Science.gov

Sample records for aged 1-5 years

  1. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    PubMed

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Prevalence of vitamin supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  2. The effects of birthweight and breastfeeding on asthma among children aged 1-5 years.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Dailey, Amy B; Freeman, Natalie C; Curbow, Barbara A; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2009-11-01

    Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children and has steadily increased in prevalence. The combined effect of birthweight and breastfeeding on childhood asthma remains unclear. In this study, we analysed a nationally representative sample of children aged 1-5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Logistic regression was performed to examine the hypothesis whether birthweight and breastfeeding are independently associated with the prevalence of asthma after accounting for the complex sampling design. In addition, we sought to describe the relationship between birthweight and childhood asthma and to assess the potentially combined effect between birthweight and breastfeeding on asthma among children aged 1-5 years after considering the possible effects of social and environmental factors. We found that birthweight (measured continuously) was inversely and linearly associated with the prevalence of childhood asthma (odds ratio (OR) = 0.80 per 1 kg increase in birthweight, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.98). Using a categorical variable, low birthweight (LBW) was positively associated with childhood asthma (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.81-2.68). Furthermore, we detected an interaction between birthweight and breastfeeding on childhood asthma. Breastfeeding had a strong protective effect on asthma among children with high birthweight (OR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.04-0.43) while it had no significant effect on asthma among children with normal birthweight or LBW. The mechanisms underlying these relationships remain uncertain and warrant further explanation.

  3. Predictors of Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Concentrations among Children Aged 1-5 Years.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Jacobson, Melanie H; Preston, Emma V; Lee, Grace E; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Marder, M Elizabeth; Marcus, Michele; Barr, Dana B

    2017-01-03

    Serum concentrations of PBDEs were measured using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 80 children aged 15-71 months. Demographic and behavioral data were collected on parental questionnaires; a research nurse recorded anthropometric measures and insurance status. For a subset of children (n = 17), PBDEs were measured in house dust and child handwipes sampled during a home visit. In linear and Tobit regression, log-transformed PBDE congeners were modeled as a function of child characteristics, including neighborhood-level socioeconomic indicators. BDE congeners 47, 99, and 100 were highly correlated and summed for analysis; BDE-153 was examined individually. PBDE serum concentrations were associated with socioeconomic factors; for example, a $20,000 increase in median household income in a child's ZIP code was associated with a 34% decrease (95%CI = 14-49%) in BDE-153 and a 26% decrease (95%CI = 6-42%) in ∑BDE-47,-99,-100. Lower body-mass index (BMI) z-score and household smoking were strong predictors of higher BDE-153 levels. Among children who participated in a home visit, serum PBDE was positively correlated with handwipe PBDE (Spearman r ∑BDE-47, -99, -100 = 0.48, p = 0.09), but not dust PBDE. Results indicate socioeconomic factors and BMI are strong predictors of serum PBDE levels among young children. PBDEs measured on handwipes are more predictive of serum PBDE levels than vacuum-collected dust.

  4. Tooth brushing frequency and use of fluoride lozenges in children from 1.5 to 5 years of age. A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wigen, Tove I; Wang, Nina J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the analyses was to study development, stability and changes in oral health behaviour; tooth brushing frequency, use of fluoride lozenges and fluoridated tooth paste in children from 1.5 to 5 years of age, and to study associations between oral health behaviour and family characteristics. Methods This study was based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and data from the Public Dental Services. A total of 771 children were followed from 1.5 to 5 years of age. Questionnaires regarding oral health behaviour in children were completed by the parents three times during preschool age. Results More than half of the children (52%) had their teeth brushed twice daily at 1.5 years of age, increasing to 61% at 3 years and 76% at 5 years of age. At 1.5 years of age 37% of the children used fluoride lozenges daily, increasing to 74% at 3 years and 75% at 5 years of age. The majority of the children who had started brushing twice daily and used fluoride lozenges daily at 1.5 year of age continued these behaviours until the age of 5 years. At 1.5 years of age, children who brushed twice daily were more likely to use fluoride lozenges daily than children who brushed less frequently (p = 0.03). Multiple logistic regression showed that the probability of a child having its teeth brushed twice daily continuously during preschool age was higher when both parents were of western origin (OR 4.0, CI 1.3 – 11.9) than when one or both parents were of non-western origin. Children with one older sibling brushed more frequently (OR 1.4, CI 1.0 – 1.9) and used fluoride lozenges more often (OR 1.6, CI 1.1 – 2.2) during preschool age than children without older siblings. Conclusions Oral health behaviour established in early life was stable during preschool age. The results indicate that tooth brushing frequency and use of fluoride lozenges were not in accordance with the present

  5. Increase of body mass index (BMI) from 1.5 to 3 years of age augments the degree of insulin resistance corresponding to BMI at 12 years of age.

    PubMed

    Arisaka, Osamu; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ichikawa, Go; Koyama, Satomi

    2017-04-01

    To elucidate the effect of early growth patterns on the metabolic sensitivity to adiposity, we examined the relationship between the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and body mass index (BMI) levels at 12 years of age in 101 boys and 91 girls in a birth cohort. Children with an increase in BMI from the ages of 1.5 to 3 years exhibited a greater increase of HOMA-IR per BMI increase at 12 years of age compared to those with a decrease in BMI or stable BMI from 1.5 to 3 years. This suggests that children who show an increase in BMI from 1.5 to 3 years, a period normally characterized by a decreased or stable BMI, are more prone to developing insulin resistance at 12 years of age.

  6. Poverty and behavior problems trajectories from 1.5 to 8 years of age: Is the gap widening between poor and non-poor children?

    PubMed

    Mazza, Julia Rachel S E; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Michel, Gregory; Salla, Julie; Lambert, Jean; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Côté, Sylvana M

    2016-08-01

    Poverty has been associated with high levels of behavior problems across childhood, yet patterns of associations over time remain understudied. This study aims: (a) to examine whether poverty predicts changes in behavior problems between 1.5 and 8 years of age; (b) to estimate potential selection bias for the observed associations. We used the 1998-2006 waves of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (N = 2120). Main outcomes were maternal ratings of hyperactivity, opposition and physical aggression from 1.5 to 8 years of age. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the longitudinal association between poverty and behavior problems. Models were re-estimated adjusting for wave nonresponse and using multiple imputation to account for attrition. Poverty predicted higher levels of behavior problems between 1.5 and 8 years of age. Poverty predicted hyperactivity and opposition in a time dependent manner. Hyperactivity [Bpoverty*age = 0.052; CI 95 % (0.002; 0.101)] and opposition [Bpoverty*age = 0.049; CI 95 % (0.018; 0.079)] increased at a faster rate up to ageyears, and then decreased at a slower rate for poor than non-poor children. Physical aggression decreased at a steady rate over time for all children [Bpoverty*age = -0.030; p = 0.064). Estimates remained similar when accounting for attrition. Poverty predicted higher levels of behavior problems between 1.5 and 8 years of age. The difference between poor and non-poor children was stable over time for physical aggression, but increased with age for hyperactivity and opposition. Attrition among poor children did not compromise the validity of results.

  7. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb <10g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb <8g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb >10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels <100μg/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had >10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, p<0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r=0.69, p<0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  8. Growth and development of children aged 1-5 years in low-intensity armed conflict areas in Southern Thailand: a community-based survey.

    PubMed

    Jeharsae, Rohani; Sangthong, Rassamee; Wichaidit, Wit; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2013-04-04

    A low-intensity armed conflict has been occurring for nearly a decade in southernmost region of Thailand. However, its impact on child health has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of delayed child growth and development in the affected areas and to determine the association between the violence and health among children aged 1-5years. A total of 498 children aged 1-5years were recruited. Intensity of conflict for each sub-district was calculated as the 6-year average number of incidents per 100,000 population per year and classified into quartiles. Growth indices were weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height, while development was measured by the Denver Development Screening Test II (Thai version). Food insecurity, child-rearing practice, health service accessibility, household sanitation, and depression among the caregivers were assessed using screening scales and questionnaires. Contextual information such as average income and numbers of violent events in each sub-district was obtained from external sources. Growth retardation was highly prevalent in the area as reported by rates of underweight, stunting, and wasting at 19.3%, 27.6% and 7.4%, respectively. The prevalence of developmental delay was also substantially high (37.1%). Multi-level analysis found no evidence of association between insurgency and health outcomes. However, children in areas with higher intensity of violence had a lower risk of delay in personal-social development (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.2 - 0.9; p-value = 0.05). Unlike war refugees and internally-displaced persons in camp-like settings, the relationship between level of armed conflict and growth and developmental delay among children aged 1-5years could not be demonstrated in the community setting of this study where food supply had been minimally perturbed.

  9. Pooled safety analysis of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w) in the treatment of osteoarthritis in patients aged 75 years or older

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Sanford H; Fuller, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the safety of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w) in 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) for the treatment of knee or hand osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older. Methods A pooled analysis of safety data from seven multicenter, randomized, blinded, Phase III clinical trials (4–12 weeks’ duration) of TDiclo was conducted. The analysis focused on a subset of patients (n = 280) aged 75 years or older with a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee (six trials) or hand (one trial). Patients received one of three topical treatments: TDiclo (n = 138); placebo (2.33% or 4.55% dimethyl sulfoxide, n = 39); or control (45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide, n = 103). Treatment groups were compared using Chi-square analysis, Fisher’s Exact test, or analysis of variance. Results The most common adverse events involved the skin or subcutaneous tissue, primarily at the application site. The incidence of dry skin was higher in the TDiclo (36.2%; P < 0.0001) and dimethyl sulfoxide control (18.4%; P = 0.0142) groups than in the placebo group (2.6%); the incidence of other skin or subcutaneous tissue adverse events was similar between the groups. Relatively few patients (<18%) experienced gastrointestinal adverse events, and group differences were not detected. In the TDiclo group, constipation (3.6%), diarrhea (3.6%), and nausea (3.6%) were the most common gastrointestinal adverse events. Cardiovascular and renal/ urinary adverse events were rare, and group differences were not detected. There was one case (0.7%) each of hypertension, spider veins, and vasodilation in the TDiclo group. Changes from baseline to the final visit in blood pressure and hepatic/renal enzyme levels were also similar between the groups. Conclusion TDiclo appears to be well tolerated for the treatment of osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older. PMID:22791985

  10. Action Imitation at 1.5 Years Is Better than Pointing Gesture in Predicting Late Development of Language Production at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrana, Imac M.; Ystrom, Eivind; Schjolberg, Synnve; Pons, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether poor pointing gestures and imitative actions at 18 months of age uniquely predicted late language production at 36 months, beyond the role of poor language at 18 months of age. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were utilized. Maternal reports of the children's nonverbal skills and language were…

  11. Action Imitation at 1.5 Years Is Better than Pointing Gesture in Predicting Late Development of Language Production at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrana, Imac M.; Ystrom, Eivind; Schjolberg, Synnve; Pons, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether poor pointing gestures and imitative actions at 18 months of age uniquely predicted late language production at 36 months, beyond the role of poor language at 18 months of age. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were utilized. Maternal reports of the children's nonverbal skills and language were…

  12. Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children Aged 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…

  13. Evaluation of an intensive intervention programme to protect children aged 1-5 years from environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yücel, U; Ocek, Z A; Ciçeklioğlu, M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in Turkey, who smoked and/or whose spouses smoked. It was found that at least one parent of a total of 182 children smoked and 80 of these mothers were taken into stratified sampling based on the number of the smoking parents. Mothers were visited at their homes. During the initial visit, they were educated and urine samples were taken from their children. Following this initial visit, mothers were randomized to the intensive intervention (n = 38) or the minimal intervention group (n = 40). The levels of cotinine in the intensive intervention (P = 0.000) and minimal intervention (P = 0.000) groups in the final follow-up were significantly lower than the initial levels. The proportion of mothers reporting a complete smoking ban at home in the final follow-up was higher in the intensive intervention group than the minimal intervention group (P = 0.000). The education provided during the home visits and the reporting of the urinary cotinine levels of the children were effective in lowering the children's exposure to ETS at their home.

  14. Dietary diversity, animal source food consumption and linear growth among children aged 1-5 years in Bandung, Indonesia: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Muslimatun, Siti; Wiradnyani, Luh Ade Ari

    2016-07-01

    Dietary diversity involves adequate intake of macronutrient and micronutrient. The inclusion of animal source foods (ASF) in the diet helps prevent multiple nutrient deficiencies and any resultant, linear growth retardation. The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship between dietary diversity, ASF consumption and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) among children aged 12-59 months old across a 1-year observation. This longitudinal observational study without controls was conducted among four age groups: 12-23 months (n 57), 24-35 months (n 56), 36-47 months (n 58) and 48-59 months (n 56). Anthropometry and dietary intake were measured during each of four visits at 16-20-week intervals. The general characteristics and other observations were only collected at baseline and endline. During the year-long study period, approximately 27 % of the children ate a diverse diet (consumed ≥6 out of 9 food groups) according to ≥3 visits. ASF consumption was high, particularly for eggs, poultry, processed meats and liquid milk. Yet, micronutrient intake inadequacy, especially of Zn, Ca, Fe and vitamin A, was highly prevalent. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the consumption of a diverse diet and ASF was not significantly associated with the HAZ at endline, after controlling for demographic characteristics and the baseline HAZ. The consumption of a diverse diet was significantly associated with Ca intake adequacy. Moreover, ASF consumption was significantly associated with adequate intake of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, Ca and Zn. Thus, the recommendation is to continue and strengthen the promotion of consuming a diverse diet that includes ASF in supporting the linear growth of young children.

  15. Longitudinal study on influence of prolonged non-nutritive sucking habits on dental caries in Japanese children from 1.5 to 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Takuro; Yakushiji, Masashi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between infant sucking habits and the prevalence of caries in Japanese preschool children.The study was designed as a prospective, longitudinal study starting with 592 children aged 18 months. Information on sucking habits and patterns of feeding was collected from parents in the form of a questionnaire. Children who continued breastor bottle-feeding at 18 months of age were eliminated prior to the evaluations. The children were divided into 3 groups according to their sucking habits at 18 months of age: Group 1: children with a finger-sucking habit (n=151); Group 2: children who used a pacifier (n=45) and Group 3: children with no oral habit (n=205). Clinical examinations were carried out by one of the authors.Mean dft and prevalence of caries were not statistically significant among the 3 groups at 18 months of age. However, only 10.6% of the children in Group 1 exhibited caries at 36 months of age, compared with 17.1% in Group 3 and 24.4% in Group 2. Group 1 children showed the smallest mean dft at 0.30 among the 3 groups at 36 months of age, and those in Group 2 showed 1.18; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.01).The results suggest that children with a finger-sucking habit are more likely to be free of caries by the age of 3. However, use of pacifier at 18 months of age is a potential risk factor for the development of dental caries in children.

  16. Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > ... parts ("Where is your nose?") Movement and Physical Development runs walks up stairs with hand held throws ...

  17. Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > ...

  18. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1-5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada).

    PubMed

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (≥ 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ≥75th percentile (1.78 μg/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3 μg/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1-10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1 μg/ft(2) was also associated with BLL ≥1.78 μg/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3-7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children.

  19. Maternal self-efficacy and 1-5-year-old children's brushing habits.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Tracy L; Siefert, Kristine; Ismail, Amid I; Sohn, Woosung

    2007-08-01

    This study investigates the relationships between maternal cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial factors and brushing practices in low-income African-American preschool children. Data are from a population-based sample of 1021 African-American families with at least one child <6 years of age and living in the 39 low-income Census tracts in Detroit, Michigan. Analyses were limited to 1-5-year-old children and their mothers (n = 719). Mothers were surveyed about oral health-related self-efficacy (OHSE), knowledge about appropriate bottle use (KBU), knowledge about children's oral hygiene (KCOH), oral health fatalism (OHF), their own toothbrushing behavior, depressive symptoms (CES-D), parenting stress, practical social support, and their child's dental history. Children's 1-week reported brushing frequency was the main outcome measure. Analyses were conducted in SUDAAN to account for the complex sampling design. Children's 1-week brushing frequency (range 0-40) averaged 8.50 times per week among 1-3-year olds and 9.75 among the 4-5-year olds. Maternal OHSE was a strong and significant predictor of children's brushing frequency; for each unit increase in OHSE, 1-3-year olds were expected to brush 18% more frequently on average during 1 week [incidence density ratios (IDR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.28; P < 0.001], and 4-5-year olds were expected to brush 9% more often (IDR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.19; P < 0.10). Mothers' KCOH score was also significantly positively associated with brushing frequency; for each unit increase on the KCOH scale, 1-3-year olds were expected to brush 22% more frequently (IDR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.35; P < 0.001) and 4-5-year olds were expected to brush 13% more frequently (IDR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26; P < 0.05). If a mother brushed her own teeth at bedtime during the week, her 1-3-year old child's brushing frequency was expected to increase by one-third (IDR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-1.60; P < 0.01) and among the 4-5-year olds

  20. RCRA and operational monitoring 1994 fiscal year work plan, WBS 1.5.3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    RCRA & Operational Monitoring (ROM) Program Office manages the direct funded Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) and Operational Monitoring under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.5.3. The ROM Program Office is a Branch of liquid Waste Disposal, a part of Restoration and Remediation of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP) takes it direction from the Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP). The FYWP provides the near term, enhanced details for the Program Office to use as baseline Cost, Scope and Schedule. Changs Control administered during the fiscal year is against the baseline provided by the FYWP.

  1. Survival of rock-colonizing organisms after 1.5 years in outer space.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Silvano; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Ott, Sieglinde; Zucconi, Laura; Selbmann, Laura; Scalzi, Giuliano; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Rabbow, Elke; Sánchez Iñigo, Francisco J; Horneck, Gerda

    2012-05-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities and epilithic lichens have been considered as appropriate candidates for the scenario of lithopanspermia, which proposes a natural interplanetary exchange of organisms by means of rocks that have been impact ejected from their planet of origin. So far, the hardiness of these terrestrial organisms in the severe and hostile conditions of space has not been tested over extended periods of time. A first long-term (1.5 years) exposure experiment in space was performed with a variety of rock-colonizing eukaryotic organisms at the International Space Station on board the European EXPOSE-E facility. Organisms were selected that are especially adapted to cope with the environmental extremes of their natural habitats. It was found that some-but not all-of those most robust microbial communities from extremely hostile regions on Earth are also partially resistant to the even more hostile environment of outer space, including high vacuum, temperature fluctuation, the full spectrum of extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation, and cosmic ionizing radiation. Although the reported experimental period of 1.5 years in space is not comparable with the time spans of thousands or millions of years believed to be required for lithopanspermia, our data provide first evidence of the differential hardiness of cryptoendolithic communities in space.

  2. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  3. Earliest Porotic Hyperostosis on a 1.5-Million-Year-Old Hominin, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne; Diez-Martín, Fernando; Mabulla, Audax; Musiba, Charles; Trancho, Gonzalo; Baquedano, Enrique; Bunn, Henry T.; Barboni, Doris; Santonja, Manuel; Uribelarrea, David; Ashley, Gail M.; Martínez-Ávila, María del Sol; Barba, Rebeca; Gidna, Agness; Yravedra, José; Arriaza, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Meat-eating was an important factor affecting early hominin brain expansion, social organization and geographic movement. Stone tool butchery marks on ungulate fossils in several African archaeological assemblages demonstrate a significant level of carnivory by Pleistocene hominins, but the discovery at Olduvai Gorge of a child's pathological cranial fragments indicates that some hominins probably experienced scarcity of animal foods during various stages of their life histories. The child's parietal fragments, excavated from 1.5-million-year-old sediments, show porotic hyperostosis, a pathology associated with anemia. Nutritional deficiencies, including anemia, are most common at weaning, when children lose passive immunity received through their mothers' milk. Our results suggest, alternatively, that (1) the developmentally disruptive potential of weaning reached far beyond sedentary Holocene food-producing societies and into the early Pleistocene, or that (2) a hominin mother's meat-deficient diet negatively altered the nutritional content of her breast milk to the extent that her nursing child ultimately died from malnourishment. Either way, this discovery highlights that by at least 1.5 million years ago early human physiology was already adapted to a diet that included the regular consumption of meat. PMID:23056303

  4. Dust production 0.7-1.5 billion years after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michałowski, Michał J.

    2016-06-01

    Cosmic dust is an important component of the Universe, and its origin, especially at high redshifts, is still unknown. I present a simple but powerful method of assessing whether dust observed in a given galaxy could in principle have been formed by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars or supernovae (SNe). Using this method I show that for most of the galaxies with detected dust emission between z=4 and z=7.5 (1.5-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang) AGB stars are not numerous and efficient enough to be responsible for the measured dust masses. Supernovae could account for most of the dust, but only if all of them had efficiencies close to the maximal theoretically allowed value. This suggests that a different mechanism is responsible for dust production at high redshifts, and the most likely possibility is the grain growth in the interstellar medium.

  5. PHOTOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF THE FIRST 1.5 YEARS OF THE PAN-STARRS1 SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Schlafly, E. F.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Stubbs, C. W.; Juric, M.; Magnier, E. A.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Grav, T.; Martin, N. F.; Rix, H.-W.; Price, P. A.

    2012-09-10

    We present a precise photometric calibration of the first 1.5 years of science imaging from the Pan-STARRS1 survey (PS1), an ongoing optical survey of the entire sky north of declination -30 Degree-Sign in five bands. Building on the techniques employed by Padmanabhan et al. in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we use repeat PS1 observations of stars to perform the relative calibration of PS1 in each of its five bands, simultaneously solving for the system throughput, the atmospheric transparency, and the large-scale detector flat field. Both internal consistency tests and comparison against the SDSS indicate that we achieve relative precision of <10 mmag in g, r, and i{sub P1}, and {approx}10 mmag in z and y{sub P1}. The spatial structure of the differences with the SDSS indicates that errors in both the PS1 and SDSS photometric calibration contribute similarly to the differences. The analysis suggests that both the PS1 system and the Haleakala site will enable <1% photometry over much of the sky.

  6. Cosmetic outcome 1-5 years after breast conservative surgery, irradiation and systemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Gyöngyi; Varga, Zoltán; Lázár, György; Thurzó, László; Kahán, Zsuzsanna

    2012-04-01

    The late side-effects of the local therapy of early breast cancer depend on many patient- and therapy-related parameters. We aimed at investigating the factors that influence the cosmetic and functional outcomes among our breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery and conformal radiotherapy, with or without adjuvant systemic therapy. A study was made of the association of the cosmetic outcome after a median follow-up time of 2.4 years and the clinical data on 198 patients extracted from a prospectively compiled database. Breast tenderness occurred more frequently among patients ≤50 years old (p < 0.05). Long-term side effects were related to radiotherapy-related factors the most, while no effect of the systemic therapy could be detected. The risk of hyperpigmentation, breast edema and breast fibrosis increased by 18%, 23% and 7%, respectively for every 100 cm(3) increase in the irradiated breast volume, while that of breast edema and breast fibrosis increased by 21% and 12%, respectively for every 10 cm(3) increase in the boost volume. Patients who received a photon boost were significantly more likely to develop breast edema and fibrosis than those who received electrons (p < 0.005). Dose inhomogeneity was related to the volume of the irradiated breast (p = 0.037). Dyspigmentation developed more often among patients older than 50 years, while smoking favoured both dyspigmentation and teleangiectasia. Breast edema was related to dyspigmentation (p = 0.003), fibrosis (p < 0.001) and breast asymmetry (p = 0.032), whereas none of these abnormalities were associated with teleangiectasia. Body image changes were more frequent at a younger age (p < 0.005), while the need to change clothing habits occurred more often at an older age (p < 0.05). Radiotherapy-related parameters appear to exert the greatest effect on the overall cosmetic outcome after breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy.

  7. A Review of Level 2 Parent-Report Instruments Used to Screen Children Aged 1.5-5 for Autism: A Meta-Analytic Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Justin; Strand, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized meta-analytic procedures to estimate the diagnostic validity of instruments used to screen young children, ages 1.5-5 years, for autism. Five scales met inclusion criteria, and data from 18 studies contributed the meta-analysis. Results revealed that 4 of 5 scales met criteria for "good" validity, including two…

  8. Is there 1.5 million-year old ice near Dome C, Antarctica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrenin, Frédéric; Cavitte, Marie; Blankenship, Donald; Chappellaz, Jérôme; Fischer, Hubertus; Gagliardini, Olivier; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Passalacqua, Olivier; Ritz, Catherine; Roberts, Jason; Siegert, Martin; Young, Duncan

    2017-04-01

    Ice sheets provide exceptional archives of past changes in polar climate, regional environment and global atmospheric composition. The oldest deep ice drilled in Antarctica has been retrieved at EPICA Dome C (Antarctica), reaching 800,000 years. Retrieving an older paleoclimatic record from Antarctica is one of the biggest challenges of the ice core community. Here, we use a combination of internal isochrones identified with airborne radar and ice-flow modeling to estimate the age of basal ice along radar transects in the Dome C area. We find that old ice likely exist in two regions. The first one is a bedrock relief 40km South-West of Dome C along the ridge to Vostok. The second one is 10-20 km North-East of Dome C, in a region where the geothermal heat flux is smaller. Moreover, we invert three glaciological quantities: the surface accumulation rate, the geothermal heat flux and the exponent of the Lliboutry velocity profile. Our work also demonstrates the utility of combining radar observations with ice flow modelling to accurately represent the true nature of ice flow in the centre of large ice sheets.

  9. Pharmacogenomic analysis indicates potential of 1,5-isoquinolinediol as a universal anti-aging agent for different tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Gun-Joo; Kim, Sang Soo; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Sung Chul; Choi, Jin Woo

    2015-01-01

    The natural aging of multicellular organisms is marked by a progressive decline in the function of cells and tissues. The accumulation of senescent cells in tissues seems to eventually cause aging of the host. Nevertheless, gene expression that influences aging is unlikely to be conserved between tissues, and age-related loss of function seems to depend on a variety of mechanisms. This is a concern when developing anti-aging drugs in geriatric clinical pharmacology. We have sought a universal agent to redundantly cover gene expression despite the variation in differentially expressed genes between tissues. Using a minimally modified connectivity map, the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor 1,5-isoquinolinediol was selected as a potent candidate, simultaneously applicable to various tissues. This choice was validated in vitro. Treatment of murine embryonic fibroblasts with 1,5-isoquinolinediol appeared to efficiently suppress the rate of replicative senescence at a concentration of 0.1 μM without resulting in cell death. The appearance of abnormal nuclei and accumulation of β-galactosidase in the cytoplasm were inhibited by daily treatment with the agent. When the aging process was accelerated by hydroxyurea-induced oxidative stress, the effect was even more noticeable. Thus, 1,5-isoquinolinediol may potentially be developed as an agent to prolong life. PMID:25980498

  10. Pharmacogenomic analysis indicates potential of 1,5-isoquinolinediol as a universal anti-aging agent for different tissues.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Sung; Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Wan; Yang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Gun-Joo; Kim, Sang Soo; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Sung Chul; Choi, Jin Woo

    2015-07-10

    The natural aging of multicellular organisms is marked by a progressive decline in the function of cells and tissues. The accumulation of senescent cells in tissues seems to eventually cause aging of the host. Nevertheless, gene expression that influences aging is unlikely to be conserved between tissues, and age-related loss of function seems to depend on a variety of mechanisms. This is a concern when developing anti-aging drugs in geriatric clinical pharmacology. We have sought a universal agent to redundantly cover gene expression despite the variation in differentially expressed genes between tissues. Using a minimally modified connectivity map, the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor 1,5-isoquinolinediol was selected as a potent candidate, simultaneously applicable to various tissues. This choice was validated in vitro. Treatment of murine embryonic fibroblasts with 1,5-isoquinolinediol appeared to efficiently suppress the rate of replicative senescence at a concentration of 0.1 µM without resulting in cell death. The appearance of abnormal nuclei and accumulation of β-galactosidase in the cytoplasm were inhibited by daily treatment with the agent. When the aging process was accelerated by hydroxyurea-induced oxidative stress, the effect was even more noticeable. Thus, 1,5-isoquinolinediol may potentially be developed as an agent to prolong life.

  11. At Home with Stickybear: School Version with Lesson Plans (Ages 1-5). [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highsmith, Joni Bitman

    Aimed at children ages 1 to 5, this software product is designed to give preschoolers an essential skills head start with sight and sounds that will capture their interest. Different navigation methods in the program are designed for ease of use and also to meet the motor skills of very young children. The accompanying printed teaching guide…

  12. ESA's billion star surveyor - Flight operations experience from Gaia's first 1.5 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, D.; Rudolph, A.; Whitehead, G.; Loureiro, T.; Serpell, E.; di Marco, F.; Marie, J.; Ecale, E.

    2016-10-01

    This paper details the initial in-flight mission operations experience from ESA's ultra-precise Gaia spacecraft. Tasked with mapping the positions and movements of 1 billion stars to unprecedented precision (to the 10 s of micro-arc-second level, comparable to the width of a coin on the Moon as viewed from Earth). ESA's Science cornerstone mission is expected to also discover and chart 100,000's of new objects including near Earth Asteroids, exoplanets, brown dwarfs and Quasars. After a flawless launch 19 Dec 2013, Gaia was brought the circa 1.5 million kms into L2 via a sequence of technically demanding orbit transfer manoeuvres using onboard thrusters in thrust vectoring mode. Starting in parallel to this, and lasting 6 months, the full spacecraft was commissioned and brought gradually up to the highest operational mode. A number of problems were detected and tackled during commissioning and early routine phase operations. An apparent dimming of the on-board laser and imaged stars, was tracked down to water ice building up inside the telescope enclosure. Also apparent was more straylight than expected. Elsewhere, a micro-propulsion thruster developed unexpected performance levels and a back-up chemical thruster suffered a failed latch valve. These issues, like several others, were dealt with and solved in a series of review meetings, in-orbit special operations and newly developed procedures and on-board software changes. After commissioning Gaia was working so well that it was producing approximately 45% more science data than originally foreseen, primarily since it was able to see stars fainter than required. The mission operations concept was quickly adapted to partially automate ground operations and increase ground station time to allow the full scientific potential of Gaia to be realised.

  13. Generacion 1.5: A Cultural Historical Agenda for Research at the 2-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Spencer; Portes, Pedro R.; D'Amico, Mark M.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we employ a cultural historical theoretical framework to extend understandings of how widespread 2-year college placement policies concerning English remediation potentially locate and retain U.S.-educated Latino adolescents at the margins of higher education through well-intentioned yet deficit-driven postsecondary cultural…

  14. Generacion 1.5: A Cultural Historical Agenda for Research at the 2-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Spencer; Portes, Pedro R.; D'Amico, Mark M.; Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we employ a cultural historical theoretical framework to extend understandings of how widespread 2-year college placement policies concerning English remediation potentially locate and retain U.S.-educated Latino adolescents at the margins of higher education through well-intentioned yet deficit-driven postsecondary cultural…

  15. New 1.5 million-year-old Homo erectus maxilla from Sangiran (Central Java, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Zaim, Yahdi; Ciochon, Russell L; Polanski, Joshua M; Grine, Frederick E; Bettis, E Arthur; Rizal, Yan; Franciscus, Robert G; Larick, Roy R; Heizler, Matthew; Aswan; Eaves, K Lindsay; Marsh, Hannah E

    2011-10-01

    Sangiran (Solo Basin, Central Java, Indonesia) is the singular Homo erectus fossil locale for Early Pleistocene Southeast Asia. Sangiran is the source for more than 80 specimens in deposits with (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages of 1.51-0.9 Ma. In April 2001, we recovered a H. erectus left maxilla fragment (preserving P(3)- M(2)) from the Sangiran site of Bapang. The find spot lies at the base of the Bapang Formation type section in cemented gravelly sands traditionally called the Grenzbank Zone. Two meters above the find spot, pumice hornblende has produced an (40)Ar/(39)Ar age of 1.51 ± 0.08 Ma. With the addition of Bpg 2001.04, Sangiran now has five H. erectus maxillae. We compare the new maxilla with homologs representing Sangiran H. erectus, Zhoukoudian H. erectus, Western H. erectus (pooled African and Georgian specimens), and Homo habilis. Greatest contrast is with the Zhoukoudian maxillae, which appear to exhibit a derived pattern of premolar-molar relationships compared to Western and Sangiran H. erectus. The dental patterns suggest distinct demic origins for the earlier H. erectus populations represented at Sangiran and the later population represented at Zhoukoudian. These two east Asian populations, separated by 5000 km and nearly 800 k.yr., may have had separate origins from different African/west Eurasian populations.

  16. Generation 1.5 Writing Compared to L1 and L2 Writing in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scholars have suggested that "second-language writers" are made up of two distinct groups: Generation 1.5 (long-term U.S.-resident language learners) and more traditional L2 students (e.g., international or recently arrived immigrants). To investigate that claim, this study compares the first-year composition writing of…

  17. Generation 1.5 Writing Compared to L1 and L2 Writing in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scholars have suggested that "second-language writers" are made up of two distinct groups: Generation 1.5 (long-term U.S.-resident language learners) and more traditional L2 students (e.g., international or recently arrived immigrants). To investigate that claim, this study compares the first-year composition writing of…

  18. The Rustenburg Layered Suite (Bushveld Complex) crystallised in less than 1.5 million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeh, Armin; Ovtcharova, Maria; Wilson, Allan; Schaltegger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    The timing and crystallisation of the ca. 2.055 Ga old Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS) of the Bushveld Complex is the subject of ongoing debate. The RLS represents one of the Earth's oldest large igneous provinces, and contains the world's largest reserves of PGE, chromium and vanadium. Previous high-precision U-Pb zircon dating indicated periodic crystallisation over an interval of 5.2 ± 0.79 Ma, with zircon crystallisation events at 2060.5 Ma, below the UG2 chromitite, and at 2055.3 Ma from the Merensky Reef (MR) upwards in the succession (Scoates & Friedman, 2008; Scoates et. al., 2012). Such a prolonged and periodic crystallisation history, however, contradicts field observations and petrological data, which rather require a relatively fast and continuous crystallisation process, periodically interrupted by new magma replenishment (Eales & Cawthorn, 1996; Cawthorn & Walraven, 1998). Here, we present new data from high-precision U-Pb dating, Ti-in-zircon thermometry, and mineral inclusion studies that support this latter interpretation. Our data indicate that zircon crystallised from highly fractionated, silica-saturated intercumulus melts at temperatures between 890 and 700°C most likely continuously from the base of the RLS (Marginal Zone) to the top (Upper Zone), within 0.92 ± 0.57 Ma, between 2055.81 ± 0.20 and 2054.89 ± 0.37 Ma. References Eales, H. V. & Cawthorn, R. G. (1996). The Bushveld Complex, in Layered Intrusions (ed. Cawthorn, R. G.) 181-229 (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam). Cawthorn, R. G. & Walraven, F. (1998). Emplacement and crystallization time for the Bushveld Complex. J. Petrol. 39, 1669-1687. Scoates, J. S. & Friedman, R. M. (2008). Precise age of the platiniferous Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa, by the U-Pb zircon chemical abrasion ID-TIMS technique. Econ. Geol. 103, 465-471. Scoates, J. S., Wall, C. J., Friedman, R. M., VanTongeren, J. A. & Mathez, E. A (2012). Age of the Bushveld Complex. Abstr. Goldschmidt Conference

  19. Audiograms estimated from brainstem tone-evoked potentials in dogs from 10 days to 1.5 months of age.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, Luc C; Coppens, Angélique G; Deltenre, Paul F

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to build audiograms from thresholds of brainstem tone-evoked potentials in dogs and to evaluate age-related change of the audiogram in puppies. Results were obtained from 9 Beagle puppies 10-47 days of age. Vertex to mastoid brainstem auditory-evoked potentials in response to 5.1-millisecond Hanning-gated sine waves with frequencies octave-spaced from 0.5 to 32 kHz were recorded. Three dogs were examined at 10, 13, 19, 25, and 45 days. Four other dogs were examined at 16 days. Data from 7 dogs between 42 and 47 days of age were pooled to obtain audiogram reference values in 1.5-month-old puppies. The best auditory threshold lowered from above 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL) to values close to 0 dB SPL between 13 and 25 days of age and then stabilized. The audible frequency range widened, including 32 kHz in all tested dogs from the 19th day. In the 7 1.5-month-old puppies, the mean auditory threshold decreased by 11 dB per octave from 0.5 to 2 kHz. The auditory threshold was lowest and held the same value from 2 to 8 kHz. The mean auditory threshold increased by 20 dB per octave from 8 to 32 kHz. Near threshold, click-evoked potentials test only a small part of the audible frequency range in dogs. Use of tone-evoked potentials may become a powerful tool in investigating dogs with possible partial hearing loss, including during the auditory system maturation period.

  20. T1 correlates age: A short-TE MR relaxometry study in vivo on human cortical bone free water at 1.5T.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Atena; Abbasi-Rad, Shahrokh; Rad, Hamidreza Saligheh

    2016-02-01

    Large pores of human cortical bone (>30μm) are filled with fluids, essentially consisting of water, suggesting that cortical bone free water can be considered as a reliable surrogate measure of cortical bone porosity and hence quality. Signal from such pores can be reliably captured using Short Echo Time (STE) pulse sequence with echo-time in the range of 1-1.5msec (which should be judiciously selected correspond to T2(⁎) value of free water molecules). Furthermore, it is well-known that cortical bone T1-relaxivity is a function of its geometry, suggesting that cortical bone free water increases with age. In this work, we quantified cortical bone free water longitudinal relaxation time (T1) by a Dual-TR technique using STE pulse sequence. In the sequel, we investigated relationship between STE-derived cortical bone free water T1-values and age in a group of healthy volunteers (thirty subjects covering the age range of 20-70years) at 1.5T. Preliminary results showed that cortical bone free water T1 highly correlates with age (r(2)=0.73, p<0.0001), representing cortical bone free water T1 as a reliable indicator of cortical bone porosity and age-related deterioration. It can be concluded that STE-MRI can be utilized as proper alternative in quantifying cortical bone porosity parameters in-vivo, with the advantages of widespread clinical availability and being cost-effective.

  1. Fragment reattachment of fractured anterior teeth in a young patient with a 1.5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ninawe, Nupur; Doifode, Deoyani; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Prathibha Anand

    2013-04-22

    Crown fracture of maxillary anterior teeth is relatively common among children and teenagers. Aesthetic rehabilitation of crown fractures of the maxillary anterior is one of the greatest challenges to the dentist. Reattachment of a fractured fragment to the remaining tooth can provide better and long-lasting aesthetics, improved function, a positive psychological response and is a faster and less-complicated procedure. This article presents a case of reattachment of anterior tooth with a coronal fracture involving enamel, dentin and pulp with a 1.5-year follow-up.

  2. Atomic and electronic structure of a copper/graphene interface as prepared and 1.5 years after

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhvalov, D. W.; Bazylewski, P. F.; Kukharenko, A. I.; Zhidkov, I. S.; Ponosov, Yu. S.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Cholakh, S. O.; Lee, Y. H.; Chang, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    We report the results of X-ray spectroscopy and Raman measurements of as-prepared graphene on a high quality copper surface and the same materials after 1.5 years under different conditions (ambient and low humidity). The obtained results were compared with density functional theory calculations of the formation energies and electronic structures of various structural defects in graphene/Cu interfaces. For evaluation of the stability of the carbon cover, we propose a two-step model. The first step is oxidation of the graphene, and the second is perforation of graphene with the removal of carbon atoms as part of the carbon dioxide molecule. Results of the modeling and experimental measurements provide evidence that graphene grown on high-quality copper substrate becomes robust and stable in time (1.5 years). However, the stability of this interface depends on the quality of the graphene and the number of native defects in the graphene and substrate. The effect of the presence of a metallic substrate with defects on the stability and electronic structure of graphene is also discussed

  3. Direct adhesive pin-retained restorations for severely worn dentition treatment: a 1.5-year follow-up report.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Camila Lima; Gonçalves, Thais Marques Simek Vega; Santos, Ícaro Leite dos; Barros, Michel Silva; Araújo, Nubia Rafaela Ribeiro; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel

    2014-01-01

    Excessive occlusal surface wear can result in occlusal disharmony, functional and esthetic impairment. As a therapeutic approach, conventional single crowns have been proposed, but this kind of treatment is complex, highly invasive and expensive. This case report describes the clinical outcomes of an alternative minimally invasive treatment based on direct adhesive-pin retained restorations. A 64-year-old woman with severely worn dentition, eating problems related to missing teeth and generalized tooth hypersensitivity was referred for treatment. Proper treatment planning based on the diagnostic wax-up simulation was used to guide the reconstruction of maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin over self-threading dentin pins. As the mandibular remaining teeth were extremely worn, a tooth-supported overdenture was installed. A stabilization splint was also used to protect the restorations. This treatment was a less expensive alternative to full-mouth rehabilitation with positive esthetic and functional outcomes after 1.5 years of follow-up.

  4. Stable isotope analysis of a newly established macrofaunal food web 1.5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunah; Park, Hyun Je; Bergamino, Leandro; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Choy, Eun Jung; Yu, Ok Hwan; Lee, Tae Won; Park, Heung-Sik; Shim, Won Joon; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2015-01-15

    We examined trophic relationships in a newly established community 1.5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill on the west coast of Korea. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in consumers and their potential food sources were compared between the oil-spill site and reference site, located 13.5 km from the oil-spill spot. The isotopic mixing model and a novel circular statistics rejected the influx of petrogenic carbon into the community and identified spatial consistencies such as the high contributions of microphytobenthos, food-chain length, and the isotopic niche of each feeding guild between sites. We suggested that high level of trophic plasticity and the prevalence of omnivory of consumers may promote the robustness of food web against the oil contamination. Furthermore, we highlighted the need of holistic approaches including different functional groups to quantify changes in the food web structure and assess the influence of different perturbations including oil spill.

  5. Myocardial strain in healthy adults across a broad age range as revealed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 and 3.0T: Associations of myocardial strain with myocardial region, age, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Mangion, Kenneth; Clerfond, Guillaume; McComb, Christie; Carrick, David; Rauhalammi, Samuli M.; McClure, John; Corcoran, David S.; Woodward, Rosemary; Orchard, Vanessa; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Zhong, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess myocardial strain using cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) using 1.5T and 3.0T MRI in healthy adults. Materials and Methods Healthy adults without any history of cardiovascular disease underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5T and 3.0T within 2 days. The MRI protocol included balanced steady‐state free‐precession (b‐SSFP), 2D cine‐echo planar imaging (EPI)‐DENSE, and late gadolinium enhancement in subjects >45 years. Acquisitions were divided into six segments; global and segmental peak longitudinal and circumferential strain were derived and analyzed by field strength, age, and gender. Results In all, 89 volunteers (mean age 44.8 ± 18.0 years, range: 18–87 years) underwent MRI at 1.5T, and 88 of these subjects underwent MRI at 3.0T (1.4 ± 1.4 days between the scans). Compared with 3.0T, the magnitudes of global circumferential (–19.5 ± 2.6% vs. –18.47 ± 2.6%; P = 0.001) and longitudinal (–12.47 ± 3.2% vs. –10.53 ± 3.1%; P = 0.004) strain were greater at 1.5T. At 1.5T, longitudinal strain was greater in females than in males: –10.17 ± 3.4% vs. –13.67 ± 2.4%; P = 0.001. Similar observations occurred for circumferential strain at 1.5T (–18.72 ± 2.2% vs. –20.10 ± 2.7%; P = 0.014) and at 3.0T (–17.92 ± 1.8% vs. –19.1 ± 3.1%; P = 0.047). At 1.5T, longitudinal and circumferential strain were not associated with age after accounting for sex (longitudinal strain P = 0.178, circumferential strain P = 0.733). At 3.0T, longitudinal and circumferential strain were associated with age (P < 0.05). Longitudinal strain values were greater in the apico‐septal, basal‐lateral, and mid‐lateral segments and circumferential strain in the inferior, infero‐lateral, and antero‐lateral LV segments. Conclusion Myocardial strain parameters as revealed by cine‐DENSE at different MRI field strengths were associated with myocardial region, age, and sex. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1197

  6. Age calibrated relative paleointensity for the last 1.5 Myr at IODP Site U1308 (North Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, J. E. T.; Hodell, D. A.; Xuan, C.; Mazaud, A.; Stoner, J. S.

    2008-09-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1308 (central North Atlantic) records paleomagnetic directional and relative paleointensity (RPI) variations for the last 1.5 Myr, in 110 m of the sediment sequence at a mean sedimentation rate of 7.3 cm/kyr. A detailed benthic oxygen isotope record was combined with RPI to produce an integrated, high-resolution magneto-isotopic stratigraphy for Site U1308. Apart from the well-known polarity reversals in this interval, the Punaruu excursion is recorded at 1092 ka and the Cobb Mountain Subchron in the 1182-1208 ka interval. The paleointensity proxies are determined as slopes of NRM versus ARM and NRM versus ARMAQ (ARM acquisition) with linear correlation coefficients to monitor the quality of the linear fit. The RPI record for Site U1308 is compared with the three other paleointensity records (one from the Western Equatorial Pacific and two from the North Atlantic) that cover the same time interval and have accompanying oxygen isotope records. The Match protocol of Lisiecki and Lisiecki (2002) is used to optimize the correlation of paleointensity records. Beginning with the original (published) age models for each record, the Match routine is used to optimize the RPI correlations to Site U1308, with checks to ensure compatibility with oxygen isotope records. Squared wavelet coherence (WTC) indicates significant improvement in RPI (and oxygen isotope) correlations after matching each RPI record to Site U1308, particularly for periods > 10 kyr. The level of coherence for the Atlantic RPI records and the lower resolution Pacific record implies synchronous global variability (at scales > 10 kyr) that can be attributed to the axial dipole geomagnetic field.

  7. The Achilles tendon is mechanosensitive in older adults: adaptations following 14 weeks versus 1.5years of cyclic strain exercise.

    PubMed

    Epro, Gaspar; Mierau, Andreas; Doerner, Jonas; Luetkens, Julian A; Scheef, Lukas; Kukuk, Guido M; Boecker, Henning; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Karamanidis, Kiros

    2017-03-15

    The aging musculoskeletal system experiences a general decline in structure and function, characterized by a reduced adaptability to environmental stress. We investigated whether the older human Achilles tendon (AT) demonstrates mechanosensitivity (via biomechanical and morphological adaptations) in response to long-term mechanical loading. Thirty-four female adults (60-75 years) were allocated to either a medium-term (14 weeks; N=21) high AT strain cyclic loading exercise intervention or a control group (N=13), with 12 participants continuing with the intervention for 1.5years. AT biomechanical properties were assessed using ultrasonography and dynamometry. Tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) was investigated by means of magnetic resonance imaging. A 22% exercise-related increment in ankle plantarflexion joint moment, along with increased AT stiffness (598.2±141.2 versus 488.4±136.9 N mm(-1) at baseline), Young's modulus (1.63±0.46 versus 1.37±0.39 GPa at baseline) and about 6% hypertrophy along the entire free AT were identified after 14 weeks of strength training, with no further improvement after 1.5years of intervention. The aging AT appears to be capable of increasing its stiffness in response to 14 weeks of mechanical loading exercise by changing both its material and dimensional properties. Continuing exercise seems to maintain, but not cause further adaptive changes in tendons, suggesting that the adaptive time-response relationship of aging tendons subjected to mechanical loading is nonlinear. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  9. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S. C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory…

  10. Sauvé-Kapandji operation for disorders of the distal radioulnar joint after Colles' fracture. Good results in 12 patients followed for 1.5-4 years.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, S S; Lindblad, B E; Larsen, E R; Sommer, J

    1997-02-01

    Controversies continue concerning the treatment of the posttraumatic caput ulna syndrome. We have treated 12 patients, mean age 42 (23-77) years, with arthrodesis ad modum Sauvé-Kapandji of the distal articulation between the radius and ulna, combined with resection of the ulnar neck. Before the operation, all patients had persistent ulnar wrist pain and restricted pronation-supination movement. At follow-up, after a mean of 2 (1.5-4) years, 8 patients had an excellent outcome, 3 a good, and 1 patient had a fair outcome. 10 patients had no wrist pain. The average grip-score improved from 53% preoperatively to 76% at the follow-up.

  11. Overview of the MISSE 7 Polymers and Zenith Polymers Experiments After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Grace T.; de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7), two experiments called the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 1.5 years. The Polymers Experiment contained 47 samples, which were flown in a ram or wake flight orientation. The objectives of the Polymers Experiment were to determine the LEO atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey, volume loss per incident oxygen atoms, given in cu cm/atom) of the polymers, and to determine if atomic oxygen erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. The Zenith Polymers Experiment was flown in a zenith flight orientation. The primary objective of the Zenith Polymers Experiment was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the erosion of fluoropolymers. Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) was flown in each experiment for atomic oxygen fluence determination. This paper provides an introduction to both the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and the MISSE 7 Zenith Polymers Experiment, and provides initial erosion yield results.

  12. Insect herbivory in model tropical plant communities after 1. 5 years exposure to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Arnone, J.A. III; Zaller, J.G.; Korner, C.; Ziegler, C.; Zandt, H. )

    1994-06-01

    Insect herbivores have been observed to practice compensatory feeding when providing leaves from plants grown under elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2]. This has been attributed to reductions in leaf quality (e.g. increased C:N ratio) occurring at high CO[sub 2]. However, no data are available on feeding patterns in plant communications exposed to high CO[sub 2], where insects can choose among species and canopy layers. We introduced 100 Spodoptera eridania larvae to each of four identically-planted communities of moist tropical species (80 plants, 7 spp.) after 1.5 years exposure to either ambient (340 [mu]l l[sup [minus]1]) or elevated (610 [mu]l l[sup [minus]1]) CO[sub 2]. Species representing contrasting life forms were installed in 6.7 m[sup 2] closed ecosystems, each with a common soil. Larvae actively fed in all communities, but the total amount of leaf area and leaf biomass consumed was similar at both CO[sub 2] levels. Elevated CO[sub 2] did alter herbivore plant-species preference. For example, 62.8% of the total leaf area consumed was represented by Cecropia peltata in communities exposed to ambient CO[sub 2], versus 44.1% under elevated CO[sub 2]. Our results indicate that compensatory feeding may not occur in natural plant communities in a CO[sub 2]-rich world.

  13. Gene Therapy for Leber's Congenital Amaurosis is Safe and Effective Through 1.5 Years After Vector Administration

    PubMed Central

    Simonelli, Francesca; Maguire, Albert M; Testa, Francesco; Pierce, Eric A; Mingozzi, Federico; Bennicelli, Jeannette L; Rossi, Settimio; Marshall, Kathleen; Banfi, Sandro; Surace, Enrico M; Sun, Junwei; Redmond, T Michael; Zhu, Xiaosong; Shindler, Kenneth S; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Ziviello, Carmela; Acerra, Carmela; Wright, J Fraser; McDonnell, Jennifer Wellman; High, Katherine A; Bennett, Jean; Auricchio, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of gene therapy for inherited retinal diseases is being tested in humans affected with Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA), an autosomal recessive blinding disease. Three independent studies have provided evidence that the subretinal administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding RPE65 in patients affected with LCA2 due to mutations in the RPE65 gene, is safe and, in some cases, results in efficacy. We evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy (global effects on retinal/visual function) resulting from subretinal administration of AAV2-hRPE65v2. Both the safety and the efficacy noted at early timepoints persist through at least 1.5 years after injection in the three LCA2 patients enrolled in the low dose cohort of our trial. A transient rise in neutralizing antibodies to AAV capsid was observed but there was no humoral response to RPE65 protein. The persistence of functional amelioration suggests that AAV-mediated gene transfer to the human retina does not elicit immunological responses which cause significant loss of transduced cells. The persistence of physiologic effect supports the possibility that gene therapy may influence LCA2 disease progression. The safety of the intervention and the stability of the improvement in visual and retinal function in these subjects support the use of AAV-mediated gene augmentation therapy for treatment of inherited retinal diseases. PMID:19953081

  14. Gene therapy for Leber's congenital amaurosis is safe and effective through 1.5 years after vector administration.

    PubMed

    Simonelli, Francesca; Maguire, Albert M; Testa, Francesco; Pierce, Eric A; Mingozzi, Federico; Bennicelli, Jeannette L; Rossi, Settimio; Marshall, Kathleen; Banfi, Sandro; Surace, Enrico M; Sun, Junwei; Redmond, T Michael; Zhu, Xiaosong; Shindler, Kenneth S; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Ziviello, Carmela; Acerra, Carmela; Wright, J Fraser; McDonnell, Jennifer Wellman; High, Katherine A; Bennett, Jean; Auricchio, Alberto

    2010-03-01

    The safety and efficacy of gene therapy for inherited retinal diseases is being tested in humans affected with Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA), an autosomal recessive blinding disease. Three independent studies have provided evidence that the subretinal administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding RPE65 in patients affected with LCA2 due to mutations in the RPE65 gene, is safe and, in some cases, results in efficacy. We evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy (global effects on retinal/visual function) resulting from subretinal administration of AAV2-hRPE65v2. Both the safety and the efficacy noted at early timepoints persist through at least 1.5 years after injection in the three LCA2 patients enrolled in the low dose cohort of our trial. A transient rise in neutralizing antibodies to AAV capsid was observed but there was no humoral response to RPE65 protein. The persistence of functional amelioration suggests that AAV-mediated gene transfer to the human retina does not elicit immunological responses which cause significant loss of transduced cells. The persistence of physiologic effect supports the possibility that gene therapy may influence LCA2 disease progression. The safety of the intervention and the stability of the improvement in visual and retinal function in these subjects support the use of AAV-mediated gene augmentation therapy for treatment of inherited retinal diseases.

  15. Erosion Results of the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and Zenith Polymers Experiment After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Yi, Grace T.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Asmar, Olivia C.; Leneghan, Halle A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded due to reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Therefore, in order to design durable spacecraft it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield (E(sub y), volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of materials susceptible to AO reaction. Two spaceflight experiments, the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment, were developed to determine the AO E(sub y) of various polymers flown in ram, wake or zenith orientations in LEO. These experiments were flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7) mission for 1.5 years on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments included Kapton H(TradeMark) witness samples for AO fluence determination in ram and zenith orientations. The Polymers Experiment also included samples to determine whether AO erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. This paper provides an overview of the MISSE 7 mission, a description of the flight experiments with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence for each exposure orientation, and the LEO E(sub y) results. The E(sub y) values ranged from 7.99x10(exp -28)cu cm/atom for TiO2/Al2O3 coated Teflon(TradeMark) fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) flown in the ram orientation to 1.22x10(exp -23cu cm/atom for polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) flown in the zenith orientation. The E(sub y) of similar samples flown in different orientations has been compared to help determine solar exposure and associated heating effects on AO erosion. The E(sub y) data from these ISS spaceflight experiments provides valuable information for LEO spacecraft design purposes.

  16. Constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the big bang.

    PubMed

    Bagdonaite, J; Ubachs, W; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

    2015-02-20

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to μ, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of Δμ/μ=(-9.5 ± 5.4(stat)± 5.3(syst))×10(-6).

  17. Constraint on a Varying Proton-Electron Mass Ratio 1.5 Billion Years after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagdonaite, J.; Ubachs, W.; Murphy, M. T.; Whitmore, J. B.

    2015-02-01

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ . A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to μ , yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of Δ μ /μ =(-9.5 ±5.4stat±5.3syst)×10-6 .

  18. Association of parents' and children's physical activity and sedentary time in Year 4 (8-9) and change between Year 1 (5-6) and Year 4: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Jago, Russell; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Thompson, Janice L; Lawlor, Deborah A; Sebire, Simon J

    2017-08-17

    Parents could be important influences on child physical activity and parents are often encouraged to be more active with their child. This paper examined the association between parent and child physical activity and sedentary time in a UK cohort of children assessed when the children were in Year 1 (5-6 years old) and in Year 4 (8-9 years old). One thousand two hundred twenty three children and parents provided data in Year 4 and of these 685 participated in Year 1. Children and parents wore an accelerometer for five days including a weekend. Mean minutes of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) were derived. Multiple imputation was used to impute all missing data and create complete datasets. Linear regression models examined whether parent MVPA and sedentary time at Year 4 and at Year 1 predicted child MVPA and sedentary time at Year 4. Change in parent MVPA and sedentary time was used to predict change in child MVPA and sedentary time between Year 1 and Year 4. Imputed data showed that at Year 4, female parent sedentary time was associated with child sedentary time (0.13, 95% CI = 0.00 to 0.27 mins/day), with a similar association for male parents (0.15, 95% CI = -0.02 to 0.32 mins/day). Female parent and child MVPA at Year 4 were associated (0.16, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.23 mins/day) with a smaller association for male parents (0.08, 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.17 mins/day). There was little evidence that either male or female parent MVPA at Year 1 predicted child MVPA at Year 4 with similar associations for sedentary time. There was little evidence that change in parent MVPA or sedentary time predicted change in child MVPA or sedentary time respectively. Parents who were more physically active when their child was 8-9 years old had a child who was more active, but the magnitude of association was generally small. There was little evidence that parental activity from three years earlier predicted child activity at age 8-9, or

  19. Analytical Services Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-year Program Plan Fiscal Year Work Plan WBS 1.5.1, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Work Plan and Multi-Year Program Plan for the Analytical Services Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Analytical Services Program provides vital support to the Hanford Site mission and provides technically sound, defensible, cost effective, high quality analytical chemistry data for the site programs. This report describes the goals and strategies for continuance of the Analytical Services Program through fiscal year 1996 and beyond.

  20. 50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue. Prior to 1965, cognitive aging research was predominantly descriptive, identifying what aspects of intellectual functioning are affected in older compared with younger adults. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an increasing interest in how and why specific components of cognitive domains are differentially affected in aging and a growing focus on cognitive aging neuroscience. Significant advances have taken place in our theoretical understanding of how and why certain components of cognitive functioning are or are not affected by aging. We also know much more now than we did 50 years ago about the underlying neural mechanisms of these changes. The next 50 years undoubtedly will bring new theories, as well as new tools (e.g., neuroimaging advances, neuromodulation, and technology), that will further our understanding of cognitive aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. 50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole D; Craik, Fergus I M

    2016-12-09

    The objectives of this Introduction to the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences special issue on "50 Years of Cognitive Aging Theory" are to provide a brief overview of cognitive aging research prior to 1965 and to highlight significant developments in cognitive aging theory over the last 50 years. Historical and recent theories of cognitive aging were reviewed, with a particular focus on those not directly covered by the articles included in this special issue. Prior to 1965, cognitive aging research was predominantly descriptive, identifying what aspects of intellectual functioning are affected in older compared with younger adults. Since the mid-1960s, there has been an increasing interest in how and why specific components of cognitive domains are differentially affected in aging and a growing focus on cognitive aging neuroscience. Significant advances have taken place in our theoretical understanding of how and why certain components of cognitive functioning are or are not affected by aging. We also know much more now than we did 50 years ago about the underlying neural mechanisms of these changes. The next 50 years undoubtedly will bring new theories, as well as new tools (e.g., neuroimaging advances, neuromodulation, and technology), that will further our understanding of cognitive aging.

  2. Stochastic modelling of basal temperatures in divide regions of the Antarctic ice sheet over the last 1.5 million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Liefferinge, Brice; Pattyn, Frank; Cavitte, Marie G. P.; Young, Duncan A.; Roberts, Jason L.

    2017-04-01

    The quest for oldest ice in Antarctica has recently been launched through an EU H2020 project (Beyond EPICA - Oldest Ice) and aims at identifying suitable areas for a potential future drilling. Retrieving an ice core of such age is essential to understand the relation between orbital changes and atmospheric composition during the mid-Pliocene transition. However, sites for a potential undisturbed record of 1.5 million-year old ice in Antarctica are difficult to find and require slow-moving ice (preferably an ice divide) and basal conditions that are not disturbed by large topographic variations. Furthermore, ice should be sufficiently thick but cold basal conditions should still prevail, since basal melting would destroy the bottom layers. Therefore, ice-flow conditions and thermodynamic characteristics are crucial for identifying potential locations of undisturbed ice. Van Liefferinge and Pattyn (2013) identified suitable areas based on a pan-Antarctic simplified thermodynamic ice sheet model and demonstrated that uncertainty in geothermal conditions remain a major unknown. In order to refine these estimates, and provide uncertainties, we employ a full thermo-mechanically coupled higher-order ice sheet model (Pattyn, 2003; Pattyn et al., 2004). Initial conditions for the calculations are based on an inversion of basal slipperiness, based on observed surface topography (Pollard and DeConto, 2012; Pattyn, in prep.). Uncertainties in geothermal conditions are introduced using the convolution of two Gaussian probability density functions: (a) the reconstruction of the Antarctic ice sheet geometry and testing ice thickness variability over the last 2 million years (Pollard and DeConto, 2009) and (b) the surface temperature reconstruction over the same period (Snyder et al., 2016). The standard deviation, the skewness and the kurtosis of the whole Antarctic ice sheet are analyzed to observe likely probable melt conditions. Finally, we focus on model results in the

  3. Psychology and Aging: The First 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zacks, Rose T.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Haley, William E.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a review of the first 20 years of Psychology and Aging, the American Psychological Association’s first and only scholarly journal devoted to the topic of aging. The authors briefly summarize its history, its contributions to the study of aging, and its broader status as a scholarly publication. One theme highlighted in our review is the diversity of content in the journal throughout its history. Another is the strong impact that articles published in the journal have had on both basic and applied topics in aging. Efforts to encompass the breadth of topics and methodologies in aging research while retaining excellent quality remain the exciting but essential challenge for Psychology and Aging. PMID:16594786

  4. Catamnesis results of an inpatient neuro-otologic and psychosomatic tinnitus therapy 1-5 years after discharge.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, H; Weiß, S; Hesse, G

    2017-02-01

    Treating tinnitus with the resources offered in hospitals can become necessary for patients suffering from complex tinnitus if a high symptom severity, usually accompanied by a corresponding psychosomatic comorbidity, is present. For such costly therapies, for example, the neuro-otologic psychosomatic tinnitus therapy (NPT) examined here, the long-term effect is particularly important; however, reliable catamnesis studies for inpatient treatments are not yet available. Data from 169 (from a total of 327 contacted) inpatients suffering from complex tinnitus were analysed here. To assess the tinnitus stress, the Mini-Tinnitus Questionnaire (Mini-TF12-In German language) according to Hiller and Goebel [1], and for the assessment of the anxiety and depression element, the German version of the Hospitality Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) [2] were analysed at the start of the therapy, at the end of the therapy and at the earliest 1 year (up to 5 years) after discharge from inpatient treatment. The data were correlated with the current hearing status. In addition, the subjectively perceived effect factors of the therapy as well as the therapies continued outside of hospital were queried. On average, the therapy lasted 39.3 days (SD 13.6) = 5.6 weeks, and the mean of the follow-up time was 38.5 months (12-70 months) (SD 18). The therapy focused on daily neuro-otologic counselling, the improvement of the concrete hearing ability, an audio-therapy as well as frequent individual and group psychotherapy based on neuro-otology. 53.8 % of patients experienced relevant hearing loss (according to WHO criteria) which needed to be treated in addition to tinnitus. Both at the end of the therapy and the follow-up consultation, a significant improvement of the tinnitus stress and a continuing significant improvement of the depression and anxiety element could be achieved in the HADS with high effect levels ranging from 1 to 2.5. Patients who did not improve (n = 7) or

  5. Preschool psychopathology reported by parents in 23 societies: testing the seven-syndrome model of the child behavior checklist for ages 1.5-5.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Achenbach, Thomas M; Rescorla, Leslie A; Harder, Valerie S; Ang, Rebecca P; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S W; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Miguel M; Gudmundsson, Halldor S; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W L; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G; Woo, Bernardine S C; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R; Verhulst, Frank C

    2010-12-01

    To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the seven-syndrome model separately for each society. The primary model fit index, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), indicated acceptable to good fit for each society. Although a six-syndrome model combining the Emotionally Reactive and Anxious/Depressed syndromes also fit the data for nine societies, it fit less well than the seven-syndrome model for seven of the nine societies. Other fit indices yielded less consistent results than the RMSEA. The seven-syndrome model provides one way to capture patterns of children's problems that are manifested in ratings by parents from many societies. Clinicians working with preschoolers from these societies can thus assess and describe parents' ratings of behavioral, emotional, and social problems in terms of the seven syndromes. The results illustrate possibilities for culture-general taxonomic constructs of preschool psychopathology. Problems not captured by the CBCL/1.5-5 may form additional syndromes, and other syndrome models may also fit the data. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preschool Psychopathology Reported by Parents in 23 Societies: Testing the Seven-Syndrome Model of the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5–5

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Rescorla, Leslie A.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Bilenberg, Niels; Bjarnadottir, Gudrun; Capron, Christiane; De Pauw, Sarah S.W.; Dias, Pedro; Dobrean, Anca; Doepfner, Manfred; Duyme, Michele; Eapen, Valsamma; Erol, Nese; Esmaeili, Elaheh Mohammad; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Frigerio, Alessandra; Gonçalves, Miguel M.; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Jeng, Suh-Fang; Jetishi, Pranvera; Jusiene, Roma; Kim, Young-Ah; Kristensen, Solvejg; Lecannelier, Felipe; Leung, Patrick W.L.; Liu, Jianghong; Montirosso, Rosario; Oh, Kyung Ja; Plueck, Julia; Pomalima, Rolando; Shahini, Mimoza; Silva, Jaime R.; Simsek, Zynep; Sourander, Andre; Valverde, Jose; Van Leeuwen, Karla G.; Woo, Bernardine S.C.; Wu, Yen-Tzu; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5–5 (CBCL/1.5–5). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the seven-syndrome model separately for each society. Results The primary model fit index, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), indicated acceptable to good fit for each society. Although a six-syndrome model combining the Emotionally Reactive and Anxious/Depressed syndromes also fit the data for nine societies, it fit less well than the seven-syndrome model for seven of the nine societies. Other fit indices yielded less consistent results than the RMSEA. Conclusions The seven-syndrome model provides one way to capture patterns of children's problems that are manifested in ratings by parents from many societies. Clinicians working with preschoolers from these societies can thus assess and describe parents' ratings of behavioral, emotional, and social problems in terms of the seven syndromes. The results illustrate possibilities for culture–general taxonomic constructs of preschool psychopathology. Problems not captured by the CBCL/1.5–5 may form additional syndromes, and other syndrome models may also fit the data. PMID:21093771

  7. Personality Stability From Age 14 to Age 77 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for differential stability in personality trait differences, even over decades. The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. The 6-Day Sample (N = 1,208) were rated on six personality characteristics by their teachers at around age 14. In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Those who agreed (N = 174) completed a questionnaire booklet at age 77 years, which included rating themselves and asking someone who knew them well to rate them on the same 6 characteristics on which they were rated in adolescence. Each set of 6 ratings was reduced to the same single underlying factor, denoted dependability, a trait comparable to conscientiousness. Participants’ and others’ older-age personality characteristic ratings were moderately correlated with each other, and with other measures of personality and wellbeing, but correlations suggested no significant stability of any of the 6 characteristics or their underlying factor, dependability, over the 63-year interval. However, a more complex model, controlling rater effects, indicated significant 63-year stability of 1 personality characteristic, Stability of Moods, and near-significant stability of another, Conscientiousness. Results suggest that lifelong differential stability of personality is generally quite low, but that some aspects of personality in older age may relate to personality in childhood. PMID:27929341

  8. Personality stability from age 14 to age 77 years.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mathew A; Brett, Caroline E; Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J

    2016-12-01

    There is evidence for differential stability in personality trait differences, even over decades. The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. The 6-Day Sample (N = 1,208) were rated on six personality characteristics by their teachers at around age 14. In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Those who agreed (N = 174) completed a questionnaire booklet at age 77 years, which included rating themselves and asking someone who knew them well to rate them on the same 6 characteristics on which they were rated in adolescence. Each set of 6 ratings was reduced to the same single underlying factor, denoted dependability, a trait comparable to conscientiousness. Participants' and others' older-age personality characteristic ratings were moderately correlated with each other, and with other measures of personality and wellbeing, but correlations suggested no significant stability of any of the 6 characteristics or their underlying factor, dependability, over the 63-year interval. However, a more complex model, controlling rater effects, indicated significant 63-year stability of 1 personality characteristic, Stability of Moods, and near-significant stability of another, Conscientiousness. Results suggest that lifelong differential stability of personality is generally quite low, but that some aspects of personality in older age may relate to personality in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Food and drink consumption among 1-5-year-old Los Angeles County children from households receiving dual SNAP and WIC v. only WIC benefits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jane; Kuo, Tony; Jiang, Lu; Robles, Brenda; Whaley, Shannon E

    2017-10-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are two of the more well-known food assistance programmes in the USA. The current study describes food consumption patterns of children aged 1-5 years living in households dually enrolled in these two programmes v. households enrolled only in WIC. Food consumption and SNAP participation were assessed using data from the 2014 Survey of Los Angeles County (LAC) WIC Participants and the Follow-Up Survey of the same households that were also SNAP beneficiaries. Telephone interviews were conducted with WIC parents regarding each child's (i.e. beneficiary's) food consumption patterns. Follow-up interviews were conducted with those who reported receiving SNAP. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between food and beverage consumption and dual v. single food assistance programme participation. LAC, California. Children of WIC-enrolled households in LAC during 2014 (n 3248). This included a sub-sample of dual WIC- and SNAP-enrolled households (n 1295). Survey participants were the beneficiaries' parents. Children from dually enrolled households consumed 1·03 (P<0·05) and 1·04 (P<0·01) more servings of fruits and vegetables daily respectively, 1·07 more sugar-sweetened beverages daily (P<0·001) and ate sweets/sweetened foods 1·04 more times daily (P<0·001) than children from households participating only in WIC. Results suggest that SNAP+WIC enrolment is associated with increased consumption of both healthy foods and foods containing minimal nutritional value. Complementary nutrition education efforts across the two programmes may help beneficiaries maximize healthful food purchases with SNAP dollars.

  10. Stimulation Activities: Age Birth to Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Dave

    This handbook provides a collection of stimulation activities that encourage a child's physical and mental growth from birth to five years of age. Emphasis is placed on making stimulation aids that are inexpensive or can be made from scrap materials. Advice is given about ways to carry out designated activities. All activities have been tried and…

  11. Detection and differentiation of early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction with quantitative post-mortem cardiac 1.5T MR.

    PubMed

    Schwendener, Nicole; Jackowski, Christian; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J; Schuster, Frederick; Riva, Fabiano; Zech, Wolf-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Recently, quantitative MR sequences have started being used in post-mortem imaging. The goal of the present study was to evaluate if early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction can be detected and discerned by quantitative 1.5T post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMCMR) based on quantitative T1, T2 and PD values. In 80 deceased individuals (25 female, 55 male), a cardiac MR quantification sequence was performed prior to cardiac dissection at autopsy in a prospective study. Focal myocardial signal alterations detected in synthetically generated MR images were MR quantified for their T1, T2 and PD values. The locations of signal alteration measurements in PMCMR were targeted at autopsy heart dissection and cardiac tissue specimens were taken for histologic examinations. Quantified signal alterations in PMCMR were correlated to their according histologic age stage of myocardial infarction. In PMCMR seventy-three focal myocardial signal alterations were detected in 49 of 80 investigated hearts. These signal alterations were diagnosed histologically as early acute (n=39), acute (n=14), subacute (n=10) and chronic (n=10) age stages of myocardial infarction. Statistical analysis revealed that based on their quantitative T1, T2 and PD values, a significant difference between all defined age groups of myocardial infarction can be determined. It can be concluded that quantitative 1.5T PMCMR quantification based on quantitative T1, T2 and PD values is feasible for characterization and differentiation of early acute and following age stages of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1450 ppm fluoride over two years.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Zhong, Yisi; Jiang, Xianjun; Hu Deyu; Mateo, Luis R; Morrison, Boyce M; Zhang, Yun-Po

    2015-01-01

    A double blind, randomized, unsupervised, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted on over 5,500 children in Sichuan Province, China. This clinical trial compared the anti-caries efficacy of two test dentifrices to that of a control dentifrice. The test dentifrices contained 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), and an insoluble calcium compound (either dicalcium phosphate or calcium carbonate). The positive control dentifrice contained 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride (NaF), in a silica base. The children were randomly assigned one of the toothpastes, and children residing in the same household were assigned the same dentifrice to use at home, twice a day. Three calibrated dentists examined the children at baseline, as well as after one and two years of product use. After one year of product use, there were no statistically significant differences among the three groups with respect to decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) or to decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS). After two years of product use, subjects in the two test groups using the dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP, and an insoluble calcium compound had a statistically significant reduction in DMFT increments of 20.5% and in DMFS increments of 19.6% when compared to subjects in the group using the positive control dentifrice. After two years, there were no statistically significant differences with respect to DMFT or DMFS between the two groups using the dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP, and an insoluble calcium compound. The use of the two test dentifrices demonstrated significant reductions in decayed, missing, and filled teeth and surfaces, however there was no statistically significant different between the two test dentifrices clinically after two years of using the toothpastes. The results of this two-year clinical investigation support the conclusion that dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine

  13. Breast Cancer Before Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Carey K.; Johnson, Rebecca; Litton, Jennifer; Phillips, Marianne; Bleyer, Archie

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 7% of women with breast cancer are diagnosed before the age of 40 years, and this disease accounts for more than 40% of all cancer in women in this age group. Survival rates are worse when compared to those in older women, and multivariate analysis has shown younger age to be an independent predictor of adverse outcome. Inherited syndromes, specifically BRCA1 and BRCA2, must be considered when developing treatment algorithms for younger women. Chemotherapy, endocrine, and local therapies have the potential to significantly impact both the physiologic health—including future fertility, premature menopause, and bone health—and the psychological health of young women as they face a diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:19460581

  14. Environmental support FY 1995 multi-year program plan/fiscal year work plan WBS 1.5.2/7.4.11

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    The multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) is the programmatic planning baseline document for technical, schedule, and cost data. The MYPP contains data by which all work is managed, performed and controlled. The integrated planning process, defined by RL, is redicted on establishment of detailed data in the MYPP. The MYPP includes detailed information for the data elements including Level II critical path schedules, cost estimate detail, and updated technical data to be done annually. There will be baseline execution year and out year approval with work authorization for execution. The MYPP will concentrate on definition of the scope, schedule, cost and program element level critical path schedules that show the relationship of planned activities. The Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP) is prepared for each program to provide the basis for authorizing fiscal year work. The MYPP/FYWP will be structured into three main areas: (1) Program Overview; (2) Program Baselines; (3) Fiscal Year Work Plan.

  15. RCRA and operational monitoring (ROM): Multi-year program plan and fiscal year 96 work plan. WBS 1.5.3, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The RCRA & Operational Monitoring (ROM) Program Office manages the Hanford Site direct funded Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Operational Monitoring under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 1.01.05.03. The ROM Program Office is included in Hanford Technical Services, a part of Projects & Site Services of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) includes the Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP). The Multi-Year Program Plan takes its direction from the Westinghouse Planning Baseline Integration Organization. The MYPP provides both the near term, enhanced details and the long term, projected details for the Program Office to use as baseline Cost, Scope and Schedule. Change Control administered during the fiscal year is against the baseline provided by near term details of this document. The MYPP process has been developed by WHC to meet its internal planning and integration needs and complies with the requirements of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Long Range Planning Process Directive (RLID 5000.2). Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed the multi-year planning process for programs to establish the technical, schedule and cost baselines for program and support activities under WHC`s scope of responsibility. The baseline information is developed by both WHC indirect funded support services organization, and direct funded programs in WHC. WHC Planning and Integration utilizes the information presented in the program specific MYPP and the Program Master Baseline Schedule (PMBS) to develop the Site-Wide Integrated Schedule.

  16. Zircon and titanite recording 1.5 million years of magma accretion, crystallization and initial cooling in a composite pluton (southern Adamello batholith, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaltegger, Urs; Brack, Peter; Ovtcharova, Maria; Peytcheva, Irena; Schoene, Blair; Stracke, Andreas; Marocchi, Marta; Bargossi, Giuseppe M.

    2009-08-01

    The southern part of the Adamello batholith (the so-called "Re di Castello unit") is an example of a composite pluton, ranging from gabbro to granodiorite in composition. U-Pb dating of single-zircon crystals from four tonalitic to granodioritic lithologies reveals that zircon crystallization is protracted in all studied lithologies, showing apparent durations of growth between 90 and 700 ka. The youngest zircons crystallized near the solidus and yield identical or slightly older ages than titanite. The formation of these autocrystic zircons is considered to approximate the age of emplacement of the melt and its final crystallization, in contrast to antecrystic zircons present in the same sample, which had formed earlier in the magmatic column or were derived from re-mobilized earlier magma. The autocryst-derived "emplacement" ages range from 42.43 ± 0.09 Ma to 40.90 ± 0.05 Ma, recording 1.5 Ma of intrusion and crystallization history. We anticipate that extended periods of zircon crystallization may be common in silicic rocks, whereas the zircons from residual melts from initially undersaturated mafic liquids should yield far more precise emplacement ages within our present analytical uncertainties of 0.1-0.2% in 206Pb/ 238U age. Decreasing Th/U ratios of dated zircons within one melt batch document the depletion of the residual melt portion in Th due to the contemporaneous crystallization of titanite. Preliminary Hf isotopic compositions of the dated zircon grains suggest that the early stage melts of the southern Re di Castello unit represent hybrid melts with an important crustal component ( ɛHf between - 2.8 and +3.0). Subsequently emplaced melts are more juvenile at ɛHf values at +6.4 to +8.9 and may thus reflect the addition of large volumes of mafic melt to the magmatic system.

  17. Solving the riddle of interglacial temperatures over the last 1.5 million years with a future IPICS "Oldest Ice" ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Hubertus

    2014-05-01

    The sequence of the last 8 glacial cycles is characterized by irregular 100,000 year cycles in temperature and sea level. In contrast, the time period between 1.5-1.2 million years ago is characterized by more regular cycles with an obliquity periodicity of 41,000 years. Based on a deconvolution of deep ocean temperature and ice volume contributions to benthic δ18O (Elderfield et al., Science, 2012), it is suggested that glacial sea level became progressively lower over the last 1.5 Myr, while glacial deep ocean temperatures were very similar. At the same time many interglacials prior to the Mid Brunhes event showed significantly cooler deep ocean temperatures than the Holocene, while at the same time interglacial ice volume remained essentially the same. In contrast, interglacial sea surface temperatures in the tropics changed little (Herbert et al., Science,2010) and proxy reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 using δ11B in planktic foraminifera (Hönisch et al., Science, 2009) suggest that prior to 900,000 yr before present interglacial CO2 levels did not differ substantially from those over the last 450,000 years. Accordingly, the conundrum arises how interglacials can differ in deep ocean temperature without any obvious change in ice volume or greenhouse gas forcing and what caused the change in cyclicity of glacial interglacial cycles over the Mid Pleistocene Transition. Probably the most important contribution to solve this riddle is the recovery of a 1.5 Myr old ice core from Antarctica, which among others would provide an unambiguous, high-resolution record of the greenhouse gas history over this time period. Accordingly, the international ice core community, as represented by the International Partnership for Ice Core Science (IPICS), has identified such an 'Oldest Ice' ice core as one of the most important scientific targets for the future (http://www.pages.unibe.ch/ipics/white-papers). However, finding stratigraphically undisturbed ice, which covers this

  18. Metabolic syndrome of weight change from pre-pregnancy to 1-5 years post-partum among Chinese women with prior gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Liu, H; Qiao, Y; Lv, F; Zhang, S; Wang, L; Leng, J; Liu, H; Qi, L; Tuomilehto, J; Hu, G

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effect of weight change from pre-pregnancy to post-partum with the risk of cardiometabolic diseases among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weight change from pre-pregnancy to 1-5 years post-partum with metabolic syndrome among Chinese women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus. We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 women with gestational diabetes mellitus at 1-5 years post-partum. Participants were divided into four groups based on their weight change from pre-pregnancy to 1-5 years post-partum: loss of ≥ 3 kg, ± 3 kg, gain of 3-7 kg and gain of ≥7 kg. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 12.1%, 16.2%, 26.0% and 44.3% among women with weight loss ≥ 3 kg, stable weight ( ± 3 kg), weight gain 3-7 kg and weight gain ≥ 7 kg from pre-pregnancy to post-partum, respectively. The positive association between weight change and metabolic syndrome was observed among women with pre-pregnancy normal weight (BMI < 24 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 24-27.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2)). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was almost similar among pre-pregnancy normal weight women with weight gain ≥ 7 kg, pre-pregnancy overweight women with stable weight ( ± 3 kg) and pre-pregnancy obese women with weight loss ≥ 3 kg from pre-pregnancy to post-partum (P = 0.62). Women with gestational diabetes mellitus who had large weight gain from pre-pregnancy to post-partum were more likely to develop metabolic syndrome. Women who are pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and also diagnosed as gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy need more weight control after delivery. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  19. Ability to Delay Gratification at Age 4 Years and Risk of Overweight at Age 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Seeyave, Desiree M.; Coleman, Sharon; Appugliese, Danielle; Corwyn, Robert F.; Bradley, Robert H.; Davidson, Natalie S.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if limited ability to delay gratification (ATDG) at age 4 years is independently associated with an increased risk of being overweight at age 11 years and to assess confounding or moderation by child body mass index z score at 4 years, self-reported maternal expectation of child ATDG for food, and maternal weight status. Design Longitudinal prospective study. Setting Ten US sites. Participants Participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Main Exposure Ability to delay gratification at 4 years, measured as pass or fail on a validated task. Outcome Measures Overweight at 11 years, defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to the 85th percentile based on measured weight and height. Results Of 805 children, 47% failed the ATDG task. Using multiple logistic regression, children who failed the ATDG task were more likely to be overweight at 11 years (relative risk, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.58), independent of income to needs ratio. Body mass index z score at 4 years and maternal expectation of child ATDG for food did not alter the association, but maternal weight status reduced the association significantly. Conclusions Children with limited ATDG at age 4 years were more likely to be overweight at age 11 years, but the association was at least partially explained by maternal weight status. Further understanding of the association between the child’s ATDG and maternal and child weight status may lead to more effective obesity intervention and prevention programs. PMID:19349558

  20. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years: the international landscape.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; DeLeo, Diego; Erlangsen, Annette

    2016-01-01

    There is paucity of studies examining suicide rates in narrow five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years. This study examined suicide rates in eight five-year age-bands between the age of 60 and 99 years because this will allow more precise comparison between the young old (60-79 years) and the oldest old (80+ years) age groups. Data on the number of suicides (International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in each of the eight five-year age-bands between the age-bands 60-64 years and 95-99 years in both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues with access to national data, national statisics office websites and email contact with the national statistics offices. The population size for the corresponding years and age-bands was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. In men, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the seven five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 90-94 years age-band, and then declined slightly for the 95-99 year age-band. In women, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the six five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 85-89 years age-bands, and then declined slightly for the 90-94 years and 95-99 years age-bands. The overall global suicide rates for each of the eight five-year age-bands are sufficiently large for them to constitute a public health concern. This is especially important given the ongoing rise in the elderly population size and the paucity of data on risk and protective factors for suicide in the five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years.

  1. Breast-feeding, day-care attendance and the frequency of antibiotic treatments from 1.5 to 5 years: a population-based longitudinal study in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2005-05-01

    This paper aims to study, at the population level, the protective role of breast-feeding on child health and its relation to day-care attendance during the first 5 years of life. The analysis, done on a national sample of children, uses antibiotic treatments as a general measure of health. It takes into account mother's education level, family poverty level, mother's smoking status during pregnancy and after birth, mother's age, sex, gestation duration, and birth rank. The analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Quebec (LSCDQ), conducted by Santé Québec, a division of the Institut de la Statistique du Québec (ISQ). The study was based on face-to-face interviews and included a set of questionnaires addressed to the children's mothers and fathers. A total of 1841 were included in the sample analyzed. Detailed information on breast-feeding and complementary feeding was collected at 5 and 17 months through face-to-face interviews with the most knowledgeable person, generally the mother. From this information, it has been possible to estimate breast-feeding duration and exclusivity. Our results indicate that the positive effects of breast-feeding on health persist up to the second year of life, even in the presence of day-care attendance. The analyses indicate that breast-feeding reduced the number of antibiotic treatments given to children entering day care before 2.5 years of age. The study also indicates that the more-at-risk children could be protected by breast-feeding and by being taken care of in a familial setting, especially before 2.5 years of age. Mother's education, family poverty level, and other social inequality indicators did not play a role in the frequency of antibiotic treatments. Over the long term, it will be important to continue to monitor the health of children and to implement public health interventions aimed at reducing health problems among children of preschool age.

  2. The prevalence of Caenorhabditis elegans across 1.5 years in selected North German locations: the importance of substrate type, abiotic parameters, and Caenorhabditis competitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a major model organism in diverse biological areas and well studied under laboratory conditions, little is known about its ecology. Therefore, characterization of the species’ natural habitats should provide a new perspective on its otherwise well-studied biology. The currently best characterized populations are in France, demonstrating that C. elegans prefers nutrient- and microorganism-rich substrates such as rotting fruits and decomposing plant matter. In order to extend these findings, we sampled C. elegans continuously across 1.5 years from rotting apples and compost heaps in three North German locations. Results C. elegans was found throughout summer and autumn in both years. It shares its habitat with the related nematode species C. remanei, which could thus represent an important competitor for a similar ecological niche. The two species were isolated from the same site, but rarely the same substrate sample. In fact, C. elegans was mainly found on compost and C. remanei on rotten apples, possibly suggesting niche separation. The occurrence of C. elegans itself was related to environmental humidity and rain, although the correlation was significant for only one sampling site each. Additional associations between nematode prevalence and abiotic parameters could not be established. Conclusions Taken together, our findings vary from the previous results for French C. elegans populations in that the considered German populations always coexisted with the congeneric species C. remanei (rather than C. briggsae as in France) and that C. elegans prevalence can associate with humidity and rain (rather than temperature, as suggested for French populations). Consideration of additional locations and time points is thus essential for full appreciation of the nematode's natural ecology. PMID:24502455

  3. The prevalence of Caenorhabditis elegans across 1.5 years in selected North German locations: the importance of substrate type, abiotic parameters, and Caenorhabditis competitors.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Carola; Dirksen, Philipp; Prahl, Swantje; Strathmann, Eike Andreas; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2014-02-06

    Although the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a major model organism in diverse biological areas and well studied under laboratory conditions, little is known about its ecology. Therefore, characterization of the species' natural habitats should provide a new perspective on its otherwise well-studied biology. The currently best characterized populations are in France, demonstrating that C. elegans prefers nutrient- and microorganism-rich substrates such as rotting fruits and decomposing plant matter. In order to extend these findings, we sampled C. elegans continuously across 1.5 years from rotting apples and compost heaps in three North German locations. C. elegans was found throughout summer and autumn in both years. It shares its habitat with the related nematode species C. remanei, which could thus represent an important competitor for a similar ecological niche. The two species were isolated from the same site, but rarely the same substrate sample. In fact, C. elegans was mainly found on compost and C. remanei on rotten apples, possibly suggesting niche separation. The occurrence of C. elegans itself was related to environmental humidity and rain, although the correlation was significant for only one sampling site each. Additional associations between nematode prevalence and abiotic parameters could not be established. Taken together, our findings vary from the previous results for French C. elegans populations in that the considered German populations always coexisted with the congeneric species C. remanei (rather than C. briggsae as in France) and that C. elegans prevalence can associate with humidity and rain (rather than temperature, as suggested for French populations). Consideration of additional locations and time points is thus essential for full appreciation of the nematode's natural ecology.

  4. Metabolic syndrome factors and risk of postoperative depression in high-grade glioma patients in a 1.5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian-tong; Jiang, Chen; Huang, Jin; Dai, Min-chao; Wang, Cheng; Cheng, Chao; Shao, Jun-fei

    2014-10-01

    To date, the relationship between metabolic syndrome factors and the risk of glioma-related depression is still unclear, and no study investigates this relationship. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome factors and the risk of postoperative depression in high-grade patients. A total of 386 high-grade glioma patients participated in blood sample collection for metabolic syndrome factors analysis and the hospital anxiety and depression scale testing. The association between metabolic syndrome factors and the risk of postoperative depression was assessed using Cox regression proportional hazards models, and Student's t tests were used to evaluate the differences in demographic variables and clinical characteristics in subgroups. The incidence of postoperative depression in our 1.5-year follow-up was 30.5%. We found the risk of postoperative depression was elevated with increased blood glucose level [hazard ratios (HR) 2.277, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.201-4.320, top vs. bottom quartile]. The hazard ratio was increased for z-scores of blood glucose (HR 1.672 per unit standard deviation, 95% CI 1.311-2.133] and of the combined metabolic syndrome score (HR 1.080, 95% CI 1.000-1.167). In addition, risk of postoperative depression risk was increased in high-grade glioma patients with high blood glucose levels (≥6.0 mmol/l) (HR 2.084, 95% CI 1.235-3.515). However, we did not find significant associations between postoperative depression and other metabolic syndrome factors, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Depression is prevalent among patients with high-grade glioma after operation. Blood glucose level is positively associated with the risk of postoperative depression, and might be involved in the etiology of postoperative depression, and may predict its development in high-grade glioma patients.

  5. Pathways Linking Perceived Athletic Competence and Parental Support at Age 9 Years to Girls' Physical Activity at Age 11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Downs, Danielle Symons; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Girls' perceived athletic competence and parental support of physical activity across the ages of 9 to 11 years were examined as predictors of girls' physical activity at age 11 years. Participants were 174 girls and their mothers and fathers who completed questionnaires when the girls were ages 9 and 11 years. Two alternative temporal pathways…

  6. Teenagers (15-17 years of age)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teenagers (15-17 years) Mental Health Specific Conditions Learning Disorder Data & Statistics Research Legacy Program Intervention Support Fidelity Monitoring FAQ Resources Partner Stories Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia & Tools Links to Other Websites Get Email Updates ...

  7. Self-reported care needs of Dutch homeless people with and without a suspected intellectual disability: a 1.5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Van Straaten, Barbara; Rodenburg, Gerda; Van der Laan, Jorien; Boersma, Sandra N; Wolf, Judith R L M; Van de Mheen, Dike

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a prevalent problem among the homeless and seems related to more psychosocial problems. However, little is known about the care needs of the subgroup of homeless people with an intellectual disability compared to those without an intellectual disability and how their care needs develop over time. This study explores self-reported care needs within a broad range of life domains among Dutch homeless people with and without a suspected intellectual disability to gain insight into the transition of self-reported care needs from baseline to follow-up in both subgroups. This longitudinal study is part of a cohort study among homeless people who had been accepted for an individual programme plan in four major Dutch cities. The initial cohort consisted of 513 participants who were interviewed in 2011. At 1.5-year follow-up, 336 participants (65.5%) were also interviewed and screened for intellectual disability. Of these participants, 31% (95% CI 26.2-36.1) had a suspected intellectual disability. For both groups, between baseline and follow-up, the number of 'unmet care needs' decreased significantly and the number of 'no care needs' increased significantly, while at follow-up, participants with a suspected intellectual disability reported 'no care needs' on significantly fewer life domains than those without a suspected intellectual disability (mean numbers 16.4 vs. 17.5). Between baseline and follow-up, 'met care needs' decreased significantly on housing for both groups, and increased on finances and dental care for participants with a suspected intellectual disability. At follow-up, participants with a suspected intellectual disability more often preferred housing support available by appointment than those without a suspected intellectual disability. These findings suggest that homeless people who had been accepted for an individual programme plan with a suspected intellectual disability have care needs for a longer period of time than those

  8. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ...

  9. Intussusception in Children Aged Less than Five years.

    PubMed

    Mehendale, Sanjay; Kumar, C P Girish; Venkatasubramanian, S; Prasanna, T

    2016-10-01

    To enumerate the cases of intussusception in Chennai during 2012-2013, describe the clinical profile, outcomes of case management and highlight the importance of systematically collecting this data in lieu of rotavirus vaccine introduction in India. Medical records of pediatric intussusception cases admitted in eight large hospitals in Chennai from July 2012 through June 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and clinical data including diagnostic and treatment practices were obtained. Cases were categorized based on the diagnostic certainty criteria stipulated by the Brighton collaboration on intussusception. During the one year of study period, 205 cases of intussusception were diagnosed in 8 hospitals in Chennai city of India. The median age at presentation was 9 mo (Inter Quartile Range, IQR 6-14) with a male to female ratio of 1.8:1. The commonest site of intussusception was ileocolic (80.4 %). Most of the cases (59.8 %) were managed non-surgically. Direct surgical intervention was carried out in 26.5 % cases whereas in 11.8% of cases, surgery was required after failure of non-surgical measures. Median duration of hospital stay was 3 d (IQR 1-5). This study documents the case burden of intussusception among children in Chennai in a calendar year. Data on receipt of rotavirus vaccine was not available. The authors recommend collection of rotavirus vaccine data among all cases of intussusception in the country, and do retrospective analysis in other parts of the country and prospective surveillance in pediatric / immunization clinics to assess impact of rotavirus vaccine on intussusception rates in the post rotavirus vaccine introduction scenario.

  10. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Liestøl, K; Walløe, L

    1980-01-01

    Every 5th year since 1920 the heights and weights of all Oslo schoolchildren (aged 7 to 18 years) have been measured, and the measurements processed centrally. For ages between 8 and 14 the mean height increased by about 4 cm per decade between 1920 and 1940 for both sexes. A drop of about 1.5 cm occurred during World War II, followed by a rapid catch-up. Since 1950, height has increased only moderately. A weight increase of between 1.5 kg (8 years old) and 3.5 kg (13 years old) per decade before 1940 was followed by a drop during the war equivalent to somewhat less than one decade's gain. A rapid catch-up after the war was followed by a slight decrease since 1950, especially for ages above puberty. A stable difference in the social composition of the eastern and western districts of Oslo allowed comparison of the trends for lower and higher social strata. Before the war, children from higher strata were taller than children from lower strata, but this difference has now practically disappeared. Children from the higher strata weighed more until about 1955, but later those from the lower strata weighed markedly more, especially during adolescence. The difference in menarcheal age between social strata was examined in 1928, 1952, 1970 and 1975. The time trend parallels that for weight: menarcheal age was lowest among higher strata until the 1950s, but after that the lower strata experienced the lowest menarcheal age.

  11. Language Performance and Reading Ability at 8 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Rodney; Slaghuis, Walter

    1985-01-01

    Reports results from a detailed syntactic analysis of spoken language samples collected from poor and good readers at eight years of age. Results showed an undeniably strong association between reduced language comprehension and reading impairment at age eight, an association that appeared to strengthen by age nine. (SED)

  12. Utilization of formal health services for children aged 1-5 in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami: Which children did not receive the health care they needed? Implications for other natural disaster relief efforts.

    PubMed

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Santosham, Mathuram

    2014-01-01

    Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense, with billions of dollars of aid pledged to this province alone. Since then, there have been several natural disasters, including Typhoon Haiyan, which have caused great loss of life and displacement and for which these results are applicable. This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of health services for children under the age of five with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of formal and non-formal healthcare usage. A household survey of 1439 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1-5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 78.3% of respondents utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their child's illness episode. Factors significantly associated with decreased formal healthcare usage for the sick children were if the children were living in a displaced household, if the children's mother or father were not living, and if the children's caretaker was not the mother. Although utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami, there were certain children who received significantly less care, including those who were displaced, those who were being cared for by someone other than their mother, and those for whom one or both parents had died. Among the recommendations are suggestions to target these children to ensure that they receive the health care they need.

  13. Radiocesium contamination of the web spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida) 1.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    We measured the concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in a large web spider, Nephila clavata L. Koch (Nephilidae: Arachnida), collected at three sites at different distances from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant about 1.5 y after the accident in March 2011. The radiocesium concentrations in spiders were highest in a streamside secondary forest 33 km northwest of the power plant: mean ± a standard deviation of 2.401 ± 1.197 Bq g(-1) dry for (134)Cs and 3.955 ± 1.756 Bq g(-1) dry for (137)Cs. In a hillside secondary forest 37 km northwest of the power plant, the mean concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were 0.825 ± 0.247 Bq g(-1) dry and 1.470 ± 0.454 Bq g(-1) dry, respectively. In a pine forest 62 km west of the power plant, very low radiocesium concentrations were detected, but in only a few individuals. The concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in spiders collected at each site tended to be correlated with the air radiation dose rate at each site. Since spiders are key components of food webs in forests, the high concentrations in this species at contaminated sites suggested that the radiocesium from the accident has transferred through food chains and reached to higher trophic level of the food chains.

  14. Development of a standardized method for comparing fluoride ingested from toothpaste by 1.5-3.5-year-old children in seven European countries. Part 2: Ingestion results.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Judith A; Ketley, Clare E; Duckworth, Ralph M; van Loveren, Cor; Holbrook, W Peter; Seppä, Liisa; Sanches, Leonor; Polychronopoulou, Argy; O'Mullane, Denis M

    2004-04-01

    To develop a standardized method for measuring the variables affecting fluoride ingestion from toothpaste in young children between the ages of 1.5 and 3.5 years, and to use the method at seven European sites. Random samples of children were invited to take part in the study. Parents who gave consent were visited at home. The children brushed their teeth using the toothpaste brand and toothbrush type currently in use. The difference between the fluoride dispensed onto the toothbrush and the fluoride recovered after accounting for losses was deemed to be the fluoride ingested. Details of other oral health-care habits were collected by questionnaire. For each child, the fluoride concentration of the toothpaste used was measured in the laboratory, from which an estimate of total daily fluoride ingestion was made. There was considerable variation between countries in the types of toothpaste used and in the amounts of toothpaste applied and ingested. The amount of fluoride ingested ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 mg fluoride per kg of body weight per day. The amount of fluoride ingested that is likely to be a risk factor for the development of dental fluorosis during tooth formation is equivocal and was found to vary widely between European countries. There appears to be a need for clearer health messages regarding the use of fluoridated toothpaste by young children.

  15. In retrospect: Forty years of linking orbits to ice ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslin, Mark

    2016-12-01

    In 1976, it was demonstrated that tiny wobbles in Earth's orbit led to the great ice-age cycles of the past few million years. This finding had wide implications for climate science and the details remain hotly debated today.

  16. Peptide regulation of aging: 35-year research experience.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N

    2009-07-01

    The authors sum up the results of many-year studies of mechanisms of aging and efficiency of peptide bioregulators in the prevention of age-specific diseases. Data on the effects of peptides, evaluated by the up-to-date methods, are presented. A molecular model of complementary interactions between short peptides and gene promotor sites, underlying the initiation of protein synthesis, is proposed. Prospects of peptide bioregulators in prevention of early aging are discussed.

  17. The Sénèze maar (French Massif-Central): Hypothesis regarding a catastrophe occurring about 1.5 million years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couthures, Jean

    1989-11-01

    A reconstruction, based on direct observations in the form of borings and paleontological digs, indicates repetitive catastrophes in the palaeo-lake of the Sénèze depression long after formation of the maar. This event is correlated with extensive slumping associated with erosion of the crater rim induced by a critical ring fault. K-Ar dating gives a lower limit of around 2.48 million years for the initial formation, but not the lapse of time between eruption and filling. According to drilling, sedimentology, and palynological analysis, the lake was functional between 2.3 and 1.3 million years ago, i.e., throughout the Tiglian and at the beginning of the Eburonian. The destruction of all animal life could only have been due to asphyxia, but probably resulted from a CO 2 release. All classes of animals, mainly mammals, were affected and subsequently died. They are found in the same levels in several fossiliferous beds, at the top of the lacustrine deposits and also in reworked debris from the crater rim.

  18. Ten-year survival of cemented total knee replacement in patients aged less than 55 years.

    PubMed

    Keenan, A C M; Wood, A M; Arthur, C A; Jenkins, P J; Brenkel, I J; Walmsley, P J

    2012-07-01

    We report the ten-year survival of a cemented total knee replacement (TKR) in patients aged < 55 years at the time of surgery, and compare the functional outcome with that of patients aged > 55 years. The data were collected prospectively and analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival statistics, with revision for any reason, or death, as the endpoint. A total of 203 patients aged < 55 years were identified. Four had moved out of the area and were excluded, leaving a total of 221 TKRs in 199 patients for analysis (101 men and 98 women, mean age 50.6 years (28 to 55)); 171 patients had osteoarthritis and 28 had inflammatory arthritis. Four patients required revision and four died. The ten-year survival using revision as the endpoint was 98.2% (95% confidence interval 94.6 to 99.4). Based on the Oxford knee scores at five and ten years, the rate of dissatisfaction was 18% and 21%, respectively. This was no worse in the patients aged < 55 years than in patients aged > 55 years. These results demonstrate that the cemented PFC Sigma knee has an excellent survival rate in patients aged < 55 ten years post-operatively, with clinical outcomes similar to those of an older group. We conclude that TKR should not be withheld from patients on the basis of age.

  19. Longitudinal changes in body composition associated with healthy ageing: men, aged 20-96 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Andrew S; Janssen, Ian; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia are health problems associated with ageing. The present study modelled the longitudinal changes in body composition of healthy men, aged from 20 to 96 years, and evaluated the fidelity of BMI to identify age-dependent changes in fat mass and fat-free mass. The data from 7265 men with multiple body composition determinations (total observations 38,328) were used to model the age-related changes in body mass, fat mass, fat-free mass, BMI and percentage of body fat. Changes in fat mass and fat-free mass were used to evaluate the fidelity of BMI and to detect body composition changes with ageing. Linear mixed regression models showed that all trajectories of body composition with healthy ageing were quadratic. Fat mass, BMI and percentage of body fat increased from age 20 years and levelled off at approximately 80 years. Fat-free mass increased slightly from age 20 to 47 years and then declined at a non-linear rate with ageing. Levels of aerobic exercise had a positive influence on fat mass and a slight negative effect on fat-free mass. BMI and percentage of body fat were sensitive in detecting the increase in fat mass that occurred with healthy ageing, but failed to identify the loss of fat-free mass that started at age 47 years.

  20. Children of Two to Three Years of Age in France: Early Childhood Settings and Age Divisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnier, Pascale; Rayna, Sylvie; Brougère, Gilles; Rupin, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    In a French early childhood care and education system that is strongly divided by age and institution, the current research studies the collective life of children at the pivotal age of two to three years of age in four different early childhood settings: (1) a group of "grands" (nursery) in a "crèche" (daycare centre), (2) a…

  1. Health Authorities Data Collection of THC:CBD Oromucosal Spray (L'Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco Web Registry): Figures after 1.5 Years.

    PubMed

    Patti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In Italy, all prescriptions for THC:CBD oromucosal spray for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity are linked to the official Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco (AIFA) web-based registry, which tracks the effectiveness and tolerability of medications in a prospective and observational manner. AIFA e-registry data for THC:CBD oromucosal spray collected between January 2014 and February 2015 for 1,534 patients from 30 large Italian specialized MS centres were compiled. Patients had a long disease history (17.6 ± 8.6 years) and significant impairment (mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score 6.4 ± 1.2). MS spasticity was evaluated using the 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS). After the first month titration and trial period, 61.9% of patients achieved sufficient improvement in spasticity (≥20% NRS) to qualify for continued treatment. After 6 months, clinically meaningful ≥30% NRS improvement was recorded in 40.2% of patients continuing with treatment. Spasticity-associated symptoms such as cramps and nocturnal spasms improved in most responding patients. Mean reported doses of THC:CBD oromucosal spray (6.2-6.7 sprays/day) were lower than those reported in clinical trials. Adverse events (mainly mild to moderate) were reported by 15% of patients; no new safety concerns beyond the approved label were identified. The results of the AIFA e-registry analysis align with those of other THC:CBD observational projects and reaffirm the characteristics of this therapeutic option in the management of treatment-resistant MS spasticity, a frequently overlooked symptom. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Hominin stature, body mass, and walking speed estimates based on 1.5 million-year-old fossil footprints at Ileret, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, Heather L; Hatala, Kevin G; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Richmond, Brian G

    2013-06-01

    The early Pleistocene marks a period of major transition in hominin body form, including increases in body mass and stature relative to earlier hominins. However, because complete postcranial fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions are rare, efforts to estimate hominin mass and stature are complicated by the frequent albeit necessary use of isolated, and often fragmentary, skeletal elements. The recent discovery of 1.52 million year old hominin footprints from multiple horizons in Ileret, Kenya, provides new data on the complete foot size of early Pleistocene hominins as well as stride lengths and other characteristics of their gaits. This study reports the results of controlled experiments with habitually unshod Daasanach adults from Ileret to examine the relationships between stride length and speed, and also those between footprint size, body mass, and stature. Based on significant relationships among these variables, we estimate travel speeds ranging between 0.45 m/s and 2.2 m/s from the fossil hominin footprint trails at Ileret. The fossil footprints of seven individuals show evidence of heavy (mean = 50.0 kg; range: 41.5-60.3 kg) and tall individuals (mean = 169.5 cm; range: 152.6-185.8 cm), suggesting that these prints were most likely made by Homo erectus and/or male Paranthropus boisei. The large sizes of these footprints provide strong evidence that hominin body size increased during the early Pleistocene.

  3. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1975.

    PubMed

    Mueller, M S; Gibson, R M

    1976-06-01

    This report of health care spending in fiscal year 1975 reveals that of the $103.2 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care, 15 percent was spent for those under age 19, 56 percent for persons aged 19-64, and 29 percent for those aged 65 or older. The average health care bill for the oldest group was $1,360; it was $472 for the intermediate age group and $212 for the young. Third-party payments met 71 percent of the aged group's health care expense and 66 percent of the health expenditures of persons under age 65. Public funds paid for one-fourth of the health expenses of the young, nearly one-third of the health bills of those aged 19-64, and two-thirds of those of the aged. Medicare alone paid 72 percent of the hospital expense for the aged and 54 percent of their doctor bills. The average direct payment by the consumer amounted to $390 for those aged 65 and older and $128 for persons under age 65.

  4. Value of mammography screening in women under age 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, D.M.; Hasselblad, V.; McGivney, W.; Hendee, W.

    1988-03-11

    Two quantitative methods, Confidence Profiles and CAN*TROL, are used to analyze evidence and estimate the health and economic consequences of adding annual mammography to annual breast physical examinations in asymptomatic women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer. Such women have about a 128 in 10,000 chance of having breast cancer in the next ten years and about an 82 in 10,000 chance of dying of such a cancer. Adding annual mammograms to annual breast physical examinations each year during that age decade would reduce the probability of death to about 60 in 10,000, a reduction of about 26%. Screening would increase the expected lifetime of a woman destined to get breast cancer between ages 40 and 49 years by about 3.5 years. Ten years of screening with mammography in that age decade carries a risk of radiation-induced cancer of about one in 25,000 and a risk of a surgery recommendation for a lesion that is not cancer of about one in ten. If 25% of the women in this age group in the United States were screened every year, breast cancer mortality in the year 2000 would be decreased by about 373 deaths. In 1984 dollars, the cost of screening, workups, and continuing care in the year 2000 would be about $408 million. Treatment costs would be decreased by about $6 million, leaving a net increase in costs in the year of 2000 of approximately $402 million (1984 dollars).

  5. Sports engagement and age at first myocardial infarction in men under 55 years of age.

    PubMed

    Janggen, Christoph; Gräni, Christoph; Brunner, Jonas; Trachsel, Lukas D; Windecker, Stephan; Eser, Prisca; Räber, Lorenz; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity in childhood are associated with clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) as predisposition for atherosclerosis. We assessed the association between sports engagement and age at first myocardial infarction (MI) in a cohort of men under 55 years of age. The Bern percutaneous coronary intervention Registry (NCT 02241291) was analyzed from March 2009 until January 2012. Male patients with first MI, age 18 to 54 years and body mass index ≤25kg/m2 were included. Patients were stratified into two groups based on their starting age with organized sports ≥1 h/week outside school (EARLY: <18, CONTROL: ≥18 years or never). We assessed age at time of first MI, CVRF, and volume of sports training. Of 4,394 consecutive patients, 123 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (EARLY n = 81, CONTROL n = 42). Age at the time of first MI was 3 years younger in the EARLY compared to the CONTROL group (46.8±6.0 vs. 49.8±4.6 years, p = 0.006). Total lifetime training hours, and average yearly training hours, both, before and after age 18, were significantly greater in the EARLY group. Years of training <18 years were weakly inversely correlated with age at first MI (r2 = 0.075, p = 0.002). The proportion of sports-related MI was not different between EARLY and CONTROL (13.6% vs. 11.9%). Patients in the EARLY group had fewer CVRF (2 vs. 3; p = 0.001). Prevalence of smoking was equally high in both groups (63.0% and 64.3%). In our patients aged 54 and younger, the first MI occurred 3 years earlier in those who started regular sports activity before age 18, despite a more active lifestyle and favorable CVRF profile.

  6. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age.

  7. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  8. Beverage Consumption Patterns at Age 13 to 17 Years Are Associated with Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index at Age 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Teresa A; Van Buren, John M; Warren, John J; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Levy, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with obesity in children and adults; however, associations between beverage patterns and obesity are not understood. Our aim was to describe beverage patterns during adolescence and associations between adolescent beverage patterns and anthropometric measures at age 17 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analyses of longitudinally collected data. Data from participants in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study having at least one beverage questionnaire completed between ages 13.0 and 14.0 years, having a second questionnaire completed between 16.0 and 17.0 years, and attending clinic examination for weight and height measurements at age 17 years (n=369) were included. Beverages were collapsed into four categories (ie, 100% juice, milk, water and other sugar-free beverages, and SSBs) for the purpose of clustering. Five beverage clusters were identified from standardized age 13 to 17 years mean daily beverage intakes and named by the authors for the dominant beverage: juice, milk, water/sugar-free beverages, neutral, and SSB. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) at age 17 years were analyzed. We used Ward's method for clustering of beverage variables, one-way analysis of variance and χ(2) tests for bivariable associations, and γ-regression for associations of weight or BMI (outcomes) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Linear regression was used for associations of height (outcome) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Participants with family incomes <$60,000 trended shorter (1.5±0.8 cm; P=0.070) and were heavier (2.0±0.7 BMI units; P=0.002) than participants with family incomes ≥$60,000/year. Adjusted mean weight, height, and BMI estimates differed by beverage cluster membership. For example, on average, male and female members of the neutral cluster were 4.5 cm (P=0.010) and 4.2 cm (P=0.034) shorter, respectively, than members of the milk cluster. For

  9. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  10. Nine-year aging behavior of the ceramic flatpack resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Beetley, D.E.

    1990-03-06

    GE has developed a multichannel, high precision aging{asterisk} measurement facility capable of high volume testing of resonators. Features of the facility considered unique for production aging systems test include: (1) Loran-C/disciplined time-frequency (DTF) oscillator frequency standard, (2) direct current power bus design, (3) measurement and switching techniques, and (4) high volume automatic precision resonator aging. Computer-controlled data acquisition is used for unattended operation. Facility requirements included frequency measurement with sufficient precision to allow 20- year extrapolation of resonator frequency shift using 30 data points. The frequency reference is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Long-term extrapolation required selection of a model which would most accurately reflect the major processes involved in aging. In order to verify the accuracy of model extrapolation, a group of resonators has been maintained in test for more than nine years. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  11. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  12. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  13. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  14. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children under 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Luna, R; Alter-Molchadsky, N; Cardenas-Cardos, R; Martínez-Guerra, G

    1996-05-01

    This is a retrospective study of 55 children under the age of 2 years diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). They were classified according to age and organ function and dysfunction following Lahey's criteria. The studied population was divided into four groups by age of diagnosis (0-6, 7-12, 13-18, and 19-24 months). Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in outcome between age groups, although the population under 6 months had a 81.3% fatality rate. The presence of organ dysfunction was a major cause of death in all age groups, being statistically significant in outcome (P > 0.005) compared with patients without organ dysfunction. The presence of thrombocytopenia and/or respiratory dysfunction was also highly associated with a fatal outcome. In the surviving population, no second malignancies have been reported. The late secondary effects of therapy include endocrine, orofacial, and osseous pathologies.

  15. [35-year experience in research of peptide regulation of aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N

    2009-01-01

    The results of 35-year-long studies on mechanisms of aging and on efficacy of peptide bioregulators in prevention of age-related pathology are presented in this review paper. The data have been obtained with most advanced methods in collaboration with research laboratories of Russia, USA, UK, Germany, Italy, Spain, France. The molecular model of complementary interrelation of short peptides with promoter site of genes which is a background of protein biosynthesis initiation has been suggested. The prospects of clinical use of peptide bioregulators for prevention of premature aging of the active population in Russia are discussed.

  16. Ebstein's anomaly in adult patients over 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Shigeaki; Yoshitake, Kiyonobu; Matsuo, Atsutoshi; Tayama, Kei-Ichiro; Hida, Satoru; Mito, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Ebstein's anomaly (EA) is a rare congenital heart disease of the tricuspid valve, and less than 5% of patients with EA survive beyond the age of 50. We report two unoperated cases of EA in adult patients aged over 50 years. Two patients, a 70-year-old Japanese woman and a 59-year-old Chinese woman, were referred to us for tachyarrhythmias. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated apical displacement (>8 mm/m(2) body surface area) of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve from the atrioventricular ring with tricuspid regurgitation in both patients. The former suddenly expired 20 months later after suffering from repetitive supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and/or heart failure, and the latter is alive with minimal signs of heart failure 12 months after the diagnosis of EA. Although the natural history of EA is extremely variable, these two patients are exceptional in that they tolerated EA well for over 50 years without any surgical intervention.

  17. Cardiac surgery in patients age 80 years or older.

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, W H; Stewart, J R; Frist, W H; Hammon, J W; Bender, H W

    1990-01-01

    Between February 1978 and August 1989, forty patients aged 80 years or older underwent cardiac surgery at this institution. Patient age varied from 80 to 87 years (mean, 82.4 years). Operative indications were angina pectoris or congestive heart failure. Twenty-eight patients underwent coronary artery bypass (CAB) alone and 12 underwent valve replacement(s) with or without CAB. The operative mortality rate was 10%. Postoperative hospitalization averaged 14 days. There were three late cardiac deaths at 13, 36, and 48 months after operation and one late noncardiac death. Thirty-two survivors have been followed from 1 to 86 months (mean, 20 months). All experienced sustained improvement in functional status and minimal late morbidity. All survivors remained in NYHA class 1 or 2. Cardiac surgical procedures in patients older than 80 years can be performed with increased but acceptable mortality and morbidity rates. Most patients achieve sustained symptomatic improvement and excellent long-term survival. PMID:2357139

  18. Marine radiocarbon reservoir age simulations for the past 50000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butzin, Martin; Köhler, Peter; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    We present simulations of marine radiocarbon reservoir ages using the ocean general circulation model LSG-HAMOCC2s, and evaluate the results with Marine13 raw data records. Our model considers various climatic background states. Radiocarbon cycle boundary conditions are atmospheric Δ14C values according to IntCal13, a recent atmospheric CO2 reconstruction, and spatially variable concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from marine carbon cycle simulations. Our model reasonably agrees with glacial marine Δ14C records but indicates reservoir ages varying with time, different to the invariant reservoir age corrections applied to the observations and to Marine13. Modelled global-mean reservoir ages are in the range 400-800 years compared to the invariant Marine13 value of 405 years. Self-consistent simulations involving the Cariaco Basin record (which is the most continuous marine record contributing to IntCal13 for periods prior to about 30 kyears) amplify the temporal reservoir age variability with global-mean values of about 350-850 years, and improve the agreement with Δ14C observations in some areas.

  19. Evaluation of surgical treatment of congenital heart disease in patients aged above 16 years.

    PubMed

    Caneo, Luiz Fernando; Jatene, Marcelo B; Riso, Arlindo A; Tanamati, Carla; Penha, Juliano; Moreira, Luiz Felipe; Atik, Edmar; Trindade, Evelinda; Stolf, Noedir A G

    2012-05-01

    The increasing number of children with evolving congenital heart diseases demands greater preparation of professionals and institutions that handle them. To describe the profile of patients aged over 16 years with congenital heart disease, who have undergone surgery, and analyze the risk factors that predict hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred twenty patients (mean age 27 ± 13 years) were operated between January 1986 and December 2010. We performed a descriptive analysis of the epidemiological profile of the study population and analyzed risk factors for hospital mortality, considering the complexity score, the year in which surgery was performed, the procedure performed or not performed by the pediatric surgeon and reoperation. There was a significant increase in the number of cases from the year 2000. The average complexity score was 5.4 and the septal defects represented 45% of cases. Overall mortality was 7.7% and most procedures (973 or 61.9%) with greater complexity were performed by pediatric surgeons. Complexity (OR 1.5), reoperation (OR 2.17) and pediatric surgeon (OR 0.28) were independent risk factors influencing mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that the year in which the surgery was performed (OR 1.03), the complexity (OR 1.44) and the pediatric surgeon (OR 0.28) influenced the result. There is an increasing number of patients aged 16 years which, despite the large number of simple cases, the most complex ones were referred to pediatric surgeons, who had lower mortality, especially in recent years.

  20. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age…

  1. [Constrictive pericarditis in children under 2 years of age].

    PubMed

    Silva, Lia; Anjos, Rui; Martins, Fernando Maymone; Telo, Margarida

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of constrictive pericarditis, in children under 2 years of age, of non-tuberculosis aetiology, diagnosed from June 97 to May 98 are reported. This entity is rare in paediatrics and it may progress to severe condition. Surgical treatment has a low risk and is generally associated with good prognosis. Aetiology, clinic presentation, differential diagnosis with restrictive cardiomyopathy and treatment are discussed.

  2. [Rheumatic cardiopathy in children younger than 6 years of age].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Antona, C; Calderón-Colmenero, J; Attié, F; Zabal, C; Buendía-Hernández, A; Díaz-Medina, L H; Bialkowski, J; García Arenal, F

    1991-01-01

    Most of the published papers on Rheumatic Fever (RF) have not included the younger population. We selected 211 cases of children with RF younger than 6 years of age from 9,471 clinical files from 1944 to 1982. These were followed retrospectively to identify the presence of rheumatic activity, subsequent attacks and penicillin profilaxis. From de 211 cases, 209 had carditis; 57% of them were girls and 43% boys. There were no previous infections of the upper respiratory tract in 36% of the patients. The number of cases with RF increased abruptly after 3 years of age and continued increasing until 5 years of age when 70.5% of the population had there first clinically recognized attack. Lesions were present in the mitral valve in 80% of the cases, in the aortic valve in 12%, in the tricuspid in 5% and in the pulmonary valve in 3%. The death rate during the first attack was 20% being refractory heart failure the main cause of death. Thirteen cases suffered rheumatic pneumonia, 9 of whom died (69.2%). 1) The incidence of acute rheumatic fever in children under 6 years of age has decreased with time. 2) The death rate as well as the valvular damage decreased with the parents cooperation with the treatment. 3) The changes in the clinical picture and the severity of valve sequelea may be due to penicillin profilaxis and the better understanding of the disease.

  3. Mammographic screening in asymptomatic women aged 40 years and older

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-05

    Currently, age-specific recommendations for screening mammograms in asymptomatic women that have been developed by professional, voluntary, and governmental organizations differ. While there is strong epidemiologic evidence that mammographic screening in asymptomatic women aged 50 years or older reduces breast cancer mortality, the evidence for mortality reduction is not as clear for women aged 40 to 49 years. However, as described in this report, findings of further mortality and survival follow-up of subjects in earlier studies, as well as observations from more recent studies, suggest reductions in mortality and better survival in younger women as well. While mammography is currently the most effective method for detecting early breast cancers, some breast cancers may develop during the intervals between screening mammograms. The costs of mammographic screening also require consideration in the process of making national screening recommendations.

  4. Prophylactic HPV vaccination for women over 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Adams, M; Jasani, B; Fiander, A

    2009-05-26

    Cervical screening has resulted in a major reduction in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in the UK and other developed countries. Nevertheless approximately 2700 women present with cervical cancer in the UK each year with mortality in excess of 1000 cases. Prophylactic HPV vaccination against HPV 16 and 18 has been shown to be highly effective in preventing HPV related malignancy in clinical trials. Newly introduced HPV vaccination programmes in the UK and elsewhere are ultimately likely to result in a further significant reduction in the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. These vaccination programmes will be most effective in early adolescence when prevalence of HPV infection is low. Consequently, vaccination programmes in the UK have been initially targeted at 12 to 13-year olds. In Australia favourable estimates of cost effectiveness have supported funding of a 'catch-up' programme to 26 years. In the UK the catch up programme has for the present been restricted to 18 years for cost effectiveness reasons. In addition the value of HPV vaccination beyond 26 years has not yet been fully clarified. Nevertheless women up to 45 years of age have been shown to exhibit strong immune responses to the bivalent HPV vaccine which might be expected to reduce the risk of HPV re-infection and address the second peak of HPV related malignancy in later life, evident over 45 years of age. Early data from randomised trials testing the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in women over 25 years has suggested high vaccine efficacy comparable to younger women. This paper will explore the evidence supporting HPV vaccination in HPV naïve and HPV exposed sexually active women up to 26 years and beyond this age group.

  5. Injuries in Female Dancers Aged 8 to 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Context Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. Objective To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (ie, practice hours en pointe). Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. Patients or Other Participants A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (eg, hours of practice per week en pointe). Results At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Conclusions Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises. PMID:23672333

  6. Injuries in female dancers aged 8 to 16 years.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (i.e., practice hours en pointe). Descriptive epidemiology study. The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (e.g., hours of practice per week en pointe). At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises.

  7. [Prevalence of malnutrition in minors under 5 years of age in Tabasco].

    PubMed

    Lastra-Escudero, L G; Roldán-Fernández, S G; Hernández-Martínez, E; Hernández-Torres, A P; Lechuga-Padrón, F G

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate malnutrition prevalence in children under five years-old in Tabasco, Mexico, during 1996, and their evolution in 1991-1996. A cross-sectional study, including 1,256 children under five years-old in 593 communities (31 urban and 562 rural) from 17 sanitary districts. The weight/age indicator for malnutrition in children under five years old showed 59% of children had normal nutrition and 41% with malnutrition, distributed as follows: 26.12% slight, 12.62% moderate and 2.39% severe. In children between 1-5 years old, malnutrition prevalence was 45%. The number of children with malnutrition in Tabasco during the study period (1991-1996) has decreased in proportion to the increase of those with normal nutrition. Based on the health system activities, the number of health districts with critical malnutrition indicators decreased from 6 to 4.

  8. The Busselton children's survey, 1983. Body size from five to 16 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, N E; Gracey, M; Maller, R A; Wearne, K L

    1986-10-20

    In 1983, 1623 primary and secondary schoolchildren took part in a health survey which was organized by the Busselton Population Studies Group. Age, sex, weight, height and country of birth were recorded for each child. Where possible, the country of birth of parents and the occupation of the father were extracted from previous Busselton surveys of adults. Compared with Perth schoolchildren, the difference in the attained weight and height of Busselton children at any age was small. This was so even though the two communities differ in location (rural compared with metropolitan), in ethnic origin (mainly British compared with diverse origins) and, probably, in social-rank distribution. Data from the two communities showed that a similar small secular increase in height had occurred since 1970/1971. This increase averaged at 1.2 cm for children at each year of age in Busselton and 1.5 cm to 1.6 cm for children in Perth.

  9. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  10. Psychomotor development in Argentinean children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Pascucci, María Cecilia; Krupitzky, Sara; Kelmansky, Diana; Bianco, Ana; Martínez, Elena; Tibaldi, Fabián; Cameron, Noel

    2002-01-01

    In Argentina, there is no information on ages of attainment of developmental milestones and very few data about environmental factors that influence them. A national survey on the psychomotor development of children under 6 years of age was carried out with the help of 129 paediatricians. Logistic regression was applied to a final sample of 3573 healthy, normal children in order to estimate selected centiles (25th, 50th, 75th and 90th), together with their respective confidence intervals, of the ages of attainment of 78 developmental items belonging to the following areas: personal-social (18 items), fine motor (19), language (18) and gross motor (23). The 50th centile obtained for each of the 43 comparable items was compared with those obtained in previously standardised tests: DDST, Denver II, Bayley and Chilean scales. Neither significant nor systematic differences were found between our results and those described in the tests used for comparison. Multiple logistic regressions showed that social class, maternal education and sex (female) were associated with earlier attainment of some selected developmental items, achieved at ages later than 1 year. Selected items achieved before the first year of life were not affected by any of the independent environmental variables studied. The information is useful in helping paediatricians in their daily practice for surveillance of development, as baseline information for epidemiological studies on development in our country and for cross-cultural analysis.

  11. Body build classification for ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18 years) and volleyball girls (aged 13-16 years).

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Stamm, Raini; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Slide

    2005-03-01

    The article describes two Estonian anthropometric cross-sectional studies of 1549 ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18) and 46 girls, who regularly practised volleyball (aged 13-16). Data are presented on 22 basic anthropometric measurements and 6 body composition characteristics (body mass index, mean skinfold, body density, relative mass of fat by Siri, absolute mass and relative mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue). All anthropometric variables were classified into five height-weight SD classes. Schoolgirls were divided into six age groups (7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18). Volleyballers were observed as one group as their age in SD classes did not differ significantly. The classification consisted of five categories: three height-weight concordant categories: I--small (small height, small weight), II--medium (medium height, medium weight), III large--(big height, big weight) and two height/weight discordant categories: IV--so-called pyknomorphs, V--so-called leptomorphs. To assess the differences between classes the Scheffé-test was used (alpha = 0.05). It proved likewise possible to comparatively systematize length, breadth and depth measurements, circumferences and body composition characteristics in all six age groups (7-18 years) of ordinary schoolgirls and in 13-16-year-old volleyballers as in their case the average age did not differ significantly between the classes.

  12. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group.

  13. [Spinal meningioma surgery after 75 years of age].

    PubMed

    Sacko, O; Rabarijaona, M; Loiseau, H

    2008-08-01

    Spinal meningioma surgery is usually not difficult and is commonly associated with good outcome. However, advanced age and severe neurological deficit have been considered to be predictors of poor surgical outcome. Therefore, we attempted to assess the surgical outcome of spinal meningiomas in the elderly and to analyze the role of outcome predictors. From 1990 to 2006, 32 patients 76 years or older with spinal meningiomas were operated on in our Neurosurgery Departments. All patients had MRI. Neurological status was assessed using the Solero score. Neurological evaluations were conducted three months and one year after surgery. The mean follow-up was 36 months. A multiple logistic regression was applied to establish the relationship between the risk factors and outcome. The median age was 79.3 years. The mean duration of symptoms until surgery was 12.7 months. One patient was rated Solero grade I, 11 grade II, 17 grade III and three patients were rated grade IV. Radical tumor removal was performed in 30 patients (94%). All meningiomas were benign. There was no recurrence, morbidity was 9%, and 1-year mortality was 0%. One year after surgery, all patients had improved, 56 % had recovered completely. Among 20 patients with severe paraparesis or paraplegia, 30 % had recovered completely. There was no statistical correlation between outcome and various risk factors: age, gender, ASA, tumor size, quality of tumor removal, and location. Only preoperative Solero score and duration of symptoms before surgery were statistically significant. Surgery is the only treatment of symptomatic spinal meningioma. Advanced age did not seem to contraindicate surgery, even in those with severe preoperative neurological deficits, because quality of life can be improved in the vast majority of cases. There was a correlation between duration and severity of deficit and outcome.

  14. [Blood donation after reaching 65 years of age].

    PubMed

    Janetzko, K; Böcher, R; Klotz, K F; Kirchner, H; Klüter, H

    1996-01-01

    European regulations for blood donation recommend a maximum donor age of 65 years. On the other hand, the percentage of the population in this age group is rapidly increasing in Western countries, and in autologous blood donation programs this limitation has already been abandoned. In a prospective study we examined blood donation in elderly donors (18 male and 5 female; mean age 65 years, range 64-69) in comparison to a younger control group (15/9; 58, 55-63). All donors were regular blood donors and had donated for at least 3 years. We investigated the exercise capacity before and after donation of 450 ml whole blood by examination of the physical working capacity (PWC) at heart rates of 110/min and 130/min through treadmill exercise testing and determined the blood viscosity. Additionally, whole-blood count, hemoglobin, plasma-ferritin levels and total iron binding capacity were measured immediately after donation and on days 7, 28 and 49. We found a decrease in whole-blood viscosity and a moderate increase in PWC at heart rates of 110/min and 130/min after donation in both groups. Red cell count and values of hemoglobin and ferritin were significantly lower in both groups after donation and returned to pre-donation values by day 49 in the younger control group. We detected no deterioration in exercise capacity after whole-blood donation in elderly blood donors over 65 years when compared with a younger control group. We suggest that blood donation in otherwise healthy persons aged over 65 years should be accepted.

  15. Cognitive functioning over 2 years after intracerebral hemorrhage in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lexa K; Compas, Bruce E; Gindville, Melissa C; Reeslund, Kristen L; Jordan, Lori C

    2017-09-06

    Previous research investigating outcomes after pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has generally been limited to global and sensorimotor outcomes. This study examined cognitive outcomes after spontaneous ICH in school-aged children with serial assessments over 2 years after stroke. Seven children (age range 6-16y, median 13; six males, one female; 57% white, 43% black) presenting with spontaneous ICH (six arteriovenous malformations) were assessed at 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months after stroke. The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) quantified neurological outcome and Wechsler Intelligence Scales measured cognitive outcomes: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. PSOM scales showed improved neurological function over the first 12 months, with mild to no sensorimotor deficits and moderate overall deficits at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (median 2-year sensorimotor PSOM=0.5, total PSOM=1.5). Changes in cognitive function indicated a different trajectory; verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning improved over 24 months; low performance was sustained in processing speed and working memory. Age-normed centile scores decreased between 1- and 2-year follow-ups for working memory, suggesting emerging deficits compared with peers. Early and serial cognitive testing in children with ICH is needed to assess cognitive functioning and support children in school as they age and cognitive deficits become more apparent and important for function. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Subcrestal placement of dental implants with an internal conical connection of 0.5 mm versus 1.5 mm: Outcome of a multicentre randomised controlled trial 1 year after loading.

    PubMed

    Gualini, Federico; Salina, Sergio; Rigotti, Fabio; Mazzarini, Cristian; Longhin, Diego; Grigoletto, Mauro; Trullenque-Eriksson, Anna; Sbricoli, Luca; Esposito, Marco

    To evaluate whether there are some clinical benefits by placing single dental implants either 0.5 or 1.5 mm subcrestally in healed bone crests. Sixty partially edentulous patients requiring two single implant-supported crowns had both sites randomly allocated either to 0.5 mm or 1.5 mm subcrestal implant placement according to a split-mouth design at six centres. Implants were submerged in aesthetic areas or non-submerged in non-aesthetic areas for 3 months. Provisional acrylic crowns were delivered and were replaced after 2 months by definitive metal-ceramic crowns. Patients were followed to 1 year after loading. Outcome measures were: crown and implant failures; complications; aesthetics assessed using the pink esthetic score (PES); peri-implant marginal bone level changes; and patient preference, recorded by blinded assessors. One patient dropped out. One patient lost both implants to infection at impression taking. Three complications affected three patients of the 0.5 mm group and two complications affected two patients of the 1.5 mm subcrestally placed implants. One patient had complications at both implants. There were no statistically significant differences for complications between group (difference of proportion = 0.02; 95% CI -0.06 to 0.09; P (McNemar test) = 1.000). At delivery of definitive crowns, 2 months after loading, the mean aesthetic score was 11.22 ± 1.91 and 11.12 ± 1.59 for the 0.5 and 1.5 mm group, respectively. At 1 year after loading, the mean aesthetic score was 12.09 ± 1.66 and 12.10 ± 1.52 for the 0.5 and 1.5 mm group, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups at 2 months (P (paired t test) = 0.626) or at 1 year (P (paired t test) = 0.920). One year after loading, patients of the 0.5 mm lost on average 0.21 ± 0.51 mm and those of the 1.5 mm group 0.11 ± 0.36 mm, the difference being not statistically significant

  17. Intelligence quotient scores at the age of 6 years in children anaesthetised before the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    de Heer, I J; Tiemeier, H; Hoeks, S E; Weber, F

    2017-01-01

    We analysed the association of independent variables with non-verbal cognition at 6 years in children with complete data (3441 from a cohort of 9901), of whom 415 were anaesthetised before the age of 5 years. Using multivariable regression, cognition was reduced by a mean (95% CI) score for children: anaesthetised before the age of 5 years, 2.1 (0.7-3.5), p = 0.004; born prematurely, 9.8 (4.1-15.4), p = 0.001; whose mothers smoked while pregnant, 2.3 (0.8-3.8), p = 0.004; whose mothers had lower IQ scores, 0.3 (0.2-0.3) for each unit reduction in maternal IQ, p < 0.0001. The association of child IQ with exposure to anaesthetic drugs was sensitive to missing data. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Charnley low-frictional torque arthroplasty in patients under the age of 51 years. Follow-up to 33 years.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, B M; Siney, P D; Fleming, P A

    2002-05-01

    Between November 1962 and December 1990 a group of 1092 patients, 668 women and 424 men, under the age of 51 years at the time of surgery, underwent 1434 primary Charnley low-frictional torque arthroplasties and are being followed up indefinitely. Their mean age at operation was 41 years (12 to 51). At the latest review in June 2001 the mean follow-up had been for 15 years 1 month. Of the 1092 patients 54 (66 hips) could not be traced, 124 (169 hips) were known to have died and 220 (248 hips) had had a revision procedure. At a mean follow-up of 17 years and 5 months, 759 patients (951 hips) are still attending. In this group satisfaction with the outcome is 96.2%. The incidence of deep infection for the whole group was 1.67%. It was more common in patients who had had previous surgery (hemi- and total hip arthroplasties excluded), 2.2% compared with 1.5% in those who had not had previous surgery, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.4). There were fewer cases of deep infection if gentamicin-containing cement was used, 0.9% compared with 1.9% in those with plain acrylic cement, but this was not also statistically significant (p = 0.4). There was a significantly higher rate of revision in patients who had had previous hip surgery, 24.8% compared with 14.1% in those who had not had previous surgery (p < 0.001). At the latest review, 1.95% are known to have had at least one dislocation and 0.4% have had a revision for dislocation. The indication for revision was aseptic loosening of the cup (11.7%), aseptic loosening of the stem (4.9%), a fractured stem (1.7%), deep infection (1.5%) and dislocation (0.4%). With revision for any indication as the endpoint the survivorship was 93.7% (92.3 to 95.0) at ten years, 84.7% (82.4 to 87.1) at 15 years, 74.3% (70.5 to 78.0) at 20 years and 55.3% (45.5 to 65.0) at 27 years, when 55 hips remained 'at risk'.

  19. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  20. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449of these children.
RESULTS—Mean score on Moray House Test increased from 30.6 at a birth weight of <2500 g to 44.7 at 4001-4500 g, after correcting for gestational age, maternal age, parity, social class, and legitimacy of birth. Multiple regression showed that 15.6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution from each of these variables in predicting cognitive ability. A model in which birth weight acted as a mediator of social class had poor fit statistics.
CONCLUSION—In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age.

 PMID:11517097

  1. 25 Years after age-1: Genes, Interventions and the Revolution in Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This communication will briefly review more than 30 years of research on aging using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (“The Worm”) as carried out in the labs of Tom Johnson. We will highlight research directions initiated in the 1980’s, which were exciting for those of us trying to turn over a new leaf in aging research. In this narrative, I will discuss primarily the science that I and my lab have been involved with for the last 30 years. This area has been fascinating to those studying the sociology of science as modern aging research has moved to replace the simplistic, poorly controlled and outright fictitious approaches seen in much of the previous aging research. PMID:23466302

  2. Pregnancies in Women Aged 45 Years and Older - a 10-Year Retrospective Analysis in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Rendtorff, Rosa; Hinkson, Larry; Kiver, Verena; Dröge, Lisa Antonia; Henrich, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Improved fertility treatment options and a change in the socio-cultural concept of family planning, especially in industrialized regions, has led to an increasing number of births by women of advanced maternal age, which is associated with a higher rate of complications. The aim of this study was to analyze pregnancy outcomes in women aged ≥ 45 years in an inner-city German hospital and to compare these results to those of a younger cohort. Materials and Methods Over a 10-year period from January 2004 to May 2015, the pregnancy outcomes of all 186 women aged ≥ 45 years who delivered in our hospital were compared in a 1 : 1 ratio to those of a cohort of 29-year old women. Results The rates of assisted reproduction (34 vs. 3 %), multiple pregnancies (16 vs. 5 %) and cesarean section (59 vs. 29 %) were significantly increased in the study group. There was an increased risk of preterm delivery (28 vs. 11 %), preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and premature rupture of membranes in the advanced maternal age group. Conclusion Advanced maternal age leads to higher rates of fetal and maternal complications. These findings should be taken into account when planning assisted reproduction and obstetrical care in women with advanced maternal age.

  3. Yield of mammography in selected patients age < or = 30 years.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, P A; Moore, E M; Carrillo, R; Goepfert, C J

    2001-03-15

    An outcomes analysis study was performed to quantify the benefit of directed diagnostic imaging of selected very young women (defined as < or = 30 years of age) in our population. Summary results are presented. Women's Imaging Services were queried for studies performed between April 1, 1997 and December 31, 1998 on women < or = 30 years of age. The authors' referral pathway mandates breast examination by a general surgeon or by the head of Women's Imaging before mammography in all such patients. Studies were excluded if there were reviews of scans performed at other sites. The resulting 142 mammograms were evaluated. Ninety percent of the 142 studies were within normal limits. Only 11 mammograms indicated any required action (7.8%), and only 5 of these merited biopsy. All biopsies revealed benign disease. No carcinomas were detected by biopsy or on clinical follow-up in this cohort of women. These values are congruent with the scarce literature on mammography in this population. The yield of mammography in the age < or = 30 years population is low. Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.

  4. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality. PMID:26039396

  5. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ.

    PubMed

    Cox, Simon R; Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Evans, Alan C; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-10-25

    To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Evans, Alan C.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. Methods: We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. Results: The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. Conclusions: The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. PMID:27664981

  7. Typhoid intestinal perforation under 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ekenze, Sebastian O; Ikefuna, Anthony N

    2008-03-01

    Typhoid intestinal perforation is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. The peculiar features in children <5 years old need to be recognised in order to improve outcome. To determine the characteristic pattern and outcome of typhoid intestinal perforation in children under 5 years of age in south-east Nigeria. Comparative analysis of 83 children with typhoid intestinal perforation between January 2001 and December 2006 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. There were 22 (26.5%) children <5 years of age and 61 (73.5%) >5 years. In the younger children, the predominant presentation was fever, vomiting and abdominal tenderness, and in the older children it was fever, abdominal pain and distension. Features of peritonitis were present in only 54.5% aged <5 years compared with 90.2% of the older children (p<0.001). The average number of perforations in the under-5s was 2.1 (range 1-4) and >1.3 (range 1-3) in the older children (p<0.01). The types of operative procedure (simple closure and segmental bowel resection) were similar in both groups. Post-operative complications were not significantly different in the two groups and included surgical wound infection, prolonged ileus, pulmonary infection, wound dehiscence, re-perforation, intra-abdominal abscess and incisional hernia. There were nine (40.9%) deaths in the <5s and 12 (19.7%) in the >5s (p<0.05). Typhoid intestinal perforation in children <5 is associated with atypical presentation and high mortality. A high index of suspicion will ensure earlier presentation and might improve outcome.

  8. Longitudinal assessment of body composition in healthy Swedish children from 1 week until 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, H; Eriksson, B; Forsum, E; Flinke, E; Henriksson, P; Löf, M

    2017-08-23

    Knowledge of longitudinal body composition development is required to identify the mechanisms behind childhood overweight and obesity and to prevent these conditions. However, accurate data on this development in early childhood are lacking. Our aim was to describe the longitudinal body composition development in healthy young Swedish children. Body size and composition were assessed in 26 children using air-displacement plethysmography (1 and 12 weeks and 4.4 years of age) and isotope dilution (1.5 and 3 years of age) and compared with available reference data. Body fat (%) for boys (n=16) was 12.8±3.9 (1 week), 25.6±4.8 (12 weeks), 28.2±3.8 (1.5 years), 27.3±5.1 (3 years) and 26.1±3.5 (4.4 years). For girls (n=10) these values were 15.3±2.9, 25.7±3.9, 27.9±3.3, 26.3±7.2 and 26.0±5.3, respectively. These values were above the Fomon reference values at 1.5 years of age and later and higher than the Butte reference (P<0.05) for boys at 1.5 years of age. At all ages the coefficients of variation were higher for body fat (%) (12-30%) than for BMI (4-11%). At 4 years of age our children had more body fat than indicated by reference data. This high level may have already been established at 1.5 years of age but our small sample and the lack of appropriate reference data limit the possibility of drawing firm conclusions. Our results demonstrate the limitations of BMI when investigating overweight and obesity in early life and highlight the need for appropriate reference body composition data in infants and young children.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 23 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.125.

  9. [Suicide attempts of 48 children aged 6-12 years].

    PubMed

    Berthod, C; Giraud, C; Gansel, Y; Fourneret, P; Desombre, H

    2013-12-01

    Research is limited on suicide attempts in children under 13 years of age. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth description of this population. The present study is both retrospective and descriptive. Data were collected retrospectively from a file containing the causes for hospitalization of each child admitted into the Department of Child Psychiatry at the hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant (hospices civils de Lyon). We included all patients under 13 years of age who were hospitalized for a suicide attempt between 2008 and 2011. The methods used to collect the medical records consisted in using a form made up of four major parts: suicide attempts, social environment, medical history, and therapy. The 26 girls and 22 boys included had a mean age of 11.52 years. The boys were younger than the girls (P=0.047) and their parents were usually separated (P=0.034). The boys used more violent means to commit suicide in comparison to the girls (P=0.048). On average, children using violent means were younger (P=0.013). Boys underwent more psychotherapy (P=0.027) and were prescribed more psychotropic medication in comparison to girls (P=0.051). Adjustment disorders (37.5%) and depression (27%) were the two main diagnoses for hospitalization. They were hospitalized on average (±standard deviation) 9.6 days (±10 days). Psychotherapy was organized when leaving the hospital (98%) with legal measures (8.3%), change of residence (12.5%), and prescription of psychotropic drugs (37.5%). None had physical complications. In children under 13 years of age, attempted suicide was more frequent in girls than boys. However, the sample included 18 girls and nine boys who were 12 years old (sex ratio of 12-year-olds, 0.5). There were more boys (16 boys/eight girls) in the children under 12 (sex ratio of 8- to 11-year-olds, 1.6). Children under 11 used more violent means (P=0.01). The literature also reports that more violent means lead to a greater risk of death by suicide

  10. Pregnancy outcomes among mothers aged 15 years or less.

    PubMed

    Traisrisilp, Kuntharee; Jaiprom, Jedsada; Luewan, Suchaya; Tongsong, Theera

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pregnancy outcomes among early adolescent women (aged ≤ 15 years) compared with those in late adolescence (16-19 years) and adults aged 20-30 years. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnancies with maternal age ≤15 years (early adolescent), 16-19 years (late adolescent), and 20-30 years (adult). The primary outcomes for comparison were the rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, growth restriction and cesarean section. A total of 33 777 pregnancies, 298 early adolescent, 4456 late adolescent, and 29 023 adults, were enrolled. Most baseline characteristics were comparable but rates of pregnancy complicated by medical diseases were significantly higher in the adults, especially diabetes mellitus and chronic hypertension. When compared to the adult group, the early adolescent group had significantly higher rates of preterm birth (31.9% vs 14.5%, P < 0.001), growth restriction (11.7% vs 7.1%, P = 0.002), low birthweight (28.9% vs 14.7%, P < 0.001), while maternal morbidity, such as pre-eclampsia and placenta previa, was similar. Likewise, most of the main outcomes in early adolescents were also significantly higher than those in late adolescents, but with lesser degrees. Interestingly, the primary cesarean rate was significantly lower in early adolescent women (6.7% vs 12.3%, P = 0.005). Early adolescent pregnancy was associated with higher risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes, in particular preterm birth and growth restriction, though most maternal morbidity was comparable with that in the control groups. Cesarean rate was significantly lower in early adolescent mothers. This information should be provided to women and their families. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Colorectal cancer outcomes in patients aged over 85 years.

    PubMed

    Ng, O; Watts, E; Bull, C A; Morris, R; Acheson, A; Banerjea, A

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of colorectal cancer is increasing in the elderly. We examined the treatment and outcomes in our institution of patients aged over 85 years with proven colorectal adenocarcinoma. One hundred and five patients were identified and stratified by treatment received: curative surgery (CS), other treatments (OT) or best supportive care (BSC). Data on demographics, staging, treatment and survival was collected and analysed. Forty two patients received CS, 36 OT and 27 BSC. While the treated groups (CS and OT) were similar in terms of age (p=0.35) and staging (p=0.16), BSC patients were significantly older and had higher stage disease (p<0.01). Survival was significantly poorer among BSC patients, at a mean of 9.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7-14.7) versus 41.6 months (95% CI 32.5-50.7) and OT 27.3 months (95% CI 20.4-34.1) for the CS and OT groups (p<0.001). There was no significant survival difference between CS and OT groups within 2 years of treatment (p=0.12). Thereafter, OT patients had a very similar 5-year survival to that of the BSC group, at 13% versus 43% in CS patients (p<0.001). These data suggest that, up to 2 years following treatment, the risks of resectional surgery for colorectal cancer may neutralise any benefit. However, those that survive beyond this period show improvements. The challenge of improving patient selection is most acute in the growing ageing population, and highlights the current focus on presenting all treatment options to 'a reasonable patient'.

  12. Breast cancer in women under 40 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kocic, B; Filipovic, S; Vrbic, V; Pejcic, I

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that breast cancer in young women is characterized by a relatively unfavorable prognosis and unusual pathological features. The aim of this study was to investigate clinicopathological and biological characteristics in young patients with breast cancer. The study enrolled 1029 consecutive female breast cancer patients who were admitted to the Clinical Centre Nis between July 2002 and December 2008. 91 (8.8%) patients were under and 938 (91.2%) were over 40 years. The mean age was 35.9 years for those under 40 years and 58.3 for those older than 40 years. In both patient groups, left breast was most commonly involved; the most common primary tumor site was the upper lateral quadrant; the most common histological type was ductal carcinoma; histological and nuclear grade 2 was most common. In the younger group of patients, the proportion of patients with T3 and T4 disease was higher (13.0 vs. 9.3% and 16.5 vs. 12.0%), the number of patients with histological and nuclear grade 3 disease was higher (27.5 vs. 24.7% and 37.4 vs. 33.2%), the proportion of patients with 4-9 and >10 positive lymph nodes was higher (22.6 vs. 18.3% and 7.1 vs. 4.0%), and the percentage of family history of breast cancer was higher (5.5 vs. 3.1%), without statistically significant differences between the two age groups. Patients in the younger age group exhibited higher estrogen (ER)/progesterone (PR) receptor negativity (32.6 vs. 24.4%) (p<0.05). Although uncommon, breast cancer in young women is worth special attention. The underlying causes of the disease must be investigated in large population- based studies in the future.

  13. [Nissen fundoplication in children under 1 year of age: is age important?

    PubMed

    Romo, M I; López-Fernández, S; Núñez, V; Amesty, M V; Triana, P; Domínguez, E; De La Torre, C A; Barrena, S; López-Santamaría, M; Martínez, L

    2016-10-10

    Nissen fundoplication (NF) is a procedure with technical difficulties and variable functional prognosis the lower the patient's age is. Our objective is to analyze the peculiarities of this procedure when performed in children under 1 year. Retrospective study of the NF in our center from 1999 to 2014. We review the differences between children under 1 year of age and the leftover of the series: history, indications, surgical approach and postoperative outcomes. A total of 233 patients (57.1% male) were operated at a median age of 2.3years (1 month-17.31years), of which 82 (35.2%) were younger than 1 year. It Open surgery was performed in 118 patients (86.6% of children under 1 year and 31.1% over 1 year, p <0.05) and laparoscopic in 115. The median follow-up was 3.92 ± 3.24 years. Patients under 1 year had a higher number of comorbidities (91.5% vs 81.5%), respiratory symptoms (76.8% vs 49.7%) and postoperative complications (20.7% vs 9.9% OR = 2.4), with statistically significant differences (p <0.05). There were not differences in the Nissen's failure rate (15.9% vs 8.6%) or the need of reoperation (15.9% vs 7.9%). Patients under 1 year operated by NF form a group with particular indications and comorbidities. Although the outcomes among these patients are favourable, surgical complications are more frequent than in older children.

  14. Implicit Weight Bias in Children Age 9 to 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Payne, Keith; Perrin, Andrew J; Panter, Abigail T; Howard, Janna B; Bardone-Cone, Anna; Bulik, Cynthia M; Steiner, Michael J; Perrin, Eliana M

    2017-07-01

    Assess implicit weight bias in children 9 to 11 years old. Implicit weight bias was measured in children ages 9 to 11 (N = 114) by using the Affect Misattribution Procedure. Participants were shown a test image of a child for 350 milliseconds followed by a meaningless fractal (200 milliseconds), and then they were asked to rate the fractal image as "good" or "bad." We used 9 image pairs matched on age, race, sex, and activity but differing by weight of the child. Implicit bias was the difference between positive ratings for fractals preceded by an image of a healthy-weight child and positive ratings for fractals preceded by an image of an overweight child. On average, 64% of abstract fractals shown after pictures of healthy-weight children were rated as "good," compared with 59% of those shown after pictures of overweight children, reflecting an overall implicit bias rate of 5.4% against overweight children (P < .001). Healthy-weight participants showed greater implicit bias than over- and underweight participants (7.9%, 1.4%, and 0.3% respectively; P = .049). Implicit bias toward overweight individuals is evident in children aged 9 to 11 years with a magnitude of implicit bias (5.4%) similar to that in studies of implicit racial bias among adults. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Results of UAE in women under 40 years of age.

    PubMed

    McLucas, Bruce; Voorhees, William D

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the success rate of uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata for women under 40 years of age. This observational study of fibroid treatment in women under 40 years of age at the time of procedure was conducted at a private practice located in Los Angeles, CA. One hundred and four patients participated in the study. The study involved a pre- and post- UAE survey of symptoms evaluated on a scale of mild, moderate, or severe. The post UAE assessment also involved an indication of whether the patients would recommend UAE. Patients were surveyed concerning subsequent pelvic surgery and pregnancy. Comparison of pre- and post- survey data resulted in an overall success rate of 90.4% based on relief of symptoms. Patients reported no late onset failures. Several patients underwent full-term pregnancies. 6.7 % of patients underwent abdominal myomectomy following UAE. No patient underwent hysterectomy. No significant difference exists in the success rate of UAE for women under 40 and the entire cohort of women undergoing UAE. UAE is a suitable form of treatment for women in this age group.

  16. Immunoglobulin patterns in humans over 95 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Radl, J; Sepers, J M; Skvaril, F; Morell, A; Hijmans, W

    1975-01-01

    Immunoglobulin patterns were investigated in seventy-three volunteers older than 95 years. An idiopathic paraproteinaemia was found in 19% of the cases. A restriction of heterogeneity and an imbalance in the kappa/lambda ratio of the immunoglobulins was seen in a number of other sera. Determinations of immunoglobulin levels in sera of individuals without paraproteinaemia showed an increase in IgA and IgG. The quantitations of the IgG subclasses demonstrated that an increase in the IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses is responsible for the elevated level of the IgG. The variation in the immunoglobulin levels increased significantly with age of IgM and for the three major IgG subclasses. No abnormalities were found in the urine or in the mixed saliva. These results indicate that selective changes in the extent of the antibody-immunoglobulin repertoire characterize the immunoglobulin pattern of ageing man. PMID:1212818

  17. Developing movement efficiency between 7 and 9 years of age.

    PubMed

    Bosga-Stork, Ida Maria; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek R, G J

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the movement efficiency of typically developing children between 7 and 9 years of age by scrutinizing their movement amplitudes and frequencies as they settled into a loop-writing task in which both parameters were prescribed. It was hypothesized that during the first three grades at primary school children would show increasing efficiency in exploiting the inverse relationship between movement amplitude and frequency when adjusting their movement errors. Whereas a clear developmental trend showed increasing efficiency with respect to the way in which the primary school children met the amplitude constraints, a more variable pattern was found for the age-dependent adjustments to the frequency requirements. At the level of parameter-error corrections from one cycle to the next, a marginal developmental trend was observed. Results are discussed in terms of contrasting effects between educational targets and movement-efficiency principles.

  18. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the lifespan. 194 participants aged 3 to 95 years completed three tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups demonstrated hindsight bias on all three tasks; however, preschoolers and the elderly exhibited more bias than older children and younger adults. Multinomial processing tree analyses of these data revealed that preschoolers’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them substituting the correct answer for their original answer in their recall (a qualitative error). Conversely, older adults’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them forgetting their original answer and recalling an answer closer to, but not equal to, the correct answer (a quantitative error). We discuss these findings in relation to mechanisms of memory, perspective-taking, theory of mind, and executive function. PMID:21299327

  19. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S. Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

  20. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Structural evaluations were conducted on several parachute systems to determine the effects of aging on parachute materials. Most of the parachutes were 25 years old. Five 64 ft parachutes were evaluated along with one 4 ft guide surface parachute and three 16.5 ft ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Results were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. The results indicate that over a period of about 25 years, parachute nylon materials do not degrade to unacceptable levels. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. [Lumbar discal hernia after 65 years of age].

    PubMed

    Brunon, J; Duthel, R; Ollier, J; Riffat, G

    1984-01-01

    The authors make a retrospective study of a series of 200 patients who had been surgically treated, within a period of 26 months, for a lumbar discal pathology. Twenty of these (20%) were over 65 years old. A similar study was carried out in a rheumatological unit over a period of three years, and has included 266 patients, 21 of whom (7,8%) were older than 65. The comparison of both these series permits us to make some considerations concerning the frequency of this pathology after the age of 65, its clinical presentation and its treatment, which, as for the younger adult, must be surgical when the correct treatment fails and when a complication appears.

  2. Prader-Willi Syndrome after age 15 years.

    PubMed Central

    Laurance, B M; Brito, A; Wilkinson, J

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four patients, all of them over 15 years, with the Prader-Willi syndrome are described. Obesity, often extreme, associated with an insatiable appetite, was their principal handicap and this was made worse by educational subnormality and hypogonadism. Three of the them developed diabetes. Each attended a special school or an adult training centre. Although most of them were of short stature and had scoliosis, 2 were tall but they even more severely mentally retarded than is usually the case. Nine other patients died aged between 3 and 23 years. The most common cause of death was cor pulmonale. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7212756

  3. Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in adults aged 18 to 59 years.

    PubMed

    Musini, Vijaya M; Gueyffier, Francois; Puil, Lorri; Salzwedel, Douglas M; Wright, James M

    2017-08-16

    Hypertension is an important risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events including stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure and renal failure. The main goal of treatment is to reduce these events. Systematic reviews have shown proven benefit of antihypertensive drug therapy in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but most of the evidence is in people 60 years of age and older. We wanted to know what the effects of therapy are in people 18 to 59 years of age. To quantify antihypertensive drug effects on all-cause mortality in adults aged 18 to 59 years with mild to moderate primary hypertension. To quantify effects on cardiovascular mortality plus morbidity (including cerebrovascular and coronary heart disease mortality plus morbidity), withdrawal due adverse events and estimate magnitude of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) lowering at one year. The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to January 2017: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We contacted authors of relevant papers regarding further published and unpublished work. Randomized trials of at least one year' duration comparing antihypertensive pharmacotherapy with a placebo or no treatment in adults aged 18 to 59 years with mild to moderate primary hypertension defined as SBP 140 mmHg or greater or DBP 90 mmHg or greater at baseline, or both. The outcomes assessed were all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular (CVS) mortality plus morbidity, withdrawals due to adverse events, and decrease in SBP and DBP. For dichotomous outcomes, we used risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and a fixed-effect model to combine outcomes across trials. For continuous outcomes

  4. Demirjian's system for estimating dental age among Northwestern Turkish children aged 4-16 years.

    PubMed

    Ercalikyalcinkaya, S; Dumlu, A; Bekiroglu, N; Kizilyel, G; Kargul, B

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the timing of individual tooth formation stages in a group of northwestern Turkish children and to evaluate the suitability of Demirjian's method. dental ages (DAs) were assessed from 1,678 digital panoramic radiographs of healthy children (aged 4-16 years; 743 females and 935 males). Seven mandibular teeth were evaluated according to the Demirjian's eight-grade dental maturity scale by one examiner. Dental age was compared to chronologic age (CA) using a paired t-test. Intra- and inter-observer agreements were assessed with 250 OPGs. The mean difference between DA and CA was statistically significant among genders (p = 0.004), and it was 0.50 +/-1.90 years in girls and 0.77+/-1.86 years in boys. The mean DA was significantly higher (p<0.0001) than the mean CA in the entire studied group; therefore, dental development was considerably accelerated. The Intra- and Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for the assessment of DA were 0.964 and 0.961, respectively, which is considered "substantial agreement". Results show that the mean DAs of the studied group of Turkish children are significantly higher than the CAs. Overestimation is notable at the beginning of puberty.

  5. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Growth of children with Down's syndrome: birth to age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Cronk, C E

    1978-04-01

    A sample of 90 children with Down's syndrome were measured for recumbent length and weight from birth to age 36 months at the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston. At birth, means for both length and weight were reduced by about 0.5 SDs from the control group means. By 36 months, mean recumbent length was greater than 2 SDs below that for the control group, while the mean for weight was reduced by about 1.5 SDs from the control group mean. Growth velocity for both length and weight was most deficient within the first two years of life. About 30% of the sample demonstrated excess weight for length relations by 36 months. Children with moderate or severe heart disease were significantly smaller than those without or with mild cardiac problems at all times after birth. Measurements of a subsample of children at 4, 5, and 6 years of age suggested that growth velocity after 3 years of age may be within the range of normal. Assessment of growth of the child with Down's syndrome may be carried out with reference to charts plotting tenth to 90th percentiles based on these data.

  7. Primary headache disorders in children under 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ramdas, S; Prasad, M; Abu-Arafeh, I

    2013-02-01

    Research on headache disorders in young children is limited. This study aims to determine causes and clinical presentations of headache in young children attending a specialist clinic. All children attending the headache clinic over 9-year period were included. Data were collected prospectively on demography and clinical presentations of headache at every attendance. The diagnosis of headache disorders was based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II (2004). Of the 921 children (491 male) who attended the clinic, 73 children (8%) were under 7 years of age at presentation; 34 children had migraine, 11 had tension-type headache (4 chronic), 4 had mixed types of headache and 16 children had unclassified headaches. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, light intolerance and noise intolerance were common during migraine attacks and forehead was the most common site of maximal pain. Migraine is the most common headache disorder in young children attending a specialist clinic. Headache presentation is often atypical and in 20% of young children headache disorders are unclassified. Chronic tension-type headache, often considered a disease of adolescents and adults, is shown to present in early age.

  8. Cancer Prevention Among Adults Aged 45–64 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Marcia G.; Anderson, Lynda A.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Pulczinski, Jairus C.; Eugene, Nola; Satariano, William A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of setting the stage for this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, a life-course perspective is presented to assist in understanding the importance of cancer prevention for adults in midlife, a period roughly spanning 20 years between ages 45 and 64 years. Drawing on disciplinary perspectives from the social sciences and public health, several life-course themes are delineated in this article: how specific life transitions present unique opportunities for interventions to inform policy and practice that can improve population health outcomes; how interventions can be focused on those at particular life stages or on the entire life course; and how the onset and progression of chronic conditions such as cancer are dependent on a complex interplay of critical and sensitive periods, and trajectory and accumulation processes. A translational research framework is applied to help promote the movement of applied public health interventions for cancer prevention into practice. Also explored are differences that can affect people at midlife relative to other age cohorts. Specifically, cancer-related risks and care networks are examined, with examples of public health strategies that can be applied to cancer prevention and control. As a conclusion, select methodologic issues and next steps for advancing research and practice are identified. PMID:24512925

  9. Tacrolimus ointment: utilization patterns in children under age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Housman, Tamara Salam; Norton, Amy B; Feldman, Steven R; Fleischer, Alan B; Simpson, Eric L; Hanifin, Jon M; Antaya, Richard J

    2004-07-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common eczematous skin condition; as many as 10-17 percent of all children are affected, and 35-60 percent of affected patients manifest symptoms manifest during the first year of life. Treatment principles for AD in young children involve conservative measures such as avoidance of hot water and environmental irritants, combined with liberal use of emollients after bathing. Low potency topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the current standard of therapy for AD in young children, reserving mid- and high-potency TCS for severe disease. However, complications of long-term use of TCS include skin atrophy, stria formation, telangiectasia, hypopigmentation, secondary infections, steroid acne, allergic contact dermatitis, and miliaria. The pediatric population is also at increased risk for systemic absorption because of their high ratio of skin surface to body mass. Systemic absorption may result in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression and ultimately growth retardation. Although most topical and systemic corticosteroids are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in children less than 2 years of age, conservative treatment often fails in this age group and frequently patients are treated with TCS, antibiotics, and antihistamines.

  10. Wellness among US adolescents ages 12-17 years.

    PubMed

    Preskitt, J K; Menear, K S; Goldfarb, S S; Menachemi, N

    2015-11-01

    Wellness is a multidimensional construct related to an individual's physical, emotional, intellectual and social well-being. We present estimates of wellness among US adolescents aged 12-17 years and explore how demographic characteristics are associated with wellness. All respondents aged 12 to 17 years (n = 34,601) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health were included in the sample. Survey items were coded to operationalize an overall wellness score, comprised of four subdimensions (physical, intellectual, emotional and social). The mean adjusted overall wellness score was 30.2 (out of 40). Mean raw subdimensions scores were: social = 3.14 (out of 4), emotional = 4.79 (out of 6), intellectual = 4.80 (out of 8) and physical = 6.57 (out of 8). Older adolescents, those with special health needs, those in lower income families and those whose mother or father report fair-poor mental health status had lower wellness scores. US adolescents have wellness scores towards the upper or higher end of our scale. Several adolescent and family characteristics were associated with either lower overall wellness and/or lower wellness on multiple subdimensions. Assessing wellness during critical developmental periods of adolescence is a first step towards promoting behaviours that support increased wellness into adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Lower limb function and 10-year survival in population aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Arnau, Anna; Espaulella, Joan; Méndez, Teresa; Serrarols, Marta; Canudas, Judit; Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Montserrat

    2016-02-01

    Scientific societies recommend assessing lower limb function in usual clinical practice. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) is one of the most validated tools to assess this, but its capacity to predict long-term mortality in very old population attending primary care has not been studied. To assess the ability of the SPPB to predict 10-year survival in individuals aged 75 and over. Prospective cohort study with a 10-year follow-up. A representative sample of people aged 75 years or older without severe dependence (Barthel Index > 20) treated at a Spanish primary care centre (n = 315). Baseline evaluation included geriatric assessment with most well-known death predictors. The three SPPB subtasks (standing balance, walking speed and chair stand tests) were administered. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were calculated for all-cause mortality. Mean age was 81.9 years (60.6% female). Ten-year survival of elders with SPPB score <7 and ≥7 was 0.23 and 0.37 (P < 0.001), respectively. This difference remained statistically significant in the Cox model adjusted by age, gender, number of drugs prescribed, cognitive status, body mass index and visual sharpness (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.86). Also, walking speed and chair stand subtasks were both individual-independent predictors of 10-year survival. Our findings indicate that SPPB is an independent predictor of long-term survival. The chair stand subtask could be a predictor as useful as the full performance battery, becoming a good alternative for primary care where the burden of performing all three subtasks could be excessive. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use among children aged 1 to 12 years.

    PubMed

    Macy, Michelle L; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L

    2014-02-01

    Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27-6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child's usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children.

  13. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27–6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child’s usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  14. Advanced Colorectal Adenomas in Patients Under 45 Years of Age Are Mostly Sporadic

    PubMed Central

    Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Watson, Rao; Goodwin, Jonathan; Safar, Elyas; Chokshi, Reena V.; Azar, Riad R.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of advanced adenomas in younger individuals is a criterion for Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the utility of screening advanced adenomas for loss of mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression to identify suspected LS remains unclear. Aims Determine the prevalence of MMR defects to understand whether these patients harbor a defined genetic risk for CRC. Methods The study cohort included adult patients ≤45 years of age with advanced adenomas (villous histology, ≥1 cm in diameter, ≥3 polyps of any size) endoscopically removed between 2001 and 2011. Clinical records were reviewed along with detailed pathological review and immunohistochemical MMR analysis. Results A total of 76 (40.1 % male, age 40.6 ± 5.4 years) patients met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Indications for colonoscopy were gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding 39 (51.3 %), CRC in a first-degree relative 17 (22.4 %) and somatic GI symptoms 20 (26.3 %). Index colonoscopy revealed a median of 1 adenoma (range 1–4), mean diameter of 12.9 ±7.1 mm, 40 (52.6 %) with villous histology. The mean follow-up duration was 3.3 ± 2 years. Recurrent adenomas developed in 24 (31.6 %), of which 8 (10.5 %) were advanced adenomas; none of these patients developed CRC. One of 66 (1.5 %) adenomas available for immunohistochemical (IHC) testing revealed loss of MLH1 and PMS2. Conclusions IHC screening of advanced adenomas from patients younger than 45 years of age identified potential LS in one of 64 patients. The low yield of IHC screening in this population suggests that universal IHC screening of advanced adenomas from patients younger than 45 years of age for MMR defects is not an efficient strategy for identifying LS subjects. PMID:24925148

  15. Gestational age-dependency of height and body mass index trajectories during the first 3 years in Japanese small-for-gestational age children

    PubMed Central

    Maeyama, Kaori; Morioka, Ichiro; Iwatani, Sota; Fukushima, Sachiyo; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Yamana, Keiji; Nishida, Kosuke; Ohyama, Shohei; Fujioka, Kazumichi; Awano, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Nozu, Kandai; Nagase, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Shirai, Chika; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-01-01

    Gestational age (GA) is thought to affect height growth in small-for-gestational age (SGA) children. However, the GA-specific trajectories in body mass index (BMI) and early appearances of adiposity rebound (AR) have not been fully investigated in a cohort of Japanese SGA children. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with 1063 SGA children born in Kobe, Japan, with sufficient records from birth to 3 years of age. Subjects were divided into subgroups based on GA: 39–41 weeks GA (n = 723), 37–38 weeks GA (n = 256), 34–36 weeks GA (n = 62), and <34 weeks GA (n = 22). Height and BMI were assessed at 4 months, 9 months, 1.5 years, and 3 years of age. The catch-up rate for height was GA-dependent. Most children with 39–41 weeks GA (91%) caught up by 4 months of age; however, lower GA was associated with a slower elevation in the catch-up rate. The BMI trajectory during the first 3 years was also GA-dependent, with a change in GA dependency at a boundary of 37 weeks GA. Approximately 7% of SGA children had already developed AR before 3 years of age. In conclusion, growth patterns during infancy and early childhood in SGA children differ depending on GA. PMID:27934914

  16. Carotid artery surgery in patients over 70 years of age.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, A C; Kieffer, E; Tricot, J F; Maraval, M; Lethoai, H; Benhamou, M; Boespflug, O; Natali, J

    1981-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1979, 934 patients underwent 1,057 operations for extracranial carotid stenosis at this institute, and over a recent 30-month period 463 patients underwent 511 operations of this type. This number is equal to the total of operations performed during the years 1965-1976. The increase in the frequency of carotid artery surgery has been more marked in patients of over 70 years. The percentage of elderly patients has increased from 17.5% to 27% in the recent period. In the latter group of 511 operations, results were good in 93.17% of cases, while there was a mortality rate of 1.95% (1% of which were directly related to the surgery), in 1.95% the neurologic condition deteriorated and in 3.13% there was no change. In the first period the mortality rate for patients over 70 years of age was 7.69%. In the second it was 3.27% (1.63% of which were due to non-neurologic causes), 4.09% deteriorated, in 2.18% there was no change and good results were obtained in 90.46%.

  17. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The results of structural evaluations on several parachute systems were examined to determine if any trends could be found that would indicate significant aging in the materials. All of the parachutes were more than 20 years old. Five 64 ft diameter parachutes were evaluated along with three 16.5 ft diameter ribbon parachutes and one 4 ft diameter guide surface parachute. Another group included six 48 ft diameter ribbon parachutes, two 4 ft diameter guide surface parachutes, and two 16.5 ft diameter extraction ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Data were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. Generally speaking, after 25 years the material properties of the 64 ft parachutes were within specifications. The same generalization cannot be made for the 48 ft parachutes which were about 23 years old. The explanation for their differences may lie in their respective histories. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control.

  19. Milk Consumption after Age 9 Years Does Not Predict Age at Menarche123

    PubMed Central

    Carwile, Jenny L; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Frazier, A Lindsay; Michels, Karin B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular milk consumption during childhood and adolescence is recommended for bone health. However, milk consumption increases circulating insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and may also accelerate puberty. Objective: We prospectively investigated the association between milk consumption and age at menarche in the Growing Up Today Study. Methods: Study participants were 5583 US girls who were premenarcheal and ages 9–14 y in 1996. Girls were followed through 2001, at which time 97% of noncensored participants had reported menarche. Frequency of milk and meat consumption was calculated with the use of annual youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaires from 1996–1998. Intake of related nutrients was also measured. Age at menarche was self-reported annually through 2001. Results: During follow-up, 5227 girls attained menarche over 10,555 accrued person-years. In models adjusted for dietary and sociodemographic predictors of menarche, frequency of milk consumption did not predict age at onset of menarche (for >3 glasses of milk/d vs. 1.1–4 glasses/wk, HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.04). After additional adjustment for body size, premenarcheal girls consuming >3 glasses of milk daily were 13% less likely (95% CI: −3%, −23%; P-trend: <0.01) to attain menarche in the next month relative to those consuming 1.1–4 glasses/wk. Neither total meat nor red meat consumption was associated with age at menarche. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that regular consumption of milk in girls aged ≥9 y is unlikely to substantially affect age at onset of menarche. Studies assessing associations between diet in early childhood and pubertal timing may be more illuminating. PMID:26136590

  20. Milk Consumption after Age 9 Years Does Not Predict Age at Menarche.

    PubMed

    Carwile, Jenny L; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Frazier, A Lindsay; Michels, Karin B

    2015-08-01

    Regular milk consumption during childhood and adolescence is recommended for bone health. However, milk consumption increases circulating insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and may also accelerate puberty. We prospectively investigated the association between milk consumption and age at menarche in the Growing Up Today Study. Study participants were 5583 US girls who were premenarcheal and ages 9-14 y in 1996. Girls were followed through 2001, at which time 97% of noncensored participants had reported menarche. Frequency of milk and meat consumption was calculated with the use of annual youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaires from 1996-1998. Intake of related nutrients was also measured. Age at menarche was self-reported annually through 2001. During follow-up, 5227 girls attained menarche over 10,555 accrued person-years. In models adjusted for dietary and sociodemographic predictors of menarche, frequency of milk consumption did not predict age at onset of menarche (for >3 glasses of milk/d vs. 1.1-4 glasses/wk, HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.04). After additional adjustment for body size, premenarcheal girls consuming >3 glasses of milk daily were 13% less likely (95% CI: -3%, -23%; P-trend: <0.01) to attain menarche in the next month relative to those consuming 1.1-4 glasses/wk. Neither total meat nor red meat consumption was associated with age at menarche. Our findings suggest that regular consumption of milk in girls aged ≥9 y is unlikely to substantially affect age at onset of menarche. Studies assessing associations between diet in early childhood and pubertal timing may be more illuminating. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Is childhood immunisation associated with atopic disease from age 7 to 32 years?

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kazunori; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Carlin, John B; Wharton, Cathryn L; Jenkins, Mark A; Giles, Graham G; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Hopper, John L

    2007-01-01

    Background There is ongoing conjecture over whether childhood immunisation leads to an increased risk of developing atopic diseases. Objective To examine associations between childhood immunisation and the risk of atopic disease. Method Immunisation histories of 8443 Tasmanian children born in 1961 obtained from school medical records were linked to the Tasmanian Asthma Study. Associations between immunisation status and atopic diseases were examined while adjusting for possible confounders using multiple logistic regression. Results Diphtheria immunisation was weakly associated with an increased risk of asthma by age 7 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 1.7), but there was no evidence of any association for four other vaccinations studied. An increased risk of eczema by age 7 years was associated with immunisation against diphtheria (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1), tetanus (OR 1.5, 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.0), pertussis (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.9) and polio (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.9) but not small pox. Similar but slightly weaker patterns of association were observed between the risk of food allergies and immunisation against diphtheria (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1), pertussis (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.9), polio (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.1) and tetanus (OR 1.30 95% CI 0.99 to 1.70), but not with small pox. There was no evidence of associations between immunisation history and hay fever, or incidence of later‐onset atopic outcomes. Conclusions The few effects seen in this study are small and age‐dependent, and nearly all our findings support numerous previous studies of no effect of vaccines on asthma. Based on these findings, the fear of their child developing atopic disease should not deter parents from immunising their children, especially when weighed against the benefits. PMID:17090571

  2. Naturalistic rapid deceleration data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Rogers, Kris; Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research manuscript "Predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events", which investigates potential predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events including measures of vision, cognitive function and driving confidence (A. Chevalier et al., 2016) [1]. In naturalistic driving studies such as this, when sample size is not large enough to allow crashes to be used to investigate driver safety, rapid deceleration events may be used as a surrogate safety measure. Naturalistic driving data were collected for up to 52 weeks from 182 volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Accelerometer data were recorded 32 times per second and Global Positioning System (GPS) data each second. To measure rapid deceleration behavior, rapid deceleration events (RDEs) were defined as having at least one data point at or above the deceleration threshold of 750 milli-g (7.35 m/s(2)). All events were constrained to a maximum 5 s duration. The dataset provided with this article contains 473 events, with a row per RDE. This article also contains information about data processing, treatment and quality control. The methods and data presented here may assist with planning and analysis of future studies into rapid deceleration behaviour using in-vehicle monitoring.

  3. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins.

    PubMed

    Steves, Claire J; Mehta, Mitul M; Jackson, Stephen H D; Spector, Tim D

    2016-01-01

    Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant twin analyses, where within

  4. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  5. Management of Idiopathic Clubfoot by Ponseti Technique in Children Presenting After One Year of Age.

    PubMed

    Faizan, Mohammad; Jilani, Latif Zafar; Abbas, Mazhar; Zahid, Mohammad; Asif, Naiyer

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a study to determine the effectiveness of the Ponseti technique in the management of idiopathic congenital clubfoot in patients older than 1 year of age. A total of 19 patients with 28 clubfeet (16 males [84.2%], 3 females [15.8%]) were included in the present study. The mean age at presentation was 2.7 (range 1 to 3.5) years. The results of treatment using the Ponseti technique were evaluated using the Pirani and Dimeglio scoring systems. The mean precorrection total Pirani score was 4.84 (range 3.5 to 5.5) and the mean precorrection Dimeglio score was 12.96 (range 10 to 14). The mean postcorrection total Pirani score was 0.55 (range 0 to 1), and the mean postcorrection Dimeglio score was 2.32 (range 2 to 3). These differences were statistically significant (p < .001 and p < .001, respectively). In 92.8% of the feet, satisfactory correction of the deformity was achieved. The mean number of casts applied was 8 (range 5 to 12). All but 1 (3.6%) of the clubfeet required tenotomy to achieve correction. The mean follow-up duration was 2.7 (range 1.5 to 3.5) years. We have concluded that the Ponseti technique is an effective method for the management of idiopathic congenital clubfoot, even in toddlers. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age related changes in auditory processes in children aged 6 to 10 years.

    PubMed

    Yathiraj, Asha; Vanaja, C S

    2015-08-01

    The study evaluated age related changes in auditory processing (separation/auditory closure, binaural auditory integration abilities, temporal processing abilities) and higher order cognitive function (auditory memory & sequencing abilities) in children. Additionally, the study aimed to assess the effect of gender on the auditory processes/higher cognitive function as well as ear effect for the monaural tests that were administered. The cross-sectional experimental study evaluated 280 typically developing children aged 6 to 10 years, divided into five age groups. They were evaluated on auditory processes/higher order cognitive functions reported to be frequently affected in children with auditory processing disorders (Speech-in-Noise Test in Indian-English, Dichotic consonant-vowel test, Duration pattern test, & Revised Auditory Memory and Sequencing Test in Indian-English). ANOVA and MANOVA revealed no significant gender effect in all four tests. However, a significant age effect was seen, with the rate at which maturation occurred, varying across the tests. Thus, the findings indicate that different auditory processes have different rates of development. This reflects that the areas responsible for different auditory processes/higher cognitive function do not develop at the same pace. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between age and elite marathon race time in world single age records from 5 to 93 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of the study were (i) to investigate the relationship between elite marathon race times and age in 1-year intervals by using the world single age records in marathon running from 5 to 93 years and (ii) to evaluate the sex difference in elite marathon running performance with advancing age. Methods World single age records in marathon running in 1-year intervals for women and men were analysed regarding changes across age for both men and women using linear and non-linear regression analyses for each age for women and men. Results The relationship between elite marathon race time and age was non-linear (i.e. polynomial regression 4th degree) for women and men. The curve was U-shaped where performance improved from 5 to ~20 years. From 5 years to ~15 years, boys and girls performed very similar. Between ~20 and ~35 years, performance was quite linear, but started to decrease at the age of ~35 years in a curvilinear manner with increasing age in both women and men. The sex difference increased non-linearly (i.e. polynomial regression 7th degree) from 5 to ~20 years, remained unchanged at ~20 min from ~20 to ~50 years and increased thereafter. The sex difference was lowest (7.5%, 10.5 min) at the age of 49 years. Conclusion Elite marathon race times improved from 5 to ~20 years, remained linear between ~20 and ~35 years, and started to increase at the age of ~35 years in a curvilinear manner with increasing age in both women and men. The sex difference in elite marathon race time increased non-linearly and was lowest at the age of ~49 years. PMID:25120915

  8. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  9. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  10. An 11-year review of levetiracetam ingestions in children less than 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J C; Albertson, T E; Walsh, M J

    2014-11-01

    Levetiracetam is a new anticonvulsant, which works to block high-voltage-activated Ca(++) channels in children, for partial-onset seizures. Reports of clinical experience with pediatric ingestions are minimal. The purpose of this study was to characterize the toxicity of accidental levetiracetam exposures in children less than 6 years of age. This was an 11-year retrospective observational case series of pediatric (< 6 years old) levetiracetam ingestions reported to a Poison Control System from 2002 to 2013. Case narratives were individually reviewed to collect desired information on exposure and clinical course. Inclusion criteria were levetiracetam as a single ingested medication, age less than 6 years, treatment in a health care facility, and followed to a known outcome. Eighty-two cases met inclusion criteria with 55% female patients and overall median age of 2.0 years (range: 1-60 months). The levetiracetam dose ingested was reported in 69 (84.1%) cases, with exact dose (median dose, 45.0 mg/kg; range, 10.5-1429 mg/kg) reported in 33 cases (40.2%). Of these, twenty-nine cases (88%) involved the oral solution formulation and 28 cases (85%) had unintentional therapeutic error as the cause of the exposure. No dose-response relationship was demonstrated; however, the odds of a levetiracetam-naive patient, (median dose, 26.9 mg/kg; N = 15) with an unintentional exposure, developing drowsiness or ataxia was 6 times that of a patient who was not naïve to levetiracetam (median dose, 70.1 mg/kg; N = 20) (Odds ratio [OR], 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-35.91).Of the 82 cases, 17 (20.7%) developed untoward clinical effects of drowsiness and/or ataxia. Eighty patients (97.6%) were treated and discharged from the emergency department, and two patients (2.4%) were admitted. The two patients admitted included a two-month old who was accidentally given a dose 10 times that of her usual dose and a 3-year old who was lethargic on arrival to the hospital after

  11. Alcohol use in women 65 years of age and older.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O; Estok, P J; Zeller, R A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression, codependency, self-coherence, and alcohol use and health outcomes in women 65 years of age and older. The framework is Erikson's ego-development theory. A convenience sample of 238 women was obtained from women attending flu shot clinics. This cross-sectional field study used survey methodology. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, Codependency Assessment Tool, Self-Coherence Survey Form C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Use Questionnaire, Self-Rated Health Tool, Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, Functional Ability Scale, Illness Prevention Screening Behaviors Checklist, and Sociodemographic Data. Results indicate a low consumption and little variation in use of alcohol. There were no significant associations between alcohol consumption and the dependent variables. Depression was significantly related to all the health outcomes; codependency was significantly related to all health outcomes except perceived quality of life; and self-coherence was significantly related to all health outcomes except illness prevention behavior. These findings have important implications for those providing care for older women.

  12. [Empathy in children aged 10 to 12 years].

    PubMed

    Garaigordobil, Maite; García de Galdeano, Patricia

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to determine whether there were differences in empathy according to gender; 2) to analyze the relationships between empathy and social behaviour, self-concept, emotional stability, social interaction strategies, capacity to analyze emotions, intelligence, and creativity; and 3) to identify predicting variables of empathy. The sample consisted of 139 participants aged 10 to 12 years. ANOVA results showed gender differences in empathy, with significantly higher scores in females. Pearson coefficients suggest that participants with high empathy showed many positive social behaviours (prosocial, assertive, consideration, self-control, leadership), few negative social behaviors (passive, aggressive, antisocial, withdrawal) and many assertive strategies of social interaction; that they were named as prosocial classmates; and that they had high self-concept, high capacity to analyze negative emotions, high emotional stability and many behaviors and traits of creative personality. Multiple regression analyses permitted identification of the following predicting variables of empathy: high level of prosocial behaviour, low level of aggressive behaviour and high self-concept.

  13. [Pneumococcal meningitis in children under 15 years of age in Misiones (Argentina). Sixteen year's epidemiological surveillance].

    PubMed

    Grenón, Sandra L; Salvi Grabulosa, Marcelo C; Regueira, Mabel M; Fossati, María S; von Specht, Martha H

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of pneumococcal meningitis surveillance conducted at the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Posadas, Misiones (Argentina), before the conjugate vaccine was introduced into the national vaccination schedule. Between January 1994 and December 2009, 167 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were diagnosed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. The attack rate/100,000 children ranged from 19.2 (1997) to 4.3 (2009), with a mean of 10.6 and a tendency to decrease (y=-0.689x+16.52). The number of cases per 100,000 children decreased from 146.6 to 34.8 and particularly involved the group of children aged 1 to 11 months (94/167, 56%). Thirty point seven percent (30.7%) (46/150) of the isolates were resistant to penicillin whereas 16.7% (25/150) were non-susceptible to cefotaxime. β-lactam resistance increased as from 1997 and began to decline in 2005. Nineteen serotypes were detected; type 14 was predominant and accounted for 32% (40/125). Eighty four point eight percent (84.8%) of the isolates were circumscribed to nine serotypes: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V and 4. Theoretical coverage for patients aged <2 years and >2 years was 84.1% (74/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 10-valent vaccine and 89.8 % (79/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 13-valent vaccine respectively. Penicillin resistance was restricted to 8 serotypes (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 19A1) and nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime was circumscribed to 3 serotypes (14, 9V and 1). This study will allow to evaluate the impact of the implementation of conjugate vaccines on our area.

  14. Prostate-specific antigen testing in men aged 40-64 years: impact of publication of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, James S; Tan, Alai; Jaramillo, Elizabeth; Kuo, Yong-Fang

    2013-05-15

    We assessed the impact of the publication of trials and changes in recommendations on the rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in men aged 40 to 64 years by analyzing monthly medical claims for PSA testing in a commercial insurance database from 2001 to 2011, covering more than 1.5 million men in each year. The testing rates for men aged 40 to 49 years, 50 to 59 years, and 60 to 64 years were 12.1%, 32.7%, and 42.7%, respectively, in 2001 vs 15.7%, 34.2%, and 42.0%, respectively, in 2011. Men aged 40 to 49 years experienced a gradual increase in testing rate from 2001 through 2008 (annual change in PSA testing per 10,000 men [AC] = 4.37; P < .001), which became flat from mid-2009 through 2011(AC = -0.06; P =.98). The slope of PSA testing rates did not change in men aged 50 to 59 years or 60 to 64 years with the publication of the results of the large trials in 2009 or with the subsequent changes in recommendations on PSA testing.

  15. A 13-year review of lisinopril ingestions in children less than 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J C; Alsop, J A

    2013-11-01

    Lisinopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor used for treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and acute myocardial infarction. Reports of clinical experience with pediatric ingestions are minimal. A 13-year retrospective study of lisinopril ingestions in children reported to the California Poison Control System was analyzed and case notes were reviewed. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained and cases were blinded. Inclusion criteria were lisinopril as a single ingestant, age less than 6 years, treatment in a health care facility, case followed to a known outcome. Inclusion criteria were met in 296 cases. Demographics include 51% of male patients and the mean age was 1.97 years (range: 9 months-5 years). Of the 296 patients, 8 patients (2.7%) developed hypotension (ranges: 55-74 mm Hg systolic and 22-48 mm Hg diastolic). The lowest blood pressure of 55/22 mm Hg was recorded in a 22-month old male who ingested an estimated 120-mg lisinopril (13.3 mg/kg). The lowest dose of lisinopril causing hypotension was with an estimated dose of approximately 50 mg or 3.9 mg/kg in a 2-year old. Two hundred and eighty-two patients (95.3%) were treated and released from the emergency department and 14 patients (4.7%) were admitted. The dose ingested was reported in 189 cases and an exact-dose of lisinopril was reported in 61 patients (20.6%); mean amount ingested was 3.0 mg/kg, median amount ingested was 2.1 mg/kg (range: 0.1-10.9 mg/kg, N = 38); and mean total dose was 33.4 mg, median total dose was 20 mg (range: 2.5-160 mg, N = 61). None of the patients with exact-dose lisinopril ingestions developed hypotension, received intravenous fluids, or were admitted. The lowest estimated dose of lisinopril to cause hypotension was 50 mg or 3.9 mg/kg. Although continued evaluation of pediatric lisinopril ingestions is essential to determine more specific thresholds of toxicity, the lack of effect on blood pressure in children with exact-dose ingestions

  16. Facial and oral injuries in Brazilian children aged 5-17 years: 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, A L; Melo, T R

    2008-06-01

    This was to assess causes of maxillofacial trauma using a retrospective study in Paraiba, Brazil. Records of 256 patients with maxillofacial injuries aged 5-17 years treated between January 2002 to May 2006 were analyzed according to sex, age, cause of injury, frequency of dentoalveolar trauma, intraoral soft tissue injury, frequency and site of facial fracture. Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were used at a significance level of 5%; odds ratio (OR) with confidence intervals to 95% were calculated (IC95%). Facial injuries were most frequent in males (78.1%) and in 13-17 year olds (60.9%); they tended to be more frequent during weekends (48%). Commonest causes were falls (37.9%) and traffic accidents (21.1%). Nasal fractures were most common (51.3%), followed by the zygomatic-orbital complex (25.4%); dentoalveolar injuries were present in 25.8% of cases. There was a positive association between facial fracture and dentoalveolar trauma, alveolar and tooth fracture, avulsion and intraoral soft tissue injury. Accidental falls were found to be the leading cause of maxillofacial fractures, affecting males 3 times more than females.

  17. Type-1.5 superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Moshchalkov, Victor; Menghini, Mariela; Nishio, T; Chen, Q H; Silhanek, A V; Dao, V H; Chibotaru, L F; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J

    2009-03-20

    We demonstrate the existence of a novel superconducting state in high quality two-component MgB2 single crystalline superconductors where a unique combination of both type-1 (lambda{1}/xi{1}<1/sqrt[2]) and type-2 (lambda{2}/xi{2}>1/sqrt[2]) superconductor conditions is realized for the two components of the order parameter. This condition leads to a vortex-vortex interaction attractive at long distances and repulsive at short distances, which stabilizes unconventional stripe- and gossamerlike vortex patterns that we have visualized in this type-1.5 superconductor using Bitter decoration and also reproduced in numerical simulations.

  18. Aging Versus Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Bone Composition and Maturation Kinetics at Actively-Forming Trabecular Surfaces of Female Subjects Aged 1 to 84 Years.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Fratzl, Peter; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Hassler, Norbert; Brozek, Wolfgang; Eriksen, Erik F; Rauch, Frank; Glorieux, Francis H; Shane, Elizabeth; Dempster, David; Cohen, Adi; Recker, Robert; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Bone strength depends on the amount of bone, typically expressed as bone mineral density (BMD), determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and on bone quality. Bone quality is a multifactorial entity including bone structural and material compositional properties. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether bone material composition properties at actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces in health are dependent on subject age, and to contrast them with postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. To achieve this, we analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy iliac crest biopsy samples from healthy subjects aged 1.5 to 45.7 years, paired biopsy samples from females before and immediately after menopause aged 46.7 to 53.6 years, and biopsy samples from placebo-treated postmenopausal osteoporotic patients aged 66 to 84 years. The monitored parameters were as follows: the mineral/matrix ratio; the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC); nanoporosity; the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content; the lipid content; and the pyridinoline (Pyd) content. The results indicate that these bone quality parameters in healthy, actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces are dependent on subject age at constant tissue age, suggesting that with advancing age the kinetics of maturation (either accumulation, or posttranslational modifications, or both) change. For most parameters, the extrapolation of models fitted to the individual age dependence of bone in healthy individuals was in rough agreement with their values in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients, except for MMC, lipid, and Pyd content. Among these three, Pyd content showed the greatest deviation between healthy aging and disease, highlighting its potential to be used as a discriminating factor.

  19. The World Assembly on Aging--Three Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusberg, Charlotte

    1985-01-01

    Examines the world response to population aging. Discusses national, regional, and international activities, such as conferences, campaigns to promote an active aging, employment projects, and community alternatives to institutional care. Policy responses are considered, involving employment, income, health, housing, family, consumerism,…

  20. Primiparity at very advanced maternal age (≥ 45 years).

    PubMed

    Glasser, Saralee; Segev-Zahav, Aliza; Fortinsky, Paige; Gedal-Beer, Debby; Schiff, Eyal; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2011-06-30

    This study describes maternal and birth outcomes of primiparae aged ≥ 45. High rates of pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes were found, stressing that the personal risks and ramifications to the health system should be taken into account in establishing obstetric health policy regarding primiparity at advanced maternal age.

  1. Antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age.

    PubMed

    Farley, Rebecca; Spurling, Geoffrey K P; Eriksson, Lars; Del Mar, Chris B

    2014-10-09

    Bronchiolitis is a serious, potentially life-threatening respiratory illness commonly affecting babies. It is often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Antibiotics are not recommended for bronchiolitis unless there is concern about complications such as secondary bacterial pneumonia or respiratory failure. Nevertheless, they are often used. To evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotics for bronchiolitis in children under two years of age compared to placebo or other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2014, Issue 6), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infection Group's Specialised Register, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1990 to June 2014) and Current Contents (2001 to June 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antibiotics to placebo in children under two years diagnosed with bronchiolitis, using clinical criteria (including respiratory distress preceded by coryzal symptoms with or without fever). Primary clinical outcomes included time to resolution of signs or symptoms (pulmonary markers included respiratory distress, wheeze, crepitations, oxygen saturation and fever). Secondary outcomes included hospital admissions, length of hospital stay, readmissions, complications or adverse events and radiological findings. Two review authors independently analysed the search results. We included seven studies with a total of 824 participants. The results of these seven included studies were often heterogeneous, which generally precluded meta-analysis, except for deaths, length of supplemental oxygen use and length of hospital admission.In this update, we included two new studies (281 participants), both comparing azithromycin with placebo. They found no significant difference for length of hospital stay, duration of oxygen requirement and readmission. These results were similar to an older study (52 participants) that demonstrated

  2. Risk factors associated with temporomandibular joint sounds in children 6 to 12 years of age.

    PubMed

    Keeling, S D; McGorray, S; Wheeler, T T; King, G J

    1994-03-01

    The relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) sounds and a person's dental and skeletal characteristics is poorly understood. In this study, data were obtained from 3428 grade schoolchildren (mean age = 9.0 years, SD = 0.8, range 6 to 12 years), without a history of orthodontic treatment. Each child had been examined independently by one of six orthodontists to assess: TMJ sounds (none, click, crepitus), gender, age, race (white/black), skeletal relationships (convexity, maxillary, and mandibular positions), malocclusion (molar class, overjet, overbite, anterior crowding, posterior crossbite), maximum opening, chin trauma (none, cut, scar), and history of lower facial trauma. Temporomandibular joint sounds were present in 344 children (10.0% of the sample); 276 (8.1%) had an isolated unilateral sound, 254 (7.4%) had unilateral clicking, 50 (1.5%) had bilateral clicking, 22 (0.6%) had unilateral crepitus, and 11 (0.3%) had bilateral crepitus. Univariate analyses compared children with and without sounds for each variable; logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between groups of variables and TMJ sounds. The prevalence of TMJ sounds was associated with examiner (chi 2 = 23.4, df = 5, p < 0.001); increased prevalence of TMJ sounds occurred in children with maxillary anterior crowding (t = 2.8, p < 0.006), mandibular anterior crowding (t = 3.0, p < 0.002), and increased maximum opening (t = 4.7, p < 0.001). In contrast to other reports on children, the prevalence of joint sounds was not associated with age, race, gender, or molar class.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Exposure to movie smoking among US adolescents aged 10 to 14 years: a population estimate.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Tanski, Susanne E; Gibson, Jennifer

    2007-05-01

    Several studies have linked seeing smoking in movies with adolescent smoking, but none have determined how much movie smoking adolescents see. Our aim was to determine exposure to movie smoking in a representative sample of young US adolescents. METHODS. We surveyed 6522 nationally representative US adolescents aged 10-14 years. We content analyzed 534 contemporary box-office hits for movie smoking. Each movie was assigned to a random subsample of adolescents (mean: 613) who were asked whether they had seen the movie. Using survey weights, we estimated the total number of US adolescents who had seen each movie and then multiplied by the number of smoking depictions in each movie to obtain gross smoking impressions seen by adolescents. The 534 movies were mainly rated PG-13 (41%) and R (40%), and 74% contained smoking (3830 total smoking occurrences). On average, each movie was seen by 25% of the adolescents surveyed. Viewership was higher with increased age and lower for R-rated movies. Overall, these movies delivered 13.9 billion gross smoking impressions, an average of 665 to each US adolescent aged 10-14 years. Although this sample's R-rated movies contained 60% of smoking occurrences, they delivered only 39% of smoking impressions because of lower adolescent viewership. Thirty popular movies each delivered > or =100 million gross smoking impressions. Thirty actors each delivered >50 million smoking impressions, such that just 1.5% of actors delivered one quarter of all character smoking to the adolescent sample. Popular movies deliver billions of smoking images and character smoking depictions to young US adolescents. Removing smoking from youth-rated films would substantially reduce exposure from new box-office hits. Furthermore, the popular actors who frequently smoke in movies could have a major impact on adolescent movie smoking exposure by choosing not to portray characters who smoke.

  4. Factors predicting Behavior Management Problems during Initial Dental Examination in Children Aged 2 to 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dipanshu; Anand, Ashish; Mittal, Vipula; Singh, Aparna; Aggarwal, Nidhi

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to identify the various background variables and its influence on behavior management problems (BMP) in children. Materials and methods The study included 165 children aged 2 to 8 years. During the initial dental visit, an experienced operator obtained each child’s background variables from accompanying guardians using a standardized questionnaire. Children’s dental behavior was rated by Frankel behavior rating scale. The behavior was then analyzed in relation to the answers of the questionnaire, and a logistic regression model was used to determine the power of the variables, separately or combined, to predict BMP. Results The logistic regression analysis considering differences in background variables between children with negative or positive behavior. Four variables turned out to be as predictors: Age, the guardian’s expectation of the child’s behavior at the dental examination, the child’s anxiety when meeting unfamiliar people, and the presence and absence of toothache. Conclusion The present study concluded that by means of simple questionnaire BMP in children may be expected if one of these attributes is found. Clinical significance Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient prior to treatment process may help the pediatric dentist plan appropriate behavior management and treatment strategy. How to cite this article Sharma A, Kumar D, Anand A, Mittal V, Singh A, Aggarwal N. Factors predicting Behavior Management Problems during Initial Dental Examination in Children Aged 2 to 8 Years. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):5-9. PMID:28377646

  5. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  6. Measles Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity in Children Aged 5–10 Years After Primary Measles Immunization Administered at 6 or 9 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Hayley A.; Yasukawa, Linda L.; Sung, Phillip; Sullivan, Barbara; DeHovitz, Ross; Audet, Susette; Beeler, Judy; Arvin, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Given the high infant measles mortality rate, there is interest in whether a measles immunization regimen beginning at <12 months of age provides lasting immunity. Methods. Measles-specific immune responses were evaluated in 70 children aged 5–10 years after primary measles vaccine administered at 6, 9, or 12 months. Results. At 5–10 years of age, the stimulation index for measles T-cell proliferation was 11.4 (SE, 1.3), 10.9 (SE, 1.5), and 14.4 (SE 2.1) when the first measles dose was given at 6, 9, or 12 months, respectively. Neutralizing antibody concentration (geometric mean titer [GMT]) in those immunized at 6 months of age was 125 mIU/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 42–377) in the presence of passive antibodies (PAs) and 335 mIU/mL (95% CI, 211–531) in those without PAs; in those immunized at 9 months, GMTs were 186 mIU/mL (95% CI, 103–335) and 1080 mIU/mL (95% CI, 642–1827) in the presence and absence of PAs, respectively. The GMT was 707 mIU/mL (95% CI, 456–1095) when vaccine was administered at 12 months (P ≤ .04). Conclusions. Measles-specific T-cell responses were sustained at 5–10 years of age regardless of age at time of primary measles immunization. Neutralizing antibody concentrations were lower in cohorts given the first vaccine dose at 6 months of age and in the presence of PAs; however, responses could be boosted by subsequent doses. Starting measles vaccination at <12 months of age may be beneficial during measles outbreaks or in endemic areas. PMID:23300162

  7. Paradoxical Trend for Improvement in Mental Health With Aging: A Community-Based Study of 1,546 Adults Aged 21-100 Years.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael L; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Palmer, Barton W; Depp, Colin A; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Glorioso, Danielle K; Thompson, Wesley K; Jeste, Dilip V

    2016-08-01

    Studies of aging usually focus on trajectories of physical and cognitive function, with far less emphasis on overall mental health, despite its impact on general health and mortality. This study examined linear and nonlinear trends of physical, cognitive, and mental health over the entire adult lifespan. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 1,546 individuals aged 21-100 years, selected using random digit dialing for the Successful AGing Evaluation (SAGE) study, a structured multicohort investigation that included telephone interviews and in-home surveys of community-based adults without dementia. Data were collected from 1/26/2010 to 10/07/2011 targeting participants aged 50-100 years and from 6/25/2012 to 7/15/2013 targeting participants aged 21-100 years with an emphasis on adding younger individuals. Data included self-report measures of physical health, measures of both positive and negative attributes of mental health, and a phone interview-based measure of cognition. Comparison of age cohorts using polynomial regression suggested a possible accelerated deterioration in physical and cognitive functioning, averaging 1.5 to 2 standard deviations over the adult lifespan. In contrast, there appeared to be a linear improvement of about 1 standard deviation in various attributes of mental health over the same life period. These cross-sectional findings suggest the possibility of a linear improvement in mental health beginning in young adulthood rather than a U-shaped curve reported in some prior studies. Lifespan research combining psychosocial and biological markers may improve our understanding of resilience to mental disability in older age and lead to broad-based interventions promoting mental health in all age groups. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  9. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  10. [Exhaled nitric oxide in children under 4 years of age with recurrent bronchitis].

    PubMed

    de Mir Messa, Inés; Moreno Galdó, Antonio; Cobos Barroso, Nicolás; Gartner, Silvia; Martín De Vicente, Carlos; Liñán Cortés, Santos

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the study was to assess bronchial inflammation in preschool children with recurrent bronchitis by measuring exhaled nitric oxide. The study included patients under 4 years of age with at least 3 episodes of wheezing in the past year (n=63) and a control group (n=30). Exhaled nitric oxide was measured in samples collected offline during spontaneous tidal breathing with a face mask and stored in Mylar balloons. The fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration (FE(NO)) was higher in the group with bronchitis (mean [SD], 5.3 [1.3] parts per billion [ppb]) than in the control group (4.6 [1.1]ppb) (P=.02). There was a significant difference between the control group and children in the bronchitis group not treated with inhaled corticosteroids (P<.05), but not between controls and corticosteroid-treated patients. A relationship with eosinophil count was observed in that those with higher counts (>400 microL) had higher FE(NO) levels (P<.01). No relationship was observed between FE(NO) and a positive methacholine challenge test. Follow-up lasted at least 20 months. The initial FE(NO) level did not differ significantly according to whether patients were subsequently transient, infrequent, or frequent wheezers (5.2 [0.98]ppb, 5.6 [1.5]ppb, and 4.8 [1.34]ppb, respectively; P=.36). In children under 4 years of age with recurrent wheezing bronchitis who were asymptomatic at study entry, a small increase in FE(NO) was observed although there was a good deal of overlap with the control group.

  11. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  12. Dental age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovinian children aged 6-14 years: evaluation of Chaillet's international maturity standards.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Janković, Stipan; Mihanović, Frane; Nakaš, Enita; Prohić, Samir; Galić, Elizabeta; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2013-01-01

    Dental age estimation in children plays an important role in forensic dentistry. The most commonly used method for age estimation was developed by Demirjian in 1973 on a French-Canadian sample. It generally overestimates dental age in many populations. International maturity standards were formed to obtain a predicted age with more confidence when ethnic origin was not available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of Chaillet's international scores in the dental age assessment on Bosnian Herzegovinian (BH) children. Orthopantomograms of 1772 children, 980 girls and 792 boys aged 6.04-14.90 years, were assessed using Chaillet's international maturity tables and curves. The dental ages for both genders were compared to the chronological ages through a paired t-test. Mean overestimation using Chaillet's international maturity standards were 0.09 ± 0.83 for girls and 0.28 ± 0.90 for boys. The absolute accuracy of residuals between the dental and chronological age were 0.65 ± 0.52 years for girls (Median: 0.52 years) and 0.73 ± 0.60 years for boys (Median: 0.57 years). The Polynomial compound formula was recommended to predict dental age with more accuracy for results of international maturity standards on BH children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. 702AZ aging waste ventilation facility year 2000 test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, W.D.

    1998-07-22

    This test procedure was developed to determine if the 702AZ Tank Ventilation Facility system is Year 2000 Compliant. The procedure provides detailed instructions for performing the operations necessary and documenting the results. This verification procedure will document that the 702AZ Facility Systems are year 2000 compliant and will correctly meet the criteria established in this procedure.

  14. Postural sway in normal subjects aged 20-70 years.

    PubMed

    Røgind, H; Lykkegaard, J J; Bliddal, H; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    2003-05-01

    So far, no population-based reference material of postural sway has been presented in the literature. This study evaluated postural control by measuring posturographic parameters, with the aim of establishing useful standards with regard to gender, age, body weight, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and articular hypermobility. This was performed in an age-stratified random sample of 195 subjects from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, of whom, 133 agreed to participate. Measurement of postural sway was performed the Balance Master Pro(R). Outcome parameters were average angular velocity, target sway area, per cent maximum stability and per cent ankle strategy. Using SAS Proc Mixed, backward stepwise elimination was performed and 95% prediction intervals were obtained. Sway increased with increasing difficulty of the test (P<0.001) and with increasing age (P<0.001). No differences were found between the sexes. Ankle-strategy did not change with age, but decreased with increasing body weight, and increased in subjects reporting a consumption of modest amounts of alcohol (P<0.001), or with the finding of increased hypermobility (P = 0.006). The present material may be used as a reference in further studies of postural control.

  15. Acne and its management beyond the age of 35 years.

    PubMed

    Marks, Ronnie

    2004-01-01

    Although acne is not usually considered to be a disorder that affects the elderly, the disorder occurs sufficiently often in mature individuals to be noteworthy. The variety known as 'persisting acne' is, as its name suggests, ordinary acne that continues into adult life. 'Chin acne' is a curious type that occurs premenstrually in mature women, while 'sporadic acne' describes the sudden development of significant acne in later life for no apparent reason. When acne develops in an individual outside the usual susceptible age group precipitating causes such as exposure to comedogenic substances or drugs must be excluded. Similarly, endocrine causes such as androgen-secreting tumors and the administration of anabolic steroids need to be considered. All inflammatory processes are decreased in the elderly and this may be one reason for the persistence and intransigence of acne lesions in older age groups. The principles of treatment of acne in the elderly do not differ from those in other age groups, although the emphasis during counseling needs to focus on explanation and reassurance rather than prognosis. Topical retinoids and benzoyl peroxide easily irritate elderly skin, so azelaic acid and even sulfur preparations are preferable. Low-dose systemic isotretinoin is reported to be helpful to patients in this age group and is certainly worth a trial.

  16. The loop, age 7 with five significant years of observation.

    PubMed

    Lippes, J; Ogra, S S

    1968-01-01

    In a 5 year study of 32,137 women months of loop "D", the major reasons for discontinuance of its use have been bleeding and/or pain, and expulsions. The longer a patient wears a loop, the less likely is expulsion, bleeding and/or pain. There is no evidence that the loop is responsible for causing any cancers. Acceptance rates are over 40% at the author's Planned Parenthood clinic. After 5 years, over 56% of patients continued using loop "D". In terms of effectiveness, pregnancy rates averaged less than 1% a year. Experience with loop "C" has not been as good as with loop "D".

  17. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy Subjects Aged 3 to 93 Years.

    PubMed

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Kinematics is recommended for the quantitative assessment of upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in healthy subjects. Three hundred and seventy healthy subjects, aged 3-93 years, participated in the study. They performed two unidirectional and two geometrical tasks ten consecutive times with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-six kinematic indices were computed for the four tasks. For the four tasks, nineteen of the computed kinematic indices showed an age effect. Seventeen indices (the accuracy, speed and smoothness indices and the reproducibility of the accuracy, speed and smoothness) improved in young subjects aged 3-30 years, showed stabilization in adults aged 30-60 years and declined in elderly subjects aged 60-93 years. Additionally, for both geometrical tasks, the speed index exhibited a decrease throughout life. Finally, a principal component analysis provided the relations between the kinematic indices, tasks and subjects' age. This study is the first to assess age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish normative values in subjects aged 3-93 years.

  18. Young Teens (12-14 years of age)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teenagers (15-17 years) Mental Health Specific Conditions Learning Disorder Data & Statistics Research Legacy Program Intervention Support Fidelity Monitoring FAQ Resources Partner Stories Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia & Tools Links to Other Websites Get Email Updates ...

  19. Impact of age on transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes: a comparison of patients aged ≤ 80 years versus patients > 80 years

    PubMed Central

    van der Kley, Frank; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Katsanos, Spyridon; Kamperidis, Vasileios; Marsan, Nina A; Karalis, Ioannis; de Weger, Arend; Palmen, Meindert; Bax, Jeroen J; Schalij, Martin J; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the procedural outcomes and the long-term survival of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and compare study results of patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old. Methods A total of 240 patients treated with TAVI were divided into two groups according to age ≤ 80 years (n = 105; 43.8%) and > 80 years (n = 135; 56.2%). The baseline characteristics and the procedural outcomes were compared between these two groups of patients. Results With the exception of peripheral artery disease and hypercholesterolemia, which were more frequently observed in the older age group, baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. Complication rates did not differ significantly between patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years. There were no differences in 30-day mortality rates between patients aged ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old (9.5% vs. 7.4%, respectively; P = 0.557). After a median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range: 16–42 months), 50 (47.6%) patients aged ≤ 80 years died compared to 57 (42%) deaths in the group of patients > 80 years old (P = 0.404). Conclusion The results of the present single center study showed that age did not significantly impact the outcomes of TAVI. PMID:26918010

  20. The relationship between multiple developmental difficulties in very low birth weight children at 3½ years of age and the need for learning support at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether multiple developmental difficulties are more frequent in very low birth weight (VLBW) children than in those born full term. The association between multiple developmental difficulties assessed at 3½ years of age and educational provision for the child at 5½ years was also investigated, with 'educational provision' referring to the curriculum, school placement and the level of learning support. There were 143 VLBW children without cerebral palsy (CP) and 41 term-born peers assessed at 3½ years of age. The assessment included 6 measures of development: word comprehension, visual motor integration, visual perception, motor coordination, executive functioning and behaviour. Educational provision was determined at ageyears. A mildly abnormal score (score <1 standard deviation) was considered to indicate developmental difficulty. Scores from the six measures of development were analysed to determine the difficulty frequency and the presence of multiple difficulties (>1 difficulty score) in each child. This study showed that at 3½ years of age, the VLBW children had significantly more difficulty with motor coordination than their term-born peers. In addition, 27% of the VLBW children had multiple difficulties compared to 10% in the term-born group. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that of the difficulties, impaired motor coordination was most strongly associated with the requirement for learning support two years later. Regression analyses showed that having multiple difficulties was significantly associated with the need for learning support (Odds Ratio of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.5-7.8). These results show that the presence of multiple difficulties in a VLBW child of preschool age, can impact the child's educational provision two years later. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aggressive End-of-Life Care for Metastatic Cancer Patients Younger Than Age 65 Years.

    PubMed

    Falchook, Aaron D; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Tian, Fang; Basak, Ramsankar; Selvam, Nandini; Chen, Ronald C

    2017-09-01

    Aggressive medical care at the end of life can be harmful to patients and families, but its prevalence in use among younger cancer patients is unknown. The goal of the study was to report on the use of aggressive care and hospice services for patients younger than age 65 years. Using the HealthCore Integrated Research Database, we analyzed patients who died between 2007 and 2014 with metastatic lung (n = 12 764), colorectal (n = 5207), breast (n = 5855), pancreatic (n = 3397), or prostate (n = 1508) cancer. Based on published quality measures, we assessed uses of chemotherapy, intensive care, emergency room visits, and hospice care at the end of life. We examined additional items including radiotherapy, invasive procedures, hospitalization, and in-hospital deaths. Multivariable modified Poisson regression models were used to adjust for age, sex, geographic region, rural/urban location, year of death, and regional education and income measures. Across the five cancers, 10.1% to 14.1% of patients received chemotherapy within the last 14 days of life, 15.9% to 20.6% received intensive care in last 30 days, and 1.5% to 2.5% went to the emergency room two or more times in last 30 days. Hospice enrollment at least three days before death was 54.4% to 59.6%. However, 55.3% to 59.3% of patients had a hospital admission in the last 30 days, and one-third died (30.3%-35.4%) in the hospital. There was low use of cancer-directed treatment at the end of life for younger cancer patients, and hospice use was higher than 50%. However, there was a relatively high utilization of hospital-based care. These results demonstrate an opportunity for continued improvements in the provision of high-value, patient-centered care at the end of life.

  2. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at <20 and ≥26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs. The mothers were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ≥26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors.

  3. The fate of cognition in very old age: six-year longitudinal findings in the Berlin Aging Study (BASE).

    PubMed

    Singer, Tania; Verhaeghen, Paul; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman; Baltes, Paul B

    2003-06-01

    The authors report full-information longitudinal age gradients in 4 intellectual abilities on the basis of 6-year longitudinal changes in 132 individuals (mean age at T1 = 78.27, age range = 70-100) from the Berlin Aging Study. Relative to the cross-sectional parent sample (N = 516, mean age at T1 = 84.92 years), this sample was positively selected because of differential mortality and experimental attrition. Perceptual speed, memory, and fluency declined with age. In contrast, knowledge remained stable up to age 90, with evidence for decline thereafter. Age gradients were more negative in old old (n = 66, mean age at T1 = 83.04) than in old (n = 66, mean age at T1 = 73.77) participants. Rates of decline did not differ reliably between men and women or between participants with high versus low life-history status. They conclude that intellectual development after age 70 varies by distance to death, age, and intellectual ability domain.

  4. Educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years: Nationally representative sex- and age-specific statistics.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kondo, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years. Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women) in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Among men aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%-70.6%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-21.9%). High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%-56.8% in men aged 25-34 years). Among men aged 75-94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-52.3%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.4%). Compared with older age groups, such as 65-94 years, younger age groups, such as 25-54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acquisition of visuomotor abilities and intellectual quotient in children aged 4-10 years: relationship with micronutrient nutritional status.

    PubMed

    González, Horacio F; Malpeli, Agustina; Etchegoyen, Graciela; Lucero, Lucrecia; Romero, Florencia; Lagunas, Carolina; Lailhacar, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Uauy, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Lethargy, poor attention, and the high rate and severity of infections in malnourished children affect their educational achievement. We therefore studied the association between visuomotor abilities and intelligence quotient (IQ) and their relationship with iron, zinc, and copper. A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 89 healthy children (age range, 4-10 years). Evaluations of visuomotor ability and IQ were performed with the Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and the Scale for Measurement of Intelligence for children aged 3-18 years, respectively. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometry and biochemical assessments, which included serum ferritin, zinc and copper levels, and Hb. The sample was classified as having low or normal VMI scores: 47 children (52.8%, mean age 7 +/- 1.5 years) had low VMI, and 42 (47.2%, mean age 7 +/- 2.06 years) had normal VMI. There were no statistically significant differences in socioeconomic and cultural condition between both groups. We found significantly higher serum copper and ferritin levels in normal as compared to low VMI, but we did not find any differences with zinc. IQ was significantly higher in normal vs low VMI children. The fact that children with abnormal VMI presented low mean serum copper and ferritin concentrations could indicate that copper and iron deficiencies in this sample could be related with visuomotor abilities.

  6. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  7. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  8. Impact of Donor Age on Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty Outcome: Evaluation of Donors Aged 17-55 Years.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Friederike; Enders, Philip; Zachewicz, Jonas; Heindl, Ludwig M; Stanzel, Tisha P; Cursiefen, Claus; Bachmann, Björn O

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether the impression held by Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) surgeons that young donors are less suitable for DMEK is reflected in 1-year postoperative results. Retrospective, comparative, interventional case series. Records of 1084 consecutive DMEKs were reviewed and matched with corresponding donor tissue data. Young donors (aged ≤55 years; subgroups: 10-40, 41-55) were compared with old donors (>55 years; subgroups: 56-65, >65). Outcome measures in DMEK recipients included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), endothelial cell density (ECD), central corneal thickness (CCT) at 6 and 12 months, and rebubbling rate. Out of 529 included DMEKs, 94 (17.8%) were performed with young donor lamellae (mean donor age 49.31 ± 6.35 years; range: 17-55 years) and 435 (82.2%) with older donor tissue (mean age 70.68 ± 7.77 years; range: 56-90 years). Postoperative BSCVA, ECD, and CCT results were comparable in both groups at 6 and 12 months without statistically significant differences. Overall rebubbling rate in the young donor group was 42.6% and in the old donors was 53.3% (P = .058). Complication rates also did not differ significantly. Younger donor age seems not to affect the clinical outcome of DMEK surgery negatively within the first postoperative year, suggesting donor corneas with donor age down to 17 years as safe donor tissue for DMEK surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

  10. Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

  11. PCB exposure and cochlear function at age 6 years.

    PubMed

    Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Moleti, Arturo; Sisto, Renata; Wimmerová, Soňa; Jusko, Todd A; Tihányi, Juraj; Jurečková, Dana; Kováč, Ján; Koštiaková, Vladimíra; Drobná, Beata; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have documented adverse associations between exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and otological outcomes. Previously, we documented decreased distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels in children exposed to PCBs, up to the age of 45 months, amongst a cohort of children in eastern Slovakia. The objective of the present study is to evaluate cochlear dysfunction at 72 months of age in 214 children from this same cohort and to compare the otoacoustic test sensitivity to that of pure tone audiometry (PTA). The association between DPOAE, PTA, and PCBs was estimated by means of multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) and linear regression models. ROC curves were computed to estimate the DPOAE-test power in children. The DPOAE level at 72 months was related to PCB-153 serum levels. The DPOAE Input/Output function test at mid-frequency (2kHz) has shown instead nonmonotonic dependence on PCB exposure, for the left ears of children, over the whole growth curve. No significant association was found between PTA hearing levels and PCB-153 concentration. High diagnostic power of the DPOAE-test was found in children, similar to that found by the same authors in adults. In conclusions the DPOAE-PCB correlation obtained at 72 months is similar to that at 45 months suggesting a permanent and stable ototoxic effect of the PCB exposure. The lack of statistical significance of the PCB-PTA correlation suggests that DPOAEs are sensitive biomarkers of cochlear damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  13. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  14. Prevalence of dental caries in 5 - 6 years and 12 - 13 years age group of school children of Kathmandu valley.

    PubMed

    Subedi, B; Shakya, P; Kc, U; Jnawali, M; Paudyal, B D; Acharya, A; Koirala, S; Singh, A

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common conditions affecting the general health of children. The present study was carried out among school children of Kathmandu valley to determine the prevalence of dental caries in two age groups. The study was conducted from December 2007 to May 2008. The age of the school children of the study was divided into two group: 5 - 6 years and 12 - 13 years. A stratified cluster sampling with proportional allocation was used while grouping the subjects. The dental status examination was done with the help of trained dentists. Decayed, missed and filled teeth index and decayed, missed and filled surfaces index (dmft for primary dentition and DMFT for permanent dentition) were used as the standard tools for the determination of prevalence. A total of 638 students (325 of age group 12 - 13 years and 313 of age group 5 - 6 years) from 30 different schools of the Kathmandu valley were included in the study. The caries status was found higher in the age group of 5 - 6 years than in the 12 - 13 years and it was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). The dmfs and caries percentage of the age group 5 - 6 years and the DMFS and caries percent of the 12 - 13 years was found to be 3.79, 69 % and 1.6, 53.23 % respectively. The dmft/dmfs value was found to be significant according to the districts in the 5 - 6 years age group whereas the DMFS was found statistically significant among the sexes of the 12 - 13 years age group. The caries percentage was found to be above the recommended level of the World Health Organization. However, the DMFS and DMFT values were within the WHO level.

  15. Six-year longitudinal changes in body composition of middle-aged and elderly Japanese: age and sex differences in appendicular skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Itsuko; Koda, Michiko; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about longitudinal changes of body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in middle-aged and elderly individuals. We evaluated longitudinal changes of body composition, and age and sex differences in appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Participants were 1454 community-dwelling Japanese men and women aged 40-79 years. Body composition at baseline and 6-year follow up was measured by DXA. Fat increased significantly in men of all ages, and in women aged in their 40s and 50s. Among men, arm lean tissue mass (LTM) changed by 0.9%, -0.5%, -1.4% and -3.7%, respectively, for the 40s to the 70s, and decreased significantly in the 60s and 70s. Leg LTM in men changed by -0.4%, -1.3%, -1.7% and -3.9%, respectively, and decreased significantly from the 50s to the 70s. Compared with the preceding age groups, significant differences were observed between the 60s and 70s in arm and leg LTM change in men. Among women, arm LTM changed by 0.7%, 0.2%, 1.6% and -1.5%, respectively, which was significant in the 60s and 70s. Leg LTM decreased significantly in all age groups of women by -2.0%, -2.8%, -2.4% and -3.9%, respectively. With respect to sex differences, leg LTM loss rates were significantly higher in women than men at the 40s and 50s. Longitudinal data suggest that arm and leg LTM decreased markedly in men in their 70s, and leg LTM had already decreased in women in their 40s. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Renal transplantation in children less than 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoni, G; Malekzadeh, M H; Pennisi, A J; Ettenger, R B; Uittenbogaart, C H; Fine, R N

    1980-01-01

    19 young children (less than 5 years old) have received 31 renal transplants from 4 live relatives and 27 cadaver donors. The 2-year allograft survival rate for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from the 4 live donors was 75 +/- 22% while for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from 15 cadaver donors was 26 +/- 11%. 10 children are currently surviving with functioning allographs (7 cadavers and 3 live relatives); 4 have died and 5 are undergoing dialysis after the loss of at least one allograft. Despite the poor allograft survival rate the fact that 7 children are surviving with cadaver allografts indicates that the lack of a living related donor should not prevent transplants in young children. PMID:7002060

  17. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  18. Brief report: Pregnant by age 15 years and substance use initiation among US adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Spitznagel, Edward L; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-10-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12, 13-14, and age 15 years) for alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, controlling for race/ethnicity and metropolitan location. Of girls pregnant by age 15 years (3% of the sample, weighted n = 243), 16% had smoked marijuana by age 10 years and over 20% had smoked cigarettes and initiated alcohol use by age 10 years. In the multivariable analysis, marijuana use by age 14 years and/or cigarette smoking by age 12 years clearly distinguished girls who became pregnant by age 15 years and is perhaps due to a common underlying risk factor. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Decade of Reminders: Changing Age Consciousness between Fifty and Sixty Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined commonalities of aging consciousness among 72 professional men and women between 50 and 60 years old. Found frequency and intensity of aging messages increased in the fifties, fostering a quickened sense of aging during this decade. Identified four categories of age reminders characteristic in the fifties: body, generational, contextual,…

  20. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12-19…

  1. Age and Sex Differences in Motor Performance of 3 Through 6 Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Arlene M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Children from three to six years of age were tested to determine the relationship of age and sex to motor performance. Tests involved balancing, scrambling, catching, speed running, long jumping, and ball throwing. Although significant age and sex differences were found, it appeared that age generally was more closely related to performance than…

  2. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  3. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  4. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  5. Sugar-containing beverage intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Felix, Janine F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-09-17

    Consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) in adults has been associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Although the effect of SCB on body weight in children is well established, little is known about the cardiometabolic effects in young children. We studied the associations of SCB intake at the age of 1 year with cardiometabolic health at age 6 years. This study was performed among 2,045 Dutch children from a population based prospective birth cohort. SCB intake was assessed with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at the age of 13 months and sex-specific tertiles were created. Children visited the research center at the age of 6 years. We created a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score including: body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Age-and sex-specific standard deviation (SD) scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables of mother and child. In the total population, we observed an association between higher SCB intake at 13 months of age and a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score at the age of 6 years (0.13SD (95 % CI 0.01; 0.25), highest vs. lowest tertile) After stratification by sex, we found that boys in the highest tertile of SCB intake had a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score (0.18 SD (95 % CI 0.01; 0.34)), as compared to boys in the lowest tertile of SCB intake. There was no significant association in girls. We did not find associations of SCB intake with the individual cardiometabolic risk factors in the total population, or in the stratified analyses. Higher SCB intake at 1 year of age was associated with a higher cardiometabolic risk factor score at age 6 years in boys, but not in girls. Further research on sex-specific effects of SCBs is needed.

  6. The formative years: medical ethics comes of age.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2015-01-01

    When the Journal of Medical Ethics first appeared in April 1975, the prospects of success seemed uncertain. There were no scholars specialising in the field, the readership could not be guaranteed, and the medical profession itself seemed, at the very least, ambivalent about a subject thought by many to be the province of doctors alone, to be acquired through an apprenticeship model, and certainly not taught or examined in any formal sense. However, change was afoot, fresh scandals created an awareness that outside help was needed to think through the new challenges facing the profession, and the success of the medical groups revealed a clear way forward through multidisciplinary and critically reflective discussion of the host of emerging ethical and legal issues. In this article the formative years of the journal are recaptured, with a claim that the core principles on which it was founded must endure if it is to continue to 'do good medical ethics' over the next 40 years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential Aging of Cerebral White Matter in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Seven-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrew R.; Völkle, Manuel C.; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effects models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 65.4, SD = 9.0 years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging. PMID:26481675

  9. Fetal alcohol syndrome among children aged 7-9 years - Arizona, Colorado, and New York, 2010.

    PubMed

    Fox, Deborah J; Pettygrove, Sydney; Cunniff, Christopher; O'Leary, Leslie A; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Druschel, Charlotte M; Breen, April; Robinson, Luther; Ortiz, Linnette; Frías, Jaime L; Ruttenber, Margaret; Klumb, Donald; Meaney, F John

    2015-01-30

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a serious birth defect and developmental disorder caused by in utero exposure to alcohol. Assessment of the public health burden of FAS through surveillance has proven difficult; there is wide variation in reported prevalence depending on the study population and surveillance method. Generally, records-based birth prevalence studies report estimates of 0.2-1.5 per 1,000 live births, whereas studies that use in-person, expert assessment of school-aged children in a community report estimates of 6-9 per 1,000 population. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II addressed some of the challenges in records-based ascertainment by assessing a period prevalence of FAS among children aged 7‒9 years in Arizona, Colorado, and New York. The prevalence across sites ranged from 0.3 to 0.8 per 1,000 children. Prevalence of FAS was highest among American Indian/Alaska Native children and lowest among Hispanic children. These estimates continue to be much lower than those obtained from studies using in-person, expert assessment. Factors that might contribute to this discrepancy include 1) inadequate recognition of the physical and behavioral characteristics of FAS by clinical care providers; 2) insufficient documentation of those characteristics in the medical record; and 3) failure to consider prenatal alcohol exposure with diagnoses of behavioral and learning problems. Addressing these factors through training of medical and allied health providers can lead to practice changes, ultimately increasing recognition and documentation of the characteristics of FAS.

  10. [Determination of influenza vaccination in persons 65 years of age and older].

    PubMed

    Sarriá, Antonio; Timoner, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Influenza vaccination is an effective preventive intervention to reduce the negative consequences of this disease. The objective of this work is to describe population patterns of use of influenza vaccination, to analyze the effect of a set of variables on the likelihood of being vaccinated and of having a proactive attitude towards the vaccine in the age group of 65 year and over. Cross sectional study. From the Spanish National Health Survey of 1997 those 65 and more year old were selected. The association of reporting having had an influenza vaccination last as year or having asked for the vaccine was estimated. A total sample of 1,148 was analyzed. Overall, 51.3% of subjects reported having received a vaccination last year. 18.0% of them reported having asked for the vaccine. Odds Ratios statistically associated with the vaccination were: 70 to 74 year 1.6 (1.2-2.2), 75 and older 2.0 (1.5-2.8), male 1.4 (1.1-1.9), residents in towns with less than 10,001 inhabitants 1.6 (1.0-2.6), non smokers 2.1 (1.3-3.5), with a last visit to a physician in the last two weeks 1.8 (1.3-2.6). Odds Ratios statistically associated with having a proactive attitude towards the vaccine were: finished studies with more than 15 year 1.8 (1.1-2.9), no consumption of medicine in the last two weeks 1.9 (1.1-3.6), and self-reported health as good or very good 1.7 (1.1-2.9). Overall influenza vaccination levels are not appropriate. Several factors have been identified as barriers for receiving this effective intervention. No association was found with socio-economic status. Some differences were also found regarding having a positive attitude towards the vaccine. This study may contribute to identifying population groups who are not receiving influenza vaccination and for designing strategies aimed to enhance influenza vaccination among them.

  11. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes...

  12. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes...

  13. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes...

  14. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes...

  15. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... balance shall be paid to the parent having custody of the Indian under 21 years of age. All other taxes...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

    2010-11-01

    To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.

  17. Prevalence of and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam, 2007.

    PubMed

    Minh, Hoang Van; Hai, Phan Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Kinh, Ly Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports show a sharp increase in smoking rates among girls. We describe prevalence of cigarette smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam and examine the associated factors. We used data from female secondary school students aged 13 to 15 years (grades 8-10) from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey that was conducted in 9 provinces in Vietnam. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine associations between independent variables with smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among girls was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-1.5), and 1.5% (95% CI, 1.2-1.9) of girls were susceptible to smoking. Having friends who smoke was the strongest predictor of both smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Attendance at school classes that described the harmful effects of smoking had significant effects in reducing cigarette smoking. Girls who were exposed to billboard cigarette advertising were more likely to be susceptible to smoking than were those who had not seen advertisements. Our findings highlight the need for pursuing school-based intervention programs in Vietnam and for countering tobacco advertising and marketing practices that target young women.

  18. Age- and sex-related growth patterns of the craniofacial complex in European children aged 3-6 years.

    PubMed

    Tutkuviene, Janina; Cattaneo, Cristina; Obertová, Zuzana; Ratnayake, Melanie; Poppa, Pasquale; Barkus, Arunas; Khalaj-Hedayati, Kerstin; Schroeder, Inge; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie

    2016-11-01

    Craniofacial growth changes in young children are not yet completely understood. Up-to-date references for craniofacial measurements are crucial for clinical assessment of orthodontic anomalies, craniofacial abnormalities and subsequent planning of interventions. To provide normal reference data and to identify growth patterns for craniofacial dimensions of European boys and girls aged 3-6 years. Using standard anthropometric methodology, body weight, body height and 23 craniofacial measurements were acquired for a cross-sectional sample of 681 healthy children (362 boys and 319 girls) aged 3-6 years from Germany, Italy and Lithuania. Descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients, percentage annual changes and percentage growth rates were used to analyse the dataset. Between the ages of 3-6 years, craniofacial measurements showed age- and sex-related patterns independent from patterns observed for body weight and body height. Sex-related differences were observed in the majority of craniofacial measurements. In both sexes, face heights and face depths showed the strongest correlation with age. Growth patterns differed by craniofacial measurement and can be summarised into eight distinct age- and sex-related patterns. This study provided reference data and identified sex- and age-related growth patterns of the craniofacial complex of young European children, which may be used for detailed assessment of normal growth in paediatrics, maxillofacial reconstructive surgery and possibly for forensic age assessment.

  19. Programming of adiposity in offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Robert S; Nelson, Scott M; Walker, James D; Greene, Stephen A; Milne, Gillian; Sattar, Naveed; Pearson, Donald W

    2010-05-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the influence of maternal type 1 diabetes during pregnancy on offspring adiposity and glucose tolerance at age 7 years and to assess whether metabolic factors at birth (neonatal leptin and insulin) predict adverse outcomes. We examined 100 offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes (OT1DM) and 45 offspring of control mothers. Mothers had previously been recruited during pregnancy, and, where possible, birth weight, umbilical cord insulin, and leptin were measured. Children were classed as overweight and obese using age-specific reference ranges. OT1DM had similar height (control, 1.25 +/- 0. 06 m; OT1DM, 1.24 +/- 0.06 m; P = 0.81) but were heavier (control, 25.5 +/- 3.8 kg; OT1DM, 27.1 +/- 5.7 kg; P = 0.048) and had an increased BMI (control, 16.4 kg/m(2); OT1DM, 17.4 +/- 2.6 kg/m(2), P = 0.005). Waist circumference (control, 56.0 +/- 3.7 cm; OT1DM, 58 +/- 6.8 cm; P = 0.02) and sum of skinfolds were increased (control, 37.5 +/- 17.0 mm [n = 42]; OT1DM, 46.1 +/- 24.2 mm [n = 91]; P = 0.02), and there was a marked increase in the prevalence of overweight and obese children (OT1DM, 22% overweight and 12% obese; control, 0% overweight and 7% obese; chi(2) P = 0.001). Glucose tolerance was not different compared with that in control subjects. BMI at age 7 years correlated with cord leptin (OT1DM, r = 0.25; n = 61, P = 0.047), weakly with adjusted birth weight (r = 0.19; P = 0.06) and hematocrit (r = 0.25; n = 50, P = 0.07), but not cord insulin (OT1DM, r = -0.08; P = 0.54). OT1DM are at increased risk of overweight and obesity in childhood. This risk appears to relate, in part, to fetal leptin and hematocrit but not insulin.

  20. Long-term restrictions in participation in stroke survivors under and over 70 years of age.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Joris A; van Mierlo, Maria L; Post, Marcel W M; Achterberg, Wilco P; Kappelle, L Jaap; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2017-01-05

    This study aims to (1) assess differences in participation restrictions between stroke survivors aged under and over 70 years and (2) identify predictors associated with favorable and unfavorable long-term participation in both age groups. Prospective cohort study in which 326 patients were assessed at stroke onset, two months and one year after stroke. The Utrecht Scale for Evaluation of Rehabilitation-Participation (USER-Participation) was used to measure participation restrictions one year after stroke. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed including demographic factors, stroke-related factors, emotional functioning and comorbidity as possible predictors. Stroke survivors aged over 70 years perceived more participation restrictions in comparison to stroke survivors aged under 70 years one year after stroke. Independently significant predictors for unfavorable participation outcomes were advancing age, more severe stroke and anxiety symptoms in patients aged over 70 years, and female gender, more severe stroke, impaired cognition and depression symptoms in patients aged under 70 years. Lower age was the only independent predictor associated with favorable participation after one year in stroke survivors aged over 70 years. This study emphasizes the need to pay more attention to participation restrictions in elderly stroke survivors. Implications for rehabilitation More attention in the rehabilitation process should be paid to restrictions in participation of stroke survivors aged older than 70 years, taking into account the different participation needs and predictors of older stroke survivors. Early screening on the presence of anxiety symptoms could potentially prevent long-term restrictions in participation in stroke survivors aged over 70-year old. Stroke survivors experience considerable restrictions in physical activity and mobility after one year, highlighting the need for the development of community-based exercise

  1. A developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years is associated with increased schizotypal personality at age 23 years.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Melissa; Raine, Adrian; Gao, Yu; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2011-11-01

    Although allostatic load has been investigated in mood and anxiety disorders, no prior study has investigated developmental change in allostatic load as a precursor to schizotypal personality. This study employed a multilevel developmental framework to examine whether the development of increased allostatic load, as indicated by impaired sympathetic nervous system habituation from ages 3 to 11 years, predisposes to schizotypal personality at age 23 years. Electrodermal activity to six aversive tones was recorded in 995 subjects at age 3 years and again at 11 years. Habituation slopes at both ages were used to create groups who showed a developmental increase in habituation (decreased allostatic load), and those who showed a developmental decrease in habituation (increased allostatic load). Children who showed a developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years had higher levels of schizotypal personality at 23 years. A breakdown of total schizotypy scores demonstrated specificity of findings to cognitive-perceptual features of schizotypy. Findings are the first to document a developmental abnormality in allostasis in relation to adult schizotypal personality. The relative failure to develop normal habituation to repeated stressors throughout childhood is hypothesized to result in an accumulation of allostatic load and consequently increased positive symptom schizotypy in adulthood.

  2. Update on herpes zoster vaccine: licensure for persons aged 50 through 59 years.

    PubMed

    2011-11-11

    Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax, Merck & Co., Inc.) was licensed and recommended in 2006 for prevention of herpes zoster among adults aged 60 years and older. In March 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Zostavax in adults aged 50 through 59 years. In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) declined to recommend the vaccine for adults aged 50 through 59 years and reaffirmed its current recommendation that herpes zoster vaccine be routinely recommended for adults aged 60 years and older.

  3. Rotator cuff injury in patients over the age of 65 years: evaluation of function, integrity and strength☆

    PubMed Central

    de Castro Veado, Marco Antonio; Prata, Eric Fontes; Gomes, David Correia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the results from patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment for rotator cuff injuries, among those aged over 65 years, observing integrity, function and strength. Methods Thirty-five shoulders were operated between July 2005 and July 2010, and 28 shoulders were re-evaluated regarding elevation strength and external rotation, using a digital dynamometer. Integrity was evaluated by means of ultrasound examinations. The patients, whose mean age was 70.54 years (ranging from 65 to 82 years), were followed up for a minimum of 26 months and mean of 51.18 months (ranging from 26 to 82 months). To evaluate function, the UCLA score, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were used. Results In analyzing the ultrasound scans, it was observed that the integrity of the rotator cuff was maintained in 75% of the cases at the end of the follow-up, along with the improvement in the UCLA score, which evolved from 17.46 to 32.39, i.e. excellent and good results in 89.28%. The mean SST and VAS indices were 9.86 and 1.5 respectively. Conclusion Arthroscopic surgery to repair rotator cuff injuries in patients over the age of 65 years leads to improved function and pain relief, with maintenance of the integrity of the repair. The data on muscle strength were inconclusive. PMID:26229937

  4. Effects of age on genetic influence on bone loss over 17 years in women: the Healthy Ageing Twin Study (HATS).

    PubMed

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hammond, Christopher J; Hart, Deborah J; Spector, Timothy D

    2012-10-01

    The rate of bone loss varies across the aging period via multiple complex mechanisms. Therefore, the role of genetic factors on bone loss may also change similarly. In this study, we investigated the effect of age on the genetic component of bone loss in a large twin-based longitudinal study. During 17 years of follow-up in TwinsUK and Healthy Ageing Twin Study (HATS), 15,491 hip and lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed in 7056 twins. Out of these subjects, 2716 female twins aged >35 years with at least two scans separated for >4 years (mean follow-up 9.7 years) were included in this analysis. We used a mixed-effects random-coefficients regression model to predict hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) values for exact ages of 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, and 80 years, with adjustment for baseline age, weight, height, and duration of hormone replacement therapy. We then estimated heritability of the changes in BMD measures between these age ranges. Heritability estimates for cross-sectional hip and spine BMD were high (ranging between 69% and 88%) at different ages. Heritability of change of BMD was lower and more variable, generally ranging from 0% to 40% for hip and 0% to 70% for spine; between age 40 and 45 years genetic factors explained 39.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-53%) of variance of BMD loss for total hip, 46.4% (95% CI, 32%-58%) for femoral neck, and 69.5% (95% CI, 59%-77%) for lumbar spine. These estimates decreased with increasing age, and there appeared to be no heritability of BMD changes after the age of 65 years. There was some evidence at the spine for shared genetic effects between cross-sectional and longitudinal BMD. Whereas genetic factors appear to have an important role in bone loss in early postmenopausal women, nongenetic mechanisms become more important determinants of bone loss with advanced age. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  5. Validity of demirjian and nolla methods for dental age estimation for Northeastern Turkish children aged 5–16 years old

    PubMed Central

    Nur, Bilge; Kusgoz, Adem; Bayram, Mehmet; Nur, Metin; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Yildirim, Sina

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the applicability of Demirjian and Nolla methods for northeastern Turkish population. Material and Method: A retrospective study was performed on panoramic radiographs of 673 subjects aged 5–15.9 years. The mean dental age (DA) according to the Demirjian and Nolla methods were compared to the mean chronological age (CA). Results: The mean CA of the study sample was 10.37±2.90 and 10.03±2.81 years for females and males, respectively. Using the Demirjian method, the mean estimated DA was 11.26±3.02 years for females and 10.87±2.96 years for males. For Nolla method, the mean estimated DA was 9.80±3.41 and 9.53±3.14 years for females and males, respectively. The mean differences between the CA and DA according to the Demirjian and Nolla methods were 0.86 and -0.54 years for total study sample. Conclusion: Nolla method was found to be a more accurate method for estimating DA in northeastern Turkish population. Key words:Dental age, demirjian method, nolla method, chronological age. PMID:22549686

  6. Comparative clinicopathological and outcome analysis of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged below 60 years and above 60 years

    PubMed Central

    AL-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; Tunio, Mutahir A; Asiri, Mushabbab Al; Bayoumi, Yasser; Balbaid, Ali; Aljohani, Naji J; Fatani, Hanadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged above 60 years. Materials and methods Comparative analysis was performed in 252 patients aged 46–60 years (Group A) and 118 patients aged above 60 years (Group B), who had thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine-131, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy between July 2000 and December 2012. Different clinicopathological features, treatment, complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were compared. Results Mean age of patients in Group A was 51.9 years (range: 46–60), and mean age of those in Group B was 68.6 years (range: 62–97). Group B patients had higher positive lymph nodes (43.2%), P=0.011. The frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, and lymphovascular space invasion was seen more in Group B than in Group A. Postsurgical complications (permanent hypoparathyroidism, bleeding, and wound infections) were also seen more in Group B (P=0.043, P=0.011, and P=0.021, respectively). Group B patients experienced more locoregional recurrences (11.0%, P=0.025); similarly, more distant metastases were observed in Group B (15.3%, P=0.003). The 10-year disease-free survival rates were 87.6% in Group A and 70.8% in Group B (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients aged above 60 years are more aggressive biologically and associated with a worse prognosis, and the morbidity is significantly high as compared to patients aged below 60 years. PMID:27621604

  7. Agreement between grating acuity at age 1 year and Snellen acuity at age 5.5 years in the preterm child. Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group.

    PubMed

    Dobson, V; Quinn, G E; Siatkowski, R M; Baker, J D; Hardy, R J; Reynolds, J D; Trese, M T; Tung, B

    1999-02-01

    To examine the relation between grating acuity at age 1 year and Snellen acuity and grating acuity at 5.5 years, in preterm children with birth weights less than 1251 g. Subjects were participants in the multicenter study of Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity. The Teller acuity card (TAC; Vistech Consultants, Dayton, OH) procedure was used to measure monocular grating acuity in children at ages 1 and 5.5 years. Early-treatment diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS) charts were used to measure the childrens' monocular recognition (Snellen) acuity at age 5.5 years. Data are presented for 575 eyes with measurable TAC grating acuity at 1 year and 111 eyes that had no measurable acuity at 1 year. Among eyes with normal acuity at 1 year, 86.8% showed normal Snellen acuity, and 94.3% showed normal grating acuity at 5.5 years. Among eyes that were blind (i.e., had no measurable TAC grating acuity) at 1 year, 96.8% showed no quantifiable Snellen acuity, and 89.2% showed no quantifiable grating acuity at 5.5 years. Only 2.4% of eyes had acuity in the range between normal and blind at 1 year (i.e., measurable grating acuity <1.6 cyc/deg); thus, the predictive value of acuity scores in this range could not be determined. Correlation analysis indicated that the relative position within the normal range of an eye's grating acuity score at 1 year was not predictive of the relative position within the normal range of that eye's acuity score at 5.5 years. Among a large population of low-birth-weight infants, eyes with normal grating acuity at age 1 year generally showed normal Snellen and grating acuity at age 5.5 years, and eyes that had no quantifiable acuity at 1 year remained blind at 5.5 years. Relative position of an eye's acuity score within the normal range was not predictive of the relative position of that eye's later acuity score.

  8. Measuring Years of Inactivity, Years in Retirement, Time to Retirement, and Age at Retirement Within the Markov Model

    PubMed Central

    SKOOG, GARY R.; CIECKA, JAMES E.

    2010-01-01

    Retirement-related concepts are treated as random variables within Markov process models that capture multiple labor force entries and exits. The expected number of years spent outside of the labor force, expected years in retirement, and expected age at retirement are computed—all of which are of immense policy interest but have been heretofore reported with less precisely measured proxies. Expected age at retirement varies directly with a person’s age; but even younger people can expect to retire at ages substantially older than those commonly associated with retirement, such as age 60, 62, or 65. Between 1970 and 2003, men allocated most of their increase in life expectancy to increased time in retirement, but women allocated most of their increased life expectancy to labor force activity. Although people can exit and reenter the labor force at older ages, most 65-year-old men who are active in the labor force will not reenter after they eventually exit. At age 65, the probability that those who are inactive will reenter the labor force at some future time is .38 for men and .27 for women. Life expectancy at exact ages is decomposed into the sum of the expected time spent active and inactive in the labor force, and also as the sum of the expected time to labor force separation and time in retirement. PMID:20879680

  9. The accuracy of 15 - 25 years age estimation using panoramic radiograph with thevissen method in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayati, D. S.; Suryonegoro, H.; Makes, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    Age estimation is important for individual identification. Root development of third molars occurs at age 15-25 years. This study was conducted to determine the accuracy of age estimation using the Thevissen method in Indonesia. The Thevissen method was applied to 100 panoramic radiographs of both male and female subjects. Reliability was tested by the Dahlberg formula and Cohen’s Kappa test, and the significance measurement was tested by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon test. The deviation of estimated age was then calculated. The deviation of age estimation was ±3.050 years and ±2.067 for male and female subjects, respectively. The deviation of age estimation of female subjects was less than male subject. Age estimation with the Thevissen method is preferred for age 15-22 years.

  10. Assessment of Working Memory Components at 6 Years of Age as Predictors of Reading Achievements a Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…

  11. Mammography Prevalence within 2 Two Years (Age 40+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For mammography, a woman 40 years of age or older must have reported having at least one mammography in her life. Furthermore, she should have had the most recent one within the last two years by the time of interview.

  12. Risk of progression to hypertension in nonhypertensive Japanese workers aged 20-64 years.

    PubMed

    Kurioka, Sumiko; Horie, Seichi; Inoue, Akiomi; Mafune, Kosuke; Tsuda, Yuki; Otsuji, Yutaka

    2014-02-01

    Prehypertension is a known risk factor for hypertension in individuals aged less than 20 or more than 35 years, but no large studies have investigated this risk in individuals aged 20-34 years. This study investigated progression to hypertension in nonhypertensive individuals aged 20-34 years and compared this group with individuals aged 35-64 years. A total of 12,639 nonhypertensive individuals aged 20-64 years were followed from 1999 to 2008. Hazard ratios for progression to hypertension were calculated for men and women according to three blood pressure (BP) categories (optimal BP: <120/80 mmHg; normal BP: 120-129/80-84 mmHg; high-normal BP: 130-139/85-89 mmHg) and three age groups (20-34, 35-49 and 50-64 years). Progression to hypertension occurred in 4617 individuals (36.5%). The risk of progression to hypertension increased significantly with increasing baseline BP category in men and women in all age groups. The association between baseline BP and progression to hypertension was stronger in the group aged 20-34 years than in the older age groups, especially in men. The results of this study confirm that normal or high-normal BP increases the risk of progression to hypertension in individuals aged 20-34 years. In men, the association between baseline BP and progression to hypertension is stronger in this age group than in older age groups. Health providers should be aware that normal or high-normal BP is a risk factor for progression to hypertension even in individuals aged 20-34 years.

  13. Vision screening in children: Is 7-9 years of age a threshold for visual impairment?

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Yusuf Haydar; Tekin, Murat; Uludag, Aysegul; Arikan, Sedat; Sahin, Erkan Melih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of decreased visual acuity, strabismus, and spectacle wear in children aged 5 to 13 years. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in primary education schools. A total of 1938 participants, including 940 females (48.5%) and 998 males (51.5%) with a mean age 8.96 ± 2.31 (5-13 years old), were screened. The comparisons were performed with gender, age, and age groups. The children attended to vision screening were assigned to three age groups as 5-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-13 years. Results: The prevalence of the parameters was detected as decreased visual acuity 12.4%, strabismus 2.2%, and spectacle wear 6.9%. The prevalence of decreased visual acuity was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.013, p < 0.001). The prevalence of spectacle wear was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.019, p < 0.001). There was a visual acuity decrease in 33 of 106 (31.1%) children despite wearing own spectacle. There was no significant difference among three age groups for strabismus. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of decreased visual acuity, as well as the higher frequency of spectacle wear in children at ages of 7-9 years old may point out a threshold for visual impairment. PMID:27882020

  14. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  15. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations.

    PubMed

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group.

  16. Age structure of a southern pine stand following 72 years of uneven-aged silviculture

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2012-01-01

    Work on uneven-aged silviculture in southern pine stands on the Crossett Experimental Forest (CEF) began in the 1930s, when a number of 16.2-ha compartments were placed into a series of demonstration projects and studies (Reynolds 1980). Two of these compartments, the Good and Poor Farm Forestry Forties, have been maintained continuously in this silvicultural regime...

  17. Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingyan; Qu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xun; Zhu, Jianfeng; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Lin, Senlin; Lu, Lina; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Ling; Shi, Huijing; Tan, Hui; You, Xiaofang; Yuan, Hong; Sun, Sifei; Wang, Mingjin; He, Xiangui; Zou, Haidong; Congdon, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed changes in age-specific prevalence of refractive error at the time of starting school, by comparing preschool and school age cohorts in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional study was done in Jiading District, Shanghai during November and December 2013. We randomly selected 7 kindergartens and 7 primary schools, with probability proportionate to size. Chinese children (n = 8398) aged 3 to 10 years were enumerated, and 8267 (98.4%) were included. Children underwent distance visual acuity assessment and refraction measurement by cycloplegic autorefraction and subjective refraction. The prevalence of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), presenting visual acuity, and best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye of ≤20/40 was 19.8%, 15.5%, and 1.7%, respectively. Among those with UCVA ≤ 20/40, 93.2% could achieve visual acuity of ≥20/32 with refraction. Only 28.7% (n = 465) of children with UCVA in the better eye of ≤20/40 wore glasses. Prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 diopters [D] in at least one eye) increased from 1.78% in 3-year-olds to 52.2% in 10-year-olds, while prevalence of hyperopia (spherical equivalent ≥+2.0 D) decreased from 17.8% among 3-year-olds to 2.6% by 10 years of age. After adjusting for age, attending elite "high-level" school was statistically associated with greater myopia prevalence. The prevalence of myopia was lower or comparable to that reported in other populations from age 3 to 5 years, but increased dramatically after 6 years, consistent with a strong environmental role of schooling on myopia development.

  18. Early-life risk factors identified for owner-reported feline overweight and obesity at around two years of age.

    PubMed

    Rowe, E C; Browne, W J; Casey, R A; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Murray, J K

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is considered the second most common health problem in pet cats in developed countries. This study used prospective data from a longitudinal study of pet cats ('C.L.A.W.S.', www.bristol.ac.uk/vetscience/claws) to identify early-life risk factors for feline overweight/obesity occurring at around two years of age. Data were collected via five owner-completed questionnaires (for cats aged two-six months, six months, 12 months, 18 months and two years respectively) completed between May 2011 and April 2015. Owner-reported body condition scores (BCS) of cats at age two years, assessed using images from the 9-point BCS system (Laflamme, 1997), were categorised into a dichotomous variable: overweight/obese (BCS 6-9) and not overweight (BCS 1-5) and used as the dependent variable. Of the 375 cats with owner-reported BCS, 25.3% were overweight or obese at two years of age. Multivariable logistic regression models were built using stepwise forward-selection. To account for potential hierarchical clustering due to multi-cat households two-level random intercept models were considered but clustering had no impact on the analysis. Models were compared using Wald tests. Six factors were significantly associated with overweight/obesity at two years of age: being overweight or obese at one year of age (OR=10.6, 95%CI 4.4-25.3); owner belief that BCS 7 was the ideal weight (OR=33.2, 95%CI 8.5-129.4), or that BCS represented overweight cats but they would not be concerned if their cat were classified in this category (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-6.2), at questionnaire five completion; vets advising owners that the cat should lose weight, or making no comment on their weight, between one and two years of age (OR=12.1, 95%CI 3.2-44.9 and OR=3.9, 95%CI 1.5-10.3 respectively); owners giving their cat treats when they "felt happy" with them at 18 months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.0 - 7.3); feeding ≥250g wet food daily between two and six months of age (OR=2.7, 95%CI 1.2-5.9), and feeding

  19. Outcome of very preterm small for gestational age infants: the first nine years of life.

    PubMed

    Kok, J H; den Ouden, A L; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P; Brand, R

    1998-02-01

    To determine the influence of intrauterine growth retardation of preterm infants on mortality and cognitive development. A nationwide study cohort of very preterm and/or small for gestational age infants (< 32 weeks and/or < 1500 g) born alive in 1983 in the Netherlands. Assessment on neuromotor and cognitive development at five years, and a parental questionnaire on school performance at nine years. Cognitive outcome is defined as handicap for mental and speech-language development, and need for special education. 134 small for gestational age infants (< 10th centile) and 410 appropriate for gestational age infants (between 25th and 75th centile) of all infants between 25 and 32 weeks of gestational age were identified; infants with congenital malformations and not of caucasian race were excluded. Neonatal mortality, in-hospital and five years mortality; Cognitive outcome at five years; School performance at nine years. The mortality risk for small for gestational age compared with appropriate for gestational age infants was significantly higher, after adjustment for gestational age, sex, multiple pregnancy and mode of delivery (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.26-5.26). Small for gestational age infants showed more often gross motor and minor neurological dysfunction, but less cerebral palsy than appropriate for gestational age infants. Cognitive outcome at five years in small for gestational age infants was significantly worse than appropriate for gestational age infants stratified for mode of delivery OR 2.44 (95% CI 1.05-5.55). At nine years of age significantly more small for gestational age infants (16.4%) needed special education than appropriate for gestational age infants (11.9%). Intrauterine growth retardation increases the risk of mortality and of cognitive disorders.

  20. Importance of age for 3-year continuous behavioral obesity treatment success and dropout rate.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Pernilla; Svensson, Viktoria; Kowalski, Jan; Nyberg, Gisela; Ekblom, Orjan; Marcus, Claude

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether first year weight loss, age, and socioeconomic background correlate with the success rate of continuous long-term behavioral obesity treatment. In a 3-year longitudinal study, obese children (n = 684) were divided into three groups based on age at the start of treatment, age 6-9 years, 10-13 years, and 14-16 years. The mean BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) decline was age-dependent (p = 0.001), independently of adjustment for missing data: -1.8 BMI-SDS units in the youngest, -1.3 in the middle age group, and -0.5 in the oldest age group. SES and parental BMI status did not affect the results. 30% of the adolescents remained in treatment at year 3. There was only a weak correlation between BMI-SDS change after 1 and 3 years: r = 0.51 (p < 0.001). Among children with no BMI-SDS reduction during year 1 (n = 46), 40% had a clinically significantly reduced BMI-SDS after year 3. Behavioral treatment should be initiated at an early age to increase the chance for good results. Childhood obesity treatment should be continued for at least 3 years, regardless of the initial change in BMI-SDS. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  1. [Breast cancer in México: a 10-year trend analysis on incidence and age at diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Juárez-Ruiz, Abigail; Mathiew-Quirós, Álvaro; Guzmán-De la Garza, Francisco Javier; Santos-Lartigue, Adriana; Escobar-Moreno, César

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is an important public health problem. Some countries have achieved a downward trend while in others, continues ascending. In México, information on incidence and age at diagnosis is isolated in time, and knowledge on trend analysis is lacking. To examine the 2003-2012 trend of the incidence rate and age at diagnosis of breast cancer in the northeast of México. We also analyze the trend of positivity to nodes, hormone receptors and HER2; and its association with age at diagnosis. This is an epidemiological study of breast cancer patients in a tertiary care hospital in Monterrey, México (n = 3,488). Only new cases with a histology report were included; if this was not available, the cytology result was considered. Trend analysis was performed using the JoinPoint regression program Version 3.5. The breast cancer incidence rate increased from 26.7 to 49.8 per 100,000 between 2003 and 2011 (p < 0.05). The adjusted rate showed an annual percentage rate of change of +6.2% (95%CI 4.2, 8.2). The mean age was 55.7 ± 13.7 years and remained stable over time. Nodes, hormone receptors and HER2 positivity rate also remained stable over time. Age < 50 years increased twice the risk for positivity to nodes (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4, 2.7), ER-PR- (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4, 2.4) and ER-PR-HER2- (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.5, 2.5). The 10-year analysis showed a significant upward trend. This study represents a first effort in our country, for determining patterns on incidence and age at diagnosis of breast cancer, as well as that of biomarkers.

  2. Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

    1996-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

  3. Height gain after two-years-of-age is associated with better cognitive capacity, measured with Raven's coloured matrices at 15-years-of-age in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Teivaanmäki, Tiina; Bun Cheung, Yin; Pulakka, Anna; Virkkala, Jussi; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per

    2017-04-01

    Stunting is a measure of chronic undernutrition, and it affects approximately 160 million children worldwide. Cognitive development of stunted children is compromised, but evidence about the association between height gain in late childhood and adolescent cognitive capacity is scarce. We aimed to determine the association between height gains at different ages, including late childhood, and cognitive capacity at 15-years-of-age. We conducted a prospective cohort study in a rural African setting in Southern Malawi. The study cohort was enrolled between June 1995 and August 1996. It originally comprised mothers of 813 fetuses, and the number of children born live was 767. These children were followed up until the age of 15 years. The anthropometrics were measured at one and 24-months-of-age and 15-years-of-age, and cognitive capacity of participants was assessed at 15-years-of-age with Raven's Coloured Matrices score, mathematic test score, median reaction time (RT) (milliseconds) and RT lapses. The associations between growth and the outcome measures were assessed with linear regression. Raven's Coloured Matrices score was predicted by height gain between 24 months and 15-years-of-age (coefficient 0.85, P = 0.03) and (coefficient 0.69, P = 0.06), but not by earlier growth, when possible confounders were included in the model. The association weakened when school education was further added in the model (coefficient = 0.69, P = 0,060). In conclusion, in rural Malawi, better growth in late childhood is likely to lead to better cognitive capacity in adolescence, partly through more school education. In light of these results, growth promotion should not only be limited to early childhood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Ten-year echo/doppler determination of the benefits of aerobic exercise after the age of 65 years.

    PubMed

    Muster, Alexander J; Kim, Hyunggun; Kane, Bonnie; McPherson, David D

    2010-01-01

    As the human lifespan becomes progressively extended, potential health-related effects of intense aerobic exercise after age 65 need evaluation. This study evaluates the cardiovascular (CV), pulmonary, and metabolic effects of competitive distance running on age-related deterioration in men between 69 (+/-3) and 77 (+/-2) years (mean +/- SD). Twelve elderly competitive distance runners (ER) underwent oxygen consumption and echo/Doppler treadmill stress testing (Balke protocol) for up to 10 years. Twelve age-matched sedentary controls (SC) with no history of CV disease were similarly tested and the results compared for the initial three series of the study. CV data clearly separated the ER from SC. At entry, resting and maximal heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, peak oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), and E/A ratio of mitral inflow were better in the ER (P < 0.05 vs. SC). With aging, ER had a less deterioration of multiple health parameters. Exceptions were VO(2max) and left ventricular diastolic function (E/A, AFF, IVRT) that decreased (P < 0.05, Year 10 vs. Year 1). Health advantages of high-level aerobic exercise were demonstrated in the ER when compared to SC. Importantly, data collected in ER over 10 years confirm the benefit of intensive exercise for slowing several negative effects of aging. However, the normative drop of exercise capacity in the seventh and eighth decades reduces the potential athleticism plays in prevention of CV events.

  5. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age or...

  6. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age or...

  7. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age or...

  8. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age or...

  9. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age or...

  10. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  11. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  12. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  13. Rumination, Age, and Years of Experience: A Predictive Study of Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffy, Moriel S.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a non-experimental design to examine whether job satisfaction, rumination, age and years of experience predict burnout among human service workers serving high-risk populations. The study also used a stepwise regression to assess whether job satisfaction, rumination, age, or years of experience predict burnout equally. Burnout was…

  14. The Assessment of Metacognition in Children Aged 4-16 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoine, Louise; Higgins, Steve; Wall, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of methods that have been used to measure or assess metacognition in children aged 4-16 years over a 20-year period (1992-2012). It includes an overview of the types of tool and methods used linked with the ages of the participants targeted and how metacognition and associated concepts are…

  15. [A clinical follow-up study of premature thelarche in infants under two years of age].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Min; Liang, Li; Fang, Yan-Lan; Fu, Jun-Fen; Dong, Guan-Ping; Wang, Chun-Lin

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the clinical status and natural course of premature thelarche (PT) in infants under 2 years of age and to analyze the predictive factors for regression of thelarche. The clinical and laboratory data of 863 infants under 2 years of age, who visited the department of endocrinology in our hospital due to PT between October 2009 and September 2010, were analyzed. A a longitudinal follow-up study was performed. Of the infants under 2 years of age with isolated PT, 89.3% showed a regression before the age of 3 years (mean 17±5.6 months), 10.7% had recurrent or persistent thelarche, with no regression after the age of 3 years, and some even developed into central precocious puberty. The independent predictive factors for regression of thelarche were Tanner stage at the first visit and whether baseline estradiol level had increased. PT in infants under 2 years of age is not rare in the clinical setting, and it usually runs a self-limited course, subsiding before the age of 3 years. However, regular follow-ups should be performed for infants aged over 2 years with persistent thelarche.

  16. The Assessment of Metacognition in Children Aged 4-16 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoine, Louise; Higgins, Steve; Wall, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of methods that have been used to measure or assess metacognition in children aged 4-16 years over a 20-year period (1992-2012). It includes an overview of the types of tool and methods used linked with the ages of the participants targeted and how metacognition and associated concepts are…

  17. Radiocarbon ages and age models for the past 30,000 years in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Kaufman, D.S.; Dean, W.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses of pollen, ostracodes, and total organic carbon (TOC) provide a reliable chronology for the sediments deposited in Bear Lake over the past 30,000 years. The differences in apparent age between TOC, pollen, and carbonate fractions are consistent and in accord with the origins of these fractions. Comparisons among different fractions indicate that pollen sample ages are the most reliable, at least for the past 15,000 years. The post-glacial radiocarbon data also agree with ages independently estimated from aspartic acid racemization in ostracodes. Ages in the red, siliclastic unit, inferred to be of last glacial age, appear to be several thousand years too old, probably because of a high proportion of reworked, refractory organic carbon in the pollen samples. Age-depth models for five piston cores and the Bear Lake drill core (BL00-1) were constructed by using two methods: quadratic equations and smooth cubic-splinefits. The two types of age models differ only in detail for individual cores, and each approach has its own advantages. Specific lithological horizons were dated in several cores and correlated among them, producing robust average ages for these horizons. The age of the correlated horizons in the red, siliclastic unit can be estimated from the age model for BL00-1, which is controlled by ages above and below the red, siliclastic unit. These ages were then transferred to the correlative horizons in the shorter piston cores, providing control for the sections of the age models in those cores in the red, siliclastic unit. These age models are the backbone for reconstructions of past environmental conditions in Bear Lake. In general, sedimentation rates in Bear Lake have been quite uniform, mostly between 0.3 and 0.8 mm yr-1 in the Holocene, and close to 0.5 mm yr-1 for the longer sedimentary record in the drill core from the deepest part of the lake. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  18. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  19. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  20. [Association between early age at menarche and blood pressure in Chinese girls aged 7 to 17 years].

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi-yong; Ma, Jun; Wang, Hai-jun; Fu, Lian-guo; Dong, Bin; Yang, Yi-de

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the association between early age at menarche and blood pressure in Chinese girls aged 7 to 17 years. A total of 76 869 girls aged 7 to 17 years old were selected from the national physical fitness and health research in 2010, and probit analyses were used to calculate the average age of menarche for each province. Girls whose age were lower than the P 10 of age at menarche were judged as early age at menarche, and matched with two selected participant without menarche based on the age and the same urban or rural areas. High blood pressure was defined as whose systolic pressure and/or diastolic pressure was higher than P 95 of systolic pressure or diastolic pressure at the same age group. The difference of the rate of high blood pressure in girls with and without menarche by Chi-square test, and multilevel model was used to analyze the relationship between early age at menarche and blood pressure. In 76 869 girls, the values of height and BMI were separately (152.2 ± 10.4) cm and (18.7 ± 3.1) kg/m(2), while the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure were (103.4 ± 11.0) mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) and (65.0 ± 9.1) mm Hg respectively. In 47 942 girls (62.4%) had occurred menstruation while 28 927 girls (37.6%) without menstruation. The girls began to report menstruation at the age of 9, and 81.5% (7123/8736) girls had already reported menstruation at the age of 13. The rate of high blood pressure in menstruation group from 11 to 13 years were separately 6.71% (100/1490), 5.99% (265/4423) and 5.38% (383/7123), which was significant higher than 3.78% (265/7005), 3.33% (144/4328) and 4.09% (66/1613) in the same age group of non-menstruation (the values of Chi-square were separately 25.62, 32.36, 4.46, and all P values < 0.05) . The mean age of early age at menarche was 9 to 11 years old, and the rate of high blood pressure, high systolic pressure, and high diastolic pressure at 11 years group was separately 6.08% (49/806), 4.84% (39/806) and 3

  1. From 1.5 Meters to 10.4 Meters in 20 Years: Technological Evolution at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias in the Development of Infrared Instrumentation for Terrestrial Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicoya, P. G. R.; Cabrera, M. B.; Izquierdo, P. F.; Patrón, J.; Sánchez de La Rosa, V.; Sangines, F. T.

    This paper reviews the evolution of the technical development of infrared instrumentation for terrestrial telescopes at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC). The three most representative instruments, CAIN (installed on the 1.5 m Carlos Sánchez Telescope), LIRIS (on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope), and EMIR (on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias) are described and compared. Each project entailed an improvement and a technological advance in relation to its predecessor. Larger optical beams brought larger lenses, larger mechanisms to hold them, stiffer and more massive support structures, and a scale factor upgrade of their cryostats. The evolution of infrared projects has been closely linked to the development of the manufacturing, assembly, integration and verification facilities at the IAC and has also had a strong influence on management techniques. As an indication of the growth in complexity of projects over time, this paper highlights the framework of available human resources, established consortia, timing and costs associated with the three instruments.

  2. Association of Bullying Behavior at 8 Years of Age and Use of Specialized Services for Psychiatric Disorders by 29 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Sourander, Andre; Gyllenberg, David; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Ilola, Anna-Marja; Kumpulainen, Kirsti

    2016-02-01

    Bullying and being exposed to bullying among children is prevalent, especially among children with psychiatric symptoms, and constitutes a major concern worldwide. Whether childhood bullying or exposure to bullying in the absence of childhood psychiatric symptoms is associated with psychiatric outcomes in adulthood remains unclear. To study the associations between bullying behavior at 8 years of age and adult psychiatric outcomes by 29 years of age. Nationwide birth cohort study of 5034 Finnish children with complete information about childhood bullying behavior was followed up from 8 to 29 years of age. Follow-up was completed on December 31, 2009, and data were analyzed from January 15, 2013, to February 15, 2015. Information about bullying, exposure to bullying, and psychiatric symptoms were obtained from parents, teachers, and child self-reports when children were 8 years of age. Use of specialized services for psychiatric disorders from 16 to 29 years of age was obtained from a nationwide hospital register, including outpatient and inpatient treatment. Among the 5034 study participants, 4540 (90.2%) did not engage in bullying behavior; of these, 520 (11.5%) had received a psychiatric diagnosis at follow-up; 33 of 166 (19.9%) who engaged in frequent bullying, 58 of 251 (23.1%) frequently exposed to bullying, and 24 of 77 (31.2%) who both frequently engaged in and were frequently exposed to bullying had received psychiatric diagnoses at follow-up. When analyses were adjusted by sex, family factors, and child psychiatric symptoms at 8 years of age, we found independent associations of treatment of any psychiatric disorder with frequent exposure to bullying (hazard ratio [HR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.5) and being a bully and exposed to bullying (HR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.4). Exposure to bullying was specifically associated with depression (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9). Bullying was associated with psychiatric outcomes only in the presence of psychiatric problems at 8 years

  3. [Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: High incidence in people over 80 years of age].

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Josep Maria; Altimiras, Jacint; Alonso, Francisco; Roura, Pere; Alfonso, Sebastián; Bajo, Lorena

    2017-07-19

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is usually observed in adults over 60 years of age. The highest incidence of cases is between 70 and 80 years-old, and it could be under-diagnosed in over 80 year-olds. A description is presented on the overall incidence and age group incidence, the delay in the diagnosis, and main outcomes. A descriptive study was performed on patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, in the population of Osona County during the years 2010-2015. The annual incidence rate was 4.43 per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence increased with age; from 8.09 per 100,000 in the 60 to 69 years age group, to 23.61 per 100,000 in the 70-79 years age group of, and to 37.02 per 100,000 in the 80-89 years age. The delay in the diagnosis was 15.01 ± 10.35 months. All the patients improved after surgery, but only 73.3% of the patients maintained the improvement after one year. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is an age related disease and probably underdiagnosed in the elderly. An early diagnosis and a clinical suspicion are essential in patients over 80 years old. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Causes of failure after total knee arthroplasty in osteoarthritis patients 55 years of age or younger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Tae; Lee, Song; Ko, Dong Oh; Seo, Bong Soo; Jung, Woo Shik; Chang, Byung Kwon

    2014-03-01

    To identify the modes of failure after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients >55 years of age and to compare with those >55 years of age in patients who underwent revision TKA. We retrospectively reviewed 256 revision TKAs among patients who underwent TKA for knee osteoarthritis between January 1992 and December 2012. The causes of TKA failure were analyzed and compared between the groups. Thirty-one revision TKAs were performed in patients ≤55 years of age at the time of primary TKA, whereas 225 cases were in those >55 years of age at primary TKA. In the ≤55 years of age group, the most common cause of TKA failure was polyethylene wear (45%) followed by infection (26%) and loosening (17%). The interval from primary TKA to revision was 8.6 years (range, 1 to 17 years). There were relatively lower infection rate and higher loosening rate in patients ≤55 years of age, but the difference was not statistically significant. The main causes of failure after TKA in patients ≤55 years of age were polyethylene wear, infection and loosening, and there was no significant difference in the modes of failure after TKA between the two groups.

  5. Dental age estimation: the role of probability estimates at the 10 year threshold.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Victoria S; McDonald, Fraser; Neil, Monica; Roberts, Graham

    2014-08-01

    The use of probability at the 18 year threshold has simplified the reporting of dental age estimates for emerging adults. The availability of simple to use widely available software has enabled the development of the probability threshold for individual teeth in growing children. Tooth development stage data from a previous study at the 10 year threshold were reused to estimate the probability of developing teeth being above or below the 10 year thresh-hold using the NORMDIST Function in Microsoft Excel. The probabilities within an individual subject are averaged to give a single probability that a subject is above or below 10 years old. To test the validity of this approach dental panoramic radiographs of 50 female and 50 male children within 2 years of the chronological age were assessed with the chronological age masked. Once the whole validation set of 100 radiographs had been assessed the masking was removed and the chronological age and dental age compared. The dental age was compared with chronological age to determine whether the dental age correctly or incorrectly identified a validation subject as above or below the 10 year threshold. The probability estimates correctly identified children as above or below on 94% of occasions. Only 2% of the validation group with a chronological age of less than 10 years were assigned to the over 10 year group. This study indicates the very high accuracy of assignment at the 10 year threshold. Further work at other legally important age thresholds is needed to explore the value of this approach to the technique of age estimation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Three-year risk of high-grade CIN for women aged 30 years or older who undergo baseline Pap cytology and HPV co-screening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming; Khanna, Abha; Wang, Jianping; Dawlett, Marilyn A; Kologinczak, Teresa L; Lyons, Genevieve R; Bassett, Roland L; Sneige, Nour; Gong, Yun; Bevers, Therese B

    2017-08-01

    Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA cotesting for women aged ≥30 years are recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of this cotesting for predicting the risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) during a 3-year follow-up period. A retrospective database search identified women aged ≥30 years who had baseline HPV and Pap cytology cotesting results in 2007 or 2008 and for whom 3-year follow-up results were available. The cumulative 3-year risks of developing CIN-3 were calculated. The 3-year follow-up data after baseline Pap/HPV cotesting were available for 1986 women (mean age, 53 years). Of the 1668 women who had a baseline Pap-negative (Pap-)/HPV- cotesting result, 1561 (93.6%) had a follow-up Pap cytology result that was negative for intraepithelial lesions or malignancy. Of the 1530 women who had follow-up Pap/HPV cotesting, 1504 (98.3%) had a Pap-/HPV- result. The 3-year cumulative risk of developing CIN-3 was found to be highest for women with a baseline Pap-positive (Pap+)/HPV+ cotesting result (12.5%); the risk of CIN-3 was lower in those with a Pap-/HPV+ result (1.5%; P = .0032) or a Pap-/HPV- result (0.06%; P<.0001). The 3-year cumulative risk of CIN-3 was found to be significantly greater for women with an HPV+ result (4.8%) compared with those with an HPV- result (0.06%; P<.0001). Pap cytology and HPV cotesting are valuable for stratifying CIN-3 risk. Pap cytology and HPV co-screening at a 3-year screening interval appears to carry a low risk of CIN-3 for women who have a baseline Pap-/HPV- cotesting result. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:644-51. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Preterm small-for-gestational age children: predictive role of gestational age for mental development at the age of 2 years.

    PubMed

    Nögel, Stephanie Christine; Deiters, Ludger; Stemmler, Mark; Rascher, Wolfgang; Trollmann, Regina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the cognitive development of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm SGA children and preterm AGA children at the age of 2 years. The hypothesis was that SGA children are at an additional risk for deficits in cognitive function. Additionally, the impact of neonatal risk factors and the parents' profession on the early cognitive development was analysed. Cognitive function of 107 preterm infants with a gestational age of 24-35 weeks was assessed with the Mental Bayley Scales of Infant Development at the age of 2 years (mean±SEM). The results of SGA (n=38) and AGA (n=69) children were compared as well as neonatal risk factors and parental education. There was a linear regression between the Mental Bayley Scales result and gestational age for preterm infants with a gestational age of 24-32 weeks. SGA and AGA children did not differ significantly in their cognitive function at the age of 2 years. A strong association was found between the parents' profession and cognitive development. Among the neonatal risk factors, bronchopulmonary dysplasia was a strong predictor of mental development. Cognitive development of two-year-old preterm children with a gestational age of 24-32 weeks was mainly related to their gestational age. Being born preterm and small for gestational age was not additionally associated with cognitive deficits at the age of 2 years. The parents' profession had a significant impact on the cognitive development. The role of the parents' profession on the early development of preterm infants should be elucidated in further studies. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Duration of sleep at 3 years of age is associated with fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age: the Southampton Women’s Survey

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Janis; Hill, Catherine; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Sian; Godfrey, Keith; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Many studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in childhood is associated with higher body mass index and proposed that it is due to an effect of sleep on adiposity. There is little evidence about the association of sleep with fat-free mass. This study examined the association between child’s sleep duration at age 3 years and fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age in a prospective cohort study of 302boys and 285 girls. Study participants were taking part in the Southampton Women’s Survey, a longitudinal study of mothers and children from preconception onwards. Total sleep duration at age 3 years was derived from parental report of night sleep and nap duration. Body composition was assessed by DXA at 4 years. Mean total sleep duration was 11.5 hours. In linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (maternal educational attainment, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, child’s gestational age at birth, age at DXA, sex, age last breastfed, dietary quality at 3 years, TV watching and hours actively on the move and parental social class) shorter sleep in hours was associated with higher BMI (kg/m2) (β=-0.2340, 95% CI -0.373, -0.096), a greater fat mass index (kg) (β=-0.1182 (-0.218, -0.018)) and a greater fat-free mass index (kg) (β=-0.100 (-0.185, -0.015)). Previous research suggested that the association between shorter sleep and higher body mass index is due to an effect on adiposity. Our findings are novel suggesting that the relationship between sleep and BMI is also determined by an effect on muscle. PMID:26909889

  9. Performance of the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool Among Women Aged 75 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Li, Vicky W.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Davis, Roger B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT, “Gail model”) is commonly used for breast cancer prediction; however, it has not been validated for women age 75 years and older. Methods: We used Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) data beginning in 2004 and Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) data beginning in 2005 to compare BCRAT’s performance among women age 75 years and older with that in women age 55 to 74 years in predicting five-year breast cancer incidence. BCRAT risk factors include: age, race/ethnicity, age at menarche, age at first birth, family history, history of benign breast biopsy, and atypia. We examined BCRAT’s calibration by age by comparing expected/observed (E/O) ratios of breast cancer incidence. We examined discrimination by computing c-statistics for the model by age. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Seventy-three thousand seventy-two NHS and 97 081 WHI women participated. NHS participants were more likely to be non-Hispanic white (96.2% vs 84.7% in WHI, P < .001) and were less likely to develop breast cancer (1.8% vs 2.0%, P = .02). E/O ratios by age in NHS were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.23, age 57–74 years) and 1.31 (95% CI = 1.18 to 1.45, age ≥ 75 years, P = .02), and in WHI 1.03 (95% CI = 0.97 to 1.09, age 55–74 years) and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.21, age ≥ 75 years, P = .21). E/O ratio 95% confidence intervals crossed one among women age 75 years and older when samples were limited to women who underwent mammography and were without significant illness. C-statistics ranged between 0.56 and 0.58 in both cohorts regardless of age. Conclusions: BCRAT accurately predicted breast cancer for women age 75 years and older who underwent mammography and were without significant illness but had modest discrimination. Models that consider individual competing risks of non–breast cancer death may improve breast cancer risk prediction for older women. PMID:26625899

  10. Offspring birth weight, gestational age and maternal characteristics in relation to glucose status at age 53 years: evidence from a national birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kuh, D; Mishra, G D; Black, S; Lawlor, D A; Smith, G Davey; Okell, L; Wadsworth, M; Hardy, R

    2008-01-01

    Aims We investigated pathways linking offspring birth weight to maternal diabetes risk in later life by taking into account a range of prospective early-life and adult maternal factors. Methods In a national birth cohort study, we examined the relationship between offspring birth weight and maternal glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at age 53 years in 581 mothers who had a first birth between age 19 and 25 years, and had data on potential confounders or mediators. Results Mean age at first birth was 21.5 years. After adjustment for maternal body mass index (BMI), mean percentage change in maternal HbA1c per kilogram increase in offspring birth weight was −1.8%[95% confidence interval (CI) −3.5, −0.1; P = 0.03]. This relationship was mostly accounted for by gestational age that was inversely related to maternal HbA1c (−0.9%; 95% CI −1.5, −0.4; P = 0.001). Other risk factors for high HbA1c were smoking and high BMI at 53 years. There was a significant interaction between offspring birth weight and maternal childhood social class (P = 0.01). Mothers from a manual background with higher birth weight offspring had lower HbA1c (BMI adjusted: −3.1%; 95% CI −5.0, −1.1); this was not observed for mothers from a non-manual background (BMI adjusted: 1.9%; 95% CI −1.3, 5.0). Conclusions Short gestational age and low offspring birth weight may be part of a pathway linking impaired early maternal growth to diabetes risk in later life. A second possible pathway linking higher offspring birth weight to later maternal glucose status was also identified. These potential pathways require further investigation in cohorts with a wider maternal age range so that the early targeting of public health initiatives can be assessed. Diabet. Med. 25, 530–535 (2008) PMID:18445168

  11. Foetal growth restriction is associated with poor reading and spelling skills at eight years to 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Lea; Korkalainen, Noora; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Olsén, Päivi; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-08-01

    Foetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with communication problems, which might lead to poor literacy skills. The reading and spelling skills of eight- to 10-year-old FGR children born at 24-40 gestational weeks were compared with those of their gestational age-matched, appropriately grown (AGA) peers. A prospectively collected cohort of 37 FGR and 31 AGA children was recruited prenatally at a Finnish tertiary care centre during 1998-2001. The children's reading and spelling skills were assessed using standardised tests for Finnish-speaking second and third graders. Significantly more children performed below the 10th percentile normal values for reading and spelling skills in the FGR group than in the AGA group. At nine years of age, the FGR children had significantly poorer performance in word reading skills and reading fluency, reading accuracy and reading comprehension than the AGA controls. No between-group differences were detected at eight years of age. FGR is associated with poor performance in reading and spelling skills. A third of the FGR children performed below the 10th percentile normal values at nine years of age. These results indicate a need to continuously evaluate linguistic and literacy skills as FGR children age to ensure optimal support. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Is a child's growth pattern early in life related to serum adipokines at the age of 10 years?

    PubMed

    Flexeder, C; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Klümper, C; Koletzko, B; Müller, M J; Koletzko, S; Heinrich, J

    2014-01-01

    Growth parameters during infancy and early childhood might predict adipokine levels later in life. This study investigates the association between peak growth velocities, body mass index (BMI) and age at adiposity rebound (AR), with leptin and adiponectin levels at age 10 years. Peak height (PHV) and weight (PWV) velocities were calculated from height and weight measurements obtained between birth and age 2 years from 2880 children participating in the GINIplus (German Infant Nutritional Intervention plus environmental and genetic influences on allergy development) and LISAplus (Influences of Lifestyle-Related Factors on the Immune System and the Development of Allergies in Childhood plus Air Pollution and Genetics) birth cohorts. BMI and age at AR were calculated using BMI measurements between age 1.5 and 12 years. Blood samples were collected during a physical examination at age 10. Adiponectin and leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Linear regression models were fitted after adjustment for potential confounding factors and results are presented per interquartile range increase in the exposure. Age at AR was negatively associated with leptin in males and females (percent difference β*: -41.71%; 95% confidence interval: (-44.34;-38.96) and β*: -43.22%; (-45.59; -40.75), respectively). For both males and females PWV (β*: 14.23%; (7.60; 21.26) and β*: 18.54%; (10.76; 26.87), respectively) and BMI at AR (β*: 63.08%; (55.04; 71.53) and β*: 67.02%; (59.30; 75.10), respectively) were positively associated with leptin levels. PHV showed a positive effect on leptin in females only (β*: 10.75%; (3.73; 18.25)). Growth parameters were not significantly associated with adiponectin except for age at AR among females (β: 0.75 ng/ml; (0.42; 1.09)) and PWV among males (β: 0.45 ng/ml; (0.11; 0.79)). Growth patterns in early life may be associated with leptin levels at age 10 years.

  13. 43 CFR 3864.1-5 - Fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fees. 3864.1-5 Section 3864.1-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Millsite Patents § 3864.1-5 Fees. An applicant for a millsite patent must pay...

  14. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  15. Safety and efficacy of carotid artery stenting in persons aged 80 years and above.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Prabhu, Santosh T; Tebow, Aimee; Snowden, Georgianne M

    2009-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) remains a controversial procedure in spite of an emerging abundance of trial data showing both safety and efficacy. CAS is under significant scrutiny by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as it relates to persons aged 80 years and above. We report 1-year follow up both clinically and with ultrasonography in a small cohort of patients with an average age of 85 years.

  16. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C-S; Gordon, A C

    2016-09-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals.

  17. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, AC

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  18. Value of Tree Measurements Made at Age 5 Years for Predicting the Height and Diameter Growth at Age 25 Years in Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Treesearch

    Allan E. Tiarks; Calvin E. Meier; V. Clark Baldwin; James D. Haywood

    1998-01-01

    Early growth measurements Of pine plantations are often used to predict the productivity of the stand later in the rotation when assessing the effect Of management on productivity. A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) study established at 35 locations (2 to 3 plots/location) was used to test the relationship between height measurements at age 5 years...

  19. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group). © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Functional outcomes at age 7 years of moderate preterm and full term children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Tanis, Jozien C; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    2015-03-01

    To compare functional outcomes of 7-year-old (school-age) children born small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight z score ≤ -1 SD), with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) peers, born moderately preterm or full term. Data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project study, a community-based, prospective cohort study of 336 AGA and 42 SGA born children (median gestational age 35 weeks, range 31-41). Of the SGA children, 32 were moderately preterm, 10 were full term; of the AGA, these numbers were 216 and 120, respectively. At 6.9 years, we assessed intelligence, verbal memory, attention, visuomotor integration, and motor skills and we collected the parent-reported executive functioning. We compared the outcomes of the SGA children with those of their AGA peers. The performance of SGA children was similar to that of their AGA peers, except for attention control which was abnormal more often in SGA children (OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.32-12.12). The IQ of SGA children was 3 points lower, but this difference failed to reach significance. At school age, children born SGA have a greater risk of abnormal test scores on attention control than children born AGA, independent of gestational age. Their motor and many other cognitive functions are similar. The impact of these outcomes seems limited. Nevertheless, the consequences for school performance deserve attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under five years of age in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Díez-Domingo, Javier; Martín, Itziar Oyagüez; Sanz, Alfredo Ballester; López, Antonio Gónzalez; Martínez, Carmen Casaní; Boronat, Carmen Peidró; Del Barrio, M Jesús Muñoz; García, Dolores Gallego; Pons, Manuel Martínez; Crespo, Vicente Antón; Esteve, Pilar Albors; Arfella, Inmaculada Latorre; Monrabal, Ignacio Sorribes; Baveira, Luis Blesa; López, Mercedes García

    2006-05-01

    The population-based incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age in Valencia, Spain, over a 1-year period (December 1, 2003, to November 30, 2004) was determined.A total of 553 episodes of gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age (mean age, 22.8 +/- 14.5 months) were recorded (annual incidence of 138 per 1,000). A positive enzyme-linked immunoadsorbant assay result for rotavirus antigen was obtained in 15% of the samples. The incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis was 15 per 1,000 children <5 years of age, being the highest incidence in children age (31 per 1,000). Eighty percent of rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred during the winter months (January-March). Genotype G1 was detected in 86% of the samples and G4 in the other 14%.

  2. Herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged 60 years and older, in the U.S., 2008.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng-jun; Euler, Gary L; Harpaz, Rafael

    2011-02-01

    Shingles (herpes zoster [HZ]) is a localized, generally painful and debilitating disease that occurs most frequently among older adults. It is caused by reactivation of varicella-zoster virus. HZ causes substantial morbidity, especially among older adults. The vaccine to prevent HZ was approved by Food and Drug Administration and recommended by the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices for people aged ≥60 years in 2006 (these recommendations were published in 2008). To examine HZ vaccination among people aged ≥60 years in the U.S. in 2008. Data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey among people aged ≥60 years were analyzed in 2010. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses were conducted to identify factors independently associated with HZ vaccination. Potential missed opportunities also were assessed. By 2008, only 6.7% (95% CI=5.9%, 7.6%) of adults aged ≥60 years reported having had HZ vaccination. The level of HZ vaccination coverage was lower (4.7%) among people aged 60-64 years compared to people aged 65-74 years (7.4%); 75-84 years (7.6%); and ≥85 years (8.2%). Coverage was statistically higher for non-Hispanic whites (7.6%) compared with non-Hispanic blacks (2.5%) and Hispanics (2.1%). Among people aged ≥60 years who reported never receiving HZ vaccination, 95.1% reported at least one missed opportunity to be vaccinated. People more likely to report ever having been vaccinated were older, female, non-Hispanic white, married, more educated, and reporting received influenza vaccination in the past year. By 2008, HZ vaccination coverage was 6.7%. The coverage level was low among all groups, but it was lowest among minority groups. Increased efforts are needed to remove barriers and to enable HZ vaccination among all adults aged ≥60 years. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Safety and efficacy of vismodegib in patients aged ≥65 years with advanced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne Lynn S.; Lewis, Karl D.; Arron, Sarah T.; Migden, Michael R.; Solomon, James A.; Yoo, Simon; Day, Bann-Mo; McKenna, Edward F.; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Because many patients with unresectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are aged ≥65 years, this study explores the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in these patients with locally advanced (la) or metastatic (m) basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the ERIVANCE BCC trial and the expanded access study (EAS).We compared patients aged ≥65 years to patients aged <65 years taking vismodegib 150 mg/day, using descriptive statistics for response and safety. Patients aged ≥65 years (laBCC/mBCC) were enrolled in ERIVANCE BCC (33/14) and EAS (27/26). Investigator-assessed best overall response rate in patients ≥65 and <65 years was 46.7%/35.7% and 72.7%/52.6% (laBCC/mBCC), respectively, in ERIVANCE BCC and 45.8%/33.3% and 46.9%/28.6%, respectively, in EAS. These differences were not clinically meaningful. Safety was similar in both groups, although those aged ≥65 years had a higher percentage of grade 3-5 adverse events than those aged <65 years. Vismodegib demonstrated similar clinical activity and adverse events regardless of age. PMID:27764798

  4. Safety and efficacy of vismodegib in patients aged ≥65 years with advanced basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne Lynn S; Lewis, Karl D; Arron, Sarah T; Migden, Michael R; Solomon, James A; Yoo, Simon; Day, Bann-Mo; McKenna, Edward F; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2016-11-15

    Because many patients with unresectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are aged ≥65 years, this study explores the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in these patients with locally advanced (la) or metastatic (m) basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the ERIVANCE BCC trial and the expanded access study (EAS).We compared patients aged ≥65 years to patients aged <65 years taking vismodegib 150 mg/day, using descriptive statistics for response and safety. Patients aged ≥65 years (laBCC/mBCC) were enrolled in ERIVANCE BCC (33/14) and EAS (27/26). Investigator-assessed best overall response rate in patients ≥65 and <65 years was 46.7%/35.7% and 72.7%/52.6% (laBCC/mBCC), respectively, in ERIVANCE BCC and 45.8%/33.3% and 46.9%/28.6%, respectively, in EAS. These differences were not clinically meaningful. Safety was similar in both groups, although those aged ≥65 years had a higher percentage of grade 3-5 adverse events than those aged <65 years. Vismodegib demonstrated similar clinical activity and adverse events regardless of age.

  5. Changes in body posture of women and men over 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Rykała, Justyna; Podgórska, Justyna; Snela, Sławomir

    2012-01-01

    With age, the body posture undergoes involutional changes. It is not possible to determine accurately the beginning of these changes. They begin between 40 and 50 years of age, and their slow progress increases after 60 years of age. The aim of this study was to assess the body posture of women and men over 60 years of age. Seventy people over 60 years old (35 women and 35 men) participated in the study. The control group consisted of 70 people (35 women and 35 men) between the age of 20 and 25. To evaluate the body posture non-invasive photogrammetric method based on the Moiré phenomenon has been used. The study was performed according to generally accepted principles. Body posture of women and men over 60 years of age differs significantly in most of the parameters from body posture of women and men in the control group. These differences are confirmed when divided into groups based on gender. Comparing the parameters that characterize the posture of women and men over 60 years of age, a significant difference is only for parameter KLL, and body posture of men is characterized by the higher angle of lumbar lordosis (p = 0.0022). 1. There are significant changes in body posture of women and men over 60 years of age both in the frontal and sagittal plane. 2. Men over 60 years of age have a significantly greater angle of lumbar lordosis. 3. The results of these studies should be used for the construction of a plan of exercises for the elderly taking into account all the changes that occur with age.

  6. The Interaction of Age and Type 2 Diabetes on Executive Function and Memory in Persons Aged 35 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    van Eersel, Marlise E. A.; Joosten, Hanneke; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally assumed that type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cognitive dysfunction in old age. As type 2 diabetes is frequently diagnosed before the age of 50, diabetes-related cognitive dysfunction may also occur before the age of 50. Therefore, we investigated the association of type 2 diabetes with cognitive function in people aged 35–82 years. In a cross-sectional study comprising 4,135 participants of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease study (52% men; mean age (SD), 55 (12) years) diabetes was defined according to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association. Executive function was measured with the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT; worst score, 0 points; best score, 175 points), and memory was measured with the Visual Association Test (VAT; worst score, 0 points; best score, 12 points). The association of diabetes with cognitive function was investigated with multiple linear or, if appropriate, logistic regression analysis adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors and APOE ε4 carriership. Type 2 diabetes was ascertained in 264 individuals (6%). Persons with diabetes had lower RFFT scores than persons without diabetes: mean (SD), 51 (19) vs. 70 (26) points (p<0.001). The difference in RFFT score was largest at age 35–44 years (mean difference 32 points; 95% CI, 15 to 49; p<0.001) and gradually decreased with increasing age. The association of diabetes with RFFT score was not modified by APOE ε4 carriership. Similar results were found for VAT score as outcome measure although these results were only borderline statistically significant (p≤0.10). In conclusion, type 2 diabetes was associated with cognitive dysfunction, especially in young adults. This was independent of other cardiovascular risk factors and APOE ε4 carriership. PMID:24367577

  7. Lost productive life years caused by chronic conditions in Australians aged 45-64 years, 2010-2030.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Cunich, Michelle; Tanton, Robert; Kelly, Simon; Passey, Megan E; Veerman, Lennert J

    2015-09-21

    To estimate (1) productive life years (PLYs) lost because of chronic conditions in Australians aged 45-64 years from 2010 to 2030, and (2) the impact of this loss on gross domestic product (GDP) over the same period. A microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD2030, was used to project lost PLYs caused by chronic conditions from 2010 to 2030. The base population consisted of respondents aged 45-64 years to the Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 and 2009. The national impact of lost PLYs was assessed with Treasury's GDP equation. Lost PLYs due to chronic disease at 2010, 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030 (ie, whole life years lost because of chronic disease); the national impact of lost PLYs at the same time points (GDP loss caused by PLYs); the effects of population growth, labour force trends and chronic disease trends on lost PLYs and GDP at each time point. Using Health&WealthMOD2030, we estimated a loss of 347,000 PLYs in 2010; this was projected to increase to 459,000 in 2030 (32.28% increase over 20 years). The leading chronic conditions associated with premature exits from the labour force were back problems, arthritis and mental and behavioural problems. The percentage increase in the number of PLYs lost by those aged 45-64 years was greater than that of population growth for this age group (32.28% v 27.80%). The strongest driver of the increase in lost PLYs was population growth (accounting for 89.18% of the increase), followed by chronic condition trends (8.28%). Our study estimates an increase of 112 000 lost PLYs caused by chronic illness in older workers in Australia between 2010 and 2030, with the most rapid growth projected to occur in men aged 55-59 years and in women aged 60-64 years. The national impact of this lost labour force participation on GDP was estimated to be $37.79 billion in 2010, increasing to $63.73 billion in 2030.

  8. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A; Poterico, Julio A

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5 y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15-19 y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  9. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  10. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  11. Risk of diabetic retinopathy at first screen in children at 12 and 13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, P H; Stratton, I M; Bachmann, M O; Jones, C; Leese, G P

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationships between age at diagnosis of diabetes, age at diabetic eye screening and severity of diabetic retinopathy at first and subsequent screenings in children aged 12 or 13 years. Data were extracted from four English screening programmes and from the Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish programmes on all children with diabetes invited for their first and subsequent screening episodes from the age of 12 years. Retinopathy levels at first and subsequent screens, time from diagnosis of diabetes to first screening and age at diagnosis in years were calculated. Data were available for 2125 children with diabetes screened for the first time at age 12 or 13 years. In those diagnosed with diabetes at 2 years of age or less, the proportion with retinopathy in one or both eyes was 20% and 11%, respectively, decreasing to 8% and 2% in those diagnosed between 2 and 12 years (P < 0.0001). Only three children (aged 8, 10 and 11 years at diagnosis of diabetes) had images graded with referable retinopathy and, of these, two had non-referable diabetic retinopathy at all subsequent screenings. Of 1703 children with subsequent images, 25 were graded with referable diabetic retinopathy over a mean follow-up of 3.1 years, an incidence rate of 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.1-7.0) per 1000 per year. In this large cohort of children, the low prevalence and incidence rates of referable diabetic retinopathy suggest that screening earlier than age 12 is not necessary. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  12. Dietary associations of fathers and their children between the ages of 20 months and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Adam D; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Hesketh, Kylie D; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-08-01

    To examine associations between dietary intakes of fathers and their children at child age 20 months, 3·5 years and 5 years, and to determine if fathers' intake predicts change in children's intake between 20 months and 3·5 and 5 years of age. The diets of fathers and their first-born children participating in the longitudinal Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program were assessed using FFQ and three 24 h recalls, respectively. Sixty-two pre-existing first-time parent groups were selected from fourteen local government areas within a 60 km radius of Deakin University Burwood, Victoria, Australia. Fathers and their first-born children at 20 months (n 317), 3·5 years (n 214) and 5 years of age (n 208). Positive associations were found between fathers' and children's intakes of fruit and sweet snacks at 20 months (P=0·001) and 5 years of age (P=0·012). Fathers' intake at child age 20 months was associated with change in children's intake for fruit, sweet snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages between child age 20 months and 3·5 years, and for sweet snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages between child age 20 months and 5 years (all P<0·05). After adjustment for maternal intake, fathers' intake of sweet snacks remained a predictor of change in children's sweet snack intake between 20 months and 3·5 years of age (P=0·03). Associations between the dietary intakes of fathers and their children commence at a young age and continue through early childhood. Fathers should be included in future interventions aimed at improving children's diets.

  13. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  14. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  15. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  16. Analysis of oxybutynin treatment for hyperhidrosis in patients aged over 40 years

    PubMed Central

    Wolosker, Nelson; Krutman, Mariana; Teivelis, Marcelo Passos; de Paula, Rafael Pessanha; Kauffman, Paulo; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Puech-Leão, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Our aim was to analyze the effectiveness of oxybutynin for hyperhidrosis treatment in patients over 40 years. Methods: Eighty-seven patients aged over 40 years were divided into two groups. One group consisted of 48 (55.2%) patients aged between 40 and 49 years, and another was composed of 39 (44.8%) patients aged over 50 years (50 to 74 years). A comparative analysis of Quality of Life and level of hyperhidrosis between the groups was carried out 6 weeks after a protocol treatment with oxybutynin. A validated clinical questionnaire was used for evaluation. Results: In the younger age group, 75% of patients referred a “partial” or “great” improvement in level of hyperhidrosis after treatment. This number was particularly impressive in patients over 50 years, in which 87.2% of the cases demonstrated similar levels of improvement. Over 77% of patients in both groups demonstrated improvement in Quality of Life. Excellent outcomes were observed in older patients, in which 87.1% of patients presented “slightly better” (41%) or “much better” (46.1%) improvement. Conclusion: Patients aged over 40 years with hyperhidrosis presented excellent results after oxybutynin treatment. These outcomes were particularly impressive in the age group over 50 years, in which most patients had significant improvement in Quality of Life and in level of hyperhidrosis. PMID:24728245

  17. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  18. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  19. Long-term predictors of loneliness in old age: results of a 20-year national study.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Lena; Andersson, Lars; Lennartsson, Carin

    2016-11-01

    The understanding of social phenomena is enhanced if individuals can be studied over longer periods. Regarding loneliness in old age, there is a general lack of longitudinal research. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between loneliness in old age and social engagement 20 years earlier, as stated by life course theory and the convoy model. Data from the nationally representative Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (2002 and 2011 data collection waves) and the Swedish Level of Living Survey (1981 and 1991 data collection waves) were used. The sample included 823 individuals with an average age of 62.2 years at baseline and 82.4 years at follow-up. Each form of social engagement in old age was significantly associated with the same form of social engagement 20 years earlier. Close forms of social engagement were associated with loneliness in old age; as were more distant forms of social engagement, but only when they were considered solely in old age. Patterns of social engagement in old age were established at least 20 years earlier and close forms of social engagement are long-term predictors of loneliness, although current social engagement tended to be more influential on loneliness. The study underlines the importance of interventions targeted at close relationships that can provide social support in old age.

  20. Television Viewing in Infancy and Child Cognition at 3 Years of Age in a US Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Rich, Michael; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which infant television viewing is associated with language and visual motor skills at 3 years of age. Measures We studied 872 children who were participants in Project Viva, a prospective cohort. The design used was a longitudinal survey, and the setting was a multisite group practice in Massachusetts. At 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years, mothers reported the number of hours their children watched television in a 24-hour period, from which we derived a weighted average of daily television viewing. We used multivariable regression analyses to predict the independent associations of television viewing between birth and 2 years with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III and Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities scores at 3 years of age. Results Mean daily television viewing in infancy (birth to 2 years) was 1.2 (SD: 0.9) hours, less than has been found in other studies of this age group. Mean Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III score at age 3 was 104.8 (SD: 14.2); mean standardized total Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities score at age 3 was 102.6 (SD: 11.2). After adjusting for maternal age, income, education, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III score, marital status, and parity, and child's age, gender, birth weight for gestational age, breastfeeding duration, race/ethnicity, primary language, and average daily sleep duration, we found that each additional hour of television viewing in infancy was not associated with Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III or total standardized Wide-Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities scores at age 3. Conclusion Television viewing in infancy does not seem to be associated with language or visual motor skills at 3 years of age. PMID:19254972

  1. Breast cancer in women under age 40 years: treatment by total mastectomy and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Jeffery E; Chu, Carrie; McCullough, Meghan; Anderson, Erica; Losken, Albert; Carlson, Grant W

    2011-05-01

    Breast cancer in women under 40 years of age is rare, accounting for approximately 5% of cases. The disease tends to be more aggressive in younger women. Younger age has been shown to be an independent predictive of breast reconstruction after total mastectomy. Treatment by total mastectomy and reconstruction is examined in relation to patient age. A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients treated by total mastectomy and reconstruction between 2005 and 2009 was performed by querying a prospective database. A total of 671 patients underwent total mastectomy and reconstruction; of them, 106 (16%) aged <40 and 565 (84%) aged ≥40 years. Compared with older patients, the age <40 group was more likely to present with advanced breast cancer (P < 0.001), receive radiation (P = 0.006), undergo contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (P < 0.001) and bilateral reconstruction (P = 0.005), and undergo delayed reconstruction (P = 0.02). Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap reconstruction was more common in the age ≥40 years (P = 0.03). Bilateral reconstruction was most commonly performed with tissue expansion regardless of patient age. Breast reconstruction in women less than 40 years of age is influenced by advanced tumor stage and the necessity for adjuvant radiation therapy as well as an increased use of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy.

  2. Preschool Gender-Typed Play Behavior at Age 3.5 Years Predicts Physical Aggression at Age 13 Years.

    PubMed

    Kung, Karson T F; Li, Gu; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2017-06-23

    Gender differences in play behavior and physical aggression have been consistently reported. Theoretical perspectives concerning evolutionary, social, and social-cognitive mechanisms suggest that male-typical play behavior during childhood increases subsequent physical aggression. The evidence supporting these connections is limited, however. The present study investigated the association between gender-typed play behavior in early childhood and physical aggression in early adolescence using a sample drawn from a longitudinal, population study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Based on gender-typed play behavior as measured by the Pre-School Activities Inventory at age 3.5 years, samples of masculine (64 boys, 60 girls), feminine (80 boys, 66 girls), and randomly selected control children (55 boys, 67 girls) were recruited at age 13 years and administered the Reinisch Aggression Inventory. After controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, maternal characteristics, and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity and conduct problems at age 3.5, significant group differences in physical aggression at age 13 were found among children classified as masculine, control, and feminine at age 3.5. Masculine children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than control children or feminine children, and control children exhibited significantly more physical aggression than feminine children. The association between gender-typed play behavior and physical aggression was not moderated by sex. These results suggest that the degree of childhood gender-typed play behavior independently predicts the degree of physical aggression at adolescence in boys and in girls.

  3. Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing.

  4. [Physiological changes in balance control of adults aged 20 to 60 years assessed with Equitest].

    PubMed

    Ionescu, E; Dubreuil, C; Ferber-Viart C, C

    2005-11-01

    The sense of balance depends on many factors including age. A considerable amount of time is spent in medical clinics attempting to identify potential balance problems and retrain individuals with posture and balance limitations. Since the past decades the development of computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) provided the clinicians a tool to objectively assess balance disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological changes in balance control of adults aged from 20 to 60 years. 108 healthy adults volunteers were involved in the study. The Equitest CDP was used to record equilibrium pattern in four age groups: "a" 20-30 years old, "b" 3040 years old, "c" 40-50 years old and "d" 50-60 years old. Equilibrium patterns worsen progressively with age in the studied age groups, especially vestibular pattern, whereas visual dependence increases. Ours results show that: 1- presbyvestibulia takes place progressively with age. 2- between 20 and 60 years old, normative data should be established by decade age steps. 3- From a preventive point of view raises the question if this evolution is uneluctable or could be counteracted by physical training or adapted treatment.

  5. Relative improvements in endurance performance with age: evidence from 25 years of Hawaii Ironman racing.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Rüst, Christoph A; Stapley, Paul J; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-06-01

    Despite of the growth of ultra-endurance sports events (of duration >6 h) over the previous few decades, the age-related declines in ultra-endurance performance have drawn little attention. The aim of the study was to analyse the changes in participation and performance trends of older (>40 years of age) triathletes between 1986 and 2010 at the Hawaii Ironman triathlon consisting of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42 km running. Swimming, cycling, running and total times of the best male and female triathletes between 18 and 69 years of age who competed in the Hawaii Ironman triathlon were analysed. The relative participation of master triathletes increased during the 1986-2010 period, while the participation of triathletes younger than 40 years of age decreased. Linear regression showed that males older than 44 years and females older than 40 years significantly improved their performances in the three disciplines and in the total time taken to complete the race. Gender differences in total time performance significantly decreased in the same time period for all age groups between the 40-44 and 55-59 years ones. The reasons for these relative improvements of Ironman athlete performances in older age groups remain, however, unknown. Further studies investigating training regimes, competition experience or sociodemographic factors are needed to gain better insights into the phenomenon of increasing participation and improvement of ultra-endurance performance with advancing age.

  6. [Establish Assessment Model of 18 Years of Age in Chinese Han Population by Mandibular Third Molar].

    PubMed

    Fan, Fei; Dai, Xin-hua; Wang, Liang; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Kui; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2016-02-01

    To explore the value of estimating chronologic age based on the grades of mandibular third molar development. To evaluate whether mandibular third molar could be used as an indicator for estimating the age under or over 18 years. The mineralization status of mandibular third molar of 1 845 individuals aged 10 - 30 was graded and marked based on Demirjian's classification of grades reformed by Orhan. Gender difference was examined by t-test. A cubic regression model was established to analyze the correlation between third molar and chronologic age. Each grade of age cumulative distribution diagram and ROC curve was respectively performed to evaluate the relationship between third molar and the age of 18. Using Bayes discriminant analysis, an equation was established for estimating the age of 18. The inner-rater reliability was 0.903. Statistical analysis showed a moderate correlation between age and grade. Significant differences of both genders were found only in grade D and H (P < 0.05). Males at the grades from 1 to D and females at the grades from 1 to C were under 18 years old, and both males and females at grade H were over 18 years old. The area under the ROC curve was 0.797 (P < 0.05). Third molar development shows a high correlation with age, and combined with other indicators, it can be used to estimate the age of 18.

  7. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health.

  8. Television, video, and computer game usage in children under 11 years of age.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Dimitri A; Ebel, Beth E; Rivara, Frederick P; Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2004-11-01

    To conduct a population-based survey of television and other media usage in young children to determine (1) total media usage; (2) the proportion of children who have televisions in their bedrooms and who eat breakfast or dinner in front of the television; and (3) predictors of parental concern about the amount of television their child watches. Telephone survey administered to 1454 parents of children <11 years old derived from a diverse clinic population. The mean age of the index child was 5.05 years. Mean daily reported child media use was as follows: television (1.45 hours; SD, 1.5); videos (1.1 hours; SD, 1.30); and computer games (0.54 hours; SD, 0.96). Thirty percent of parents reported that their child ate breakfast or dinner in front of the television in the past week, and 22% were concerned about the amount of television that their child watched. In multivariate linear regression, eating breakfast or dinner in front of the television in the past week was associated with increased hours of television viewing (0.38 hours [0.21, 0.54]) and video (0.19 hours [0.04, 0.34]). Having a television in a child's bedroom was associated with increased hours of television (0.25 hours [0.07, 0.43]), video viewing (0.31 hours [0.16, 0.47]), and computer games (0.21 hours [0.10, 0.32]). In general, higher parental education was associated with decreased hours of television and video but not computer games. Older children were 2 to 3 times more likely than younger children to have a television in their bedroom and to have eaten a meal in front of it in the past week. More educated parents were less likely to report that their child had a television in their bedroom and more likely to be concerned about the amount of television their child viewed. Combined video and computer game usage exceeded television usage. Both children of low- and high-income parents are at risk for certain behaviors associated with television usage. Parents whose children watched more television

  9. Child development at 5 years of age predicted mathematics ability and schooling outcomes in Malawian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  10. Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Parent Reports of Child Language at Ages 2 and 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Thomas F.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Rockette, Howard E.; Dale, Philip S.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Paradise, Jack L.

    2005-01-01

    The MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI; Dale, 1996; Fenson et al., 1994), parent reports about language skills, are being used increasingly in studies of theoretical and public health importance. This study (N = 113) correlated scores on the CDI at ages 2 and 3 years with scores at age 3 years on tests of cognition and receptive language and measures from parent–child conversation. Associations indicated reasonable concurrent and predictive validity. The findings suggest that satisfactory vocabulary scores at age 2 are likely to predict normal language skills at age 3, although some children with limited skills at age 3 will have had satisfactory scores at age 2. Many children with poor vocabulary scores at 2 will have normal skills at 3. PMID:16026501

  11. Hospitalizations of adults ≥60 years of age with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Hussain R; Reyes, Nimia; Zhang, Qing C; Okoroh, Ekwutosi M; Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Tsai, James

    2014-03-01

    We assessed the rates, trends, and factors associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) diagnosis among hospitalizations of adults ≥60 years of age during the period 2001 to 2010. Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey were used for this study. During the period 2001 to 2010, the estimated annual number of hospitalizations in which a VTE diagnosis was recorded, among adults ≥ 60 years of age, ranged from approximately 2 70 000 in 2001 to 4 23 000 in 2010. The rate of such hospitalizations per 1 00 000 US population ≥60 years of age ranged from 581 in 2001 to 739 in 2010. During the period 2001 to 2004, there was a significant increasing trend in the rate of hospitalizations with VTE among women ≥60 years of age. The factors positively associated with an increased risk of VTE diagnosis were female sex, summer and autumn seasons (compared with spring), venous catheterization, cancer, and greater length of hospital stay.

  12. Rising suicide among adults aged 40-64 years: the role of job and financial circumstances.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Katherine A; Phillips, Julie A

    2015-05-01

    Suicide rates among middle-aged men and women in the U.S. have been increasing since 1999, with a sharp escalation since 2007. To examine whether suicides with circumstances related to economic crises increased disproportionately among the middle-aged between 2005 and 2010. This study used the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) in 2014 to explore trends and patterns in circumstance and method among adults aged 40-64 years. Suicide circumstances varied considerably by age, with those related to job, financial, and legal problems most common among individuals aged 40-64 years. Between 2005 and 2010, the proportion of suicides where these circumstances were present increased among this age group, from 32.9% to 37.5% of completed suicides (p<0.05). Further, suffocation is a method more likely to be used in suicides related to job, economic, or legal factors, and its use increased disproportionately among the middle-aged. The number of suicides using suffocation increased 59.5% among those aged 40-64 years between 2005 and 2010, compared with 18.0% for those aged 15-39 years and 27.2% for those aged >65 years (p<0.05). The growth in the importance of external circumstances and increased use of suffocation jointly pose a challenge for prevention efforts designed for middle-aged adults. Suffocation is a suicide method that is highly lethal, requires relatively little planning, and is readily available. Efforts that target employers and workplaces as important stakeholders in the prevention of suicide and link the unemployed to mental health resources are warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Avoidable mortality measured by years of potential life lost (YPLL) aged 5 before 65 years in Kyrgyzstan, 1989-2003.

    PubMed

    Bozgunchievz, Maratbek; Ito, Katsuki

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable willingness in the entire medical society of Kyrgyzstan, which was directly involved in the reform process, to obtain reliable information about changes in population health that have occurred in the last decade, as well as about changes in mortality, which is the basic component of population health. The objective of this paper is to introduce the Year of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) in Kyrgyzstan caused by avoidable mortality in the population between 5 and 65 years of age during 1989-2003, and to provide a basis for setting the priorities for the reducing YPLL in the coming years. YPLL was calculated using data from the annual mortality tables according to causes of deaths and age for 1989, 1996, 1999 and 2003. YPLL is defined as the summation of the difference between 65 years of age and the age at death from the age of 5 and before 65. In 2003, the total number of YPLL due to avoidable mortality among those who died was 216,860, which represents a decline of 5.0% in comparison with 228,266 in 1989. During the study years, the largest proportion of YPLL in the population between 5 and 65 years of age resulted from injury and poisoning. In 2003, this proportion represented 41.5% of the total amount of YPLL due to all the causes studied here, followed by infections and parasitic diseases (12.0%), circulatory disturbance of the brain (11.5%), chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (11.4%), diseases of the respiratory system (9.2%), and malignant neoplasm of the upper airways and digestive tract (4.6%). The decline in avoidable mortality caused by injury and poisoning, infections disease, malignant neoplasm of the female breast and uterus has to be priority-driven direction for developing Health Policy in the coming years in Kyrgyzstan. Attention also has to be given to reducing of avoidable mortality caused by malignant neoplasm of the female breast by implementing screening programs.

  14. High incidence and persistence of airborne allergen sensitization up to age 19 years.

    PubMed

    Rönmark, E; Warm, K; Bjerg, A; Backman, H; Hedman, L; Lundbäck, B

    2017-05-01

    Longitudinal population-based studies about the natural history of allergic sensitization are rare. The aim was to study incidence and persistence of airborne allergen sensitization up to young adulthood and risk factors for early and late onset of sensitization. All children aged 7-8 years in two municipalities in Northern Sweden were invited to a parental questionnaire and skin prick tests (SPTs) to ten airborne allergens, and 2148 (88%) participated. The protocol was repeated at age 11-12 and 19 years, and 1516 participated in all three examinations. Prevalence of any positive SPT increased from 20.6% at age 7-8 years to 30.6% at 11-12 years, and 42.1% at 19 years. Animals were the primary sensitizers at age 7-8 years, 16.3%, followed by pollen, 12.4%. Mite and mold sensitization was low. Mean annual incidence of any positive SPT varied between 2.8 and 3.4/100 per year, decreased by age for animal, and was stable for pollen. Sensitization before age 7-8 years was independently associated with family history of allergy, OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.6-2.8), urban living, OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.9), and male sex, OR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.7), and negatively associated with birth order, OR 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-1.0), and furry animals at home, OR 0.7 (95% CI 0.7-0.9). Incidence after age 11-12 years was associated only with family history of allergy. Multisensitization at age 19 years was significantly associated with early age at sensitization. Remission of sensitization was uncommon. The increasing prevalence of allergic sensitization by age was explained by high incidence and persistence. After age 11-12 years, the factors urban living, number of siblings, and male sex lost their importance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Menopause, Reproductive Life, Hormone Replacement Therapy, and Bone Phenotype at Age 60–64 Years: A British Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, S.; Cooper, R.; Moore, A.; Mackinnon, K.; Cooper, C.; Adams, J. E.; Hardy, R.; Ward, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Previous studies of menopausal age and length of reproductive life on bone are limited by retrospective reproductive histories, being cross-sectional, or lacking gold standard bone technologies or information on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or surgical treatment. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate age at menopause, length of reproductive life, and HRT use in relation to volumetric and areal bone mineral density (vBMD, aBMD), bone size, and strength in women aged 60–64 years. Design: This was a birth cohort study that followed up for 64 years with prospective measures of age at menarche and menopause and monthly HRT histories. Setting: The study was conducted in England, Scotland, and Wales. Participants: Participants included 848 women with a known type of menopause and bone measures at 60–64 years. Main Outcome Measures: Peripheral quantitative computed tomography measurements of the distal radius total and trabecular vBMD were measured. Diaphyseal radius total and medullary cross-sectional area, cortical vBMD, and polar strength strain index (SSI); dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of aBMD at the lumbar spine and total hip were also measured. Results: A 10-year increase in age at natural (but not surgical) menopause was associated with 8.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3%–15.1%, P = .02) greater trabecular vBMD and a 6.0% (95% CI 0.51%–11.5%, P = .03) greater total vBMD; findings were similar for length of reproductive life. A 10-year difference in HRT use was associated with a 6.0% (95% CI 2.6%–9.3%, P < .001) greater polar SSI and a 0.9% (95% CI 0.4%–1.5%, P = .001) greater cortical vBMD. These estimates changed little on adjustment. Estimates for aBMD were consistent with those for peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Conclusions: The positive effects on trabecular vBMD of later natural menopause and longer reproductive life persisted into early old age. HRT use was associated with greater

  16. Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

    The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

  17. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  18. How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Dale, Philip S.; Mills, Paulette E.; Cole, Kevin N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with…

  19. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  20. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  1. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  2. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  3. Spatiotemporal and plantar pressure patterns of 1000 healthy individuals aged 3-101 years.

    PubMed

    McKay, Marnee J; Baldwin, Jennifer N; Ferreira, Paulo; Simic, Milena; Vanicek, Natalie; Wojciechowski, Elizabeth; Mudge, Anita; Burns, Joshua

    2017-07-18

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative reference values for spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and to investigate the influence of demographic, anthropometric and physical characteristics. In 1000 healthy males and females aged 3-101 years, spatiotemporal and plantar pressure data were collected barefoot with the Zeno™ walkway and Emed(®) platform. Correlograms were developed to visualise the relationships between widely reported spatiotemporal and pressure variables with demographic (age, gender), anthropometric (height, mass, waist circumference) and physical characteristics (ankle strength, ankle range of motion, vibration perception) in children aged 3-9 years, adolescents aged 10-19 years, adults aged 20-59 years and older adults aged over 60 years. A comprehensive catalogue of 31 spatiotemporal and pressure variables were generated from 1000 healthy individuals. The key findings were that gait velocity was stable during adolescence and adulthood, while children and older adults walked at a comparable slower speed. Peak pressures increased during childhood to older adulthood. Children demonstrated highest peak pressures beneath the rearfoot whilst adolescents, adults and older adults demonstrated highest pressures at the forefoot. Main factors influencing spatiotemporal and pressure parameters were: increased age, height, body mass and waist circumference, as well as ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength. This study has established whole of life normative reference values of widely used spatiotemporal and plantar pressure parameters, and revealed changes to be expected across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oseltamivir Pharmacokinetics, Dosing, and Resistance Among Children Aged <2 Years With Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, David W.; Acosta, Edward P.; Prichard, Mark N.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Ampofo, Krow; Lang, David; Ashouri, Negar; Vanchiere, John A.; Abzug, Mark J.; Abughali, Nazha; Caserta, Mary T.; Englund, Janet A.; Sood, Sunil K.; Spigarelli, Michael G.; Bradley, John S.; Lew, Judy; Michaels, Marian G.; Wan, Wen; Cloud, Gretchen; Jester, Penelope; Lakeman, Fred D.; Whitley, Richard J.; Giles, Dusty; Cotton, Bari; Judy, Sharon; Cowie, Margaret; Francis, Jeanne; Evans, Candice; O'Donnell, Nan; Shiraishi, Ofelia Vargas; Latiolais, Lisa; Aymami, Valeri; Dole, Ken; Gaultier, Julie; Lofthus, Gerry; Kinnunen, Diane; Lacombe, Kirsten; Stellato, Nancy; Denlinger, Julie; Hingtgen, Sara; Mason, Christina; Jeffrey, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Children <2 years of age are at high risk of influenza-related mortality and morbidity. However, the appropriate dose of oseltamivir for children <2 years of age is unknown. Methods. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group evaluated oseltamivir in infants aged <2 years in an age–de-escalation, adaptive design with a targeted systemic exposure. Results. From 2006 to 2010, 87 subjects enrolled. An oseltamivir dose of 3.0 mg/kg produced drug exposures within the target range in subjects 0–8 months of age, although there was a greater degree of variability in infants <3 months of age. In subjects 9–11 months of age, a dose of 3.5 mg/kg produced drug exposures within the target range. Six of 10 subjects aged 12–23 months receiving the Food and Drug Administration–approved unit dose for this age group (ie, 30 mg) had oseltamivir carboxylate exposures below the target range. Virus from 3 subjects developed oseltamivir resistance during antiviral treatment. Conclusions. The appropriate twice-daily oral oseltamivir dose for infants ≤8 months of age is 3.0 mg/kg, while the dose for infants 9–11 months old is 3.5 mg/kg. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00391768. PMID:23230059

  5. The Impact of In Vitro Accelerated Aging, Approximating 30 and 60 Years In Vivo, on Commercially Available Zirconia Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Monzavi, Mona; Noumbissi, Sammy; Nowzari, Hessam

    2017-04-01

    Despite increased popularity of Zirconia dental implants, concerns have been raised regarding low temperature degradation (LTD) and its effect on micro-structural integrity. This study evaluated the effect of LTD on four types of Zirconia dental implants at 0, 30, and 60 years of artificial aging. The impact of aging on t-m transformation and micro crack formation was measured. Accelerated aging at 15 and 30 hours, approximating 30 and 60 years in vivo, aged 36 Zirconia dental implants: Z systems(®) (A), Straumann(®) (B), Ceraroot(®) (C), and Zeramex(®) (D). Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopic analysis determined the micro structural features, phase transformation, and the formation of micro cracks. At 15 hours, type A implant presented with micro cracks and t-m transformation of 0.9 µm and 3.1 µm, respectively. At 30 hours, micro cracks remained shallow (1 µm). At 15 hours, type B implant presented micro cracks (0.7 µm) and grain transformation (1.2 µm). At 30 hours, these features remained superficial at 0.6 and 1.5 µm, respectively. Type C implant presented surface micro cracks of 0.3 µm at 15 hours. The depth of t-m transformation slightly increased to 1.4 µm. At 30 hours, number of micro cracks increased at the surface to an average depth of 1.5 µm. Depth of t-m transformation increased to an average of 2.5 µm. At 15 hours, micro cracks remained superficial (0.8 µm) for type D implant and depth of t-m transformation increased to 2.3 µm. At 30 hours, the depth of micro cracks increased to an average of 1.3 µm followed by increased t-m transformation to a depth of 4.1 µm. Depth of grain transformation remained within 1-4 µm from the surface. The effect of aging was minimal for all Zirconia implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and ADHD at the age of 11 years: a birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Del-Ponte, Bianca; Santos, Iná S; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Anselmi, Luciana; Munhoz, Tiago N; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies evaluating caffeine intake during pregnancy and long-term outcomes, such as the child's neurobehaviour, are still scarce and their results are inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between maternal consumption of caffeine during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at the age of 11 years. Methodology All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during the year 2004, were selected for a cohort study. The mothers were interviewed at birth to obtain information on coffee and yerba mate consumption during pregnancy, among other matters. At the age of 11 years, presence of ADHD was evaluated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) questionnaire, applied to the mothers. The prevalence of ADHD was calculated, with 95% CIs. The association between caffeine consumption and ADHD was tested by means of logistic regression. Results 3485 children were included in the analyses. The prevalence of ADHD was 4.1% (95% CI 3.4% to 4.7%): 5.8% (95% CI 4.7% to 6.9%) among boys and 2.3% (95% CI 1.5% to 3.0%) among girls. The prevalence of caffeine consumption during the entire pregnancy and in the first, second and third trimesters was 88.7% (87.7% to 89.7%), 86.5% (85.4% to 87.5%), 83.0% (81.8% to 84.2%) and 92.3% (91.4% to 93.1%), respectively. Caffeine consumption during the entire pregnancy and the first, second and third trimesters were not associated with ADHD in the crude or adjusted analysis. Conclusions The present study did not show any association between maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and ADHD at the age of 11 years. PMID:27920084

  7. Stuttering, temperament, and anxiety: data from a community cohort ages 2-4 years.

    PubMed

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N = 1,261). No significant differences were found at ages 2, 3, or 4 years between children who stutter and control children for approach or at ages 3 or 4 years for easy/difficult temperament. Both of these measures are precursors of anxiety. Significant differences were found for reactivity and persistence at age 3 years. Children who stutter were less reactive to environmental stimuli and had a reduced ability to attend to a task until completion. There was no evidence of this difference for persistence at age 4 years. Reactivity was not measured at age 4 years. On the basis of parents' responses to the Short Temperament Scale, preschoolers who stutter did not have innately different temperaments from control children on those temperament traits measured from ages 2 to 4 years. They showed no signs of temperament precursors of anxiety before stuttering onset or shortly after. Results suggest, at most, that temperament is influenced somehow during the period after stuttering onset but with a waning developmental influence subsequently.

  8. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-01-04

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening.

  9. Predicting curriculum and test performance at age 11 years from pupil background, baseline skills and phonological awareness at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert; Carless, Sue; Ferraro, Vittoria

    2007-07-01

    Phonological awareness tests are amongst the best predictors of literacy and predict outcomes of Key Stage 1 assessment of the National Curriculum in England at age 7. However, it is unknown whether their ability to predict National Curricular outcomes extends to Key Stage 2 assessments given at age 11, or also whether the predictive power of such tests is independent of letter-knowledge. We explored the unique predictive validity of phonological awareness and early literacy measures, and other pupil background measures taken at age 5 in the prediction of English, Maths, and Science performance at age 11. Three hundred and eighty-two children from 21 primary schools in one Local Educational Authority were assessed at age 5 and followed to age 11 (Key Stage 2 assessment). Teaching assistants (TAs) administered phonological awareness tasks and early literacy measures. Baseline and Key Stage 2 performance measures were collected by teachers. Phonological awareness was a significant unique predictor of all nine outcome measures after baseline assessment and pupil background measures were first controlled in regression analyses, and continued to be a significant predictor of reading, maths, and science performance, and teacher assessments after early literacy skill and letter-knowledge was controlled. Gender predicted performance in writing, the English test, and English teacher assessment, with girls outperforming boys. Phonological awareness is a unique predictor of general curricular attainment independent of pupil background, early reading ability and letter-knowledge. Practically, screening of phonological awareness and basic reading skills by school staff in year 1 significantly enhances the capacity of schools to predict curricular outcomes in year 6.

  10. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  11. Cardiac Mortality Among 200 000 Five-Year Survivors of Cancer Diagnosed at 15 to 39 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Katherine E.; Reulen, Raoul C.; Winter, David L.; Bright, Chloe J.; Fidler, Miranda M.; Frobisher, Clare; Guha, Joyeeta; Wong, Kwok F.; Kelly, Julie; Edgar, Angela B.; McCabe, Martin G.; Whelan, Jeremy; Cutter, David J.; Darby, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Survivors of teenage and young adult cancer are acknowledged as understudied. Little is known about their long-term adverse health risks, particularly of cardiac disease that is increased in other cancer populations where cardiotoxic treatments have been used. Methods: The Teenage and Young Adult Cancer Survivor Study cohort comprises 200 945 5-year survivors of cancer diagnosed at 15 to 39 years of age in England and Wales from 1971 to 2006, and followed to 2014. Standardized mortality ratios, absolute excess risks, and cumulative risks were calculated. Results: Two thousand sixteen survivors died of cardiac disease. For all cancers combined, the standardized mortality ratios for all cardiac diseases combined was greatest for individuals diagnosed at 15 to 19 years of age (4.2; 95% confidence interval, 3.4–5.2) decreasing to 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.3) for individuals aged 35 to 39 years (2P for trend <0.0001). Similar patterns were observed for both standardized mortality ratios and absolute excess risks for ischemic heart disease, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. Survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma, acute myeloid leukaemia, genitourinary cancers other than bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, leukaemia other than acute myeloid, central nervous system tumour, cervical cancer, and breast cancer experienced 3.8, 2.7, 2.0, 1.7, 1.7, 1.6, 1.4, 1.3 and 1.2 times the number of cardiac deaths expected from the general population, respectively. Among survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma aged over 60 years, almost 30% of the total excess number of deaths observed were due to heart disease. Conclusions: This study of over 200 000 cancer survivors shows that age at cancer diagnosis was critical in determining subsequent cardiac mortality risk. For the first time, risk estimates of cardiac death after each cancer diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39 years have been derived from a large population-based cohort with prolonged

  12. Developmental Continuity of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Subdimensions at Ages 8, 10, and 13 Years and Their Distinct Psychiatric Outcomes at Age 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Yvonne M.; Stringaris, Argyris; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the developmental continuity, interrelationships, and predictive associations of the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subdimensions of irritable, headstrong, and hurtful. Method Data were collected from 6,328 mother–child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (United Kingdom). Results Developmental continuity for each subdimension was strong and interrelationships indicated that headstrong was associated mainly with irritable, whereas irritable did not cross associate with other ODD subdimensions; and hurtful was associated with lower levels of headstrong. With regard to associations at age 16 years, irritable at age 13 years was associated with depression, whereas headstrong at 13 was associated with delinquency and callous attitude; at age 13, hurtful failed to associate with any of the 3 age 16 outcomes. Conclusions The results suggest that the ODD headstrong and irritable subdimensions are developmentally distinct, with small cross-over (i.e., headstrong to irritable), and are associated with unique outcomes. Hurtful does not appear to be associated with future maladjustment in children. PMID:23972698

  13. Vital signs: births to teens aged 15-17 years--United States, 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Romero, Lisa; Spitz, Alison; Gavin, Lorrie; Barfield, Wanda

    2014-04-11

    Teens who give birth at age 15-17 years are at increased risk for adverse medical and social outcomes of teen pregnancy. To examine trends in the rate and proportion of births to teens aged 15-19 years that were to teens aged 15-17 years, CDC analyzed 1991-2012 National Vital Statistics System data. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2006-2010 were used to examine sexual experience, contraceptive use, and receipt of prevention opportunities among female teens aged 15-17 years. During 1991-2012, the rate of births per 1,000 teens declined from 17.9 to 5.4 for teens aged 15 years, 36.9 to 12.9 for those aged 16 years, and 60.6 to 23.7 for those aged 17 years. In 2012, the birth rate per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years was higher for Hispanics (25.5), non-Hispanic blacks (21.9), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17.0) compared with non-Hispanic whites (8.4) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (4.1). The rate also varied by state, ranging from 6.2 per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years in New Hampshire to 29.0 in the District of Columbia. In 2012, there were 86,423 births to teens aged 15-17 years, accounting for 28% of all births to teens aged 15-19 years. This percentage declined from 36% in 1991 to 28% in 2012 (p<0.001). NSFG data for 2006-2010 indicate that although 91% of female teens aged 15-17 years received formal sex education on birth control or how to say no to sex, 24% had not spoken with parents about either topic; among sexually experienced female teens, 83% reported no formal sex education before first sex. Among currently sexually active female teens (those who had sex within 3 months of the survey) aged 15-17 years, 58% used clinical birth control services in the past 12 months, and 92% used contraception at last sex; however, only 1% used the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. Births to teens aged 15-17 years have declined but still account for approximately one quarter of births to teens aged 15-19 years. These data highlight

  14. Effects of aging in Masters swimmers: 40-year review and suggestions for optimal health benefits.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Robert T; Rahe, Richard H

    2010-04-07

    The Masters Swimming Program is over 40 years old and has achieved international status, with thousands of participants competing in five-year age categories between 18 and 99. Early studies of Masters swimmers by age groups found an increase in times for most events of about 1% per year, and later studies showed a significant correlation with the age-associated decline in maximal oxygen uptake. As larger sample sizes have become available, the age-related decline in performance among national champion Masters swimmers, both men and women, and for both short and longer swims, has been shown to be linear at about 0.6% per year up to age 70. Beyond age 70, the age-related decline accelerates exponentially for both men and women, with considerably more variability than in younger age groups. Several factors may be related to the accelerated performance decline beyond the of age 70, including accelerated physiological aging, chronic physical disabilities, acute illnesses requiring relatively lengthy recovery, effects of multiple medications, and social issues such as transportation problems, all of which can lead to increasing difficulty in maintaining a regular workout schedule. Masters Swimming is a "user-friendly" aerobic sport, imposing little excess strain, and thus is particularly suitable for the elderly. Masters coaches are gaining increasing experience with the over-70 age groups, tailoring workouts to accommodate their need for longer warm-up periods, longer rest periods between swimming sets, less overall distance, less emphasis on "breath control", and more time between workouts. With these accommodations, the motivation of elderly Masters swimmers to compete remains strong, and their ranks should continue to increase.

  15. Chiropractic treatment of patients younger than 18 years of age: Frequency, patterns and chiropractors’ beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Claire L; Verhoef, Marja J; Conway, Phil J; Sauve, Reg S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore how and when chiropractors are involved in the care of patients younger than 18 years of age, and to examine chiropractors’ beliefs about treating paediatric patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 140 chiropractors practising in Alberta. Data were collected by means of a mailed questionnaire, which elicited practice information and chiropractors’ beliefs, and included closed-and open-ended questions related to six vignettes of paediatric health problems. RESULTS: Fifty-seven per cent of chiropractors responded to the questionnaire. All chiropractors indicated that they treat patients younger than 18 years of age. Nine per cent of respondents do not treat patients younger than age two years, and 4% do not treat patients from ages six to 11 years. On average, 13% of chiropractors’ total patient load over the month preceding the completion of the questionnaires consisted of patients younger than the age of 18 years. With increasing age, patients are more likely to present with musculoskeletal problems (23% of patients younger than age two years, 84% of those aged 14 to 17 years). Chiropractors reported that they provided musculoskeletal treatment regardless of the cause of the problem. A high percentage of chiropractors refer to physicians and reported that they would like to provide concomitant care with physicians. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that chiropractors do treat children and that their opinions about this practice vary by specific condition. In addition, substantial percentages of chiropractors indicated that they would like to work with physicians in treating patients with nonmusculoskeletal conditions. PMID:20107550

  16. Outcome of assisted reproductive technology in women aged 40 years and older.

    PubMed

    Aflatoonian, Abbas; Eftekhar, Maryam; Mohammadian, Farnaz; Yousefnejad, Fariba

    2011-01-01

    Human fertility has been declined all over the world. Advanced women's age is one of the most important factors in determining the success of reproduction and ageing has negative impact on ART outcome and advanced female age decreases the chance of live birth rates achieved using ART, especially after 40 years of age. To evaluate ART outcomes regarding to pregnancy, abortion, cycle cancellation and live birth rates in women 40 years and older. A retrospective study was performed on three hundred-thirteen women undergoing ART cycles in the Madar Hospital in Yazd. Women with age ≥ 40 years who indicated for ART enrolled the study regardless of the infertility type or etiology. In this study, we used data from IVF or ICSI cycles using fresh embryo transfer. Follow up was performed in regard to pregnancy, abortion, cycle cancellation and live birth rates. The mean age of women was 41.87±1.97 years. Chemical pregnancy rate was 8.6% (27/313) per cycle. Clinical pregnancy rate was 3.8% (12/313) per cycle. Spontaneous abortion was observed in 63% (17/27) of patients with positive pregnancy test. The overall cancellation rate was 23.3% per oocytes retrieval. The overall live birth rate per cycle for all women who initiated an ART cycle at age ≥40 years was 3.2% (10/313) that eight of those women were under 42 years old. Based on our results, we suggest that women with age 42 years and above should be advised to use other options, including oocyte donation or adoption.

  17. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vortioxetine for the treatment of major depressive disorder in patients aged 55 years or older.

    PubMed

    Nomikos, George G; Tomori, Dapo; Zhong, Wei; Affinito, John; Palo, William

    2017-08-01

    These post hoc analyses evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vortioxetine versus placebo in patients aged ≥55 years with major depressive disorder (MDD). Study-level efficacy data from 12 short-term, fixed-dose, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of vortioxetine 5-20 mg/day were assessed using a random-effects meta-analysis. Adverse events (AEs), vital signs, ECG values, liver enzymes, and body weight were pooled from the same studies. Patients had baseline Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total scores ranging from 22-30. 1508 patients (mean age=62.4 years; range, 55-88 years) were included. Mean differences from placebo in change from baseline to study end (6/8 weeks) in MADRS were -2.56 (5 mg, n=324, P=0.035), -2.87 (10 mg, n=222, P=0.007), -1.32 (15 mg, n=90, P=NS), and -4.65 (20 mg, n=165, P=0.012). Odds ratios for response versus placebo were 1.6 (5 mg, P=NS), 1.8 (10 mg, P=0.002), 1.2 (15 mg, P=NS), and 2.5 (20 mg, P<0.001), and for remission versus placebo were 1.5 (5 mg, P=NS), 1.5 (10 mg, P=NS), 1.4 (15 mg, P=NS), and 2.7 (20 mg, P=0.001). The proportion of patients with AEs for placebo and vortioxetine 5-20 mg was 61.5% and 62.3%, respectively, with no increase at increased doses. Vortioxetine demonstrated a placebo-level incidence of serious AEs (1.2%). AEs occurring in ≥5% of any treatment group were nausea, headache, diarrhea, dizziness, dry mouth, constipation, fatigue, vomiting, and anxiety. No clinically significant mean changes in vital signs, ECG values, liver enzymes, or body weight emerged during treatment. Vortioxetine 5-20 mg/day is efficacious and well tolerated in MDD patients aged ≥55 years, a group that is often comorbid with other conditions and treated with other medications.

  18. Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: A retrospective analysis of two institutions' experience

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Elizabeth A; Feingold, Daniel L; Forde, Kenneth A; Arnell, Tracey; Jang, Joon Ho; Whelan, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under 50 years of age across two institutions. METHODS: Records of patients under age 50 years of age who had CRC surgery over a 16 year period were assessed at two institutions. The following documents where reviewed: admission notes, operative notes, and discharge summaries. The main study variables included: age, presenting symptoms, family history, tumor location, operation, stage/differentiation of disease, and post operative complications. Stage of disease was classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system: tumor depth; node status; and metastases. RESULTS: CRC was found in 180 patients under age 50 years (87 females, 93 males; mean age 41.4 ± 6.2 years). Young patients accounted for 11.2% of cases during a 6 year period for which the full data set was available. Eight percent had a 1st degree and 12% a 2nd degree family CRC history. Almost all patients (94%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; common symptoms included: bleeding (59%), obstruction (9%), and abdominal/rectal pain (35%). Evaluation was often delayed and bleeding frequently attributed to hemorrhoids. Advanced stage CRC (Stage 3 or 4) was noted in 53% of patients. Most tumors were distal to the splenic flexure (77%) and 39% involved the rectum. Most patients (95%) had segmental resections; 6 patients had subtotal/total colectomy. Poorly differentiated tumors were noted in 12% and mucinous lesions in 19% of patients of which most had Stage 3 or 4 disease. Twenty-two patients (13%) developed recurrence and/or progression of disease to date. Three patients (ages 42, 42 and 49 years) went on to develop metachronous primary colon cancers within 3 to 4 years of their initial resection. CONCLUSION: CRC was common in young patients with no family history. Young patients with symptoms merit a timely evaluation to avoid presentation with late stage CRC. PMID:24039357

  19. Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: a retrospective analysis of two institutions' experience.

    PubMed

    Myers, Elizabeth A; Feingold, Daniel L; Forde, Kenneth A; Arnell, Tracey; Jang, Joon Ho; Whelan, Richard L

    2013-09-14

    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under 50 years of age across two institutions. Records of patients under age 50 years of age who had CRC surgery over a 16 year period were assessed at two institutions. The following documents where reviewed: admission notes, operative notes, and discharge summaries. The main study variables included: age, presenting symptoms, family history, tumor location, operation, stage/differentiation of disease, and post operative complications. Stage of disease was classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system: tumor depth; node status; and metastases. CRC was found in 180 patients under age 50 years (87 females, 93 males; mean age 41.4 ± 6.2 years). Young patients accounted for 11.2% of cases during a 6 year period for which the full data set was available. Eight percent had a 1(st) degree and 12% a 2(nd) degree family CRC history. Almost all patients (94%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; common symptoms included: bleeding (59%), obstruction (9%), and abdominal/rectal pain (35%). Evaluation was often delayed and bleeding frequently attributed to hemorrhoids. Advanced stage CRC (Stage 3 or 4) was noted in 53% of patients. Most tumors were distal to the splenic flexure (77%) and 39% involved the rectum. Most patients (95%) had segmental resections; 6 patients had subtotal/total colectomy. Poorly differentiated tumors were noted in 12% and mucinous lesions in 19% of patients of which most had Stage 3 or 4 disease. Twenty-two patients (13%) developed recurrence and/or progression of disease to date. Three patients (ages 42, 42 and 49 years) went on to develop metachronous primary colon cancers within 3 to 4 years of their initial resection. CRC was common in young patients with no family history. Young patients with symptoms merit a timely evaluation to avoid presentation with late stage CRC.

  20. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Filho, Roberto Pecoits

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI) on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2) were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%); males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%); males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%); males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243). CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004). Conclusions CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years. PMID:26959401

  1. Predictors of Independent Aging and Survival: A 16-Year Follow-Up Report in Octogenarian Men.

    PubMed

    Franzon, Kristin; Byberg, Liisa; Sjögren, Per; Zethelius, Björn; Cederholm, Tommy; Kilander, Lena

    2017-09-01

    To examine the longitudinal associations between aging with preserved functionality, i.e. independent aging and survival, and lifestyle variables, dietary pattern and cardiovascular risk factors. Cohort study. Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, Sweden. Swedish men (n = 1,104) at a mean age of 71 (range 69.4-74.1) were investigated, 369 of whom were evaluated for independent aging 16 years later, at a mean age of 87 (range 84.8-88.9). A questionnaire was used to obtain information on lifestyle, including education, living conditions, and physical activity. Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet was assessed according to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score derived from 7-day food records. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured. Independent aging at a mean age of 87 was defined as lack of diagnosed dementia, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 25 or greater, not institutionalized, independence in personal activities of daily living, and ability to walk outdoors alone. Complete survival data at age 85 were obtained from the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Fifty-seven percent of the men survived to age 85, and 75% of the participants at a mean age of 87 displayed independent aging. Independent aging was associated with never smoking (vs current) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-4.60) and high (vs low) adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.14-6.80). Normal weight or overweight and waist circumference of 102 cm or less were also associated with independent aging. Similar associations were observed with survival. Lifestyle factors such as never smoking, maintaining a healthy diet, and not being obese at age 71 were associated with survival and independent aging at age 85 and older in men. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate during...

  3. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate during...

  4. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate during...

  5. 45 CFR 1206.1-5 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination. 1206.1-5 Section 1206.1-5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Suspension and Termination of Assistance §...

  6. Risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1–3 years in NSW Australia: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unintentional poisoning in young children is an important public health issue. Age pattern studies have demonstrated that children aged 1–3 years have the highest levels of poisoning risk among children aged 0–4 years, yet little research has been conducted regarding risk factors specific to this three-year age group and the methodologies employed varied greatly. The purpose of the current study is to investigate a broad range of potential risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1–3 years using appropriate methodologies. Methods Four groups of children, one case group (children who had experienced a poisoning event) and three control groups (children who had been ‘injured’, ‘sick’ or who were ‘healthy’), and their mothers (mother-child dyads) were enrolled into a case–control study. All mother-child dyads participated in a 1.5-hour child developmental screening and observation, with mothers responding to a series of questionnaires at home. Data were analysed as three case–control pairs with multivariate analyses used to control for age and sex differences between child cases and controls. Results Five risk factors were included in the final multivariate models for one or more case–control pairs. All three models found that children whose mothers used more positive control in their interactions during a structured task had higher odds of poisoning. Two models showed that maternal psychiatric distress increased poisoning risk (poisoning-injury and poisoning-healthy). Individual models identified the following variables as risk factors: less proximal maternal supervision during risk taking activities (poisoning-injury), medicinal substances stored in more accessible locations in bathrooms (poisoning-sick) and lower total parenting stress (poisoning-healthy). Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that the nature of the caregiver-child relationship and caregiver attributes play an important role in

  7. Risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1-3 years in NSW Australia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Schmertmann, Marcia; Williamson, Ann; Black, Deborah; Wilson, Leigh

    2013-05-24

    Unintentional poisoning in young children is an important public health issue. Age pattern studies have demonstrated that children aged 1-3 years have the highest levels of poisoning risk among children aged 0-4 years, yet little research has been conducted regarding risk factors specific to this three-year age group and the methodologies employed varied greatly. The purpose of the current study is to investigate a broad range of potential risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1-3 years using appropriate methodologies. Four groups of children, one case group (children who had experienced a poisoning event) and three control groups (children who had been 'injured', 'sick' or who were 'healthy'), and their mothers (mother-child dyads) were enrolled into a case-control study. All mother-child dyads participated in a 1.5-hour child developmental screening and observation, with mothers responding to a series of questionnaires at home. Data were analysed as three case-control pairs with multivariate analyses used to control for age and sex differences between child cases and controls. Five risk factors were included in the final multivariate models for one or more case-control pairs. All three models found that children whose mothers used more positive control in their interactions during a structured task had higher odds of poisoning. Two models showed that maternal psychiatric distress increased poisoning risk (poisoning-injury and poisoning-healthy). Individual models identified the following variables as risk factors: less proximal maternal supervision during risk taking activities (poisoning-injury), medicinal substances stored in more accessible locations in bathrooms (poisoning-sick) and lower total parenting stress (poisoning-healthy). The findings of this study indicate that the nature of the caregiver-child relationship and caregiver attributes play an important role in influencing poisoning risk. Further research is warranted to explore the

  8. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  9. Participation in Aesthetic Sports and Girls’ Weight Concerns at Ages 5 and 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Earnest, Mandy B.; Birch, Leann L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The relationship between participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports and weight concerns was assessed among young girls. Method Participants were part of a larger longitudinal study and included 197 and 192 girls and their mothers when girls were 5 and 7 years, respectively. At each age, girls’ weight concerns and sport participation were assessed and girls were classified as participating in aesthetic sports (dance, gymnastics, cheerleading, baton twirling, swimming, aerobics, figure skating), non-aesthetic sports (volleyball, soccer, basketball, softball, hockey, tennis, martial arts, track) or no sports. Results Girls in the aesthetic sport group reported higher weight concerns than girls in the nonaesthetic and no sport groups at ages 5 and 7 years. In addition, girls participating in aesthetic sports at ages 5 and 7 years reported the highest weight concerns at age 7. Discussion Participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports may foster a heightened focus on weight and body shape among girls. PMID:11920993

  10. Participation in aesthetic sports and girls' weight concerns at ages 5 and 7 years.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Earnest, Mandy B; Birch, Leann L

    2002-04-01

    The relationship between participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports and weight concerns was assessed among young girls. Participants were part of a larger longitudinal study and included 197 and 192 girls and their mothers when girls were 5 and 7 years, respectively. At each age, girls' weight concerns and sport participation were assessed and girls were classified as participating in aesthetic sports (dance, gymnastics, cheerleading, baton twirling, swimming, aerobics, figure skating), non-aesthetic sports (volleyball, soccer, basketball, softball, hockey, tennis, martial arts, track) or no sports. Girls in the aesthetic sport group reported higher weight concerns than girls in the nonaesthetic and no sport groups at ages 5 and 7 years. In addition, girls participating in aesthetic sports at ages 5 and 7 years reported the highest weight concerns at age 7. Participation in aesthetic, or appearance-oriented, sports may foster a heightened focus on weight and body shape among girls. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Changes of body mass components and body constitution in boys 7-17 years of age].

    PubMed

    Kornienko, I A; Tambovtseva, R V; Panasiuk, T V

    2003-01-01

    The longitudinal studies of boys aged 7-17 years were performed to trace the dynamics of growth processes, indices of endomorphism, mesomorphism and ectomorphism according to type of body build. The indices of somatotype stability, proposed by the authors, depending on the age and body build, are discussed. It is shown that the least variable are the boys of asthenoid and digestive types of body build, while those belonging to muscular and thoraco-muscular types undergo changes most frequently. At the age of 9-10 years the somatotype variability is the greatest. By the age of 15-17 years the proportion of the boys belonging to asthenoid-thoracal type is increased, that is characterized by a deceleration of skeletal muscles development and an increase in the ectomorphism index.

  12. Identifying and Characterizing Risky Play in the Age One-to-Three Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleppe, Rasmus; Melhuish, Edward; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen

    2017-01-01

    While research has investigated risk-taking in play for children from the age of four years upwards, less is known of risky play with children under four years. A small-scale observational study with children from five childcare settings with differing characteristics was undertaken to explore the occurrence and characteristics of risky play for…

  13. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  14. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  15. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  16. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

  17. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  18. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  19. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

  20. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  1. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  2. Osteosarcoma in Children 5 Years of Age or Younger at Initial Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Worch, Jennifer; Matthay, Katherine K.; Neuhaus, John; Goldsby, Robert; DuBois, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Since osteosarcoma is extremely rare in children ≤ 5 years of age, we sought to investigate if tumor characteristics, treatment strategies, and outcomes differ compared to older patients. Procedure Patients < 20 years of age with high-grade osteosarcoma reported to national SEER database from 1973–2006 were separated into two groups based on age at diagnosis: ≤ 5 years (n=49) and 6–19 years (n = 1687). Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were compared using Fisher exact tests. Overall survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods and compared using log-rank tests and Cox models. Results Patients ≤ 5 years had higher proportions of osteosarcoma arising from the upper limb compared to older patients (24.5% vs. 11.2%; p = 0.006). These very young patients had a significantly higher proportion of telangiectatic histology (10.2% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.017). Sex, metastatic status, race, or ethnicity did not differ by age. A higher proportion of very young patients was treated with amputation (55.2% vs. 27.3%; p = 0.002). Five-year overall survival was inferior for patients with localized osteosarcoma 5 years of age or younger compared to older children (51.9% vs. 67.3%; p = 0.03). After controlling for metastatic status, year of diagnosis, and tumor site, the hazard ratio for death in very young patients was 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.02 – 2.36; p = 0.04) compared to older patients. Conclusions Tumor characteristics, treatment, and outcomes differ among children ≤ 5 years of age compared to older pediatric patients. These differences may reflect differences in tumor biology. PMID:20582978

  3. Rectal cancer in patients under the age of 50 years: the delayed diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rachel B; Rangel, Lynsey E; Osler, Turner M; Hyman, Neil H

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of rectal cancer in younger patients continues to increase. Because most of these patients do not meet criteria for routine colorectal cancer screening, diagnosis may be delayed, potentially resulting in adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients under the age of 50 years with rectal cancer have a delay in diagnosis and treatment leading to a worse overall prognosis. A case control study of patients diagnosed with rectal adenocarcinoma in an academic medical center from 1997 to 2007 under 50 years of age were matched 1:1 to randomly selected patients over the age of 50 years by sex and date of diagnosis. Time to diagnosis, time to treatment, staging of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and 5-year overall survival were compared. The overall time to treatment from symptom onset was 217 days for patients under the age of 50 years versus 29.5 days if over 50 years of age (P < .0001). The primary delay occurred between the onset of symptoms and presentation to the initial physician. There was no difference in stage at the time of diagnosis or 5-year survival (64% vs 71%, P = .39 and P = .54, respectively). Patients with rectal cancer under the age of 50 years have symptoms for a considerable period of time before seeking medical care and are referred in less timely manner to specialists. However, the delay in diagnosis did not adversely impact stage on presentation or 5-year survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Pre-Retirement Years: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnes, Herbert S.; And Others

    This volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews among the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971. The data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period,…

  5. Elective shoulder arthroplasty in patients older than ninety years of age.

    PubMed

    Churchill, R Sean

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the outcome of elective shoulder arthroplasty for glenohumeral osteoarthritis or rotator cuff arthropathy in patients aged older than 90 years. The study included 7 shoulders in 6 patients with an average age of 93 years 5 months, (range, 91 years 0 months to 97 years 4 months). Average follow-up was 2.2 years, (range, 1-4 years). Preoperative range of motion, Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, and Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) scores were obtained and compared with postoperative values at 3 and 6 months and yearly thereafter. Average forward elevation improved from 87 degrees to 137 degrees (P < .00001), and external rotation to the side improved from 0 degrees to 50 degrees (P < .0001). The SST scores improved from a preoperative average of 2.0 to 6.1 at 3 months (P < .0001), 6.9 at 6 months (P < .0001), 8.0 at 1 year (P < .00001), and 7.4 at 2 years (P < .0001). Significant improvements occurred in 6 of 8 SF-36 domains: Mental Health (P < .05), Vitality (P < .01), Role limitations due to emotional problems (P < .05), Social Function (P < .001), Role limitations due to physical health (P < .001), and Comfort (P < .00001). No patient had worse pain or function postoperatively. These data suggest that elective shoulder arthroplasty can be performed in patients 90 years of age and older, providing excellent pain relief, improved functional outcome, and enhanced general health status.

  6. Prevalence of cataract in adult Down's syndrome patients aged 28 to 83 years

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Age-related cataract is the major cause of blindness in humans throughout the world. The majority of previous studies of cataract in Down's syndrome (which usually results from trisomy 21) have reported that the prevalence of this ocular abnormality is higher for a given age range than in the general population. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of cataract in a well-defined population of adults with Down's syndrome. Methods An in-patient population of 68 adults (35 males and 33 females) with Down's syndrome, aged between 28.9 and 83.3 years, underwent ophthalmological examination for the presence of cataracts. Results Overall, the prevalence of cataract was 16.2%, with no significant difference in the prevalence between males (17.1%) and females (15.2%). In those aged between 45 and 64 years, the prevalence was 16.7%, rising in those aged between 65 and 75 years to 28.6%. Conclusion Compared with the general population, the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome was raised in those aged 45 to 64, but not in those aged 65 to 75 years; the latter might be a function of the relatively small number of patients in this age group. The increased prevalence of cataract found in those in the 45- to 64-year-old age group may be the result of increased levels of the copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase enzyme (CuZnSOD), in turn resulting from the location of the associated five exons of SOD1 on chromosome 21. These elevated levels of superoxide dismutase may give rise to increased levels of reactive species, including hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, which may increase the risk of cataractogenesis. It is suggested that nutritional supplementation with antioxidants may therefore help reduce the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome. PMID:18034878

  7. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination against herpes zoster in adults aged over 60 years in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bilcke, Joke; Marais, Christiaan; Ogunjimi, Benson; Willem, Lander; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2012-01-11

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating all or subgroups of adults aged 60 to 85 years against herpes zoster. A deterministic compartmental static model was developed (in freeware R), in which cohorts can acquire herpes zoster according to their age in years. Surveys and database analyses were conducted to obtain as much as possible Belgian age-specific estimates for input parameters. Direct costs and Quality-Adjusted Life-Year (QALY) losses were estimated as a function of standardised Severity Of Illness (SOI) scores (i.e. as a function of the duration and severity of herpes zoster disease). Uncertainty about the average SOI score for a person with herpes zoster, the duration of protection from the vaccine, and the population that can benefit from the vaccine, exerts a major impact on the results: under assumptions least in favour of vaccination, vaccination is not cost-effective (i.e. incremental cost per QALY gained >€48,000 for all ages considered) at the expected vaccine price of €90 per dose. At the same price, but under assumptions most in favour of vaccination, vaccination is found to be cost-effective (i.e. incremental cost per QALY gained <€5500 for all ages considered). Vaccination of age cohort 60 seems more cost-effective than vaccination of any older age cohort in Belgium. If the vaccine price per dose drops to €45, HZ vaccination of adults aged 60-64 years is likely to be cost-effective in Belgium, even under assumptions least in favour of vaccination. Unlike previous studies, our analysis acknowledged major methodological and model uncertainties simultaneously and presented outcomes for 26 different target ages at which vaccination can be considered (ages 60-85). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing age and tear size reduce rotator cuff repair healing rate at 1 year.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mustafa S; Cooper, Cushla; Cook, Jonathan; Cooper, David; Dakin, Stephanie G; Snelling, Sarah; Carr, Andrew J

    2017-09-07

    Background and purpose - There is a need to understand the reasons why a high proportion of rotator cuff repairs fail to heal. Using data from a large randomized clinical trial, we evaluated age and tear size as risk factors for failure of rotator cuff repair. Patients and methods - Between 2007 and 2014, 65 surgeons from 47 hospitals in the National Health Service (NHS) recruited 447 patients with atraumatic rotator cuff tendon tears to the United Kingdom Rotator Cuff Trial (UKUFF) and 256 underwent rotator cuff repair. Cuff integrity was assessed by imaging in 217 patients, at 12 months post-operation. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of age and intra-operative tear size on healing. Hand dominance, sex, and previous steroid injections were controlled for. Results - The overall healing rate was 122/217 (56%) at 12 months. Healing rate decreased with increasing tear size (small tears 66%, medium tears 68%, large tears 47%, and massive tears 27% healed). The mean age of patients with a healed repair was 61 years compared with 64 years for those with a non-healed repair. Mean age increased with larger tear sizes (small tears 59 years, medium tears 62 years, large tears 64 years, and massive tears 66 years). Increasing age was an independent factor that negatively influenced healing, even after controlling for tear size. Only massive tears were an independent predictor of non-healing, after controlling for age. Interpretation - Although increasing age and larger tear size are both risks for failure of rotator cuff repair healing, age is the dominant risk factor.

  9. Trends in induced abortion among Nordic women aged 40-44 years

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Women aged 40-44 years in 2005 ought to have been subjected to much more influence on attitudes and knowledge on contraceptive methods during their fertile period than women who were in the same age span in 1975 when the abortion laws were introduced. Material From official statistics, the rates of induced abortion and birth rates in women aged 40-44 years were collected for Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland for each five-year during the period 1975-2005. Results With the exception of Sweden all other studied Scandinavian countries have lowered their abortion rates since 1975 (p < 0.001) and reduced the proportion of induced abortions in relation to birth rate (p < 0.001). In 2005 these countries also had lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden in the age group 40-44 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion There is a significant change in rates of induced abortion in women aged 40-44 years in Finland, Norway, Denmark, and at status quo in Sweden. 40-44 years in Finland, Norway, Denmark, and at status quo in Sweden. This indicates that family planning programs works well in the Nordic countries. The differences found may be assumed to possible diverging focus on attitudes or ethical considerations. PMID:21846348

  10. Factors influencing survival in hemodialysis patients aged older than 75 years: 2.5-year outcome study.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, P; Combe, C; Laville, M; Fouque, D; Azar, R; Cano, N; Canaud, B; Roth, H; Leverve, X; Aparicio, M

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of malnutrition is widely held to be greater in the elderly, but this specific factor has not been extensively studied in elderly dialysis patients. In a 30-month follow-up prospective study, we evaluated the role of nutrition on the outcome of 290 stable hemodialysis (HD) outpatients aged older than 75 years followed up in 20 French HD centers (167 men, 123 women; age, 79.8 +/- 4.2 years; previous time on dialysis, 41 +/- 38 months). On the same day in January 1996, predialysis and postdialysis blood samples were collected according to recommended procedures for dialysis quantification. Normalized protein catabolic rate, dialysis adequacy parameters, and estimation of lean body mass (LBM; expressed as observed/expected LBM values [obs/exp LBM]) were computed from predialysis and postdialysis urea and creatinine levels. Overall survival rates were 80% and 65% after 1 and 2 years of follow-up, respectively, and were significantly less in patients with the lower quartile of obs/exp LBM. In univariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, survival was significantly influenced by age, albumin level, prealbumin level, body mass index, and diabetes, but not by sex, Kt/V, duration of dialysis, cholesterol level, hemoglobin level, or obs/exp LBM. In multivariate analysis, no variable remained significant. Cardiovascular mortality accounted for 52.1% of the patient deaths. We conclude that in elderly HD patients, malnutrition influences overall survival despite adequate dialysis treatment.

  11. Febrile Convulsion among Hospitalized Children Aged Six Months to Five Years and Its Association With Haemoglobin Electrophoretic Pattern.

    PubMed

    Adeboye, M; Ojuawo, A; Adeniyi, A; Ibraheem, R M; Amiwero, C

    2015-07-01

    Febrile convulsion and sickle cell disease are common in tropical countries and both are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, Nigeria has the highest prevalence of sickle cell disease. However, there is a dearth of knowledge on the haemoglobin electrophoresis in patients with febrile convulsions. This was a hospital based, descriptive, cross-sectional study of the relationship between haemoglobin genotype and febrile convulsion at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a period of 12 months. A self-designed pretested questionnaire was administered on the subjects, and necessary examinations and investigations were conducted. Of a total of 1675 children admitted into the emergency paediatric unit during the study period, children aged 6 months-5 years that presented with febrile convulsions were 167(10%). Of this, 1,212 were aged 6 months-5 years. Thus, the age specific, hospital-based prevalence was 13.8%. The M:F was 1.1:1. Their Haemoglobin genotype distribution was AA 131(78.4%), AS 23(13.8%), AC 6(3.6%), SS 6(3.6%), and 1(0.6%) SC. The mean age of the sickle cell disease patients was higher at 46.0±13.5 months compared to 29.2±15.4 months in the non-sickle cell disease patients (p=0.005). The mean packed cell volume in subjects with sickle cell anaemia was 8.8±1.5%; the only case of haemoglobin SC had packed cell volume of 20%, while the non-sickle cell disease patients had a normal PCV. Malaria was present in 80.4% of them. Febrile convulsion remains a common cause of hospitalisation. It is uncommon in haemoglobin SS where severe anaemia is always an accompanying derangement. The packed cell volume is nearly normal in children with normal haemoglobin genotype.

  12. Maternal identification of dental caries lesions in their children aged 1-3 years.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, I B; Sá-Pinto, A C; Silva Marques, L; Ramos-Jorge, J; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the maternal identification of different stages of dental caries in children aged 1-3 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 274 children and their mothers. The mothers answered a questionnaire on the occurrence of dental caries in their children and completed questions addressing their demographic/socio-economic status. The oral examination of the children was performed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Descriptive, Chi square test and Poisson regression statistical analyses were performed. The prevalence of initial and established/severe dental caries lesions by age were: 1 year (23.2 and 24.2%), 2 years (17.9 and 55.7%) and 3 years (23.3 and 60.3%) respectively. Significant associations between clinical examinations and the mothers' reports were observed among children agedyear old who had initial stage caries lesions (p = 0.006) and in children aged 1, 2 and 3 years old who had established/severe stage caries lesions (p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding variables it was found that mothers were more able to identify dental caries both at initial (PR 4.01, 95% CI 1.35-11.94) and established/severe stages (PR 9.14, 95% CI 2.49-33.56) in children agedyear old. In children aged 2 and 3 years, this identification was more evident in the established/severe stage (2 years, PR 2.98, 95% CI 1.42-6.26; 3 years, PR 2.75, 95% CI 1.09-6.93). Mothers of children agedyear old identified dental caries at initial and established/severe stages. Mothers of children aged 2 and 3 years identified dental caries only at established/severe stages.

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Malnutrition among Guatemalan Children at 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gippetti, James; Wager, Stefan; Chavez, Alejandro; Wise, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition among 2-year old children in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Methods Prospective cohort of 852 Guatemalan children in San Lucas Toliman, Guatemala followed from birth to age 2 from May 2008 to December 2013. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and health data of children was collected at 2 month intervals. Results Among the 402 males and 450 females in the cohort, mean weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) declined from -0.67 ± 1.01 at 1 year to -1.07 ± 0.87 at 2 years, while mean height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) declined from -1.88 ± 1.19 at 1 year to -2.37 ± 0.99 at 2 years. Using multiple linear regression modeling, number of children <5 years old, vomiting in the past week, fever in the past week, and WAZ at 1 year were significant predictors of WAZ at 2 years. Significant predictors of HAZ at 2 years included household size, number of children <5 years old, diarrhea in the past week, WAZ at 1 year, and HAZ at 1 year. Vomiting in the past week and WAZ at 1 year were significant predictors of weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at 2 years. Conclusions Number of children <5 years old, symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea in the previous week, and prior nutritional status were the most significant predictors of malnutrition in this cohort. Future research may focus on the application of models to develop predictive algorithms for mobile device technology, as well as the identification of other predictors of malnutrition that are not well characterized such as the interaction of environmental exposures with protein consumption and epigenetics. PMID:27806066

  14. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    PubMed

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level.

  15. Increasing Negativity of Age Stereotypes across 200 Years: Evidence from a Database of 400 Million Words

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

  16. Sudden cardiac death in children and adolescents between 1 and 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pilmer, Caileigh M; Kirsh, Joel A; Hildebrandt, Doris; Krahn, Andrew D; Gow, Robert M

    2014-02-01

    Understanding pediatric sudden cardiac death (SCD) may inform age-specific prevention strategies. To characterize potential underlying causes of SCD in children and adolescents We performed a retrospective population-based study in Ontario, Canada, of all SCD cases in a 5-year period (2005-2009) involving persons aged 1-19 years identified from the comprehensive database of the Office of the Chief Coroner. Of 1204 coroner's cases, 351 potential SCD cases were reviewed. Of 116 cases of adjudicated SCD, there was no identifiable cause of death in 60 (52%). The majority were males (66%), and median age was 12.7 years. The incidence of SCD was greatest between 1 and 2 years (3.14 per 100,000 person-years), decreased, and then increased to 1.01 per 100,000 person-years (15-19 years). Autopsy findings were normal in 29 of 35 (83%) of children younger than 5 years and were more likely to be abnormal in those 10 years and older (odds ratio 9.0; 95% confidence interval 3.3-24.9). In 9%, the pathology findings may be of uncertain significance. Most events occurred in the home (68%). Activity level at the time of the event was associated with both age group (χ(2) = 34.9; P < .001) and autopsy findings (χ(2) = 28.9; P < .001). Events during moderate or vigorous activity were more common in those older than 10 years 16 of 66 (24%), and the majority had abnormal autopsy findings 13 of 18 (72%). Death in the very young is often caused by presumed primary arrhythmia syndromes, and death during exertion is typically seen in those with structural heart disease. These differences should inform age-specific diagnostic and prevention strategies. © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society Published by Heart Rhythm Society All rights reserved.

  17. Overweight and Obesity in Midlife and Brain Structure and Dementia 26 Years Later: The AGES-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Emiliano; Davis, Benjamin; Jonsson, Palmi V; Chang, Milan; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Harris, Tamara; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2015-05-01

    High adiposity in midlife might increase risk for late-life brain pathology, including dementia. Using data from the prospective Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study of men and women (born 1907-1935), we studied the associations of overweight and obesity at midlife (mean age, 50 (standard deviation, 4.7) years) with 1.5-T brain magnetic resonance imaging measures of infarct-like brain lesions, cerebral microbleeds, total brain volume, and white matter lesions volume, as well as dementia, in late life (mean age, 76 (standard deviation, 5.2) years). We used linear and Poisson models to estimate associations in 3,864 persons after adjustment for sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics. In midlife, the prevalence of overweight was 39% and that of obesity was 8%. After a mean follow-up of 26.2 (standard deviation, 4.9) years, midlife overweight and obesity were not associated with infarct-like brain lesions (relative risk (RR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 1.10), cerebral microbleeds (RR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.37, 1.32), total brain volume (β = 0.05, 95% CI: -0.34, 0.45), white matter lesions volume (β = -0.10, 95% CI: -0.20, 0.01), or dementia (RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.72) compared with normal weight. These findings do not support the hypothesis that high body mass index in midlife modulates the risk for dementia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. North Atlantic circulation and reservoir age changes over the past 41,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Joseph V.; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.

    2013-07-01

    on the timing of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) changes during the last deglaciation are fundamental to understanding the climate's rapid response to insolation forcing. However, uncertainty about high-latitude North Atlantic (HLNA) radiocarbon reservoir ages has previously precluded robust age model development for this critical region. HLNA reservoir ages also serve as a proxy for AMOC strength. We present regionally averaged HLNA reservoir ages for 0 to 41 thousand years before the present (kyr BP) based on over 500 radiocarbon dates from 33 North Atlantic cores. An early deglacial increase to >1000 14C yr reservoir ages between 18.5 and 16.5 kyr BP suggests reduced AMOC before peak Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) ice-rafted debris (IRD). A rapid decrease in reservoir ages coincident with the IRD maximum at 16 kyr BP indicates strong stratification of the upper water column caused by massive freshwater release.

  19. Baseline PSA in a Spanish male population aged 40-49 years anticipates detection of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Angulo, J C; Viñas, M A; Gimbernat, H; Fata, F Ramón de; Granados, R; Luján, M

    2015-12-01

    We researched the usefulness of optimizing prostate cancer (PC) screening in our community using baseline PSA readings in men between 40-49 years of age. A retrospective study was performed that analyzed baseline PSA in the fifth decade of life and its ability to predict the development of PC in a population of Madrid (Spain). An ROC curve was created and a cutoff was proposed. We compared the evolution of PSA from baseline in patients with consecutive readings using the Friedman test. We established baseline PSA ranges with different risks of developing cancer and assessed the diagnostic utility of the annual PSA velocity (PSAV) in this population. Some 4,304 men aged 40-49 years underwent opportunistic screening over the course of 17 years, with at least one serum PSA reading (6,001 readings) and a mean follow-up of 57.1±36.8 months. Of these, 768 underwent biopsy of some organ, and 104 underwent prostate biopsy. Fourteen patients (.33%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The median baseline PSA was .74 (.01-58.5) ng/mL for patients without PC and 4.21 (.76-47.4) ng/mL for those with PC. The median time from the reading to diagnosis was 26.8 (1.5-143.8) months. The optimal cutoff for detecting PC was 1.9ng/mL (sensitivity, 92.86%; specificity, 92.54%; PPV, 3.9%; NPV, 99.97%), and the area under the curve was 92.8%. In terms of the repeated reading, the evolution of the PSA showed no statistically significant differences between the patients without cancer (p=.56) and those with cancer (P=.64). However, a PSAV value >.3ng/mL/year revealed high specificity for detecting cancer in this population. A baseline PSA level ≥1.9ng/mL in Spanish men aged 40-49 years predicted the development of PC. This value could therefore be of use for opportunistic screening at an early age. An appropriate follow-up adapted to the risk of this population needs to be defined, but an annual PSAV ≥.3ng/mL/year appears of use for reaching an early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 AEU

  20. Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms.

    PubMed

    Fain, Elizabeth; Weatherford, Cara

    Cross-sectional research design. Clinical practice continues to use normative data for grip and pinch measurements that were established in 1985. There is no updated norms despite different hand usage patterns in today's society. Measuring and comparing grip and pinch strengths with normative data is a valid method to determine hand function. This research was implemented to compare the grip and pinch measurements obtained from healthy millennials to the established norms and to describe hand usage patterns for millennials. Grip and lateral pinch measurements were obtained from a sample of 237 healthy millennials (ages 20-34 years). Strength scores were statistically lower that older normative data in all millennial grip strengths, with the exception of the women in the age group of 30-34 years. Specifically, this statistically significant trend was observed in all male grip strengths, as well as in women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). However, the lateral pinch data reflected was similar to the older norms with variances of 0.5-1 kg. Current data reflect statistically significant differences from the norms for all male grip measurements, as well as for women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). No statistical significance was observed in the independent-sample t tests for the lateral pinch in men of all age groups. Statistical significance was noted for lateral pinch for female age groups for the left hand (20-24 years) and for bilateral lateral pinches (30-34 years). IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Eribulin Monotherapy in Patients Aged 70 Years and Older With Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Javier; Vahdat, Linda T.; Cardoso, Fatima; Twelves, Chris; Wanders, Jantien; Dutcus, Corina E.; Yang, Jay; Seegobin, Seth; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Following the demonstrated efficacy and safety of eribulin mesylate in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer, an exploratory analysis was performed to investigate the effect of age in these patients. Methods. Data were pooled from two single-arm phase II studies and one open-label randomized phase III study in which patients received eribulin mesylate at 1.4 mg/m2 as 2- to 5-minute intravenous infusions on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. The effect of age on median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), and incidence of adverse events (AEs) was calculated for four age groups (<50 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, ≥70 years). Results. Overall, 827 patients were included in the analysis (<50 years, n = 253; 50–59 years, n = 289; 60–69 years, n = 206; ≥70 years, n = 79). Age had no significant impact on OS (11.8 months, 12.3 months, 11.7 months, and 12.5 months, respectively; p = .82), PFS (3.5 months, 2.9 months, 3.8 months, and 4.0 months, respectively; p = .42), ORR (12.7%, 12.5%, 6.3%, and 10.1%, respectively), or CBR (20.2%, 20.8%, 20.4%, and 21.5%, respectively). Although some AEs had higher incidence in either the youngest or the oldest subgroup, there was no overall effect of age on the incidence of AEs (including neuropathy, neutropenia, and leukopenia). Conclusion. Eribulin monotherapy in these selected older patients with good baseline performance status led to OS, PFS, ORR, CBR, and tolerability similar to those of younger patients with metastatic breast cancer. The benefits and risks of eribulin appear to be similar across age groups. PMID:24682463

  2. Measles immunity among pregnant women aged 15-44 years in Namibia, 2008 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Cardemil, Cristina V; Jonas, Anna; Beukes, Anita; Anderson, Raydel; Rota, Paul A; Bankamp, Bettina; Gary, Howard E; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Patel, Sadhna V; Zeko, Sikota; Muroua, Clementine; Gaeb, Esegiel; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Gerber, Sue; Goodson, James L

    2016-08-01

    Namibia experienced a large measles outbreak starting in 2009, with 38% of reported cases in adults, including women of reproductive age. Population immunity was assessed among pregnant women to determine whether immunization activities were needed in adults to achieve measles elimination in Namibia. A total of 1708 and 2040 specimens sampled from Namibian pregnant women aged 15-44 years who were included in the 2008 and 2010 National HIV Sentinel Survey, respectively, were tested for measles immunoglobulin G antibody. The proportion of women seropositive overall and by 5-year age strata was determined, and factors associated with seropositivity were analyzed by logistic regression, including age, facility type, gravidity, HIV status, and urban/rural setting. Seropositivity in 2008 versus 2010 was compared. In both analysis years, measles seropositivity was lower in 15-19-year-olds (77%) and 20-24-year-olds (85-87%) and higher in 25-44-year-olds (90-94%) (2008, p<0.001; 2010, p<0.001). Overall measles seropositivity did not differ between 2008 (87%) and 2010 (87%) (p=0.7). HIV status did not affect seropositivity. Late in a large measles outbreak, 13% of pregnant women in Namibia, and almost one in four 15-19-year-old pregnant women, remained susceptible to measles. In Namibia, immunization campaigns with measles-containing vaccine should be considered for adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Trends and educational disparities in functional capacity among people aged 65-84 years.

    PubMed

    Sulander, Tommi; Martelin, Tuija; Sainio, Päivi; Rahkonen, Ossi; Nissinen, Aulikki; Uutela, Antti

    2006-10-01

    This study examined 10 year trends in functional capacity by gender, age, and education among elderly Finns aged 65-84 years, focusing on difficulties in basic activities of daily living (BADL). Educational disparities and their trends in the prevalence of these difficulties were also assessed. Data were derived from nationally representative monitoring surveys conducted biennially from 1993 to 2003 by the National Public Health Institute (KTL). A total of 5740 men and 5746 women were included in the study (response rate 80%). Activities of daily living (ADL) measures were used to assess levels of functional capacity. Education was divided into two groups: low (0-8 years) and high (9+ years). Age-adjusted trends and logistic regression analyses were computed. A clear downward trend in BADL difficulties was observed in all age groups in both genders. 80-84 year olds had clearly poorer functional ability than 65-69 year olds, even when adjusted for chronic diseases. Despite the overall improvement in functional capacity in both educational groups, low educational status persistently predicted poorer functional capacity. When chronic diseases and survey period were controlled for, the educational disparities attenuated slightly but remained significant. The number of Finnish elderly with BADL difficulties has declined markedly over the past 10 years. However, persistent educational disparities continue to present a challenge to public health initiatives for reducing inequalities in health.

  4. Characteristics and prognosis of gastric cancer in patients aged ≥ 70 years

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yue-Xiang; Deng, Jing-Yu; Guo, Han-Han; Ding, Xue-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Bao-Gui; Zhang, Li; Liang, Han

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the prognostic value of age for gastric cancer and identify the optimal treatment for elderly gastric cancer patients. METHODS: We enrolled 920 patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy between January 2003 and December 2007 in our center. Patients were categorized into three groups: younger group (age < 50 years), middle-aged group (50-69 years), and elderly group (≥ 70 years). Clinicopathological features were compared among the three groups and potential prognostic factors were analyzed. The log-rank test was used to assess statistical differences between curves. Independent prognostic factors were identified by the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Stratified analysis was used to investigate the impact of age on survival at each stage. Cancer-specific survival was also compared among the three groups by excluding deaths due to reasons other than gastric cancer. We analyzed the potential prognostic factors for patients aged ≥ 70 years. Finally, the impact of extent of lymphadenectomy and postoperative chemotherapy on survival for each age group was evaluated. RESULTS: In the elderly group, there was a male predominance. At the same time, cancers of the upper third of the stomach, differentiated type, and less-invasive surgery were more common than in the younger or middle-aged groups. Elderly patients were more likely to have advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and larger tumors, but less likely to have distant metastasis. Although 5-year overall survival (OS) rate specific to gastric cancer was not significantly different among the three groups, elderly patients demonstrated a significantly lower 5-year OS rate than the younger and middle-aged patients (elderly vs middle-aged vs younger patients = 22.0% vs 36.6% vs 38.0%, respectively). In the TNM-stratified analysis, the differences in OS were only observed in patients with II and III tumors. In multivariate analysis, only surgical margin status, pT4, lymph

  5. Breast cancer under 40 years of age: increasing number and worse prognosis.

    PubMed

    Dobi, Ágnes; Kelemen, Gyöngyi; Kaizer, László; Weiczner, Roland; Thurzó, László; Kahán, Zsuzsanna

    2011-06-01

    Breast cancer at a relatively young age with a poor prognosis is currently exhibiting an increasing incidence. In a retrospective cohort analysis of early breast cancer cases after surgery from our institutional patient registry, 141 patients aged ≤ 40 years constituted the younger group, with 300 randomly selected patients aged >40 years as controls. A significant and steady increase was found in the relative number of younger cases during the years 2004-2009. The histological type and grade and the lymph node status of the cancers differed significantly between the two groups, with more aggressive biological behaviour, a more advanced stage and a worse prognosis in the younger group. Half of the cancers in the younger cohort were ER-negative, while two-thirds in the control group were ER-positive. Comparatively more tumours were PR-positive and HER2-negative in the control group than in the younger group. The rates of triple-negative cases were 25% and 13% in the younger age and the control group, respectively (p = 0.026). Significantly higher mastectomy and axillary block dissection rates were observed in the younger age group, and more chemotherapy was administered than in the control group. Our findings demonstrate the significance of breast cancer in cases aged <40 years, and draw attention to the need for appropriate care in these cases.

  6. Risk stratification for malignant progression in Barrett's esophagus: Gender, age, duration and year of surveillance.

    PubMed

    Gatenby, Piers; Bhattacharjee, Santanu; Wall, Christine; Caygill, Christine; Watson, Anthony

    2016-12-28

    To clarify risk based upon segment length, diagnostic histological findings, patient age and year of surveillance, duration of surveillance and gender. Patients registered with the United Kingdom Barrett's Oesophagus Registry from 9 United Kingdom centers were included. The outcome measures were (1) development of all grades of dysplasia; (2) development of high-grade of dysplasia or adenocarcinoma; and (3) development of adenocarcinoma. Prevalent cases and subjects with < 1 year of follow-up were excluded. The covariates examined were segment length, previous biopsy findings, age at surveillance, duration of surveillance, year of surveillance and gender. One thousand and one hundred thirty six patients were included (total 6474 patient-years). Fifty-four patients developed adenocarcinoma (0.83% per annum), 70 developed high-grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma (1.1% per annum) and 190 developed any grade of dysplasia (3.5% per annum). High grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma increased with age and duration of surveillance. The risk of low-grade dysplasia development was not dependent on age at surveillance. Segment length and previous biopsy findings were also significant factors for development of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The risk of development of low-grade dysplasia is independent of age at surveillance, but high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma were more commonly found at older age. Segment length and previous biopsy findings are also markers of risk. This study did not demonstrate stabilisation of the metaplastic segment with prolonged surveillance.

  7. Herpes zoster vaccine awareness among people ≥ 50 years of age and its implications on immunization.

    PubMed

    Javed, Saba; Javed, Fatima; Mays, Rana M; Tyring, Stephen K

    2012-08-15

    Herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine was recently approved for adults ≥ 50 years of age and has been shown to reduce the incidence of zoster, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and associated healthcare costs. However, currently HZ immunization is sub-optimal. We examined awareness of HZ and of the HZ vaccine. Information was gathered via a one-page survey given to patients ≥ 50 years of age presenting at the dermatology clinic. From the surveyed population of 1000 individuals, the HZ vaccination rate was 11.9 percent. Vaccination coverage was highest for the ≥ 70 age group (18.3%), followed by age groups 60-69 (8.9%) and 50-59 (1.4%). Individuals with female gender, older age (≥ 70 years), higher level of education (college and beyond), retired employment status, memory of chickenpox, knowledge of shingles, and history of shingles and influenza vaccination in the past year all were more likely to have heard of and have received the HZ vaccine (except female gender, education level, and awareness of shingles). Our study suggests lack of awareness to be a significant factor in non-immunization with zoster vaccine. Targeting adults in younger age groups and minorities would be beneficial towards increasing zoster vaccine awareness and thus preventing herpes zoster and its many complications.

  8. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide.

  9. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single-Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gary A; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H; Reitberg, Donald P; Guenin, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age-based doses of 100-400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo ) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz /F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz /F than CLo , an increase in terminal exponential half-life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation-related changes in CLo and Vz /F. © 2016, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  10. Nurses aged over 50 years and their experiences of shift work.

    PubMed

    Clendon, Jill; Walker, Leonie

    2013-10-01

    The Late Career Nurse project examined views and characteristics of nurses working in New Zealand who were born before 1960. This paper focuses on the experiences of such nurses who undertake shift work. The mean age of registered nurses in New Zealand has been rising steadily, and 40% are now aged 50 years or over. While there is substantial literature on the phenomenon and consequences of the ageing nursing workforce, little is known of the particular experiences of nurses aged over 50 years who work shifts. An anonymous online survey was emailed to eligible nurse New Zealand Nurses Organisation members aged over 50 years in February 2012. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the 3273 responses received were undertaken. Over 45% of respondents worked shifts or flexible hours. While shift work suited many, others noted deleterious effects on family and social relationships, physical and mental health (notably sleep patterns and fatigue), and decreasing tolerance for shift work as they age. Poor scheduling practices were particularly detrimental. Worldwide, workforce ageing means strategies are required to retain older nurses in the workforce. Improved scheduling practices including increasing access to flexible and part time work hours, and development of resources on coping with shift work are recommended. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Bolsa Família: food and nutrition insecurity of children under five years of age].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Flávia; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; da Costa, Islandia Bezerra; Almeida, Claudia Choma Bettega; Matuda, Nívea da Silva

    2014-05-01

    This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of the population base conducted in the town of Colombo in the state of Paraná. The objectives were to identify the prevalence of food insecurity in families that are beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program and the factors related to this condition, and describe the nutritional status of children under five years of age. Analyses of association were performed using Fisher's exact test. The sample included 442 families, of which 168 have children under five years of age. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale was applied to evaluate food insecurity and the nutritional status of the 199 children evaluated was determined by the height-for-age, weight-for-age and body mass-for-age indices in accordance with the WHO reference values for 2006. The prevalence of food insecurity was 81.6%. Overweight and stunting among children coexisted. Food insecurity was found to be associated with the height-for-age index among children under two years of age. The per capita income and food deficits influenced the situation of food insecurity significantly.

  12. Infant nutrition in relation to eating behaviour and fruit and vegetable intake at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Möller, Lisanne M; de Hoog, Marieke L A; van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2013-02-14

    Infant nutrition may influence eating behaviour and food preferences in later life. The present study explores whether exclusive breast-feeding duration and age at introduction of solid foods are associated with children's eating behaviour and fruit and vegetable intake at age 5 years. Data were derived from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands, and included 3624 children. During infancy, data on infant nutrition were collected. Child eating behaviour (satiety responsiveness, enjoyment of food, slowness in eating and food responsiveness) was assessed with the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire; and fruit and vegetable intake was calculated from a validated child FFQ. Both questionnaires were filled in by the mothers after their child turned 5 years. Exclusive breast-feeding duration was not associated with later eating behaviour, although longer exclusive breast-feeding was significantly associated with a higher vegetable intake at age 5 years. Compared with the introduction of solid foods at age 6 months, introduction before the age of 4 months was associated with less satiety responsiveness at age 5 years (β -0·09; 95 % CI -0·16, -0·02). Introducing solid foods after 6 months was associated with less enjoyment of food (β -0·07; 95 % CI -0·12, -0·01) and food responsiveness (β -0·04; 95 % CI -0·07, -0·01). Introducing solid foods before the age of 4 months was associated with a higher fruit intake compared with introduction at 6 months. These findings suggest that prolonged breast-feeding and introduction of solid foods between 4 and 6 months may lead to healthier eating behaviour and food preferences at age 5 years.

  13. Oxidative Stress Function in Women over 40 Years of Age, Considering Their Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves Mota, Maria Paula; Santos, Zirlene; Soares, Jorge; Pereira, Ana; Fonseca, Sandra; Peixoto, Francisco; Gaivão, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Aging is dependent on biological processes that determine the aging of the organism at the cellular level. The Oxidative Stress Theory of Aging might explain some of the age-related changes in cell macromolecules. Moreover, exposome and lifestyle may also induce changes in cell damage induced by oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to analyze the related redox changes in lymphocyte function of healthy women over 40 years old. Three groups: younger (YG: 40–49 years), middle aged (MAG: 50–59 years), and older (OG: ≥60 years) were evaluated on anthropometric variables, blood pressure, cardiovascular fitness, lifestyle habits, perceived stress, DNA damage, malondialdehyde, catalase activity, and total antioxidant capacity. Physical activity and cardiovascular fitness were significantly higher in YG and MAG as compared to the OG. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly with group age. Frequency and total amount of alcohol intake were lower in the OG and higher in the MAG. No significant differences were observed between the three groups in oxidative stress parameters. Only alcohol consumption was associated with the higher DNA FPG-sensitive sites, and only in the YG (p < 0.05). Healthy lifestyle is critical to avoiding major ailments associated with aging. This may be inferred from the lack of significant differences in the various oxidative stress parameters measured in the healthy women over the age of 40 who took part in the study. Conscious lifestyle behaviors (decrease in alcohol and smoking habits) could have impaired the expected age-related oxidative stress increase. PMID:28360887

  14. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  15. The association between personal income and aging: A population-based 13-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Chia-Yu; Tsao, Chueh-Yung; Hsu, Kuang-Hung

    Population aging is set to increase the elder dependency ratio, causing a rapid increase in healthcare expenditures and financial burden on the government. This study aims to construct an aging score from age-related diseases and to perform longitudinal analyses to examine the association between personal income and aging. A total of 86,838 subjects drawn from a community with 384,617 residents in northern Taiwan were examined. Personal income and aging-related diseases were measured from the National Health Insurance database during 1997-2010. Multiple linear regression and stratified analyses were used. Our results indicate that subjects with low personal income (defined as monthly income ≤610 USD) can have high aging scores as calculated by selected aging-related diseases. In stratified analyses, moreover, subjects with low personal income tended to have higher aging scores across different anthropometric groups. The association was particularly evident in subjects >60years old, and they were noted across multiple strata, including those of catastrophic illness as well as type of primary care setting. This study found evidence for association between low income and aging in a population with compulsory health insurance program, where accessibility barriers were low in terms of health care resources and personal socioeconomic status. The economic inequity causes difference in aging process, which deserves for future interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Velopharyngeal function from the age of three to eight years in cleft palate patients.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, J; Haapanen, M L; Paaso, M; Laitinen, J; Ranta, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study changes of velopharyngeal function between the ages of 3 and 8 years. The subjects were 65 (30 girls and 35 boys) Finnish-speaking non-syndromic children with isolated cleft palate (CP, n = 35) and with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP, n = 30) operated primarily at the age of 1.0-2.0 years. Before the age of 8 years, 16 children required velopharyngoplasty (VPP, ad modum Hoenig). The children were followed up for speech at the age of 3, 6 and 8 years. The perceptual speech characteristics nasal air emission, hypernasality, weakness of pressure consonants and compensatory articulations were registered. Indications for a velopharyngeal flap (by VPP) were identified on the basis of perceptual speech characteristics and confirmed by instrumental examinations. The results indicated that the method and timing of primary palatoplasty and sex did not correlate with the quality of velopharyngeal function. It was good both in children treated conservatively or with VPP at the age of 8 years. The children with a flap required speech therapy significantly more often than other children. No child with VPP and only 12% of the children without VPP had simultaneous nasal air emissions and hypernasality. Compensatory articulation was completely eliminated and weakness of pressure consonants was diagnosed only in 1 child without VPP. The CP children required significantly more often a velopharyngeal flap than the UCLP children. In conclusion, the CP and UCLP children develop a similar velopharyngeal function but in a different way.

  17. Effect of influenza vaccination on hospitalizations in persons aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Roger; Ray, G Thomas; Fireman, Bruce H

    2010-10-21

    To estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing hospitalizations in persons over 50 years of age. We performed a retrospective, population based study, using a "difference-in-differences" approach to determine the association between hospitalization and prior vaccination. We examined this association when influenza was not circulating and compared it to the association found when influenza was circulating. VE was estimated from the difference in the association between hospitalization and prior vaccination, inside vs. outside influenza seasons. Kaiser Permanente in Northern California. Health plan members aged 50 years and older during the September 1997 to August 2008 study period, when there were about 68,000 pneumonia hospitalizations in 10 million person-years. Vaccination was associated with lower risk of hospitalization for pneumonia and influenza, even before flu season, presumably due to unmeasured confounders. When influenza arrived the hospitalization-vaccination association strengthened, yielding an adjusted VE estimate of 12.4% (95% CI: 1.6-22.0) in persons aged 50-64, and 8.5% (95% CI: 3.3-13.5) in those aged 65 years and older. There was no significant effect on hospitalizations for ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), or trauma. Influenza vaccination has a modest but significant effect on prevention of hospitalization for pneumonia and influenza in persons 50 years of age and older. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment aged for 2 years to carps (Cyprinus carpio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, S. Y.; Li, J. Y.; Jia, X. M.

    2017-08-01

    In order to understand the risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) existing in sediment for years, the accumulation of PBDEs in sediment aged for 2 years to fish was investigated. Simulated aquatic system microcosms were conducted with PBDE contaminated sediment aged for 2 years and carps were cultured in the microcosms for 20 days. PBDE concentrations in carp tissues were analyzed to estimate the bioavailability of aged PBDEs in carps. The main spiked PBDE congeners were detected in sediment even though the contaminated sediment was aged for 2 years. Similarly, the five PBDE (BDE-28, 47, 100, 153 and 154) congeners which probably were bioaccumulated by carp were detected in fish tissues, indicating that PBDEs could be bioaccumulated after aging for 2 years. The PBDEs distribution revealed that the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in tissues of Cyprinus carpio is in this order of magnitude: gut > liver > gill > fillet. The PBDEs concentrations in fillet were as high as 67.9 ng/g dry wt, in which BDE-47 contributed almost 50% in profile.

  19. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the two study groups. In our

  20. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination among adults aged 65 years and older, U.S., 1989-2008.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng-jun; Nuorti, J Pekka

    2010-10-01

    The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) has been recommended for all people aged ≥65 years in the U.S. since 1983; consistent surveillance for vaccine coverage has been conducted since 1989. To assess PPSV23 vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥65 years in the U.S. The data were analyzed from the 1989, 1991, 1993-1995, and 1997-2008 National Health Interview Surveys in 2009. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses were conducted to identify factors independently associated with receiving PPSV23 in 2008. Missed opportunities for vaccination were also assessed. Among people aged ≥65 years, PPSV23 coverage increased from 14.1% in 1989 to 60.1% in 2008. On average, vaccination coverage increased by 3.5% annually during 1989-2000 compared with 1.0% during 2001-2008. In 2008, coverage was significantly higher for people aged 75-84 years (68.8%), and ≥85 years (69.0%) compared with those aged 65-74 years (52.5%). Coverage was significantly higher for non-Hispanic whites (64.3%) compared with non-Hispanic blacks (44.6%) and those with Hispanic ethnicity (36.4%). Among people aged ≥65 years who reported never receiving PPSV23, 90.6% reported at least one missed opportunity. Characteristics independently associated with increased likelihood of ever receiving PPSV23 were higher age, female, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, not employed, higher education level, more physician visits in the past year, hospitalized within past year, having Medicare and other supplemental health insurance, and having a chronic medical condition. National PPSV23 coverage among people aged ≥65 years increased substantially until 2000, but the rate of increase was smaller after 2000 and coverage in 2008 remained well below the national Healthy People 2010 target of 90%. Increased efforts to avoid missed opportunities for pneumococcal vaccination are needed, especially among minority populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  2. Associations among height, body mass index and intelligence from age 11 to age 78 years.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mathew A; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M

    2016-09-29

    Intelligence is related to both height and body mass index (BMI) at various stages of life. Several studies have demonstrated longitudinal relationships between these measures, but none has established whether height and intelligence, or BMI and intelligence are linked from childhood through to older age. We assessed the relations between these measures over an interval of up to 67 years using data from the 36-Day Sample, an initially-representative sample of Scottish people born in 1936, assessed at age 11 years (N = 6,291) and again at 77-78 years (N = 722). This paper focuses on the 423 participants (6.7 % of the original sample) who provided relevant data in late adulthood. Height and intelligence were significantly positively associated in childhood (β = .23) and late adulthood (β = .21-.29). Longitudinal correlations also showed that childhood intelligence predicted late-adulthood height (β = .20), and childhood height predicted late-adulthood cognitive ability (β = .12-.14). We observed no significant relationship between BMI and intelligence either in childhood or in late adulthood, nor any longitudinal association between the two in this sample. Our results on height and intelligence are the first to demonstrate that their relationship spans almost seven decades, from childhood through to late adulthood, and they call for further investigation into the mechanisms underlying this lifelong association.

  3. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years - United States, 1968-2006.

    PubMed

    2009-12-25

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a preventable, slowly progressive parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation and deposition of coal mine dust in the lungs. The incidence and rate of CWP progression is related to the amount of respirable coal dust to which miners were exposed during their working lifetime. Early pneumoconiosis can be asymptomatic, but advanced disease often leads to disability and premature death. To characterize the impact of premature mortality attributed to CWP in the United States, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed annual underlying cause of death data from 1968-2006, the most recent years for which complete data were available. Years of potential life lost before age 65 years (YPLL), and mean YPLL were calculated using standard methodology. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicate that during 1968-2006, a total of 22,625 YPLL were attributed to CWP (mean per decedent: 5.7). Annual YPLL attributed to CWP decreased 91.2%, from an average of 1,484 YPLL per year during 1968-1972 to 154 per year during 2002-2006. However, annual YPLL from CWP have been increasing since 2002, from 135 in that year to 169 YPLL in 2006, suggesting a need for strengthening CWP prevention measures. CDC intends to maintain surveillance of CWP deaths to determine future trends and promote safer work environments.

  4. Body mass index gain between ages 20 and 40 years and lifestyle characteristics of men at ages 40-60 years: the Adventist Health Study-2.

    PubMed

    Japas, Claudio; Knutsen, Synnøve; Dehom, Salem; Dos Santos, Hildemar; Tonstad, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases risk of premature disease, and may be associated with unfavorable lifestyle changes that add to risk. This study analyzed the association of midlife BMI change with current lifestyle patterns among multiethnic men. Men aged 40-60 years (n=9864) retrospectively reported body weight between ages 20-40 years and current dietary, TV, physical activity and sleep practices in the Adventist Health Study II, a study of church-goers in the US and Canada. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, odds ratios for BMI gain were calculated for each lifestyle practice controlling for sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors and current BMI. Men with median or higher BMI gain (2.79 kg/m(2)) between ages 20-40 years were more likely to consume a non-vegetarian diet, and engage in excessive TV watching and little physical activity and had a shorter sleep duration compared to men with BMI gain below the median (all p<0.001). In multivariate logistic analysis current BMI was significantly associated with all lifestyle factors (all p≤0.005). BMI gain was associated with lower odds of vegetarian diet (odds ratio [OR] 0.939; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.921-0.957) and of physical activity ≥150 min/week (OR 0.979, 95% CI 0.960-0.999). These findings imply that diet and less physical activity are associated with both gained and attained BMI, while inactivity (TV watching) and short sleep duration correlated only with attained BMI. Unhealthy lifestyle may add risk to that associated with BMI. Longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to infer causal relationships. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Body mass index gain between ages 20-40 years and lifestyle characteristics of men at ages 40-60 years: The Adventist Health Study-2

    PubMed Central

    Japas, Claudio; Knutsen, Synnøve; Dehom, Salem; Dos Santos, Hildemar; Tonstad, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity increases risk of premature disease, and may be associated with unfavorable lifestyle changes that add to risk. This study analyzed the association of midlife BMI change with current lifestyle patterns among multiethnic men. Methods Men aged 40-60 years (n=9864) retrospectively reported body weight between ages 20-40 years and current dietary, TV, physical activity and sleep practices in the Adventist Health Study II, a study of church-goers in the US and Canada. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, odds ratios for BMI gain were calculated for each lifestyle practice controlling for sociodemographic and other lifestyle factors and current BMI. Results Men with median or higher BMI gain (2.79 kg/m2) between ages 20-40 years were more likely to consume a non-vegetarian diet, and engage in excessive TV watching and little physical activity and had a shorter sleep duration compared to men with BMI gain below the median (all p<0.001). In multivariate logistic analysis current BMI was significantly associated with all lifestyle factors in multivariate analyses (all p≤0.005). BMI gain was associated with lower odds of vegetarian diet (odds ratio [OR] 0.939; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.921-0.957) and of physical activity ≥150 minutes/week (OR 0.979, 95% CI 0.960-0.999). Conclusions These findings imply that diet and less physical activity are associated with both gained and attained BMI, while inactivity (TV watching) and short sleep duration correlated only with attained BMI. Unhealthy lifestyle may add risk to that associated with BMI. Longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to infer causal relationships. PMID:25434910

  6. Age-associated losses of brain volume predict longitudinal cognitive declines over 8 to 20 years.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Ibrahim, Said; Lunn, Mary; Scott, Marietta; Thacker, Neil; Hutchinson, Charles; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Jackson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Absolute differences in global brain volume predict differences in cognitive ability among healthy older adults. However, absolute differences confound lifelong differences in brain size with amounts of age-related shrinkage. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume were made to estimate age-related shrinkage in 93 healthy volunteers aged 63 to 86 years. Their current levels of brain shrinkage predicted their amounts of decline over the previous 8 to 20 years on repeated assessments during a longitudinal study on the Cattell "Culture Fair" Intelligence Test, on two tests of information processing speed, and marginally on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1981), but not on three memory tests. Loss of brain volume is an effective marker both for current cognitive status and for amounts and rates of previous age-related cognitive losses.

  7. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially

  8. Changes in condylar path inclination during maximum protrusion between the ages of 6 and 12 years.

    PubMed

    Baqaien, M A; Al-Salti, F M; Muessig, D

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in sagittal condylar path inclination during mandibular protrusion between the ages of 6 and 12 years. A total of 172 children (82 males and 90 females) ranging in age from 6.5 to 12.9 years were divided according to their chronological age into five subgroups with mean ages of 7.1, 8, 9, 10 and 11.4 years respectively. The control group consisted of 41 adults with a mean age of 28 years. All subjects had a normal temporomandibular joint function and neutral occlusion. Five maximum protrusion-retrusion movements were recorded with six degrees of freedom in each subject using an ultrasound (JMA) jaw-tracking system. Initially, condylar path inclination angle (CPIA) was calculated stepwise for each millimetre distance, for the first 10 mm of protrusive tracing path on both sides. A single mean value was then assigned for the entire protrusive path. One-way analysis of variance proved to be significant among the five subgroups of children. Linear regression analysis showed that condylar path had a tendency to become steeper with age, although it was statistically weak. The data indicated that the mean CPIA is 43 degrees -44 degrees at the age of seven, increases annually by 1.2 degrees -1.3 degrees and reaches an average of 49 degrees -50 degrees by the age of 12 at which time it attains around 83-85% of its adult level. In subgroup V, the female population had significantly steeper condylar path on the left-hand side than the male population. Condylar path inclinations indicated a symmetrical growth pattern of the articular eminence.

  9. Body-size preferences in Croatian children ages seven to ten years.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi-Randić, Neala; Pokrajac-Bulian, Alessandra

    2003-06-01

    288 Croatian school children, ages 7 to 10 years rated their current and ideal body sizes on Collins' figures and chose the favorite figure for their same- and opposite-sex friends. Girls aged 10 preferred their female friends' figure to be more similar to their own, while boys preferred a friend's to be larger. These findings support cultural ideal of thinness for girls and strength for boys.

  10. Pregnancy and labor in Tanzanian primigravidae aged 15 years and under.

    PubMed

    Arkutu, A A

    The outcome of pregnancy and labor in 259 Tanzanian primigravidae 15 years and under is compared with that of 377 primigravidae between the ages of 21 and 25. The risk of antenatal complications, such as anemia, and premature labor and low birth weight babies was much higher in the younger age group. There was no difference in the incidence of preeclampsia or complications during labor between the two groups. The younger women had a lower perinatal mortality rate than the controls.

  11. [Comparison of functional performance among children with Down syndrome and children with age-appropriate development at 2 and 5 years of age].

    PubMed

    Mancini, Marisa Cotta; Carvalho e Silva, Priscila; Gonçalves, Sabrina Corrêa; Martins, Simone de Medeiros

    2003-06-01

    To compare the functional performance of Down's syndrome (DS) children with normally developing children (ND), at 2 and 5 years of age. Forty children were allocated into four groups (n=10): 1) children with DS with 2 years of age; 2) children with DS with 5 years of age; 3) normal children with 2 years of age; 4) normal children with 5 years of age. Children were evaluated with the functional test PEDI, which quantifies children's performance (skills and independence) in three domains: self-care, mobility and social function. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare group means and to test interaction effects age x pathology. Pre-planned contrast analyses were used to identify the significant bivariate comparisons. Main factors (age and pathology) were significant in the three domains of skills and independence performances. The interaction factor age x pathology was significant in self-care and mobility skills, as well as in children's independence in mobility and social function. Contrast analyses showed that at two years of age, normal children's performance is superior to DS's children in all three domains of functional skills and independence. However, at five years of age, significant group differences were only observed in the domains of self-care and social function skills, and independence. Results show the areas of performance where the delay presented by DS children was functionally manifested, at two and five years of age. Data indicate that the observed group differences were influenced by age, keeping themselves changeable across the development.

  12. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  13. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  14. Early middle ear effusion and school achievement at age seven years.

    PubMed

    McCormick, David P; Johnson, Dale L; Baldwin, Constance D

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with early persistent middle ear effusion (MEE) are at risk for later deficits in academic performance. We recruited 698 newborns and monitored them for MEE every 2 to 4 weeks at home until age 3 years. At age 7 years, it was possible to obtain school data for 226 children. Tests included the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills or the Stanford Achievement tests, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests, and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement. There was no significant relationship between early MEE and measures of school achievement as shown by correlations or multiple regression. Differences between extreme MEE groups were not significant. School achievement was strongly associated with ethnicity, home environment, and socioeconomic status. Early persistent MEE does not appear to affect achievement in school at age 7 years.

  15. [Anesthetic maintenance during myocardial revascularization in patients over 70 years of age].

    PubMed

    Trekova, N A; Aksel'rod, B A; Shmyrin, M M; Zaĭtseva, S V; Aleksandrova, E N

    2010-01-01

    The authors performed a comparative retrospective analysis of preoperative and intraoperative periods in 50 patients aged 70-83 years with coronary heart disease (CHD). A control group comprised the similar patients aged 40-59 years. The geriatric patients showed a higher incidence of arterial hypertension, respiratory and central nervous system diseases, cardiac arrhythmias, and anemia as an outcome. In CHD patients aged 70-80 years, balanced general anesthesia based on lower-dose midazolam and fentanyl, on subnarcotic-dose ketamine during the metered use of isoflurane and adequate infusion therapy provided reasonable hemodynamic stability during the induction of anesthesia and the preperfiusion period without administering cardiotonic agents. Intraoperatively, there was a more pronounced reduction in pulmonary oxygenizing function, body temperature and more needs for cardiotonic and diuretic therapy and erythrocyte mass after the basic stage of surgery.

  16. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  17. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  18. Estimated exposures to perfluorinated compounds in infancy predict attenuated vaccine antibody concentrations at age 5-years.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Heilmann, Carsten; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming; Mogensen, Ulla B; Timmermann, Amalie; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2017-12-01

    Perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) are highly persistent and may cause immunotoxic effects. PFAS-associated attenuated antibody responses to childhood vaccines may be affected by PFAS exposures during infancy, where breastfeeding adds to PFAS exposures. Of 490 members of a Faroese birth cohort, 275 and 349 participated in clinical examinations and provided blood samples at ages 18 months and 5 years. PFAS concentrations were measured at birth and at the clinical examinations. Using information on duration of breastfeeding, serum-PFAS concentration profiles during infancy were estimated. As outcomes, serum concentrations of antibodies against tetanus and diphtheria vaccines were determined at age 5. Data from a previous cohort born eight years earlier were available for pooled analyses. Pre-natal exposure showed inverse associations with the antibody concentrations five years later, with decreases by up to about 20% for each two-fold higher exposure, while associations for serum concentrations at ages 18 months and 5 years were weaker. Modeling of serum-PFAS concentration showed levels for age 18 months that were similar to those measured. Concentrations estimated for ages 3 and 6 months showed the strongest inverse associations with antibody concentrations at ageyears, particularly for tetanus. Joint analyses showed statistically significant decreases in tetanus antibody concentrations by 19-29% at age 5 for each doubling of the PFAS exposure in early infancy. These findings support the notion that the developing adaptive immune system is particularly vulnerable to immunotoxicity during infancy. This vulnerability appears to be the greatest during the first 6 months after birth, where PFAS exposures are affected by breast-feeding.

  19. Heart rate responses of women aged 23–67 years during competitive orienteering

    PubMed Central

    Bird, S; George, M; Balmer, J; Davison, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the heart rate responses of women orienteers of different standards and to assess any relation between heart rate responses and age. Methods: Eighteen competitive women orienteers completed the study. They were divided into two groups: eight national standard orienteers (ages 23–67 years); 10 club standard orienteers (