids. Our numerical and semi-analytic work underlines that the type of stability measured by survivability is not captured by common asymptotic stability measures.

  13. The Survival of the Wisest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salk, Jonas

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that humans differ from other living organisms in the ability to exercise learned behavior and the individual will, which may allow people to make the changes in values necessary to survive on this planet. (DW)

  14. Survivability of Deterministic Dynamical Systems.

    PubMed

    Hellmann, Frank; Schultz, Paul; Grabow, Carsten; Heitzig, Jobst; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The notion of a part of phase space containing desired (or allowed) states of a dynamical system is important in a wide range of complex systems research. It has been called the safe operating space, the viability kernel or the sunny region. In this paper we define the notion of survivability: Given a random initial condition, what is the likelihood that the transient behaviour of a deterministic system does not leave a region of desirable states. We demonstrate the utility of this novel stability measure by considering models from climate science, neuronal networks and power grids. We also show that a semi-analytic lower bound for the survivability of linear systems allows a numerically very efficient survivability analysis in realistic models of power grids. Our numerical and semi-analytic work underlines that the type of stability measured by survivability is not captured by common asymptotic stability measures. PMID:27405955

  15. Customer service skills for survival.

    PubMed

    McAtee, L F

    1999-11-01

    As APICS practitioners, we all must share a common goal. How can we contribute to our company's success? Success can be measured in positive terms of market share, growth, profitability, return on investment, or some combination thereof. Each company must establish its own definition of success. For the purposes of this article, success will be equated to one word that we can all readily identify with: survival. What skills do we need to survive in the marketplace of the next millennium? PMID:10623133

  16. Evolutionary history and distance dependence control survival of dipterocarp seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Robert; Press, Malcolm C; Scholes, Julie D

    2010-01-01

    One important hypothesis to explain tree-species coexistence in tropical forests suggests that increased attack by natural enemies near conspecific trees gives locally rare species a competitive advantage. Host ranges of natural enemies generally encompass several closely related plant taxa suggesting that seedlings should also do poorly around adults of closely related species. We investigated the effects of adult Parashorea malaanonan on seedling survival in a Bornean rain forest. Survival of P. malaanonan seedlings was highest at intermediate distances from parent trees while heterospecific seedlings were unaffected by distance. Leaf herbivores did not drive this relationship. Survival of seedlings was lowest for P. malaanonan, and increased with phylogenetic dissimilarity from this species, suggesting that survival of close relatives of common species is reduced. This study suggests that distance dependence contributes to species coexistence and highlights the need for further investigation into the role of shared plant enemies in community dynamics. PMID:19849708

  17. Survival rates of cervical cancer patients in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir; Adon, Mohd Yusoff; Noh, Mohamed Asyraf; Bakhtiar, Mohammed Faizal; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mahmud, Siti Haniza; Aris, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common malignant cancer of the female reproductive organs worldwide. Currently, cervical cancer can be prevented by vaccination and detected at an early stage via various screening methods. Malaysia, as a developing country faces a heavy disease burden of cervical cancer as it is the second most common cancer among Malaysian women. This population based study was carried out to fulfil the primary aim of determining the survival rates of Malaysian women with cervical cancer and associated factors. Data were obtained from two different sources namely, the Malaysian National Cancer Registry (MNCR) and National Health Informatics Centre (NHIC) from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2005. Kaplan Meier analyses were conducted to identify the overall survival rates and median survival time. Differences in survival among different ethnic and age group were compared using the log-rank test. A total of 5,859 patients were included. The median survival time for cervical cancer in this study was 65.8 months and the 5-year survival rate was 71.1%. The overall observed survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 94.1%, 79.3% and 71.1% respectively. The log-rank test finding also showed that there were significant differences in the 5-year survival rate among different ethnic groups. Malays had the lowest survival rate of 59.2% followed by Indians (69.5%) and Chinese (73.8%). The overall 5-year survival rate among patients with cervical cancer in Malaysia is relatively good. Age and ethnic groups remain as significant determining factors for cervical cancer survival rate. PMID:25854407

  18. Early-life stress increases the survival of midbrain neurons during postnatal development and enhances reward-related and anxiolytic-like behaviors in a sex-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Chocyk, Agnieszka; Majcher-Maślanka, Iwona; Przyborowska, Aleksandra; Maćkowiak, Marzena; Wędzony, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    Clinical studies have suggested that early-life stress (ELS) increases the risk of psychopathologies that are strongly associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Thus, ELS may interfere with the development and maturation of the dopaminergic system; however, the mechanisms involved in such interference are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ELS on the survival of specific populations of neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) during postnatal development. First, we injected bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into pregnant rat dams on embryonic days 12, 13 and 14 to permanently label midbrain neurons. Then, after birth, the dams and litters were subjected to a maternal separation (MS) procedure to model ELS conditions. The number of BrdU+ neurons and the total number of neurons (cresyl violet+, CV+) were estimated in both male and female juvenile, adolescent, and adult rats. Moreover, sucrose preference and anxiety-like behaviors were studied during adulthood. We found that MS permanently increased the number of BrdU+ and CV+ neurons in the VTA of males. In the SNc, a temporary increase in the number of BrdU+ neurons was observed in juvenile MS males; however, only adult MS males displayed an increase in the number of CV+ neurons. Immunofluorescence analysis implied that MS affected the fate of non-dopaminergic neurons. MS males displayed anxiolytic-like behavior and an increase in sucrose preference. These results suggest that ELS induces distinct dysregulation in the midbrain circuitry of males, which may lead to sex-specific psychopathology of the reward system. PMID:25980793

  19. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    PubMed Central

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  20. Brain cancer survival in Kentucky: 1996-2000.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Tim E; Freitas, Samantha J; Ling, Lan; McKinney, Paul

    2008-10-01

    This is a report of brain cancer survival patterns in certain Area Development Districts (ADDs) in Kentucky, the state, and the nation. Brain cancer is of national and regional concern as it is a disease of high case fatality rates and relatively short survival. Comparisons for survival were made between the U.S.A. and the state. Kentucky has higher brain cancer mortality rates than the U.S.A., but significantly better cause-specific survival (p < 0.05). In order to examine within state variations for brain cancer survival, data organized for the fifteen ADDs from the state's central cancer registry were used. The analytic focus of this analysis were three regions expressly: the Purchase ADD (location of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant), the Green River ADD (the location of elevated brain cancer mortality rates), and the Kentucky River ADD (comprising counties that each have significantly more than the state average of persons living below the national poverty level). We found no evidence of lower survival for brain cancer among the poorer region of the state. The western districts were found to have lower cause-specific survival than the state (p < 0.05) and the U.S.A. Such a regional variation alerts population-based researchers to consider varying survival trends within the state's population. PMID:18979721

  1. Factors influencing wild turkey hen survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    A decline in the population of eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in southcentral Iowa necessitated more current estimates of population parameters. Survival of 126 eastern wild turkey hens in southcentral Iowa was investigated during 1993-96. Estimates of annual survival averaged 0.676 ?? 0.048% (x?? ?? SE) for adults and 0.713 ?? 0.125 for subadults. Mammalian predators, primarily coyotes (Canis latrans) and red fox (Vulpes fulva) accounted for 64% of all documented mortality. Age-specific annual survival distributions differed within years (P < 0.03), but no difference was detected in survival between age classes across years (P = 0.49). Based on chronological dates, survival of adult hens differed among seasons across years (P = 0.03). However, seasonal survival was not different when estimates were based on hen behavior (p = 0.48). Risk of mortality for hens increased by 2.0% for every 100-m increase in dispersal distance, decreased by 2.0% for every 10-ha increase in home range size, and decreased by 3.5% for each 1.0% increase in proportion of home range in woody cover. Although the exact cause of the population decline remains unknown, we suggest it was more likely related to a decrease in production than changes in hen survival. Declining turkey populations would likely benefit more from management designed to increase reproduction rather than hen survival.

  2. Marital Status and Survival in Patients with Carcinoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Greenleaf, Erin K.; Cooper, Amanda B.; Hollenbeak, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Marital status is a known prognostic factor in overall and disease-specific survival in several types of cancer. The impact of marital status on survival in patients with carcinoid tumors remains unknown. We hypothesized that married patients have higher rates of survival than similar unmarried patients with carcinoid tumors. METHODS Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified 23,126 people diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor between 2000 and 2011 and stratified them according to marital status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the characteristics and outcomes between patient cohorts. Overall and cancer-related survival were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariable survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models (hazards ratio [HR]), controlling for demographics and tumor-related and treatment-related variables. Propensity score analysis was performed to determine surgical intervention distributions among married and unmarried (ie, single, separated, divorced, widowed) patients. RESULTS Marital status was significantly related to both overall and cancer-related survival in patients with carcinoid tumors. Divorced and widowed patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.08–1.33] and 1.34 [95% CI, 1.22–1.46], respectively) and cancer-related survival (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.00–1.31] and 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03–1.29], respectively) than married patients over five years. Single and separated patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08–1.33] and 1.62 [95% CI, 1.25–2.11], respectively) than married patients over five years, but not worse cancer-related survival. Unmarried patients were more likely than matched married patients to undergo definitive surgical intervention (62.67% vs 53.11%, respectively, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Even after controlling for other prognostic factors, married patients have a

  3. Probabilistic Survivability Versus Time Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    This technical paper documents Kennedy Space Centers Independent Assessment team work completed on three assessments for the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program to assist the Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer (CSO) and GSDO management during key programmatic reviews. The assessments provided the GSDO Program with an analysis of how egress time affects the likelihood of astronaut and worker survival during an emergency. For each assessment, the team developed probability distributions for hazard scenarios to address statistical uncertainty, resulting in survivability plots over time. The first assessment developed a mathematical model of probabilistic survivability versus time to reach a safe location using an ideal Emergency Egress System at Launch Complex 39B (LC-39B); the second used the first model to evaluate and compare various egress systems under consideration at LC-39B. The third used a modified LC-39B model to determine if a specific hazard decreased survivability more rapidly than other events during flight hardware processing in Kennedys Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB).Based on the composite survivability versus time graphs from the first two assessments, there was a soft knee in the Figure of Merit graphs at eight minutes (ten minutes after egress ordered). Thus, the graphs illustrated to the decision makers that the final emergency egress design selected should have the capability of transporting the flight crew from the top of LC 39B to a safe location in eight minutes or less. Results for the third assessment were dominated by hazards that were classified as instantaneous in nature (e.g. stacking mishaps) and therefore had no effect on survivability vs time to egress the VAB. VAB emergency scenarios that degraded over time (e.g. fire) produced survivability vs time graphs that were line with aerospace industry norms.

  4. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Increases Both True and False Memory in Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that processing information in a survival context can enhance the information's memorability. The current study examined whether survival processing can also decrease the susceptibility to false memories and whether the survival advantage can be found in children. In Experiment 1, adults rated semantically related words in a…

  5. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  6. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  7. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  8. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  9. 22 CFR 19.11-7 - Annuity payable to surviving child or children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annuity payable to surviving child or children... payable to surviving child or children. (a) If a participant who has at least 18 months of civilian..., annuities are payable to a surviving child or children, as defined in § 19.2(e) as follows: (1)...

  10. Lower limb amputations: differences between the genders and long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, M; Saarinen, J; Suominen, V P; Virkkunen, J; Salenius, J

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate possible differences between genders in amputation incidence, revascularization activity before and survival after amputation. This population-based study was carried out in a well-defined geographical area, where all vascular surgical consultations and reconstructions are performed in one university hospital. All amputations performed in the region during 1990 - 1999 were identified from the hospital central registers. According to patient's identity codes, the Cause of Death Registry of Statistics Finland provided death data. Amputation data were cross-linked with the local vascular registry using identity codes. Women were found to be 8 years older than men (p < 0.0001). Major amputations comprised 73.4% in males and 77.7% in females. The age-standardized amputation incidence among males was 338 and among females 226 (per 10(6) inhabitants/year) (p < 0.001). The most prominent difference was seen in amputations due to trauma, where the age-adjusted major amputation incidence was over three-fold among males compared to females. The proportion of patients who had undergone vascular procedure before amputation was 23% in both genders. Median survival after amputation was 943 days in men and 716 in women (p = 0.01). When the higher age of women was considered, there was no significant difference between the genders. Survival was poorer among diabetics in both genders and the difference was significant in males. The amputation incidence was found to be higher in men compared to women in all etiologic subgroups except malignant tumour. Almost one in 4 patients had undergone vascular surgical reconstruction before amputation in both genders. There was no significant difference between the genders in survival after amputation. Subjects with diabetes had a poorer survival after major amputation than those without diabetes. PMID:17979013

  11. Surviving cancer without compromising aspirations.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    This short paper is a reflection of how one person coped, survived and grew following numerous metastatic incidences over a 20 year period. Surviving cancer is a complex process but coping with the threat of regular recurrence has required a coping strategy that embraced the disease, set it aside and refused to compromise hopes, dreams and future life. Central to this personal journey has been the need to redefine normality, live with and set aside the fear of future metastases and death and find an answer and meaning in a changing biology, increased morbidity and possible mortality. This paper contends that not compromising the direction of travel and being able to focus on a career has ensured that survival was valuable and valued. A working environment in which students' problems have been immediate has produced different stressors. These have ultimately forced personal worries to be set aside, while living with cancer has become normal and accepted. PMID:21514884

  12. Survival discriminants for differentiated thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.P.; Duda, R.B.; Recant, W.; Chmiel, J.S.; Sylvester, J.A.; Fremgen, A. )

    1990-10-01

    Since 1975, the American Cancer Society, Illinois Division, has published end results of major cancer sites drawn from patient data contributed voluntarily by hospital cancer registries throughout the state. The current study was undertaken, in part, to apprehend information regarding contested areas in the management of patients having differentiated (papillary/follicular) thyroid cancer. A total of 2,282 patients with either papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid from 76 different Illinois hospitals and providing 10 years of follow-up information (life-table analysis) were retrospectively analyzed for demographic, disease, and treatment-related predictors of survival. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards method was made for stage, age, race, sex, morphology, history of radiation exposure, presence of positive lymph nodes, initial surgical treatment, postoperative iodine 131 therapy, and replacement/suppressive thyroid hormone treatment. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) predictors of favorable survival after thyroid cancer were low stage (I and II), young age (less than 50 years), white race, female sex, and the administration, postoperatively, of either thyroid hormone or radioactive iodine. Factors that had no influence on survival were lymph node status, choice of initial surgical treatment, and a history of prior irradiation. We suggest that where a prospective clinical trial is impracticable, a retrospective analysis of a large and detailed database, such as that available from cooperating hospital-based tumor registries, may yet provide useful insights to solutions of cancer management problems.

  13. Survival of Staphylococcus aureus on fomites.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Alicia; Nastri, Natalia; Bernat, Maria; Brusca, Maria; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate duration of survival of Staphylococcus aureus on contaminated standardized fomites, such as sterilization paper (SP) and polyester previously sterilized in a steam autoclave, and to determine the potential inhibitory effects of the substrates (fabrics used to manufacture garments and special wrapping paper used in the dental setting) using the bacteriostasis test. The test was performed on two types of sterile standardized samples (T1 and T2). Sterility of the samples was validated following the protocol in use at the Department of Microbiology, after which the samples were inoculated with 50 microl of a calibrated suspension of Staphylococcus aureus (reference strain ATCC 25923) in the exponential growth phase, in a final concentration of 10(7) cfu/ml and 10(6) cfu/ml). The samples were incubated at 27 degrees C and survival and concentration of microorganisms attached to the surface of the substrates was determined at the following experimental time points: immediately post-contamination, and 3 hours, 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days post-contamination. Recovery was determined and expressed as a percentage; the bacteriostasis test was performed and showed negative results. Our results suggest that the quantity of recovered microorganisms varies according to the type of substrate and that there is a relation between survival and incubation time of the inoculated substrate serving as an artificial niche. PMID:19177850

  14. Inbreeding and homozygosity in breast cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Hauke; Filho, Miguel Inacio da Silva; Woltmann, Andrea; Johansson, Robert; Eyfjörd, Jorunn E.; Hamann, Ute; Manjer, Jonas; Enquist-Olsson, Kerstin; Henriksson, Roger; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Chen, Bowang; Huhn, Stefanie; Hemminki, Kari; Lenner, Per; Försti, Asta

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) help to understand the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on breast cancer (BC) progression and survival. We performed multiple analyses on data from a previously conducted GWAS for the influence of individual SNPs, runs of homozygosity (ROHs) and inbreeding on BC survival. (I.) The association of individual SNPs indicated no differences in the proportions of homozygous individuals among short-time survivors (STSs) and long-time survivors (LTSs). (II.) The analysis revealed differences among the populations for the number of ROHs per person and the total and average length of ROHs per person and among LTSs and STSs for the number of ROHs per person. (III.) Common ROHs at particular genomic positions were nominally more frequent among LTSs than in STSs. Common ROHs showed significant evidence for natural selection (iHS, Tajima’s D, Fay-Wu’s H). Most regions could be linked to genes related to BC progression or treatment. (IV.) Results were supported by a higher level of inbreeding among LTSs. Our results showed that an increased level of homozygosity may result in a preference of individuals during BC treatment. Although common ROHs were short, variants within ROHs might favor survival of BC and may function in a recessive manner. PMID:26558712

  15. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Soininen, Leena; Pokhrel, Arun; Dyba, Tadek; Pukkala, Eero; Hakulinen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30) and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20), indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland. PMID:22765936

  16. Emergency thoracotomy: survival correlates with physiologic status.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, H P; Steinmetz, B; Lieberman, J; Schecoter, W P; Macho, J R

    1992-06-01

    Emergency thoracotomy is a standard procedure in the management of cardiac arrest in patients sustaining severe trauma. We examined the records of 463 moribund trauma patients treated at our institution from 1980 to 1990 to refine indications for emergency thoracotomy. Patients underwent thoracotomy either in the emergency department (ED) (n = 424) or in the operating room (OR) (n = 39) as a component of continuing resuscitation after hospital arrival. The survival rate was 13% (61 of 463) overall, 2% (3 of 193) for blunt, 22% (58 of 269) for all penetrating, 8% (10 of 131) for gunshot, 34% (48 of 141) for stab-wound patients, and 54% (21 of 39) for patients who underwent emergency thoracotomy in the OR. Survival correlated with the physiologic status of patients both on initial evaluation in the field by paramedics and on arrival at the ED. Patients with penetrating trauma and in profound shock (BP less than 60 mm Hg) or mild shock (BP 60-90 mm Hg) with subsequent cardiac arrest had survival rates of 64% (27 of 42) and 56% (30 of 54), respectively. None of the patients with absent signs of life, defined as full cardiopulmonary arrest with absent reflexes (n = 215), on initial assessment by paramedics in the field, survived. We conclude that (1) no emergency thoracotomy should be performed if no signs of life are present on the initial prehospital field assessment; (2) emergency thoracotomy is an indicated procedure in most patients sustaining penetrating trauma; (3) blunt traumatic cardiac arrest is a relative contraindication to emergency thoracotomy. PMID:1613839

  17. Malondialdehyde can predict survival in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    RUSU, CRINA CLAUDIA; RACASAN, SIMONA; KACSO, INA MARIA; MOLDOVAN, DIANA; POTRA, ALINA; PATIU, IOAN MIHAI; VLADUTIU, DAN; CAPRIOARA, MIRELA GHERMAN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Kidney disease is associated with increased oxidative stress (OS), a nontraditional CV risk factor. Few studies evaluate the effect of OS markers on CV events (CVE) and survival in HD patients. The aim of this study is to examine potential determinants of OS markers and their predictive role on survival and CV morbidity and mortality in HD patients during a long-term follow-up (108 months). Methods We conducted an analytical cross-sectional prospective observational study, carried on a cohort of randomly selected HD patients. We registered in 44 HD patients baseline characteristics, OS markers, mortality and CVE over a period of 108 months and we used statistical analysis (descriptive, Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multivariate Cox model) for interpretation. Results Bound malondialdehyde (bMDA) was positively correlated with serum calcium, protein carbonyls (PC) were inversely correlated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and directly correlated with ferritin, NOx was directly correlated with ceruloplasmin) and serum albumin. Of the measured OS markers only bMDA was related to survival (HR=3.29 95% CI (1.28–8.44), p=0.01), and approached statistical significance in the effect on CV mortality (HR=2.85 95% CI (0.88–9.22), p=0.07). None of the measured OS markers was associated with CVE. Conclusions bMDA has a strong predictive value on survival in HD patients in a long-term follow-up (9 years). Its value is correlated with CV mortality but is not a predictor of CV events. Regular assessment of MDA in HD patients and the development of strategies aimed at reducing oxidative stress in these patients might be beneficial. PMID:27152077

  18. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  19. Surviving at a distance: organ specific metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Obenauf, Anna C.; Massagué, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of metastasis in a vital organ is the final stage of cancer progression and the main culprit of cancer related mortality. Once established, metastasis is devastating, yet only a small proportion of the cancer cells that leave a tumor succeed at infiltrating, surviving, and ultimately overtaking a distant organ. The bottlenecks that challenge cancer cells in newly invaded microenvironments are organ specific and consequently demand distinct mechanisms for metastatic colonization. Here we review the metastatic traits that allow cancer cells to colonize distinct organ sites. PMID:26693180

  20. Medieval Sport: Quest for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Douglas C.

    Since the Middle Ages, sport has survived because of its masochistic and sadistic components. The Greeks, who organized athletic contests into the Olympic Games in 776 B.C., emphasized the relationship between the mind and the body and fair competition, rather than putting emphasis on winning or losing. The Romans preferred the spectacle of…

  1. Cool echidnas survive the fire.

    PubMed

    Nowack, Julia; Cooper, Christine Elizabeth; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-04-13

    Fires have occurred throughout history, including those associated with the meteoroid impact at the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) boundary that eliminated many vertebrate species. To evaluate the recent hypothesis that the survival of the K-Pg fires by ancestral mammals was dependent on their ability to use energy-conserving torpor, we studied body temperature fluctuations and activity of an egg-laying mammal, the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), often considered to be a 'living fossil', before, during and after a prescribed burn. All but one study animal survived the fire in the prescribed burn area and echidnas remained inactive during the day(s) following the fire and substantially reduced body temperature during bouts of torpor. For weeks after the fire, all individuals remained in their original territories and compensated for changes in their habitat with a decrease in mean body temperature and activity. Our data suggest that heterothermy enables mammals to outlast the conditions during and after a fire by reducing energy expenditure, permitting periods of extended inactivity. Therefore, torpor facilitates survival in a fire-scorched landscape and consequently may have been of functional significance for mammalian survival at the K-Pg boundary. PMID:27075255

  2. GPS survivability - A military overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Alan

    The major features contributing to the military survivability of GPS during war are discussed. Possible threats to the various segments of GPS are examined, including the effects of attack, sabotage, and nuclear war. Consideration is given to applicable countermeasures to enable GPS to provide continuous service during war.

  3. Tale of survival tails off.

    PubMed

    Pallarito, K

    1991-02-25

    When Reader's Digest wove the tale of a scrappy rural hospital in Montana that raised enough in donations to keep from going under, it looked like a happy ending. But the last chapter on Sweet Grass Community Hospital's fight to survive is still being written, and it's a cliffhanger. PMID:10109267

  4. Top 10 Staff Survival Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Laurie

    1995-01-01

    Tips for camp staff on how to survive summer camp include not giving campers sugary drinks before bedtime, setting behavior limits with campers, setting an example by following camp rules, getting enough rest, being fair and consistent, controlling anger, being accountable for actions, asking questions, and being flexible. (LP)

  5. Wilderness Emergency: Surviving the Unexpected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fear, Gene

    In any unexpected survival experience, one must accept the situation with just what one has at the moment it happens, where it happens, and how it happens. Problem solving must be based on known body enemies that threaten life, their priority of influence, and their severity of threat to life. Solutions will depend on the body's energy supply,…

  6. Wilderness Survival and Outdoor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Matt

    Outdoor education is often delivered through games and activities such as nature hikes or observing an ecosystem within a 1-foot circle on the ground. Often, participants look closely at the earth only for that brief moment. Wilderness survival is another way to teach about the outdoors. It offers skills that encourage participants to become more…

  7. Corticosteroids compromise survival in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Pitter, Kenneth L; Tamagno, Ilaria; Alikhanyan, Kristina; Hosni-Ahmed, Amira; Pattwell, Siobhan S; Donnola, Shannon; Dai, Charles; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Chang, Maria; Chan, Timothy A; Beal, Kathryn; Bishop, Andrew J; Barker, Christopher A; Jones, Terreia S; Hentschel, Bettina; Gorlia, Thierry; Schlegel, Uwe; Stupp, Roger; Weller, Michael; Holland, Eric C; Hambardzumyan, Dolores

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumour. Standard of care consists of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and concomitant and maintenance temozolomide (temozolomide/radiotherapy→temozolomide). Corticosteroids are commonly used perioperatively to control cerebral oedema and are frequently continued throughout subsequent treatment, notably radiotherapy, for amelioration of side effects. The effects of corticosteroids such as dexamethasone on cell growth in glioma models and on patient survival have remained controversial. We performed a retrospective analysis of glioblastoma patient cohorts to determine the prognostic role of steroid administration. A disease-relevant mouse model of glioblastoma was used to characterize the effects of dexamethasone on tumour cell proliferation and death, and to identify gene signatures associated with these effects. A murine anti-VEGFA antibody was used in parallel as an alternative for oedema control. We applied the dexamethasone-induced gene signature to The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma dataset to explore the association of dexamethasone exposure with outcome. Mouse experiments were used to validate the effects of dexamethasone on survival in vivo Retrospective clinical analyses identified corticosteroid use during radiotherapy as an independent indicator of shorter survival in three independent patient cohorts. A dexamethasone-associated gene expression signature correlated with shorter survival in The Cancer Genome Atlas patient dataset. In glioma-bearing mice, dexamethasone pretreatment decreased tumour cell proliferation without affecting tumour cell viability, but reduced survival when combined with radiotherapy. Conversely, anti-VEGFA antibody decreased proliferation and increased tumour cell death, but did not affect survival when combined with radiotherapy. Clinical and mouse experimental data suggest that corticosteroids may decrease the effectiveness of treatment and shorten

  8. Plasticity and rectangularity in survival curves

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho

    2011-01-01

    Living systems inevitably undergo a progressive deterioration of physiological function with age and an increase of vulnerability to disease and death. To maintain health and survival, living systems should optimize survival strategies with adaptive interactions among molecules, cells, organs, individuals, and environments, which arises plasticity in survival curves of living systems. In general, survival dynamics in a population is mathematically depicted by a survival rate, which monotonically changes from 1 to 0 with age. It would be then useful to find an adequate function to describe complicated survival dynamics. Here we describe a flexible survival function, derived from the stretched exponential function by adopting an age-dependent shaping exponent. We note that the exponent is associated with the fractal-like scaling in cumulative mortality rate. The survival function well depicts general features in survival curves; healthy populations exhibit plasticity and evolve towards rectangular-like survival curves, as examples in humans or laboratory animals. PMID:22355622

  9. SSBP2 variants are associated with survival in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yuanyuan; Decker, Paul A.; Rice, Terri; McCoy, Lucie S.; Smirnov, Ivan; Patoka, Joseph S.; Hansen, Helen M.; Wiemels, Joe L.; Tihan, Tarik; Prados, Michael D.; Chang, Susan M.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Kosel, Matthew L.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Lachance, Daniel H.; O’Neill, Brian Patrick; Buckner, Jan C.; Thompson, Reid C.; Nabors, L. B.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Brem, Steve; Madden, Melissa H.; Browning, James E.; Wiencke, John K.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Wrensch, Margaret R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Glioblastoma is a devastating, incurable disease with few known prognostic factors. Here we present the first genome-wide survival and validation study for glioblastoma. Methods Cox regressions for survival with 314,635 inherited autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 315 San Francisco Adult Glioma Study patients for discovery and three independent validation datasets (87 Mayo Clinic, 232 GliomaSE and 115 The Cancer Genome Atlas patients) were used to identify SNPs associated with overall survival for Caucasian glioblastoma patients treated with the current standard of care, resection, radiation and temozolomide (total n=749). Tumor expression of the gene that contained the identified prognostic SNP was examined in three separate datasets (total n=619). Genotype imputation was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for SNPs that had not been directly genotyped. Results From the discovery and validation analyses, we identified a variant in SSBP2 (single-stranded DNA-binding protein 2) on 5q14.1 associated with overall survival in combined analyses (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.64; P = 1.3X10−6). Expression of SSBP2 in tumors from three independent datasets also was significantly related to patient survival (P = 5.3 X 10−4). Using genotype imputation, the SSBP2 SNP rs17296479 had the strongest statistically significant genome-wide association with poorer overall patient survival (HR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.45–2.22; P = 1.0 X 10−7). Conclusion The minor allele of SSBP2 SNP rs17296479 and the increased tumor expression of SSBP2 were statistically significantly associated with poorer overall survival among glioblastoma patients. With further confirmation, previously unrecognized inherited variations influencing survival may warrant inclusion in clinical trials to improve randomization. Unaccounted for genetic influence on survival could produce unwanted bias in such studies. PMID:22472174

  10. Adaptive memory: enhanced location memory after survival processing.

    PubMed

    Nairne, James S; Vanarsdall, Joshua E; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Blunt, Janell R

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments investigated whether survival processing enhances memory for location. From an adaptive perspective, remembering that food has been located in a particular area, or that potential predators are likely to be found in a given territory, should increase the chances of subsequent survival. Participants were shown pictures of food or animals located at various positions on a computer screen. The task was to rate the ease of collecting the food or capturing the animals relative to a central fixation point. Surprise retention tests revealed that people remembered the locations of the items better when the collection or capturing task was described as relevant to survival. These data extend the generality of survival processing advantages to a new domain (location memory) by means of a task that does not involve rating the relevance of words to a scenario. PMID:22004268

  11. Aspirin use and survival after coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W D; Kayser, K L; Hartz, A J; Saedi, S F

    1992-03-01

    From Jan. 1, 1968, through Dec. 31, 1981, 5618 patients in a single cardiovascular surgery practice underwent coronary bypass surgery. Detailed clinical information was obtained during hospitalization and entered into a data base. All surviving patients were surveyed for aspirin use four times: in 1984, 1985, 1986, and 1987. A subgroup of 2395 patients gave consistent answers on every returned survey. The group that answered consistently "yes" had a 5-year survival rate of 79%; those who answered consistently "no" had a 5-year survival rate of 67%. Stepwise logistic regression showed that, after adjusting for patient characteristics, the relative risk of death was 58% (confidence interval 47% to 70%) for consistent aspirin users compared with consistent non-aspirin users. This study provides evidence that regular aspirin use after bypass surgery may enhance survival. PMID:1539511

  12. Estimating survival rates from banding of adult and juvenile birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The restrictive assumptions required by most available methods for estimating survival probabilities render them unsuitable for analyzing real banding data. A model is proposed which allows survival rates and recovery rates to vary with the calendar year, and also allows juveniles to have rates different from adults. In addition to survival rates and recovery rates, the differential vulnerability factors of juveniles relative to adults are estimated. Minimum values of the variances of the estimators are also given. The new procedure is applied to sets of duck and goose data in which reasonably large numbers of adult and juvenile birds were banded. The results are shown to be generally comparable to those procured by other methods, but, in addition, insight into the extent of annual variation is gained. Combining data from adults and juveniles also increases the effective sample size, since the juveniles are assumed to enter the adult age class after surviving their initial year.

  13. [Hope for improvement of survival in ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Högberg, Thomas; Bergfeldt, Kjell; Borgfeldt, Christer; Holmberg, Erik; Åvall Lundqvist, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death from a gynecologic cancer. Every year around 700 women contracts ovarian cancer in Sweden. The overall survival is among the highest in Europe, but still long term relative survival is only 46%. It is a long-held myth that ovarian cancer is a disease without symptoms. Almost 90% of women have symptoms, even in the early stages. Symptoms that should arise suspicion of ovarian cancer and initiate diagnostic work-up are continuous abdominal extension, early feeling of satiety, pelvic or abdominal pain, urinary urge and postmenopausal bleeding. Women's awareness of symptoms and willingness to seek medical advice and the organization of the health care system are important factors determining cancer survival. Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases with different tumor traits and prognosis. Personalized medicine and preventive measures recognizing recent knowledge about tumor biology will positively affect survival. PMID:26646961

  14. Camouflage predicts survival in ground-nesting birds.

    PubMed

    Troscianko, Jolyon; Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared; Stevens, Martin; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2016-01-01

    Evading detection by predators is crucial for survival. Camouflage is therefore a widespread adaptation, but despite substantial research effort our understanding of different camouflage strategies has relied predominantly on artificial systems and on experiments disregarding how camouflage is perceived by predators. Here we show for the first time in a natural system, that survival probability of wild animals is directly related to their level of camouflage as perceived by the visual systems of their main predators. Ground-nesting plovers and coursers flee as threats approach, and their clutches were more likely to survive when their egg contrast matched their surrounds. In nightjars - which remain motionless as threats approach - clutch survival depended on plumage pattern matching between the incubating bird and its surrounds. Our findings highlight the importance of pattern and luminance based camouflage properties, and the effectiveness of modern techniques in capturing the adaptive properties of visual phenotypes. PMID:26822039

  15. Camouflage predicts survival in ground-nesting birds

    PubMed Central

    Troscianko, Jolyon; Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared; Stevens, Martin; Spottiswoode, Claire N.

    2016-01-01

    Evading detection by predators is crucial for survival. Camouflage is therefore a widespread adaptation, but despite substantial research effort our understanding of different camouflage strategies has relied predominantly on artificial systems and on experiments disregarding how camouflage is perceived by predators. Here we show for the first time in a natural system, that survival probability of wild animals is directly related to their level of camouflage as perceived by the visual systems of their main predators. Ground-nesting plovers and coursers flee as threats approach, and their clutches were more likely to survive when their egg contrast matched their surrounds. In nightjars – which remain motionless as threats approach – clutch survival depended on plumage pattern matching between the incubating bird and its surrounds. Our findings highlight the importance of pattern and luminance based camouflage properties, and the effectiveness of modern techniques in capturing the adaptive properties of visual phenotypes. PMID:26822039

  16. Semiparametric methods for multistate survival models in randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Harold M; Lô, Serigne N; Simes, R John; Tonkin, Andrew M; Heritier, Stephane

    2014-05-10

    Transform methods have proved effective for networks describing a progression of events. In semi-Markov networks, we calculated the transform of time to a terminating event from corresponding transforms of intermediate steps. Saddlepoint inversion then provided survival and hazard functions, which integrated, and fully utilised, the network data. However, the presence of censored data introduces significant difficulties for these methods. Many participants in controlled trials commonly remain event-free at study completion, a consequence of the limited period of follow-up specified in the trial design. Transforms are not estimable using nonparametric methods in states with survival truncated by end-of-study censoring. We propose the use of parametric models specifying residual survival to next event. As a simple approach to extrapolation with competing alternative states, we imposed a proportional incidence (constant relative hazard) assumption beyond the range of study data. No proportional hazards assumptions are necessary for inferences concerning time to endpoint; indeed, estimation of survival and hazard functions can proceed in a single study arm. We demonstrate feasibility and efficiency of transform inversion in a large randomised controlled trial of cholesterol-lowering therapy, the Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease study. Transform inversion integrates information available in components of multistate models: estimates of transition probabilities and empirical survival distributions. As a by-product, it provides some ability to forecast survival and hazard functions forward, beyond the time horizon of available follow-up. Functionals of survival and hazard functions provide inference, which proves sharper than that of log-rank and related methods for survival comparisons ignoring intermediate events. PMID:24338893

  17. The association between post-traumatic stress-related symptoms, resilience, current stress and past exposure to violence: a cross sectional study of the survival of Quechua women in the aftermath of the Peruvian armed conflict

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The long lasting resilience of individuals and communities affected by mass violence has not been given equal prominence as their suffering. This has often led to psychosocial interventions in post-conflict zones being unresponsive to local realities and ill-equipped to foster local strengths. Responding to the renewed interest in resilience in the field of violence and health, this study examines the resilience and post-traumatic responses of Indigenous Quechua women in the aftermath of the political violence in Peru (1980–2000). Methods A cross-sectional study examined the relationship between resilience, post-traumatic responses, exposure to violence during the conflict and current life stress on 151 Quechua women participants. Purposive and convenience sampling strategies were used for recruitment in Ayacucho, the area most exposed to violence. The study instruments were translated to Quechua and Spanish and cross-culturally validated. Data was analyzed using hierarchical regression analysis. A locally informed trauma questionnaire of local idioms of distress was also included in the analysis. Findings Sixty percent of women (n = 91) were recruited from Ayacucho city and the rest from three rural villages; the mean age was 45 years old. Despite high levels of exposure to violence, only 9.3% of the sample presented a level of symptoms that indicated possible PTSD. Resilience did not contribute to the overall variance of post-traumatic stress related symptoms, which was predicted by past exposure to violence, current life stress, age, and schooling (R2 = .421). Resilience contributed instead to the variance of avoidance symptoms (Stand β = −.198, t = −2.595, p = 0.010) while not for re-experiencing or arousal symptoms. Conclusions These findings identified some of the pathways in which resilience and post-traumatic responses interrelate in the aftermath of violence; yet, they also point to the complexity of their

  18. The Transforming Growth Factor β1/Interleukin-31 Pathway Is Upregulated in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure and Is Associated with Disease Severity and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xueping; Guo, Ruyi; Ming, Desong; Deng, Yong; Su, Milong; Lin, Chengzu; Li, Julan; Lin, Zhenzhong

    2015-01-01

    The transforming growth factor β1/interleukin-31 (TGF-β1/IL-31) pathway plays an important role in the process of cell injury and inflammation. The purpose of this work was to explore the role of the TGF-β1/IL-31 pathway in the cytopathic process of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). The quantitative serum levels of TGF-β1, IL-9, IL-10, IL-17, IL-22, IL-23, IL-31, IL-33, and IL-35 were analyzed among chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients (n = 17), ACLF patients (n = 18), and normal control (NC) subjects (n = 18). Disease severity in patients with ACLF was assessed using the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and Child-Pugh scores. Serum TGF-β1 levels were strongly positively correlated with IL-31 in all subjects, and both of them were positively correlated with IL-17, IL-22, and IL-33. In CHB and ACLF patients, serum levels of TGF-β1 and IL-31 were both increased significantly compared with those in NC subjects and positively correlated with total bilirubin (TBil) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. ACLF patients showed the highest levels of TGF-β1 and IL-31, which were positively correlated with Child-Pugh scores. Furthermore, the recovery from the liver injury in CHB was accompanied by decreased TGF-β1 and IL-31 levels. More importantly, serum levels of TGF-β1 and IL-31 were markedly upregulated in ACLF nonsurvivors, and IL-31 displayed the highest sensitivity and specificity (85.7% and 100.0%, respectively) in predicting nonsurvival of ACLF patients. Increasing activity of the TGF-β1/IL-31 pathway is well correlated with the extent of liver injury, disease severity, and nonsurvival of ACLF patients, while reducing activity is detected along the recovery from liver injury in CHB, suggesting its potential role in the pathogenesis of liver injury during chronic HBV infection. PMID:25716231

  19. Aircraft fires, smoke toxicity, and survival.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, A K; Sanders, D C

    1996-03-01

    In-flight fires in modern aircraft are rare, but post-crash fires do occur. Cabin occupants frequently survive initial forces of such crashes but are incapacitated from smoke inhalation. According to an international study, there were 95 fire-related civil passenger aircraft accidents worldwide over a 26-yr period, claiming approximately 2400 lives. Between 1985 and 1991, about 16% (32 accidents) of all U.S. transport aircraft accidents involved fire and 22% (140 fatalities) of the deaths in these accidents resulted from fire/smoke toxicity. Our laboratory analyses of postmortem blood samples (1967-93) indicate that 360 individuals in 134 fatal fire-related civil aircraft (air carrier and general aviation) accidents had carboxyhemoglobin saturation levels (> or = 20%), with or without blood cyanide, high enough to impair performance. Combustion toxicology is now moving from a descriptive to a mechanistic phase. Methods for gas analyses have been developed and combustion/animal-exposure assemblies have been constructed. Material/fire-retardant toxicity and interactions between smoke gases are being studied. Relationships between gas exposure concentrations, blood levels, and incapacitation onset are being established in animal models. Continuing basic research in smoke toxicity will be necessary to understand its complexities, and thus enhance aviation safety and fire survival chances. PMID:8775410

  20. Survival of auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Michelle L; Pereira, Fred A

    2015-07-01

    The inability of mammals to regenerate auditory hair cells creates a pressing need to understand the means of enhancing hair cell survival following insult or injury. Hair cells are easily damaged by noise exposure, by ototoxic medications and as a consequence of aging processes, all of which lead to progressive and permanent hearing impairment as hair cells are lost. Significant efforts have been invested in designing strategies to prevent this damage from occurring since permanent hearing loss has a profound impact on communication and quality of life for patients. In this mini-review, we discuss recent progress in the use of antioxidants, anti-inflammatories and apoptosis inhibitors to enhance hair cell survival. We conclude by clarifying the distinction between protection and rescue strategies and by highlighting important areas of future research. PMID:25743696

  1. Winter survival of female American black ducks on the Atlantic coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Costanzo, G.R.; Stotts, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    We used radio telemetry to monitor the winter survival and cause-specific mortality of 227 female American black ducks captured in New Jersey and Virginia, 1983-1985. Mean survival rate for 19 December - 15 February was 0.65. Survival from hunting and nonhunting risk was 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. Causes of nonhunting mortality included predation and emaciation. There were no consistent patterns in survivorship in relation to mean daily temperature, although the timing of the onset of low temperatures and storms may have influenced movement patterns. Our estimated survival rates are consistent with estimates from other studies of seasonal and annual survival.

  2. Dispersion as a Survival Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, Valdivino Vargas; Machado, Fábio Prates; Roldán-Correa, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    We consider stochastic growth models to represent population subject to catastrophes. We analyze the subject from different set ups considering or not spatial restrictions, whether dispersion is a good strategy to increase the population viability. We find out it strongly depends on the effect of a catastrophic event, the spatial constraints of the environment and the probability that each exposed individual survives when a disaster strikes.

  3. Dispersion as a Survival Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, Valdivino Vargas; Machado, Fábio Prates; Roldán-Correa, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    We consider stochastic growth models to represent population subject to catastrophes. We analyze the subject from different set ups considering or not spatial restrictions, whether dispersion is a good strategy to increase the population viability. We find out it strongly depends on the effect of a catastrophic event, the spatial constraints of the environment and the probability that each exposed individual survives when a disaster strikes.

  4. Does Random Dispersion Help Survival?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinazi, Rinaldo B.

    2015-04-01

    Many species live in colonies that prosper for a while and then collapse. After the collapse the colony survivors disperse randomly and found new colonies that may or may not make it depending on the new environment they find. We use birth and death chains in random environments to model such a population and to argue that random dispersion is a superior strategy for survival.

  5. Surviving gas expulsion with substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Paweł L.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the reaction of clumpy stellar distributions to gas expulsion. We show that regions containing highly unbound substructures/subclusters after gas expulsion can produce a significant final bound cluster. The key quantity in determining if a region is able to form a bound cluster is the global virial ratio, and so regions must be looked at as a whole rather than by an individual substructure/subclusters, when determining if they might survive as a bound cluster.

  6. Proline Mechanisms of Stress Survival

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xinwen; Zhang, Lu; Natarajan, Sathish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The imino acid proline is utilized by different organisms to offset cellular imbalances caused by environmental stress. The wide use in nature of proline as a stress adaptor molecule indicates that proline has a fundamental biological role in stress response. Understanding the mechanisms by which proline enhances abiotic/biotic stress response will facilitate agricultural crop research and improve human health. Recent Advances: It is now recognized that proline metabolism propels cellular signaling processes that promote cellular apoptosis or survival. Studies have shown that proline metabolism influences signaling pathways by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in the mitochondria via the electron transport chain. Enhanced ROS production due to proline metabolism has been implicated in the hypersensitive response in plants, lifespan extension in worms, and apoptosis, tumor suppression, and cell survival in animals. Critical Issues: The ability of proline to influence disparate cellular outcomes may be governed by ROS levels generated in the mitochondria. Defining the threshold at which proline metabolic enzyme expression switches from inducing survival pathways to cellular apoptosis would provide molecular insights into cellular redox regulation by proline. Are ROS the only mediators of proline metabolic signaling or are other factors involved? Future Directions: New evidence suggests that proline biosynthesis enzymes interact with redox proteins such as thioredoxin. An important future pursuit will be to identify other interacting partners of proline metabolic enzymes to uncover novel regulatory and signaling networks of cellular stress response. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 998–1011. PMID:23581681

  7. Demonstration of survivable space penetrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, Philip; Huntington-Thresher, William; Bruce, Alan; Penny, Nick; Smith, Alan; Gowan, Rob

    2012-03-01

    This work was performed in support of MoonLITE which is a proposed UK space mission to the moon. The basic premise is to deploy 4 instrumented penetrators, one each on the near-side, farside and at the poles of the moon, with an impact velocity of approximately 300m/s. The primary science aims are to set up a passive seismometer network, investigate the presence of water and volatiles and determine thermal gradients in the lunar soil (i.e. regolith). A key requirement is that the penetrator shell survives the impact together with the instrument payload and supporting subsystems. The material chosen for the penetrator shell was 7075 aluminium alloy, which is a good compromise between high compressive strength and low mass. The baseline penetrator design was evaluated and refined using the DYNA3D hydrocode to determine the survivability of the penetrator in sand at an impact velocity of 300m/s and an attack angle of 8°. The simulations predicted that the penetrator design would survive this severe impact condition which was confirmed by experiments on the Pendine rocket test track.

  8. Recreational Physical Activity and Ovarian Cancer Risk and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Patricia G.; Jones, Lee W.; Akushevich, Lucy; Schildkraut, Joellen M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity may influence ovarian cancer risk and outcomes through effects on ovulation, inflammatory markers and other processes. We examined associations between self-reported physical activity and ovarian cancer risk and survival in a population-based, case-control study in North Carolina. Methods The analyses involved 638 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 683 controls recruited between 1999-2008. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess ovarian cancer risk in relation to reported average physical activity at various time periods. Kaplan-Meier analyses and proportional hazards modeling were used to assess associations between physical activity and survival among ovarian cancer cases. Results Modestly reduced risks for ovarian cancer were observed in some categories of physical activity, but there were no consistent patterns of greater reductions in risk with higher activity levels. Physical activity prior to diagnosis was not significantly related to ovarian cancer survival overall, but survival was better for women who reported >2 hours of activity/week as compared to those reporting <1 hour/week among women who were non-obese (multivariable hazard ratio=0.69, 95% CI 0.47 – 1.00) Conclusions Our data provide weak evidence in support of beneficial effects of physical activity on ovarian cancer risk and survival, but results should be interpreted cautiously because of the lack of a clear dose response relation with higher levels of exercise and the likely misclassification of self-reported activity. PMID:21296269

  9. Progressive supranuclear palsy: progression and survival.

    PubMed

    Arena, Julieta E; Weigand, Stephen D; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Hassan, Anhar; Eggers, Scott D; Höglinger, Günter U; Litvan, Irene; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-02-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by postural instability and falls, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism with poor levodopa response, pseudobulbar palsy, and frontal release signs. The natural history of the disease has been previously described. However, the time frame of appearance of clinical milestones and how these symptoms may relate to survival in PSP are unknown. The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of symptoms at different stages of PSP and to estimate the time of appearance of clinical symptoms characteristic of the disease. Second, we determined the association between clinical symptoms and survival. We prospectively studied 35 PSP patients during assessments scheduled every 6 months for up to 2 years. We estimated symptoms prevalence and the association between symptoms and survival. The median age of onset was 65.9 years (IQR 60.6-70.0), and the median time from onset to first assessment was 3.0 years (IQR 2.4-3.9). The most commonly reported symptoms at baseline were: motor (100%) followed by cognitive/behavioral (89%), systemic and bulbar (80%), and sleep disturbances (60%). Slowness of movement, falls, neck stiffness and difficulty looking up/down had high prevalence from baseline, while balance and gait impairment were less common at baseline but increased in prevalence over time. The presence of sleep disturbances, and possibly hallucinations, was associated with increased death risk. Improved recognition of the clinical spectrum and milestones of PSP advances knowledge of the disease, helps earlier diagnosis, and allows prognostic predictions. PMID:26705121

  10. Survival advantages of obesity in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Abbott, Kevin C; Salahudeen, Abdulla K; Kilpatrick, Ryan D; Horwich, Tamara B

    2005-03-01

    In the general population, a high body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. However, the effect of overweight (BMI: 25-30) or obesity (BMI: >30) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) is paradoxically in the opposite direction; ie, a high BMI is associated with improved survival. Although this "reverse epidemiology" of obesity or dialysis-risk-paradox is relatively consistent in MHD patients, studies in CKD patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis have yielded mixed results. Growing confusion has developed among physicians, some of whom are no longer confident about whether to treat obesity in CKD patients. A similar reverse epidemiology of obesity has been described in geriatric populations and in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Possible causes of the reverse epidemiology of obesity include a more stable hemodynamic status, alterations in circulating cytokines, unique neurohormonal constellations, endotoxin-lipoprotein interaction, reverse causation, survival bias, time discrepancies among competitive risk factors, and malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome. Reverse epidemiology may have significant clinical implications in the management of dialysis, CHF, and geriatric patients, ie, populations with extraordinarily high mortality. Exploring the causes and consequences of the reverse epidemiology of obesity in dialysis patients can enhance our insights into similar paradoxes observed for other conventional risk factors, such as blood pressure and serum cholesterol and homocysteine concentrations, and in other populations such as those with CHF, advanced age, cancer, or AIDS. Weight-gaining interventional studies in dialysis patients are urgently needed to ascertain whether they can improve survival and quality of life. PMID:15755821

  11. Additional comments on the assumption of homogenous survival rates in modern bird banding estimation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Stokes, S.L.; Hines, J.E.; Conroy, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the problem of heterogeneous survival and recovery rates in bird banding estimation models. We suggest that positively correlated subgroup survival and recovery probabilities may result from winter banding operations and that this situation will produce positively biased survival rate estimates. The magnitude of the survival estimate bias depends on the proportion of the population in each subgroup. Power of the suggested goodness-of-fit test to reject the inappropriate model for heterogeneous data sets was low for all situations examined and was poorest for positively related subgroup survival and recovery rates. Despite the magnitude of some of the biases reported and the relative inability to detect heterogeneity, we suggest that levels of heterogeneity normally encountered in real data sets will produce relatively small biases of average survival rates.

  12. Effect of lead poisoning on spectacled elder survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grand, J.B.; Flint, P.L.; Petersen, M.R.; Moran, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) populations on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, declined rapidly through the 1980s, and low adult female survival was suggested as the likely cause of the decline. We used mark-resighting techniques to study annual survival rates of adult female spectacled eiders at 2 sites on the Y-K Delta during 1993-96. Our data suggest survival rates may differ among sites. However, a model fit to a subset of data on females for which we knew lead levels in blood suggests lead exposure influences survival. Adult females exposed to lead prior to hatching their eggs survived at a much lower rate (0.44 ?? 0.10) each year than females not exposed to lead before hatch (0.78 ?? 0.05). We suggest most mortality from lead exposure occurs over winter, and the related reduction in adult survival may be impeding recovery of local populations. We encourage managers to curtail input of lead shot into the environment.

  13. Regular Exercise May Boost Prostate Cancer Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158374.html Regular Exercise May Boost Prostate Cancer Survival Study found that ... HealthDay News) -- Sticking to a moderate or intense exercise regimen may improve a man's odds of surviving ...

  14. Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funds Request Information Get Involved Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby Home Grieving Families Surviving the ... Candle on For Families Who Have Experienced the Death of a Baby The numbers are staggering. Every ...

  15. Thoughts to thrive (or survive) professional transitions.

    PubMed

    Bledsoe, Dana Nicholson

    2015-01-01

    This article shares practical ideas on how to thrive or survive an unexpected professional transition. The ideas are based on the author's personal experience and years of listening to, and coaching, professional colleagues. The logistics of transitioning out of an organization are difficult enough when it is planned. The challenges of doing so when it is an unexpected transition can be daunting. Logistical considerations on how to leave an organization and begin to explore other opportunities are presented. Topics include strategies on how to be resilient, manage financial and benefit changes, communicate reasons for the job change, and tap into professional networks. In today's environment, these logistical considerations are worthy of proactive contemplation. Exceptional leaders have likely spent their professional lives leading with valor, and times of transition should be no exception. Thriving and surviving in transition calls for a sense of resilience, careful consideration of potentially unforeseen logistics related to exiting an organization, and a sense of inspiration to continue to lead with courage. PMID:25714952

  16. Survival of charmonia in a hot environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Iván; Siddikov, M.

    2015-02-01

    A colorless c ¯c dipole emerging from a heavy ion collision and developing the charmonium wave function can be broken up by final state interactions (FSI) propagating through the hot medium created in the collision. We single out two mechanisms of charmonium attenuation: (i) Debye color screening, called melting; and (ii) color-exchange interaction with the medium, called absorption. The former problem was treated so far only for charmonia at rest embedded in the medium, while in practice their transverse momenta at the LHC are quite high, =7 -10 GeV2. We demonstrate that a c ¯c dipole may have a large survival probability even at infinitely high temperature. We develop a procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schrödinger equation to a moving reference frame and perform the first realistic calculations of the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. These effects are found to have comparable magnitudes. We also calculated the FSI suppression factor for the radial excitation ψ (2 S ) and found it to be stronger than for J /ψ , except large pT, where ψ (2 S ) is relatively enhanced. The azimuthal asymmetry parameter v2 is also calculated.

  17. Hospital survival strategies for the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Bonney, R S

    1983-09-01

    Survival strategies for hospitals and hospital pharmacy departments are presented, and one hospital's development into a health-services system is described. Financial and competitive pressures are forcing institutions to develop new strategies for survival. The primary institutional strategy is diversification--both horizontal and vertical. Diversification can assist in the hospital's growth, increase its asset and revenue bases, and lead to the development of a health-care delivery system. Marketing to physicians and developing information systems are also critical strategies under a prospective payment system. Institutions will need to know the cost of providing care for specific diagnosis-related groups. Strategies must be employed to develop incentives to reduce inpatient acute-care services and to increase productivity. Physicians should be involved in all of the institutional strategies. Strategies for the pharmacy department are basically the same. Pharmacy departments should develop programs to reduce drug use (especially antibiotic use) and information systems that show the actual cost of providing services by diagnosis. The major corporate restructuring and diversification efforts of one hospital are described. The future of hospitals and pharmacy departments will depend on the successful application of the strategies discussed. PMID:6414292

  18. Test Cases for Reentry Survivability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailor, W.; Hallman, W.; Steckel, G.; Weaver, M.

    2012-01-01

    One approved approach for minimizing the long-term hazards posed by space debris is to reenter space hardware into the atmosphere at end-of-mission or to place hardware in an orbit with a relatively short lifetime. Selection of a short lifetime orbit vice a deorbited reentry into a safe area depends on predictions of the hazards posed by random reentry of the object. If the object is left in orbit, what is the casualty expectation associated with its eventual reentry? Clearly, having high confidence in reentry hazard prediction tools is important to this decision-making process and the final choice can have significant mission and cost impacts. This paper describes a set of test cases that can be used to validate reentry hazard models. The test cases were assembled from reentry cases where "known" and tracked objects reentered the atmosphere and debris from the reentries was subsequently found on the ground and was analyzed. The test cases include best estimates of the state, mass properties, and physical description of each object prior to reentry, the wind profile through which the debris fell (for one case), and the impact location and physical description of each surviving object. The report also summarizes results of metallurgical analyses conducted on surviving debris, which places limits on the maximum temperatures reached during reentry. Details on a specific reentry are included as an example.

  19. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Winters, Yaicha D; Lowenstein, Tim K; Timofeeff, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea-microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich) and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena) sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media) from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation) in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1

  20. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Yaicha D.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea—microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich) and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena) sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media) from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation) in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1

  1. Estimating net survival: the importance of allowing for informative censoring.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Coraline; Remontet, Laurent; Bossard, Nadine; Roche, Laurent; Belot, Aurélien

    2012-04-13

    Net survival, the one that would be observed if cancer were the only cause of death, is the most appropriate indicator to compare cancer mortality between areas or countries. Several parametric and non-parametric methods have been developed to estimate net survival, particularly when the cause of death is unknown. These methods are based either on the relative survival ratio or on the additive excess hazard model, the latter using the general population mortality hazard to estimate the excess mortality hazard (the hazard related to net survival). The present work used simulations to compare estimator abilities to estimate net survival in different settings such as the presence/absence of an age effect on the excess mortality hazard or on the potential time of follow-up, knowing that this covariate has an effect on the general population mortality hazard too. It showed that when age affected the excess mortality hazard, most estimators, including specific survival, were biased. Only two estimators were appropriate to estimate net survival. The first is based on a multivariable excess hazard model that includes age as covariate. The second is non-parametric and is based on the inverse probability weighting. These estimators take differently into account the informative censoring induced by the expected mortality process. The former offers great flexibility whereas the latter requires neither the assumption of a specific distribution nor a model-building strategy. Because of its simplicity and availability in commonly used software, the nonparametric estimator should be considered by cancer registries for population-based studies. PMID:22281942

  2. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon during Barge Transport

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Skalski, J. R.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-12-01

    To mitigate for fish losses related to passage through the Federal Columbia River Power System, an extensive fish transportation program using barges and trucks to move fish around and downstream of dams and reservoirs was implemented in 1981. Population modeling and other analyses to support Pacific salmon recovery efforts have assumed that the survival of juvenile salmonids during the transportation experience was 98%. To estimate survival during barge transport from Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to a release area downstream of Bonneville Dam, a distance of 470 km, we used a novel adaptation of a release-recapture model with acoustic-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts. A total of 1,494 yearling Chinook salmon were surgically implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponders (PIT) and divided into three groups. The three tagged groups consisted of; (1) a group which was released into the raceway with the population of fish which were later loaded into transportation barges (R{sub B}), (2) a group which was held in a net-pen suspended within the general barge population until 5-6 h prior to barge evacuation, at which time they were confirmed to be alive and then released into the general barge population (R{sub A}), and (3) to validate a model assumption, a group which was euthanized and released into the barge population 2-8 h prior to barge evacuation (R{sub D}). Six replicates of these groups were loaded onto fish transport barges that departed Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River between 29 April and 13 May, 2010. Acoustic receiver arrays between 70 and 220 km downstream of the barge evacuation site were used to detect tagged fish and served as the basis for estimation of survival within the barge. Tag-life-corrected estimates of reach survival were calculated for barged and control fish in each of the six replicate trials. The ratio of survival from

  3. 46 CFR 199.261 - Survival craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Survival craft. 199.261 Section 199.261 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.261 Survival craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved...

  4. Combat survivability - A look at the fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, R.E.; Caravasos, N. Boeing Defense and Space Group, Philadelphia, PA )

    1992-08-01

    Survivability enhancement is discussed in the light of its increased priority with special attention given to survivability modeling and battle-damage repair. Survivability-enhancement concepts - which include signature reduction, active damage suppression, and component redundancy/separation - can be supplemented by measures for vulnerability prediction.

  5. Improving Survival of Pancreatic Cancer. What Have We Learnt?

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanveer; Chaudhary, Adarsh

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma still ranks high among cancer-related deaths worldwide. In spite of substantial strides in preoperative staging, surgery, perioperative care, and adjuvant treatment, the survival still remains dismal. A number of patient-, disease-, and surgeon-related factors play a role in deciding the eventual outcome of the patient. The aim of this commentary is to review the current knowledge of various factors and the recent advances that impact the survival of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A search of scientific literature using Embase and MEDLINE, for the years 1985-2015, was carried out for search terms "pancreatic cancer" and "survival." Further search was based on the various specific prognostic factors that contribute towards survival of patients with pancreatic cancer found in the literature. Most of the studies used for this review include those that deal with pancreatic head cancers, some include patients with pancreatic cancers in all locations while very few included patients with tumors of body and tail only. In spite of significant developments in pre- and perioperative management, increased rates of margin-negative resections, and use of adjuvant treatment, the survival rates of pancreatic cancer patients remains poor. A paradigm shift with more effective adjuvant regimen and genetic interventions may help change the outcomes of patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:26722209

  6. Crossover studies with survival outcomes.

    PubMed

    Buyze, Jozefien; Goetghebeur, Els

    2013-12-01

    Crossover designs are well known to have major advantages when comparing the effect of two treatments which do not interact. With a right-censored survival endpoint, however, this design is quickly abandoned in favour of the more costly parallel design. Motivated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies which lacked power, we evaluate what may be gained in this setting and compare parallel with crossover designs. In a heterogeneous population, we find and explain a substantial increase in power for the crossover study using a non-parametric logrank test. With frailties in a proportional hazards model, crossover designs equally lead to substantially smaller variance for the subject-specific hazard ratio (HR), while the population-averaged HR sees negligible gain. Its efficiency benefit is recovered when the population-averaged HR is reconstructed from estimated subject-specific hazard rates. We derive the time point for treatment crossover that optimizes efficiency and end with the analysis of two recent HIV prevention trials. We find that a Cellulose sulphate trial could have hardly gained efficiency from a crossover design, while a Nonoxynol-9 trial stood to gain substantial power. We conclude that there is a role for effective crossover designs in important classes of survival problems. PMID:21715438

  7. Circadian timing of single daily 'meal' affects survival of mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, W.; Cadotte, L.; Halberg, F.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that the survival of young mice after abrupt restriction to a single 4-hr span of daily food accessibility can depend on the temporal placement of this feeding span in relation to the lighting regimen. Housing conditions are an important codeterminant of this response.

  8. Looking to the Future: Will Behavior Analysis Survive and Prosper?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Behavior analysis as a discipline currently is doing relatively well. How it will do in the future is unclear and depends on how the field, and the world at large, changes. Five current characteristics of the discipline that appear to reduce the probability that it will survive and prosper are discussed and suggestions for improvement are offered.…

  9. 1970 Project Understanding: A Community Education Project on Human Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee.

    The purposes of Project Understanding were to help participants to: obtain accurate information of human survival issues relating to people, poverty, pollution, and politics; think through the implications of these issues and examine their opinions about them; change their own opinions, attitudes, and behavior; and take effective citizen action.…

  10. The Survival Effect in Memory: Does It Hold into Old Age and Non-Ancestral Scenarios?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixia; Lau, Karen P. L.; Truong, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The survival effect in memory refers to the memory enhancement for materials encoded in reference to a survival scenario compared to those encoded in reference to a control scenario or with other encoding strategies [1]. The current study examined whether this effect is well maintained in old age by testing young (ages 18–29) and older adults (ages 65–87) on the survival effect in memory for words encoded in ancestral and/or non-ancestral modern survival scenarios relative to a non-survival control scenario. A pilot study was conducted to select the best matched comparison scenarios based on potential confounding variables, such as valence and arousal. Experiment 1 assessed the survival effect with a well-matched negative control scenario in both young and older adults. The results showed an age-equivalent survival effect across an ancestral and a non-ancestral modern survival scenario. Experiment 2 replicated the survival effect in both age groups with a positive control scenario. Taken together, the data suggest a robust survival effect that is well preserved in old age across ancestral and non-ancestral survival scenarios. PMID:24788755

  11. The relationship between harvest and survival rates of mallards: A straightforward approach with partitioned data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    We randomly partitioned mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bandings and recoveries from each of a number of selected reference areas into 2 groups and estimated survival and harvest rates for each area and group. This procedure produced independent vectors of survival- and harvest-rate estimates, which were used to test the general hypothesis that mallard survival and harvest rates were inversely related. We used Spearman rank correlation analysis and z-test contrasts between survival rates from years of high vs. low harvest rates. We also conducted computer simulation experiments to gain insight into the ability of these analyses to detect the relationship of interest. The data analyses suggested that survival and harvest rates of young females were inversely related, at least for the 5 areas included in the analysis. However, for young males and adults of both sexes, the analyses provided no evidence of an inverse relationship between survival and harvest rates, except possibly in a few specific areas.

  12. Apes in the Anthropocene: flexibility and survival.

    PubMed

    Hockings, Kimberley J; McLennan, Matthew R; Carvalho, Susana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Bobe, René; Byrne, Richard W; Dunbar, Robin I M; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; McGrew, William C; Williamson, Elizabeth A; Wilson, Michael L; Wood, Bernard; Wrangham, Richard W; Hill, Catherine M

    2015-04-01

    We are in a new epoch, the Anthropocene, and research into our closest living relatives, the great apes, must keep pace with the rate that our species is driving change. While a goal of many studies is to understand how great apes behave in natural contexts, the impact of human activities must increasingly be taken into account. This is both a challenge and an opportunity, which can importantly inform research in three diverse fields: cognition, human evolution, and conservation. No long-term great ape research site is wholly unaffected by human influence, but research at those that are especially affected by human activity is particularly important for ensuring that our great ape kin survive the Anthropocene. PMID:25766059

  13. Universal doomsday: analyzing our prospects for survival

    SciTech Connect

    Gerig, Austin; Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander E-mail: kdo@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2013-05-01

    Given a sufficiently large universe, numerous civilizations almost surely exist. Some of these civilizations will be short-lived and die out relatively early in their development, i.e., before having the chance to spread to other planets. Others will be long-lived, potentially colonizing their galaxy and becoming enormous in size. What fraction of civilizations in the universe are long-lived? The ''universal doomsday'' argument states that long-lived civilizations must be rare because if they were not, we should find ourselves living in one. Furthermore, because long-lived civilizations are rare, our civilization's prospects for long-term survival are poor. Here, we develop the formalism required for universal doomsday calculations and show that while the argument has some force, our future is not as gloomy as the traditional doomsday argument would suggest, at least when the number of early existential threats is small.

  14. Universal doomsday: analyzing our prospects for survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerig, Austin; Olum, Ken D.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    Given a sufficiently large universe, numerous civilizations almost surely exist. Some of these civilizations will be short-lived and die out relatively early in their development, i.e., before having the chance to spread to other planets. Others will be long-lived, potentially colonizing their galaxy and becoming enormous in size. What fraction of civilizations in the universe are long-lived? The ``universal doomsday'' argument states that long-lived civilizations must be rare because if they were not, we should find ourselves living in one. Furthermore, because long-lived civilizations are rare, our civilization's prospects for long-term survival are poor. Here, we develop the formalism required for universal doomsday calculations and show that while the argument has some force, our future is not as gloomy as the traditional doomsday argument would suggest, at least when the number of early existential threats is small.

  15. Biomimetic Survival Hydrodynamics and Flow Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantafyllou, Michael S.; Weymouth, Gabriel D.; Miao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    The fluid mechanics employed by aquatic animals in their escape or attack maneuvers, what we call survival hydrodynamics, are fascinating because the recorded performance in animals is truly impressive. Such performance forces us to pose some basic questions on the underlying flow mechanisms that are not yet in use in engineered vehicles. A closely related issue is the ability of animals to sense the flow velocity and pressure field around them in order to detect and discriminate threats in environments where vision or other sensing is of limited or no use. We review work on animal flow sensing and actuation as a source of inspiration and as a way to formulate a number of basic problems and investigate the flow mechanisms that enable animals to perform these remarkable maneuvers. We also describe some intriguing mechanisms of actuation and sensing.

  16. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in centenarians: impact on survival

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The centenarian population is gradually increasing, so it is becoming more common to see centenarians in clinical practice. Electrocardiogram abnormalities in the elderly have been reported, but several methodological biases have been detected that limit the validity of their results. The aim of this study is to analyse the ECG abnormalities in a prospective study of the centenarian population and to assess their impact on survival. Method We performed a domiciliary visit, where a medical history, an ECG and blood analysis were obtained. Barthel index (BI), cognitive mini-exam (CME) and Charlson index (ChI) were all determined. Patients were followed up by telephone up until their death. Results A total of 80 centenarians were studied, 26 men and 64 women, mean age 100.8 (SD 1.3). Of these, 81% had been admitted to the hospital at least once in the past, 81.3% were taking drugs (mean 3.3, rank 0–11). ChI was 1.21 (SD 1.19). Men had higher scores both for BI (70 -SD 34.4- vs. 50.4 -SD 36.6-, P = .005) and CME (16.5 -SD 9.1- vs. 9.1 –SD 11.6-, P = .008); 40.3% of the centenarians had anaemia, 67.5% renal failure, 13% hyperglycaemia, 22.1% hypoalbuminaemia and 10.7% dyslipidaemia, without statistically significant differences regarding sex. Only 7% had a normal ECG; 21 (26.3%) had atrial fibrillation (AF), 30 (37.5%) conduction defects and 31 (38.8%) abnormalities suggestive of ischemia, without sex-related differences. A history of heart disease was significantly associated with the presence of AF (P = .002, OR 5.2, CI 95% 1.8 to 15.2) and changes suggestive of ischemia (P = .019, OR 3.2, CI 95% 1.2-8.7). Mean survival was 628 days (SD 578.5), median 481 days. Mortality risk was independently associated with the presence of AF (RR 2.0, P = .011), hyperglycaemia (RR 2.2, P = .032), hypoalbuminaemia (RR 3.5, P < .001) and functional dependence assessed by BI (RR 1.8, P = .024). Conclusion Although ECG abnormalities are

  17. Predicting survival time for cold exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikuisis, Peter

    1995-06-01

    The prediction of survival time (ST) for cold exposure is speculative as reliable controlled data of deep hypothermia are unavailable. At best, guidance can be obtained from case histories of accidental exposure. This study describes the development of a mathematical model for the prediction of ST under sedentary conditions in the cold. The model is based on steady-state heat conduction in a single cylinder comprised of a core and two concentric annular shells representing the fat plus skin and the clothing plus still boundary layer, respectively. The ambient condition can be either air or water; the distinction is made by assigning different values of insulation to the still boundary layer. Metabolic heat production ( M) is comprised of resting and shivering components with the latter predicted by temperature signals from the core and skin. Where the cold exposure is too severe for M to balance heat loss, ST is largely determined by the rate of heat loss from the body. Where a balance occurs, ST is governed by the endurance time for shivering. End of survival is marked by the deep core temperature reaching a value of 30° C. The model was calibrated against survival data of cold water (0 to 20° C) immersion and then applied to cold air exposure. A sampling of ST predictions for the nude exposure of an average healthy male in relatively calm air (1 km/h wind speed) are the following: 1.8, 2.5, 4.1, 9.0, and >24 h for -30, -20, -10, 0, and 10° C, respectively. With two layers of loose clothing (average thickness of 1 mm each) in a 5 km/h wind, STs are 4.0, 5.6, 8.6, 15.4, and >24 h for -50, -40, -30, -20, and -10° C. The predicted STs must be weighted against the extrapolative nature of the model. At present, it would be prudent to use the predictions in a relative sense, that is, to compare or rank-order predicted STs for various combinations of ambient conditions and clothing protection.

  18. Cancer Patients’ Survival: Standard Calculation Methods And Some Considerations Regarding Their Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Žagar, Tina; Žakelj, Maja Primic

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Cancer patients’ survival is an extremely important but complex indicator for assessing regional or global inequalities in diagnosis practices and clinical management of cancer patients. The population-based cancer survival comparisons are available through international projects (i.e. CONCORD, EUROCARE, OECD Health Reports) and online systems (SEER, NORDCAN, SLORA). In our research we aimed to show that noticeable differences in cancer patients’ survival may not always reflect the real inequalities in cancer care, but can also appear due to variations in the applied methodology for relative survival calculation. Methods Four different approaches for relative survival calculation (cohort, complete, period and hybrid) have been implemented on the data set of Slovenian breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2009, and the differences in survival estimates have been quantified. The major cancer survival comparison studies have been reviewed according to the selected relative survival calculation approach. Results The gap between four survival curves widens with time; after ten years of follow up the difference increases to more than 10 percent points between the highest (hybrid) and the lowest (cohort) estimates. In population-based comparison studies, the choice of the calculation approach is not uniformed; we noticed a tendency of simply using the approach which yields numerically better survival estimates. Conclusion The population-based cancer relative survival, which is continually reported by recognised research groups, could not be compared directly as the methodology is different, and, consequently, final country scores differ. A uniform survival measure would be of great benefit in the cancer care surveillance. PMID:27284384

  19. Survival of Salmonella enterica in poultry feed is strain dependent

    PubMed Central

    Andino, Ana; Pendleton, Sean; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Wei; Critzer, Faith; Hanning, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Feed components have low water activity, making bacterial survival difficult. The mechanisms of Salmonella survival in feed and subsequent colonization of poultry are unknown. The purpose of this research was to compare the ability of Salmonella serovars and strains to survive in broiler feed and to evaluate molecular mechanisms associated with survival and colonization by measuring the expression of genes associated with colonization (hilA, invA) and survival via fatty acid synthesis (cfa, fabA, fabB, fabD). Feed was inoculated with 1 of 15 strains of Salmonella enterica consisting of 11 serovars (Typhimurium, Enteriditis, Kentucky, Seftenburg, Heidelberg, Mbandanka, Newport, Bairely, Javiana, Montevideo, and Infantis). To inoculate feed, cultures were suspended in PBS and survival was evaluated by plating samples onto XLT4 agar plates at specific time points (0 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 4 d, and 7 d). To evaluate gene expression, RNA was extracted from the samples at the specific time points (0, 4, 8, and 24 h) and gene expression measured with real-time PCR. The largest reduction in Salmonella occurred at the first and third sampling time points (4 h and 4 d) with the average reductions being 1.9 and 1.6 log cfu per g, respectively. For the remaining time points (8 h, 24 h, and 7 d), the average reduction was less than 1 log cfu per g (0.6, 0.4, and 0.6, respectively). Most strains upregulated cfa (cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis) within 8 h, which would modify the fluidity of the cell wall to aid in survival. There was a weak negative correlation between survival and virulence gene expression indicating downregulation to focus energy on other gene expression efforts such as survival-related genes. These data indicate the ability of strains to survive over time in poultry feed was strain dependent and that upregulation of cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis and downregulation of virulence genes were associated with a response to desiccation stress. PMID:24570467

  20. Crew Survival Lessons Learned from the Columbia Mishap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. B.

    Spacecraft mishaps involving loss of life are fortunately relatively rare. They always offer tremendous insight into improve- ments in vehicle design and operations. Aeromedical forensic analysis is a vital aspect of every aviation mishap, yet its application in spacecraft mishap investigation seems elusive. Due to the sensitive nature of fatal spacecraft accidents, analysis of human factors and forensics may not always be available for future vehicle designers. The occupant protection and crew survival lessons learned are a vital part of any mishap, and particularly spacecraft mishaps. This article will address crew survival lessons from the Columbia mishap and how they apply to future spacecraft design.

  1. Street youth: adaptation and survival in the AIDS decade.

    PubMed

    Luna, G C

    1991-11-01

    This article discusses adaptational and survival strategies of homeless youth and describes how pilot research, begun in 1982 on these strategies in the western United States, led to additional research and activity focused upon the related international street youth problem. The results of this research suggest that a critical relationship exists between survival strategies and the AIDS pandemic. The impact of this pandemic on street youth can be mitigated only by immediate and comprehensive preventive actions at both national and international levels. PMID:1772887

  2. Bcl-2 family proteins: master regulators of cell survival.

    PubMed

    Hatok, Jozef; Racay, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The most prominent function of proteins of the Bcl-2 family is regulation of the initiation of intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathways of apoptosis. However, recent research has revealed that in addition to regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis, proteins of the Bcl-2 family play important roles in regulating other cellular pathways with a strong impact on cell survival like autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, intracellular calcium dynamics, cell cycle progression, mitochondrial dynamics and energy metabolism. This review summarizes the recent knowledge about functions of Bcl-2 family proteins that are related to cell survival. PMID:27505095

  3. Survival following accidental scarf strangulation.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Ullasa; Deepak, M; Hussain, Syed Ather; Usmani, Hadi; Osama, Muhammad; Pereira, Kiran Godwin; Menezes, Ritesh George

    2016-09-01

    Injury or death by strangulation, unless otherwise explained, is almost always homicidal. Accidental strangulation may occur but only very rarely. We present such a case of accidental strangulation and survival in a motorbike pillion rider. A long scarf (dupatta) clad woman, sitting at the back of a two wheeler motorbike, fell after her long scarf got caught in the back wheel. The lady was first taken to a local clinic and then later was referred to a hospital for a suspected spine injury where she made an uneventful recovery. This case report exposes the precarious position of women pillion riders wearing a long scarf and emphasizes the need for extra caution and the need for wheel guards on spoked wheels in particular. PMID:27048761

  4. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOEpatents

    Mims, James; Buden, David; Williams, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  5. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOEpatents

    Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

    1988-03-11

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

  6. Genitourinary mast cells and survival.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Stewart, Julia M

    2015-10-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are ubiquitous in the body, but they have historically been associated with allergies, and most recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation. However, it remains a puzzle why so many MCs are located in the diencephalon, which regulates emotions and in the genitourinary tract, including the bladder, prostate, penis, vagina and uterus that hardly ever get allergic reactions. A number of papers have reported that MCs have estrogen, gonadotropin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors. Moreover, animal experiments have shown that diencephalic MCs increase in number during courting in doves. We had reported that allergic stimulation of nasal MCs leads to hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) activation. Interestingly, anecdotal information indicates that female patients with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome may have increased libido. Preliminary evidence also suggests that MCs may have olfactory receptors. MCs may, therefore, have been retained phylogenetically not only to "smell danger", but to promote survival and procreation. PMID:26813805

  7. Optics survivability support, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, N.; Simpson, T.; Busdeker, A.; Doft, F.

    1993-01-01

    This volume of the Optics Survivability Support Final Report contains plots of all the data contained in the computerized Optical Glasses Database. All of these plots are accessible through the Database, but are included here as a convenient reference. The first three pages summarize the types of glass included with a description of the radiation source, test date, and the original data reference. This information is included in the database as a macro button labeled 'LLNL DATABASE'. Following this summary is an Abbe chart showing which glasses are included and where they lie as a function of nu(sub d) and n(sub d). This chart is also callable through the database as a macro button labeled 'ABBEC'.

  8. [Circulatory survival of irreversible comas].

    PubMed

    Cartier, F; Chevet, D; Garré, M; Launois, B; Thomas, R; Le Pollès, R

    1975-01-18

    On the basis of a series of 53 cases of irreversible coma maintained in circulatory survival with the aim of removing the kidneys, the authors discuss the mode of treatment, with particular reference to the intravenous fluids used and the use of medications influencing the circulation. Fluid and electrolytes given must be adjusted hourly to ensure the exact replacement of urinary losses. Isoprotenerol is the only medication usually necessary. In the event of circulatory insufficiency, which is difficult to foresee and hence prevent, immediate volume expansion in a short a time as possible and isoprotenerol most frequently correct the situation (14 out of 17 cases). Thus effective circulation may be maintained until the kidneys are removed (48 out of 53 cases). 92 p.cent of the grafted kidneys functioned from the first day onwards. PMID:1093120

  9. Bacterial Survival in Laundered Fabrics

    PubMed Central

    Walter, William G.; Schillinger, John E.

    1975-01-01

    Bacterial survival was determined in linens (i) inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ii), taken from hospital isolation patients' beds, and (iii) used by students in their homes. Two different washers using temperatures of 38, 49, 54 and 60 C, respectively, for different times were employed along with a commercial tumbler dryer. Findings, after macerating the linens in a Waring blender and enumerating on nonselective media, indicate that acceptable levels of survivors can be achieved in motel and hotel linens by an 8- to 10-min wash cycle at 54 C followed by adequate drying. However, it is recommended that a wash cycle with 60 C for 10 to 13 min be employed for linens in health care factilities. The microbial significance of various laundering practices is discussed. PMID:1090256

  10. Survival Data and Regression Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, G.

    2014-12-01

    We start this chapter by introducing some basic elements for the analysis of censored survival data. Then we focus on right censored data and develop two types of regression models. The first one concerns the so-called accelerated failure time models (AFT), which are parametric models where a function of a parameter depends linearly on the covariables. The second one is a semiparametric model, where the covariables enter in a multiplicative form in the expression of the hazard rate function. The main statistical tool for analysing these regression models is the maximum likelihood methodology and, in spite we recall some essential results about the ML theory, we refer to the chapter "Logistic Regression" for a more detailed presentation.

  11. Genitourinary mast cells and survival

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are ubiquitous in the body, but they have historically been associated with allergies, and most recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation. However, it remains a puzzle why so many MCs are located in the diencephalon, which regulates emotions and in the genitourinary tract, including the bladder, prostate, penis, vagina and uterus that hardly ever get allergic reactions. A number of papers have reported that MCs have estrogen, gonadotropin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors. Moreover, animal experiments have shown that diencephalic MCs increase in number during courting in doves. We had reported that allergic stimulation of nasal MCs leads to hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) activation. Interestingly, anecdotal information indicates that female patients with mastocytosis or mast cell activation syndrome may have increased libido. Preliminary evidence also suggests that MCs may have olfactory receptors. MCs may, therefore, have been retained phylogenetically not only to “smell danger”, but to promote survival and procreation. PMID:26813805

  12. Dry season survival of Aedes aegypti eggs in various breeding sites in the Dar es Salaam area, Tanzania*

    PubMed Central

    Trpiš, M.

    1972-01-01

    In field experiments in different breeding sites in a shaded suburban area, 7-40% of A. aegypti eggs survived a 120-day dry period. In a relatively unshaded coral area, only 3-23% of eggs survived 60 days in exposed sites, but 7-17% survived 120 days in shaded sites. Survival in some sites was higher than in the laboratory at constant conditions. PMID:4539825

  13. Population-based survival estimates for childhood cancer in Australia during the period 1997–2006

    PubMed Central

    Baade, P D; Youlden, D R; Valery, P C; Hassall, T; Ward, L; Green, A C; Aitken, J F

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study provides the latest available relative survival data for Australian childhood cancer patients. Methods: Data from the population-based Australian Paediatric Cancer Registry were used to describe relative survival outcomes using the period method for 11 903 children diagnosed with cancer between 1983 and 2006 and prevalent at any time between 1997 and 2006. Results: The overall relative survival was 90.4% after 1 year, 79.5% after 5 years and 74.7% after 20 years. Where information onstage at diagnosis was available (lymphomas, neuroblastoma, renal tumours and rhabdomyosarcomas), survival was significantly poorer for more-advanced stage. Survival was lower among infants compared with other children for those diagnosed with leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and renal tumours but higher for neuroblastoma. Recent improvements in overall childhood cancer survival over time are mainly because of improvements among leukaemia patients. Conclusion: The high and improving survival prognosis for children diagnosed with cancer in Australia is consistent with various international estimates. However, a 5-year survival estimate of 79% still means that many children who are diagnosed with cancer will die within 5 years, whereas others have long-term health morbidities and complications associated with their treatments. It is hoped that continued developments in treatment protocols will result in further improvements in survival. PMID:21063404

  14. Survival Association Rule Mining Towards Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Gyorgy J.; Schrom, John; Castro, M. Regina; Li, Peter W.; Caraballo, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus is a growing epidemic that often leads to severe complications. Effective preventive measures exist and identifying patients at high risk of diabetes is a major health-care need. The use of association rule mining (ARM) is advantageous, as it was specifically developed to identify associations between risk factors in an interpretable form. Unfortunately, traditional ARM is not directly applicable to survival outcomes and it lacks the ability to compensate for confounders and to incorporate dosage effects. In this work, we propose Survival Association Rule (SAR) Mining, which addresses these shortcomings. We demonstrate on a real diabetes data set that SARs are naturally more interpretable than the traditional association rules, and predictive models built on top of these rules are very competitive relative to state of the art survival models and substantially outperform the most widely used diabetes index, the Framingham score. PMID:24551408

  15. Young fire ant workers feign death and survive aggressive neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassill, Deby L.; Vo, Kim; Becker, Brandie

    2008-07-01

    Feigning death is a method of self-defense employed among a wide range of prey species when threatened by predator species. This paper reports on death-feigning behavior by the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, during intraspecific aggression among neighboring fire ant workers. Days-old workers responded to aggression by death feigning, weeks-old workers responded by fleeing and months-old workers responded by fighting back. By feigning death, days-old workers were four times more likely to survive aggression than older workers. From a proximate perspective, retaliation by young workers against aggressive older workers is certain to fail. With their relatively soft exoskeleton, young workers would be prone to injury and death and unable to execute an effective attack of biting or stinging older workers with harder exoskeletons. From an ultimate perspective, death feigning allows young workers to survive and contribute to brood care and colony growth, both of which are essential to queen survival and fitness.

  16. Annual survival rates of breeding adult roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of the capture-recapture data on 0 individual roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) trapped from 1978-1987 as breeding adults on nests on Falkner Island, Connecticut, estimate the average annual minimum adult survival rate to be 0.74-0.75. There was weak evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates during the study period. The Jolly-Seber models used to estimate survival rates also generated estimates of population size and capture probabilities. To determine the relative importance of adult mortality and permanent emigration in contribuuting to the estimated annual loss of one-fourth of the breeding population will require further study of intercolony movemnet between all the major colony cities.

  17. Coyote removal, understory cover, and survival of white-tailed deer neonates: Coyote Control and Fawn Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John C.; Vukovich, Mark; Ray, H. Scott; Shaw, Christopher E.; Ruth, Charles

    2014-09-01

    Predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates has led to reduced recruitment in many deer populations in southeastern North America. This low recruitment combined with liberal antlerless deer harvest has resulted in declines in some deer populations, and consequently, increased interest in coyote population control. We investigated whether neonate survival increased after coyote removal, whether coyote predation on neonates was additive to other mortality sources, and whether understory vegetation density affected neonate survival. We monitored neonate survival for 4 years prior to (2006–2009) and 3 years during (2010–2012) intensive coyote removal on 3 32-km2 units on the United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site, South Carolina. We removed 474 coyotes (1.63 coyotes/km2 per unit per year), reducing coyote abundance by 78% from pre-removal levels. The best model (wi = 0.927) describing survival probability among 216 radio-collared neonates included a within-year quadratic time trend variable, date of birth, removal treatment, and a varying removal year effect. Under this model, survival differed between pre-treatment and removal periods and it differed among years during the removal period, being >100% greater than pre-treatment survival (0.228) during the first removal year (0.513), similar to pre-treatment survival during the second removal year (0.202), and intermediate during the third removal year (0.431). Despite an initial increase, the overall effect of coyote removal on neonate survival was modest. Mortality rate attributable to coyote predation was lowest during the first removal year (0.357) when survival was greatest, but the mortality rate from all other causes did not differ between the pretreatment period and any year during removals, indicating that coyote predation acted as an additive source of mortality. Survival probability was not related to

  18. Diversity and relatedness enhance survival in colour polymorphic grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Caesar, Sofia; Karlsson, Magnus; Forsman, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different resource utilization and behaviour by alternative phenotypes may reduce competition and enhance productivity and individual performance in polymorphic, as compared with monomorphic, groups of individuals. However, firm evidence that members of more heterogeneous groups benefit from enhanced survival has been scarce or lacking. Furthermore, benefits associated with phenotypic diversity may be counterbalanced by costs mediated by reduced relatedness, since closely related individuals typically are more similar. Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) are characterized by extensive polymorphism in colour pattern, morphology, behaviour and physiology. We studied experimental groups founded by different numbers of mothers and found that survival was higher in low than in high density, that survival peaked at intermediate colour morph diversity in high density, and that survival was independent of diversity in low density where competition was less intense. We further demonstrate that survival was enhanced by relatedness, as expected if antagonistic and competitive interactions are discriminately directed towards non-siblings. We therefore also performed behavioural observations and staged encounters which confirmed that individuals recognized and responded differently to siblings than to non-siblings. We conclude that negative effects associated with competition are less manifest in diverse groups, that there is conflicting selection for and against genetic diversity occurring simultaneously, and that diversity and relatedness may facilitate the productivity and ecological success of groups of interacting individuals. PMID:20526364

  19. A Three-groups Model for High Throughput Survival Screens

    PubMed Central

    Shaby, Benjamin A.; Skibinski, Gaia; Ando, Michael; LaDow, Eva S.; Finkbeiner, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Summary Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by the progressive deterioration of motor neurons in the cortex and spinal cord. Using an automated robotic microscope platform that enables the longitudinal tracking of thousands of single neurons, we examine the effects a large library of compounds on modulating the survival of primary neurons expressing a mutation known to cause ALS. The goal of our analysis is to identify the few potentially beneficial compounds among the many assayed, the vast majority of which do not extend neuronal survival. This resembles the large-scale simultaneous inference scenario familiar from microarray analysis, but transferred to the survival analysis setting due to the novel experimental setup. We apply a three component mixture model to censored survival times of thousands of individual neurons subjected to hundreds of different compounds. The shrinkage induced by our model significantly improves performance in simulations relative to performing treatment-wise survival analysis and subsequent multiple testing adjustment. Our analysis identified compounds that provide insight into potential novel therapeutic strategies for ALS. PMID:26821783

  20. Gender, social norms, and survival in maritime disasters

    PubMed Central

    Elinder, Mikael; Erixson, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Since the sinking of the Titanic, there has been a widespread belief that the social norm of “women and children first” (WCF) gives women a survival advantage over men in maritime disasters, and that captains and crew members give priority to passengers. We analyze a database of 18 maritime disasters spanning three centuries, covering the fate of over 15,000 individuals of more than 30 nationalities. Our results provide a unique picture of maritime disasters. Women have a distinct survival disadvantage compared with men. Captains and crew survive at a significantly higher rate than passengers. We also find that: the captain has the power to enforce normative behavior; there seems to be no association between duration of a disaster and the impact of social norms; women fare no better when they constitute a small share of the ship’s complement; the length of the voyage before the disaster appears to have no impact on women’s relative survival rate; the sex gap in survival rates has declined since World War I; and women have a larger disadvantage in British shipwrecks. Taken together, our findings show that human behavior in life-and-death situations is best captured by the expression “every man for himself.” PMID:22847426

  1. Experimental Survey of Microbial Survival at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, P.; Kish, A.

    2008-12-01

    The magnitude and onset of lethal pressure effects varies widely even among closely related organisms. This variability complicates the prediction of a species' piezotolerance based on cellular physiology and native stress resistance. In this study several non-piezophilic species were cultured at optimal conditions to both mid log and stationary phases, exposed to elevated pressure for ten minutes, and plated upon return to ambient conditions to determine survival via colony count. The archaeal halophile Halobacterium strain NRC-1 exhibited almost full survival up to pressures of 400 MPa. Model organism Escherichia coli was used to establish a baseline for bacterial organisms but also displayed a bifurcated pressure response, with pressure-sensitive and -tolerant substrains residing within a single population . Pressure exposure proved slightly more lethal to the bacterial halophile Chromohalobacter salexigens than for E. coli up to a critical point of 300 MPa beyond which modest increases in pressure (~ 25 MPa) decreased survival by orders of magnitude. These survival data combined with a comparison of cellular physiology and native stress resistance provide some insight into which aspects of cellular function contribute to high pressure survival.

  2. Reducing synuclein accumulation improves neuronal survival after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Fogerson, Stephanie M; van Brummen, Alexandra J; Busch, David J; Allen, Scott R; Roychaudhuri, Robin; Banks, Susan M L; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Bitan, Gal; Morgan, Jennifer R

    2016-04-01

    Spinal cord injury causes neuronal death, limiting subsequent regeneration and recovery. Thus, there is a need to develop strategies for improving neuronal survival after injury. Relative to our understanding of axon regeneration, comparatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote the survival of damaged neurons. To address this, we took advantage of lamprey giant reticulospinal neurons whose large size permits detailed examination of post-injury molecular responses at the level of individual, identified cells. We report here that spinal cord injury caused a select subset of giant reticulospinal neurons to accumulate synuclein, a synaptic vesicle-associated protein best known for its atypical aggregation and causal role in neurodegeneration in Parkinson's and other diseases. Post-injury synuclein accumulation took the form of punctate aggregates throughout the somata and occurred selectively in dying neurons, but not in those that survived. In contrast, another synaptic vesicle protein, synaptotagmin, did not accumulate in response to injury. We further show that the post-injury synuclein accumulation was greatly attenuated after single dose application of either the "molecular tweezer" inhibitor, CLR01, or a translation-blocking synuclein morpholino. Consequently, reduction of synuclein accumulation not only improved neuronal survival, but also increased the number of axons in the spinal cord proximal and distal to the lesion. This study is the first to reveal that reducing synuclein accumulation is a novel strategy for improving neuronal survival after spinal cord injury. PMID:26854933

  3. Patient risk factors' influence on survival of posterior composites.

    PubMed

    van de Sande, F H; Opdam, N J; Rodolpho, P A Da Rosa; Correa, M B; Demarco, F F; Cenci, M S

    2013-07-01

    This practice-based retrospective study evaluated the survival of resin composite restorations in posterior teeth, focusing on the influence of potential patient risk factors. In total, 306 posterior composite restorations placed in 44 adult patients were investigated after 10 to 18 yrs. The history of each restoration was extracted from the dental records, and a clinical evaluation was performed with those still in situ. The patient risk status was assessed for caries and "occlusal-stress" (bruxism-related). Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox-regression multivariate analysis. In total, 30% of the restorations failed, of which 82% were found in patients with 1 or 2 risk factors. Secondary caries was the main reason of failure within caries-risk patients, whereas fracture was the main reason in "occlusal-stress-risk" patients. The patient variables gender and age did not significantly affect survival, but risk did (p < .001). Tooth type (p < .001), arch (p = .013), and pulpal vitality (p = .003) significantly affected restoration survival. Within the limits of this retrospective evaluation, the survival of restorations is affected by patient risk factors, which should be included in survival analyses of restorations. PMID:23690354

  4. Survival is linked with reaction time and spatial memory in African striped mice.

    PubMed

    Maille, Audrey; Schradin, Carsten

    2016-08-01

    Studying the association between fitness and cognition in free-living animals is a fundamental step in the elucidation of the evolution of cognition. We assessed whether survival until the onset of the breeding season was related to reaction time or spatial memory in the African striped mouse Rhabdomys pumilio, a rodent that has to survive summer drought before breeding. We tested a total of 90 individuals at the beginning of summer. Female survival was related to a faster response to predation stimuli. Male survival increased with greater spatial memory, possibly because it is important for males to remember the configuration of the environment during dispersal. This study revealed that individual variation in reaction time and spatial memory can be related to survival probability, which is important for understanding the selection pressures acting on basic cognitive traits. PMID:27484646

  5. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  6. Effect of zidovudine on survival of patients with AIDS in Australia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, P J; Wilson, S R; Swanson, C E; Cooper, D A

    1990-09-01

    Since the first case of AIDS in Australia was diagnosed in December 1982, there have been substantial improvements in the treatment of AIDS-related conditions. In particular, zidovudine was widely introduced into clinical practice in Australia in June 1987. In order to evaluate its effect, we compared the survival of patients diagnosed before and after July 31, 1987 using data available in early 1989. Survival distributions were compared by means of Kaplan-Meier curves and by fitting exponential survival models incorporating a special feature of the data. Before August 1, 1987 the overall distribution of survival times for patients with AIDS in Australia is well described by an exponential distribution with a mean of 1.04 years. The corresponding median survival time for this period was 8.8 months. For patients diagnosed with AIDS after July 31, 1987 the median survival time had not been attained by December 31, 1988. However, the estimated mean survival time increased to 2.7 years. Survival times were found to be remarkably stable over the different regions of Australia. We have shown that substantial improvements in survival of patients diagnosed with AIDS in Australia are associated with the widespread availability of zidovudine from mid 1987. To the best of our knowledge this study is the first of its kind to show a major shift in the distribution of survival associated with the introduction of antiviral therapy. PMID:2392071

  7. Worker Perceptions of Skills Necessary for Survival in the World of Work. Thesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Sharon Lund

    The study was conducted to identify occupational survival skills--the basic knowledges, traits, and competencies necessary to maintain a job. A list of 27 basic occupational survival skills was developed, involving the following areas: interpersonal relations and communications; personal characteristics; decision making and problem solving; job…

  8. Occupational Survival Skills Implications for Job Maintenance and Mobility. A Research Study Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Sharon Lund

    A research study summary based on a dissertation entitled "Worker Perceptions Of Skills Necessary For Survival in the World of Work" is presented. A list of 27 basic occupational survival skills was developed representing the following areas: interpersonal relations and communications; personal characteristics; decision making and problem solving;…

  9. Method of freezing living cells and tissues with improved subsequent survival

    DOEpatents

    Senkan, Selim M.; Hirsch, Gerald P.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved method for freezing red blood cells, ther living cells, or tissues with improved subsequent survival, wherein constant-volume freezing is utilized that results in significantly improved survival compared with constant-pressure freezing; optimization is attainable through the use of different vessel geometries, cooling baths and warming baths, and sample concentrations.

  10. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 3 & 2; Naval Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is one of a series prepared for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve who are training for performance proficiency and studying for advancement in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman (PR) rating. The illustrated and indexed manual focuses on the personnel parachute and other related survival equipment.…

  11. Survival of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts through a hydropower complex.

    PubMed

    Stich, D S; Bailey, M M; Zydlewski, J D

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolt survival through the lower Penobscot River, Maine, U.S.A., and characterized relative differences in proportional use and survival through the main-stem of the river and an alternative migration route, the Stillwater Branch. The work was conducted prior to removal of two main-stem dams and operational changes in hydropower facilities in the Stillwater Branch. Survival and proportional use of migration routes in the lower Penobscot were estimated from multistate (MS) models based on 6 years of acoustic telemetry data from 1669 smolts and 2 years of radio-telemetry data from 190 fish. A small proportion (0·12, 95% c.i. = 0·06-0·25) of smolts used the Stillwater Branch, and mean survival through the two operational dams in this part of the river was relatively high (1·00 and 0·97). Survival at Milford Dam, the dam that will remain in the main-stem of the Penobscot River, was relatively low (0·91), whereas survival through two dams that were removed was relatively high (0·99 and 0·98). Smolt survival could decrease in the Stillwater Branch with the addition of two new powerhouses while continuing to meet fish passage standards. The effects of removing two dams in the main-stem are expected to be negligible for smolt survival based on high survival observed from 2005 to 2012 at those locations. Survival through Milford Dam was been well below current regulatory standards, and thus improvement of passage at this location offers the best opportunity for improving overall smolt survival in the lower river. PMID:25130320

  12. Multivariate piecewise exponential survival modeling.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Panagiotou, Orestis A; Black, Amanda; Liao, Dandan; Wacholder, Sholom

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we develop a piecewise Poisson regression method to analyze survival data from complex sample surveys involving cluster-correlated, differential selection probabilities, and longitudinal responses, to conveniently draw inference on absolute risks in time intervals that are prespecified by investigators. Extensive simulations evaluate the developed methods with extensions to multiple covariates under various complex sample designs, including stratified sampling, sampling with selection probability proportional to a measure of size (PPS), and a multi-stage cluster sampling. We applied our methods to a study of mortality in men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial to investigate whether a biomarker available from biospecimens collected near time of diagnosis stratifies subsequent risk of death. Poisson regression coefficients and absolute risks of mortality (and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals) for prespecified age intervals by biomarker levels are estimated. We conclude with a brief discussion of the motivation, methods, and findings of the study. PMID:26583951

  13. Multivariate Piecewise Exponential Survival Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Panagiotou, Orestis A.; Black, Amanda; Liao, Dandan; Wacholder, Sholom

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this article, we develop a piecewise Poisson regression method to analyze survival data from complex sample surveys involving cluster-correlated, differential selection probabilities, and longitudinal responses, to conveniently draw inference on absolute risks in time intervals that are prespecified by investigators. Extensive simulations evaluate the developed methods with extensions to multiple covariates under various complex sample designs, including stratified sampling, sampling with selection probability proportional to a measure of size (PPS), and a multi-stage cluster sampling. We applied our methods to a study of mortality in men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial to investigate whether a biomarker available from biospecimens collected near time of diagnosis stratifies subsequent risk of death. Poisson regression coefficients and absolute risks of mortality (and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals) for prespecified age intervals by biomarker levels are estimated. We conclude with a brief discussion of the motivation, methods, and findings of the study. PMID:26583951

  14. Elite athletes: is survival shortened in boxers?

    PubMed

    Bianco, M; Fabbricatore, C; Sanna, N; Fabiano, C; Palmieri, V; Zeppilli, P

    2007-08-01

    Moderate exercise and intense physical training are associated with increased life expectancy (LE). Boxing is characterized by intentional and repetitive head blows, sometimes causing brain injury, possibly reducing LE. We examined a sample of male athletes born between 1860 and 1930 selected from the international "hall of fame" inductees in baseball (n = 154), ice hockey (n = 130), tennis (n = 83), football (n = 81), boxing (n = 81), track and field (n = 59), basketball (n = 58), swimming (n = 37) and wrestling (n = 32). In boxing, we analyzed the number of disputed bouts/rounds and career records. Sports were also analyzed according to physiological demand and occurrence and kind of contact (intentional, unintentional). The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to compare survival curves (significance: p related to occurrence and kind of impact. Similar LE was found in boxers of different weight or career records. In conclusion, this study indicates that LE in top-level athletes is unaffected by the type of discipline, and not related to physiological demand and intentional contact. PMID:17436206

  15. Climate and density influence annual survival and movement in a migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Ann E; Reudink, Matthew W; Marra, Peter P; Ratcliffe, Laurene M; Wilson, Scott

    2015-12-01

    Assessing the drivers of survival across the annual cycle is important for understanding when and how population limitation occurs in migratory animals. Density-dependent population regulation can occur during breeding and nonbreeding periods, and large-scale climate cycles can also affect survival throughout the annual cycle via their effects on local weather and vegetation productivity. Most studies of survival use mark-recapture techniques to estimate apparent survival, but true survival rates remain obscured due to unknown rates of permanent emigration. This is especially problematic when assessing annual survival of migratory birds, whose movement between breeding attempts, or breeding dispersal, can be substantial. We used a multistate approach to examine drivers of annual survival and one component of breeding dispersal (habitat-specific movements) in a population of American redstarts (Setophaga ruticilla) over 11 years in two adjacent habitat types. Annual survival displayed a curvilinear relation to the Southern Oscillation Index, with lower survival during La Niña and El Niño conditions. Although redstart density had no impact on survival, habitat-specific density influenced local movements between habitat types, with redstarts being less likely to disperse from their previous year's breeding habitat as density within that habitat increased. This finding was strongest in males and may be explained by conspecific attraction influencing settlement decisions. Survival was lowest in young males, but movement was highest in this group, indicating that apparent survival rates were likely biased low due to permanent emigration. Our findings demonstrate the utility of examining breeding dispersal in mark-recapture studies and complement recent work using spatially explicit models of dispersal probability to obtain greater accuracy in survival estimates. PMID:26811763

  16. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  17. The PR Officer's Survival Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrum, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    A former corporate public relations (PR) professional shares strategies for communicating and cooperating with the chief executive officer, and particularly for coping with differences in perceptions of the public relations officer's role. Basic attributes of a successful PR professional are outlined: good communication skills, an analytical…

  18. Death and survival of heterozygous Lurcher Purkinje cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zanjani, Hadi; McFarland, Rebecca; Cavelier, Pauline; Blokhin, Andrei; Gautheron, Vanessa; Levenes, Carole; Bambrick, Linda L.; Mariani, Jean; Vogel, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    The differentiation and survival of heterozygous Lurcher (+/Lc) Purkinje cells in vitro was examined as a model system for studying how chronic ionic stress affects neuronal differentiation and survival. The Lurcher mutation in the δ2 glutamate receptor (GluRδ2) converts an orphan receptor into a membrane channel that constitutively passes an inward cation current. In the GluRδ2+/Lc mutant, Purkinje cell dendritic differentiation is disrupted and the cells degenerate following the first week of postnatal development. To determine if the GluRδ2+/Lc Purkinje cell phenotype is recapitulated in vitro, +/+ and +/Lc Purkinje cells from postnatal day 0 pups were grown in either isolated cell or cerebellar slice cultures. GluRδ2+/+ and GluRδ2+/Lc Purkinje cells appeared to develop normally through the first 7 days in vitro (DIV), but by 11 DIV GluRδ2+/Lc Purkinje cells exhibited a significantly higher cation leak current. By 14 DIV, GluRδ2+/Lc Purkinje cell dendrites were stunted and the number of surviving GluRδ2+/Lc Purkinje cells was reduced by 75% compared to controls. However, treatment of +/Lc cerebellar cultures with 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine (NASP) increased +/Lc Purkinje cell survival to wild type levels. These results support the conclusion that the Lurcher mutation in GluRδ2 induces cell autonomous defects in differentiation and survival. The establishment of a tissue culture system for studying cell injury and death mechanisms in a relatively simple system like GluRδ2+/Lc Purkinje cells will provide a valuable model for studying how the induction of a chronic inward cation current in a single cell type affects neuronal differentiation and survival. PMID:19294643

  19. Behavioural perspectives on piglet survival.

    PubMed

    Fraser, D

    1990-01-01

    Litters of domestic piglets show strong sibling competition, large differences among litter-mates in birth weight and rate of growth, and, in the absence of human intervention, a high mortality rate. This combination of traits suggests that pigs are using a reproductive strategy similar to that of certain bird species which produce one or more small 'spare' young whose death or survival is determined by sibling competition. Death through competition is natural in such species. Prevention of death requires the early identification and separate rearing of unsuccessful competitors. The major behavioural pathways leading to piglet deaths are considered to be malnutrition through unsuccessful suckling behaviour, and crushing of piglets by the sow. Crushing involves two distinct behavioural sequences: posterior crushing (beneath the sow's hind quarters) and ventral crushing (beneath the udder and rib cage). Farrowing crates are designed to prevent posterior but not ventral crushing. Malnourished piglets appear to be more vulnerable to crushing, perhaps because persistent suckling attempts cause them to spend more time near the sow. Prevention of crushing thus requires a reduction in malnutrition, not merely restriction of the sow's movements. Under certain conditions, dehydration may be an important but neglected aspect of malnutrition. Some litters of piglets have much higher death losses than others, presumably because of risk factors that apply to the litter as a whole. Early malnutrition, resulting from hypogalactia in the sow in the first days after farrowing, appears to be an important risk factor. Farrowing difficulties leading to piglet hypoxia during the birth process may be another. Risk factors that affect whole litters deserve greater emphasis in future research. PMID:2192051

  20. Strategies for surviving a shakeout.

    PubMed

    Day, G S

    1997-01-01

    Shakeouts are a fact of life in almost every industry-witness the shrinking number of players in areas as diverse as banking, software, and hospital supply distribution. The key to survival is sensing your industry's shakeout before the competition does. And the first hurdle for managers to overcome is the belief that it can't happen to them. It can and it probably will. George Day describes two shakeout syndromes that affect different types of industries. A boom-and-bust shakeout afflicts hot emerging markets or highly cyclical businesses. A glut of competitors enter the market during boom times, but many of them fail when growth slows or a dominant design emerges. A seismic-shift shakeout strikes mature industries that have enjoyed years of protected prosperity as a result of, for example, local regulations or import barriers. But deregulation, globalization, or technological change can pull the rug out from under them. Day outlines how companies can detect the early warning signs of a shakeout. He explains how adaptive survivors, such as Dell Computer, successfully adjust their businesses in the midst of a bust, and how aggressive amalgamators, such as Arrow Electronics, cut costs and acquire smaller rivals in order to remain standing after a seismic shift. But the fact remains that most companies will get squeezed out during a consolidation. Although it is enormously difficult for executives to come to terms with the grim news, the sooner they do so, the better. And, as Day points out, all is not necessarily lost: with the right timing, also-rans can make a profitable exit from an industry. PMID:10165451

  1. Lung cancer survival in Norway, 1997-2011: from nihilism to optimism.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Yngvar; Strand, Trond Eirik; Fjellbirkeland, Lars; Bartnes, Kristian; Møller, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    We examine changes in survival and patient-, tumour- and treatment-related factors among resected and nonresected lung cancer patients, and identify subgroups with the largest and smallest survival improvements.National population-based data from the Cancer Registry of Norway, Statistics Norway and the Norwegian Patient Register were linked for lung cancer patients diagnosed during 1997-2011. The 1- and 5-year relative survival were estimated, and Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusted for selected patient characteristics, was used to assess prognostic factors for survival in lung cancer patients overall and stratified by resection status.We identified 34 157 patients with lung cancer. The proportion of histological diagnoses accompanied by molecular genetics testing increased from 0% to 26%, while those accompanied by immunohistochemistry increased from 8% to 26%. The 1-year relative survival among nonresected and resected patients increased from 21.7% to 34.2% and 75.4% to 91.5%, respectively. The improved survival remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, stage and histology. The largest improvements in survival occurred among resected and adenocarcinoma patients, while patients ≥80 years experienced the smallest increase.Lung cancer survival has increased considerably in Norway. The explanation is probably multifactorial, including improved attitude towards diagnostic work-up and treatment, and more accurate diagnostic testing that allows for improved selection for resection and improved treatment options. PMID:26541525

  2. Adaptive Memory: Survival Processing Enhances Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairne, James S.; Thompson, Sarah R.; Pandeirada, Josefa N. S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the idea that memory systems might have evolved to help us remember fitness-relevant information--specifically, information relevant to survival. In 4 incidental learning experiments, people were asked to rate common nouns for their survival relevance (e.g., in securing food, water, or protection from predators); in…

  3. Temperature mediated moose survival in Northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenarz, M.S.; Nelson, M.E.; Schrage, M.W.; Edwards, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The earth is in the midst of a pronounced warming trend and temperatures in Minnesota, USA, as elsewhere, are projected to increase. Northern Minnesota represents the southern edge to the circumpolar distribution of moose (Alces alces), a species intolerant of heat. Moose increase their metabolic rate to regulate their core body temperature as temperatures rise. We hypothesized that moose survival rates would be a function of the frequency and magnitude that ambient temperatures exceeded the upper critical temperature of moose. We compared annual and seasonal moose survival in northeastern Minnesota between 2002 and 2008 with a temperature metric. We found that models based on January temperatures above the critical threshold were inversely correlated with subsequent survival and explained >78 of variability in spring, fall, and annual survival. Models based on late-spring temperatures also explained a high proportion of survival during the subsequent fall. A model based on warm-season temperatures was important in explaining survival during the subsequent winter. Our analyses suggest that temperatures may have a cumulative influence on survival. We expect that continuation or acceleration of current climate trends will result in decreased survival, a decrease in moose density, and ultimately, a retreat of moose northward from their current distribution.

  4. Public Perception of Cancer Survival Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.; Scherr, Courtney L.; Brown, Natasha; Jones, Christina; Christy, Katheryn

    2013-01-01

    Past research has observed that certain subgroups (e.g., individuals who are overweight/obese) have inaccurate estimates of survival rates for particular cancers (e.g., colon cancer). However, no study has examined whether the lay public can accurately rank cancer survival rates in comparison with one another (i.e., rank cancers from most deadly…

  5. Analysis of survival data from telemetry projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunck, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Telemetry is an increasingly popular method for studying animal movements and habitat use. Telemetry provides a means for studying survival and causes of mortality. This paper describes some statistical techniques which can provide valid estimates of survival rates based on data from telemetry studies.

  6. The Colgate University Winter Wilderness Survival Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Peter C.; Milner, Robert

    In January 1976, Colgate University offered its first Winter Wilderness Survival Program in conjunction with the North American Wilderness Survival School (NAWSS). This post-program evaluation summarizes background of the three-week program, with attention to the leadership, program aims, how the course was publicized, and how it developed month…

  7. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  8. Adaptive Memory: Is Survival Processing Special?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairne, James S.; Pandeirada, Josefa N. S.

    2008-01-01

    Do the operating characteristics of memory continue to bear the imprints of ancestral selection pressures? Previous work in our laboratory has shown that human memory may be specially tuned to retain information processed in terms of its survival relevance. A few seconds of survival processing in an incidental learning context can produce recall…

  9. Congruity Effects in the Survival Processing Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairne, James S.; Pandeirada, Josefa N. S.

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate a proposal by Butler, Kang, and Roediger (2009) that congruity (or fit) between target items and processing tasks might contribute, at least partly, to the mnemonic advantages typically produced by survival processing. In their research, no significant survival advantages were found when words were…

  10. Behavioral Procedures in Community Survival Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuqua, R. Wayne; Shook, Gerry L.

    1983-01-01

    The article reviews strategies for selecting and prioritizing community survival skills for mentally retarded persons and tactics for performing a behavioral task analysis of the identified skill. The behavioral procedures common to community survival skills training programs are described and representative research is reviewed. (Author/CL)

  11. 46 CFR 172.110 - Survival conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival conditions. 172.110 Section 172.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... is presumed to survive assumed damage if it meets the following conditions in the final stage...

  12. E. coli survival in waters: temperature dependence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important for evaluating microbial contamination and in making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature; this dependency is routinely expressed using an analog of the Q10 model. This suggestion...

  13. Time preference and its relationship with age, health, and survival probability

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Pereira, Nuno Sousa; Pauly, Mark V.

    2009-01-01

    Although theories from economics and evolutionary biology predict that one's age, health, and survival probability should be associated with one's subjective discount rate (SDR), few studies have empirically tested for these links. Our study analyzes in detail how the SDR is related to age, health, and survival probability, by surveying a sample of individuals in townships around Durban, South Africa. In contrast to previous studies, we find that age is not significantly related to the SDR, but both physical health and survival expectations have a U-shaped relationship with the SDR. Individuals in very poor health have high discount rates, and those in very good health also have high discount rates. Similarly, those with expected survival probability on the extremes have high discount rates. Therefore, health and survival probability, and not age, seem to be predictors of one's SDR in an area of the world with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:20376300

  14. Survival of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae outside the pig.

    PubMed

    Assavacheep, P; Rycroft, A N

    2013-02-01

    Transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is primarily thought to be via direct transfer of mucus from pig to pig. For transfer between farms, the organism may need to persist in the wet or dried state to be carried on an inanimate surface. The survival of A. pleuropneumoniae was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. In aqueous suspension, survival was improved by the presence of NaCl and mucin; it was prolonged at lower temperature. In dry state, it survived best on a hydrophobic surface either under desiccated conditions or saturated humidity. Detectable viability was maintained for 3-4 days. When frozen, A. pleuropneumoniae survived for more than 17 weeks at -20 °C, but the viability declined to 0.01% during that time. Survival at -70 °C was effective for long term storage. Results obtained from this investigation would be applicable for sampling method, transport techniques, epidemiological study, and biosecurity implementation. PMID:22892250

  15. Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kuah, Solomon; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Coffee, Megan; Knust, Barbara; Klena, John; Foday, Joyce; Hertz, Darren; Hermans, Veerle; Achar, Jay; Caleo, Grazia M.; Van Herp, Michel; Albariño, César G.; Amman, Brian; Basile, Alison Jane; Bearden, Scott; Belser, Jessica A.; Bergeron, Eric; Blau, Dianna; Brault, Aaron C.; Campbell, Shelley; Flint, Mike; Gibbons, Aridth; Goodman, Christin; McMullan, Laura; Paddock, Christopher; Russell, Brandy; Salzer, Johanna S.; Sanchez, Angela; Sealy, Tara; Wang, David; Saffa, Gbessay; Turay, Alhajie; Nichol, Stuart T.; Towner, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether 2 readily available indicators predicted survival among patients with Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone, we evaluated information for 216 of the 227 patients in Bo District during a 4-month period. The indicators were time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold (Ct), a surrogate for viral load, in first Ebola virus–positive blood sample tested. Of these patients, 151 were alive when detected and had reported healthcare facility admission dates and Ct values available. Time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission was not associated with survival, but viral load in the first Ebola virus–positive blood sample was inversely associated with survival: 52 (87%) of 60 patients with a Ct of >24 survived and 20 (22%) of 91 with a Ct of <24 survived. Ct values may be useful for clinicians making treatment decisions or managing patient or family expectations. PMID:26812579

  16. Prognostic Indicators for Ebola Patient Survival.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Samuel J; Maenner, Matthew J; Kuah, Solomon; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Coffee, Megan; Knust, Barbara; Klena, John; Foday, Joyce; Hertz, Darren; Hermans, Veerle; Achar, Jay; Caleo, Grazia M; Van Herp, Michel; Albariño, César G; Amman, Brian; Basile, Alison Jane; Bearden, Scott; Belser, Jessica A; Bergeron, Eric; Blau, Dianna; Brault, Aaron C; Campbell, Shelley; Flint, Mike; Gibbons, Aridth; Goodman, Christin; McMullan, Laura; Paddock, Christopher; Russell, Brandy; Salzer, Johanna S; Sanchez, Angela; Sealy, Tara; Wang, David; Saffa, Gbessay; Turay, Alhajie; Nichol, Stuart T; Towner, Jonathan S

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether 2 readily available indicators predicted survival among patients with Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone, we evaluated information for 216 of the 227 patients in Bo District during a 4-month period. The indicators were time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold (Ct), a surrogate for viral load, in first Ebola virus-positive blood sample tested. Of these patients, 151 were alive when detected and had reported healthcare facility admission dates and Ct values available. Time from symptom onset to healthcare facility admission was not associated with survival, but viral load in the first Ebola virus-positive blood sample was inversely associated with survival: 52 (87%) of 60 patients with a Ct of >24 survived and 20 (22%) of 91 with a Ct of <24 survived. Ct values may be useful for clinicians making treatment decisions or managing patient or family expectations. PMID:26812579

  17. Survival in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia in Germany and the United States: Major differences in survival in young adults.

    PubMed

    Pulte, Dianne; Jansen, Lina; Castro, Felipe A; Krilaviciute, Agne; Katalinic, Alexander; Barnes, Benjamin; Ressing, Meike; Holleczek, Bernd; Luttmann, Sabine; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-15

    Previous epidemiologic studies on AML have been limited by the rarity of the disease. Here, we present population level data on survival of patients with AML in Germany and the United States (US). Data were extracted from 11 population-based cancer registries in Germany and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER13) database in the US. Patients diagnosed with AML in 1997-2011 were included. Period analysis was used to estimate 5-year relative survival (RS) and trends in survival in the early 21st century. Overall 5-year age-adjusted RS for patients with AML in 2007-2011 was greater in Germany than in the US at 22.8% and 18.8%, respectively. Five-year RS was higher in Germany than in the US at all ages, with particularly large differences at ages 15-24 for whom 5-year RS was 64.3% in Germany and 55.0% in the US and 35-44, with 5-year RS estimates of 61.8% in Germany and 46.6% in the US. Most of the difference in 5-year RS was due to higher 1-year RS, with overall 1-year RS estimates of 47.0% in Germany and 38.5% in the US. A small increase in RS was observed between 2003-2005 and 2009-2011 in both countries, but no increase in survival was observed in either country for ages 75+. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of AML survival in Germany. Comparison to the US suggests that further analysis into risk factors for poor outcomes in AML in the US may be useful in improving survival. PMID:27176899

  18. Racial disparities in survival among injured drivers.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Amy E; Clark, David E; Travis, Lori L

    2013-03-01

    Prior studies on racial and ethnic disparities in survival after motor vehicle crashes have examined only population-based death rates or have been restricted to hospitalized patients. In the current study, we examined 3 components of crash survival by race/ethnicity: survival overall, survival to reach a hospital, and survival among those hospitalized. Nine years of data (from 2000 through 2008) from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used to examine white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, and Hispanic drivers aged ≥ 15 years with serious injuries (injury severity scores of ≥ 9). By using multivariable logistic regression, we found that a driver's race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with overall survival after being injured in a crash (for blacks, odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36, 1.32; for Hispanics, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.72), and blacks and Hispanics were equally likely to survive to be treated at a hospital compared with whites (for blacks, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.93; for Hispanics, OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.79). However, among patients who were treated at a hospital, blacks were 50% less likely to survive 30 days compared with whites (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.76). The disparity in survival after serious traffic injuries among blacks appears to occur after hospitalization, not in prehospital survival. PMID:23371352

  19. Hepatic Angiosarcoma May Have Fair Survival Nowadays

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Neng-Chyan; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Chiang, Jui-Chin; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Huay-Min; Hung, Yao-Min; Chang, Yun-Te; Wann, Shue-Ren; Chang, Hong-Tai; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Guo, How-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS) is rare but often fatal. A review of literature in 1979 found that only 3% of the 70 patients lived for more than 2 years, but the survival might have been improved over the years. We conducted a retrospective study and reviewed the medical records of patients who visited a teaching hospital in Taiwan from January 2000 to August 2010 and had pathological proof of HAS. In addition, we conducted a review of literature and compared those who survived for 2 years or more to those who did not. Of the 3503 patients with primary liver cancer we identified, 9 had HAS, of whom 3 (33.3%) survived for 2 years or more. One survived for 24 months without surgical resection, and the other two received surgery with postoperative chemotherapy and were still alive 32 and 37 months later, respectively. Through reviewing literature, we identified 3 more patients in Taiwan who had survived for 2 years or more. One survived for 42 months without surgical resection, the other two received segmentectomy with postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. We also identified 8 such cases outside Taiwan, including 1 who received chemotherapy without surgery and survived for 53 months. None of the differences in the clinical characteristics between those who had and had not survived for 2 years or more reached statistical significance. In conclusion, we believe the combination of surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy may be able to achieve long-term survival in some HAS patients nowadays, and it is even possible to achieve fair survival using chemotherapy alone. PMID:25984668

  20. Racial Disparities in Survival Among Injured Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Haskins, Amy E.; Clark, David E.; Travis, Lori L.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies on racial and ethnic disparities in survival after motor vehicle crashes have examined only population-based death rates or have been restricted to hospitalized patients. In the current study, we examined 3 components of crash survival by race/ethnicity: survival overall, survival to reach a hospital, and survival among those hospitalized. Nine years of data (from 2000 through 2008) from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used to examine white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, and Hispanic drivers aged ≥15 years with serious injuries (injury severity scores of ≥9). By using multivariable logistic regression, we found that a driver's race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with overall survival after being injured in a crash (for blacks, odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36, 1.32; for Hispanics, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.72), and blacks and Hispanics were equally likely to survive to be treated at a hospital compared with whites (for blacks, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.93; for Hispanics, OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.79). However, among patients who were treated at a hospital, blacks were 50% less likely to survive 30 days compared with whites (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.76). The disparity in survival after serious traffic injuries among blacks appears to occur after hospitalization, not in prehospital survival. PMID:23371352

  1. Reformed smokers have survival benefits after head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Liu, Zheqi; Gokavarapu, Sandhya; Chen, YiMing; Yang, Rong; Ji, Tong

    2016-09-01

    Smoking tobacco is the main risk factor for head and neck cancer, is proportional to the number of pack years (number of packs smoked/day x number of years of smoking), and is reduced when the patient stops smoking. Current molecular evidence has suggested that tobacco-related cancers could be clinically more aggressive than cancers in non-smokers, particularly in the head and neck. However, clinical studies have not uniformly reproduced the relation between survival and tobacco, possibly because they ignore the health benefit that reformed smokers obtain during the period between giving up smoking and the diagnosis of cancer, which is not shared by those who continue to smoke and develop cancer. We have investigated the survival of reformed smokers, non-smokers, and continuing smokers after a diagnosis of head and neck cancer. The data of patients with head and neck cancer from 1992 -2013 from the Cancer Genome Atlas database were analysed using a multivariate Cox's regression model for survival, and Kaplan-Meier curves were produced for smoking history. A total of 521 patients were treated for head and neck cancer, and there was a significant difference in survival between reformed and non-smokers on the one hand, and current smokers on the other (p=0.02). The significance increased when reformed smokers were grouped according to their duration of abstinence and time of diagnosis of cancer (>15 and ≤15 years, p<0.01). Smoking history was a significant prognostic factor in the multivariate Cox's regression model when analysed with age, stage, grade, and site. We conclude that reformed smokers have a survival benefit in head and neck cancer. PMID:27364312

  2. The role of maternal behavior and offspring development in the survival of mountain goat kids.

    PubMed

    Théoret-Gosselin, Rachel; Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D

    2015-05-01

    Studies on juvenile survival have mainly focused on the effects of environmental conditions and maternal traits. However, growing evidence indicates that the ability of parents to care for their young and the offspring developmental behaviors could be key determinants of their survival. We examined the relative influence of (1) environmental conditions, (2) offspring traits, (3) maternal traits, (4) maternal care behaviors, and (5) offspring developmental behaviors on kid survival to weaning and to 1 year old in mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). Offspring development and maternal care directly affected offspring survival, and this more importantly than did environmental conditions and maternal traits. Frequency of play strongly increased survival before weaning. Greater maternal care increased offspring survival during winter, directly and indirectly through kid mass. Kid mass was also a major determinant of both summer and winter survival. Environmental conditions mainly influenced summer survival while maternal characteristics indirectly affected winter survival through an effect on kid mass. Behavioral adaptations of maternal care and offspring development to local selective pressures can lead to local adaptations and have greater implications in population dynamic studies than previously believed. PMID:25556294

  3. Leptomeningeal metastasis: survival and prognostic factors in 155 patients.

    PubMed

    Herrlinger, Ulrich; Förschler, Heike; Küker, Wilhelm; Meyermann, Richard; Bamberg, Michael; Dichgans, Johannes; Weller, Michael

    2004-08-30

    In this single-center retrospective study, 155 consecutive patients with leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) were analyzed for the prognostic role of patient- and therapy-related variables. Ten percent of the patients received radiotherapy alone, 32% had chemotherapy alone, 31% received radiochemotherapy, 17% had supportive therapy only, and 10% were not evaluable for therapy. Chemotherapy was systemic (17%), combined systemic and intrathecal (10%), or intrathecal only (35%). Clinical improvement was noted in 41% of the patients. Overall median survival time (MST) was 4.8 months. Survival varied considerably depending on the type of primary tumor in this largest published cohort of LM patients. Univariate Cox regression analysis revealed that age >60 and elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) albumin or lactate levels were therapy-independent predictors of poor survival in the entire cohort as well as in the subgroup of patients with systemic primary tumors (n=105). The assessment of three therapy-independent parameters allows to group LM patients into groups of low, intermediate, and high risk of poor survival. Moreover, the application of systemic chemotherapy was a positive prognostic factor in patients with subarachnoid lesions detected by neuroimaging (RR 1.94, p=0.001) or with extra-CNS tumor deposits (RR 1.52, p=0.05). The results of this study suggest that systemic chemotherapy alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities may improve outcome in patients with subarachnoid tumor cell deposits detectable by neuroimaging. PMID:15337619

  4. Survival of methanogens during desiccation: implications for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Michael G; Kral, Timothy A

    2006-08-01

    The relatively recent discoveries that liquid water likely existed on the surface of past Mars and that methane currently exists in the martian atmosphere have fueled the possibility of extant or extinct life on Mars. One possible explanation for the existence of the methane would be the presence of methanogens in the subsurface. Methanogens are microorganisms in the domain Archaea that can metabolize molecular hydrogen as an energy source and carbon dioxide as a carbon source and produce methane. One factor of importance is the arid nature of Mars, at least at the surface. If one is to assume that life exists below the surface, then based on the only example of life that we know, liquid water must be present. Realistically, however, that liquid water may be seasonal just as it is at some locations on our home planet. Here we report on research designed to determine how long certain species of methanogens can survive desiccation on a Mars soil simulant, JSC Mars-1. Methanogenic cells were grown on JSC Mars-1, transferred to a desiccator within a Coy anaerobic environmental chamber, and maintained there for varying time periods. Following removal from the desiccator and rehydration, gas chromatographic measurements of methane indicated survival for varying time periods. Methanosarcina barkeri survived desiccation for 10 days, while Methanobacterium formicicum and Methanothermobacter wolfeii were able to survive for 25 days. PMID:16916281

  5. Survival of Methanogens During Desiccation: Implications for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Michael G.; Kral, Timothy A.

    2006-08-01

    The relatively recent discoveries that liquid water likely existed on the surface of past Mars and that methane currently exists in the martian atmosphere have fueled the possibility of extant or extinct life on Mars. One possible explanation for the existence of the methane would be the presence of methanogens in the subsurface. Methanogens are microorganisms in the domain Archaea that can metabolize molecular hydrogen as an energy source and carbon dioxide as a carbon source and produce methane. One factor of importance is the arid nature of Mars, at least at the surface. If one is to assume that life exists below the surface, then based on the only example of life that we know, liquid water must be present. Realistically, however, that liquid water may be seasonal just as it is at some locations on our home planet. Here we report on research designed to determine how long certain species of methanogens can survive desiccation on a Mars soil simulant, JSC Mars-1. Methanogenic cells were grown on JSC Mars-1, transferred to a desiccator within a Coy anaerobic environmental chamber, and maintained there for varying time periods. Following removal from the desiccator and rehydration, gas chromatographic measurements of methane indicated survival for varying time periods. Methanosarcina barkeri survived desiccation for 10 days, while Methanobacterium formicicum and Methanothermobacter wolfeii were able to survive for 25 days.

  6. Using Survival Analysis to Evaluate Medical Equipment Battery Life.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, David

    2016-01-01

    As hospital medical device managers obtain more data, opportunities exist for using the data to improve medical device management, enhance patient safety, and evaluate costs of decisions. As a demonstration of the ability to use data analytics, this article applies survival analysis statistical techniques to assist in making decisions on medical equipment maintenance. The analysis was performed on a large amount of data related to failures of an infusion pump manufacturer's lithium battery and two aftermarket replacement lithium batteries from one hospital facility. The survival analysis resulted in statistical evidence showing that one of the third-party batteries had a lower survival curve than the infusion pump manufacturer's battery. This lower survival curve translates to a shorter expected life before replacement is needed. The data suggested that to limit unexpected failures, replacing batteries at a two-year interval, rather than the current industry recommendation of three years, may be warranted. For less than $5,400 in additional annual cost, the risk of unexpected battery failures can be reduced from an estimated 28% to an estimated 7%. PMID:27164203

  7. Survival of captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collazo, J.A.; White, T.H., Jr.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We report first-year survival rates of 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic. Our goal was to learn about factors affecting postrelease survival. Specifically, we tested if survival was related to movements and whether modifying prerelease protocols influenced survival rates. We also estimated survival in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges (22 September 1998). Twenty-four parrots, fitted with radio-transmitters, were released between 14 September and 12 December 1997. Twenty-five more were released between 29 June and 16 September 1998. First-year survival rates were 30% in 1997 and 29% in 1998. Survival probability was related to bird mobility. In contrast to birds released in 1997, none of the 25 parrots released in 1998 suffered early postrelease mortality (i.e., 3-5 days after release). Two adjustments to prerelease protocols (increased exercise and reduced blood sampling) made in 1998 may have contributed to differences in mobility and survival between years. The reduction of early postrelease mortality in 1998 was encouraging, as was the prospect for higher first-year survival (e.g., 30% to 65%). Only one death was attributed to the immediate impact of the hurricane. Loss of foraging resources was likely a major contributor to ensuing mortality. Birds increased their mobility, presumably in search of food. Survival rates dropped 23% in only eight weeks posthurricane. This study underscores the value of standardized prerelease protocols, and of estimating survival and testing for factors that might influence it. Inferences from such tests will provide the best basis to make adjustments to a release program.

  8. Oxysterols and mechanisms of survival signaling.

    PubMed

    Vurusaner, Beyza; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Gamba, Paola; Poli, Giuseppe; Basaga, Huveyda

    2016-06-01

    Oxysterols, a family of oxidation products of cholesterol, are increasingly drawing attention of scientists to their multifaceted biochemical properties, several of them of clear relevance to human pathophysiology. Taken up by cells through both vesicular and non-vesicular ways or often generated intracellularly, oxysterols contribute to modulate not only the inflammatory and immunological response but also cell viability, metabolism and function by modulating several signaling pathways. Moreover, they have been recognized as elective ligands for the most important nuclear receptors. The outcome of such a complex network of intracellular reactions promoted by these cholesterol oxidation products appears to be largely dependent not only on the type of cells, the dynamic conditions of the cellular and tissue environment but also on the concentration of the oxysterols. Here focus has been given to the cascade of molecular events exerted by relatively low concentrations of certain oxysterols that elicit survival and functional signals in the cells, with the aim to contribute to further expand the knowledge about the biological and physiological potential of the biochemical reactions triggered and modulated by oxysterols. PMID:27017897

  9. Survival without recovery after mass extinctions

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, David

    2002-01-01

    Because many survivors of mass extinctions do not participate in postrecovery diversifications, and therefore fall into a pattern that can be termed “Dead Clade Walking” (DCW), the effects of mass extinctions extend beyond the losses observed during the event itself. Analyses at two taxonomic levels provide a first-order test of the prevalence of DCWs by using simple and very conservative operational criteria. For four of the Big Five mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic, the marine genera that survived the extinction suffered ≈10–20% attrition in the immediately following geologic stage that was significantly greater than the losses sustained in preextinction stages. The stages immediately following the three Paleozoic mass extinctions also account for 17% of all order-level losses in marine invertebrates over that interval, which is, again, significantly greater than that seen for the other stratigraphic stages (no orders are lost immediately after the end-Triassic or end-Cretaceous mass extinctions). DCWs are not evenly distributed among four regional molluscan time-series following the end-Cretaceous extinction, demonstrating the importance of spatial patterns in recovery dynamics. Although biotic interactions have been invoked to explain the differential postextinction success of clades, such hypotheses must be tested against alternatives that include stochastic processes in low-diversity lineages—which is evidently not a general explanation for the ordinal DCW patterns, because postextinction fates are not related to the size of extinction bottlenecks in Paleozoic orders—and ongoing physical environmental changes. PMID:12060760

  10. Surviving Paradise: A Hawaiian Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    An Ohio University program that introduces botany students to field work sent a team to study Hawaiian species of violets and algae, endangered by invasive, imported plants. The situation of the native species relates to larger scientific and ecological issues because algae is the basis of the aquatic food chain, and violets adapt in unique ways…

  11. Bullying: A Concern for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been placed on the issue of bullying in schools, both in the United States and in foreign countries. Countries like Norway, Sweden, Japan, and Australia have been at the center of attention on issues related to bullying. It is generally believed that incidences of bullying are quite common among middle school students…

  12. Survival improvements in adolescents and young adults after myeloablative allogeneic transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wood, William A; Lee, Stephanie J; Brazauskas, Ruta; Wang, Zhiwei; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Ballen, Karen K; Buchbinder, David K; Dehn, Jason; Freytes, Cesar O; Lazarus, Hillard M; Lemaistre, Charles F; Mehta, Paulette; Szwajcer, David; Joffe, Steven; Majhail, Navneet S

    2014-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs, ages 15 to 40 years) with cancer have not experienced survival improvements to the same extent as younger and older patients. We compared changes in survival after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) among children (n = 981), AYAs (n = 1218), and older adults (n = 469) who underwent transplantation over 3 time periods: 1990 to 1995, 1996 to 2001, and 2002 to 2007. Five-year survival varied inversely with age group. Survival improved over time in AYAs and paralleled that seen in children; however, overall survival did not change over time for older adults. Survival improvements were primarily related to lower rates of early treatment-related mortality in the most recent era. For all cohorts, relapse rates did not change over time. A subset of 222 AYAs between the ages of 15 and 25 at 46 pediatric or 49 adult centers were also analyzed to describe differences by center type. In this subgroup, there were differences in transplantation practices among pediatric and adult centers, although HCT outcomes did not differ by center type. Survival for AYAs undergoing myeloablative allogeneic HCT for ALL improved at a similar rate as survival for children. PMID:24607554

  13. MARK-AGE standard operating procedures (SOPs): A successful effort.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Villanueva, María; Capri, Miriam; Breusing, Nicolle; Siepelmeyer, Anne; Sevini, Federica; Ghezzo, Alessandro; de Craen, Anton J M; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Schön, Christiane; Grune, Tilman; Franceschi, Claudio; Bürkle, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Within the MARK-AGE project, a population study (3337 subjects) was conducted to identify a set of biomarkers of ageing which, as a combination of parameters with appropriate weighting, would measure biological age better than any single marker. The MARK-AGE project involves 14 European countries and a total of 26 research centres. In such a study, standard operating procedures (SOPs) are an essential task, which are binding for all MARK-AGE Beneficiaries. The SOPs cover all aspects of subject's recruitment, collection, shipment and distribution of biological samples (blood and its components, buccal mucosa cells or BMC and urine) as well as the anthropometric measurements and questionnaires. PMID:25817206

  14. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... minors of such age or detrimental to their health or well-being. (c) All work in fire suppression is deemed hazardous for the employment of individuals under 18 years of age. All work in fire protection and... as clearing fire trails or roads, piling and burning slash, maintaining firefighting equipment,...

  15. 5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... minors of such age or detrimental to their health or well-being. (c) All work in fire suppression is deemed hazardous for the employment of individuals under 18 years of age. All work in fire protection and... as clearing fire trails or roads, piling and burning slash, maintaining firefighting equipment,...

  16. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  17. Skin self-examination and long-term melanoma survival.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Lisa E; Lu, Shou En; Bandera, Elisa V; Rhoads, George G; Fine, Judith; Paine, Susan; Barnhill, Raymond; Berwick, Marianne

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of skin self-examination (SSE) on melanoma mortality, we estimated the survival for individuals performing SSE compared with those who did not. Participants were from a previously carried out case-control study, who were newly diagnosed melanoma cases in 1987-1989. A 20-year survival analysis was carried out using death (event) and other causes of death (competing). Cumulative incidence functions were evaluated using Gray's test and proportional subdistribution hazards regression models were fitted to study the effect of SSE and other covariates on melanoma survival. Forty-five percent of patients died, with 48.4% melanoma deaths. Individuals who did not perform SSE experienced a continuous increase in the risk of melanoma death trending toward significance for nearly 20 years after diagnosis, whereas melanoma deaths in skin self-examiners plateaued before 10 years after diagnosis (P=0.32). Univariate analyses suggested a 25% lower risk of melanoma death for those who performed SSE [hazard ratio (HR)=0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.43-1.32, P=0.32]. After adjusting for competing risks, the multivariate risk estimate was above one (HR=1.12, 95% CI=0.61-2.06, P=0.71). Skin awareness (HR=0.46, 95% CI=0.28-0.75, P≤0.01) was associated independently with a decreased risk of melanoma death. Although we did not find a significant association between melanoma mortality and SSE when adjusting for competing mortality and other covariates, we extended previous findings that increased skin awareness and tumor thickness are strongly inversely related to survival. Research is needed to continue developing best practices for melanoma screening and to further explore the components of SSE and long-term melanoma survival. PMID:26990272

  18. Increased survival of cirrhotic patients with septic shock

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The overall outcome of septic shock has been recently improved. We sought to determine whether this survival gain extends to the high-risk subgroup of patients with cirrhosis. Methods Cirrhotic patients with septic shock admitted to a medical intensive care unit (ICU) during two consecutive periods (1997-2004 and 2005-2010) were retrospectively studied. Results Forty-seven and 42 cirrhotic patients presented with septic shock in 1997-2004 and 2005-2010, respectively. The recent period differed from the previous one by implementation of adjuvant treatments of septic shock including albumin infusion as fluid volume therapy, low-dose glucocorticoids, and intensive insulin therapy. ICU and hospital survival markedly improved over time (40% in 2005-2010 vs. 17% in 1997-2004, P = 0.02 and 29% in 2005-2010 vs. 6% in 1997-2004, P = 0.009, respectively). Furthermore, this survival gain in the latter period was sustained for 6 months (survival rate 24% in 2005-2010 vs. 6% in 1997-2004, P = 0.06). After adjustment with age, the liver disease stage (Child-Pugh score), and the critical illness severity score (SOFA score), ICU admission between 2005 and 2010 remained an independent favorable prognostic factor (odds ratio (OR) 0.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.4, P = 0.004). The stage of the underlying liver disease was also independently associated with hospital mortality (Child-Pugh score: OR 1.42 per point, 95% CI 1.06-1.9, P = 0.018). Conclusions In the light of advances in management of both cirrhosis and septic shock, survival of such patients substantially increased over recent years. The stage of the underlying liver disease and the related therapeutic options should be included in the decision-making process for ICU admission. PMID:23601847

  19. Survival of asbestos insulation workers with mesothelioma.

    PubMed Central

    Ribak, J; Selikoff, I J

    1992-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a lethal disease. It is rare in the general population; however, workers exposed to asbestos suffer significant burdens of the neoplasm. The survival time of 457 consecutive fatal cases of pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma that occurred among 17,800 asbestos insulation workers observed prospectively from 1 January 1967 to 1 January 1987 was studied. Mean survival time from initial presentation of the disease to death was 11.4 months for the pleural mesothelioma patients compared with 7.4 months for the peritoneal group. This difference was statistically significant. Mean survival time from diagnosis to death was shorter for both groups of patients: 8.4 months for pleural mesothelioma v 5.8 months for the peritoneal cases. In conclusion, survival time in mesothelioma patients is short; most die within a year from the onset of the initial symptoms. No effective therapy is yet available. PMID:1419863

  20. Survivable authentication for health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bicakci, Kemal; Baykal, Nazife

    2003-01-01

    Possible solutions to establish a survivable authentication framework in a health information system including the one based on one-time passwords (OTPs) are discussed. A new convenient method to generate OTPs is proposed. PMID:14728296

  1. Surviving Sepsis: Taming a Deadly Immune Response

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Surviving Sepsis Taming a Deadly Immune Response Many people have never heard of sepsis, or ... tract infection) and then a powerful and harmful response by your body’s own immune system . “With sepsis, ...

  2. Improved Survival of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 50 years. What were the limitations of the study? It is not possible to know whether current estimates of survival will continue to be valid. In addition, the results reported are estimates for ...

  3. Abiraterone Improves Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A multinational phase III trial found that the drug abiraterone acetate prolonged the median survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer by 4 months compared with patients who received a placebo.

  4. SURVIVAL OF SALMONELLA SPECIES IN RIVER WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of four Salmonella strains in river water microcosms was monitored using culturing techniques, direct counts, whole cell hybridization, scanning electron microscopy, and resuscitation techniques via the direct viable count method and flow cytrometry. Plate counts of...

  5. SURVIVAL OF SALMONELLA SPECIES IN RIVER WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of four Salmonella strains in river water microcosms was monitored by culturing techniques, direct counts, whole-cell hybridization, scanning electron microscopy, and resuscitation techniques via the direct viable count method and flow cytometry. Plate counts of bact...

  6. Survivable Authentication for Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bicakci, Kemal; Baykal, Nazife

    2003-01-01

    Possible solutions to establish a survivable authentication framework in a health information system including the one based on one-time passwords (OTPs) are discussed. A new convenient method to generate OTPs is proposed. PMID:14728296

  7. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    .5. Over the range from 0.5 to 4.5 cm the shock KE is attenuated by a factor of {approx}70, while its momentum is changed little. The shock and particle velocity falls by a factor of 200 while the mass increases by a factor of 730. In the limit of very porous media u {approx} 1/M, so KE {approx} 1/M, which falls by a factor of {approx}600, while momentum Mu does not change at all. Figure 2 shows the KE, Mu, u, and M for a material with a porosity of 1.05, for which the KE changes little. In the limit of media of very low porosity, u {approx} 1/{radical}M, so KE is constant while Mu {approx} {radical}M, which increases by a factor of 15. Thus, if the goal is to reduce the peak pressure from strong explosions below, very porous materials, which strongly reduce pressure but do not increase momentum, are preferred to non-porous materials, which amplify momentum but do not decrease pressure. These predictions are in qualitative accord with the results of experiments at Los Alamos in which projectiles from high velocity, large caliber cannons were stopped by one to two sandbags. The studies were performed primarily to determine the effectiveness of sand in stopping fragments of various sizes, but could be extended to study sand's effectiveness in attenuating blast pressure. It would also be useful to test the above predictions on the effectiveness of media with higher porosity. Water barriers have been discussed but not deployed in previous retrofit survivability studies for overseas embassies. They would detect the flash from the mine detonation below, trigger a thin layer of explosive above a layer of water, and drive water droplets into the approaching blast wave. The blast loses energy in evaporating the droplets and loses momentum in slowing them. Under favorable conditions that could attenuate the pressure in the blast enough to prevent the penetration or disruption of the vehicle. However, such barriers would depend on prompt and reliable detonation detection and water

  8. Xenograft survival in two species combinations using total-lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    SciTech Connect

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1987-02-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has profound immunosuppressive actions and has been applied successfully to allotransplantation but not xenotransplantation. Cyclosporine (CsA) has not generally permitted successful xenotransplantation of organs but has not been used in combination with TLI. TLI and CsA were given alone and in combination to rats that were recipients of hamster or rabbit cardiac xenografts. Combined TLI and CsA prolonged survival of hamster-to-rat cardiac xenografts from three days in untreated controls to greater than 100 days in most recipients. TLI alone significantly prolonged rabbit to rat xenograft survival with doubling of survival time. However, combined treatment did not significantly prolong rabbit-to-rat cardiac xenograft survival compared with TLI alone. The hamster and rat are phylogenetically closely related. Transplants from hamsters to rat are concordant xenografts since the time course of unmodified rejection is similar to first-set rejection of allografts. Although the rabbit-to-rat transplant is also between concordant species (average survival of untreated controls: 3.2 days) the rabbit and rat are more distantly related. These results suggest that TLI is an effective immunosuppressant when applied to cardiac xenotransplants in these animal models; that the choice of species critically affects xenograft survival when TLI and/or CsA are used for immunosuppression; and that the closely related species combination tested has markedly prolonged (greater than 100 days) survival using combined TLI and CsA.

  9. One Rx for solo survival.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, L F

    1993-08-01

    The Clinton administration's prescription for the "health care crisis" that was a hot campaign topic will be forthcoming. Mrs. Clinton is not backing away from the 100-day deadline set by the President. Hillary has already begun to focus on some of her big hits, if one can believe the media reports about her comments related to drug companies. The months ahead will be crucial for solo and independent physicians and should be used by them to prepare for a change in how they practice medicine. The following article suggests one area to which they may choose to direct their energies. PMID:8262774

  10. Innovative estimation of survival using log-normal survival modelling on ACCENT database

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, J W; O'Callaghan, C J; Hu, N; Ding, K; Yothers, G A; Catalano, P J; Shi, Q; Gray, R G; O'Connell, M J; Sargent, D J

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ACCENT database, with individual patient data for 20 898 patients from 18 colon cancer clinical trials, was used to support Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of 3-year disease-free survival as a surrogate for 5-year overall survival. We hypothesised substantive differences in survival estimation with log-normal modelling rather than standard Kaplan–Meier or Cox approaches. Methods: Time to relapse, disease-free survival, and overall survival were estimated using Kaplan–Meier, Cox, and log-normal approaches for male subjects aged 60–65 years, with stage III colon cancer, treated with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regimens (with 5FU), or with surgery alone (without 5FU). Results: Absolute differences between Cox and log-normal estimates with (without) 5FU varied by end point. The log-normal model had 5.8 (6.3)% higher estimated 3-year time to relapse than the Cox model; 4.8 (5.1)% higher 3-year disease-free survival; and 3.2 (2.2)% higher 5-year overall survival. Model checking indicated greater data support for the log-normal than the Cox model, with Cox and Kaplan–Meier estimates being more similar. All three model types indicate consistent evidence of treatment benefit on both 3-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival; patients allocated to 5FU had 5.0–6.7% higher 3-year disease-free survival and 5.3–6.8% higher 5-year overall survival. Conclusion: Substantive absolute differences between estimates of 3-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival with log-normal and Cox models were large enough to be clinically relevant, and warrant further consideration. PMID:23385733

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of Alaska wolf survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feingold, S. J.

    1996-02-01

    Alaskan wolves live in a harsh climate and are hunted intensively. Penna's biological aging code, using Monte Carlo methods, has been adapted to simulate wolf survival. It was run on the case in which hunting causes the disruption of wolves' social structure. Social disruption was shown to increase the number of deaths occurring at a given level of hunting. For high levels of social disruption, the population did not survive.

  12. The Relationship of Immune Cell Signatures to Patient Survival Varies within and between Tumor Types

    PubMed Central

    Linsley, Peter S.; Chaussabel, Damien; Speake, Cate

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing pre-existing anti-tumor immunity leads to therapeutic benefit for some patients, but why some tumors are more immunogenic than others remains unresolved. We took a unique systems approach to relate patient survival to immune gene expression in >3,500 tumor RNAseq profiles from a dozen tumor types. We found significant links between immune gene expression and patient survival in 8/12 tumor types, with tumors partitioned by gene expression comprising distinct molecular subtypes. T/NK cell genes were most clearly survival-related for melanoma, head and neck, and bladder tumors, whereas myeloid cell genes were most clearly survival-related with kidney and breast tumors. T/NK or myeloid cell gene expression was linked to poor prognosis in bladder and kidney tumors, respectively, suggesting tumor-specific immunosuppressive checkpoints. Our results suggest new biomarkers for existing cancer immunotherapies and identify targets for new immunotherapies. PMID:26398410

  13. Clinical review: Beyond immediate survival from resuscitation – long-term outcome considerations after cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, Dilshan; Brett, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    A substantial body of literature concerning resuscitation from cardiac arrest now exists. However, not surprisingly, the greater part concerns the cardiac arrest event itself and optimising survival and outcome at relatively proximal time points. The aim of this review is to present the evidence base for interventions and therapeutic strategies that might be offered to patients surviving the immediate aftermath of a cardiac arrest, excluding components of resuscitation itself that may lead to benefits in long-term survival. In addition, this paper reviews the data on long-term impact, physical and neuropsychological, on patients and their families, revealing a burden that is often underestimated and underappreciated. As greater numbers of patients survive cardiac arrest, outcome measures more sophisticated than simple survival are required. PMID:18177512

  14. A method for estimating fall adult sex ratios from production and survival data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wight, H.M.; Heath, R.G.; Geis, A.D.

    1965-01-01

    This paper presents a method of utilizing data relating to the production and survival of a bird population to estimate a basic fall adult sex ratio. This basic adult sex ratio is an average value derived from average production and survival rates. It is an estimate of the average sex ratio about which the fall adult ratios will fluctuate according to annual variations in production and survival. The basic fall adult sex ratio has been calculated as an asymptotic value which is the limit of an infinite series wherein average population characteristics are used as constants. Graphs are provided that allow the determination of basic sex ratios from production and survival data of a population. Where the respective asymptote has been determined, it may be possible to estimate various production and survival rates by use of variations of the formula for estimating the asymptote.

  15. A systematic review of psychosocial factors affecting survival after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hoodin, Flora; Weber, Shauncie

    2003-01-01

    An electronic database search identified 15 studies of psychosocial factors affecting survival after bone marrow transplantation. The studies were assessed for methodological quality by two reviewers using the procedures of Bland and colleagues. Although some studies found that psychological variables affect survival after bone marrow transplantation, the reviewers' analysis of the methodologically sound studies suggested that survival after bone marrow transplantation is not substantively affected by depressed mood or other psychopathology in adults or by social support in adults or children. Longer survival may be related to lower "anxious preoccupation," higher "fighting spirit," and better quality of life ratings before and soon after transplant in adults. Overall, however, the literature is insufficiently developed to provide definitive evidence for a relationship between psychological variables and survival after bone marrow transplantation. Future primary studies in this area should be designed to maximize replicability and generalizability. PMID:12724499

  16. Local-scale drivers of tree survival in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xugao; Comita, Liza S; Hao, Zhanqing; Davies, Stuart J; Ye, Ji; Lin, Fei; Yuan, Zuoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Tree survival plays a central role in forest ecosystems. Although many factors such as tree size, abiotic and biotic neighborhoods have been proposed as being important in explaining patterns of tree survival, their contributions are still subject to debate. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the relative importance of tree size, local abiotic conditions and the density and identity of neighbors on tree survival in an old-growth temperate forest in northeastern China at three levels (community, guild and species). Tree size and both abiotic and biotic neighborhood variables influenced tree survival under current forest conditions, but their relative importance varied dramatically within and among the community, guild and species levels. Of the variables tested, tree size was typically the most important predictor of tree survival, followed by biotic and then abiotic variables. The effect of tree size on survival varied from strongly positive for small trees (1-20 cm dbh) and medium trees (20-40 cm dbh), to slightly negative for large trees (>40 cm dbh). Among the biotic factors, we found strong evidence for negative density and frequency dependence in this temperate forest, as indicated by negative effects of both total basal area of neighbors and the frequency of conspecific neighbors. Among the abiotic factors tested, soil nutrients tended to be more important in affecting tree survival than topographic variables. Abiotic factors generally influenced survival for species with relatively high abundance, for individuals in smaller size classes and for shade-tolerant species. Our study demonstrates that the relative importance of variables driving patterns of tree survival differs greatly among size classes, species guilds and abundance classes in temperate forest, which can further understanding of forest dynamics and offer important insights into forest management. PMID:22347996

  17. Survival analyses of radiated animals incorporating competing risks and covariates

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Albanese, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The United States Air Force has been interested in studying the effect of different types of radiation encountered by its personnel in space. A study was, therefore, conducted at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force, Texas with rhesus monkeys as experimental subjects. These subjects were exposed to different types of radiation such as: (1) electromagnetic radiation; (2) electrons; (3) protons; and (4) nuclei of elements of higher numbers with different amount of radiation. These subjects were followed over a period of 338 months. In this paper an interesting problem related to health and radiation has been addressed. The effects of radiation, taking into account the cause of death (cancer or heart disease) along with the covariates such as sex, age, type of exposure, dose, are examined. A general log-linear hazard model approach is studied. The model estimates the cause specific hazard rates, assuming piecewise exponential distribution, and exhibits the survival function for each of the covariate groups and the probability of death due to each cause. A data set called `Delayed Bio-Effects Colony,` of radiated animals, is analysed and some conclusions are drawn. Overall the study has brought out the effect of high and low dose of radiation on both the male and female groups. The procedure presented in the paper distinguishes between time varying hazards. Thus the methodology may be useful for other survival related environmental problems, be this with regard to animal or human survival. Thus, the paper could contribute to its more widespread use.

  18. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (<30% relative humidity [RH]) and high (>90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process. PMID:25836389

  19. Natal location influences movement and survival of a spatially structured population of snail kites.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julien; Kitchens, Wiley M; Hines, James E

    2007-08-01

    Despite the accepted importance of the need to better understand how natal location affects movement decisions and survival of animals, robust estimates of movement and survival in relation to the natal location are lacking. Our study focuses on movement and survival related to the natal location of snail kites in Florida and shows that kites, in addition to exhibiting a high level of site tenacity to breeding regions, also exhibit particular attraction to their natal region. More specifically, we found that estimates of movement from post-dispersal regions were greater toward natal regions than toward non-natal regions (differences were significant for three of four regions). We also found that estimates of natal philopatry were greater than estimates of philopatry to non-natal regions (differences were statistically significant for two of four regions). A previous study indicated an effect of natal region on juvenile survival; in this study, we show an effect of natal region on adult survival. Estimates of adult survival varied among kites that were hatched in different regions. Adults experienced mortality rates characteristic of the region occupied at the time when survival was measured, but because there is a greater probability that kites will return to their natal region than to any other regions, their survival was ultimately influenced by their natal region. In most years, kites hatched in southern regions had greater survival probabilities than did kites hatched in northern regions. However, during a multiregional drought, one of the northern regions served as a refuge from drought, and during this perturbation, survival was greater for birds hatched in the north. Our study shows that natal location may be important in influencing the ecological dynamics of kites but also highlights the importance of considering temporal variation in habitat conditions of spatially structured systems when attempting to evaluate the conservation value of habitats. PMID

  20. Natal location influences movement and survival of a spatially structured population of snail kites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, J.; Kitchens, W.M.; Hines, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the accepted importance of the need to better understand how natal location affects movement decisions and survival of animals, robust estimates of movement and survival in relation to the natal location are lacking. Our study focuses on movement and survival related to the natal location of snail kites in Florida and shows that kites, in addition to exhibiting a high level of site tenacity to breeding regions, also exhibit particular attraction to their natal region. More specifically, we found that estimates of movement from post-dispersal regions were greater toward natal regions than toward non-natal regions (differences were significant for three of four regions). We also found that estimates of natal philopatry were greater than estimates of philopatry to non-natal regions (differences were statistically significant for two of four regions). A previous study indicated an effect of natal region on juvenile survival; in this study, we show an effect of natal region on adult survival. Estimates of adult survival varied among kites that were hatched in different regions. Adults experienced mortality rates characteristic of the region occupied at the time when survival was measured, but because there is a greater probability that kites will return to their natal region than to any other regions, their survival was ultimately influenced by their natal region. In most years, kites hatched in southern regions had greater survival probabilities than did kites hatched in northern regions. However, during a multiregional drought, one of the northern regions served as a refuge from drought, and during this perturbation, survival was greater for birds hatched in the north. Our study shows that natal location may be important in influencing the ecological dynamics of kites but also highlights the importance of considering temporal variation in habitat conditions of spatially structured systems when attempting to evaluate the conservation value of habitats.