Science.gov

Sample records for aged 6-60 months

  1. Aerodynamic measurements: normative data for children ages 6:0 to 10:11 years.

    PubMed

    Weinrich, Barbara; Salz, Beth; Hughes, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Normative measures of open quotient, speed quotient, maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and subglottal pressure were determined for 75 children between the ages of 6 years 0 months and 10 years 11 months. The participants produced a sustained /a/ at low, comfort, and high pitches for a minimum of 5 seconds, and five to seven repetitions of /pa/ at low, comfort, and high pitches. No statistically significant differences were found in the mean measures of any aerodynamic variables (open quotient, speed quotient, maximum flow declination rate, subglottal pressure) between the frequency levels (low, comfort, high pitches). Also, no strong evidence (P > .05) exists that age or sex effect differed between the frequency levels (low, comfort, high) for any of the aerodynamic measures. For /a/ response tasks, mean open quotient measures increased slightly from low to comfort frequency and from comfort to high frequency. Mean speed quotient measures showed minimal differences between low and comfort frequency, with decreased mean measures for high frequency. Mean MFDR measures increased from low to comfort frequency and from comfort to high frequency. Mean subglottal pressure measures increased slightly from low to comfort frequency and from comfort to high frequency.

  2. GOMA 6.0 :

    SciTech Connect

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Chen, Ken S; Labreche, Duane A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Hopkins, Matthew M; Moffat, Harry K.; Roach, Robert Allen; Hopkins, Polly L.; Notz, Patrick K.; Roberts, Scott Alan; Sackinger, Philip A.; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Baer, Thomas A.; Noble, David R.; Secor, Robert B.

    2013-07-01

    Goma 6.0 is a finite element program which excels in analyses of multiphysical processes, particularly those involving the major branches of mechanics (viz. fluid/solid mechanics, energy transport and chemical species transport). Goma is based on a full-Newton-coupled algorithm which allows for simultaneous solution of the governing principles, making the code ideally suited for problems involving closely coupled bulk mechanics and interfacial phenomena. Example applications include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, super-alloy processing, welding/soldering, electrochemical processes, and solid-network or solution film drying. This document serves as a users guide and reference.

  3. ALSSAT Version 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hue-Hsia; Brown, Cheryl; Jeng, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) at the time of this reporting has been updated to version 6.0. A previous version was described in Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System (MSC- 23506), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 43. To recapitulate: ALSSAT is a computer program for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life-support systems for spacecraft and surface habitats to be involved in exploration of Mars and the Moon. Of particular interest for analysis by ALSSAT are conceptual designs of advanced life-support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water and process human wastes to reduce the need of resource resupply. ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies featuring various alternative conceptual designs and thereby assisting in determining which combination is most cost-effective. ALSSAT version 6.0 has been improved over previous versions in several respects, including the following additions: an interface for reading sizing data from an ALS database, computational models of a redundant regenerative CO2 and Moisture Removal Amine Swing Beds (CAMRAS) for CO2 removal, upgrade of the Temperature & Humidity Control's Common Cabin Air Assembly to a detailed sizing model, and upgrade of the Food-management subsystem.

  4. 34 CFR 6.0 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General policy. 6.0 Section 6.0 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.0 General policy. Inventions developed through the resources and activities of the Department are a potential resource of great value...

  5. 34 CFR 6.0 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.0 General policy. Inventions... the public. It is the policy of the Department: (a) To safeguard the public interest in inventions... inventions....

  6. 34 CFR 6.0 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.0 General policy. Inventions... the public. It is the policy of the Department: (a) To safeguard the public interest in inventions... inventions....

  7. Distributional Phonetic Learning at 10 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Katherine A.; Pons, Ferran; Maye, Jessica; Werker, Janet F.

    2010-01-01

    Infant phonetic perception reorganizes in accordance with the native language by 10 months of age. One mechanism that may underlie this perceptual change is distributional learning, a statistical analysis of the distributional frequency of speech sounds. Previous distributional learning studies have tested infants of 6-8 months, an age at which…

  8. Developmental assessment of IFCI 6.0

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, A.W.; Young, M.F.; Schmidt, R.C.

    1996-03-01

    Version 6.0 of the IFCI code is being assessed by comparing predictions against the results of several experiments. Simulations of the first two of these experiments, MAGICO-701 and MIXA-6, have been completed with a reasonable level of success. Agreement with the MAGICO-701 experiment was good but was limited somewhat by the inherent problem of numerical diffusion. Results of the MIXA-6 calculations were comparable to those of CHYMES, but clearly suggested the need for an inter-cell radiation transport model in IFCI.

  9. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    CLIPS, the C Language Integrated Production System, is a complete environment for developing expert systems -- programs which are specifically intended to model human expertise or knowledge. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides a cohesive tool for handling a wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming allows knowledge to be represented as heuristics, or "rules-of-thumb" which specify a set of actions to be performed for a given situation. Object-oriented programming allows complex systems to be modeled as modular components (which can be easily reused to model other systems or create new components). The procedural programming capabilities provided by CLIPS 6.0 allow CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in languages such as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Using CLIPS 6.0, one can develop expert system software using only rule-based programming, only object-oriented programming, only procedural programming, or combinations of the three. CLIPS provides extensive features to support the rule-based programming paradigm including seven conflict resolution strategies, dynamic rule priorities, and truth maintenance. CLIPS 6.0 supports more complex nesting of conditional elements in the if portion of a rule ("and", "or", and "not" conditional elements can be placed within a "not" conditional element). In addition, there is no longer a limitation on the number of multifield slots that a deftemplate can contain. The CLIPS Object-Oriented Language (COOL) provides object-oriented programming capabilities. Features supported by COOL include classes with multiple inheritance, abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, dynamic binding, and message passing with message-handlers. CLIPS 6.0 supports tight integration of the rule-based programming features of CLIPS with COOL (that is, a rule can pattern match on objects created using COOL). CLIPS 6.0 provides the capability to define functions, overloaded functions, and global variables interactively. In addition, CLIPS can be embedded within procedural code, called as a subroutine, and integrated with languages such as C, FORTRAN and Ada. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files. CLIPS 6.0 provides support for the modular development and execution of knowledge bases with the defmodule construct. CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules. This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. The CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) utility included with previous version of CLIPS is no longer supported. The capabilities provided by this tool are now available directly within CLIPS 6.0 to aid in the development, debugging, and verification of large rule bases. COSMIC offers four distribution versions of CLIPS 6.0: UNIX (MSC-22433), VMS (MSC-22434), MACINTOSH (MSC-22429), and IBM PC (MSC-22430). Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. All distribution versions include identical source code for the command line version of CLIPS 6.0. This source code should compile on any platform with an ANSI C compiler. Each distribution version of CLIPS 6.0, except that for the Macintosh platform, includes an executable for the command line version. For the UNIX version of

  10. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    CLIPS, the C Language Integrated Production System, is a complete environment for developing expert systems -- programs which are specifically intended to model human expertise or knowledge. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides a cohesive tool for handling a wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming allows knowledge to be represented as heuristics, or "rules-of-thumb" which specify a set of actions to be performed for a given situation. Object-oriented programming allows complex systems to be modeled as modular components (which can be easily reused to model other systems or create new components). The procedural programming capabilities provided by CLIPS 6.0 allow CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in languages such as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Using CLIPS 6.0, one can develop expert system software using only rule-based programming, only object-oriented programming, only procedural programming, or combinations of the three. CLIPS provides extensive features to support the rule-based programming paradigm including seven conflict resolution strategies, dynamic rule priorities, and truth maintenance. CLIPS 6.0 supports more complex nesting of conditional elements in the if portion of a rule ("and", "or", and "not" conditional elements can be placed within a "not" conditional element). In addition, there is no longer a limitation on the number of multifield slots that a deftemplate can contain. The CLIPS Object-Oriented Language (COOL) provides object-oriented programming capabilities. Features supported by COOL include classes with multiple inheritance, abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, dynamic binding, and message passing with message-handlers. CLIPS 6.0 supports tight integration of the rule-based programming features of CLIPS with COOL (that is, a rule can pattern match on objects created using COOL). CLIPS 6.0 provides the capability to define functions, overloaded functions, and global variables interactively. In addition, CLIPS can be embedded within procedural code, called as a subroutine, and integrated with languages such as C, FORTRAN and Ada. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files. CLIPS 6.0 provides support for the modular development and execution of knowledge bases with the defmodule construct. CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules. This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. The CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) utility included with previous version of CLIPS is no longer supported. The capabilities provided by this tool are now available directly within CLIPS 6.0 to aid in the development, debugging, and verification of large rule bases. COSMIC offers four distribution versions of CLIPS 6.0: UNIX (MSC-22433), VMS (MSC-22434), MACINTOSH (MSC-22429), and IBM PC (MSC-22430). Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. All distribution versions include identical source code for the command line version of CLIPS 6.0. This source code should compile on any platform with an ANSI C compiler. Each distribution version of CLIPS 6.0, except that for the Macintosh platform, includes an executable for the command line version. For the UNIX version of CLIPS 6.0, the command line interface has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS, a DECstation running DEC RISC ULTRIX, an SGI Indigo Elan running IRIX, a DEC Alpha AXP running OSF/1, and an IBM RS/6000 running AIX. Command line interface executables are included for Sun4 computers running SunOS 4.1.1 or later and for the DEC RISC ULTRIX platform. The makefiles may have to be modified slightly to be used on other UNIX platforms. The UNIX, Macintosh, and IBM PC versions of CLIPS 6.0 each have a platform specific interface. Source code, a makefile, and an executable for the Windows 3.1 interface version of CLIPS 6.0 are provided only on the IBM PC distribution diskettes. Source code, a makefile, and an executable for the Macintosh interface version of CLIPS 6.0 are provided only on the Macintosh distribution diskettes. Likewise, for the UNIX version of CLIPS 6.0, only source code and a makefile for an X-Windows interface are provided. The X-Windows interface requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11, Release 4 (X11R4), the Athena Widget Set, and the Xmu library. The source code for the Athena Widget Set is provided on the distribution medium. The X-Windows interface has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS 4.1.2 with the MIT distribution of X11R4 (not OpenWindows), an SGI Indigo Elan running IRIX 4.0.5, and a DEC Alpha AXP running OSF/1 1.2. The VAX version of CLIPS 6.0 comes only with the generic command line interface. ASCII makefiles for the command line version of CLIPS are provided on all the distribution media for UNIX, VMS, and DOS. Four executables are provided with the IBM PC version: a windowed interface executable for Windows 3.1 built using Borland C++ v3.1, an editor for use with the windowed interface, a command line version of CLIPS for Windows 3.1, and a 386 command line executable for DOS built using Zortech C++ v3.1. All four executables are capable of utilizing extended memory and require an 80386 CPU or better. Users needing an 8086/8088 or 80286 executable must recompile the CLIPS source code themselves. Users who wish to recompile the DOS executable using Borland C++ or MicroSoft C must use a DOS extender program to produce an executable capable of using extended memory. The version of CLIPS 6.0 for IBM PC compatibles requires DOS v3.3 or later and/or Windows 3.1 or later. It is distributed on a set of three 1.4Mb 3.5 inch diskettes. A hard disk is required. The Macintosh version is distributed in compressed form on two 3.5 inch 1.4Mb Macintosh format diskettes, and requires System 6.0.5, or higher, and 1Mb RAM. The version for DEC VAX/VMS is available in VAX BACKUP format on a 1600 BPI 9-track magnetic tape (standard distribution medium) or a TK50 tape cartridge. The UNIX version is distributed in UNIX tar format on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24). For the UNIX version, alternate distribution media and formats are available upon request. The CLIPS 6.0 documentation includes a User's Guide and a three volume Reference Manual consisting of Basic and Advanced Programming Guides and an Interfaces Guide. An electronic version of the documentation is provided on the distribution medium for each version: in MicroSoft Word format for the Macintosh and PC versions of CLIPS, and in both PostScript format and MicroSoft Word for Macintosh format for the UNIX and DEC VAX versions of CLIPS. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 6.0 was released in 1993.

  11. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    CLIPS, the C Language Integrated Production System, is a complete environment for developing expert systems -- programs which are specifically intended to model human expertise or knowledge. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides a cohesive tool for handling a wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming allows knowledge to be represented as heuristics, or "rules-of-thumb" which specify a set of actions to be performed for a given situation. Object-oriented programming allows complex systems to be modeled as modular components (which can be easily reused to model other systems or create new components). The procedural programming capabilities provided by CLIPS 6.0 allow CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in languages such as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Using CLIPS 6.0, one can develop expert system software using only rule-based programming, only object-oriented programming, only procedural programming, or combinations of the three. CLIPS provides extensive features to support the rule-based programming paradigm including seven conflict resolution strategies, dynamic rule priorities, and truth maintenance. CLIPS 6.0 supports more complex nesting of conditional elements in the if portion of a rule ("and", "or", and "not" conditional elements can be placed within a "not" conditional element). In addition, there is no longer a limitation on the number of multifield slots that a deftemplate can contain. The CLIPS Object-Oriented Language (COOL) provides object-oriented programming capabilities. Features supported by COOL include classes with multiple inheritance, abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, dynamic binding, and message passing with message-handlers. CLIPS 6.0 supports tight integration of the rule-based programming features of CLIPS with COOL (that is, a rule can pattern match on objects created using COOL). CLIPS 6.0 provides the capability to define functions, overloaded functions, and global variables interactively. In addition, CLIPS can be embedded within procedural code, called as a subroutine, and integrated with languages such as C, FORTRAN and Ada. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files. CLIPS 6.0 provides support for the modular development and execution of knowledge bases with the defmodule construct. CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules. This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. The CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) utility included with previous version of CLIPS is no longer supported. The capabilities provided by this tool are now available directly within CLIPS 6.0 to aid in the development, debugging, and verification of large rule bases. COSMIC offers four distribution versions of CLIPS 6.0: UNIX (MSC-22433), VMS (MSC-22434), MACINTOSH (MSC-22429), and IBM PC (MSC-22430). Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. All distribution versions include identical source code for the command line version of CLIPS 6.0. This source code should compile on any platform with an ANSI C compiler. Each distribution version of CLIPS 6.0, except that for the Macintosh platform, includes an executable for the command line version. For the UNIX version of CLIPS 6.0, the command line interface has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS, a DECstation running DEC RISC ULTRIX, an SGI Indigo Elan running IRIX, a DEC Alpha AXP running OSF/1, and an IBM RS/6000 running AIX. Command line interface executables are included for Sun4 computers running SunOS 4.1.1 or later and for the DEC RISC ULTRIX platform. The makefiles may have to be modified slightly to be used on other UNIX platforms. The UNIX, Macintosh, and IBM PC versions of CLIPS 6.0 each have a platform specific interface. Source code, a makefile, and an executable for the Windows 3.1 interface version of CLIPS 6.0 are provided only on the IBM PC distribution diskettes. Source code, a makefile, and an executable for the Macintosh interface version of CLIPS 6.0 are provided only on the Macintosh distribution diskettes. Likewise, for the UNIX version of CLIPS 6.0, only source code and a makefile for an X-Windows interface are provided. The X-Windows interface requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11, Release 4 (X11R4), the Athena Widget Set, and the Xmu library. The source code for the Athena Widget Set is provided on the distribution medium. The X-Windows interface has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS 4.1.2 with the MIT distribution of X11R4 (not OpenWindows), an SGI Indigo Elan running IRIX 4.0.5, and a DEC Alpha AXP running OSF/1 1.2. The VAX version of CLIPS 6.0 comes only with the generic command line interface. ASCII makefiles for the command line version of CLIPS are provided on all the distribution media for UNIX, VMS, and DOS. Four executables are provided with the IBM PC version: a windowed interface executable for Windows 3.1 built using Borland C++ v3.1, an editor for use with the windowed interface, a command line version of CLIPS for Windows 3.1, and a 386 command line executable for DOS built using Zortech C++ v3.1. All four executables are capable of utilizing extended memory and require an 80386 CPU or better. Users needing an 8086/8088 or 80286 executable must recompile the CLIPS source code themselves. Users who wish to recompile the DOS executable using Borland C++ or MicroSoft C must use a DOS extender program to produce an executable capable of using extended memory. The version of CLIPS 6.0 for IBM PC compatibles requires DOS v3.3 or later and/or Windows 3.1 or later. It is distributed on a set of three 1.4Mb 3.5 inch diskettes. A hard disk is required. The Macintosh version is distributed in compressed form on two 3.5 inch 1.4Mb Macintosh format diskettes, and requires System 6.0.5, or higher, and 1Mb RAM. The version for DEC VAX/VMS is available in VAX BACKUP format on a 1600 BPI 9-track magnetic tape (standard distribution medium) or a TK50 tape cartridge. The UNIX version is distributed in UNIX tar format on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24). For the UNIX version, alternate distribution media and formats are available upon request. The CLIPS 6.0 documentation includes a User's Guide and a three volume Reference Manual consisting of Basic and Advanced Programming Guides and an Interfaces Guide. An electronic version of the documentation is provided on the distribution medium for each version: in MicroSoft Word format for the Macintosh and PC versions of CLIPS, and in both PostScript format and MicroSoft Word for Macintosh format for the UNIX and DEC VAX versions of CLIPS. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 6.0 was released in 1993.

  12. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (UNIX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    CLIPS, the C Language Integrated Production System, is a complete environment for developing expert systems -- programs which are specifically intended to model human expertise or knowledge. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides a cohesive tool for handling a wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming allows knowledge to be represented as heuristics, or "rules-of-thumb" which specify a set of actions to be performed for a given situation. Object-oriented programming allows complex systems to be modeled as modular components (which can be easily reused to model other systems or create new components). The procedural programming capabilities provided by CLIPS 6.0 allow CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in languages such as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Using CLIPS 6.0, one can develop expert system software using only rule-based programming, only object-oriented programming, only procedural programming, or combinations of the three. CLIPS provides extensive features to support the rule-based programming paradigm including seven conflict resolution strategies, dynamic rule priorities, and truth maintenance. CLIPS 6.0 supports more complex nesting of conditional elements in the if portion of a rule ("and", "or", and "not" conditional elements can be placed within a "not" conditional element). In addition, there is no longer a limitation on the number of multifield slots that a deftemplate can contain. The CLIPS Object-Oriented Language (COOL) provides object-oriented programming capabilities. Features supported by COOL include classes with multiple inheritance, abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, dynamic binding, and message passing with message-handlers. CLIPS 6.0 supports tight integration of the rule-based programming features of CLIPS with COOL (that is, a rule can pattern match on objects created using COOL). CLIPS 6.0 provides the capability to define functions, overloaded functions, and global variables interactively. In addition, CLIPS can be embedded within procedural code, called as a subroutine, and integrated with languages such as C, FORTRAN and Ada. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files. CLIPS 6.0 provides support for the modular development and execution of knowledge bases with the defmodule construct. CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules. This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. The CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) utility included with previous version of CLIPS is no longer supported. The capabilities provided by this tool are now available directly within CLIPS 6.0 to aid in the development, debugging, and verification of large rule bases. COSMIC offers four distribution versions of CLIPS 6.0: UNIX (MSC-22433), VMS (MSC-22434), MACINTOSH (MSC-22429), and IBM PC (MSC-22430). Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. All distribution versions include identical source code for the command line version of CLIPS 6.0. This source code should compile on any platform with an ANSI C compiler. Each distribution version of CLIPS 6.0, except that for the Macintosh platform, includes an executable for the command line version. For the UNIX version of CLIPS 6.0, the command line interface has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS, a DECstation running DEC RISC ULTRIX, an SGI Indigo Elan running IRIX, a DEC Alpha AXP running OSF/1, and an IBM RS/6000 running AIX. Command line interface executables are included for Sun4 computers running SunOS 4.1.1 or later and for the DEC RISC ULTRIX platform. The makefiles may have to be modified slightly to be used on other UNIX platforms. The UNIX, Macintosh, and IBM PC versions of CLIPS 6.0 each have a platform specific interface. Source code, a makefile, and an executable for the Windows 3.1 interface version of CLIPS 6.0 are provided only on the IBM PC distribution diskettes. Source code, a makefile, and an executable for the Macintosh interface version of CLIPS 6.0 are provided only on the Macintosh distribution diskettes. Likewise, for the UNIX version of CLIPS 6.0, only source code and a makefile for an X-Windows interface are provided. The X-Windows interface requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11, Release 4 (X11R4), the Athena Widget Set, and the Xmu library. The source code for the Athena Widget Set is provided on the distribution medium. The X-Windows interface has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS 4.1.2 with the MIT distribution of X11R4 (not OpenWindows), an SGI Indigo Elan running IRIX 4.0.5, and a DEC Alpha AXP running OSF/1 1.2. The VAX version of CLIPS 6.0 comes only with the generic command line interface. ASCII makefiles for the command line version of CLIPS are provided on all the distribution media for UNIX, VMS, and DOS. Four executables are provided with the IBM PC version: a windowed interface executable for Windows 3.1 built using Borland C++ v3.1, an editor for use with the windowed interface, a command line version of CLIPS for Windows 3.1, and a 386 command line executable for DOS built using Zortech C++ v3.1. All four executables are capable of utilizing extended memory and require an 80386 CPU or better. Users needing an 8086/8088 or 80286 executable must recompile the CLIPS source code themselves. Users who wish to recompile the DOS executable using Borland C++ or MicroSoft C must use a DOS extender program to produce an executable capable of using extended memory. The version of CLIPS 6.0 for IBM PC compatibles requires DOS v3.3 or later and/or Windows 3.1 or later. It is distributed on a set of three 1.4Mb 3.5 inch diskettes. A hard disk is required. The Macintosh version is distributed in compressed form on two 3.5 inch 1.4Mb Macintosh format diskettes, and requires System 6.0.5, or higher, and 1Mb RAM. The version for DEC VAX/VMS is available in VAX BACKUP format on a 1600 BPI 9-track magnetic tape (standard distribution medium) or a TK50 tape cartridge. The UNIX version is distributed in UNIX tar format on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24). For the UNIX version, alternate distribution media and formats are available upon request. The CLIPS 6.0 documentation includes a User's Guide and a three volume Reference Manual consisting of Basic and Advanced Programming Guides and an Interfaces Guide. An electronic version of the documentation is provided on the distribution medium for each version: in MicroSoft Word format for the Macintosh and PC versions of CLIPS, and in both PostScript format and MicroSoft Word for Macintosh format for the UNIX and DEC VAX versions of CLIPS. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 6.0 was released in 1993.

  13. From the reaching behavior at 5 months of age to hand preference at preschool age.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Strohmeier, Andrea; Plienegger, Johann; Garzarolli, Bettina; Prechtl, Heinz F R

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the reaching behavior at the age of 5 months, and to determine whether and to what extent there is a relationship between hand use at this age and manual laterality at preschool age. 20 participants (13 girls and 7 boys) were investigated on two occasions: At the age of 5 months we assessed the hand use for reaching for four different objects placed at the infant's body midline or in their right or left hemispaces, respectively. At the age of 5 years and 7 months, we assessed the hand use for 22 motor tasks. The handedness status was calculated in order to reflect the sinistrality-dextrality continuum. All but one infant were unimanual reachers at 5 months of age. Preferential reaching was space dependent rather than object dependent at this stage. Children reaching for objects in the right hemispace predominantly with their right hand showed a significantly greater right hand laterality at late preschool age than children who at the age of 5 months had shown inconsistent hand use (p < .05). Children who at the age of 5 months had reached for objects in the left hemispace with their left hand proved to be less lateralized in their right hand use approximately 5 years later (p < .05).

  14. Microsoft SQL Server 6.0{reg_sign} Workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Augustenborg, E.C.

    1996-09-01

    This workbook was prepared for introductory training in the use of Microsoft SQL Server Version 6.0. The examples are all taken from the PUBS database that Microsoft distributes for training purposes or from the Microsoft Online Documentation. The merits of the relational database are presented.

  15. Interacting Socially with Human Hands at 24 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Nielsen, Mark; Enchelmaier, Petrina

    2008-01-01

    This experiment explored whether or not 2-year-olds would engage in synchronic imitation with human hands. Sixty-four 24-month-old infants participated. In a test of synchronic imitation, infants were given a toy while a model simultaneously performed novel actions on an identical toy. Infants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 model conditions: a…

  16. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (DEC VAX VMS VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    CLIPS, the C Language Integrated Production System, is a complete environment for developing expert systems -- programs which are specifically intended to model human expertise or knowledge. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides a cohesive tool for handling a wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming allows knowledge to be represented as heuristics, or "rules-of-thumb" which specify a set of actions to be performed for a given situation. Object-oriented programming allows complex systems to be modeled as modular components (which can be easily reused to model other systems or create new components). The procedural programming capabilities provided by CLIPS 6.0 allow CLIPS to represent knowledge in ways similar to those allowed in languages such as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Using CLIPS 6.0, one can develop expert system software using only rule-based programming, only object-oriented programming, only procedural programming, or combinations of the three. CLIPS provides extensive features to support the rule-based programming paradigm including seven conflict resolution strategies, dynamic rule priorities, and truth maintenance. CLIPS 6.0 supports more complex nesting of conditional elements in the if portion of a rule ("and", "or", and "not" conditional elements can be placed within a "not" conditional element). In addition, there is no longer a limitation on the number of multifield slots that a deftemplate can contain. The CLIPS Object-Oriented Language (COOL) provides object-oriented programming capabilities. Features supported by COOL include classes with multiple inheritance, abstraction, encapsulation, polymorphism, dynamic binding, and message passing with message-handlers. CLIPS 6.0 supports tight integration of the rule-based programming features of CLIPS with COOL (that is, a rule can pattern match on objects created using COOL). CLIPS 6.0 provides the capability to define functions, overloaded functions, and global variables interactively. In addition, CLIPS can be embedded within procedural code, called as a subroutine, and integrated with languages such as C, FORTRAN and Ada. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files. CLIPS 6.0 provides support for the modular development and execution of knowledge bases with the defmodule construct. CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules. This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. The CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) utility included with previous version of CLIPS is no longer supported. The capabilities provided by this tool are now available directly within CLIPS 6.0 to aid in the development, debugging, and verification of large rule bases. COSMIC offers four distribution versions of CLIPS 6.0: UNIX (MSC-22433), VMS (MSC-22434), MACINTOSH (MSC-22429), and IBM PC (MSC-22430). Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. All distribution versions include identical source code for the command line version of CLIPS 6.0. This source code should compile on any platform with an ANSI C compiler. Each distribution version of CLIPS 6.0, except that for the Macintosh platform, includes an executable for the command line version. For the UNIX version of CLIPS 6.0, the command line interface has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS, a DECstation running DEC RISC ULTRIX, an SGI Indigo Elan running IRIX, a DEC Alpha AXP running OSF/1, and an IBM RS/6000 running AIX. Command line interface executables are included for Sun4 computers running SunOS 4.1.1 or later and for the DEC RISC ULTRIX platform. The makefiles may have to be modified slightly to be used on other UNIX platforms. The UNIX, Macintosh, and IBM PC versions of CLIPS 6.0 each have a platform specific interface. Source code, a makefile, and an executable for the Windows 3.1 interface version of CLIPS 6.0 are provided only on the IBM PC distribution diskettes. Source code, a makefile, and an executable for the Macintosh interface version of CLIPS 6.0 are provided only on the Macintosh distribution diskettes. Likewise, for the UNIX version of CLIPS 6.0, only source code and a makefile for an X-Windows interface are provided. The X-Windows interface requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11, Release 4 (X11R4), the Athena Widget Set, and the Xmu library. The source code for the Athena Widget Set is provided on the distribution medium. The X-Windows interface has been successfully implemented on a Sun4 running SunOS 4.1.2 with the MIT distribution of X11R4 (not OpenWindows), an SGI Indigo Elan running IRIX 4.0.5, and a DEC Alpha AXP running OSF/1 1.2. The VAX version of CLIPS 6.0 comes only with the generic command line interface. ASCII makefiles for the command line version of CLIPS are provided on all the distribution media for UNIX, VMS, and DOS. Four executables are provided with the IBM PC version: a windowed interface executable for Windows 3.1 built using Borland C++ v3.1, an editor for use with the windowed interface, a command line version of CLIPS for Windows 3.1, and a 386 command line executable for DOS built using Zortech C++ v3.1. All four executables are capable of utilizing extended memory and require an 80386 CPU or better. Users needing an 8086/8088 or 80286 executable must recompile the CLIPS source code themselves. Users who wish to recompile the DOS executable using Borland C++ or MicroSoft C must use a DOS extender program to produce an executable capable of using extended memory. The version of CLIPS 6.0 for IBM PC compatibles requires DOS v3.3 or later and/or Windows 3.1 or later. It is distributed on a set of three 1.4Mb 3.5 inch diskettes. A hard disk is required. The Macintosh version is distributed in compressed form on two 3.5 inch 1.4Mb Macintosh format diskettes, and requires System 6.0.5, or higher, and 1Mb RAM. The version for DEC VAX/VMS is available in VAX BACKUP format on a 1600 BPI 9-track magnetic tape (standard distribution medium) or a TK50 tape cartridge. The UNIX version is distributed in UNIX tar format on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24). For the UNIX version, alternate distribution media and formats are available upon request. The CLIPS 6.0 documentation includes a User's Guide and a three volume Reference Manual consisting of Basic and Advanced Programming Guides and an Interfaces Guide. An electronic version of the documentation is provided on the distribution medium for each version: in MicroSoft Word format for the Macintosh and PC versions of CLIPS, and in both PostScript format and MicroSoft Word for Macintosh format for the UNIX and DEC VAX versions of CLIPS. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 6.0 was released in 1993.

  17. C-Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary; Donnell, Brian; Ly, Huyen-Anh Bebe; Ortiz, Chris

    1995-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) computer programs are specifically intended to model human expertise or other knowledge. CLIPS is designed to enable research on, and development and delivery of, artificial intelligence on conventional computers. CLIPS 6.0 provides cohesive software tool for handling wide variety of knowledge with support for three different programming paradigms: rule-based, object-oriented, and procedural. Rule-based programming: representation of knowledge as heuristics - essentially, rules of thumb that specify set of actions performed in given situation. Object-oriented programming: modeling of complex systems comprised of modular components easily reused to model other systems or create new components. Procedural-programming: representation of knowledge in ways similar to those of such languages as C, Pascal, Ada, and LISP. Version of CLIPS 6.0 for IBM PC-compatible computers requires DOS v3.3 or later and/or Windows 3.1 or later.

  18. Precursors to Aggression Are Evident by 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Swift, Naomi; Kairis, Victoria; Phillips, Rebecca; Jones, Roland; Goodyer, Ian; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that developmental precursors to aggression are apparent in infancy. Up to three informants rated 301 firstborn infants for early signs of anger, hitting and biting; 279 (93%) were assessed again as toddlers. Informants' ratings were validated by direct observation at both ages. The precursor behaviours were…

  19. Similar immunogenicity of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine administrated at 8 months versus 12 months age in children.

    PubMed

    He, Hanqing; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Haiping; Wang, Zhifang; Li, Qian; Yan, Rui; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Yang; Pan, Jinren; Xie, Shuyun

    2014-06-30

    Two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) strategy has been recommended by World Health Organization and is also widely adopted in many countries. In order to provide the evidence for perfecting the immunization strategy of MMR, this study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of MMR with different two-dose schedule in infants. 280 participants were enrolled and randomly allocated to Group 1 (first dose at 8 months) or Group 2 (first dose at 12 months), and both groups administered the second dose at 10 months later. Solicited local and general symptoms after each vaccination with MMR were mild and infrequent in all participants of two groups. After administration of the first dose of MMR, seropositive rates were 100% in both groups for measles, 89.3% in Group 1 and 87.1% in Group 2 for mumps (P=0.578), 92.0% in Group 1 and 92.9% in Group 2 (P=0.393). The seropositive rates of mumps decreased significantly (from >86% to <65%) both in two groups (P<0.001) 10 months after the first dose of MMR, but no significant change was found in measles and rubella. All children get the positive titer for three vaccines in two groups after given the second dose MMR, higher seroconversion rate was found for mumps both in two groups (71.7% vs 77.2%, P=0.370). In conclusion, this study indicated that the MMR was well tolerated and immunogenic against measles, mumps and rubella with schedule of first dose both at 8 months and 12 months age. Our findings strongly supported that two doses of MMR can be introduced by replacing the first dose of MR in current EPI with MMR at 8 months age and the second dose at 18 months in China.

  20. One month of contemporary dance modulates fractal posture in aging

    PubMed Central

    Coubard, Olivier A.; Ferrufino, Lena; Nonaka, Tetsushi; Zelada, Oscar; Bril, Blandine; Dietrich, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the human aging of postural control and how physical or motor activity improves balance and gait is challenging for both clinicians and researchers. Previous studies have evidenced that physical and sporting activity focusing on cardiovascular and strength conditioning help older adults develop their balance and gait and/or decrease their frequency of falls. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning has also been put forward as an alternative to develop balance and/or prevent falls in aging. Specifically dance has been advocated as a promising program to boost motor control. In this study, we examined the effects of contemporary dance (CD) on postural control of older adults. Upright stance posturography was performed in 38 participants aged 54–89 years before and after the intervention period, during which one half of the randomly assigned participants was trained to CD and the other half was not trained at all (no dance, ND). CD training lasted 4 weeks, 3 times a week. We performed classical statistic scores of postural signal and dynamic analyses, namely signal diffusion analysis (SDA), recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). CD modulated postural control in older trainees, as revealed in the eyes closed condition by a decrease in fractal dimension and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. The ND group showed an increase in length and mean velocity of postural signal, and the eyes open a decrease in RQA maximal diagonal line in the anteroposterior plane and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. No change was found in SDA in either group. We suggest that such a massed practice of CD reduced the quantity of exchange between the subject and the environment by increasing their postural confidence. Since CD has low-physical but high-motor impact, we conclude that it may be recommended as a useful program to rehabilitate posture in aging. PMID:24611047

  1. Individual Differences in Responses to Unfamiliar Objects at Twenty-Three Months of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Shigeru; And Others

    Examining relationships in the data from assessments conducted when Japanese infants were 7.5, 12, 23, and 27 months of age, this study provides evidence of an interaction between early attachment and temperamental dispositions. Specifically examined were 7.5-month-olds' stranger and separation distress and general fearfulness; 12-month-olds'…

  2. Changes in the Ability to Detect Ordinal Numerical Relationships between 9 and 11 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suanda, Sumarga H.; Tompson, Whitney; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    When are the precursors of ordinal numerical knowledge first evident in infancy? Brannon (2002) argued that by 11 months of age, infants possess the ability to appreciate the greater than and less than relations between numerical values but that this ability experiences a sudden onset between 9 and 11 months of age. Here we present 5 experiments…

  3. [Histological and histochemical studies on mouthpart of Whitmania pigra at different months age].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Shi, Hong-Zhuan; Wang, Jia; Li, Yan-Xian

    2014-06-01

    Mouthpart developmental histology of Whitmania pigra at different month of age were studied by paraffin section, HE staining combined alcian blue and periodic acid schifts reaction procedure (AB-PAS). The following results was obtained: Change ranges: oral width 0.6 mm (1-3 month), 1.2 mm (34 month); oral diameter 0.3 mm (1-3 month); 1.2 mm (34 month), the oral size reached maximum during 4-6 months and unchanged thereafter. Oral lip had a thin protective film located in the front of the mouthpart. The W. pigra possessed three jaws in oral cavity, the big one was in dorsum, the other two separated on both side of abdomen respectively. Jaws and muscular pharynx were interrelated closely. The jaws were composed by cuticle, epithelial layer, muscularis and jaw cavity from outside to inside. In the front of jaws had mastoid abdomen with function of secreting acidophilic granule from 2 month age. Oral cavity was composed by mucosa, submucosa and muscularis inside and outside. Oral cavity was rich of peristomial nerves. And pharynx was composed of mucosa, muscularis, adventitia from inside to outside. The folds height and width become heighten and thicken. Mucosa epithelium from complex flat epithelium changed into columnar epithelium, muscularis gradually developed into thickened along with growing. Muscular thickness reached maximum at 4 months. Mucous cells of W. pigra were classified into I-IV types based on different staining and two mainly morphological shapes (Tubular, Pear-shaped). Jaws, oral cavity, pharynx by AB-PAS staining showed little changes at different month of age. Mucous cells were few at 1 month age, and type II cells were increased rapidly in 2-3 month age in oral lip. Oral cavity contains more mucous gland cells type I. Under the muscularis there were connective tissues which distributed a few of mucous cells type II. PMID:25244755

  4. Validity of the Greek Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0 (EDE-Q-6.0) among Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pliatskidou, S; Samakouri, M; Kalamara, E; Papageorgiou, E; Koutrouvi, K; Goulemtzakis, C; Nikolaou, E; Livaditis, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the validity of the Greek version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0 (EDE-Q-6.0) in a sample of adolescent pupils. EDE-Q is a self- report instrument that assesses attitudes and behaviors related to Eating Disorders (EDs). A two-stage identification protocol has been applied to the 16 schools that agreed to participate in the present study. Initially, 2058 adolescents, in class under the supervision of one research assistant and one teacher, completed a Questionnaire on socio-demographic data, the Greek EDE-Q-6.0 and the Greek Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) while their weight and height were measured. Six-hundred and twenty six participants, who had scores on EAT-26≥20 and/or were underweight or overweight, were considered as "possible-cases" while the remaining 1432 pupils of the sample were thought as "non-possible cases". At the second stage, parents of 66 of the participants identified as possible-cases as well as parents of 72 participants from 358 controls randomly selected from the sample of "non-possible cases" agreed that their children would be examined by means of Best Estimate Diagnostic Procedure. Participants meeting DSM-IV-TR Eating Disorders criteria were identified. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis was applied to reveal EDE-Q's criterion validity. The kappa statistic test was used as measure of agreement between categorical variables at EDE-Q and at interview (the presence of objective binge eating episode, of self-induced vomiting, the use of laxatives and of excessive exercise). The Discriminant and Convergent validity were assessed using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test and by means of the Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively. Nineteen cases of EDs were identified [one case of Anorexia Nervosa (AN), 13 cases of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), 5 cases of Binge Eating Disorder (BED)]. At the cut off point of 2.6125 on the EDE-Q's global scale the instrument screens with a sensitivity (Se) of 89.5% and a specificity (Sp) of 73.1%, a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 34.7% and a Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 97.8% The same analyses for both sexes revealed a cut-off point of 2.612 for females and of 3.125 for males on the global EDE-Q-6.0 score (Se=84.62%, Sp=73.33% for females and Se=83.33%, Sp= 84.09% for males), yielding a PPV and a NPV of 35.5% and of 96.5% for females and 41.7% and 97.4% for males, respectively. A very low agreement level, between EDE-Q and interview, was observed regarding the presence of objective bulimic episodes (OBEs) [k=0.191 (SE=0.057)] and the unhealthy weight control behaviors [k=0.295 (SE=0.073)]. Positive correlations were found between EAT-26 and EDE-Q-6.0 for both global scale and subscales (rho=0.50-0.57). The results suggest that EDE-Q-6.0, when using its global score, appears to be a proper screening tool for assessing the core psychopathology of eating disorders in community samples in two-stage screening studies since it distinguishes very well the cases from the non-cases. However, the assessment of the presence and frequency of pathological behaviours which characterize EDs appears to be problematic since adolescents, especially the younger ones, misunderstood terms like large amount of food and loss of control or misinterpret the motivation for excessive exercise. Therefore, marked discrepancies were observed between pathological behaviors self-reported at questionnaire and those detected at interview. We may assume that giving participants more information regarding the definition of these concepts may increase the accuracy with which the participants report these behaviors. PMID:26480225

  5. Validity of the Greek Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0 (EDE-Q-6.0) among Greek adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pliatskidou, S; Samakouri, M; Kalamara, E; Papageorgiou, E; Koutrouvi, K; Goulemtzakis, C; Nikolaou, E; Livaditis, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the validity of the Greek version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire 6.0 (EDE-Q-6.0) in a sample of adolescent pupils. EDE-Q is a self- report instrument that assesses attitudes and behaviors related to Eating Disorders (EDs). A two-stage identification protocol has been applied to the 16 schools that agreed to participate in the present study. Initially, 2058 adolescents, in class under the supervision of one research assistant and one teacher, completed a Questionnaire on socio-demographic data, the Greek EDE-Q-6.0 and the Greek Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) while their weight and height were measured. Six-hundred and twenty six participants, who had scores on EAT-26≥20 and/or were underweight or overweight, were considered as "possible-cases" while the remaining 1432 pupils of the sample were thought as "non-possible cases". At the second stage, parents of 66 of the participants identified as possible-cases as well as parents of 72 participants from 358 controls randomly selected from the sample of "non-possible cases" agreed that their children would be examined by means of Best Estimate Diagnostic Procedure. Participants meeting DSM-IV-TR Eating Disorders criteria were identified. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis was applied to reveal EDE-Q's criterion validity. The kappa statistic test was used as measure of agreement between categorical variables at EDE-Q and at interview (the presence of objective binge eating episode, of self-induced vomiting, the use of laxatives and of excessive exercise). The Discriminant and Convergent validity were assessed using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test and by means of the Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively. Nineteen cases of EDs were identified [one case of Anorexia Nervosa (AN), 13 cases of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), 5 cases of Binge Eating Disorder (BED)]. At the cut off point of 2.6125 on the EDE-Q's global scale the instrument screens with a sensitivity (Se) of 89.5% and a specificity (Sp) of 73.1%, a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 34.7% and a Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of 97.8% The same analyses for both sexes revealed a cut-off point of 2.612 for females and of 3.125 for males on the global EDE-Q-6.0 score (Se=84.62%, Sp=73.33% for females and Se=83.33%, Sp= 84.09% for males), yielding a PPV and a NPV of 35.5% and of 96.5% for females and 41.7% and 97.4% for males, respectively. A very low agreement level, between EDE-Q and interview, was observed regarding the presence of objective bulimic episodes (OBEs) [k=0.191 (SE=0.057)] and the unhealthy weight control behaviors [k=0.295 (SE=0.073)]. Positive correlations were found between EAT-26 and EDE-Q-6.0 for both global scale and subscales (rho=0.50-0.57). The results suggest that EDE-Q-6.0, when using its global score, appears to be a proper screening tool for assessing the core psychopathology of eating disorders in community samples in two-stage screening studies since it distinguishes very well the cases from the non-cases. However, the assessment of the presence and frequency of pathological behaviours which characterize EDs appears to be problematic since adolescents, especially the younger ones, misunderstood terms like large amount of food and loss of control or misinterpret the motivation for excessive exercise. Therefore, marked discrepancies were observed between pathological behaviors self-reported at questionnaire and those detected at interview. We may assume that giving participants more information regarding the definition of these concepts may increase the accuracy with which the participants report these behaviors.

  6. Weight changes in wild Wolves, Canis lupus, from ages 2 to 24 months

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Mech L.

    2008-01-01

    Weights of 118 female and 141 male Minnesota Wolves (Canis lupus) aged 2-24 months increased almost linearly from about 8 kg for females and 10 kg for males at 3 months to 30 kg for females and 32 kg for males at 10-12 months and then tended to increase much more slowly in an overall curvilinear trend. Considerable variation was apparent for both sexes during their first year.

  7. Patterns of Developmental Change in Infants' Nighttime Sleep Awakenings from 6 through 36 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinraub, Marsha; Bender, Randall H.; Friedman, Sarah L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Knoke, Bonnie; Bradley, Robert; Houts, Renate; Williams, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Nighttime sleep awakenings and infant and family characteristics were measured longitudinally in more than 1,200 infants when the infants were 6, 15, 24, and 36 months old. By 6 months of age, the majority of children slept through the night, awakening their mothers only about once or twice per week. However, not all children followed this…

  8. Image editing with Adobe Photoshop 6.0.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Ronald D; Postel, Gregory C

    2002-01-01

    The authors introduce Photoshop 6.0 for radiologists and demonstrate basic techniques of editing gray-scale cross-sectional images intended for publication and for incorporation into computerized presentations. For basic editing of gray-scale cross-sectional images, the Tools palette and the History/Actions palette pair should be displayed. The History palette may be used to undo a step or series of steps. The Actions palette is a menu of user-defined macros that save time by automating an action or series of actions. Converting an image to 8-bit gray scale is the first editing function. Cropping is the next action. Both decrease file size. Use of the smallest file size necessary for the purpose at hand is recommended. Final file size for gray-scale cross-sectional neuroradiologic images (8-bit, single-layer TIFF [tagged image file format] at 300 pixels per inch) intended for publication varies from about 700 Kbytes to 3 Mbytes. Final file size for incorporation into computerized presentations is about 10-100 Kbytes (8-bit, single-layer, gray-scale, high-quality JPEG [Joint Photographic Experts Group]), depending on source and intended use. Editing and annotating images before they are inserted into presentation software is highly recommended, both for convenience and flexibility. Radiologists should find that image editing can be carried out very rapidly once the basic steps are learned and automated.

  9. Functional connectivity in the developing brain: A longitudinal study from 4 to 9 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Damaraju, E.; Caprihan, A.; Lowe, J.R.; Allen, E.A.; Calhoun, V.D.; Phillips, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the development of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) from 4 to 9 months of age with resting state magnetic resonance imaging performed on sleeping infants without sedative medication. Data is analyzed with independent component analysis (ICA). Using both low (30 components) and high (100 components) ICA model order decompositions, we find that the functional network connectivity (FNC) map is largely similar at both 4 and 9 months. However at 9 months the connectivity strength decreases within local networks and increases between more distant networks. The connectivity within the default-mode network, which contains both local and more distant nodes, also increases in strength with age. The low frequency power spectrum increases with age only in the posterior cingulate cortex and posterior default mode network. These findings are consistent with a general developmental pattern of increasing longer distance functional connectivity over the first year of life and raise questions regarding the developmental importance of the posterior cingulate at this age. PMID:23994454

  10. Fontanel Size from Birth to 24 Months of Age in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    ESMAEILI, Mohammad; ESMAEILI, Marjan; GHANE SHARBAF, Fatemeh; BOKHARAIE, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diagnosis of abnormal fontanel size, a potential clue to recognition of different disorders, requires an understanding of the wide variation of normal fontanel size. The anterior fontanel is the largest, prominent and most important for clinical evaluation. The aim of this study was to establish and define normal range of fontanel size from birth to 24 months of age in healthy Iranian children that might be generalized to other populations. Materials & Methods Totally, 550 subjects enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. They were apparently normal healthy children, from birth to 24 months of age, including 208-term newborn and 342 infant from birth to 2 yr old. Fontanel size was measured and recorded as the mean of the length (anterior- posterior dimension) and width (transverse dimension). Mean anterior fontanel sizes in our samples were classified for periods of 3 months. Nomograms and statistical analyses were performed and depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007 and two-tailed t-test respectively. Results The mean ±2SD of anterior fontanel size was 2.55±1.92 cm in newborns, 3.37±2.48 (largest size) in 3 months of age. It was closed in all cases in 15-18 months of age. The mean posterior fontanel size was 0.8 cm in newborns and closed in all infants in 2 months of age. There was no significant difference in anterior fontanel size between two genders except in newborn and 6-9 months old (P>0.05). Conclusion Abnormal fontanel can indicate a serious medical condition. Therefore, it is important to understand normal variations, to utilize standardized techniques for measurement and appropriate standards of normal range in different age groups and populations. This study provides a normal range of mean fontanel size in Iranian infants as a local reference. It might be generalized to other populations. PMID:26664437

  11. The 2008 Mw 6.0 Wells, Nevada Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K.; Depolo, D.; Torrisi, J.; Edwards, N.; Biasi, G.; Slater, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Mw 6.0 February 21, 2008 (06:16 AM PDT) Wells, Nevada normal faulting earthquake occurred in Town Creek Flat about 8 km northeast of the small community of Wells. A preliminary set of about 1000 aftershock relocations clearly defines a 55-60 degree southeast dipping fault plane. The structure projects to the surface along the southern end of the Snake Range, although no surface offsets have been identified. The earthquake occurred east of the Ruby Mountains and Snake Range west dipping range front faults, possibly on a northern extension of an east dipping normal fault system on the eastern side of the East Humbolt Range. The depth of the mainshock is estimated to be 10.5 km with the aftershock sequence extending to about 15 km. Typical of moderate sized Basin and Range earthquakes, the early aftershock period included several earthquakes of M > 4 and these were felt strongly by the residents of Wells. From the preliminary relocations, the source radius of the mainshock is estimated to be about 4 km, resulting in an estimated displacement of 55 to 83 cm and static stress drop of 72 to 86 bars, depending on the seismic moment estimate used. Aftershock relocations suggest a radial rupture mechanism. Fortunately, the EarthScope USArray network was operating in Nevada at the time of the event and provided unique controls on the mainshock and early aftershock locations. The earthquake occurred in an area of relatively low seismic hazard and the only permanent seismograph in the region was the U.S. National Network broadband station east of the Ruby Mountains south of Wells. The University of Utah and University of Nevada deployed locally recorded strong motion instruments in the Wells area. Also, an 8 station IP telemetered strong motion network, jointly deployed by the U.S. Geological Survey and University of Nevada Reno, provided real-time data for quick high-quality aftershock relocations and ground motion estimates. In addition, the University of Utah established several telemetered analog stations for improved aftershock locations. IP data communications was routed through the Nevada Department of Information Technology microwave communications site north of Wells. The aftershock deployment was not possible without the considerable support of a number of public and private agencies in the Wells area and the Wells community itself. Many unreinforced masonry structures in old-town Wells, dating to the early 1900's, experienced significant damage. There was also damage to homes and businesses within the community, including the local High School, but fortunately there were no serious injuries associated with the earthquake.

  12. Socioeconomic determinants of iron-deficiency anemia among children aged 6 to 59 months in India.

    PubMed

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Chakrabarty, Suman; Bharati, Premananda

    2015-03-01

    The extent of anemia and its socioeconomic determinants among the preschool children (6-59 months old) in India have been studied in this article. Relevant data are taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey. The initial analysis reveals some interesting features. The most affected children are in the age-group of 6 to 23 months. Beyond this age a decreasing trend is observed up to the age of 48 to 59 months. The highest and the lowest prevalence of anemia have been found to be in the central and the northeast zones, respectively. The vulnerable groups are the children of illiterate parents and those belonging to the poor families in the rural areas. Categorical logistic regression also confirms that status of literacy and wealth of parents have strong negative association with the status of anemia of the children.

  13. Athletic performance and birth month: is the relative age effect more than just selection bias?

    PubMed

    Sandercock, G R H; Ogunleye, A A; Parry, D A; Cohen, D D; Taylor, M J D; Voss, C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if month of birth affects performance in 3 tests of physical function in children and adolescents. We measured cardiorespiratory fitness, handgrip strength and lower-body power expressed them relative to (whole year) age then compared scores between calendar year birth-months. We also expressed test performance as the likelihood of achieving criterion-referenced fitness standards. There were significant main effects of birth-month for cardiorespiratory fitness (F=4.54, p<0.001), strength (F=6.81, p<0.001) and power (F=3.67, p<0.001). Children born in November were fitter and more powerful than those born at other times, particularly the summer months (April, May and June). October-born children were stronger than those born in all months except September and November. This relationship was evident despite controlling for decimal age and despite no significant inter-month differences in anthropometric characteristics.There is a clear physical advantage for those born in the autumn and this may explain some of the bias in sports selection attributed to the relative age effect, particularly when the British school-year (September) cut-off is used.

  14. Influence of growth during infancy on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation at the age of 6 months.

    PubMed

    Touwslager, Robbert N H; Gerver, Willem-Jan M; Tan, Frans E S; Gielen, Marij; Zeegers, Maurice P; Zimmermann, Luc J; Houben, Alfons J H M; Blanco, Carlos E; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Mulder, Antonius L M

    2012-11-01

    Low birth weight and accelerated infant growth are associated with cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as a precursor of atherosclerosis and is also related to infant growth. We aimed to examine whether an association between infant growth and endothelial function is already present during discrete periods of growth during the first 6 months of life in healthy term infants. A cohort of 104 newborns was studied in the first week after birth and reexamined at the age of 6 months. Maximum vasodilatation in response to acetylcholine (endothelium dependent) and nitroprusside (endothelium independent) was measured in the vasculature of the forearm skin, using laser Doppler flowmetry and iontophoresis. Growth was calculated as difference in Z scores for weight, length, weight-for-length, and head circumference. Multivariable multilevel linear regression was used for the analysis. Growth from 0 to 1 month (calculated as difference in weight) was the only window in the first 6 months of life that was significantly and inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilatation at 6 months (b=-11.72 perfusion units per Z score, P=0.01 in multivariable analysis). Birth size was not important when considered simultaneously with infant growth. Maximum endothelium-independent vasodilatation was not associated with birth size or growth parameters. We conclude that growth in the first month of life is inversely associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilatation at the age of 6 months in healthy term infants, regardless of birth size.

  15. Greater length-for-age increases the odds of attaining motor milestones in Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shibani; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dearden, Kirk A; Marsh, David R; Ha, Tran Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Pachón, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood malnutrition has been associated with delayed development. Limited data exist however about the timing of developmental delay early in life. We assessed motor milestone (MM) achievement using the World Health Organization's windows of achievement for gross motor milestones. We performed secondary analysis of baseline data of 158 Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months from a randomized community intervention trial. Median age of motor milestone achievement was compared to WHO reported medians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, anthropometric and dietary factors associated with motor milestone achievement during the windows of achievement. Thirty four per cent of the children were stunted. Median age of MM achievement of Vietnamese children lagged by 2.4-3.7 months, compared to the WHO median for all MMs. Greater length-for-age increased the odds for walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone by more than 3 times. Greater weight-for-age increased the odds by 3.6 for hand-and-knees crawling. Likewise, frequency of daily complementary feeding raised the odds by 3.6 for standing with assistance. In this first application of WHO windows of achievement in Viet Nam, pre-schoolers achieved motor milestones later than WHO reported median age. High prevalence of stunting and association of length-for-age with motor milestone achievement underscore the importance of addressing chronic malnutrition to optimize children's growth and development.

  16. SSM - SOLID SURFACE MODELER, VERSION 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goza, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Solid Surface Modeler (SSM) is an interactive graphics software application for solid-shaded and wireframe three- dimensional geometric modeling. It enables the user to construct models of real-world objects as simple as boxes or as complex as Space Station Freedom. The program has a versatile user interface that, in many cases, allows mouse input for intuitive operation or keyboard input when accuracy is critical. SSM can be used as a stand-alone model generation and display program and offers high-fidelity still image rendering. Models created in SSM can also be loaded into other software for animation or engineering simulation. (See the information below for the availability of SSM with the Object Orientation Manipulator program, OOM, a graphics software application for three-dimensional rendering and animation.) Models are constructed within SSM using functions of the Create Menu to create, combine, and manipulate basic geometric building blocks called primitives. Among the simpler primitives are boxes, spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders, and plates; among the more complex primitives are tubes, skinned-surface models and surfaces of revolution. SSM also provides several methods for duplicating models. Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) is one of the most powerful model manipulation tools provided by SSM. The CSG operations implemented in SSM are union, subtraction and intersection. SSM allows the user to transform primitives with respect to each axis, transform the camera (the user's viewpoint) about its origin, apply texture maps and bump maps to model surfaces, and define color properties; to select and combine surface-fill attributes, including wireframe, constant, and smooth; and to specify models' points of origin (the positions about which they rotate). SSM uses Euler angle transformations for calculating the results of translation and rotation operations. The user has complete control over the modeling environment from within the system. A variety of file formats are supported to facilitate modification of models and to provide for translation to other formats. This combination of features makes SSM valuable for research and development beyond its intended role in the creation of simulation and animation models. SSM makes an important distinction between models, objects, and surfaces. Models consist of one or more objects and are the highest level geometric entity upon which SSM operates. File operations are performed solely at the model level. (All primitives are models consisting of a single object.) The majority of SSM's manipulation functions operate at the object level. Objects consist of one or more surfaces and surfaces may consist of one or more polygons, which are the structural basis for the modeling method used by SSM. Surfaces are the lowest-level geometric entity upon which SSM operates. Surface-fill attributes, for example, may be assigned at the surface level. Surfaces cannot exist except as part of an object and objects cannot exist except as part of a model. SSM can simultaneously accommodate as many models as the host computer's memory permits. In its default display mode, SSM renders model surfaces using two shading methods: constant shading and smooth shading. Constant shading reveals each polygon of an object's surfaces, giving the object an angular appearance. Smooth shading causes an object's polygons to blend into one another, giving its surfaces a smooth, continuous appearance. When used in proper combination, each of these methods contribute to object realism. SSM applies each method automatically during the creation of primitives, but the user can manually override the default settings. Both fill attributes and shading characteristics can be defined for individual surfaces, objects, and models. SSM provides two optional display modes for reducing rendering time for complex models. In wireframe mode, SSM represents all model geometry data in unshaded line drawings, and no hidden-surface removal is performed. In simple mode, only the outermost boundaries (or bounding volume) that define each model are depicted. In either case the user is allowed to trade off visual authenticity for update speed. SSM is written in C-language for implementation on SGI IRIS 4D series workstations running the IRIX operating system. A minimum of 8Mb of RAM is recommended for this program. The standard distribution medium for SSM is a .25 inch streaming magnetic IRIX tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. SSM is also offered as a bundle with a related program, OOM (Object Orientation Manipulator). Please see the abstract for SSM/OOM (COS-10047) for information about the bundled package. Version 6.0 of SSM was released in 1993.

  17. Longitudinal examination of infant baseline and reactivity cortisol from ages 7 to 16 months.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Muzik, Maria; McGinnis, Ellen W; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Bocknek, Erika L; Beeghly, Marjorie; DeCator, Draycen; Abelson, James L

    2015-04-01

    This study characterized the longitudinal evolution of HPA axis functioning from 7 to 16 months of age and identified individual and environmental factors that shape changes in HPA axis functioning over time. Participants were 167 mother-infant dyads drawn from a larger longitudinal study, recruited based on maternal history of being maltreated during childhood. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after age-appropriate psychosocial stressors when infants were 7 and 16 months old. Maternal observed parenting and maternal reports of infant and environmental characteristics were obtained at 7 months and evaluated as predictors of changes in infant baseline cortisol and reactivity from 7 to 16 months. Results revealed that infants did not show a cortisol response at 7 months, but reactivity to psychosocial stress emerged by 16 months. Individual differences in cortisol baseline and reactivity levels over time were related to infant sex and maternal overcontrolling behaviors, underscoring the malleable and socially informed nature of early HPA axis functioning. Findings can inform prevention and intervention efforts to promote healthy stress regulation during infancy. PMID:25783617

  18. The acceptance of three simultaneous vaccine injections recommended at 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Jeffrey N; Bullen, Ruth C; Andrews, Debora E

    2004-01-01

    Since January 2003, vaccination with Meningococcal C conjugate vaccine (MenCCV) is recommended at 12 months of age, at the same time as the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines. Most (83%) of a cohort of 751 children in north Queensland born in January 2003 received the three injectable vaccines simultaneously. Of the 122 children who had not received MenCCV with the other two vaccines, 88 (72%) had received it by 18 months of age. The median age of receipt of MenCCV in the children who had received the three vaccines simultaneously was 12.3 months, whereas the median age in the children who had not received it at the same time as the other two vaccines was 14.0 months. This study suggests that non-simultaneous vaccination puts children at-risk of receiving MenCCV late, or not at all, and has implications for the introduction of universal infant pneumococcal vaccination program, starting in January 2005.

  19. Physiological Regulation at 9 Months of Age in Infants Prenatally Exposed to Cigarettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D.; Colder, Craig R.; Gray, Teresa R.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the association between prenatal cigarette exposure and physiological regulation at 9 months of age. Specifically, we explored the possibility that any association between prenatal cigarette exposure and infant physiological regulation was moderated by postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)…

  20. The Association between Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Physiological Regulation at 13 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D.; Danielewicz, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and autonomic regulation at 13 months of age. Methods: Measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were obtained from 156 (79 exposed, and 77 nonexposed) infants during baseline and during tasks designed to elicit positive (PA) and negative affect (NA).…

  1. Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Measures of Working Memory at 5 and 10 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG; 6-9 Hz) and heart rate (HR) from infants at 5 and 10 months of age during baseline and performance on the looking A-not-B task of infant working memory (WM). Longitudinal baseline-to-task comparisons revealed WM-related increases in EEG power (all electrodes) and EEG coherence (medial frontal-occipital…

  2. [Nutritional intakes in a group of infants aged six to fourteen months].

    PubMed

    Nasraoui, A; Hamdaoui, M; Achour, A; Nagati, K

    1999-03-01

    Infant feeding poses many challenges, such as the rapid growth of the child and the immature nature of his or her body¿s systems. Foods that are poorly suited to such immaturity can lead to functional problems and even sometimes-serious allergies. Infant nutritional intake is also influenced by environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. Of these factors, the eating habits of Tunisians, with a tendency to overconsume cereal- and sugar-based products, is of particular concern. The authors examined the nutritional intakes of 342 healthy infants aged 6-14 months from the Tunis region. The 180 boys and 162 girls were recruited in 5 primary health centers in Tunis, as well as from several suburbs. These centers were chosen at random from among the region¿s 144 centers. Energy intakes are close to those recommended for infants aged 8-14 months, yet low for those aged 6-8 months. Protein supply is about 2.5 g/kg weight/day. Lipids consumed cover more than 35% of the energy supply for infants aged 6-8 and 12-14 months. Glucidic consumption is slightly higher for babies aged 8-12 months who have an energy supply covered sometimes by more than 60% of glucid. With regard to key vitamin and mineral supplies, there are deficits in vitamins C and D, as well as in calcium. There is a good supply of iron. The observed disequilibria in nutritional intake are not alarming, but parents need to be aware of them in order to reduce the risks of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. PMID:10392033

  3. A study of language development and affecting factors in children aged 5 to 27 months.

    PubMed

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with

  4. [Paracetamol poisoning in infants aged less than six months: dosage errors].

    PubMed

    Fernández Landaluce, A; Mintegi Raso, S; Martínez González, M J

    2004-02-01

    In infants under 6 months of age, paracetamol overdose is usually due to dose confusion by caretakers. Recently, liquid formulations of this drug have been commercialized in larger,60-ml bottles. The syringe to measure the syrup in these new formulations is also bigger (5 cc versus 1.2-2 cc). We present six cases of 2-4-month-old infants mistakenly given an overdose of paracetamol, each from this new 60-ml formulation. These patients are especially susceptible to poisoning because of liver immaturity and require more aggressive management. To prevent this kind of poisoning, correct and clear information must be given to caregivers about drug dosage. PMID:14757024

  5. Noninvasive Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Children Less Than 12 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, Adetayo; Ho, Alice; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Kirk, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. We identified the associated conditions of patients less than 12 months of age who were referred for polysomnogram (PSG) studies. We collated PSG findings and physician interpretation. We determined the correlation between the recommended treatment by the PSG interpreting physician and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician. We determined adherence with noninvasive positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study. Participants included children less than 12 months of age referred for PSG studies between 2007 and 2012. Results. 92 patients under the age of 12 months were included in the study analysis. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age in days at time of the PSG study was 208.5 (101.2). 35 (38%) patients had a diagnosis of Trisomy 21. Seven (8%) patients had no prior diagnosis. Median (Q1, Q3) apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 22.5 (11.3-37.0). Agreement between the PSG interpreting physician's recommendation and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician was 85.9% [95% CI 77.1-91.6]. Mean (SD) percentage days with PAP therapy usage more than 4 hours was 25.2% (32). Conclusions. In our experience, despite consistent physician messaging to families, adherence with noninvasive PAP treatment is low. PMID:27445563

  6. Noninvasive Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Children Less Than 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Adeleye, Adetayo; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Kirk, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. We identified the associated conditions of patients less than 12 months of age who were referred for polysomnogram (PSG) studies. We collated PSG findings and physician interpretation. We determined the correlation between the recommended treatment by the PSG interpreting physician and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician. We determined adherence with noninvasive positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study. Participants included children less than 12 months of age referred for PSG studies between 2007 and 2012. Results. 92 patients under the age of 12 months were included in the study analysis. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age in days at time of the PSG study was 208.5 (101.2). 35 (38%) patients had a diagnosis of Trisomy 21. Seven (8%) patients had no prior diagnosis. Median (Q1, Q3) apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 22.5 (11.3–37.0). Agreement between the PSG interpreting physician's recommendation and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects' physician was 85.9% [95% CI 77.1–91.6]. Mean (SD) percentage days with PAP therapy usage more than 4 hours was 25.2% (32). Conclusions. In our experience, despite consistent physician messaging to families, adherence with noninvasive PAP treatment is low. PMID:27445563

  7. Prevalence of Amblyopia and Strabismus in African American and Hispanic Children Ages 6 to 72 Months

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the age- and ethnicity-specific prevalences of strabismus in African American and Hispanic/Latino children ages 6 to 72 months and of amblyopia in African American and Hispanic/Latino children 30 to 72 months. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants The Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study is a population-based evaluation of the prevalence of vision disorders in children ages 6 to 72 months in Los Angeles County, California. A comprehensive eye examination was completed by 77% of eligible children. This report focuses on results from 3007 African American and 3007 Hispanic/Latino children. Methods Eligible children in all enumerated households in 44 census tracts were identified. Participants underwent an in-home interview and were scheduled for a comprehensive eye examination and in-clinic interview. The examination included evaluation of ocular alignment, refractive error, and ocular structures, as well as determination of optotype visual acuity (VA) in children 30 months and older. Main Outcome Measures The proportion of 6- to 72-month-olds with strabismus on ocular examination and proportion of 30- to 72-month-olds with optotype VA deficits and amblyopia risk factors consistent with predetermined definitions of amblyopia. Results Strabismus was detected in 2.4% of Hispanic/Latino children and 2.5% of African American children (P = 0.81), and was more prevalent in older children than in younger children. Amblyopia was detected in 2.6% of Hispanic/Latino children and 1.5% of African American children, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.02), and 78% of cases of amblyopia were attributable to refractive error. Amblyopia prevalence did not vary with age. Conclusions Among Hispanic/Latino and African American children in Los Angeles County, strabismus prevalence increases with age, but amblyopia prevalence appears stable by 3 years of age. Amblyopia is usually caused by abnormal refractive error. These findings may help to

  8. [Screening of hearing in children up to 18 months of age].

    PubMed

    Theunissen, E J

    2000-03-25

    In the Netherlands the hearing screening of young children is carried out at the age of nine months by the Ewing or 'Compact Amsterdam paedo-audiometric screener' (CAPAS) test. These screening tests do not always lead to the necessary follow-up diagnostics, mainly because the different disciplines disagree. Recently a consensus concerning the follow-up of children with a poor test result was reached by the Youth Health Care institutions, general practitioners, paediatricians, ENT physicians and audiologic centres. Each party has its own responsibilities and commits itself to complete the diagnostics before the age of 18 months. Until new screening methods have been validated it is advised to refer all children with poor screening test results for special diagnostics, if necessary after they have been treated for otitis media with effusion. Currently the most appropriate method for final diagnosis is the measurement of oto-acoustic emissions. PMID:10761544

  9. Length velocity acceleration at 9 months of age in a representative birth cohort of Dutch infants.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, J; Brand, R; Massa, G; Herngreen, W P; Wit, J M

    2000-01-01

    According to the ICP (infancy-childhood-puberty) growth model, statural growth can be divided into three partially superimposed components assumed to represent different physiologic mechanisms. This model predicts a sudden acceleration of length velocity (LV) at the onset of the childhood component around 9 months. The existence of such an infancy-childhood growth spurt has not yet been firmly corroborated by epidemiological studies. In the present study length measurements were made at the target ages of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24 months in a birth cohort of 2034 infants. In order to check whether length growth showed a continuous smooth pattern, different mathematical models were fitted to the individual growth curves. The models included Count and Guo functions, 5th order polynomial and combinations of 5th order polynomial with the logarithmic term of the Count function and the square root term of the Guo function. We showed that in boys and girls there is a small but systematic lack of fit of the mathematical modeling, due to a sudden acceleration of LV around 9 months. In addition there was an increase in variation of attained length at this age. Comparison of unbalanced ANOVA models with and without addition of dummy variables for the target ages confirmed that there was an acceleration around 9 months that, if corrected for, leads to a significantly improved model fit (likelihood ratio test p < 0.0001). In absolute terms of LV, the misfit at 9 months was not greater than 0.5 cm/year on average. We conclude that the results of this study support the existence of a late infancy growth spurt. In our opinion, however, the magnitude of the phenomenon does not legitimate construction and use of discontinuous growth references such as the ICP reference.

  10. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E Benjamin; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Sørensen, Thorkild IA

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Subjects/Methods We studied 27821 children born to mothers participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. Results A total of 17721 (63.7%) children attended child care during their first year of life. After adjustment for potential confounders, a 30-day increment of child care was associated with a modestly higher BMI z-score at 12 months (0.03 units; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05; p=0.003). Similarly, child care use was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese at 12 months of age (OR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10; p=0.047). Conclusions Child care in the first year of life was associated with slightly higher weight at 12 months, suggesting that child care settings may be important targets for obesity prevention in infancy. PMID:25233894

  11. How Does It Look? Level 2 Perspective-Taking at 36 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that children engage in Level 2 visual perspective-taking, that is, the understanding that others may see things in a different way, between 4 and 5 years of age (e.g., J. H. Flavell, B. A. Everett, K. Croft, & E. R. Flavell, 1981). This ability was reexamined in 36-month-olds using color filters. In Experiment 1 (N =…

  12. Household Food Insecurity May Predict Underweightand Wasting among Children Aged 24-59 Months.

    PubMed

    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Rahimiforoushani, A; Kedir, Haji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Haromaya District. Children (N = 453) aged 24-59 months were recruited in a community-based cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of households selected by a multistage sampling procedure in Haromaya District. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and anthropometry were administered. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to select variables that are candidate for multivariable model. The prevalences of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children aged 24-59 months were 61.1%, 28.1%, and 11.8%, respectively. The mean household food insecurity access scale score was 3.34, and 39.7% of households experienced some degree of food insecurity. By logistic regression analysis and after adjusting for the confounding factors, household food insecurity was significantly predictive of underweight (AOR = 2.48, CI = 1.17-5.24, p = .05) and chronic energy deficiency (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.97, p = .04) and marginally significant for wasting (AOR = 0.53, CI = 0.27-1.03, p = .06). It is concluded that household food security improves child growth and nutritional status.

  13. Household Food Insecurity May Predict Underweightand Wasting among Children Aged 24-59 Months.

    PubMed

    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Rahimiforoushani, A; Kedir, Haji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status among children aged 24-59 months in Haromaya District. Children (N = 453) aged 24-59 months were recruited in a community-based cross-sectional survey with a representative sample of households selected by a multistage sampling procedure in Haromaya District. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and anthropometry were administered. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to select variables that are candidate for multivariable model. The prevalences of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children aged 24-59 months were 61.1%, 28.1%, and 11.8%, respectively. The mean household food insecurity access scale score was 3.34, and 39.7% of households experienced some degree of food insecurity. By logistic regression analysis and after adjusting for the confounding factors, household food insecurity was significantly predictive of underweight (AOR = 2.48, CI = 1.17-5.24, p = .05) and chronic energy deficiency (AOR = 0.47, CI = 0.23-0.97, p = .04) and marginally significant for wasting (AOR = 0.53, CI = 0.27-1.03, p = .06). It is concluded that household food security improves child growth and nutritional status. PMID:27467901

  14. Epidemiology of Dengue Among Children Aged < 18 Months-Puerto Rico, 1999-2011.

    PubMed

    Hause, Anne M; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Han, George S; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Aiwazian, Jonathan; Margolis, Harold S; Tomashek, Kay M

    2016-02-01

    Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral illness caused by dengue virus types (DENV)-1 to DENV-4, is endemic in Puerto Rico. Severe dengue usually occurs in individuals previously infected with DENV or among infants born to previously infected mothers. To describe clinical features of dengue in infants, we retrospectively characterized dengue patients aged < 18 months reported to the Passive Dengue Surveillance System (PDSS) during 1999-2011. To determine frequency of signs, symptoms, and disease severity, case report forms and medical records were evaluated for patients who tested positive for dengue by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or anti-DENV immunoglobulin Menzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 4,178 reported patients aged < 18 months, 813 (19%) were laboratory positive. Of these, most had fever (92%), rash (53%), bleeding manifestations (52%), and thrombocytopenia (52%). Medical records were available for 145 (31%) of 472 hospitalized patients, of which 40% had dengue, 23% had dengue with warning signs, and 33% had severe dengue. Mean age of patients with severe dengue was 8 months. Anti-DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were not statistically different in patients with (50%) and without (59%) severe dengue. In this study, one-third of DENV-infected infants met the severe dengue case definition. The role of maternal anti-DENV IgG in development of severe disease warrants further study in prospective cohorts of mother-infant pairs. PMID:26711519

  15. Epidemiology of Dengue Among Children Aged < 18 Months-Puerto Rico, 1999-2011.

    PubMed

    Hause, Anne M; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Han, George S; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Aiwazian, Jonathan; Margolis, Harold S; Tomashek, Kay M

    2016-02-01

    Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral illness caused by dengue virus types (DENV)-1 to DENV-4, is endemic in Puerto Rico. Severe dengue usually occurs in individuals previously infected with DENV or among infants born to previously infected mothers. To describe clinical features of dengue in infants, we retrospectively characterized dengue patients aged < 18 months reported to the Passive Dengue Surveillance System (PDSS) during 1999-2011. To determine frequency of signs, symptoms, and disease severity, case report forms and medical records were evaluated for patients who tested positive for dengue by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or anti-DENV immunoglobulin Menzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 4,178 reported patients aged < 18 months, 813 (19%) were laboratory positive. Of these, most had fever (92%), rash (53%), bleeding manifestations (52%), and thrombocytopenia (52%). Medical records were available for 145 (31%) of 472 hospitalized patients, of which 40% had dengue, 23% had dengue with warning signs, and 33% had severe dengue. Mean age of patients with severe dengue was 8 months. Anti-DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were not statistically different in patients with (50%) and without (59%) severe dengue. In this study, one-third of DENV-infected infants met the severe dengue case definition. The role of maternal anti-DENV IgG in development of severe disease warrants further study in prospective cohorts of mother-infant pairs.

  16. Age at introduction of complementary food and physical growth from 2 to 9 months in rural Senegal.

    PubMed

    Simondon, K B; Simondon, F

    1997-10-01

    The impact of age at introduction of supplementary foods on nutritional status and physical growth was investigated in a longitudinal study of 420 infants recruited from 3 health clinics in rural Central Senegal. Infants were 2-3 months of age at admission and were followed up at 4-5, 6-7, and 9-10 months of age. The 50 infants who were receiving supplementary feeds at 2-3 months had significantly lower length-for-age, weight-for-length, and arm circumference at the initial visit than predominantly breast-fed infants after adjustments for residence, maternal age, and parental education. The 94 infants who began receiving complementary feeds at 4-5 months had a slightly lower length increment from 4-5 to 6-7 months compared with infants predominantly breast-fed at 4-5 months. Finally, the 122 infants first fed complementary foods at 6-7 months had increments from 6-7 to 9-10 months similar to those of the 154 infants who continued to be predominantly breast-fed. Infants complemented early, late, and very late had similar length-for-age and weight-for-length at 2-3 months, indicating that nutritional status prior to food introduction was not a determinant of age at introduction of complementary food. The growth data collected in this study confirm the importance of waiting until 6 months of age to introduce complementary foods.

  17. A longitudinal study of the emerging self from 9 months to the age of 4 years

    PubMed Central

    Kristen-Antonow, Susanne; Sodian, Beate; Perst, Hannah; Licata, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if children’s early responsiveness toward social partners is developmentally related to their growing concept of self, as reflected in their mirror self-recognition (MSR) and delayed self-recognition (DSR). Thus, a longitudinal study assessed infants’ responsiveness (e.g., smiling, gaze) toward social partners during the still-face (SF) task and a social imitation game and related it to their emerging MSR and DSR. Thereby, children were tested at regular time points from 9 months to 4 years of age. Results revealed significant predictive relations between children’s responsiveness toward a social partner in the SF task at 9 months and their MSR at 24 months. Further, interindividual differences in children’s awareness of and responsiveness toward being imitated in a social imitation game at 12 months proved to be the strongest predictor of children’s DSR at 4 years, while some additional variance was explained by MSR at 24 months and verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest a developmental link between children’s early awareness of and responsiveness toward the social world and their later ability to form a concept of self. PMID:26113834

  18. Growth of very low birth weight infants at 12 months corrected age in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mariana G; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this article is to describe growth of very low birth weight infants born in southern Brazil. All infants weighing < or =1500 g were followed up until 12 months corrected age (CA). Growth was recorded at 40 weeks, 6 and 12 months CA. Catch up was considered if the measures were > or =-2 SD of World Health Organization growth charts for weight and length; and of National Center for Health Statistics for head circumference. One hundred and ninety three infants born were followed up for the study. At 40 weeks CA, 57.8% patients achieved catch-up in weight and 50.9% in length. At 6 months CA, 82.2% achieved catch-up for weight and length and at 1 year CA, 92% achieved catch-up in weight and 86.9% in length. Catch-up in head circumference was achieved for 93.4%, 85.9% and 85% patients at 40 weeks, 6 months and 12 months CA, respectively. At 12 months CA, no catch-up in weight, length and head circumference was related to higher SNAPPE-II (P = 0.046) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) (P = 0.003); longer time to achieve full enteral nutrition at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (P = 0.037), lower maternal education (P = 0.018) and PVL (P = 0,003); higher SNAPPE-II (P = 0,004), PVL (P = 0.005) and longer time to achieve full enteral nutrition at the NICU (P = 0.044), respectively. In conclusion, PVL and higher SNAPPE-II were important factors to catch-up delay. Catch-up growth was high at 12 months CA.

  19. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Ming-Chien; Özkaynak, Halûk; Beamer, Paloma; Dang, Winston; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Young children’s mouthing activities thought to be among the most important exposure pathways. Unfortunately, mouthing activity studies have only been conducted in a few countries. In the current study, we used videotaping and computer-based translating method to obtain mouthing activity data for 66 children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were 8.91 and 11.39 contacts h−1, respectively. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth hourly contact durations were 0.34 and 0.46 min h−1, respectively. The indoor object-to-mouth activities were significantly and negatively correlated with age. Children aged 12 to <24 months in the current study had lower indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies than children of same age group in the United States. We also found that indoor mouthing duration with pacifier was significantly and negatively correlated with indoor mouthing duration with other non-dietary objects. The results of the current study indicate that the mouthing behaviors might be different between different countries or populations with different ethnic or lifestyle characteristics. We conclude that using hand-to-mouth frequency values from the current literature may not be most reliable for estimating non-dietary exposures of young children living in Taiwan or even in other similar Asian countries. PMID:25027450

  20. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Ming-Chien; Özkaynak, Halûk; Beamer, Paloma; Dang, Winston; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Young children's mouthing activities thought to be among the most important exposure pathways. Unfortunately, mouthing activity studies have only been conducted in a few countries. In the current study, we used videotaping and computer-based translating method to obtain mouthing activity data for 66 children aged 7-35 months in Taiwan. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were 8.91 and 11.39 contacts/h, respectively. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth hourly contact durations were 0.34 and 0.46 min/h, respectively. The indoor object-to-mouth activities were significantly and negatively correlated with age. Children aged 12 to <24 months in the current study had lower indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies than children of same age group in the United States. We also found that indoor mouthing duration with pacifier was significantly and negatively correlated with indoor mouthing duration with other non-dietary objects. The results of the current study indicate that the mouthing behaviors may be different between different countries or populations with different ethnic or lifestyle characteristics. We conclude that using hand-to-mouth frequency values from the current literature may not be most reliable for estimating non-dietary exposures of young children living in Taiwan or even in other similar Asian countries. PMID:25027450

  1. Factors influencing linear growth in Saudi Arabian children aged 6-24 months.

    PubMed

    al-Fawaz, I M; Bamgboye, E A; al-Eissa, Y A

    1994-08-01

    This study was carried out to identify possible factors influencing the growth pattern of Saudi children in the first 2 years of life. The body length and weight of 400 healthy babies attending the well-baby care clinic of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were measured at various determined ages in a cross-sectional study design. Nutritional indicators were calculated and the proportions with low height-for-age, low weight-for-height and low weight-for-age were compared with the reference population. The results showed a prevalence of 2 per cent of wasted children and 18 per cent of children with stunted growth. A univariate and multivariate analysis of personal and nutritional variables with the standard nutritional indicators identified age, sex, bottle feeding, and type of solid foods as significant risk factors for stunted growth. Stunting increases with age and males have poorer growth pattern than females. Genetic factors and poor feeding practices of the children are suggested reasons for the observed faltering growth between 6 and 24 months of age. A public health education programme for good nutrition is highly recommended.

  2. Defective serum opsonization activity in children aged 6-48 months having acute purulent otitis media.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, I; Yilmaz, Y; Oner, F; Yel, L; Sanal, O; Ersoy, F; Onerci, M; Berkel, A I

    1997-01-01

    Serum opsonization of yeast (Saccharomyces) was investigated in 51 patients whose ages were between six and 48 months (median 15 months) with acute purulent otitis media and in an age-matched control group (median 13 months). Opsonization was assessed by measuring yeast particle uptake in an assay based on an electronic count of the unphagocytosed particles in serum by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Despite normal levels of CH50 and serum immunoglobulins, a defective opsonization was determined in 13.7 percent of the patients (7 in 51). The corresponding figure was 2.9 percent in 103 healthy controls (p < 0.001). On the other hand, 218 percent (5 in 23) of the children having a history of recurrent purulent otitis media showed defective opsonization (p < 0.001). Previously, the presence of an opsonization defect has been linked to low levels of mannan binding lectin (MBL), a calcium dependent serum lectin that acts as an opsonin. Therefore, our findings indirectly support the idea that MBL has an important role as host defense, particularly in the earlier period of life when the antibody repertoire is restricted.

  3. Physicochemical changes in pyrogenic organic matter (biochar) after 15 months field-aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Hamdan, R.; Cooper, W. T.

    2014-03-01

    Predicting the effects of pyrogenic organic matter (OM) addition (either natural or intentional as in the case of biochar amendment) on soil chemistry and crop yields has been hampered by a lack of understanding of how pyrogenic OM evolves in the environment over time. This work compared the physicochemical characteristics of newly-made and 15 month field-aged biochars and biochar-soil mixtures. After aging, biochars made by pyrolysis of wood and grass at 250, 400 and 650 °C exhibited 5-fold increases in cation exchange capacity (CEC), on average, appearance of anion exchange capacity (AEC) and significant decreases in pH, ash content and nanopore surface area. Cross polarization 13C-NMR analyses indicated relative increases in O-containing functional groups including substituted aryl, carboxyl and carbonyl C, likely via abiotic and microbial oxidation and losses of O-alkyl groups, likely via leaching. Similar chemical trends were observed for soil-biochar mixtures suggesting the same biochar aging processes occurred in the soil environment. However, there was evidence for a major role of soil OM-microbe-biochar interaction during aging. Field-aging of soil with biochar resulted in large increases in C and N content (up to 124 and 143%, respectively) and exchange capacity (up to 43%) beyond that calculated by the weighted addition of the properties of biochar and soil aged separately. These beneficial interactive effects varied greatly with soil and biochar type. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images of biochar particles, both aged alone and with soil, showed colonization by microbes and widespread surficial deposits that were likely OM. Thus, sorption of both microbially-produced and soil OM are likely processes that enhanced biochar aging. Among the important implications of these findings are that biochar's full beneficial effects on soil properties only occur over time and proper assignment of C sequestration credits to biochar users will require

  4. Physicochemical changes in pyrogenic organic matter (biochar) after 15 months of field aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Hamdan, R.; Cooper, W. T.

    2014-07-01

    Predicting the effects of pyrogenic organic matter (OM) addition (either natural or intentional as in the case of biochar amendment) on soil chemistry and crop yields has been hampered by a lack of understanding of how pyrogenic OM evolves in the environment over time. This work compared the physicochemical characteristics of newly made and 15-month-field-aged biochars and biochar-soil mixtures. After aging, biochars made by pyrolysis of wood and grass at 250, 400 and 650 °C exhibited 5-fold increases in cation exchange capacity (CEC), on average; appearance of anion exchange capacity (AEC); and significant decreases in pH, ash content and nanopore surface area. Cross polarization 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses indicated relative increases in O-containing functional groups, including substituted aryl, carboxyl and carbonyl C, and losses of O-alkyl groups. Similar chemical trends were observed for soil-biochar mixtures, suggesting the same biochar aging processes occurred in the soil environment. However, there was evidence for a role of soil OM-microbe-biochar interaction during aging. Field aging of soil with biochar resulted in large increases in C and N content (up to 124 and 143%, respectively) and exchange capacity (up to 43%) beyond that calculated by the weighted addition of the properties of biochar and soil aged separately. These beneficial interactive effects varied with soil and biochar type. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images of biochar particles aged with soil showed colonization by microbes and widespread OM coatings. Thus, sorption of both microbially produced and soil OM are likely processes that enhanced biochar aging. Thus, biochar's full beneficial effects on soil properties likely increase over time, and proper assignment of C sequestration credits to biochar users will require consideration of soil-biochar interactions.

  5. [Food consumption Brazilian children by 6 to 59 months of age].

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess food consumption in Brazilian children 6 to 59 months of age by region of the country and area of residence. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 4,322 children in the National Demographic and Health Survey (2006-2007). The data showed low daily consumption of leafy vegetables (12.7%), vegetables (21.8%), and meat (24.6%) and high consumption (1-3 times a week) of soft drinks (40.5%), fried foods (39.4%), salty snacks (39.4%), and sweets (37.8%). Comparing the regions of Brazil, children in the South, Southeast, and Central-West consumed more rice, bread, potatoes, beans, greens, vegetables, and meat, but they also ate more foods not recommended for their age, like sweets and soft drinks (soda). Rural children showed lower consumption of foods recommended for their age and also those not recommended for their age, as compared to their urban counterparts. According to this study, food consumption in these young children fails to meet the recommendations for healthy eating in this age bracket. PMID:23033190

  6. A comparison of physical activity in Gambian and UK children aged 6-18 months.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M; Lawrence, F; Durnin, J V; Whitehead, R G

    1991-05-01

    The activity patterns of 81 Gambian and 53 UK children aged six, 12 or 18 months were compared by means of an activity diary technique. Major differences between communities were observed in the duration of play (2-3 times longer in UK compared to Gambian children) and in the duration of vigorous activities such as crawling, walking and running (2-4 times longer duration in the UK compared to the The Gambia). To investigate whether the lower activity of Gambian children could be explained by differences in nutritional or health status, subgroups of Gambian children were compared. Only small differences in activity pattern were found between Gambian children above and below 80% weight for age and between Gambian children who were or were not diagnosed ill within 10 days of study, suggesting that other factors (e.g. socio-cultural differences or the absence of conventional toys) may explain the lower activity of Gambian compared to UK children. PMID:1915195

  7. Intraventricular hemorrhage and developmental outcomes at 24 months of age in extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, T Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N; Kuban, Karl C K; Hirtz, Deborah; Specter, Barbara; Durfee, Sara; Paneth, Nigel; Leviton, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Whether intraventricular hemorrhage increases the risk of adverse developmental outcome among premature infants is controversial. Using brain ultrasound, we identified intraventricular hemorrhage and white matter abnormalities among 1064 infants born before 28 weeks' gestation. We identified adverse developmental outcomes at 24 months of age using a standardized neurologic examination and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental and Motor Scales. In logistic regression models that adjusted for gestational age, sex, and public insurance, isolated intraventricular hemorrhage was associated with visual fixation difficulty but no other adverse outcome. Infants who had a white matter lesion unaccompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage were at increased risk of cerebral palsy, low Mental and Motor Scores, and visual and hearing impairments. Except when accompanied or followed by a white matter lesion, intraventricular hemorrhage is associated with no more than a modest increase (and possibly no increase) in the risk of adverse developmental outcome during infancy. PMID:22232137

  8. Physiological reactivity during object manipulation among cigarette-exposed infants at 9 months of age.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Pamela; Lessard, Jared; Colder, Craig R; Maiorana, Nicole; Shisler, Shannon; Eiden, Rina D; Huestis, Marilyn A; Henrie, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes and heart rate during an object manipulation task at 9 months of age. Second-by-second heart rate was recorded for 181 infants who were prenatally exposed to cigarettes and 77 nonexposed infants during the manipulation of four standardized toys. A series of longitudinal multilevel models were run to examine the association of prenatal smoking on the intercept and slope of heart rate during four 90-second object manipulation tasks. After controlling for maternal age, prenatal marijuana and alcohol use, duration of focused attention and activity level, results indicated that the heart rates of exposed infants significantly increased during the object manipulation task. These findings suggest casual rather than focused attention and a possible increase in physiological arousal during object manipulation. PMID:25681531

  9. Population Pharmacokinetics of Ciprofloxacin in Neonates and Young Infants Less than Three Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Hill, Helen; Le Guellec, Chantal; Neal, Tim; Mahoney, Sarah; Paulus, Stephane; Castellan, Charlotte; Kassai, Behrouz; van den Anker, Johannes N.; Kearns, Gregory L.; Turner, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is used in neonates with suspected or documented Gram-negative serious infections. Currently, its use is off-label partly because of lack of pharmacokinetic studies. Within the FP7 EU project TINN (Treat Infection in NeoNates), our aim was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in neonates and young infants <3 months of age and define the appropriate dose in order to optimize ciprofloxacin treatment in this vulnerable population. Blood samples were collected from neonates treated with ciprofloxacin and concentrations were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM software. The data from 60 newborn infants (postmenstrual age [PMA] range, 24.9 to 47.9 weeks) were available for population pharmacokinetic analysis. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination showed the best fit with the data. A covariate analysis identified that gestational age, postnatal age, current weight, serum creatinine concentration, and use of inotropes had a significant impact on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that 90% of hypothetical newborns with a PMA of <34 weeks treated with 7.5 mg/kg twice daily and 84% of newborns with a PMA ≥34 weeks and young infants receiving 12.5 mg/kg twice daily would reach the AUC/MIC target of 125, using the standard EUCAST MIC susceptibility breakpoint of 0.5 mg/liter. The associated risks of overdose for the proposed dosing regimen were <8%. The population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in neonates and young infants <3 months old, and a dosing regimen was established based on simulation. PMID:25155587

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in neonates and young infants less than three months of age.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Hill, Helen; Le Guellec, Chantal; Neal, Tim; Mahoney, Sarah; Paulus, Stephane; Castellan, Charlotte; Kassai, Behrouz; van den Anker, Johannes N; Kearns, Gregory L; Turner, Mark A; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2014-11-01

    Ciprofloxacin is used in neonates with suspected or documented Gram-negative serious infections. Currently, its use is off-label partly because of lack of pharmacokinetic studies. Within the FP7 EU project TINN (Treat Infection in NeoNates), our aim was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in neonates and young infants <3 months of age and define the appropriate dose in order to optimize ciprofloxacin treatment in this vulnerable population. Blood samples were collected from neonates treated with ciprofloxacin and concentrations were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM software. The data from 60 newborn infants (postmenstrual age [PMA] range, 24.9 to 47.9 weeks) were available for population pharmacokinetic analysis. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination showed the best fit with the data. A covariate analysis identified that gestational age, postnatal age, current weight, serum creatinine concentration, and use of inotropes had a significant impact on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that 90% of hypothetical newborns with a PMA of <34 weeks treated with 7.5 mg/kg twice daily and 84% of newborns with a PMA ≥34 weeks and young infants receiving 12.5 mg/kg twice daily would reach the AUC/MIC target of 125, using the standard EUCAST MIC susceptibility breakpoint of 0.5 mg/liter. The associated risks of overdose for the proposed dosing regimen were <8%. The population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in neonates and young infants <3 months old, and a dosing regimen was established based on simulation. PMID:25155587

  11. Relative immunogenicity of the cold-adapted influenza virus A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (A/AA/6/60-ca), recombinants of A/AA/6/60-ca, and parental strains with similar surface antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Tannock, G A; Paul, J A; Barry, R D

    1984-01-01

    The immunogenicity of several cold-adapted (ca) viruses was compared in CSL mice with that of wild-type parental viruses with similar surface antigens, according to the vaccinating dose required to clear a challenge consisting of 10(4.5) 50% tissue culture infective doses of the wild-type virus. All ca viruses were less immunogenic than their wild-type parental strains by a factor of 10(1.3) to 10(3.4), probably due to the restricted capacity of ca viruses to replicate in the respiratory tracts of mice. However, their immunogenicity was considerably enhanced when two quite small doses were administered 3 weeks apart. The immunogenicity of ca viruses when administered in two doses and wild-type viruses when administered as a single dose varied according to their surface antigens. It was highest for viruses with the H2N2 A/Ann Arbor/6/60 and H3N2 A/Queensland/6/72 surface antigens and lowest for those with H1N1 A/HK/123/77 surface antigens. When two doses consisting of 10(5.0) 50% tissue culture infective doses of A/Ann Arbor/6/60-ca were administered at an interval of 3 weeks, solid immunity was induced against the wild-type A/Ann Arbor/6/60 parental virus, two heterologous H3N2 strains, and an H1N1 strain. PMID:6693167

  12. Maternal feeding practices and feeding behaviors of Australian children aged 12-36 months.

    PubMed

    Chan, L; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2011-11-01

    To explore parents' perceptions of the eating behaviors and related feeding practices of their young children. Mothers (N=740) of children aged 12-36 months and born in South Australia were randomly selected by birth date in four 6-month age bands from a centralized statewide database and invited to complete a postal questionnaire. Valid completed questionnaires were returned for 374 children (51% response rate; 54% female). Although mothers generally reported being confident and happy in feeding their children, 23% often worried that they gave their child the right amount of food. Based on a checklist of 36 specified items, 15% of children consumed no vegetables in the previous 24 h, 11% no fruit and for a further 8% juice was the only fruit. Of 12 specified high fat/sugar foods and drinks, 11% of children consumed none, 20% one, 26% two, and 43% three or more. Six of eight child-feeding practices that promote healthy eating behaviors were undertaken by 75% parents 'often' or 'all of the time'. However, 8 of 11 practices that do not promote healthy eating were undertaken by a third of mothers at least 'sometimes'. In this representative sample, dietary quality issues emerge early and inappropriate feeding practices are prevalent thus identifying the need for very early interventions that promote healthy food preferences and positive feeding practices. Such programs should focus not just on the 'what', but also the 'how' of early feeding, including the feeding relationship and processes appropriate to developmental stage. PMID:20872057

  13. Seismomagnetic effects from the long-awaited 28 September 2004 M 6.0 parkfield earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Sasai, Y.; Egbert, G.D.; Mueller, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Precise measurements of local magnetic fields have been obtained with a differentially connected array of seven synchronized proton magnetometers located along 60 km of the locked-to-creeping transition region of the San Andreas fault at Parkfield, California, since 1976. The M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake on 28 September 2004, occurred within this array and generated coseismic magnetic field changes of between 0.2 and 0.5 nT at five sites in the network. No preseismic magnetic field changes exceeding background noise levels are apparent in the magnetic data during the month, week, and days before the earthquake (or expected in light of the absence of measurable precursive deformation, seismicity, or pore pressure changes). Observations of electric and magnetic fields from 0.01 to 20 Hz are also made at one site near the end of the earthquake rupture and corrected for common-mode signals from the ionosphere/magnetosphere using a second site some 115 km to the northwest along the fault. These magnetic data show no indications of unusual noise before the earthquake in the ULF band (0.01-20 Hz) as suggested may have preceded the 1989 ML 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. Nor do we see electric field changes similar to those suggested to occur before earthquakes of this magnitude from data in Greece. Uniform and variable slip piezomagnetic models of the earthquake, derived from strain, displacement, and seismic data, generate magnetic field perturbations that are consistent with those observed by the magnetometer array. A higher rate of longer-term magnetic field change, consistent with increased loading in the region, is apparent since 1993. This accompanied an increased rate of secular shear strain observed on a two-color EDM network and a small network of borehole tensor strainmeters and increased seismicity dominated by three M 4.5-5 earthquakes roughly a year apart in 1992, 1993, and 1994. Models incorporating all of these data indicate increased slip at depth in the region

  14. Temporal course of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and amyloid accumulation in the aging rat brain from three to thirty months

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Amyloid accumulation in the brain parenchyma is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is seen in normal aging. Alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics are also associated with normal aging and AD. This study analyzed CSF volume, production and turnover rate in relation to amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation in the aging rat brain. Methods Aging Fischer 344/Brown-Norway hybrid rats at 3, 12, 20, and 30 months were studied. CSF production was measured by ventriculo-cisternal perfusion with blue dextran in artificial CSF; CSF volume by MRI; and CSF turnover rate by dividing the CSF production rate by the volume of the CSF space. Aβ40 and Aβ42 concentrations in the cortex and hippocampus were measured by ELISA. Results There was a significant linear increase in total cranial CSF volume with age: 3-20 months (p < 0.01); 3-30 months (p < 0.001). CSF production rate increased from 3-12 months (p < 0.01) and decreased from 12-30 months (p < 0.05). CSF turnover showed an initial increase from 3 months (9.40 day-1) to 12 months (11.30 day-1) and then a decrease to 20 months (10.23 day-1) and 30 months (6.62 day-1). Aβ40 and Aβ42 concentrations in brain increased from 3-30 months (p < 0.001). Both Aβ42 and Aβ40 concentrations approached a steady state level by 30 months. Conclusions In young rats there is no correlation between CSF turnover and Aβ brain concentrations. After 12 months, CSF turnover decreases as brain Aβ continues to accumulate. This decrease in CSF turnover rate may be one of several clearance pathway alterations that influence age-related accumulation of brain amyloid. PMID:22269091

  15. Auditory Brainstem Responses from Children Three Months to Three Years of Age: Normal Patterns of Response II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorga, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were measured in 535 children from 3 months to 3 years of age. Results suggested that changes in wave V latency with age are due to central (neural) factors and that age-appropriate norms should be used in evaluations of ABR latencies in children. (Author/DB)

  16. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of August, 1993. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Ten articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) MOM3D - A Method of Moments Code for Electromagnetic Scattering (UNIX Version); (2) EM-Animate - Computer Program for Displaying and Animating the Steady-State Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Near Field and Surface-Current Solutions; (3) MOM3D - A Method of Moments Code for Electromagnetic Scattering (IBM PC Version); (4) M414 - MIL-STD-414 Variable Sampling Procedures Computer Program; (5) MEDOF - Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter; (6) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (Macintosh Version); (7) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (IBM PC Version); (8) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version); (9) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (DEC VAX VMS Version); and (10) TFSSRA - Thick Frequency Selective Surface with Rectangular Apertures. Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  17. Risk of obesity at 4 to 6 years of age among overweight or obese 18-month-olds

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jesse J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether high weight for length at the 18-month well-baby visit is predictive of overweight or obese body mass index (BMI) at the 4- to 6-year well-child visit. Design Retrospective cohort study using objective electronic medical record measurements. Setting Eighteen family practices forming a community family health organization in Peterborough, Ont. Participants All children from the family health organization practices with at least 1 set of weight and length or height measurements at age 17 to 19 months and age 4 to 6 years (N = 126). Main outcome measure Relative risk (RR) of overweight BMI and RR of obese BMI at 4 to 6 years of age for normal versus overweight or obese 18-month-olds. Results Children who were either overweight or obese at their 18-month visits (n = 37) were more than twice as likely to be obese at age 4 to 6 years than children who had healthy weights at 18 months were (n = 89; RR = 2.71, 95% CI 1.13 to 6.47). The subgroup of obese 18-month-olds (n = 13) were at more than 3 times the risk of being obese at age 4 to 6 years than their healthy-weight-for-length counterparts (RR = 3.42, 95% CI 1.20 to 9.78). Thirty-one percent of obese 18-month-olds were obese at 4 to 6 years and a further 31% were overweight. Conclusion High weight for length at 18 months substantially increased a child’s risk of being overweight or obese at 4 to 6 years of age. Most overweight and obese 18-month-olds in this study did not achieve healthy BMIs by 4 to 6 years of age. A brief glance at the 18-month weight-for-length chart can easily help identify these high-risk toddlers. PMID:23585624

  18. Weight Estimation Tool for Children Aged 6 to 59 Months in Limited-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Importance A simple, reliable anthropometric tool for rapid estimation of weight in children would be useful in limited-resource settings where current weight estimation tools are not uniformly reliable, nearly all global under-five mortality occurs, severe acute malnutrition is a significant contributor in approximately one-third of under-five mortality, and a weight scale may not be immediately available in emergencies to first-response providers. Objective To determine the accuracy and precision of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and height as weight estimation tools in children under five years of age in low-to-middle income countries. Design This was a retrospective observational study. Data were collected in 560 nutritional surveys during 1992–2006 using a modified Expanded Program of Immunization two-stage cluster sample design. Setting Locations with high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition. Participants A total of 453,990 children met inclusion criteria (age 6–59 months; weight ≤ 25 kg; MUAC 80–200 mm) and exclusion criteria (bilateral pitting edema; biologically implausible weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) values). Exposures Weight was estimated using Broselow Tape, Hong Kong formula, and database MUAC alone, height alone, and height and MUAC combined. Main Outcomes and Measures Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight, proportion of estimates accurate to within ± 25% and ± 10% of true weight, weighted Kappa statistic, and Bland-Altman bias were reported as measures of tool accuracy. Standard deviation of mean percentage difference and Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were reported as measures of tool precision. Results Database height was a more accurate and precise predictor of weight compared to Broselow Tape 2007 [B], Broselow Tape 2011 [A], and MUAC. Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight was +0.49% (SD = 10

  19. Dose of house dust mite antigen (P1) inhaled by infants aged one month

    SciTech Connect

    Carswell, F.; Clark, J.; Robinson, P.; Platts-Mills, T.A.

    1983-11-01

    A survey of the habitats occupied by 12 infants of one month of age revealed that approximately 10% of their day was spent in conditions of potential exposure to the major (P1) allergen of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. A respiratory pump which reproduced the minute ventilation of an infant was placed in representative infant habitats. The P1 allergen trapped by the filter in this pump was measured as an estimate of infants' allergen intake. Detectable P1 intake was only present when there was active air disturbance (bed making and vacuuming). The average P1 intake was approximately 3 ng P1/24 hours. Comparison of this P1 intake with that which sensitizes in other situations suggests that it is usually inadequate to sensitize infants.

  20. Discrimination and Reversal Learning by Toddlers Aged 15–23 Months

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Naiara Minto; Gil, Maria Stella Coutinho de Alcantara; McIlvane, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated simple discrimination and discrimination reversal learning by children younger than 2 years. Extant research has shown that teaching discrimination reversals may be challenging with this population. We used social reinforcement and correction procedures to teach simple simultaneous discrimination and discrimination reversal tasks involving three pairs of animal pictures displayed in a paper notebook. Participants were eight typically-developing toddlers aged 15–23 months. All learned at least one simple discrimination/discrimination reversal problem. Four children learned all problems and showed evidence of learning set formation. Perhaps surprisingly, discrimination reversals were sometimes learned more rapidly than original discriminations. The procedures suggest a potentially efficient methodology for investigating more complex aspects of relational learning in toddlers. PMID:25663716

  1. Elicited Imitation Performance at 20 Months Predicts Memory Abilities in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Riggins, Tracy; Cheatham, Carol L.; Stark, Emily; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the first decade of life there are marked improvements in mnemonic abilities. An important question from both a theoretical and applied perspective is the extent of continuity in the nature of memory over this period. The present longitudinal investigation examined declarative memory during the transition from toddlerhood to school-age using both experimental and standardized assessments. Results indicate significant associations between immediate nonverbal recall at 20 months (measured by elicited imitation) and immediate verbal and nonverbal memory (measured by standardized and laboratory-based tasks) at 6 years in typically developing children. Regression models revealed this association was specific, as measures of language abilities and temperament were not predictive of later memory performance. These findings suggest both continuity and specificity within the declarative memory system over the first years of life. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24436638

  2. Maternal PUFA status and offspring allergic diseases up to the age of 18 months.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Calder, Philip C; Hardjojo, Antony; Soh, Shu-E; Lim, Ai Lin; Fisk, Helena L; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Goh, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Pan, An; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; van Bever, Hugo P S

    2015-03-28

    Studies have suggested that maternal PUFA status during pregnancy may influence early childhood allergic diseases, although findings are inconsistent. We examined the relationship between maternal PUFA status and risk of allergic diseases in early childhood in an Asian cohort. Maternal plasma samples from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort were assayed at 26-28 weeks of gestation for relative abundance of PUFA. Offspring (n 960) were followed up from 3 weeks to 18 months of age, and clinical outcomes of potential allergic diseases (rhinitis, eczema and wheezing) were assessed by repeated questionnaires. Skin prick testing (SPT) was also performed at the age of 18 months. Any allergic disease with positive SPT was defined as having any one of the clinical outcomes plus a positive SPT. The prevalence of a positive SPT, rhinitis, eczema, wheezing and any allergic disease with positive SPT was 14·1 % (103/728), 26·5 % (214/808), 17·6 % (147/833), 10·9 % (94/859) and 9·4 % (62/657), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal total n-3, n-6 PUFA status and the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were not significantly associated with offspring rhinitis, eczema, wheezing, a positive SPT and having any allergic disease with positive SPT in the offspring (P>0·01 for all). A weak trend of higher maternal n-3 PUFA being associated with higher risk of allergic diseases with positive SPT in offspring was observed. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of early childhood allergic diseases is modified by variation in maternal n-3 and n-6 PUFA status during pregnancy in an Asian population.

  3. EEG asymmetry at 10 months of age: are temperament trait predictors different for boys and girls?

    PubMed

    Gartstein, Maria A; Bell, Martha Ann; Calkins, Susan D

    2014-09-01

    Frontal EEG asymmetry patterns represent markers of individual differences in emotion reactivity and regulation, with right hemisphere activation linked with withdrawal behaviors/emotions (e.g., fear), and activation of the left hemisphere associated with approach (e.g., joy, anger). In the present study, gender was examined as a potential moderator of links between infant temperament at 5 months, and frontal EEG asymmetry patterns recorded during an Arm Restraint procedure at 10 months of age. Positive Affectivity/Surgency (PAS), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Orienting/Regulatory Capacity (ORC) were considered as predictors, with PAS emerging as significant for males; higher levels translating into greater right-frontal activation later in infancy. For females, ORC accounted for a significant portion of the frontal asymmetry scores, with higher ORC being associated with greater right-frontal activation. The moderating influence of gender noted in this study is discussed in the context of implications for discrepancies in rates/symptoms of psychopathology later in childhood.

  4. Implications of newborn amygdala connectivity for fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Buss, Claudia; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Rudolph, Marc D; Demeter, Damion V; Gilmore, John H; Styner, Martin; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Fair, Damien A

    2016-04-01

    The first year of life is an important period for emergence of fear in humans. While animal models have revealed developmental changes in amygdala circuitry accompanying emerging fear, human neural systems involved in early fear development remain poorly understood. To increase understanding of the neural foundations of human fear, it is important to consider parallel cognitive development, which may modulate associations between typical development of early fear and subsequent risk for fear-related psychopathology. We, therefore, examined amygdala functional connectivity with rs-fcMRI in 48 neonates (M=3.65 weeks, SD=1.72), and measured fear and cognitive development at 6-months-of-age. Stronger, positive neonatal amygdala connectivity to several regions, including bilateral anterior insula and ventral striatum, was prospectively associated with higher fear at 6-months. Stronger amygdala connectivity to ventral anterior cingulate/anterior medial prefrontal cortex predicted a specific phenotype of higher fear combined with more advanced cognitive development. Overall, findings demonstrate unique profiles of neonatal amygdala functional connectivity related to emerging fear and cognitive development, which may have implications for normative and pathological fear in later years. Consideration of infant fear in the context of cognitive development will likely contribute to a more nuanced understanding of fear, its neural bases, and its implications for future mental health.

  5. Effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual functioning in aging men: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Verhaar, H J J; Nakhai-Pour, H R; Grobbee, D E; van der Schouw, Y T

    2009-01-01

    Serum testosterone levels decline significantly with aging and this has been associated with reduced sexual function. We have conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual function in 237 elderly men with a testosterone level <13.7 nmol l(-1). Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral testosterone undecanoate or a placebo for 6 months. A total of 207 men completed the study. After treatment, there were no differences in scores on sexual function between the groups. Subanalysis showed that although a baseline testosterone level in the lowest tertile was associated with significantly lower scores for sexual fantasies, desire of sexual contact and frequency of sexual contact, supplementation of testosterone did not result in improvement on any of these items in this group. In conclusion, the findings do not support the view that testosterone undecanoate supplementation for 6 months to elderly men with low-normal testosterone concentrations favorably affects sexual function. PMID:19225466

  6. Object engagement and manipulation in extremely preterm and full term infants at 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zuccarini, Mariagrazia; Sansavini, Alessandra; Iverson, Jana M; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Aureli, Tiziana

    2016-08-01

    Delays in the motor domain have been frequently observed in preterm children, especially those born at an extremely low gestational age (ELGA;<28 weeks GA). However, early motor exploration has received relatively little attention despite its relevance for object knowledge and its impact on cognitive and language development. The present study aimed at comparing early object exploration in 20 ELGA and 20 full-term (FT) infants at 6 months of age during a 5-minute mother-infant play interaction. Object engagement (visual vs manual), visual object engagement (no act vs reach), manual object engagement (passive vs active), and active object manipulation (mouthing, transferring, banging, turn/rotating, shaking, fingering) were analyzed. Moreover, the Griffiths Mental Development Scales 0-2 years (1996) were administered to the infants. Relative to FT peers, ELGA infants spent more time in visual engagement, and less time in manual engagement, active manipulation, mouthing, and turning/rotating. Moreover, they had lower scores on general psychomotor development, eye & hand coordination, and performance abilities. Close relationships emerged between manual object engagement and psychomotor development. Clinical implications of these results in terms of early evaluation of action schemes in ELGA infants and the provision of intervention programs for supporting these abilities are discussed.

  7. Rhesus Rotavirus candidate vaccine. Clinical trial in children vaccinated between 2 and 5 months of age.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, T; Rautanen, T; Varis, T; Beards, G M; Kapikian, A Z

    1990-03-01

    Live attenuated oral rhesus Rotavirus candidate vaccine (strain MMU 18006 [lot RRV-1]) was evaluated for immunogenicity, safety, and clinical protection in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 200 infants aged 2 to 5 months when vaccinated. Vaccine-induced fourfold or greater rise of Rotavirus antibodies was seen in 62% of the infants. Febrile reactions of short duration on days 3 and/or 4 after vaccination occurred in 26% of the vaccine recipients. The clinical follow-up covered two Rotavirus seasons, in which serotypes 1 and 4 were prevalent. There were 16 cases of confirmed Rotavirus diarrhea in the placebo-treated group and 10 in the vaccine-treated group; from this a vaccine protection rate of 38% was derived. Clinical severity of Rotavirus diarrhea was assessed by a score; 13 cases in the placebo-treated group and 5 in the vaccine-treated group were regarded as severe or moderately severe, giving a vaccine protection rate of 67%. The rhesus Rotavirus vaccine induces partial protection against heterotypic Rotavirus disease, but the level of protection achieved with the present vaccine dose in this age group appears to be insufficient for a general Rotavirus vaccination.

  8. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Developmental Outcomes at 24 months of age in Extremely Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, T. Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Kuban, Karl C. K.; Hirtz, Deborah; Specter, Barbara; Durfee, Sara; Paneth, Nigel; Leviton, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Whether intraventricular hemorrhage increases the risk of adverse developmental outcome among premature infants is controversial. Using brain ultrasound, we identified IVH and white matter abnormalities among 1064 infants born before 28 weeks gestation. We identified adverse developmental outcomes at 24 months of age using a standardized neurological examination and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental and Motor Scales. In logistic regression models that adjusted for gestational age, sex, and public insurance, isolated intraventricular hemorrhage was associated with visual fixation difficulty (odds ratio: 2.5 (95% confidence limits: 1.2, 5.1)) but no other adverse outcome. Infants who had a white matter lesion unaccompanied by intraventricular hemorrhage were at increased risk of cerebral palsy, low Mental and Motor Scores, and visual and hearing impairments. Except when accompanied or followed by a white matter lesion, intraventricular hemorrhage is associated with no more than a mild increase (and possibly no increase) in the risk of adverse developmental outcome during infancy. PMID:22232137

  9. The Role of Zinc Sulfate in Acute Bronchiolitis in Patients Aged 2 to 23 Months

    PubMed Central

    Heydarian, Farhad; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Daluee, Mohammadkhaje; Kianifar, Hamidreza; Hematian, Mohammadnasir

    2011-01-01

    Objective Evaluating the effect of zinc sulfate in improving the clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis in children younger than 2 years. Methods This was a double blind pilot trial on 50 patients aged 2 to 23 months at Ghaem and Dr. Sheikh Hospitals in Mashhad from January 2008 to March 2009. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: a case group received oral zinc sulfate and to the control group was given placebo. Findings Mean age of case group was 168.0±108.6 days and control group 169.2±90.4 days (P=0.98) with male predominance in both groups. At first there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in reducing the symptoms. But 24 hours after treating, improvement of some important manifestations including tachypnea, subcostal and intercostal retraction, wheezing and cyanosis revealed statistically significant difference in control group in comparison with case group (P=0.04). Conclusion Zinc sulfate has no benefit in improving clinical manifestations of acute bronchiolitis. PMID:23056793

  10. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  11. PBO Borehole Strainmeter Recordings of The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, D.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Meertens, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    A major goal of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) was to enable researchers to study the role aseismic transients play in the earthquake cycle. To attain this goal the Observatory includes 75 borehole tensor strainmeters (BSMs) installed in targeted regions, one being the area to the north and east of San Francisco. The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa earthquake was the largest earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area in 25 years and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the response of BSMs to a nearby strong earthquake and analyze the temporal evolution of the postseismic shear strains. In this presentation we will document the co and postseismic signals recorded by the two PBO BSMs in the area, one in Lucas Valley, north of San Francisco, at 30 km from the epicenter and the other in the East Bay, 3 km from the Hayward Fault and 40 km from the event. One month after the event the Lucas Valley instrument continues to record a large postseismic signal in the shear strains. We will compare the coseismic offsets as recorded by the BSMs with those predicted using elastic half-space dislocation theory and with those recorded by nearby USGS borehole instruments and characterize the temporal behavior of the postseismic signal at the Lucas Valley strainmeter. UNAVCO operates a network of 1100 GPS sites and 75 BSMs as part of the NSF funded PBO program. For information on the PBO network see http://www.unavco.org/projects/major-projects/pbo/pbo.html , for further information on PBO BSM design, installation techniques and suite of data products see http://www.unavco.org/data/strain-seismic/bsm-data/bsm-data.html.

  12. Associations between Infant Feeding Practice Prior to Six Months and Body Mass Index at Six Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Cindy Mari; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorisdottir, Birna; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Rapid growth during infancy is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity and differences in weight gain are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding. The aim was to assess the associations between infant feeding practice in early infancy and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years of age. Icelandic infants (n = 154) were prospectively followed from birth to 12 months and again at age 6 years. Birth weight and length were gathered from maternity wards, and healthcare centers provided the measurements made during infancy up to 18 months of age. Information on breastfeeding practices was documented 0–12 months and a 24-h dietary record was collected at 5 months. Changes in infant weight gain were calculated from birth to 18 months. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between infant feeding practice at 5 months and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years. Infants who were formula-fed at 5 months of age grew faster, particularly between 2 and 6 months, compared to exclusively breastfed infants. At age 6 years, BMI was on average 1.1 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.2, 2.0) higher among infants who were formula fed and also receiving solid foods at 5 months of age compared to those exclusively breastfed. In a high-income country such as Iceland, early introduction of solid foods seems to further increase the risk of high childhood BMI among formula fed infants compared with exclusively breastfed infants, although further studies with greater power are needed. PMID:24747694

  13. Acoustic Emission Precursors of M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri

    2005-02-01

    Two recent strike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault(SAF) in California, the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietaevents, revealed peaks in the acoustic emission (AE) activity in thesurrounding crust several months prior to the main events. Earthquakesdirectly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded from theanalysis. The observed increase in AE is assumed to be a signature of theincreasing stress level in the surrounding crust, while the peak andsubsequent decrease in AE starting several months prior to the mainevents is attributed to damage-induced softening processes as discussedherein. Further, distinctive zones of low seismic activity surroundingthe epicentral regions in the pre-event time period are present for thetwo studied events. Both AE increases in the crust surrounding apotential future event and the development of a low-seismicity epicentralzone can be regarded as promising precursory information that could helpsignal the arrival of large earthquakes.

  14. Achieving Motor Development Milestones at the Age of Three Months May Determine, but Does Not Guarantee, Proper Further Development

    PubMed Central

    Gajewska, Ewa; Sobieska, Magdalena; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Steinborn, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Proper motor performance at 3rd month is necessary for further motor development. The paper aims to demonstrate the reliability, sensitivity, and predictive value of an original motor performance assessment tool in comparison with the neurological assessment at 3, 6, and 9 months. Children (n = 123), born at term without pre- or perinatal complications, born at term with pre- or perinatal complications, or born preterm, were assessed at the age of 3, 6, and 9 months, by a neurologist and a physiotherapist. The physiotherapist evaluated 15 qualitative features typical for the age of 3 months in the prone and supine positions. The final neurological assessment determined the degree of developmental disorder. Neurological and global physiotherapeutic assessments showed a statistically significant correlation. Qualitative assessment results were very good in healthy children and decreased with worsening neurological diagnoses. Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy did not show proper qualitative features of 3 months when analyzed at 3, 6, and 9 months. Children with delayed motor development revealed minor qualitative performance impairments as early as 3 months but improved with age. Qualitative assessment at 3 months not only facilitates diagnosis of major developmental disorders but is also a good predictor of delayed motor development in children. PMID:24385875

  15. Association between age at antiretroviral therapy initiation and 24-month immune response in HIV-infected children in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Desmonde, Sophie; Dicko, Fatoumata; Koueta, Fla; Eboua, Tanoh; Balestre, Eric; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Aka, Edmond A.; Lawson-Evi, Koko; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Kouakou, Kouadio; Koumakpai, Siriatou; Renner, Lorna; Sy, Haby Signaté; Valériane, Leroy

    2014-01-01

    Objective We describe the association between age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and 24-month CD4+ cell response in West African HIV-infected children. Methods All HIV-infected children from the IeDEA paediatric West African cohort, initiating ART, with at least two CD4+ cell count measurements, including one at ART initiation (baseline) were included. CD4+ cell gain on ART was estimated using a multivariable linear mixed model adjusted for baseline variables: age, CD4+ cell count, sex, first-line ART regimen. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a Cox proportional hazards regression model compared immune recovery for age within 24 months post-ART. Results Of the 4808 children initiated on ART, 3014 were enrol led at a median age of 5.6 years; 61.2% were immunodeficient. After 12 months, children at least 4 years at baseline had significantly lower CD4+ cell gains compared with children less than 2 years, the reference group (P < 0.001). However, by 24 months, we observed higher CD4+cell gain in children who initiated ART between 3 and 4 years compared with those less than 2 years (P < 0.001). The 24-month CD4+ cell gain was also strongest in immunodeficient children at baseline. Among these children, 75% reached immune recovery: 12-month rates were significantly highest in all those aged 2–5 years at ART initiation compared with those less than 2 years. Beyond 12 months on ART, immune recovery was significantly lower in children initiated more than 5 years (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.56–0.86). Conclusion These results suggest that both the initiation of ART at the earliest age less than 5 years and before any severe immunodeficiency is needed for improving 24-month immune recovery on ART. PMID:24804858

  16. The benefits of influenza vaccine in pregnancy for the fetus and the infant younger than six months of age.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Noni E; McDonald, Jane C

    2014-12-01

    Influenza is a serious problem for infants <6 months of age, whose hospitalization rates for influenza and associated illness are comparable with rates in the elderly. Because influenza vaccines are not effective in this age group, the optimal evidence-based strategy is to administer trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines during pregnancy. Immunizing with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in the second and third trimester is well studied and safe, not only providing protection for the pregnant woman and her infant <6 months of age, but also for the fetus by decreasing the risk for low birth weight.

  17. The benefits of influenza vaccine in pregnancy for the fetus and the infant younger than six months of age.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Noni E; McDonald, Jane C

    2014-11-01

    Influenza is a serious problem for infants <6 months of age, whose hospitalization rates for influenza and associated illness are comparable with rates in the elderly. Because influenza vaccines are not effective in this age group, the optimal evidence-based strategy is to administer trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines during pregnancy. Immunizing with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in the second and third trimester is well studied and safe, not only providing protection for the pregnant woman and her infant <6 months of age, but also for the fetus by decreasing the risk for low birth weight.

  18. Integrated Fuel-Coolant Interaction (IFCI 6.0) code. User`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.J.; Young, M.F.

    1994-04-01

    The integrated Fuel-Coolant interaction (IFCI) computer code is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) problem at large scale using a two-dimensional, four-field hydrodynamic framework and physically based models. IFCI will be capable of treating all major FCI processes in an integrated manner. This document is a product of the effort to generate a stand-alone version of IFCI, IFCI 6.0. The User`s Manual describes in detail the hydrodynamic method and physical models used in IFCI 6.0. Appendix A is an input manual, provided for the creation of working decks.

  19. A comparison of the carcass and meat quality of Martina Franca donkey foals aged 8 or 12 months.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Paolo; Pucciarelli, Stefania; Ariani, Ambra; Polzonetti, Valeria; Vincenzetti, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    The effects of slaughter age (8 vs 12 months) were investigated on meat and carcass quality obtained from Martina Franca donkey foals. Sixteen male foals were used, eight were slaughtered at 8 months of age with a mean (±s.e.) final body weight of 101±18kg and the remaining 8 foals slaughtered at 12 months of age with a mean final body weight of 122±13kg. Carcass weight and dressing percentage were higher (P<0.05) in older foals. Shear force value was lower (P<0.05) in donkeys slaughtered at 8 months of age (54.03N) compared to the same muscle Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum (LTL) collected in older animals (62.66N). Muscle glycogen content was higher (P<0.05) in foals slaughtered at 12months of age. Donkey foal meat showed an interesting content of essential amino acids and a notable percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in both groups of animals, giving a high nutritional value to this alternative red meat.

  20. Maternal Periodontitis Treatment and Child Neurodevelopment at 24 to 28 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, James S.; Lussky, Richard C.; Bada, Henrietta; Rawson, Twila; Buttross, L. Susan; Chiriboga, Claudia; DiAngelis, Anthony J.; Novak, M. John; Buchanan, William; Mitchell, Dennis A.; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some maternal infections are associated with impaired infant cognitive and motor performance. Periodontitis results in frequent bacteremia and elevated serum inflammatory mediators. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if periodontitis treatment in pregnant women affects infant cognitive, motor, or language development. METHODS: Children born to women who had participated in a previous trial were assessed between 24 and 28 months of age by using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Third Edition) and the Preschool Language Scale (Fourth Edition). Information about the pregnancy, neonatal period, and home environment was obtained through chart abstractions, laboratory test results, and questionnaires. We compared infants born to women treated for periodontitis before 21 weeks' gestation (treatment group) or after delivery (controls). In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, associations between change in maternal periodontal condition during pregnancy and neurodevelopment scores were tested by using Student's t tests and linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 411 of 791 eligible mother/caregiver-child pairs participated. Thirty-seven participating children (9.0%) were born at <37 weeks' gestation. Infants in the treatment and control groups did not differ significantly for adjusted mean cognitive (90.7 vs 91.4), motor (96.8 vs 97.2), or language (92.2 vs 92.1) scores (all P > .5). Results were similar in adjusted analyses. Children of women who experienced greater improvements in periodontal health had significantly higher motor and cognitive scores (P = .01 and .02, respectively), although the effect was small (∼1-point increase for each SD increase in the periodontal measure). CONCLUSION: Nonsurgical periodontitis treatment in pregnant women was not associated with cognitive, motor, or language development in these study children. PMID:21482606

  1. Risk groups in children under six months of age using self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Schilithz, A O C; Kale, P L; Gama, S G N; Nobre, F F

    2014-06-01

    Fetal and infant growth tends to follow irregular patterns and, particularly in developing countries, these patterns are greatly influenced by unfavorable living conditions and interactions with complications during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify groups of children with different risk profiles for growth development. The study sample comprised 496 girls and 508 boys under six months of age from 27 pediatric primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were obtained through interviews with the mothers and by reviewing each child's health card. An unsupervised learning, know as a self-organizing map (SOM) and a K-means algorithm were used for cluster analysis to identify groups of children. Four groups of infants were identified. The first (139) consisted of infants born exclusively by cesarean delivery, and their mothers were exclusively multiparous; the highest prevalences of prematurity and low birthweight, a high prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and a low proportion of hospitalization were observed for this group. The second (247 infants) and the third (298 infants) groups had the best and worst perinatal and infant health indicators, respectively. The infants of the fourth group (318) were born heavier, had a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and had a higher rate of hospitalization. Using a SOM, it was possible to identify children with common features, although no differences between groups were found with respect to the adequacy of postnatal weight. Pregnant women and children with characteristics similar to those of group 3 require early intervention and more attention in public policy. PMID:24725333

  2. 41. Photograph of a line drawing. '3'0' x 6'0' x ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photograph of a line drawing. '3'-0' x 6'-0' x 2'-0' WOODEN NUTSCHE, BUILDING G.' Holston Ordnance Works, Tennessee Eastman Corporation. September 24, 1942. Delineator: E. E. Ellis. Drawing # 7651-1007-218. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  3. Four-month enriched environment prevents myelinated fiber loss in the white matter during normal aging of male rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu; Lu, Wei; Zhou, De-shan; Tang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    White matter degenerates with normal aging and accordingly results in declines in multiple brain functions. Previous neuroimaging studies have implied that the white matter is plastic by experiences and contributory to the experience-dependent recovery of brain functions. However, it is not clear how and how far enriched environment (EE) plays a role in the white matter remodeling. Male rats exhibit earlier and severer age-related damages in the white matter and its myelinated fibers than female rats; therefore, in this current study, 24 middle-aged (14-month-old) and 24 old-aged (24-month-old) male SD rats were randomly assigned to an EE or standard environment (SE) for 4 months prior to Morris water maze tests. Five rats from each group were then randomly sampled for stereological assessment of the white matter. Results revealed that EE could somewhat induce improvement of spatial learning and significantly increase the white matter volume, the myelinated fiber volume and the myelinated fiber length during normal aging. The EE-induced improvement of spatial learning ability was significantly correlated with the EE-induced increase of the white matter and its myelinated fibers. We suggested that exposure to an EE could delay the progress of age-related changes in the white matter and the effect could extend to old age.

  4. The Visual Scoring of Sleep in Infants 0 to 2 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M.

    2016-01-01

    conceptional age (CA) and when present prompt scoring N; (9) score EEG activity in an epoch as “continuous” or “discontinuous” for inter-scorer reliability; (10) score R if four or more of the following conditions are present, including irregular respiration and rapid eye movement(s): (a) low chin EMG (for the majority of the epoch); (b) eyes closed with at least one rapid eye movement (concurrent with low chin tone); (c) irregular respiration; (d) mouthing, sucking, twitches, or brief head movements; and (e) EEG exhibits a continuous pattern without sleep spindles; (11) because rapid eye movements may not be seen on every page, epochs following an epoch of definite R in the absence of rapid eye movements may be scored if the EEG is continuous without TA or sleep spindles, chin muscle tone low for the majority of the epoch; and there is no intervening arousal; (12) Score N if four or more of the following conditions are present, including regular respiration, for the majority of the epoch: (a) eyes are closed with no eye movements; (b) chin EMG tone present; (c) regular respiration; and (d) EEG patterns of either TA, HVS, or sleep spindles are present; and (13) score T sleep if an epoch contains two or more discordant PSG state characteristics (either three NREM and two REM characteristics or two NREM and three REM characteristics). These criteria for ages 0–2 mo represent far more than baby steps. Like all the other AASM Manual rules and specifications none are fixed in stone, all open for debate, discussion and revision with the fundamental goal to provide standards for comparison of methods and results. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 291. Citation: Grigg-Damberger MM. The visual scoring of sleep in infants 0 to 2 months of age. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):429–445. PMID:26951412

  5. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  6. INSIG2 is Associated with Lower Gain in Weight-for-Length Between Birth and Age 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ann Chen; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have described the association of a common DNA polymorphism, rs7566605, near INSIG2 (insulin-induced gene 2) with obesity in multiple independent populations that include subjects ages 11–60 years.1 To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of this polymorphism with weight status during early childhood. We explored the association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with weight-for-length among 319 children at 6 months and 3 years participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. In contrast to studies of older individuals, CC homozygosity was associated with lower gain in weight-for-length z-score between birth and age 6 months than GG homozygosity or GC heterozygosity. At age 3, we did not find an association. The association of INSIG2 gene with obesity may change direction with age. PMID:20354568

  7. Community-based lifestyle modification of cardiovascular disease risks in middle-aged Japanese: a 27-month update.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroko; Muto, Takashi; Haruyama, Yasuo; Nakade, Makiko; Kobayashi, Emiko; Ishisaki, Kaori; Yamasaki, Akiko

    2010-04-01

    Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of preventive management for people with cardiovascular disease risks, such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. This study investigated the effect of a 27-month community-based lifestyle intervention on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risks in middle-aged Japanese. Of 549 participants with cardiovascular disease risk factors of overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes enrolled in this non-randomized controlled study, 397 participants aged 39-71 years old completed all 3 serial surveys at baseline, 15 months and 27 months. For the intervention group (39 males and 174 females), 31 specific interventions including individual counselling and group sessions were conducted. The control group (64 males and 120 females) only received 7 newsletters providing health information and results of health checkups. Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex, each baseline risk category and age category showed that the proportion of those who were overweight or showed dyslipidemia risk were significantly lower in the intervention group only at 27 months [Odds ratio (OR): 0.43 (95% CI 0.20-0.94), OR: 0.43 (95% CI 0.21-0.87), respectively] and the proportion of those showing diabetes risk was significantly lower in the intervention group at both 15 months [OR: 0.42 (95% CI 0.18-0.97)] and 27 months [OR: 0.56 (95% CI 0.32-0.99)]. In conclusion, the 27-month community-based lifestyle modification of cardiovascular disease risks shows significant reductions in risks of diabetes, overweight and dyslipidemia in middle-aged Japanese.

  8. Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

  9. The risk of fever following one dose of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children aged ≥6 months to <36 months: a comparison of published and unpublished studies.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Marlena C; Duong, Uyen T; Ware, Robert S; Lambert, Stephen B; Kelly, Heath A

    2013-11-01

    There are limited summary data published on the risk of fever and febrile seizures in children following influenza vaccination. We performed a review of the risk of fever and febrile seizures following receipt of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in children aged ≥6 months to <36 months, searching PubMED and Google Scholar for English language articles from 2000 onwards, and initiated or ongoing unpublished studies since September 2007 using Clinicaltrials.gov. Exclusions included other vaccine co-administration, missing ages or participant numbers, or unmeasured fever. We reviewed articles and collated results using a standard data extraction template. We identified a total of 909 published papers and unpublished trials from a search conducted on 23 January 2013, 669 from Google Scholar, 114 from PubMed and 126 from the Clinicaltrials.gov online database. After excluding 890 published papers or unpublished trials, 5 published papers and 14 unpublished trials were included in this review. Extracted data on number of events, children at risk and time of follow-up were converted to the risk of fever, which was averaged per week of follow-up (referred to as 'averaged weekly risk'). Following one dose of TIV, the median averaged weekly risk of any fever (≥37.5°C) was 26.0% (range 10.3-70.0%) in unpublished trials compared to 8.2% (range 5.3-28.3%) in published papers (p=0.04). The median averaged weekly risk of severe fever (≥39.0°C) was 3.2% (range 0-10.0%) and 2.0% (range 0.6-17.0%), respectively (p=0.91). Variation in the reporting of fever by participant age groups, time since vaccination and the definition or measurement of fever resulted in a wide range of risk estimates. Reporting of febrile reactions should be standardised to allow comparison between manufacturers and influenza seasons.

  10. Measles Vaccination Coverage among Latino Children Aged 12 to 59 Months in Los Angeles County: A Household Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Donnell P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines the results of a household survey of measles vaccination coverage among Hispanic American children aged 12 to 59 months. Between 81 percent and 91 percent of the children have been vaccinated, a percentage insufficient to stop the high rate of measles transmission within this population. Recommends that public health efforts be focused on…

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated 2010-2011 influenza vaccine in Taiwan infants aged 6-12 months.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Yen, Ting-Yu; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chen, An-Chyi; Chow, Julie Chi; Huang, Li-Min

    2014-05-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the immune responses and safety of an influenza vaccine in vaccine-naïve infants aged 6-12 months, and was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011. Fifty-nine infants aged 6-12 months received two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured 4 weeks after the two doses of study vaccine. Based on the assumption that a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 1:40 or greater against the antigen would be protective in adults, two doses of the study vaccine generated a protective immune response of 63.2% against influenza A(H1N1), 82.5% against influenza A(H3N2) and 38.6% against influenza B viruses in infants aged 6-12 months. The geometric mean fold rises against influenza type A and B viruses also met the European Medicines Agency criteria for flu vaccines. The solicited events within 7 days after vaccination were mild in intensity. No deaths or adverse events such as optic neuritis, cranial neuropathy, and brachial neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome were reported. Two doses of inactivated influenza vaccine were well tolerated and induced a protective immune response against influenza in infants aged 6-12 months.

  12. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  13. New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers from 12 to 47 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Rutter et al. in "Autism diagnostic interview-revised." Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2003) diagnostic algorithms specific to toddlers and young preschoolers were created using 829 assessments of children aged from 12 to 47 months with ASD, nonspectrum disorders, and typical development. The…

  14. Language and Social Competence in Typically Developing Children and Late Talkers between 18 and 35 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Rescorla, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between language and social ability in a sample of 268 preschoolers aged 18-35 months. Expressive language was assessed with the Italian adaptation of the Language Development Survey (LDS), and Social Competence was assessed with the Questionnaire on Peer Interactions in the Kindergarten (QPI). Results…

  15. The Effects of Stereotyped Toys and Gender on Play Assessment in Children Aged 18-47 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Glover, Katrina Gill; Ruane, Amy; Ryalls, Brigette Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study in which children, ages 18-47 months (n=30), were observed for 30 minutes in a playroom to determine if: (1) stereotyped toys impact children's play; (2) their behavior influences cognitive development; and (3) which toys are appropriate for the assessment sessions. Includes references. (CMK)

  16. Risk Factors for Learning-Related Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age: Population-Based Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steven

    2009-01-01

    We used a large sample of singleton children to estimate the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, additional socio-demographics, gestational and birth factors, and parenting on children's risk for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age. We investigated to what extent these factors increased a child's risk…

  17. Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy in Belgium: Follow-up of infants until 1 month after the fourth infant pertussis vaccination at 15 months of age.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Kirsten; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Huygen, Kris; Vermeiren, Sandra; Hens, Niel; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2016-06-30

    Vaccination of pregnant women with a pertussis containing vaccine is a recommended strategy in some industrialized countries, to protect young infants from severe disease. One of the effects of the presence of high titers of passively acquired maternal antibodies in young infants is blunting of immune responses to infant vaccination. We present infant immune responses to a fourth pertussis containing vaccine dose at 15 months of age, as a follow-up of previously presented data. In a prospective cohort study, women were either vaccinated with an acellular pertussis vaccine (Boostrix(®)) during pregnancy (vaccine group) or received no vaccine (control group). All infants were vaccinated with Infanrix Hexa(®) according to the standard Belgian vaccination schedule (8/12/16 weeks, 15 months). We report results from blood samples collected before and 1 month after the fourth vaccine dose. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxoid (TT) and diphtheria toxoid (DT) were measured using commercially available ELISA tests. Antibody levels were expressed in International Units per milliliter. Demographic characteristics were similar in the vaccine and control group. Before the fourth vaccine dose, significantly lower antibody titers were measured in the vaccine group compared to the control group for anti-Prn IgG (p=0.003) and anti-DT IgG (p=0.023), with a steep decay of antibody titers since post-primary vaccination. One month after the fourth dose, antibody titers were only significantly lower in the vaccine group for anti-PT IgG (p=0.006). For all antigens, there was a rise in antibody titer after the fourth vaccine dose. The present results indicate still a minor blunting effect 1 month after a fourth vaccine dose for anti-PT antibodies. However, a good humoral immune response on all measured antigens was elicited in both groups of children. The clinical significance of such blunting

  18. MorePower 6.0 for ANOVA with relational confidence intervals and Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jamie I D; Thompson, Valerie A

    2012-12-01

    MorePower 6.0 is a flexible freeware statistical calculator that computes sample size, effect size, and power statistics for factorial ANOVA designs. It also calculates relational confidence intervals for ANOVA effects based on formulas from Jarmasz and Hollands (Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 63:124-138, 2009), as well as Bayesian posterior probabilities for the null and alternative hypotheses based on formulas in Masson (Behavior Research Methods 43:679-690, 2011). The program is unique in affording direct comparison of these three approaches to the interpretation of ANOVA tests. Its high numerical precision and ability to work with complex ANOVA designs could facilitate researchers' attention to issues of statistical power, Bayesian analysis, and the use of confidence intervals for data interpretation. MorePower 6.0 is available at https://wiki.usask.ca/pages/viewpageattachments.action?pageId=420413544 .

  19. Use of World Health Organization and CDC growth charts for children aged 0-59 months in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M; Reinold, Chris; Krebs, Nancy F

    2010-09-10

    In April 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) released new international growth charts for children aged 0-59 months. Similar to the 2000 CDC growth charts, these charts describe weight for age, length (or stature) for age, weight for length (or stature), and body mass index for age. Whereas the WHO charts are growth standards, describing the growth of healthy children in optimal conditions, the CDC charts are a growth reference, describing how certain children grew in a particular place and time. However, in practice, clinicians use growth charts as standards rather than references. In 2006, CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the American Academy of Pediatrics convened an expert panel to review scientific evidence and discuss the potential use of the new WHO growth charts in clinical settings in the United States. On the basis of input from this expert panel, CDC recommends that clinicians in the United States use the 2006 WHO international growth charts, rather than the CDC growth charts, for children aged <24 months (available at https://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts). The CDC growth charts should continue to be used for the assessment of growth in persons aged 2--19 years. The recommendation to use the 2006 WHO international growth charts for children aged <24 months is based on several considerations, including the recognition that breastfeeding is the recommended standard for infant feeding. In the WHO charts, the healthy breastfed infant is intended to be the standard against which all other infants are compared; 100% of the reference population of infants were breastfed for 12 months and were predominantly breastfed for at least 4 months. When using the WHO growth charts to screen for possible abnormal or unhealthy growth, use of the 2.3rd and 97.7th percentiles (or ±2 standard deviations) are recommended, rather than the 5th and 95th percentiles. Clinicians should be aware that fewer U.S. children will be identified as underweight using the WHO

  20. Prenatal dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure and neurodevelopment: a follow-up from 12 to 30 months of age.

    PubMed

    Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Schnaas, Lourdes; Cebrián, Mariano E; Hernández, María del Carmen; Valencia, Erika Osorio; García Hernández, Rosa María; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2009-11-01

    In order to evaluate the persistency of the association between DDE and infant neurodevelopment we assessed mental and psychomotor development between 12 and 30 months of age in an ongoing cohort in Mexico. A total of 270 singleton children without perinatal asphyxia diagnosis, with a birth weight > or =2 kg, mothers>15 years of age with organochlorine maternal serum levels measured at least in one trimester of pregnancy, and who were evaluated at least in two of the four visits at 12, 18, 24 and 30 months of age, were included in this report. The Spanish version of Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID_II; Bayley, 1993) was administered to the children and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) were calculated. Information about stimulation at home was measured using the Home Observation of Measurement of the Environment (HOME) at 6 months, and breastfeeding history was obtained through direct interviews with the mothers. Maternal serum DDE levels were determined during pregnancy by means of electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. The association between DDE prenatal exposure and neurodevelopment was estimated using separate generalized mixed effects models. Our results suggest that the association between prenatal DDE and infant neurodevelopment does not persist beyond 12 months of age even after adjusting for known risk factors for neurodevelopment. In addition, we observed an interaction between early home stimulation and mental improvement at 24 and 30 months of age (p<0.001). The association of DDE with infant neurodevelopment seems to be reversible. However, we cannot rule out that other DDT metabolites may play a role in neurodevelopment.

  1. Relationships between regulatory temperament dimensions and self-regulatory behaviors at 4 and 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Aureli, Tiziana; Coppola, Gabrielle; Picconi, Laura; Grazia, Annalisa; Ponzetti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The present study focused on relationships between temperament and behavior in early regulation development. Unlike most studies on the topic, we observed infant behavior in a naturalistic playful situation rather than in experimental stressful procedure, and employed temperament measures uniquely reflecting regulatory dispositions rather than a global measure of reactivity. The infant's self-regulatory behaviors were observed at 4 and 6 months during face-to-face interactions and regulatory dimensions were assessed at 4 months. We found that low intensity pleasure and soothability dimensions, related to the infant physical and social experience, respectively, significantly affected regulatory behavior and their influence showed to depend on the infant's age, with the former dimension being influential at the earlier age and the latter being influential when the behavior was observed at the later age. Results are interpreted on the light of a dynamic view of regulation development.

  2. Significance of indoor environment for the development of allergic symptoms in children followed up to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, D; Andersson, K; Fagerlund, I; Kjellman, N I

    1996-11-01

    The development of symptoms possibly related to allergy or other forms of hypersensitivity was studied in a group of 638 children on two occasions: when the children were 3 and 18 months of age. Standardized questions were used to collect basic information about the child, technical characteristics of the home, and the mother's perception of the indoor climate. All reported exposure factors were analyzed in relation to the child's symptoms at 18 months of age, by logistic regression techniques. A family history of atopy was associated with a high incidence of most of the investigated symptoms. Attendance at a day nursery before 18 months of age increased the risk of recurrent colds and the need for several courses of treatment with antibiotics. If the mother smoked, the children more often suffered from protracted coughing episodes. If the child has a sibling, the risk of developing a wheeze, repeated colds, and the need for antibiotic treatment increased. No building factors, such as size of the home, heating and ventilation system, type of foundation, dampness, or presence of wall-to-wall carpets, showed a significant correlation to symptoms reported in the children. However, if the mothers reported symptoms that are often connected with "sick buildings", the children more often had eczema, dry skin, or reactions to food. The mothers' complaints about indoor air quality and climate and mucous membrane symptoms were significantly related to the type of building and presence of condensation on the windows in winter, a finding which may indicate that indoor climate factors also have some effect on the health of the children. This study reports the prevalences of symptoms until the age of 18 months. At this age, the allergic manifestations are usually nonspecific, and follow-up examinations to 4-5 years of age are needed before any definite conclusions can be drawn about the development of atopic diseases due to indoor climate factors. PMID:8947336

  3. Prevalence and Incidence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Other Respiratory Viral Infections in Children Aged 6 Months to 10 Years With Influenza-like Illness Enrolled in a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Terry; Borja-Tabora, Charissa; Lopez, Pio; Weckx, Lily; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Weber, Miguel Angel Rodriguez; Mascareñas de Los Santos, Abiel; Tinoco, Juan-Carlos; Safadi, Marco Aurelio P.; Seng, Lim Fong; Hernandez-de Mezerville, Marcela; Faingezicht, Idis; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Feng, Yang; Li, Ping; Durviaux, Serge; Haars, Gerco; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Vaughn, David W.; Taylor, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Background. The high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated morbidity and mortality makes vaccine development a priority. Methods. As part of an efficacy trial of pandemic influenza vaccines (NCT01051661), RSV epidemiology in healthy children aged 6 months to <10 years at first vaccination with influenza-like illness (ILI) was evaluated in Australia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand between February 2010 and August 2011. Active surveillance for ILI was conducted for approximately 1 year, with nasal and throat swabs analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence and incidence of RSV among ILI episodes were calculated. Results. A total of 6266 children were included, of whom 2421 experienced 3717 ILI episodes with a respiratory sample available. RSV was detected for 359 ILI episodes, a prevalence of 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 8.7–10.7). The highest prevalence was in children aged 12–23 or 24–35 months in all countries except the Philippines, where it was in children aged 6–11 months. The incidence of RSV-associated ILI was 7.0 (6.3–7.7) per 100 person-years (PY). Eighty-eight ILI episodes resulted in hospitalization, of which 8 were associated with RSV (prevalence 9.1% [4.0–17.1]; incidence 0.2 [0.1–0.3] per 100 PY). The incidence of RSV-associated ILI resulting in medical attendance was 6.0 (5.4–6.7) per 100 PY. RSV B subtypes were observed more frequently than A subtypes. Conclusions. Active surveillance demonstrated the considerable burden of RSV-associated illness that would not be identified through hospital-based surveillance, with a substantial part of the burden occurring in older infants and children. PMID:25673560

  4. Respiratory Movement Patterns during Vocalizations at 7 and 11 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Kevin J.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present investigation was designed to study the modulation of abdomen and rib cage movements during vocalization over a period of development associated with rapid decreases in the compliance of the chest wall. Method: Rib cage and abdominal kinematics were recorded during spontaneous vocalizations in 7- and 11-month old infants.…

  5. A Psychobiological Perspective on Working Memory Performance at 8 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Fifty 8-month-old infants participated in a study of the interrelations among cognition, temperament, and electrophysiology. Better performance on a working memory task (assessed using a looking version of the A-not-B task) was associated with increases in frontal-parietal EEG coherence from baseline to task, as well as elevated levels of…

  6. Atypical Object Exploration at 12 Months of Age Is Associated with Autism in a Prospective Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozonoff, Sally; Macari, Suzanne; Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Thompson, Meagan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study examined object exploration behavior in 66 12-month-old infants, of whom nine were subsequently diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Previous investigations differ on when the repetitive behaviors characteristic of autism are first present in early development. A task was developed that afforded specific opportunities…

  7. Better Processing of Consonantal over Vocalic Information in Word Learning at 16 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havy, Melanie; Nazzi, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Previous research using the name-based categorization task has shown that 20-month-old infants can simultaneously learn 2 words that only differ by 1 consonantal feature but fail to do so when the words only differ by 1 vocalic feature. This asymmetry was taken as evidence for the proposal that consonants are more important than vowels at the…

  8. Developmental Changes in Visual Object Recognition between 18 and 24 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Linda B.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examined developmental changes in children's visual recognition of common objects during the period of 18 to 24 months. Experiment 1 examined children's ability to recognize common category instances that presented three different kinds of information: (1) richly detailed and prototypical instances that presented both local and…

  9. Infant Attention to Dynamic Audiovisual Stimuli: Look Duration from 3 to 9 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Zhang, Dantong; Guy, Maggie W.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine developmental change in visual attention to dynamic visual and audiovisual stimuli in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants. Infant look duration was measured during exposure to dynamic geometric patterns and Sesame Street video clips under three different stimulus modality conditions: unimodal visual, synchronous…

  10. The proportion of beef bulls in western Canada with mature spermiograms at 11 to 15 months of age.

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, A; Baracaldo, M; Barth, A D

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the proportion of yearling beef bulls that have mature spermiograms at 11 to 15 months of age, and to evaluate the relationship between semen quality traits, age, and scrotal circumference. Semen samples and data on sperm motility and scrotal circumference measurements were obtained from 1641 bulls of 14 breeds. Criteria for a satisfactory spermiogram included sperm concentration > or = 400 x 10(6)/mL, > or = 60% progressively motile sperm, and > or = 70% morphologically normal sperm. The mean scrotal circumference measurements for all bulls combined were 33.4, 34.4, 35.2, 35.8, and 35.3 cm at 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 months of age, respectively. The percentage of bulls with matures spermiograms at 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 months of age were 20%, 30%, 51%, 52%, and 61%, respectively. There was a high positive correlation (r = 0.9) between the number of bulls with > or = 70% normal sperm and scrotal circumference measurement. The main types of morphologic defects observed in immature bulls were proximal droplets and midpiece defects. PMID:11665426

  11. 573 Prevalence of Allergen Sensitization in Children with Atopy Suspicion between Six Months and Five Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Marinovic, Maria Angelica; Rojas, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Background Classically we have been taught that the skin prick test (SPT) must be performed over 4 years of age mainly because of the lack of sensibility the test has on younger children, now a days the utility of the SPT in younger children with atopic history is controversial and it would help make an early diagnosis. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of allergen sensitization in children between 0 and 5 years of age that have atopic history. We also describe the sensitization percentages to the most relevant allergens according to age group. Methods SPT performed between January 2006 and July 2010 at the Respiratory and Allergy Department of Clínica Santa Maria to children with atopic story were analyzed. A standard base of 21 allergens from LETI laboratory was used. Results Seven hundred and fifty two children with SPT were studied; they were divided into 2 groups. Group A corresponding to children between 6 and 24 months of age, group B corresponding to children between 25 months and 5 years of age. In group A 76 SPT and group B 676 SPT were performed. The total number of SPT positive to 1 or more allergens was 46.4%. (Group A: 6.4%, group B 40%). The most prevalent allergens according to age were: group A: grass 16%, egg 16%, cat dander 10% and house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinsus and farinae) 10%. Group B: grass 15%, house dust mite 13.6%, fungal allergens (Aspergillus an Alternaria) 11.4%, trees 9% and cat dander 6.6%. Conclusions A high sensitization percentage to grass and egg is seen under 24 months of age. Egg sensitization diminishes significantly over 2 years of age, on the other hand house dust mite and fungal sensitization increases with age which could be explained by a longer exposure time in genetically predisposed children. Forty-six percent of the children are sensitized to 1 or more allergens which make us question the classical indication that SPT will be done over 4 years of age. When high suspicion of

  12. Effect of whole-body vibration for 3 months on arterial stiffness in the middle-aged and elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chung-Liang; Chen, Han-Yu; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Liao, Wan-Chun; Liu, Bing-Tang; Lee, Meng-Chih; Chen, Hsin-Shui

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common problem of middle-aged and older adults. Increased arterial stiffness is a CVD risk factor. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise for middle-aged and older adults; however, there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness. This study mainly investigated the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Methods A total of 38 (21 women and 17 men) middle-aged and elderly subjects (average age, 61.9 years) were randomly divided into the WBV group and the control group for a 3-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of 30 Hz and 3.2 g WBV in a natural full standing posture at a sports center. The brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of systemic arterial stiffness, and blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the intervention. Results After 3 months, there were no significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate in both groups. However, the bilateral baPWV was significantly reduced in the WBV group (decreased by 0.65 m/second [P=0.014]; 0.63 m/second [P=0.041] in either side), but not in the control group. The comparison between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study found that 3 months of WBV had a positive effect on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults and could therefore be regarded as a supplementary exercise. Larger-scale studies are needed to confirm the effects of WBV in the future. PMID:24872684

  13. Seismicity Precursors of the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989Loma Prieta Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-03-09

    The M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prietastrike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) were preceded byseismicity peaks occurring several months prior to the main events.Earthquakes directly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded fromthe analysis because they manifest stress-release processes rather thanstress accumulation. The observed increase in seismicity is interpretedas a signature of the increasing stress level in the surrounding crust,whereas the peaks and the subsequent decrease in seismicity areattributed to damage-induced softening processes. Furthermore, in bothcases there is a distinctive zone of low seismic activity that surroundsthe epicentral region in the pre-event period. The increase of seismicityin the crust surrounding a potential future event and the development ofa low-seismicity epicentral zone can be regarded as promising precursoryinformation that could help signal the arrival of large earthquakes. TheGutenberg-Richter relationship (GRR) should allow extrapolation ofseismicity changes down to seismic noise level magnitudes. Thishypothesis is verified by comparison of seismic noise at 80 Hz with theParkfield M4 1993-1994 series, where noise peaks 5 months before theseries to about twice the background level.

  14. Vitamin D Intake, Month the Mammogram Was Taken and Mammographic Density in Norwegian Women Aged 50–69

    PubMed Central

    Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Grotmol, Tom; Kaur Sakhi, Amrit; Hofvind, Solveig; Qureshi, Samera; Skov Markussen, Marianne; Couto, Elisabeth; Vos, Linda; Ursin, Giske

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of vitamin D in breast cancer etiology is unclear. There is some, but inconsistent, evidence that vitamin D is associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density (MD). We evaluated the associations of MD with month the mammogram was taken, and with vitamin D intake, in a population of women from Norway—a country with limited sunlight exposure for a large part of the year. Methods 3114 women aged 50–69, who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) in 2004 or 2006/07, completed risk factor and food frequency (FFQ) questionnaires. Dietary and total (dietary plus supplements) vitamin D, calcium and energy intakes were estimated by the FFQ. Month when the mammogram was taken was recorded on the mammogram. Percent MD was assessed using a computer assisted method (Madena, University of Southern California) after digitization of the films. Linear regression models were used to investigate percent MD associations with month the mammogram was taken, and vitamin D and calcium intakes, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), study year, estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT), education, parity, calcium intakes and energy intakes. Results There was no statistical significant association between the month the mammogram was taken and percent MD. Overall, there was no association between percent MD and quartiles of total or dietary vitamin D intakes, or of calcium intake. However, analysis restricted to women aged <55 years revealed a suggestive inverse association between total vitamin D intake and percent MD (p for trend = 0.03). Conclusion Overall, we found no strong evidence that month the mammogram was taken was associated with percent MD. We found no inverse association between vitamin D intake and percent MD overall, but observed a suggestive inverse association between dietary vitamin D and MD for women less than 55 years old. PMID:25938768

  15. High-titer measles vaccination before 9 months of age and increased female mortality: do we have an explanation?

    PubMed

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Simondon, Francois; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-07-01

    In 1989, high-titer (HT) Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine with a titer more than 10(4.7) plaque-forming-units was recommended by the World Health Organization for use in areas with a high incidence of measles in children younger than 9 months. In 1992, the recommendation was rescinded following reports from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Haiti showing an increased incidence of female mortality occurring after administration of HT Edmonston-Zagreb vaccination. We reviewed 9 studies of HT measles vaccines that reported data on mortality. These reports included 4 randomized trials comparing HT vaccine administered to children younger than 9 months with standard-titer (ST) vaccines (10(3.0) to 10(4.0) plaque-forming-units) given at 9 months of age. Five studies from Zaire, Haiti, Senegal, Rwanda, and Zaire had no control group receiving ST vaccine at 9 months of age, but investigators were able to examine the female-to-male mortality ratio within these HT studies. Investigators have hypothesized that HT vaccine had caused immune suppression similar to that of measles infection. The present review suggests first that the HT vaccine itself is unlikely to be the cause because the effect was not found in all studies. Second, the increased mortality started only after 9 to 10 months of age when controls received ST measles vaccine, and HT groups received the "control vaccine." It was not found in the studies that provided another measles vaccine instead of control vaccine. Third, because the HT studies with excess mortality rates showed increased female mortality rates, we need to find environmental or contextual conditions associated with increased female mortality rates in some studies to explain the problem associated with HT measles vaccination. PMID:12913835

  16. Low Rates of Treatment Failure in Children Aged 2–59 Months Treated for Severe Pneumonia: A Multisite Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Matthew P.; Thea, Donald M.; Sadruddin, Salim; Bari, Abdul; Bonawitz, Rachael; Hazir, Tabish; Bin Nisar, Yasir; Qazi, Shamim A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite advances in childhood pneumonia management, it remains a major killer of children worldwide. We sought to estimate global treatment failure rates in children aged 2–59 months with World Health Organization–defined severe pneumonia. Methods. We pooled data from 4 severe pneumonia studies conducted during 1999–2009 using similar methodologies. We defined treatment failure by day 6 as death, danger signs (inability to drink, convulsions, abnormally sleepy), fever (≥38°C) and lower chest indrawing (LCI; days 2–3), LCI (day 6), or antibiotic change. Results. Among 6398 cases of severe pneumonia from 10 countries, 564 (cluster adjusted: 8.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9%–11.5%) failed treatment by day 6. The most common reasons for clinical failure were persistence of fever and LCI or LCI or fever alone (75% of failures). Seventeen (0.3%) children died. Danger signs were uncommon (<1%). Infants 6–11 months and 2–5 months were 2- and 3.5-fold more likely, respectively, to fail treatment (adjusted OR [AOR], 1.8 [95% CI, 1.4–2.3] and AOR, 3.5 [95% CI, 2.8–4.3]) as children aged 12–59 months. Failure was increased 7-fold (AOR, 7.2 [95% CI, 5.0–10.5]) when comparing infants 2–5 months with very fast breathing to children 12–59 months with normal breathing. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that severe pneumonia case management with antibiotics at health facilities or in the community is associated with few serious morbidities or deaths across diverse geographic settings and support moves to shift management of severe pneumonia with oral antibiotics to outpatients in the community. PMID:23264361

  17. Different assessment tasks produce different estimates of handedness stability during the eight to 14 month age period.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julie M; Marcinowski, Emily C; Latta, Jonathan; Michel, George F

    2015-05-01

    Using 150 infants (57% males), two common tasks for assessing infant hand-use preferences for acquiring objects were compared for their ability to detect stable preferences during the age period of eight to 14 months. One task assesses the preference using nine presentations of objects; the other uses 32 presentations. Monthly classifications of hand preference for each task were determined by either a commonly used a decision criterion in which one hand is used 50% more often than the other or a criterion based on proportion of hand-use difference that exceeds a conventional alpha probability of 0.05. The seven monthly assessments provided by the two tasks also were examined for latent classes in their developmental trajectories. The two tasks were significantly different for both their identification of latent classes and their monthly classification of the infant's hand-use preference. The 32 presentations yielded three developmental trajectories (45% right preferring, 5% left preferring, and 50% no clear preference) whereas the nine presentations revealed only two trajectories (70% right, 30% no preference). The nine presentations task, with the 50% proportion decision criterion, was very generous in classifying right and left-preferring infants at each month but produced greater fluctuations across months compared to the 32 presentation task with an alpha decision criterion. Both tasks revealed that a large proportion of infants are still developing a hand-use preference during this age period. Recommendations are made for examining the development of hand-use preferences and their relation to the development of other neuropsychological functions. PMID:25769115

  18. [Stress analysis of artificial bionic knee joint based on UG6.0 NX NASTRAN].

    PubMed

    Shi, Gengqiang

    2014-02-01

    This article introduces the basic principles of finite element analysis in biomechanics, focusing on the basic principles of a variety of finite element analysis software, and their respective characteristics. In addition, it also de scribes the basic stress analysis of UGNX6.0 NASTRAN analysis for artificial knee process, i. e. the choice of the type, material definition, the set of constants, finite element mesh division and the finite element results of the analysis. Finite element analysis and evaluation of the design of personalized artificial knee were carried out, so that the rationality of the geometric design of the structure of the experimental design of artificial knee has been verified.

  19. [Stress analysis of artificial bionic knee joint based on UG6.0 NX NASTRAN].

    PubMed

    Shi, Gengqiang

    2014-02-01

    This article introduces the basic principles of finite element analysis in biomechanics, focusing on the basic principles of a variety of finite element analysis software, and their respective characteristics. In addition, it also de scribes the basic stress analysis of UGNX6.0 NASTRAN analysis for artificial knee process, i. e. the choice of the type, material definition, the set of constants, finite element mesh division and the finite element results of the analysis. Finite element analysis and evaluation of the design of personalized artificial knee were carried out, so that the rationality of the geometric design of the structure of the experimental design of artificial knee has been verified. PMID:24804498

  20. Automated Estimating System (AES) version 6.0 - user`s manual. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, D.A.; Schwarz, R.K.

    1994-06-01

    This document describes Version 6.0 of the Automated Estimating System (AES), a personal computer-based software package. The AES is designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of Central Engineering Services of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. AES provides formatted input screens to guide the user through the estimate creation/update process and provides several standardized reports that allow cost to be sorted and summarized in many different formats and at several levels of aggregation.

  1. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. PMID:26364790

  2. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions.

  3. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  4. Development of a triage tool for neurodevelopmental risk in children aged 30 months.

    PubMed

    Sim, Fiona; Haig, Caroline; O'Dowd, John; Thompson, Lucy; Law, James; McConnachie, Alex; Gillberg, Christopher; Wilson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders in young children predict educational, health and social problems. Early identification may significantly reduce this burden but relevant tools largely lack validation. We aimed to develop and evaluate the predictive validity of a simple screening tool for neurodevelopmental problems in a community sample of 30 month old children. A sample of children was selected from a community cohort screened at 30 months by health visitors using the Sure Start Language Measure (SSLM) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in 2011. Predictive validity was assessed by comparing screening results with detailed psychometric data from the same sample 1-2 years later. Screening performance using different thresholds was explored using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) with ROC area under the curve (AUC) and bootstrapping techniques. The SSLM predicted both language disorder identified by the New Reynell Developmental Language Scales (NRDLS) at follow-up (AUC 0.905) and global developmental delay assessed by the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (AUC 0.983). The SDQ administered at 30 months predicted psychiatric disorders identified by the Development and Wellbeing Assessment (DAWBA) at follow-up (AUC 0.821). Using optimal cut-offs for the SDQ and SSLM at 30 months, both tools together had sensitivity 87%; specificity 64%; positive predictive value 31%; and negative predictive value 97% in the prediction of any kind of neurodevelopmental problem 1-2 years later. The combined measure reported here is not yet sufficient as a stand-alone population screening tool for neurodevelopmental disorders. The SSLM and SDQ did however show promise in identifying preschool children at risk of ongoing language, psychiatric disorders and global developmental delay 1-2 years later but with fairly high false positive rates. Given that current developmental risk prediction in resource-poor settings is little better than random

  5. Pertussis in infants less than 6 months of age and household contacts, Italy, April 2014.

    PubMed

    Sali, Michela; Buttinelli, Gabriele; Fazio, Cecilia; Vacca, Paola; La Sorda, Marilena; Carannante, Anna; Spanu, Teresa; Valentini, Piero; Stefanelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We report pertussis cases in 4 infants less than 6 months admitted with symptoms compatible with pertussis to the intensive care unit of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Rome, April 2014. Realtime PCR confirmed pertussis diagnosis for the 4 infants, 2 of them were cousins, and for the household contacts of 1 of them. Analysis of pertussis toxin, its promoter and pertactin was also performed. First of all, this report emphasizes the need to investigate household contact of infants with pertussis; secondly, to evaluate the selective vaccination of household members of newborns as an effective program to reduce pertussis in infants.

  6. Excessive crying at 3 months of age and behavioural problems at 4 years age: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Capilheira, Marcelo F; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive crying in early infancy has been associated with behavioural problems among preschool children from high income countries but studies in low income and middle income countries are scarce. Methods The 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort is a population-based study planned to enrol all live births occurring in Pelotas that year and comprises 4231 children who so far have been followed up at 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 months of age. Several familial, maternal and child characteristics were gathered in every follow-up. At the 3-month follow-up, infants whose mothers perceived them as crying more than others of the same age were classified as ‘crying babies’. Child behavioural problems were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) applied to the mother at the 48-month follow-up. Crude and adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were calculated by logistic regression. Results Prevalence of excessive crying at 3 months was 11.9% (10.9% to 13.0%). Among children with excessive crying at 3 months the proportion in the clinical range for CBCL total, internalising and externalising problems at 4 years of age was 31.2%, 12.9% and 37.5%, respectively, against 20.6%, 6.8% and 29.6%, respectively, among non-crying babies. After controlling for confounders crying babies presented increased risk of being in clinical range of CBCL total (OR=1.34; 1.03 to 1.74), internalising (OR=1.55; 1.09 to 2.21) and externalising problems (OR=1.29; 1.01 to 1.64) than infants without excessive crying. Conclusions Excessive crying in early infancy may represent one important risk factor for developing behavioural problems in later phases of early childhood. PMID:25700531

  7. Temporal changes in attenuation associated with the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, C. M.; Rietbrock, A.; Faulkner, D. R.; Nadeau, R. M.

    2013-02-01

    Elevated seismic attenuation is often observed in fault zones due to the high degree of fracturing and fluid content. However, temporal changes in attenuation at the time of an earthquake are poorly constrained but can give indications of fracture damage and healing. In this study, spectral ratios between earthquakes within repeating clusters are calculated in an attempt to resolve temporal variations in attenuation at the time of the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake. A sharp increase in attenuation is observed immediately after the earthquake, which then decays over the next 2 years. Influences of intercluster magnitude variations, time window length and previously reported postseismic velocity changes are investigated. The postseismic decay is fit by a logarithmic function. The timescale of the decay is found to be similar to that in GPS data and ambient seismic noise velocities following the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake. The amplitude of the attenuation change corresponds to a decrease of approximately 10% in Qp at the time of the earthquake. The greatest changes are recorded on the northeast of the fault trace, consistent with preferential damage in the extensional quadrant behind a north-westerly propagating rupture tip. Our analysis suggests that significant changes in seismic attenuation and hence fracture dilatancy during coseismic rupture are limited to depths of less than about 5 km.

  8. Electric field effect on (6,0) zigzag single-walled aluminum nitride nanotube.

    PubMed

    Baei, Mohammad T; Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi; Moghimi, Masoumeh

    2012-09-01

    Structural, electronic, and electrical responses of the H-capped (6,0) zigzag single-walled aluminum nitride nanotube was studied under the parallel and transverse electric fields with strengths 0-140 × 10(-4) a.u. by using density functional calculations. Geometry optimizations were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory using a locally modified version of the GAMESS electronic structure program. The dipole moments, atomic charge variations, and total energy of the (6,0) zigzag AlNNT show increases with increase in the applied external electric field strengths. The length, tip diameters, electronic spatial extent, and molecular volume of the nanotube do not significantly change with increasing electric field strength. The energy gap of the nanotube decreases with increases of the electric field strength and its reactivity is increased. Increase of the ionization potential, electron affinity, chemical potential, electrophilicity, and HOMO and LUMO in the nanotube with increase of the applied parallel electric field strengths shows that the parallel field has a much stronger interaction with the nanotube with respect to the transverse electric field strengths. Analysis of the parameters indicates that the properties of AlNNTs can be controlled by the proper external electric field.

  9. Application of IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of children aged 61-84 months old in central China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jia; Wu, Wei; Liu, Shuyun; Li, Mei; Yao, Na; Chen, Jianwei; Ye, Linxiang; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Yikai

    2016-01-15

    Few studies have focused on the accuracy of using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model in Chinese children with site- and age-specific exposure data. This study aimed to validate the accuracy and sensitivity of the IEUBK model in lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61-84 months old. A total of 760 children were enrolled from two respective counties in Central China by using random cluster sampling method. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of all subjects were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, as well as that in the environmental media, such as air, drinking water, soil, dust and food. Age- and site-specific time-activity patterns and water consumption were evaluated by using questionnaires for children. Exposure parameters including outdoor and indoor activity time, ventilation rate and water consumption in this study were different from the default values of the IEUBK model. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the predicted and observed BLLs. Diet and soil/dust lead intake contributed approximately 83.39% (57.40%-93.84% range) and 15.18% (3.25%-41.60% range) of total lead intake, respectively. These findings showed that the IEUBK model is suitable for lead risk assessment of Chinese children aged 61-84 months old and diet acts as an important lead source.

  10. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among children aged 1 month to 16 years in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency in children is widespread. But the vitamin D status of Chinese children is seldom investigated. The objective of the present study was to survey the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in more than 6,000 children aged 1 month to 16 years in Hangzhou (latitude: 30°N), the capital of Zhejiang Province, southeast China. Methods The children aged 1 month to 16 years who came to the child health care department of our hospital, the children's hospital affiliated to Zhejiang university school of medicine, for health examination were taken blood for 25(OH) D measurement. Serum 25(OH) D levels were determined by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and categorized as < 25, < 50, and < 75 nmol/L. Results A total of 6,008 children aged 1 month to 16 years participated in this cross-sectional study. All the subjects were divided into subgroups according to their age: 0-1y, 2-5y, 6-11y and 12-16y representing infancy, preschool, school age and adolescence stages respectively. The highest mean level of serum 25(OH)D was found in the 0-1y stage (99 nmol/L) and the lowest one was found in 12-16y stage (52 nmol/L). Accordingly, the prevalence of serum 25(OH)D levels of < 75 nmol/L and < 50 nmol/L were at the lowest among infants (33.6% and 5.4% respectively) and rose to the highest among adolescents (89.6% and 46.4% respectively). The mean levels of serum 25(OH)D and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency changed according to seasons. In winter and spring, more than 50% of school age children and adolescents had a 25(OH)D level at < 50 nmol/L. If the threshold is changed to < 75 nmol/L, all of the adolescents (100%) had low 25(OH)D levels in winter and 93.7% school age children as well. Conclusions The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among children in Hangzhou Zhejiang province is high, especially among children aged 6-16 years. We suggest that the recommendation for vitamin D

  11. Malaria in infants aged less than six months - is it an area of unmet medical need?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Despite the protection provided by several factors, including maternal antibodies, the burden of malaria in young infants may be higher than previously thought. Infants with congenital or neonatal malaria may have a different clinical presentation than older children, and diagnosis may be confused with other neonatal diseases due to an overlap of clinical manifestations. In addition, there is little information on the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy in young infants. There is the need for a more accurate estimate of the parasite prevalence and the incidence of clinical malaria in infants under 6 months old, as well as a better characterization of risk factors, pharmacokinetic profiles, safety and efficacy of currently available anti-malarial treatments, in order to develop evidence-based treatment guidelines for this population. PMID:23198986

  12. The value of head circumference measurements after 36 months of age: a clinical report and review of practice patterns.

    PubMed

    James, Hector E; Perszyk, Anthony A; MacGregor, Teresa L; Aldana, Philipp R

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT The cranium is documented to grow from birth through adolescence. The standard of practice in primary care is measuring head circumference and plotting growth using curves that stop at 36 months. The authors report the importance of their experience with measuring head circumference in the child and same-sex parent beyond 36 months. METHODS In the University of Florida genetics and pediatric neurosurgery clinics, head circumference is measured and plotted on growth charts through 18 years of age. Circumference and rate of growth over time are compared with those of the same-sex parent. A diagnostic workup is initiated if there is a discrepancy with the patient's head circumference or if there is significant change in the growth rate of the cranium. RESULTS Between January 2004 and December 2007, the lead author examined 190 patients referred by pediatricians and/or pediatric subspecialists because of the concerns regarding head size of the child. Neuroimaging was performed in 70% of the patients prior to referral. None of the patients had their head size compared with that of their same-sex parent prior to referral. On assessing referring physician responses as to why the same-sex parents, head measurements were not pursued prior to imaging or referral to the specialists, the results were: 1) only have head circumference sheets to 36 months of age (n = 28); 2) the American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommend it (n = 3); and 3) the head stops growing at 36 months of age (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS Pediatricians and pediatric subspecialists need instruction on head circumference measurement in children from infancy through adolescence, and when indicated, in comparison with the head size of the same-sex parent. This measurement may be an effective and inexpensive assessment tool. PMID:25932781

  13. Sudden unexpected death in infants under 3 months of age and vaccination status – a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre; Autret-Leca, Elisabeth; Barbeillon, Florence; Paris-Llado, Josepha

    2001-01-01

    Aims To determine whether DTPP+Hib vaccination (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis +/− haemophilus) increased the risk of sudden unexpected death (SUD) in children under 3 months of age. Methods We conducted a multicentre case-control study in the 28 French ‘SIDS Centers’. Case selection was based on death labelled sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) of an infant aged between 30 and 90 days. Three living controls were selected, matched for sex, gestational age and born immediately after the victim in the same maternity unit. Results We identified 114 cases of SUD aged between 30 and 90 days and 341 live controls matched for age and sex and born in the same maternity unit as the case. DTPP±Hib immunization did not increase the risk of SUD (OR 1.08) (95% CI 0.49, 2.36) in children under 3 months of age when adjusted for sleeping position, illness in the week before death, maternal tobacco consumption, birth weight, type of mattress, breastfeeding and sex. However, low birth-weight (6.53 [2.29, 18.9]), multiple birth (5.1 [1.76, 15.13]), no breastfeeding (1.77 [1.1, 2.85]), prone sleeping position (9.8 [5, 8, 18, 9]), soft mattress (3.26 [1.69, 6.29]), recent illness (3.44 [1.84, 6.41]) and parental smoking (1.74 [1.2, 2.96]) were confirmed as risk factors in early SIDS. Conclusions DTPP±Hib immunization is not a risk factor for early SUD. In this population, we found the same risk factors as described for SIDS. PMID:11298074

  14. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American Children 6 Months to 8 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E.; Green, Tina K.; Messer, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. Methods. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. Results. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). Conclusions. The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non–Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age. PMID:21460261

  15. The effect of aging on the specialized conducting system: a telemetry ECG study in rats over a 6 month period.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stefano; Fortunati, Ilaria; Carnevali, Luca; Baruffi, Silvana; Mastorci, Francesca; Trombini, Mimosa; Sgoifo, Andrea; Corradi, Domenico; Callegari, Sergio; Miragoli, Michele; Macchi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Advanced age alone appears to be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias. We previously observed in the aged rat heart that sinus rhythm ventricular activation is delayed and characterized by abnormal epicardial patterns although conduction velocity is normal. While these findings relate to an advanced stage of aging, it is not yet known when and how ventricular electrical impairment originates and which is the underlying substrate. To address these points, we performed continuous telemetry ECG recordings in freely moving rats over a six-month period to monitor ECG waveform changes, heart rate variability and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. At the end of the study, we performed in-vivo multiple lead epicardial recordings and histopathology of cardiac tissue. We found that the duration of ECG waves and intervals gradually increased and heart rate variability gradually decreased with age. Moreover, the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias gradually increased, with atrial arrhythmias exceeding ventricular arrhythmias. Epicardial multiple lead recordings confirmed abnormalities in ventricular activation patterns, likely attributable to distal conducting system dysfunctions. Microscopic analysis of aged heart specimens revealed multifocal connective tissue deposition and perinuclear myocytolysis in the atria. Our results demonstrate that aging gradually modifies the terminal part of the specialized cardiac conducting system, creating a substrate for increased arrhythmogenesis. These findings may open new therapeutic options in the management of cardiac arrhythmias in the elderly population.

  16. Influence of diet on iron, copper, and zinc status in children under 24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Redworth, Edward Wallis; Morgan, Jane B

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether iron and micronutrient status is improved with an increased amount of meat in the diet. To this end, a longitudinal prospective study with infants recruited at 4 mo and followed until 24 mo of age was undertaken. One hundred ninety-eight infants formed the original study cohort; 48 withdrew before the end of the study. Subjects were classified as nonmeat eaters or as mixed (red and white)-meat eaters subgrouped into tertiles depending on the meat content reported in diet diaries. Seven-day weighed food records were recorded at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 mo. Blood samples taken at 4, 12, and 24 mo were analyzed for parameters of iron and micronutrient status. Iron intake increased during the first year, thereafter remaining constant. The percentages of subjects with hemoglobin values below 110 g/L were 34.1, 23.1, and 13.4 at 4, 12, and 24 mo, respectively. For parameters of iron status, the number of results below the reference range was determined for each diet group and a significant negative relationship between serum iron and meat intake at 12 mo of age was seen (p<0.023). There was a trend for hemoglobin concentrations to be inversely related to the meat intake, at the same age (p<0.068). No effects on zinc or copper status were seen. We conclude that a weak association between dietary meat and iron/Hb suggests a positive role for red meat. There was no disadvantage to the nonmeat-eating infants with respect to zinc or copper.

  17. Sex effect on meat quality and carcass traits of foals slaughtered at 15 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Sarriés, M V; Franco, D

    2013-07-01

    The effect of sex on carcass measurement, physico-chemical properties, nutritional value and sensory characteristics of foal meat slaughtered at 15 months was investigated. Twelve foals (six females and six males) from an extensive production system in freedom regimen were used for this study. Sex had no statistical influence on carcass measurements, chemical composition, colour parameters, textural properties, amino acid content and sensory characteristics. In contrast, there was a clear effect on the fatty acid profile of longissimus dorsi. Slaughter weight was not significantly (P > 0.05) different between sexes, although higher values were observed in male group compared with female group (194 v. 184 kg). As a consequence, this trend affected carcass weight being slightly (P > 0.05) heavier in the male group than in the female group. On the other hand, cooking loss samples from males showed significantly higher values than those from females (21.50% v. 14.96%, P < 0.05). From a nutritional point of view, the n-6/n-3 ratio in both sexes was within the recommended range for the human diet and this ratio was ostensibly different between the sexes (1.83 v. 1.36, P < 0.05, for male and female, respectively) and it showed a strong correlation (r = -0.91, P < 0.01) with C18:3n-3 content.

  18. A longitudinal study of coordination in mother-infant vocal interaction from age 4 to 10 months.

    PubMed

    Harder, Susanne; Lange, Theis; Hansen, Gert Foget; Væver, Mette; Køppe, Simo

    2015-12-01

    This is a longitudinal study of development in coordinated mother-infant vocal interaction from 4 to 10 months (N = 41) focusing on the development of turn-taking patterns and time spent in coordinated vocal interaction. Data analyses were carried out using multistate analysis. Both mothers and infants were found to coordinate their own vocalizations with their partners' vocalizations. The infants had a predominant pattern of covocalizing, whereas the mothers had a predominant turn-taking pattern at all ages (4, 7, and 10 months). However, a significant reduction in the duration of covocalization was found between 4 and 7 months, due to less covocalizing compared to turn-taking from the infants. In addition, time spent in coordinated vocal interaction increased significantly between 4 and 7 months and a development for the infants was found from repeated vocalizations toward single vocalizations between maternal turns. Taken together, these findings indicate a developmental process of fine-tuning and increasing the turn-taking format for vocal communication, characterizing adult communication, before the development of speech. In addition, our results indicate that this development starts earlier and is more prolonged than has been hypothesized from previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Bronchiolitis: Recommendations for diagnosis, monitoring and management of children one to 24 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jeremy N; Rieder, Michael J; Walton, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for admission to hospital in the first year of life. There is tremendous variation in the clinical management of this condition across Canada and around the world, including significant use of unnecessary tests and ineffective therapies. This statement pertains to generally healthy children ≤2 years of age with bronchiolitis. The diagnosis of bronchiolitis is based primarily on the history of illness and physical examination findings. Laboratory investigations are generally unhelpful. Bronchiolitis is a self-limiting disease, usually managed with supportive care at home. Groups at high risk for severe disease are described and guidelines for admission to hospital are presented. Evidence for the efficacy of various therapies is discussed and recommendations are made for management. Monitoring requirements and discharge readiness from hospital are also discussed. PMID:25414585

  20. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children <5 years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study analysed complementary feeding practices in four anglophone West African countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys. The study covered 12 623 children aged 6-23 months from four anglophone West African countries (Ghana: 822 children: Liberia: 1458 children, Nigeria: 8786 children and Sierra Leone: 1557 children). Four complementary feeding indicators were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level factors, using multiple regression analysis. Multivariate analyses found that lack of post-natal contacts with health workers, maternal illiteracy and geographical region were common determinants of delayed introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households.

  1. Passive smoking as a risk factor of anemia in young children aged 0–35 months in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Rathavuth; Betancourt, Jose A; Ruiz-Beltran, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Passive smoking unfavorably affects pregnancy, child birth and child health. Passive smoking associates with still-birth, premature birth as well as acute respiratory infection, asthma, disorder in red blood cell metabolism in children. This study examined the effects of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan. Methods The analysis based on the information from 740 children aged 0–35 months that were tested for hemoglobin levels included in the 2002 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey. This study used multivariate logistic regression method to analyze the effect of passive smoking on anemia in young children in Jordan, controlling for a number of risk factors and confounding factors for anemia. Results Results indicated that independent of other risk factors and confounding factors, anemia in young children was strongly positively associated with exposure to passive smoking from both parents (OR= 2.99, p < 0.01). Severely undernourished children were at higher risk of anemia independent of passive smoking and other risk factors (OR= 5.29, p < 0.05). Children age 24–35 months, children born to mothers age 35–49, and children lived in households with a hygienic toilet facility were less likely to suffer from anemia. Conclusion Passive smoking from both parents was strongly positively associated with anemia in young children in Jordan independent of other risk factors and confounding factors. The results support the importance of smoking prevention during and after pregnancy that prevent childhood anemia and others morbidities in young children. PMID:17425780

  2. Soccer goes BOXing: Synthetic access to novel [6:0] hexakis[(bisoxazolinyl)methano]fullerenes

    PubMed Central

    Seifermann, Stefan M.; Réthoré, Céline; Muller, Thierry; Bräse, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The syntheses of [6:0] hexakis[(bisoxazolinyl)methano]fullerenes are presented. Two derivatives could be directly obtained using conditions developed by the Sun group. For the remaining products, a two stage protocol had to be developed. All compounds we obtained in synthetically useful scales and were purified via column chromatography with standard achiral phase. These new fullerene adducts bear six metal-chelation sites which are aligned in the three orthogonal space directions and are disposed on a completely rigid scaffold. First experiments indicate that the generation of six-fold metal-complexes is possible with these structures. This makes them very appealing as ligands in asymmetric catalysis and as building blocks in higher supra-molecular assemblies. PMID:24085228

  3. New streams and springs after the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa earthquake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Yuen; Manga, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many streams and springs, which were dry or nearly dry before the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa earthquake, started to flow after the earthquake. A United States Geological Survey stream gauge also registered a coseismic increase in discharge. Public interest was heightened by a state of extreme drought in California. Since the new flows were not contaminated by pre-existing surface water, their composition allowed unambiguous identification of their origin. Following the earthquake we repeatedly surveyed the new flows, collecting data to test hypotheses about their origin. We show that the new flows originated from groundwater in nearby mountains released by the earthquake. The estimated total amount of new water is ∼ 10(6) m(3), about 1/40 of the annual water use in the Napa-Sonoma area. Our model also makes a testable prediction of a post-seismic decrease of seismic velocity in the shallow crust of the affected region. PMID:26158898

  4. New streams and springs after the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi-Yuen; Manga, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many streams and springs, which were dry or nearly dry before the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa earthquake, started to flow after the earthquake. A United States Geological Survey stream gauge also registered a coseismic increase in discharge. Public interest was heightened by a state of extreme drought in California. Since the new flows were not contaminated by pre-existing surface water, their composition allowed unambiguous identification of their origin. Following the earthquake we repeatedly surveyed the new flows, collecting data to test hypotheses about their origin. We show that the new flows originated from groundwater in nearby mountains released by the earthquake. The estimated total amount of new water is ∼106 m3, about 1/40 of the annual water use in the Napa–Sonoma area. Our model also makes a testable prediction of a post-seismic decrease of seismic velocity in the shallow crust of the affected region. PMID:26158898

  5. New streams and springs after the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa earthquake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Yuen; Manga, Michael

    2015-07-09

    Many streams and springs, which were dry or nearly dry before the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa earthquake, started to flow after the earthquake. A United States Geological Survey stream gauge also registered a coseismic increase in discharge. Public interest was heightened by a state of extreme drought in California. Since the new flows were not contaminated by pre-existing surface water, their composition allowed unambiguous identification of their origin. Following the earthquake we repeatedly surveyed the new flows, collecting data to test hypotheses about their origin. We show that the new flows originated from groundwater in nearby mountains released by the earthquake. The estimated total amount of new water is ∼ 10(6) m(3), about 1/40 of the annual water use in the Napa-Sonoma area. Our model also makes a testable prediction of a post-seismic decrease of seismic velocity in the shallow crust of the affected region.

  6. Development of an expert system for power quality advisement using CLIPS 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekaran, A.; Sarma, P. R. R.; Sundaram, Ashok

    1994-01-01

    Proliferation of power electronic devices has brought in its wake both deterioration in and demand for quality power supply from the utilities. The power quality problems become apparent when the user's equipment or systems maloperate or fail. Since power quality concerns arise from a wide variety of sources and the problem fixes are better achieved from the expertise of field engineers, development of an expert system for power quality advisement seems to be a very attractive and cost-effective solution for utility applications. An expert system thus developed gives an understanding of the adverse effects of power quality related problems on the system and could help in finding remedial solutions. The paper reports the design of a power quality advisement expert system being developed using CLIPS 6.0. A brief outline of the power quality concerns is first presented. A description of the knowledge base is next given and details of actual implementation include screen output from the program.

  7. Early blood pressure, anti-hypotensive therapy and outcomes at 18 to 22 month corrected age in extremely preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Batton, Beau; Li, Lei; Newman, Nancy S.; Das, Abhik; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Faix, Roger G.; Laughon, Matthew M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Walsh, Michele C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Investigate relationships between early blood pressure (BP) changes, receipt of anti-hypotensive therapy, and 18 – 22 month corrected age (CA) outcomes for extremely preterm infants. Design Prospective observational study of infants 230/7 – 266/7 weeks gestational age (GA). Hourly BP values and anti-hypotensive therapy exposure in the first 24 hours were recorded. Four groups were defined: infants who did or did not receive anti-hypotensive therapy in whom BP did or did not rise at the expected rate (defined as an increase in the mean arterial BP of ≥5 mmHg/day). Random-intercept logistic modeling controlling for center clustering, GA, and illness severity was used to investigate the relationship between BP, anti-hypotensive therapies, and infant outcomes. Setting Sixteen academic centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Main Outcome Measures Death or neurodevelopmental impairment / developmental delay (NIDD) at 18 – 22 months CA. Results Of 367 infants, 203 (55%) received an anti-hypotensive therapy, 272 (74%) survived to discharge, and 331 (90%) had a known outcome at 18 – 22 months CA. With logistic regression, there was an increased risk of death/NIDD with anti-hypotensive therapy versus no treatment (odds ratio: 1.836, 95% confidence interval: 1.092 – 3.086), but not NIDD alone (odds ratio: 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.708 – 3.307). Conclusion Independent of early BP changes, anti-hypotensive therapy exposure was associated with an increased risk of death/NIDD at 18 to 22 months CA when controlling for risk factors known to affect survival and neurodevelopment. PMID:26567120

  8. The (Un)Productivity of the 2014 M6.0 South Napa Aftershock Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The M6.0 South Napa mainshock produced fewer aftershocks than expected for a California earthquake of its magnitude, which became apparent a few days into the sequence. In the first 4.5 days, only 59 M≥1.8 aftershocks had occurred, the largest of which was a M3.9 that happened a little over two days after the mainshock. In contrast, during the same time period the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake had over 220 M≥1.8 aftershocks, 6 of which were M≥4. Here I investigate the aftershock productivity and other sequence statistics of the South Napa sequence and compare it with other M~6 California mainshock-aftershock sequences. By focusing on similar size events, they have similar finite extents within the seismotectonic environment. While the productivities of these sequences vary quite a bit, the b-values of the magnitude-frequency distributions all fall in the 0.6-0.8 range for the northern California sequences, slightly lower than the b-value of ~1 typical of southern California seismicity. Despite the relatively low productivity of the South Napa sequence, I show that the Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, JASA, 1988) describes the sequence well and investigate whether the ETAS model parameters suggest that low-productivity sequences are typical for the region. I also explore how quickly after a mainshock these types of models can capture the low productivity of the sequence. The productivity of a sequence is a critical parameter in determining the aftershock probabilities reported in the days following the mainshock. Therefore, the sooner an accurate representation of the aftershock productivity can be obtained, the sooner more accurate aftershock probability reports can be produced.

  9. Terrestrial chemical spill information system through remote sensing, GIS, and V.B. 6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Jeba S., Angel; Srinikethan, G.; Natesan, Usha

    2009-01-01

    India has made remarkable progress in creating a modern and diversified industrial base, since its independence. Most of the refineries, petrochemical and fertilizer industries are located in the coastal zone and catered by 12 major ports along the 7500 km length of Indian coastline. Since, transportation of crude oil and POL products from ports to refineries are mostly by pipelines, rail/ road, besides some quantity by barge/ ships along the coast, there will be chances of oil spill/leakage. Managing these events before and during their occurrence is imperative to the protection of people and natural resources. The present study was carried out with a view to develop Terrestrial Chemical Spill Information System [TCSIS], using Remote Sensing [RS], GIS and VB 6.0., for the Mangalore coastal zone industrial area of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, along West Coast of India. The study area lies between 74°45'00'' to 74°52'30''E longitude and 12°52'30'' to 13°00'00''N latitude. The database of TCSIS consists of both conventional data and RS data, and analysed using ERDAS Imagine 9.0 and ArcGIS 8.3 software. Different thematic maps prepared include LU/LC map, drainage map, road and pipeline network map, slope map, Digital Elevation Model, relative risk maps and pipeline route for the transportation of hazardous chemicals from port to refinery. The TCSIS module developed using RS, GIS and V.B.6.0, characterizes the ability of a spilled chemical to immediately impact human health, natural resources, and incorporates these into an overall measure of terrestrial chemical risk and aids in planning, preventing and responding to a terrestrial chemical spill.

  10. Advances in Sensitivity Analysis Capabilities with SCALE 6.0 and 6.1

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Petrie Jr, Lester M; Williams, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis sequences of SCALE compute the sensitivity of k{sub eff} to each constituent multigroup cross section using perturbation theory based on forward and adjoint transport computations with several available codes. Versions 6.0 and 6.1 of SCALE, released in 2009 and 2010, respectively, include important additions to the TSUNAMI-3D sequence, which computes forward and adjoint solutions in multigroup with the KENO Monte Carlo codes. Previously, sensitivity calculations were performed with the simple and efficient geometry capabilities of KENO V.a, but now calculations can also be performed with the generalized geometry code KENO-VI. TSUNAMI-3D requires spatial refinement of the angular flux moment solutions for the forward and adjoint calculations. These refinements are most efficiently achieved with the use of a mesh accumulator. For SCALE 6.0, a more flexible mesh accumulator capability has been added to the KENO codes, enabling varying granularity of the spatial refinement to optimize the calculation for different regions of the system model. The new mesh capabilities allow the efficient calculation of larger models than were previously possible. Additional improvements in the TSUNAMI calculations were realized in the computation of implicit effects of resonance self-shielding on the final sensitivity coefficients. Multigroup resonance self-shielded cross sections are accurately computed with SCALE's robust deterministic continuous-energy treatment for the resolved and thermal energy range and with Bondarenko shielding factors elsewhere, including the unresolved resonance range. However, the sensitivities of the self-shielded cross sections to the parameters input to the calculation are quantified using only full-range Bondarenko factors.

  11. Physicochemical properties of meat of Italian Heavy Draft horses slaughtered at the age of eleven months.

    PubMed

    Tateo, A; De Palo, P; Ceci, E; Centoducati, P

    2008-05-01

    To investigate rheological and chemical characteristics of the meat from Italian Heavy Draft horse, 24 foals (12 males and 12 females) were weaned at 6 mo, reared and fed in the same way, and slaughtered at 11 mo of age. The results obtained showed that there were no significant differences between the sexes but that the muscle type is a significant variation source. The rectus femoris muscle was lighter, and the biceps femoris had a lower a* index than longissimus dorsii, rectus femoris, and semimembranosus muscle. The most tender muscle was the semitendinosus, and the toughest even after cooking was the biceps femoris. The male animals had a greater protein and lipid percentage. The acidic composition of the intramuscular fat showed a greater presence of MUFA (P < 0.05) in the females and of PUFA (P < 0.01) in the males. Colorimetry analysis of the subcutaneous and perirenal fat from these animals indicated the unfavorable yellow color seen in adult animals had not yet been acquired. The meat produced had low redness due to the low myoglobin content and high lightness. Besides, the low collagen content and its high solubility indicates an appreciable tenderness. The high level of unsaturation of the intramuscular fat resulted in a high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, making horse meat favorable from a health point of view.

  12. Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older.

    PubMed

    Le Saux, Nicole; Robinson, Joan L

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) continues to be a common infection in young children. Milder disease, usually due to viruses or less virulent bacteria, resolves equally quickly with or without antibiotics. A bulging tympanic membrane, especially if yellow or hemorrhagic, has a high sensitivity for AOM that is likely to be bacterial in origin and is a major diagnostic criterion for AOM. Perforation of the tympanic membrane with purulent discharge similarly indicates a bacterial cause. Immediate antibiotic treatment is recommended for children who are highly febrile (≥39°C), moderately to severely systemically ill or who have very severe otalgia, or have already been significantly ill for 48 h. For all other cases, parents can be provided with a prescription for antibiotics to fill if the child does not improve in 48 h or the child can be reassessed if this occurs. Amoxicillin remains the clear drug of choice. Ten days of therapy is appropriate for children <2 years of age, whereas older children can be treated for five days. PMID:26941560

  13. Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older

    PubMed Central

    Le Saux, Nicole; Robinson, Joan L

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) continues to be a common infection in young children. Milder disease, usually due to viruses or less virulent bacteria, resolves equally quickly with or without antibiotics. A bulging tympanic membrane, especially if yellow or hemorrhagic, has a high sensitivity for AOM that is likely to be bacterial in origin and is a major diagnostic criterion for AOM. Perforation of the tympanic membrane with purulent discharge similarly indicates a bacterial cause. Immediate antibiotic treatment is recommended for children who are highly febrile (≥39°C), moderately to severely systemically ill or who have very severe otalgia, or have already been significantly ill for 48 h. For all other cases, parents can be provided with a prescription for antibiotics to fill if the child does not improve in 48 h or the child can be reassessed if this occurs. Amoxicillin remains the clear drug of choice. Ten days of therapy is appropriate for children <2 years of age, whereas older children can be treated for five days. PMID:26941560

  14. Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older.

    PubMed

    Le Saux, Nicole; Robinson, Joan L

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) continues to be a common infection in young children. Milder disease, usually due to viruses or less virulent bacteria, resolves equally quickly with or without antibiotics. A bulging tympanic membrane, especially if yellow or hemorrhagic, has a high sensitivity for AOM that is likely to be bacterial in origin and is a major diagnostic criterion for AOM. Perforation of the tympanic membrane with purulent discharge similarly indicates a bacterial cause. Immediate antibiotic treatment is recommended for children who are highly febrile (≥39°C), moderately to severely systemically ill or who have very severe otalgia, or have already been significantly ill for 48 h. For all other cases, parents can be provided with a prescription for antibiotics to fill if the child does not improve in 48 h or the child can be reassessed if this occurs. Amoxicillin remains the clear drug of choice. Ten days of therapy is appropriate for children <2 years of age, whereas older children can be treated for five days.

  15. Parental Delay or Refusal of Vaccine Doses, Childhood Vaccination Coverage at 24 Months of Age, and the Health Belief Model

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Philip J.; Humiston, Sharon G.; Marcuse, Edgar K.; Zhao, Zhen; Dorell, Christina G.; Howes, Cynthia; Hibbs, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the association between parents' beliefs about vaccines, their decision to delay or refuse vaccines for their children, and vaccination coverage of children at aged 24 months. Methods We used data from 11,206 parents of children aged 24–35 months at the time of the 2009 National Immunization Survey interview and determined their vaccination status at aged 24 months. Data included parents' reports of delay and/or refusal of vaccine doses, psychosocial factors suggested by the Health Belief Model, and provider-reported up-to-date vaccination status. Results In 2009, approximately 60.2% of parents with children aged 24–35 months neither delayed nor refused vaccines, 25.8% only delayed, 8.2% only refused, and 5.8% both delayed and refused vaccines. Compared with parents who neither delayed nor refused vaccines, parents who delayed and refused vaccines were significantly less likely to believe that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children (70.1% vs. 96.2%), that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated (71.0% vs. 90.0%), and that vaccines are safe (50.4% vs. 84.9%). Children of parents who delayed and refused also had significantly lower vaccination coverage for nine of the 10 recommended childhood vaccines including diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (65.3% vs. 85.2%), polio (76.9% vs. 93.8%), and measles-mumps-rubella (68.4% vs. 92.5%). After adjusting for sociodemographic differences, we found that parents who were less likely to agree that vaccines are necessary to protect the health of children, to believe that their child might get a disease if they aren't vaccinated, or to believe that vaccines are safe had significantly lower coverage for all 10 childhood vaccines. Conclusions Parents who delayed and refused vaccine doses were more likely to have vaccine safety concerns and perceive fewer benefits associated with vaccines. Guidelines published by the American Academy of Pediatrics may assist

  16. Mother-infant interactions of teen-age mothers as measured at six months in a natural setting.

    PubMed

    Landy, S; Clark, C; Schubert, J; Jillings, C

    1983-11-01

    Mother-infant interaction of 14 teen-age mothers and their six-month-old infants was observed in the home and compared with that of 12 women 20 years or older and their infants. A further group was designated a "noncontact" group and was seen only at the beginning and end of the first year and was a control for research intervention or experimenter effects. Teen-agers showed few significant differences from older mothers in their mothering skills as measured by simple frequency distributions of individual behaviors and social interaction. Transitional probabilities and flow of interaction matrixes also revealed few significant differences. Like previous studies, the present study found that teen-age mothers showed high warmth and physical interaction but low verbal interaction with their infants. Support of the mothers through experience in the observational sessions may have influenced the results. The possibility is noted of differences in patterns of mothering as the infant develops. PMID:6644628

  17. Mother-infant interactions of teen-age mothers as measured at six months in a natural setting.

    PubMed

    Landy, S; Clark, C; Schubert, J; Jillings, C

    1983-11-01

    Mother-infant interaction of 14 teen-age mothers and their six-month-old infants was observed in the home and compared with that of 12 women 20 years or older and their infants. A further group was designated a "noncontact" group and was seen only at the beginning and end of the first year and was a control for research intervention or experimenter effects. Teen-agers showed few significant differences from older mothers in their mothering skills as measured by simple frequency distributions of individual behaviors and social interaction. Transitional probabilities and flow of interaction matrixes also revealed few significant differences. Like previous studies, the present study found that teen-age mothers showed high warmth and physical interaction but low verbal interaction with their infants. Support of the mothers through experience in the observational sessions may have influenced the results. The possibility is noted of differences in patterns of mothering as the infant develops.

  18. Haematological profile on non-lactating Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) ranging in age from 24 months to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, P; Corona, M; Ambrosio, R; Consalvo, F; Persechino, A

    2005-08-01

    Haematological studies were performed on 100 clinically normal non-lactating Mediterranean buffalo species ranging in age from 24 months to 14 years, to determinate the range of normal haematological values for this ruminant species. The animals were divided in 5 groups according to age: Group I, 2-3 years old which had never calved, Group II, 3-4 years old (primipara buffaloes), Group III, 5-7 years old, Group IV 8-10 years old and Group V over 10 years of age. All the haematological values obtained were comparable with the normal values found in adult cattle, and similar to those reported in Indian water buffalo species. The heifer buffalo showed an higher values for packed cell volume (PCV) compared with the older animals, but lower values for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) (P 0.01). In animals above 8 years of age, the white cell count was lower with a significant reduction in absolute values of lymphocytes (P 0.01). Higher absolute values of eosinophils levels was found in the group V (P 0.01). PMID:15894028

  19. The child's conception of food: differentiation of categories of rejected substances in the 16 months to 5 year age range.

    PubMed

    Rozin, P; Hammer, L; Oster, H; Horowitz, T; Marmora, V

    1986-06-01

    Children (N = 54) ranging in age from one year four months to five years were offered over 30 items to eat. The items included normal adult foods and exemplars of different adult rejection categories: disgust (e.g. grasshopper, hair), danger (liquid dish soap), inappropriate (e.g. paper, leaf) and unacceptable combinations (e.g. ketchup and cookie). We report a high to moderate level of acceptance (item put into mouth) of substances from all of these categories in the youngest children. Acceptance of disgusting and dangerous substances decreases with increasing age, while acceptance of inappropriate substances remains at moderate levels across the age range studied. Although the youngest children accepted more disgust items, the majority rejected most of the disgust choices. Almost all children at all ages tested accept combinations of foods which, although individually accepted by adults, are rejected in combination. No significant differences were observed between 'normal' children and those with a history of toxin ingestion, although there was a tendency of ingesters to accept more inedible items. In general, the results suggest that a major feature of the development of food selection is learning what not to eat. PMID:3740830

  20. Haematological profile on non-lactating Mediterranean buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) ranging in age from 24 months to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Ciaramella, P; Corona, M; Ambrosio, R; Consalvo, F; Persechino, A

    2005-08-01

    Haematological studies were performed on 100 clinically normal non-lactating Mediterranean buffalo species ranging in age from 24 months to 14 years, to determinate the range of normal haematological values for this ruminant species. The animals were divided in 5 groups according to age: Group I, 2-3 years old which had never calved, Group II, 3-4 years old (primipara buffaloes), Group III, 5-7 years old, Group IV 8-10 years old and Group V over 10 years of age. All the haematological values obtained were comparable with the normal values found in adult cattle, and similar to those reported in Indian water buffalo species. The heifer buffalo showed an higher values for packed cell volume (PCV) compared with the older animals, but lower values for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) (P 0.01). In animals above 8 years of age, the white cell count was lower with a significant reduction in absolute values of lymphocytes (P 0.01). Higher absolute values of eosinophils levels was found in the group V (P 0.01).

  1. [Effects of delayed cord clamping on hemoglobin and ferritin levels in infants at three months of age].

    PubMed

    Venâncio, Sonia Isoyama; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Saldiva, Sílvia Regina Dias Médici; Mondini, Lenise; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto; Leung, Siu Lum

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of delayed (1 minute after delivery) clamping of the umbilical cord on hemoglobin and ferritin levels in infants at three months of age. Mothers and their infants born through vaginal delivery, at term, and without congenital anomalies (325 pairs) were recruited at a hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 (164 in the delayed clamping subgroup and 161 in the early clamping subgroup). Maternal hemoglobin at delivery, umbilical cord hemoglobin, and ferritin were recorded. At three months follow-up, venous blood samples were drawn from 224 (69%) infants for hemoglobin and ferritin measurement. Socioeconomic, maternal reproductive, anthropometric, and infant feeding variables were studied. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze the data. The effect of delayed clamping at birth, measured at three months, was only significant for ferritin (p = 0.040), and the concentration was higher (23.29ng/mL) in this subgroup as compared to the early clamping subgroup. Delayed umbilical cord clamping can serve as a strategy to improve infant iron status and prevent iron deficiency.

  2. Blood levels of the heavy metal, lead, and caries in children aged 24-72 months: NHANES III.

    PubMed

    Wiener, R Constance; Long, D Leann; Jurevic, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Lead remains a significant pollutant. It has acute toxic and chronic effects on many tissues and accumulates in teeth and bones. The researchers for this study investigated the association of blood lead levels with the extent/severity of caries as measured by the number of decayed/filled teeth of children aged 24-72 months using data from NHANES III (the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), accounting for the excess zero caries in the analysis and using less than 2 µg/dl as the reference blood lead level (n = 3,127). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models indicated unadjusted extent/severity mean ratios of 1.79, 1.88 and 1.94 for the number of decayed/filled teeth in children whose blood lead levels were 2-5, 5-10 and >10 µg/dl, respectively, compared with children having <2 µg/dl blood lead levels. The results did not attenuate when other variables were added to the model for the 5-10 and >10 µg/dl levels of exposure. The adjusted extent/severity mean ratios were 1.84, 2.14 and 1.91, respectively, for the categories. This study indicated a strong association of blood lead levels with increasing numbers of carious teeth in children aged 24-72 months. These findings support other studies in an innovative analysis handling cases of children with no caries. The findings may inform caries risk assessment.

  3. Blood levels of the heavy metal, lead, and caries in children aged 24-72 months: NHANES III.

    PubMed

    Wiener, R Constance; Long, D Leann; Jurevic, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Lead remains a significant pollutant. It has acute toxic and chronic effects on many tissues and accumulates in teeth and bones. The researchers for this study investigated the association of blood lead levels with the extent/severity of caries as measured by the number of decayed/filled teeth of children aged 24-72 months using data from NHANES III (the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), accounting for the excess zero caries in the analysis and using less than 2 µg/dl as the reference blood lead level (n = 3,127). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models indicated unadjusted extent/severity mean ratios of 1.79, 1.88 and 1.94 for the number of decayed/filled teeth in children whose blood lead levels were 2-5, 5-10 and >10 µg/dl, respectively, compared with children having <2 µg/dl blood lead levels. The results did not attenuate when other variables were added to the model for the 5-10 and >10 µg/dl levels of exposure. The adjusted extent/severity mean ratios were 1.84, 2.14 and 1.91, respectively, for the categories. This study indicated a strong association of blood lead levels with increasing numbers of carious teeth in children aged 24-72 months. These findings support other studies in an innovative analysis handling cases of children with no caries. The findings may inform caries risk assessment. PMID:25358243

  4. Iron Deficiency and Iron-deficiency Anemia in Toddlers Ages 18 to 36 Months: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Levin, Carina; Harpaz, Shira; Muklashi, Isam; Lumelsky, Nadia; Komisarchik, Ina; Katzap, Ilia; Abu Hanna, Manhal; Koren, Ariel

    2016-04-01

    In young children, iron deficiency (ID)-the most common cause of anemia-may adversely affect long-term neurodevelopment and behavior. We prospectively evaluated the prevalence of ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in 256 healthy 18- to 36-month-old children in Northern Israel. Complete blood count and ferritin evaluation were performed, and risk factors were assessed. Hemoglobin (Hgb) was compared with first-year routine screening. Complete data were obtained from 208 children: 56.2% were boys; the mean age was 26.1±5.27 months. A prevalence of 5.8% IDA, 16.3% ID without anemia, 9.6% anemia with normal ferritin, and 68.3% normal Hgb and ferritin was found. In nonanemic infants at 1 year of age (n=156), ID/IDA was found in 19.9%, and 12.8% became anemic at study evaluation. Despite iron supplementation in the first year, and normal Hgb at first-year screening, ID and IDA were still prevalent, and might develop during the second year of life. Recognition of this child subset and consideration of iron supplementation are mandatory.

  5. Changes in beef sensory traits as somatic-cell-cloned Japanese black steers increased in age from 20 to 30 months.

    PubMed

    Okumura, T; Saito, K; Sowa, T; Sakuma, H; Ohhashi, F; Tameoka, N; Hirayama, M; Nakayama, S; Sato, S; Gogami, T; Akaida, M; Kobayashi, E; Konishi, K; Yamada, S; Kawamura, T

    2012-01-01

    Changes in sensory traits of longissimus muscle (LM) from 20-30-month-old cattle were investigated using somatic cell clones of Japanese black steers slaughtered at 20-, 25- and 30-months-old (n=3, 4 and 4 respectively). The fat content of LM samples at 20, 25 and 30 months were 23.7, 38.7 and 41.1%, respectively. Soluble collagen content and collagen solubility at 20 months was greater than at 25 and 30 months. In terms of sensory traits, initial tenderness and juiciness at 25 months was greater than at 20 months, and fattiness at 25 and 30 months was greater than at 20 months. These results demonstrate that the changes in physicochemical traits of beef accompanying the differences in slaughter age affect the sensory traits although the desirable effects of the sensory traits do not continue throughout the entire fattening period.

  6. Changes in beef sensory traits as somatic-cell-cloned Japanese black steers increased in age from 20 to 30 months.

    PubMed

    Okumura, T; Saito, K; Sowa, T; Sakuma, H; Ohhashi, F; Tameoka, N; Hirayama, M; Nakayama, S; Sato, S; Gogami, T; Akaida, M; Kobayashi, E; Konishi, K; Yamada, S; Kawamura, T

    2012-01-01

    Changes in sensory traits of longissimus muscle (LM) from 20-30-month-old cattle were investigated using somatic cell clones of Japanese black steers slaughtered at 20-, 25- and 30-months-old (n=3, 4 and 4 respectively). The fat content of LM samples at 20, 25 and 30 months were 23.7, 38.7 and 41.1%, respectively. Soluble collagen content and collagen solubility at 20 months was greater than at 25 and 30 months. In terms of sensory traits, initial tenderness and juiciness at 25 months was greater than at 20 months, and fattiness at 25 and 30 months was greater than at 20 months. These results demonstrate that the changes in physicochemical traits of beef accompanying the differences in slaughter age affect the sensory traits although the desirable effects of the sensory traits do not continue throughout the entire fattening period. PMID:21745718

  7. M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Forecasting on the basis of jet stream precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Currently earthquake prediction research methods can be divided into the crust change, radon concentration, well water level, animal behavior, Very high frequency (VHF) signals, GPS/TEC in ionospheric variations, thermal infrared radiation (TIR) anomalies. Before major earthquakes (M> 6) occurred, jet stream in the epicenter area will interrupt or velocity flow lines cross. That meaning is that before earthquake happen, atmospheric pressure in high altitude suddenly dropped during 6~12 hours (Wu & Tikhonov, 2014). This technique has been used to predict the strong earthquakes in real time, and then pre-registered on the website. For example: M6.0 Northern California earthquake on 2014/08/24(figure1) , M6.6 Russia earthquake on 2013/10/12(figure2), As far as 2014/08/24 M6.6 earthquake in CA, USA, the front end of the 60knots speed line was at the S.F. on 2014/06/16 12:00, and then after 69 days ,M6.1 earthquake happened. We predicted that magnitude is larger than 5.5 but the period is only 30 days on 2014/07/16 . The deviation of predicted point was about 70 km. Lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere (LAI) coupling model may be explained this phenomenon : Ionization of the air produced by an increased emanation of radon at epicenter. The water molecules in the air react with these ions, and then release heat. The heat result in temperature rise in the air. They are also accompanied by a large-scale change in the atmospheric pressure and jet streams morphology.We obtain satisfactory accuracy of estimation of the epicenter location. As well we define the short alarm period. That's the positive aspects of our forecast. However, estimates of magnitude jet contain a big uncertainty.Reference:H.C Wu, I.N. Tikhonov, 2014, "Jet streams anomalies as possible short-term precursors of earthquakes with M>6.0", Research in geophysics, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ rg.2014.4939 http://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/rg/article/view/rg.2014.4939

  8. Prenatal factors associated with birth weight and length and current nutritional status of hospitalized children aged 4-24 months.

    PubMed

    Mariante Giesta, Juliana; Ramón da Rosa, Suélen; Moura Pessoa, Juliana Salino; Lúcia Bosa, Vera

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of prenatal factors with birth weight and length, as well as current nutritional status, of children hospitalized in southern Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 child-mother pairs. Children were between 4 and 24 months old. They were at the inpatient unit or pediatric emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Anthropometric data were collected, and a questionnaire on gestational data was answered by the children's mothers. Maternal variables of interest were: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, smoking and/or use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, gestational diabetes and/ or high blood pressure. Children's variables of interest were: sex, gestational age, birth weight (BW) and birth length (BL), and current anthropometric data [body mass index for age (BMI/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for age (W/A)]. The gestational weight gain and smoking were associated with BW. We also found that H/A was associated with BW and BL, W/A was associated with BW, and BMI/A was associated with BL. The gestational weight gain was associated with BL, diabetes was associated with BW and BL, and high blood pressure was associated with low height in the first two years of life. We concluded that prenatal factors may have an influence on both BW and BL, causing the birth of small and large for gestational age children, and thus affecting their growth rate during the first years of life.

  9. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant.

  10. Geodetic constraints on the 2014 M 6.0 South Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhart, William D.; Murray, Jessica R.; Yun, S H; Svarc, Jerry L.; Samsonov, SV; Fielding, EJ; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Milillo, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    On 24 August 2014, the M 6.0 South Napa earthquake shook much of the San Francisco Bay area, leading to significant damage in the Napa Valley. The earthquake occurred in the vicinity of the West Napa fault (122.313° W, 38.22° N, 11.3 km), a mapped structure located between the Rodger’s Creek and Green Valley faults, with nearly pure right‐lateral strike‐slip motion (strike 157°, dip 77°, rake –169°; http://comcat.cr.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/nc72282711#summary, last accessed December 2014) (Fig. 1). The West Napa fault previously experienced an M 5 strike‐slip event in 2000 but otherwise exhibited no previous definitive evidence of historic earthquake rupture (Rodgers et al., 2008; Wesling and Hanson, 2008). Evans et al. (2012) found slip rates of ∼9.5  mm/yr along the West Napa fault, with most slip rate models for the Bay area placing higher slip rates and greater earthquake potential on the Rodger’s Creek and Green Valley faults, respectively (e.g., Savage et al., 1999; d’Alessio et al., 2005; Funning et al., 2007).

  11. Simion 3D Version 6.0 User`s Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    The original SIMION was an electrostatic lens analysis and design program developed by D.C. McGilvery at Latrobe University, Bundoora Victoria, Australia, 1977. SIMION for the PC, developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, shares little more than its name with the original McGilvery version. INEL`s fifth major SIMION release, version 6.0, represents a quantum improvement over previous versions. This C based program can model complex problems using an ion optics workbench that can hold up to 200 2D and/or 3D electrostatic/magnetic potential arrays. Arrays can have up to 10,000,000 points. SIMION 3D`s 32 bit virtual Graphics User Interface provides a highly interactive advanced user environment. All potential arrays are visualized as 3D objects that the user can cut away to inspect ion trajectories and potential energy surfaces. User programs have been greatly extended in versatility and power. A new geometry file option supports the definition of highly complex array geometry. Extensive algorithm modifications have dramatically improved this version`s computational speed and accuracy.

  12. Nuclear Photoproduction of Pseudoscalar Mesons at Forward Angles up to 6.0 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, T. E.; Mesa, J.; Garcia, C.; Shtejer, K.; Dale, D.; Cole, P. L.; Nakagawa, I.; Arruda-Neto, J. D. T

    2007-10-26

    The nuclear incoherent {pi}{sup 0} photoproduction cross section from {sup 12}C is evaluated at forward angles in the 4.0 to 6.0 GeV energy range using the multicollisional intranuclear cascade model MCMC. The model incorporates some improvements in comparison with previous versions associated with the momentum distribution (MD) for light nuclei--extracted from the available (e,e{sup '}p) data--as well as the evaluation of the shadowing effects during the photo-nucleus interaction. The final results of the single and double differential cross sections at forward angles are very sensitive to the MD parameterizations due to the Pauli principle, which largely suppresses the cross sections for low momentum transfer. The attenuation of the nuclear cross section due to pion--nucleus final state interactions is approximately 40% (without nuclear shadowing), which is in nice agreement with the predictions from the Glauber model. The single and double {pi}{sup 0} differential cross sections are presented for possible applications for the interpretation of the inelastic background in the PrimEx experiment at the Jefferson Laboratory.

  13. Theoretical study of formamide decomposition pathways over (6,0) silicon-carbide nanotube.

    PubMed

    Esrafili, Mehdi D; Ghanbari, Mozhgan; Nurazar, Roghaye; Nematollahi, Parisa

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we systematically identified possible reaction pathways for the catalytic decomposition of formamide (FM) on a (6,0) silicon-carbide nanotube surface by means of density functional theory. To gain insight into the catalytic activity of the surface, the interaction between the FM and SiCNT is analyzed by detailed electronic analysis such as adsorption energy, charge density difference and activation barrier. The energy barriers for the dehydrogenation, decarbonylation, and dehydration processes are found to be in the range of 0.2-49 kcal. Our results indicate that dehydrogenation and decarbonylation pathways are possible routes to get gaseous HNCO, H2, NH3, and CO molecules. In contrast, the reaction of HCONH → CONH + H presents a large activation energy (about 49 kcal mol(-1)) which makes the FM dehydration an unfavorable reaction. Moreover, the dehydrogenation appears to be particularly favorable at low temperatures. The theoretical insights gained in this study could be useful for designing and developing metal-free catalysts based on SiC nanostructures. PMID:25783993

  14. Factors associated with morbidity, mortality, and growth of dairy heifer calves up to 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Windeyer, M C; Leslie, K E; Godden, S M; Hodgins, D C; Lissemore, K D; LeBlanc, S J

    2014-02-01

    Calfhood disease is an important problem on many dairy operations that can have substantial effects on heifer survival and productivity, and has economic and welfare impacts. Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in young dairy cattle. The objective of this observational study was to investigate factors associated with the risks of morbidity and mortality, and with growth, in commercial dairy heifers calves. A total of 2874 heifer calves from 19 commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Ontario were enrolled at 1-7 days of age and followed for approximately 3 months. Using cut-points of serum total protein of 5.2 and 5.7 g/dl, the incidences of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) were 11 and 32%, respectively. A cut-point of 5.7 g/dl was the most predictive of BRD before 5 weeks of age (sensitivity=40%, specificity=69%). The positive predictive value was poor (PPV=18%), but the negative predictive value was good (NPV=87%). A cut-point of 5.2g/dl was most predictive of death before 5 weeks of age (sensitivity=27%, specificity=89%, PPV=5%, NPV=98%). Serum total protein during the first week of life was a poor predictor of NCD. Over 23% of calves were treated for diarrhea. Risk factors were weight at enrollment, other diseases before 2 weeks of age, and an interaction between season of birth and herd-level incidence of NCD. Almost 22% of calves were treated at least once for BRD. Factors associated with an increased risk of BRD included herd-level incidence of BRD, season of birth, navel dipping, other diseases before 2 weeks of age, failure of transfer of passive immunity, and manual control of temperature in pre-weaning housing. Administration of supplemental antibody products at birth was associated with a reduced incidence of BRD. Overall mortality was 3.5%. Risk of mortality was increased by treatment for BRD and other diseases. The mean average weight gain was 0.95 kg

  15. Comparisons of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in Anglophone and Francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve

  16. Comparisons of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in Anglophone and Francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve

  17. Temperament and Behaviour of Infants Aged 4-12 Months on Admission to a Private Mother-Baby Unit and at 1- and 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Jane; Rowe, Heather; Feekery, Colin

    2004-01-01

    While infant behaviour is influenced by maternal care, infant crying and dysregulated sleep can reciprocally affect maternal mood. The temperament and behaviour of two 4-12-months-old infant cohorts admitted with their mothers to a residential parenting program were examined using behaviour charts and the Short Infant Temperament Questionnaire…

  18. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months.

    PubMed

    Nieto, C A Rosales; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-09-15

    We studied the relationships among growth, body composition and reproductive performance in ewe lambs with known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning live weight (PWT) and depth of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). To detect estrus, vasectomized rams were placed with 190 Merino ewe lambs when on average they were 157 days old. The vasectomized rams were replaced with entire rams when the ewe lambs were, on average, 226 days old. Lambs were weighed every week and blood was sampled on four occasions for assay of ghrelin, leptin and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Almost 90% of the lambs attained puberty during the experiment, at an average live weight of 41.4 kg and average age of 197 days. Ewe lambs with higher values for EMD (P < 0.001), FAT (P < 0.01), PWT (P < 0.001), PEMD (P < 0.05) and PFAT (P < 0.05) were more likely to achieve puberty by 251 days of age. Thirty-six percent of the lambs conceived and, at the estimated date of conception, the average live weight was 46.9 ± 0.6 kg and average age was 273 days. Fertility, fecundity and reproductive rate were positively related to PWT (P < 0.05) and thus live weight at the start of mating (P < 0.001). Reproductive performance was not correlated with blood concentrations of ghrelin, leptin or ß-hydroxybutyrate. Many ewe lambs attained puberty, as detected by vasectomized rams, but then failed to become pregnant after mating with entire rams. Nevertheless, we can conclude that in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age, higher breeding values for growth, muscle and fat are positively correlated with reproductive performance, although the effects of breeding values and responses to live weight are highly variable.

  19. Detection and Nonoperative Management of Pediatric Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Infants up to Six Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Mulpuri, Kishore; Song, Kit M; Goldberg, Michael J; Sevarino, Kaitlyn

    2015-03-01

    Detection and Nonoperative Management of Pediatric Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Infants up to Six Months of Age: Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline is based on a systematic review of the current scientific and clinical research. This guideline has been endorsed by the Society of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, the Society for Pediatric Radiology, American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to help improve treatment and management based on the current evidence. This guideline contains nine recommendations, including both diagnosis and treatment. In addition, the work group highlighted the need for better research in the early diagnosis and treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. PMID:25656273

  20. Neonatal Gram Negative and Candida Sepsis Survival and Neurodevelopmental Outcome at the Corrected Age of 24 Months

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Timo R.; Beckers, Loes; de Jonge, Rogier C. J.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van Toledo, Letty; Pajkrt, Dasja; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; van der Lee, Johanna H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long term neurodevelopmental outcome of premature infants exposed to either gram- negative sepsis (GNS) or neonatal Candida sepsis (NCS), and to compare their outcome with premature infants without sepsis. Methods Historical cohort study in a population of infants born at <30 weeks gestation and admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam during the period 1997–2007. Outcome of infants exposed to GNS or NCS and 120 randomly chosen uncomplicated controls (UC) from the same NICU were compared. Clinical data during hospitalization and neurodevelopmental outcome data (clinical neurological status; Bayley –test results and vision/hearing test results) at the corrected age of 24 months were collected. An association model with sepsis as the central determinant of either good or adverse outcome (death or severe developmental delay) was made, corrected for confounders using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Of 1362 patients, 55 suffered from GNS and 29 suffered from NCS; cumulative incidence 4.2% and 2.2%, respectively. During the follow-up period the mortality rate was 34% for both GNS and NCS and 5% for UC. The adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) [95% CI] for adverse outcome in the GNS group compared to the NCS group was 1.4 [0.4–4.9]. The adjusted ORs [95% CI] for adverse outcome in the GNS and NCS groups compared to the UC group were 4.8 [1.5–15.9] and 3.2 [0.7–14.7], respectively. Conclusions We found no statistically significant difference in outcome at the corrected age of 24 months between neonatal GNS and NCS cases. Suffering from either gram –negative or Candida sepsis increased the odds for adverse outcome compared with an uncomplicated neonatal period. PMID:23527140

  1. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. PMID:27314387

  2. Antenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Relationship with Children’s Weight and Height from Birth up to the Age of 18 Months

    PubMed Central

    JABBARI, Hossein; BAKHSHIAN, Fariba; ASGARI, Mohammad; SATTARI, Mohammadreza; NAGHAVI-BEHZAD, Mohammad; MASHAYEKHI, Simin Ozar

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal nutritional is the most important environmental factor influencing pregnancy outcome. While studies showed association between maternal iron-micronutrient deficiencies with pregnancy outcome, data examining impact of micronutrient supplementation on growth rate beyond birth are sparse. Present study examined the relationship between iron and multivitamins supplementation on growth rate of babies up to age of 18 month. Methods: This study was a statistical analysis on data recorded through a routine procedure in health houses from 1994 to 2007. Subjects were selected by a two-stage randomization method and required data extracted from the records. Analyses were performed using STATA 10 software. Results: Data was collected for 3835 pairs of mother-baby. Mothers received 61.7±5.4 and 115.6±53.8 multivitamins and iron tablets, respectively. Analyses showed significant relationship between children’s weight and height at birth with iron supplementation and children’s height at 6, 12 and 18 month with multivitamins supplementation. Conclusions: Mechanisms of these effects are unclear but it is safe to suggest supplementation during pregnancy is necessary. PMID:23967431

  3. Causes of disease and death from birth to 12 months of age in the Thoroughbred horse in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the causes of disease and death in a population of foals in Ireland during their first 12 months post partum. Foaling and veterinary records from 343 foals on four farms born between January 1, 2004 and May 30, 2008 were reviewed. Among 343 foals, 22 did not survive to 12 months of age. Over the five-year period, the incidence of stillbirth was 1.5% (5/343), mortality 5% (17/338) and overall morbidity was 88.5% (299/338). Morbidity was calculated to include all new conditions brought to the attention of the attending veterinary surgeon, no matter how minor. Of foals born alive: congenital abnormalities were the most common cause of death (35.3% 6/17 foals) followed by musculoskeletal trauma (5/17, 29.4%). Of 711 separate incidents of disease, 46.5% (331/711) were due to an infectious process, 25% (178/711) due to non-infectious musculoskeletal issues; and 14.9% (106/711) related to non-infectious gastrointestinal problems. Respiratory infection was the single most common disease accounting for 27.8% (178/711) of all disease incidents in this population. Findings from this study provide information regarding the causes and incidence of death and disease in the young Irish Thoroughbred population. PMID:21851741

  4. No glucotoxicity after 53 hours of 6.0 mmol/l hyperglycaemia in normal man.

    PubMed

    Flax, H; Matthews, D R; Levy, J C; Coppack, S W; Turner, R C

    1991-08-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that metabolic deterioration can be induced by hyperglycaemia per se. The effect of 53 h of 2.2 mg glucose.kg ideal body weight-1.min-1 was examined in four normal male subjects. This produced overnight hyperglycaemia of 6.0 mmol/l on the two nights of the study compared with 4.7 mmol/l on the control night (p less than 0.05). In response there was a sustained, two-fold increase in basal plasma insulin (p less than 0.005) and C-peptide (p less than 0.05) levels. After two days of hyperglycaemia an increased Beta-cell response was demonstrated in response to an additional glucose infusion stimulus (estimated Beta-cell function median of 84% on the control day to 100% after two days glucose infusion). Plasma insulin and C-peptide responses to a 10.0 mmol/l hyperglycaemic clamp increased over the two days of the study (insulin from median 48 mU/l to 73 mU/l and C-peptide from median 2.0 pmol/ml to 2.6 pmol/l). Glucose tolerance to the additional glucose infusion stimulus improved, suggesting that the increased insulin response during hyperglycaemia was enhancing peripheral glucose uptake. The calculated peripheral insulin sensitivity was unchanged during the hyperglycaemic clamp. Thus, in response to the two days of basal hyperglycaemia, both the basal and stimulated Beta-cell responses were enhanced and there was no evidence for 'glucose toxicity' to the Beta-cells.

  5. The Mw6.0 24 August 2014 South Napa earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.; Pollitz, Fred F.; Murray, Jessica R.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Schwartz, David P.; Blair, James Luke; Ponti, Daniel J.; Lienkaemper, James J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Dawson, Timothy E.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Shelly, David R.; Dreger, Douglas S.; Boatwright, John; Aagaard, Brad T.; Wald, David J.; Allen, Richard M.; Barnhart, William D.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Scharer, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    The Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, which occurred at 10:20 UTC 24 August 2014 was the largest earthquake to strike the greater San Francisco Bay area since the Mw 6.9 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The rupture from this right‐lateral earthquake propagated mostly unilaterally to the north and up‐dip, directing the strongest shaking toward the city of Napa, where peak ground accelerations (PGAs) between 45%g and 61%g were recorded and modified Mercalli intensities (MMIs) of VII–VIII were reported. Tectonic surface rupture with dextral slip of up to 46 cm was observed on a 12.5 km long segment, some of which was along a previously mapped strand of the West Napa fault system, although the rupture extended to the north of the mapped Quaternary strand. Modeling of seismic and geodetic data suggests an average coseismic slip of 50 cm, with a maximum slip of about 1 m at depths of 10–11 km. We observed up to 35 cm of afterslip along the surface trace in the week following the mainshock, primarily along the southern half of the surface rupture that experienced relatively little coseismic offset. Relocation of the sparse aftershock sequence suggests en echelon southwest‐ and northeast‐dipping fault planes, reflective of the complex fault geometry in this region. The Napa basin and historic and late Holocene alluvial flood deposits in downtown Napa amplified the ground motions there. Few ground failures were mapped, reflecting the dry season (as well as a persistent drought that had lowered the groundwater table) and the short duration of strong shaking in the epicentral area.

  6. Near-Field Deformation Associated with the M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Surface Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, B. A.; Hudnut, K. W.; Glennie, C. L.; Ericksen, T.

    2014-12-01

    We characterize near-field deformation associated with the surface rupture of the M6.0 South Napa earthquake from repeat mobile laser scanning (MLS) surveys. Starting the day after the main shock, we operated, sometime simultaneously, short (~75 m range) and medium (~400m range) range laser scanners on a truck or backpack. We scanned most of the length of the principal and secondary surface ruptures at speeds less than 10 km/hr. Scanning occurred primarily in either suburban subdivisions or cultivated vineyards of varying varietals with differing leaf patterns and stages of maturity. Spot-spacing is dense enough (100s of points/m^2) to permit creation of 10-25cm digital elevation models of much of the surface rupture. Scanned features of the right-lateral rupture include classic mole tracks through a variety of soil types, en echelon cracks, offset vine rows, and myriad types of pavement-related deformation. We estimate coseismic surface displacements ranging from 5 to 45 cm by examining offset cultural features and vine rows and by comparing the MLS data with preexisting airborne laser scans from 2003 using point-cloud and solid-modeling methodologies. Additionally, we conducted repeat MLS scans to measure the magnitude and spatial variation of fault afterslip, exceeding 20 cm in some places, particularly in the southern portion of the rupture zone. We anticipate these data sets, in conjunction with independently collected ground-based alinement arrays and space-based geodetic data will contribute significant insight into topics of current debate including assessing the most appropriate material models for shallow fault zones and how shallow and deeper fault slip relate to one another.

  7. Seismic evidence for rock damage and healing on the San Andreas fault associated with the 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.-G.; Chen, P.; Cochran, E.S.; Vidale, J.E.; Burdette, T.

    2006-01-01

    We deployed a dense linear array of 45 seismometers across and along the San Andreas fault near Parkfield a week after the M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake on 28 September 2004 to record fault-zone seismic waves generated by aftershocks and explosions. Seismic stations and explosions were co-sited with our previous experiment conducted in 2002. The data from repeated shots detonated in the fall of 2002 and 3 months after the 2004 M 6.0 mainshock show ???1.0%-1.5% decreases in seismic-wave velocity within an ???200-m-wide zone along the fault strike and smaller changes (0.2%-0.5%) beyond this zone, most likely due to the coseismic damage of rocks during dynamic rupture in the 2004 M 6.0 earthquake. The width of the damage zone characterized by larger velocity changes is consistent with the low-velocity waveguide model on the San Andreas fault, near Parkfield, that we derived from fault-zone trapped waves (Li et al., 2004). The damage zone is not symmetric but extends farther on the southwest side of the main fault trace. Waveform cross-correlations for repeated aftershocks in 21 clusters, with a total of ???130 events, located at different depths and distances from the array site show ???0.7%-1.1% increases in S-wave velocity within the fault zone in 3 months starting a week after the earthquake. The velocity recovery indicates that the damaged rock has been healing and regaining the strength through rigidity recovery with time, most likely . due to the closure of cracks opened during the mainshock. We estimate that the net decrease in seismic velocities within the fault zone was at least ???2.5%, caused by the 2004 M 6.0 Parkfield earthquake. The healing rate was largest in the earlier stage of the postmainshock healing process. The magnitude of fault healing varies along the rupture zone, being slightly larger for the healing beneath Middle Mountain, correlating well with an area of large mapped slip. The fault healing is most prominent at depths above ???7 km.

  8. Risk Factors for Learning-Related Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age: Population-Based Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We used a large sample of singleton children to estimate the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, additional socio-demographics, gestational and birth factors, and parenting on children's risk for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age. We investigated to what extent these factors increased a child's risk of displaying inattention, a lack of task persistence, disinterest, non-cooperation, or frustration as he or she completed a series of cognitive and physical tasks with a non-caregiver. Results indicated that boys are about twice as likely as girls to display learning-related behavior problems. Children from lower SES households are about twice as likely as those from high SES households to display such behavior problems, which is largely attributable to the effects of having a mother with a low educational level. Statistically controlling for these factors, we found consistently significant patterns of elevated learning-related behavior problems for some Asian and Native American children. Results for African-American children were mixed. Hispanic children did not have elevated risks of problem behaviors. Only small portions of these effects are explained by variation in the children's gestational or birth characteristics. A significant portion, but still less than half of the socio-demographic effects are attributable to measured features of the children's parenting. This study helps provide population-based estimates of children's risk for learning-related behavior problems while at an age when early interventions are most effective. PMID:19057886

  9. Maternal determinants of complete child immunization among children aged 12-23 months in a southern district of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola; Okoro, Anselm O

    2012-01-17

    This study was conducted to identify determinants of complete immunization status among children aged 12-23 months in a southern district of Nigeria. The World Health Organization cluster survey was used to evaluate immunization coverage of infants. Mothers of 525 children selected by the two-stage sampling method and interviewed using an adapted questionnaire responded. Completion of the immunization schedule was verified by an immunization card or by reported history indicating that the child had received full doses of four of the antigens included in the Nigeria routine immunization schedule. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with completion of immunization. Only 32.4% of children had completed the immunization schedule. Determinants of complete immunization status included a maternal age less than 30 years (AOR=2.26, 95% CI:1.27-4.03), availability of an immunization card at first contact (AOR=7.72, 95% CI:4.43-13.44), fewer than three children (AOR=2.22, 95% CI:11.1-4.42), completion of post secondary education (AOR=2.34, 95% CI:1.12-4.47) and maternal unemployment (AOR=1.71, 95% CI:1.01-2.89). Identifying mothers whose children are at risk of not completing the immunization schedule and educating them is an important strategy to improve antigen coverage and prevent early childhood deaths from diseases like tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and measles. PMID:22137878

  10. Factors associated with nutritional status in children aged 5-24 months in the Republic of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nagahori, Chikako; Tchuani, Jean Paul; Yamauchi, Taro

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to clarify nutritional status and associated factors in 5-24 month old children in the district of Batouri, Republic of Cameroon. Mothers were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire, and the child's weight, length, head circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference was collected. The data were compared with child growth standards proposed by the World Health Organization using Z-scores; χ(2) -test, Fisher's exact test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to determine variables associated with malnutrition. A total of 100 mother-child pairs participated in this study; valid data from 100 pairs were subjected to analysis. The percentages of children with malnutrition indicators were wasting (6%), stunting (31%), underweight (14%), and low mid-upper arm circumference (16%). Five factors were found to be statistically significant in their association with the children's malnutrition: mother's age, child's age, mother's educational level, mothers who had family planning information, and the source of tap water. A high percentage of stunting was positively associated with a high percentage of chronic malnutrition. We speculate that insufficient nutrition was more likely to begin after weaning. PMID:25818304

  11. Factors associated with nutritional status in children aged 5-24 months in the Republic of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nagahori, Chikako; Tchuani, Jean Paul; Yamauchi, Taro

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to clarify nutritional status and associated factors in 5-24 month old children in the district of Batouri, Republic of Cameroon. Mothers were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire, and the child's weight, length, head circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference was collected. The data were compared with child growth standards proposed by the World Health Organization using Z-scores; χ(2) -test, Fisher's exact test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to determine variables associated with malnutrition. A total of 100 mother-child pairs participated in this study; valid data from 100 pairs were subjected to analysis. The percentages of children with malnutrition indicators were wasting (6%), stunting (31%), underweight (14%), and low mid-upper arm circumference (16%). Five factors were found to be statistically significant in their association with the children's malnutrition: mother's age, child's age, mother's educational level, mothers who had family planning information, and the source of tap water. A high percentage of stunting was positively associated with a high percentage of chronic malnutrition. We speculate that insufficient nutrition was more likely to begin after weaning.

  12. Early end-tidal carbon monoxide levels and neurodevelopmental outcome at 3 years 6 months of age in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Blok, Cornelie A; Krediet, Tannette G; Kavelaars, Annemiek; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; Vreman, Hendrik J; Van Bel, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Aim Increased end-tidal carbon monoxide (ETCOc) and cytokines in preterm infants are related to bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular haemorrhages. The aim was to study the predictive value of ETCOc and cytokine levels for long-term outcome. Methods This study comprised 105 very preterm infants (57 males, 48 females; gestational age range 25wk 5d–31wk 4d; birthweight 610–2100g) who were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit between 1 February and 31 December 2002. ETCOc, plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukins (IL) 6 and 8, and malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation), were measured at days 1, 3, and 5 of life and related to outcome at 3 years 6 months of age (Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales). Results Of the 105 infants, 69 were eligible for follow-up (37 male; 32 female; bronchopulmonary dysplasia, n=12). ETCOc at 0 to 24 hours was higher in infants with adverse outcome (Griffiths developmental quotient <85, n=15) compared with favourable outcome (2.7 SD 0.7 vs 2.0 SD 0.5; p<0.05). MDA and cytokines did not differ between groups. Regression analysis with bootstrapping of independent variables (gestational age, birthweight, ETCOc, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia) showed that ETCOc was the only parameter that correlated with outcome. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of ETCOc for adverse outcome were 93% and 85% respectively. Interpretation Adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is associated with increased endogenous carbon monoxide. ETCOc less than 2.0ppm during the first day indicates a favourable outcome. PMID:21933176

  13. The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' response to the Still Face Task from newborn to three months of age.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Ann E; Power, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' developing social expectations for maternal behavior was investigated longitudinally over infants' first 3 months. Infants with and without skin-to-skin contact engaged with their mothers in the Still Face Task at ages 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. Infants with skin-to-skin contact began responding to changes in their mothers' behavior with their affect at 1 month; infants without skin-to-skin contact did so at 2 months. At 3 months, infants with skin-to-skin contact increased their non-distress vocalizations during the still face phase, suggesting social bidding to their mothers. Skin-to-skin contact accelerated infants' social expectations for their mothers' behavior and enhanced infants' awareness of themselves as active agents in social interactions.

  14. InSAR measurements for the 2014 Mw 6.0 Jinggu, Yunnan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiajun; Feng, Wanpeng; Sergey, Samsonov; Mahdi, Motagh; Li, Zhenhong; Clarke, Peter

    2016-04-01

    An earthquake occurred in the southwest of Yunnan, China on 7 October 2014 at 21:49 local time, measured as Mw 6.0 by the United States Geological Survey and Mw 6.1 by the European Alert System. Strong earthquakes are common in this region because of the continental collision between the India and Eurasia plates with a relative convergence rate of 40-50 mm/yr. A detailed study of this earthquake will therefore allow better understanding of regional fault properties. For the first time, Radarsat-2 (RS2) data was employed to investigate co-seismic surface movements of this event. Two ascending RS2 images acquired on 2 October 2014 and 19 November 2014 were used to generate an interferogram, revealing line-of-sight (LOS) displacements with a maximum value of 0.13 m (towards the satellite) in the NW sector. We use PSOKINV to determine fault geometric parameters and slip distribution. First, fault parameters are determined using improved particle swarm optimization. Second, slip distribution over the fault plane is retrieved using an iterative strategy for estimating optimal dip angle and smoothing factors [Feng et al., 2013]. The comparison between the modelled LOS changes and the measured ones shows a good fit, with residuals smaller than 0.02 m. The best-fitting model suggests that the rupture occurred on a left-lateral strike-slip fault with a strike of 323°. The total released moment is equivalent to Mw 6.1 and the main slip zone is confined between depths of 2-8 km. A maximum slip of 1.1 m appears at a depth of 4.3 km, with a rupture length of about 10km. Reference: Feng, W., Z. Li, J. R. Elliott, Y. Fukushima, T. Hoey, A. Singleton, R. Cook, and Z. Xu (2013), The 2011 MW 6.8 Burma earthquake: fault constraints provided by multiple SAR techniques, Geophysical Journal International, doi:10.1093/gji/ggt254.

  15. Modules for 6.0 Tesla, vertically separated, clustered or distributed lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.

    1985-10-01

    A total of four lattices have been designed for distributed and (3,3) clustered versions of the SSC, and are available in the SSC database, SSCDB. These lattices are constructed of the same four basic modules, which with only minor tuning can be re-organised to form many conceivable realistic geometries. One module is trivial, consisting of regular cells in a long main arc. The description of the other three modules is the central theme of this report. Potential improvements in both the modules and their implementation are also mentioned. The lattices, with the generic name VSDlbnn.DAT, are in MAD/standard input format in the [SSCDB.LATTICES] directory of the database. Lower case letters in the generic name represent variable characters, where {open_quotes}b{close_quotes} is either C or D, according to whether the lattice is (3,3) Clustered or Distributed, and where {open_quotes}nn{close_quotes} is 01 or 10, according to whether the collision beta is {beta}{sup *} = 1.0 or 10.0 metres, in luminosity or injection lattices. The general title {open_quotes}VS{close_quotes} stands for the Vertical Separation of the two beam lines, with a (total) separation in the main arcs of 0.70 metres, while the notation {open_quotes}Dl{close_quotes} reflects the regular cell dipoles of 6.0 Tesla ({open_quotes}D{close_quotes}), with a phase advance per cell of 60 degrees ({open_quotes}1{close_quotes}). The half cell length is 100 metres. It would be useful for lattice designers and users in the SSC design community to agree on some such lattice naming convention, even if the agreement is merely informal. Two criticisms of the above convention are first, that since the magnet selection for the SSC has fixed the dipole field to be close to 6.4 Tesla, the {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} definition of dipole strength is redundant, and second, that collision betas of less than 1.0 metre can not be handled unless three digits, {open_quotes}nnn{close_quotes}, are included.

  16. Nutritional status of breast-fed and non-exclusively breast-fed infants from birth to age 5 months in 8 Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defu; Ning, Yibing; Gao, Hongchong; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Junkuan; Zheng, Yingdong; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of infants aged 0 to 5 months by different feeding approaches. A cross-sectional study on infant nutrition was performed in eight cities in China. A total of 622 infants from birth to 2 months of age and 456 infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were included in this study. Mix-fed infants received breast milk and complementary foods from birth to 2 months of age. Approximately 38.2% of mix-fed infants received excessive vitamin A, and 15.6% of infants exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) of zinc. For artificially fed infants who received only complementary foods, approximately 20% and 12.5% infants received inadequate dietary vitamin A and zinc intakes, respectively. The vitamin A and zinc intakes of half of the infants exceeded the ULs. Results showed that the usual intake distribution of the infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were similar to that of the infants from birth to 2 months of age. The common vitamin A and zinc intakes were also severely imbalanced. In addition, higher disease prevalence and lower Z scores of length-forage, weight-for-age, and weight-for-length were found in artificially fed infants and mix-fed infants compared with those in breast-fed infants. In conclusion, the usual nutrient intakes were adequate for the majority of Chinese infants, except for an important number of infants at risk for imbalance of vitamin A and zinc intakes.

  17. A community-based iron supplementation program, "Iron-Like Turkey", and the following prevalence of anemia among infants aged 12-23 months.

    PubMed

    Yalçın, S Songül; Tezel, Başak; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Pekcan, Gülden; Ozbaş, Sema; Köksal, Eda; Tunç, Bahattin; Sahinli, Selvi; Altunsu, A Tanju; Köse, M Rifat; Buzgan, Turan; Akdağ, Recep

    2013-01-01

    During the second year of the "Iron-like Turkey" Project, in which all children aged 4-6 months in Turkey receive iron supplementation for 5 months, we aimed to assess the utilization of iron supplementation in the field, as well as the prevalence of anemia in healthy infants aged 12-23 months, while determining a variety of sociodemographic and nutritional factors for anemia in three of the 12 NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) regions (regions with the highest, lowest and middle under-5 malnutrition levels). In a community-based, cross-sectional survey using a multi-staged, weighted, cluster-selected sample, children aged 12-23 months with birthweight ≥2500 g, no chronic illness, no history of blood disease, and from term and singleton pregnancy were enrolled; 1589 children met the criteria. The mean±SD age of children surveyed was 17.8±3.6 months. Of the parents, 72.4% claimed that their physician had recommended iron supplementation, and 68.8% had given supplementation to their children. Overall prevalence of anemia was 7.3%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the frequency of anemia decreased significantly in older infants, when supplementation was recommended by health providers, when an infant was breastfed longer than 6 months, and when the mother received iron supplementation during pregnancy. However, anemia prevalence increased when the infant received iron supplementation at a later age (³9 months), lived in a crowded family (³6 persons), and when the mother had a history of iron deficiency anemia. Anemic infants had significantly lower z scores of weight for age than non-anemic ones. This survey suggests that iron supplementation during pregnancy, initiation of iron supplementation in infants at 4-6 months of age, effective counseling on supplementation, subsequent compliance, support of breastfeeding, and effective training of health care personnel are effective strategies for prevention of anemia in the community.

  18. Exclusive Breast-feeding Protects against Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1 through 12 Months of Age in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Manji, Karim P; Duggan, Christopher; Liu, Enju; Bosch, Ronald; Kisenge, Rodrick; Aboud, Said; Kupka, Ronald; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-08-01

    The jury on transmission of HIV through breast-feeding is still on. Data from a clinical trial in children born to HIV-positive mothers were evaluated with respect to their relationship to mother-to-child transmission. A total of 1629 infants who were not infected at age 6 weeks, had HIV results available at 12 months and who were breast-fed were included in this study. Exclusive breast feeding (EBF) rates declined from 85% at 2 months to < 30% by 4 months. EBF was associated with a sustained and significant reduction in HIV infection. With every incremental month of EBF, HIV infection was reduced by 16% [multivariable (risk ratio) RR: 0.84, CI: 0.72-0.98, p = 0.03] from enrollment to 6 months of age and by 18% (multivariable RR: 0.82, CI: 0.72-0.94, p = 0.005) from enrollment to 12 months of age. EBF significantly reduces the risk of vertical HIV transmission through 12 months of age.

  19. Nutritional practices and growth velocity in the first month of life in extremely low gestational age newborns

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Camilia R.; Brown, Yolanda F.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; O'Shea, T. Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Belfort, Mandy B.; McCormick, Marie C.; Leviton, Alan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The goals of this study were to describe nutritional practices in the first month of life for a large cohort of extremely low gestational age newborns and to determine the impact of these nutritional practices on growth velocity over the same period. METHODS The sample included 1187 infants born at 23 weeks to 27 weeks of gestation, at 14 institutions, between 2002 and 2004. Inclusion criteria included survival until day 28 and weight information for both day 7 and day 28. Growth velocity, expressed as grams per kilogram per day (g/kg/day), was calculated for the interval between days 7 and 28. Nutritional practices during the first week and on days 14, 21, and 28 were compared to current nutritional guidelines in the literature. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the contribution of limited nutrition to limited growth velocity. RESULTS Protein and fat delivery approximated current nutritional recommendations while carbohydrate and total caloric delivery did not. Despite this, growth velocity of our study infants exceeded the current guideline of 15 g/kg/day. Nevertheless, we found extrauterine growth restriction (i.e., weight for gestational age below the 10th centile) in 75% of infants at 28 days, as compared to only 18% at birth. A growth velocity of 20-30 g/kg/day was associated with infants' maintaining or exceeding their birth weight Z-score, with rates in the upper range for the gestationally youngest infants. Early (day 7) nutritional practices were positively associated with growth velocity measured between days 7 and 28. CONCLUSION The early provision of nutrients is an important determinant of postnatal growth. Extrauterine growth restriction remains high in extremely premature infants even when they achieve a growth velocity rate within current guidelines. PMID:19651583

  20. Ultrasonography of the distal limbs in Nellore and Girolando calves 8 to 12 months of age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography can be used anywhere and allows rapid, noninvasive differentiation of soft tissue structures of the musculoskeletal system. The objectives of this study were to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the structures of the metacarpo-/metatarsophalangeal and the interphalangeal joints, the appearance of the growth plates of the distal metacarpus/metatarsus and of the proximal phalanx and to measure the cross-sectional dimensions of the DDFT and SDFT in Nellore and Girolando calves eight to 12 months of age. Results In the longitudinal dorsal view the common digital extensor tendon and the digital extensor tendon were depicted as echogenic parallel fiber bundles located directly under the skin. The joint spaces appeared as anechoic interruptions of the hyperechogenic bone surfaces. The normal amount of synovial fluid could not be depicted. The growth plates were seen as anechoic interruptions of the bone surface proximal and distal to the fetlock joint space. In transverse sonograms of the distal palmar/plantar regions, the flexor tendons and branchs of the suspensory ligament were imaged as echogenic structures. The lumen of the digital flexor tendon sheath could not be imaged in these normal cattle. The thin digital distal annular ligament and the reversal of positions of the DDFT and SDFT could be appreciated. No significant differences were found between the cross-sectional measurements of the DDFT and the SDFT from Nellore and Girolando in any age, thoracic/pelvic limbs, right/left sides and lateral/medial digits. Conclusions The results of this study establish important ultrasonographic reference data of the normal structures of the distal limbs and the normal dimensions of the flexor tendons in Nellore and Girolando calves for use in clinical practice. PMID:24774582

  1. Nonlinear Inversion for Dynamic Rupture Parameters from the 2004 Mw6.0 Parkfield Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, R. M.; Olsen, K. B.

    2007-12-01

    The Parkfield section of the San Andreas Fault has produced repeated moderate-size earthquakes at fairly regular intervals and is therefore an important target for investigations of rupture initiation, propagation and arrest, which could eventually lead to clues on earthquake prediction. The most recent member of the Parkfield series of earthquakes, the 2004 Mw6.0 event, produced a considerable amount of high-resolution strong motion data, and provides an ideal test bed for analysis of the dynamic rupture propagation. Here, we use a systematic nonlinear direct-search method to invert strong-ground motion data (less than 1 Hz) at 37 stations to obtain models of the slip weakening distance and spatially-varying stress drop (8 by 4 subfaults) on the (vertical) causative segment of the San Andreas fault (40 km long by 15 km wide), along with spatial-temporal coseismic slip distributions. The rupture and wave propagation modeling is performed by a three-dimensional finite-difference method with a slip- weakening friction law and the stress-glut dynamic-rupture formulation (Andrews, 1999), and the inversion is carried out by a neighborhood algorithm (Sambridge, 1999), minimizing the least-squares misfit between the calculated and observed seismograms. The dynamic rupture is nucleated artificially by lowering the yield stress in a 3 km by 3 km patch centered at the location of the hypocenter estimated from strong motion data. Outside the nucleation patch the yield stress is kept constant (5-10 MPa), and we constrain the slip-weakening distance to values less than 1 m. We compare the inversion results for two different velocity models: (1) a 3-D model based on the P-wave velocity structure by Thurber (2006), with S-wave and density relations based on Brocher (2005), and (2) a combination of two different 1-D layered velocity structures on either side of the fault, as proposed by Liu et al. (2006). Due to the non-uniqueness of the problem, the inversion provides an ensemble of equally valid rupture models that produce synthetics with comparable fit to the observed strong motion data. Our preliminary results with the smallest misfits, out of about 3000 tested rupture models, suggest an average slip-weakening distance of 19-81 cm and an average stress drop across the fault of 6.7 - 8.4 MPa. Compared to the kinematic inversion results by Liu et al. (2006) our models with the smallest misfits produce a larger maximum slip (up to about 81 cm) and smaller rupture area, but similar rupture duration (5-7s). The inversions carried out for the layered models tend to produce smaller misfit between data and synthetics as compared to the results using the 3D structure. This suggests that our 3D structure needs improvement, including the Vs-Vp and density-Vp relation. We expect further decrease in the misfit values by increasing the number of tested rupture models.

  2. Buffer capacity, pH, and flow rate in saliva of children aged 2-60 months with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Walter Luiz; Bermejo, Patrícia Rota; Mustacchi, Zan; Nicolau, José

    2005-03-01

    This study measured the flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of saliva from children with Down syndrome aged 2-60 months. We compared 25 children with Down syndrome with 21 children without Down syndrome. The whole saliva was collected under slight suction and the pH and the buffer capacity were determined using a digital pHmeter. The buffer capacity was measured by titration with 0.01 N HCl. The Down syndrome group demonstrated higher buffer capacity than the control group in the pH ranges of 6.9-6.0, 5.9-5.0, and 4.9-4.0. The flow rate was low in the Down syndrome group. Boys from the Down syndrome group demonstrated higher buffer capacity in the pH ranges 6.9-6.0, 5.9-5.0, and 4.9-4.0 than controls, while girls from the Down syndrome group showed no difference compared with controls. Girls with Down syndrome demonstrated significant difference only in the range of pHi-pH 7.0. Conclusion. These data suggest that the Down syndrome persons present a better buffer capacity, supporting the results observed in several studies which found the low dental caries in persons with Down syndrome. PMID:15378405

  3. [Social inequalities influence the quality and diversity of diet in Brazilian children 6 to 36 months of age].

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess dietary patterns in Brazilian children and factors associated with better diet. The authors used data for 2,477 children 6 to 36 months of age from the Brazilian National Survey of Demographic and Health in 2006-2007. Diet was assessed and classified using a composite index. The results showed that 28.2% of the children received a high-quality diet and 20% had a diversified diet. Children from socioeconomically underprivileged families or with serious food insecurity were approximately 40% less likely to have high-quality diets. Children living in homes with food insecurity were 71% less likely to have diversified diets, and those whose mothers had limited education were 43% less likely. Children residing in the North of Brazil were less likely to have diversified and high-quality diets. The dietary quality of Brazilian children is inadequate, and social vulnerability is closely associated with this adverse dietary situation. PMID:26840820

  4. Plate Boundary Observatory Strainmeter Recordings of The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, David; Phillips, David; Mattioli, Glen; Meertens, Charles

    2015-04-01

    The 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa earthquake nucleated at 11 km depth near the West Napa fault, one of a complex system of sub-parallel major right lateral faults north of San Francisco that together accommodate much of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American tectonic plates. The South Napa event was the largest to have shaken the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) in almost 25 years. A major goal of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), installed and maintained by UNAVCO, was to enable researchers to study the interaction between the faults that form a plate boundary zone, and in particular, to investigate the role that aseismic transients contribute to strain accumulation and release. To realize this goal, PBO includes borehole tensor strainmeters (BSMs) installed in several targeted regions, including on to the north and east of San Francisco. Two PBO BSMs have been operating in the SFBA since 2008: B057, north of San Francisco and 30 km from the epicenter, and B054, 3 km from the Hayward Fault and 40 km from the epicenter. We find the coseismic strains recorded by B057 are close to those predicted using elastic half-space dislocation theory and the seismically determined focal mechanism, while a more complicated variable slip model may be required for observations from B054. Months after the event, B057 continued to record a significant postseismic signal. In this presentation we document the coseismic signals recorded by the PBO BSMs and characterize the temporal behavior of the postseismic signal at B057. The PBO network includes over 1100 GPS, 75 BSMs, 79 seismometers and arrays of tiltmeters, pore pressure sensors and meteorological instrumentation. UNAVCO generates an Earthscope Level 2 processed strain time-series combined into areal and shear strains for the PBO BSM network; the raw data are available from the IRIS DMC in mSEED format. For events of interest, such as the South Napa earthquake, UNAVCO generates a 1-sps

  5. 77 FR 34784 - Removal of Six Month Line Check Requirement for Pilots Over Age 60; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Over Age 60; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ] ACTION: Final rule... 60 years of age that applied to air carriers engaged in part 121 operations. This technical amendment... December 13, 2007. This legislation raised the upper age limit for pilots in part 121 from age 60 to age...

  6. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  7. Safety and Immunogenicity of Human Serum Albumin-Free MMR Vaccine in US Children Aged 12–15 Months

    PubMed Central

    Mufson, Maurice A.; Diaz, Clemente; Leonardi, Michael; Harrison, Christopher J.; Grogg, Stanley; Carbayo, Antonio; Carlo-Torres, Simon; JeanFreau, Robert; Quintero-Del-Rio, Ana; Bautista, Gisele; Povey, Michael; Da Costa, Christopher; Nicholson, Ouzama; Innis, Bruce L.

    2015-01-01

    Background M-M-RTMII (MMRII; Merck & Co) is currently the only measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine licensed in the United States. Another licensed vaccine would reinforce MMR supply. This study assessed the immunogenicity of a candidate vaccine (PriorixTM, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines [MMR-RIT]) when used as a first dose among eligible children in the United States. Methods In this exploratory Phase-2, multicenter, observer-blind study, 1220 healthy subjects aged 12–15 months were randomized (3:3:3:3) and received 1 dose of 1 of 3 MMR-RIT lots with differing mumps virus titers (MMR-RIT-1 [4.8 log10]; MMR-RIT-2 [4.1 log10]; MMR-RIT-3 [3.7 log10] CCID50) or MMRII co-administered with hepatitis A vaccine (HAV), varicella vaccine (VAR) and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). Immune response to measles, mumps, and rubella viruses was evaluated at Day 42 post-vaccination. Incidence of solicited injection site, general, and serious adverse events was assessed. Results Seroresponse rates for MMR vaccine viral components in MMR-RIT lots were 98.3–99.2% (measles), 89.7–90.7% (mumps), and 97.5–98.8% (rubella), and for MMRII were 99.6%, 91.1%, and 100%, respectively. Immune responses to HAV, VAR, and PCV7 were similar when co-administered with any of the 3 MMR-RIT lots or MMRII. There were no apparent differences in solicited or serious adverse events among the 4 groups. Conclusions Immune responses were above threshold levels for projected protection against the 3 viruses from MMR-RIT lots with differing mumps virus titers. MMR-RIT had an acceptable safety profile when co-administered with HAV, VAR, and PCV7. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00861744; etrack; 111870 PMID:26582873

  8. Seasonal variation in the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 60 months in a resettlement village in West Timor.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jacqueline; Ritchie, Brett; Tran, Cuong; Beggs, Sean; Lada, Christina Olly; Whetter, Kathryn; Cobiac, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains a public health issue in Indonesia with a national prevalence of wasting of 13% and stunting of 36%. In rural areas nutritional status depends on local agriculture and may fluctuate in relation to harvest time. The aim of this study was to characterise seasonal variations in nutritional status in two resettlement villages in the Oesao district, Nusa Tenggara Timur. A cross sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of children after the wet season (March). Children aged 6 to 60 months were assessed for nutritional status using anthropometric and biochemical measures. A subset of these children was re-assessed for anthropometry after the dry season (November). Weight-for-height z scores improved significantly from mean±SD of -1.7± 0.9 in March to -1.3±0.9 in November (p<0.001). There was no significant change in height between seasons. Prevalence of wasting, (weight-for-height z score <-2), was 42% in March and 19% in November (p<0.001). However, stunting rates increased significantly from 42% in March to 45% in November (p<0.001). Thirty six per cent of children were anaemic (Hb level <11 mg/100 mL), 68% were vitamin A deficient (plasma vitamin A level <0.8 μmol/L) and 50% were zinc deficient (plasma zinc <9.94 μmol/L). All children except one were positive for intestinal parasites. These data indicate seasonal changes in anthropometry with inconsistent effects depending on the anthropometric index measured. Wasting and stunting were higher than the national average, alongside high rates of anaemia, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. PMID:23945416

  9. Time-series analysis of monthly age-specific numbers of newly registered cases of active tuberculosis in Japan from 1998 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Kohei, Y; Sumi, A; Kobayashi, N

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the seasonality of age-specific tuberculosis (TB) in Japan. To allow the development of TB control strategies for different age groups we used a time-series analysis, including a spectral analysis and least squares method, to analyse the monthly age-specific numbers of newly registered cases of all forms of active TB in Japan from January 1998 to December 2013. The time-series data are reported in 10-year age groups: 0-9, 10-19, …, 70-79, and ⩾80 years. We defined the contribution ratio of the 1-year cycle, Q 1, as the contribution of the amplitude of a 1-year cycle to the whole amplitude of the time-series data. The Q 1 values in the age groups corresponding to adolescence and middle life (10-39 years) and old age (⩾70 years) were high. The peaks in the active TB epidemics for the ⩾70 years age group occurred in August and September, 1-2 months behind the peaks for the 10-39 years age group (June and July). An active TB epidemic might be attributable to travel by public transport and irregular employment in the 10-39 years age group and immune system suppression by low winter temperatures in the ⩾70 years age group.

  10. SB6.0: The 6th International meeting on Synthetic Biology, July 9-11, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, Linda J.

    2015-04-23

    The Synthetic Biology conference series (SBx.0) is the preeminent academic meeting in synthetic biology. Organized by the BioBricks Foundation, the SBx.0 conference series brings together leading researchers, students, industry executives, and policy makers from around the world to share, consider, debate, and plan efforts to make biology easier to engineer. Historically held every two years, the SBx.0 conferences are held in alternating locations in the United States, Europe, and Asia to encourage global participation and collaboration so that the ramifications of synthetic biology research and development are most likely to be safe ethical, and beneficial. On 9-11 July 2013, the 6th installment of the synthetic biology conference series (SB6.0) was held on the campus of Imperial College London (http://sb6.biobricks.org). The SB6.0 conference was attended by over 700 people, and many more were able to participate via video digital conference (http://sb6.biobricks.org/digital-conference/). Over the course of three days, the SB6.0 conference agenda included plenary sessions, workshops, and poster presentations covering topics ranging from the infrastructure needs arising when “Systematic Engineering Meets Biological Complexity” and design-led considerations for “Connecting People and Technologies” to discussions on “Engineering Biology for New Materials,” “Assessing Risk and Managing Biocontainment,” and “New Directions for Energy and Sustainability.” The $10,150 grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-SC0010233) to the BioBricks Foundation was used to provide partial reimbursement for the travel expenses of leading researchers from the United States to speak at the SB6.0 conference. A total of $9,450 was used to reimburse U.S. speakers for actual expenses related to the SB6.0 conference, including airfare (economy or coach only), ground transportation, hotel, and registration fees. In addition, $700 of the grant was used to offset direct administrative costs associated with selecting speakers (preparing announcements, evaluating abstract submissions) and handling travel arrangements. Leading U.S. researchers selected to speak at the SB6.0 conference included: Adam Arkin, Ph.D. Division Director of the Physical Biosciences Division at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Professor in the Department of Bioengineering at UC Berkeley Jay Keasling, Ph.D. Professor in the Department of Bioengineering at Berkeley, Senior Faculty Scientist and Associate Laboratory Director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Chief Executive Officer of the Joint BioEnergy Institute. Debra Mathews, Ph.D. Assistant Director for Science Programs for the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, Assistant Professor in the Department of Pediatrics, and Affiliate Faculty in the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Richard Murray, Ph.D. Thomas E. and Doris Everhart Professor of Control & Dynamical Systems and Bioengineering at Caltech. Sarah Richardson, Ph.D. Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellow in Genomics at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute. and others (for a complete listing of speakers presenting at the SB6.0 conference see http://sb6.biobricks.org/speakers/) The SB6.0 conference was the largest synthetic biology conference to date, and highlights of the SB6.0 conference have been published in a special issue of ACS Synthetic Biology (http://pubs.acs.org/toc/asbcd6/3/3). The BioBricks Foundation appreciates the support of the U.S. Department of Energy in helping to make this most influential and important conference in the field of synthetic biology a success.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Strategies for Annual Influenza Vaccination among Children Aged 6 Months to 14 Years in Four Provinces in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lei; Situ, Sujian; Feng, Zijian; Atkins, Charisma Y.; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Xu, Zhen; Huang, Ting; Hu, Shixiong; Wang, Xianjun; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2014-01-01

    Background To support policy making, we developed an initial model to assess the cost-effectiveness of potential strategies to increase influenza vaccination rates among children in China. Methods We studied on children aged 6 months to 14 years in four provinces (Shandong, Henan, Hunan, and Sichuan), with a health care system perspective. We used data from 2005/6 to 2010/11, excluding 2009/10. Costs are reported in 2010 U.S. dollars. Results In comparison with no vaccination, the mean (range) of Medically Attended Cases averted by the current self-payment policy for the two age groups (6 to 59 months and 60 months to 14 years) was 1,465 (23∼11,132) and 792 (36∼4,247), and the cost effectiveness ratios were $ 0 (-11-51) and $ 37 (6-125) per case adverted, respectively. In comparison with the current policy, the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of alternative strategies, OPTION One-reminder and OPTION Two-comprehensive package, decreased as vaccination rate increased. The ICER for children aged 6 to 59 months was lower than that for children aged 60 months to 14 years. Conclusions The model is a useful tool in identifying elements for evaluating vaccination strategies. However, more data are needed to produce more accurate cost-effectiveness estimates of potential vaccination policies. PMID:24498145

  12. Social-Cognitive Behaviors and Playmate Preferences in Same-Age and Mixed-Age Classrooms over a 6-Month Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Observations of mixed-age classrooms of three and four year olds (n=36), of three year olds (n=27), and four year olds (n=31) found significant age differences in social and cognitive play for same-age, but not mixed-age, classes. Implications for early childhood education are discussed. (SLD)

  13. Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy as Primary Therapy for Retinoblastoma in Infants Less than 3 Months of Age: A Series of 10 Case-Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiejun; Liu, Zhenyin; Jiang, Hua; Shen, Gang; Li, Haibo; Jiang, Yizhou; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinoblastoma is the most common primary malignant intra-ocular tumor in children. Although intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) by selectively infusing chemotherapy through the ophthalmic artery has become an essential technique in the treatment of advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma in children, the outcome of IAC as primary therapy for infants less than 3 months of age remains unknown. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the outcome of IAC as primary therapy for retinoblastoma in infants less than 3 months of age. Methods We retrospectively reviewed ten retinoblastoma patients attending our center from January 2009 to September 2015 and beginning primary IAC before the age of 3 months. The patient characteristics, overall outcomes and therapy-related complications were assessed. Results The mean patient age at the first IAC treatment was 10.4 weeks (range 4.9–12.9 weeks). These eyes were classified according to the International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB) as group A (n = 0), B (n = 2), C (n = 0), D (n = 9), or E (n = 2). A total of 28 catheterizations were performed, and the procedure was stopped in one patient because of internal carotid artery spasm. Each eye received a mean of 2.6 cycles of IAC (range 2–4 cycles). After IAC with a mean follow-up of 28.3 months (range 9–65 months), tumor regression was observed in 12 of 13 eyes. One eye was enucleated due to tumor progression. All patients are alive and no patient has developed metastatic disease or other malignancies. Conclusions Our experience suggests IAC as primary therapy is a feasible and promising treatment for retinoblastoma in infants less than 3 months of age. PMID:27504917

  14. Disaster victim investigation recommendations from two simulated mass disaster scenarios utilized for user acceptance testing CODIS 6.0.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Laurie; Heal, Jennifer; Anderson, Jeff; Faragher, Nichole; Duval, Kristin; Lalonde, Sylvain

    2011-08-01

    Members of the National DNA Data Bank (NDDB) of Canada designed and searched two simulated mass disaster (MD) scenarios for User Acceptance Testing (UAT) of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) 6.0, developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the US Department of Justice. A simulated airplane MD and inland Tsunami MD were designed representing a closed and open environment respectively. An in-house software program was written to randomly generate DNA profiles from a mock Caucasian population database. As part of the UAT, these two MDs were searched separately using CODIS 6.0. The new options available for identity and pedigree searching in addition to the inclusion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-STR (short tandem repeat) information in CODIS 6.0, led to rapid identification of all victims. A Joint Pedigree Likelihood Ratio (JPLR) was calculated from the pedigree searches and ranks were stored in Rank Manager providing confidence to the user in assigning an Unidentified Human Remain (UHR) to a pedigree tree. Analyses of the results indicated that primary relatives were more useful in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) compared to secondary or tertiary relatives and that inclusion of mtDNA and/or Y-STR technologies helped to link family units together as shown by the software searches. It is recommended that UHRs have as many informative loci possible to assist with their identification. CODIS 6.0 is a valuable technological tool for rapidly and confidently identifying victims of mass disasters.

  15. Disaster victim investigation recommendations from two simulated mass disaster scenarios utilized for user acceptance testing CODIS 6.0.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Laurie; Heal, Jennifer; Anderson, Jeff; Faragher, Nichole; Duval, Kristin; Lalonde, Sylvain

    2011-08-01

    Members of the National DNA Data Bank (NDDB) of Canada designed and searched two simulated mass disaster (MD) scenarios for User Acceptance Testing (UAT) of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) 6.0, developed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the US Department of Justice. A simulated airplane MD and inland Tsunami MD were designed representing a closed and open environment respectively. An in-house software program was written to randomly generate DNA profiles from a mock Caucasian population database. As part of the UAT, these two MDs were searched separately using CODIS 6.0. The new options available for identity and pedigree searching in addition to the inclusion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-STR (short tandem repeat) information in CODIS 6.0, led to rapid identification of all victims. A Joint Pedigree Likelihood Ratio (JPLR) was calculated from the pedigree searches and ranks were stored in Rank Manager providing confidence to the user in assigning an Unidentified Human Remain (UHR) to a pedigree tree. Analyses of the results indicated that primary relatives were more useful in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) compared to secondary or tertiary relatives and that inclusion of mtDNA and/or Y-STR technologies helped to link family units together as shown by the software searches. It is recommended that UHRs have as many informative loci possible to assist with their identification. CODIS 6.0 is a valuable technological tool for rapidly and confidently identifying victims of mass disasters. PMID:20620126

  16. National, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2014-08-29

    In the United States, among children born during 1994-2013, vaccination will prevent an estimated 322 million illnesses, 21 million hospitalizations, and 732,000 deaths during their lifetimes. Since 1994, the National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. This report describes national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born January 2010-May 2012, based on results from the 2013 NIS. In 2013, vaccination coverage achieved the 90% national Healthy People 2020 target for ≥ 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.9%); ≥ 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (90.8%); ≥ 3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (92.7%); and ≥ 1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.2%). Coverage was below the Healthy People 2020 targets for ≥ 4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine (DTaP) (83.1%; target 90%); ≥ 4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (82.0%; target 90%); the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib) (82.0%; target 90%); ≥ 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA) (54.7%; target 85%); rotavirus vaccine (72.6%; target 80%); and the HepB birth dose (74.2%; target 85%). Coverage remained stable relative to 2012 for all of the vaccinations with Healthy People 2020 objectives except for increases in the HepB birth dose (by 2.6 percentage points) and rotavirus vaccination (by 4.0 percentage points). The percentage of children who received no vaccinations remained below 1.0% (0.7%). Children living below the federal poverty level had lower vaccination coverage compared with children living at or above the poverty level for many vaccines, with the largest disparities for ≥ 4 doses of DTaP (by 8.2 percentage points), full series of Hib (by 9.5 percentage points), ≥ 4 doses of PCV (by 11.6 percentage points), and rotavirus (by 12.6 percentage points). MMR coverage was below 90% for 17 states. Reaching and

  17. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard; Roy, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h(-1) (0.375 to 0.453 h(-1)), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens. PMID:27067333

  18. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, <1% of children received no vaccinations. National coverage estimates indicate that the Healthy People 2020 target* of 90% was met for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.5%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the

  19. National, State, and Selected Local Area Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 19-35 Months - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Singleton, James A; Kolasa, Maureen

    2015-08-28

    The reduction in morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States has been described as one of the 10 greatest public health achievements of the first decade of the 21st century. A recent analysis concluded that routine childhood vaccination will prevent 322 million cases of disease and about 732,000 early deaths among children born during 1994-2013, for a net societal cost savings of $1.38 trillion. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) has monitored vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months since 1994. This report presents national, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates for children born from January 2011 through May 2013, based on data from the 2014 NIS. For most vaccinations, there was no significant change in coverage between 2013 and 2014. The exception was hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), for which increases were observed in coverage with both ≥1 and ≥2 doses. As in previous years, <1% of children received no vaccinations. National coverage estimates indicate that the Healthy People 2020 target* of 90% was met for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.5%), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (91.6%), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (91.0%). Coverage was below target for ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, hepatitis B (HepB) birth dose,† ≥4 doses pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), ≥2 doses of HepA, the full series of rotavirus vaccine, and the combined vaccine series.§ Examination of coverage by child's race/ethnicity revealed lower estimated coverage among non-Hispanic black children compared with non-Hispanic white children for several vaccinations, including DTaP, the full series of Hib, PCV, rotavirus vaccine, and the combined series. Children from households classified as below the

  20. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard; Roy, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h(-1) (0.375 to 0.453 h(-1)), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens.

  1. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h−1 (0.375 to 0.453 h−1), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens. PMID:27067333

  2. Development of Reduced-Order Models for Aeroelastic and Flutter Prediction Using the CFL3Dv6.0 Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Bartels, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    A reduced-order model (ROM) is developed for aeroelastic analysis using the CFL3D version 6.0 computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, recently developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. This latest version of the flow solver includes a deforming mesh capability, a modal structural definition for nonlinear aeroelastic analyses, and a parallelization capability that provides a significant increase in computational efficiency. Flutter results for the AGARD 445.6 Wing computed using CFL3D v6.0 are presented, including discussion of associated computational costs. Modal impulse responses of the unsteady aerodynamic system are then computed using the CFL3Dv6 code and transformed into state-space form. Important numerical issues associated with the computation of the impulse responses are presented. The unsteady aerodynamic state-space ROM is then combined with a state-space model of the structure to create an aeroelastic simulation using the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The MATLAB/SIMULINK ROM is used to rapidly compute aeroelastic transients including flutter. The ROM shows excellent agreement with the aeroelastic analyses computed using the CFL3Dv6.0 code directly.

  3. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    SciTech Connect

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Paige Lawrence, B.; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  4. REPORT OF WORK INJURIES TO MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE, A STUDY OF 18 MONTHS' EXPERIENCE REPORTED BY 28 STATES, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Standards (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE BUREAU OF LABOR STANDARDS FURNISHED REPORT FORMS AND GUIDES FOR COMPLETING THEM TO THE 28 PARTICIPATING STATES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY MAIL ON A VOLUNTARY REPORTING BASIS DURING THE 18-MONTH PERIOD, JANUARY 1964 THROUGH JUNE 1965. FINDINGS INCLUDED -- (1) A TOTAL OF 16,936 INJURIES TO EMPLOYED MINORS UNDER 18 YEARS OF AGE WAS REPORTED, (2) OF…

  5. Effects of breast milk and milk formula on synthesized speech sound-induced event-related potentials at 3 and 6 months of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of breast milk and milk formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on speech processing were investigated by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to synthesized /pa/ and /ba/ (oddball paradigm, 80%:20%) at 3 and 6 months of age. Behavioral assessment was also ob...

  6. Emerging Perception of Causality in Action-and-Reaction Sequences from 4 to 6 Months of Age: Is It Domain-Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth D.; Surian, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments (N=136) studied how 4- to 6-month-olds perceive a simple schematic event, seen as goal-directed action and reaction from 3 years of age. In our causal reaction event, a red square moved toward a blue square, stopping prior to contact. Blue began to move away before red stopped, so that both briefly moved simultaneously at a…

  7. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  8. Prospective examination of visual attention during play in infants at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder: a longitudinal study from 6 to 36 months of age.

    PubMed

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Bryson, Susan E; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2013-11-01

    Regulation of visual attention is essential to learning about one's environment. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit impairments in regulating their visual attention, but little is known about how such impairments develop over time. This prospective longitudinal study is the first to describe the development of components of visual attention, including engaging, sustaining, and disengaging attention, in infants at high-risk of developing ASD (each with an older sibling with ASD). Non-sibling controls and high-risk infant siblings were filmed at 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, and 36 months of age as they engaged in play with small, easily graspable toys. Duration of time spent looking at toy targets before moving the hand toward the target and the duration of time spent looking at the target after grasp were measured. At 36 months of age, an independent, gold standard diagnostic assessment for ASD was conducted for all participants. As predicted, infant siblings subsequently diagnosed with ASD were distinguished by prolonged latency to disengage ('sticky attention') by 12 months of age, and continued to show this characteristic at 15, 18, and 24 months of age. The results are discussed in relation to how the development of visual attention may impact later cognitive outcomes of children diagnosed with ASD. PMID:24004846

  9. Maturation of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) to speech recorded from frontocentral and temporal sites: three months to eight years of age.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Valerie L; Yu, Yan H; Wagner, Monica

    2015-02-01

    The goal of the current analysis was to examine the maturation of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) from three months of age to eight years of age. The superior frontal positive-negative-positive sequence (P1, N2, P2) and the temporal site, negative-positive-negative sequence (possibly, Na, Ta, Tb of the T-complex) were examined. Event-related potentials were recorded from 63 scalp sites to a 250-ms vowel. Amplitude and latency of peaks were measured at left and right frontal sites (near Fz) and at left and right temporal sites (T7 and T8). In addition, the largest peak (typically corresponding to P1) was selected from global field power (GFP). The results revealed a large positive peak (P1) easily identified at frontal sites across all ages. The N2 emerged after 6 months of age and the following P2 between 8 and 30 months of age. The latencies of these peaks decreased exponentially with the most rapid decrease observed for P1. For amplitude, only P1 showed a clear relationship with age, becoming more positive in a somewhat linear fashion. At the temporal sites only a negative peak, which might be Na, was clearly observed at both left and right sites in children older than 14 months and peaking between 100 and 200 ms. P1 measures at frontal sites and Na peak latencies were moderately correlated. The temporal negative peak latency showed a different maturational timecourse (linear in nature) than the P1 peak, suggesting at least partial independence. Distinct Ta (positive) and Tb (negative) peaks, following Na and peaking between 120 and 220 ms were not consistently found in most age groups of children, except Ta which was present in 7 year olds. Future research, which includes manipulation of stimulus factors, and use of modeling techniques will be needed to explain the apparent, protracted maturation of the temporal site measures in the current study.

  10. Maturation of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) to speech recorded from frontocentral and temporal sites: three months to eight years of age.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Valerie L; Yu, Yan H; Wagner, Monica

    2015-02-01

    The goal of the current analysis was to examine the maturation of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) from three months of age to eight years of age. The superior frontal positive-negative-positive sequence (P1, N2, P2) and the temporal site, negative-positive-negative sequence (possibly, Na, Ta, Tb of the T-complex) were examined. Event-related potentials were recorded from 63 scalp sites to a 250-ms vowel. Amplitude and latency of peaks were measured at left and right frontal sites (near Fz) and at left and right temporal sites (T7 and T8). In addition, the largest peak (typically corresponding to P1) was selected from global field power (GFP). The results revealed a large positive peak (P1) easily identified at frontal sites across all ages. The N2 emerged after 6 months of age and the following P2 between 8 and 30 months of age. The latencies of these peaks decreased exponentially with the most rapid decrease observed for P1. For amplitude, only P1 showed a clear relationship with age, becoming more positive in a somewhat linear fashion. At the temporal sites only a negative peak, which might be Na, was clearly observed at both left and right sites in children older than 14 months and peaking between 100 and 200 ms. P1 measures at frontal sites and Na peak latencies were moderately correlated. The temporal negative peak latency showed a different maturational timecourse (linear in nature) than the P1 peak, suggesting at least partial independence. Distinct Ta (positive) and Tb (negative) peaks, following Na and peaking between 120 and 220 ms were not consistently found in most age groups of children, except Ta which was present in 7 year olds. Future research, which includes manipulation of stimulus factors, and use of modeling techniques will be needed to explain the apparent, protracted maturation of the temporal site measures in the current study. PMID:25219893

  11. Effect of growth rate from 6 to 16 months of age on sexual development and reproductive function in beef bulls.

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Barth, A D; Wilde, R E; Kastelic, J P

    2012-04-15

    Sexual development and reproductive function were studied in 22 Angus × Charolais and 17 Angus bulls from 6 to 16 mo of age. Associations of average daily gain (ADG) and body weight with ages at puberty and at maturity (satisfactory semen quality), scrotal circumference, paired-testes volume and weight, testicular vascular cone diameter and fat thickness, scrotal temperature, sperm production and morphology, and testicular histology, were determined. There were no significant correlations between cumulative average daily gain and any of the end points investigated. Body weight at various ages was negatively correlated with ages at puberty and maturity in Angus × Charolais bulls, positively correlated with paired-testes weight in Angus × Charolais and Angus bulls, and positively correlated with seminiferous tubule volume in Angus bulls (P < 0.05). Semen quality improved gradually with age and the interval between puberty and maturity (mean ± SD; 309.4 ± 29.7 and 357 ± 42 days of age) was approximately 50 days. Age, weight, scrotal circumference, and paired-testes volume were all good predictors of pubertal and mature status, with moderate to high sensitivity and specificity (71.6% to 92.4%). In summary, growth rate between 6 and 16 mo of age did not affect sexual development and reproductive function in beef bulls. However, greater body weight at various ages was associated with reduced age at puberty and maturity, and with larger testes at 16 mo of age, indicating that improved nutrition might be beneficial, but only when offered before 6 mo of age. Average daily gains of approximately 1 to 1.6 kg/day did not result in excessive fat accumulation in the scrotum, increased scrotal temperature, or reduction in sperm production and semen quality, and could be considered "safe" targets for growing beef bulls.

  12. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  13. Acute Uncomplicated Febrile Illness in Children Aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar – Aetiologies, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Elfving, Kristina; Shakely, Deler; Andersson, Maria; Baltzell, Kimberly; Ali, Abdullah S.; Bachelard, Marc; Falk, Kerstin I.; Ljung, Annika; Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Omar, Rahila S.; Parola, Philippe; Xu, Weiping; Petzold, Max; Trollfors, Birger; Björkman, Anders; Lindh, Magnus; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission. Methods We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2–59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR) of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, and multiple quantitative (q)PCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH) (all patients) and rectal (GE) swabs (diarrhoea patients). For comparison, we also performed NPH and GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical and laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated. Findings NPH-qPCR and GE-qPCR detected ≥1 pathogen in 657/672 (98%) and 153/164 (93%) of patients and 158/166 (95%) and 144/165 (87%) of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677) had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342) had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%), influenza A/B (22.3%), rhinovirus (10.5%) and group-A streptococci (6.4%), CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%), Shigella (4.3%) were the most common viral and bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83) without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever and West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74%) patients, but only 152 (22%) had an infection

  14. Pre-linguistic Vocal Trajectories at 6–18 Months of Age As Early Markers of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Chericoni, Natasha; de Brito Wanderley, Daniele; Costanzo, Valeria; Diniz-Gonçalves, Andréa; Leitgel Gille, Marluce; Parlato, Erika; Cohen, David; Apicella, Fabio; Calderoni, Sara; Muratori, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    This study explores pre-linguistic vocal trajectories in infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during caregiver-infant interaction. Home videos were obtained from 10 infants with ASD and 10 typically developing infants (TD), covering three time periods: 0–6 months (T1, 47 video sequences), 6–12 months (T2, 47 video sequences), and 12–18 months (T3, 48 video sequences). In total 142 video sequences were analyzed. Vocalizations, long reduplicated babbling, 2-syllable babbling, and first words were investigated longitudinally. Face-gazing was also analyzed, to evaluate the social quality of vocal behaviors. Results show a lower rate of vocalizations in the ASD group at T2, and a lower rate of first words at T3, compared to the TD group. However, the prevalence of non-social babbling, appeared higher in the ASD group. The implications of these findings for screening programs are discussed. PMID:27807424

  15. Impact of community-directed treatment on soil transmitted helminth infections in children aged 12 to 59 months in Mazabuka District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Halwindi, Hikabasa; Magnussen, Pascal; Siziya, Seter; Handema, Ray; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Olsen, Annette

    2011-10-01

    This study assessed the impact of adding community-directed treatment (ComDT) to the routine health facility (HF)-based treatment on prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections among children aged 12 to 59 months. Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted among randomly selected children of this age group from the intervention area (HF+ComDT area) and the comparison area (HF area) at baseline (n=986), 12 months (n=796) and 18 months (n=788) follow-up. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was significantly higher in the HF+ComDT as compared to the HF area at baseline (P=0·048), but not at 12 and 18 months follow-up. At baseline the HF+ComDT area had significantly higher intensities of A. lumbricoides compared to the HF area (P<0·001), but not at 12 and 18 months follow-ups. Prevalence and intensity of hookworm did not differ significantly between treatment arms at any time. Analysis of trends showed a significant decrease in prevalence of A. lumbricoides and hookworm in the HF+ComDT area (P<0·001), of hookworm in the HF area (P<0·05), but not of A. lumbricoides in the HF area. It is concluded that the ComDT approach generally enhanced the treatment effect among under-five year children and that this alternative approach may also have advantages in other geographical settings.

  16. Risk Factors for Discontinuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding by One Month of Postnatal Age Among High Risk Newborns: An Institution Based Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrika, Parul; Gathwala, Geeta; Narwal, Varun; Chaturvedi, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Background Beyond one month of age, there is generally a drop in the proportion of mothers providing exclusive breastfeeding to their infants. Infants with morbidities during neonatal period have been observed to be at higher risk of discontinuation. Objective To enumerate the prevalent factors behind discontinuation of breastfeeding among high risk newborns by first month of life. Materials and Methods A case control study conducted at high risk newborn followup clinic of a teaching medical institute in northern India between January and May 2013. Infants were divided on the basis of continuation (controls) or discontinuation (cases) of exclusive breastfeeding at one month of age. The socio-demographic factors along with maternal and neonatal medical factors were compared among groups. Results During the study period, 112 newborns were screened. Forty seven cases and thirty eight controls were enrolled and finally evaluated. Female gender of newborn, less educated mothers and large families were observed to be associated with discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. Requirement of parenteral fluids during hospital stay emerged as the only independent medical reason. Conclusion As in healthy newborns, the socio-cultural factors overshadow the medical reasons for discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding during first month of life among high risk newborns. PMID:26266176

  17. Overnight Polysomnographic Characteristics and Oxygen Saturation of Healthy Infants, 1 to 18 Months of Age, Born and Residing At High Altitude (2,640 Meters)

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto-Zapata, María A.; Gozal, David; González-García, Mauricio; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of the world population resides above 1,600 m, with about 10 million people living above 2,500 m in Colombia. However, reference values for polysomnography (PSG) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) of children < 2 years old residing at high altitude are currently unavailable. METHODS: Healthy infants aged 1 to 18 months born and residing at high altitude (Bogotá: 2,640 m) underwent overnight PSG. Four age groups were defined: group 1, < 45 days; group 2, 3 to 4 months; group 3, 6 to 7 months; and group 4, 10 to 18 months. Of 122 children enrolled, 50 had three consecutive PSG tests and were analyzed as a longitudinal subcohort. RESULTS: A total of 281 PSG tests were performed in 122 infants (56% girls): group 1, 106 PSG tests; group 2, 89 PSG tests; group 3, 61 PSG tests; and group 4, 25 PSG tests. Active sleep diminished and quiet sleep increased with maturation. Apnea-hypopnea indexes (total, central, and obstructive) were highest in group 1 (21.4, 12.4, and 6.8/h total sleep time, respectively) and diminished with age (P < .001). Mean Spo2 during waking and sleep increased with age (P < .001). Nadir Spo2 values during respiratory events were lower in younger infants. Longitudinal assessments of 50 infants confirmed the temporal trends described for the cross-sectional dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy infants (≤ 18 months old) born and residing at high altitude show preserved sleep architecture but higher apnea-hypopnea indexes and more prominent desaturation with respiratory events than do those living at low altitude. The current study findings can be used as reference values for infants at high altitude. PMID:25811138

  18. High consumption of commercial food products among children less than 24 months of age and product promotion in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Adhikary, Indu; Upreti, Senendra Raj; Dhungel, Shrid; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Commercially produced complementary foods can help improve nutritional status of young children if they are appropriately fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other commercially produced snack food products may be nutritionally detrimental, potentially increasing consumption of foods high in salt or sugar and displacing consumption of other more nutritious options. Helen Keller International, in collaboration with the Nepal government, implemented a study to assess mothers' utilization of commercial food products for child feeding and exposure to commercial promotions for these products. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 309 mothers of children less than 24 months of age across 15 health facilities. Utilization of breastmilk substitutes was low, having been consumed by 6.2% of children 0-5 months of age and 7.5% of children 6-23 months of age. Approximately one-fourth (24.6%) of children 6-23 months age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food in the prior day. Twenty-eight percent of mothers reported observing a promotion for breastmilk substitutes, and 20.1% reported promotions for commercially produced complementary foods. Consumption of commercially produced snack food products was high at 74.1% of children 6-23 months. Promotions for these same commercially produced snack food products were highly prevalent in Kathmandu Valley, reported by 85.4% of mothers. In order to improve diets during the complementary feeding period, development of national standards for complementary food products is recommended. Nutritious snack options should be promoted for the complementary feeding period; consumption of commercially produced snack food products high in sugar and salt and low in nutrients should be discouraged.

  19. High consumption of commercial food products among children less than 24 months of age and product promotion in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Adhikary, Indu; Upreti, Senendra Raj; Dhungel, Shrid; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Commercially produced complementary foods can help improve nutritional status of young children if they are appropriately fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other commercially produced snack food products may be nutritionally detrimental, potentially increasing consumption of foods high in salt or sugar and displacing consumption of other more nutritious options. Helen Keller International, in collaboration with the Nepal government, implemented a study to assess mothers' utilization of commercial food products for child feeding and exposure to commercial promotions for these products. A cross‐sectional survey was conducted among 309 mothers of children less than 24 months of age across 15 health facilities. Utilization of breastmilk substitutes was low, having been consumed by 6.2% of children 0–5 months of age and 7.5% of children 6–23 months of age. Approximately one‐fourth (24.6%) of children 6–23 months age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food in the prior day. Twenty‐eight percent of mothers reported observing a promotion for breastmilk substitutes, and 20.1% reported promotions for commercially produced complementary foods. Consumption of commercially produced snack food products was high at 74.1% of children 6–23 months. Promotions for these same commercially produced snack food products were highly prevalent in Kathmandu Valley, reported by 85.4% of mothers. In order to improve diets during the complementary feeding period, development of national standards for complementary food products is recommended. Nutritious snack options should be promoted for the complementary feeding period; consumption of commercially produced snack food products high in sugar and salt and low in nutrients should be discouraged. PMID:27061954

  20. High consumption of commercial food products among children less than 24 months of age and product promotion in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Adhikary, Indu; Upreti, Senendra Raj; Dhungel, Shrid; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Commercially produced complementary foods can help improve nutritional status of young children if they are appropriately fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other commercially produced snack food products may be nutritionally detrimental, potentially increasing consumption of foods high in salt or sugar and displacing consumption of other more nutritious options. Helen Keller International, in collaboration with the Nepal government, implemented a study to assess mothers' utilization of commercial food products for child feeding and exposure to commercial promotions for these products. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 309 mothers of children less than 24 months of age across 15 health facilities. Utilization of breastmilk substitutes was low, having been consumed by 6.2% of children 0-5 months of age and 7.5% of children 6-23 months of age. Approximately one-fourth (24.6%) of children 6-23 months age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food in the prior day. Twenty-eight percent of mothers reported observing a promotion for breastmilk substitutes, and 20.1% reported promotions for commercially produced complementary foods. Consumption of commercially produced snack food products was high at 74.1% of children 6-23 months. Promotions for these same commercially produced snack food products were highly prevalent in Kathmandu Valley, reported by 85.4% of mothers. In order to improve diets during the complementary feeding period, development of national standards for complementary food products is recommended. Nutritious snack options should be promoted for the complementary feeding period; consumption of commercially produced snack food products high in sugar and salt and low in nutrients should be discouraged. PMID:27061954

  1. The Shift in Infant Preferences for Vowel Duration and Pitch Contour between 6 and 10 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitamura, Christine; Notley, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the acoustic properties of vowels on 6- and 10-month-old infants' speech preferences. The shape of the contour (bell or monotonic) and the duration (normal or stretched) of vowels were manipulated in words containing the vowels /i/ and /u/, and presented to infants using a two-choice preference procedure.…

  2. The Speech and Language of Children Aged 25 Months: Descriptive Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulston, Sue; Loader, Sue; Northstone, Kate; Beveridge, Mike

    2002-01-01

    The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) provided descriptive data on the speech and language of 25-month-olds. Findings indicated great range in the stage of expressive language development achieved. Girls showed more advanced skills than boys. A clear pattern was identified in use of sound classes. Child verbal comprehension…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Coordination in Mother-Infant Vocal Interaction from Age 4 to 10 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Susanne; Lange, Theis; Hansen, Gert Foget; Vaever, Mette; Køppe, Simo

    2015-01-01

    This is a longitudinal study of development in coordinated mother-infant vocal interaction from 4 to 10 months (N = 41) focusing on the development of turn-taking patterns and time spent in coordinated vocal interaction. Data analyses were carried out using multistate analysis. Both mothers and infants were found to coordinate their own…

  4. Determinants of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3-5 months in four Anglophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2014-07-14

    This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3-5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008), Liberia (LDHS, 2007), Nigeria (NDHS, 2013) and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008). Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3-5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3-5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant's age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early.

  5. Adverse Events from a Randomized, Multi-Arm, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Mebendazole in Children 12-24 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Serene A; Montresor, Antonio; Casapía, Martín; Pezo, Lidsky; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale deworming interventions, using anthelminthic drugs, are recommended in areas where the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection is high. Anthelminthic safety has been established primarily in school-age children. Our objective was to provide evidence on adverse events from anthelminthic use in early childhood. A randomized multi-arm, placebo-controlled trial of mebendazole, administered at different times and frequencies, was conducted in children 12 months of age living in Iquitos, Peru. Children were followed up to 24 months of age. The association between mebendazole administration and the occurrence of a serious or minor adverse event was determined using logistic regression. There was a total of 1,686 administrations of mebendazole and 1,676 administrations of placebo to 1,760 children. Eighteen serious adverse events (i.e., 11 deaths and seven hospitalizations) and 31 minor adverse events were reported. There was no association between mebendazole and the occurrence of a serious adverse event (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47, 3.09) or a minor adverse event (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.41, 1.72). Results from our trial support evidence of safety in administering mebendazole during early childhood. These results support World Health Organization deworming policy and the scaling up of interventions to reach children as of 12 months of age in endemic areas.

  6. Determinants of Early Introduction of Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods among Infants Aged 3–5 Months in Four Anglophone West African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Issaka, Abukari I.; Agho, Kingsley E.; Page, Andrew N.; Burns, Penelope; Stevens, Garry J.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore and identify factors associated with the practice of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months in four Anglophone West African countries. Data sources for the analyses were the latest Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the 4 countries, namely Ghana (GDHS, 2008), Liberia (LDHS, 2007), Nigeria (NDHS, 2013) and Sierra Leone (SLDHS, 2008). Multiple logistic regression methods were used to analyze the factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 3–5 months, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample consisted of 2447 infants aged 3–5 months from four Anglophone West African countries: 166 in Ghana, 263 in Liberia, 1658 in Nigeria and 360 in Sierra Leone. Multivariable analyses revealed the individual factors associated with early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries. These included increased infant’s age, diarrhea, acute respiratory infection and newborns perceived to be small by their mothers. Other predictors of early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods were: mothers with no schooling, young mothers and fathers who worked in an agricultural industry. Public health interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices by discouraging early introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed in all 4 countries, targeting especially mothers at risk of introducing solid foods to their infants early. PMID:25025297

  7. Adverse Events from a Randomized, Multi-Arm, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Mebendazole in Children 12-24 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Serene A; Montresor, Antonio; Casapía, Martín; Pezo, Lidsky; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale deworming interventions, using anthelminthic drugs, are recommended in areas where the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infection is high. Anthelminthic safety has been established primarily in school-age children. Our objective was to provide evidence on adverse events from anthelminthic use in early childhood. A randomized multi-arm, placebo-controlled trial of mebendazole, administered at different times and frequencies, was conducted in children 12 months of age living in Iquitos, Peru. Children were followed up to 24 months of age. The association between mebendazole administration and the occurrence of a serious or minor adverse event was determined using logistic regression. There was a total of 1,686 administrations of mebendazole and 1,676 administrations of placebo to 1,760 children. Eighteen serious adverse events (i.e., 11 deaths and seven hospitalizations) and 31 minor adverse events were reported. There was no association between mebendazole and the occurrence of a serious adverse event (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47, 3.09) or a minor adverse event (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.41, 1.72). Results from our trial support evidence of safety in administering mebendazole during early childhood. These results support World Health Organization deworming policy and the scaling up of interventions to reach children as of 12 months of age in endemic areas. PMID:27139441

  8. How to optimize radiological images captured from digital cameras, using the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 program.

    PubMed

    Chalazonitis, A N; Koumarianos, D; Tzovara, J; Chronopoulos, P

    2003-06-01

    Over the past decade, the technology that permits images to be digitized and the reduction in the cost of digital equipment allows quick digital transfer of any conventional radiological film. Images then can be transferred to a personal computer, and several software programs are available that can manipulate their digital appearance. In this article, the fundamentals of digital imaging are discussed, as well as the wide variety of optional adjustments that the Adobe Photoshop 6.0 (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA) program can offer to present radiological images with satisfactory digital imaging quality.

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose regimen of a combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live vaccine (ProQuad(®)) in infants from 9 months of age.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Becker, Thomas; Gajdos, Vincent; Fiquet, Anne; Thomas, Stéphane; Richard, Patrick; Baudin, Martine

    2012-04-26

    Vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) is currently recommended in developed countries for infants from 12 months of age. However, measles vaccination at 9 months of age is recommended by the WHO in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) schedule and it is therefore possible that MMR or MMRV vaccines might also be given at this age. This open-label, randomised, comparative study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a 2-dose schedule of ProQuad(®) (MMRV vaccine) given at a 3-month interval in healthy infants aged ≥9 months. For measles, the non-inferiority of the response rate post-Dose 2 was reached when Dose 1 was administered at 11 months (98%) compared with 12 months (99%) but was not reached when Dose 1 was administered at 9 months (95%). The response rate to measles post-Dose 1 increased with age, from 73% to 88% and 90% at 9, 11 and 12 months, respectively. For mumps, rubella and varicella, response rates were not different after Dose 1 (>95%) or Dose 2 (>99%) regardless of whether Dose 1 was administered at 9, 11 or 12 months of age. In conclusion, the age of administration of the first of a two-dose regimen of ProQuad may be lowered to 11 months. Dose 1 may be administered at 9 months if early protection is required, but it should be recognised that a second dose is required promptly with a minimum of 3-month interval between doses.

  10. Emerging perception of causality in action-and-reaction sequences from 4 to 6 months of age: is it domain-specific?

    PubMed

    Schlottmann, Anne; Ray, Elizabeth D; Surian, Luca

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments (N=136) studied how 4- to 6-month-olds perceive a simple schematic event, seen as goal-directed action and reaction from 3 years of age. In our causal reaction event, a red square moved toward a blue square, stopping prior to contact. Blue began to move away before red stopped, so that both briefly moved simultaneously at a distance. Primarily, our study sought to determine from what age infants see the causal structure of this reaction event. In addition, we looked at whether this causal percept depends on an animate style of motion and whether it correlates with tasks assessing goal perception and goal-directed action. Infants saw either causal reactions or noncausal delayed control events in which blue started some time after red stopped. These events involved squares that moved either rigidly or nonrigidly in an apparently animate manner. After habituation to one of the four events, infants were tested on reversal of the habituation event. Spatiotemporal features reversed for all events, but causal roles changed only in reversed reactions. The 6-month-olds dishabituated significantly more to reversal of causal reaction events than to noncausal delay events, whereas younger infants reacted similarly to reversal of both. Thus, perceptual causality for reaction events emerges by 6 months of age, a younger age than previously reported but, crucially, the same age at which perceptual causality for launch events has emerged in prior research. On our second question, animate/inanimate motion had no effect at any age, nor did significant correlations emerge with our additional tasks assessing goal perception or goal-directed object retrieval. Available evidence, here and elsewhere, is as compatible with a view that infants initially see A affecting B, without differentiation into physical or psychological causality, as with the standard assumption of distinct physical/psychological causal perception.

  11. Home-based Early Intervention on Auditory and Speech Development in Mandarin-speaking Deaf Infants and Toddlers with Chronological Aged 7–24 Months

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Liu, Yue-Hui; Fu, Ming-Fu; Li, Chun-Lin; Wang, Li-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sun, Xi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early auditory and speech development in home-based early intervention of infants and toddlers with hearing loss younger than 2 years are still spare in China. This study aimed to observe the development of auditory and speech in deaf infants and toddlers who were fitted with hearing aids and/or received cochlear implantation between the chronological ages of 7–24 months, and analyze the effect of chronological age and recovery time on auditory and speech development in the course of home-based early intervention. Methods: This longitudinal study included 55 hearing impaired children with severe and profound binaural deafness, who were divided into Group A (7–12 months), Group B (13–18 months) and Group C (19–24 months) based on the chronological age. Categories auditory performance (CAP) and speech intelligibility rating scale (SIR) were used to evaluate auditory and speech development at baseline and 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months of habilitation. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic features and were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: With 24 months of hearing intervention, 78% of the patients were able to understand common phrases and conversation without lip-reading, 96% of the patients were intelligible to a listener. In three groups, children showed the rapid growth of trend features in each period of habilitation. CAP and SIR scores have developed rapidly within 24 months after fitted auxiliary device in Group A, which performed much better auditory and speech abilities than Group B (P < 0.05) and Group C (P < 0.05). Group B achieved better results than Group C, whereas no significant differences were observed between Group B and Group C (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The data suggested the early hearing intervention and home-based habilitation benefit auditory and speech development. Chronological age and recovery time may be major factors for aural verbal outcomes in hearing impaired children

  12. Radiological Survey Tool Set for ArcGIS 8.3 and ArcPad 6.0

    SciTech Connect

    ROGER, COTTRELL

    2004-11-30

    The Radiological Control Operations (RCO) group at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is tasked with conducting routine surveys for the detection of radiological contaminants in the environment. The Radiological Survey Tool Set (RSTS) was developed by the Environmental & Geographic Information Systems (EGIS) group of SRS to assist RCO personnel in this survey process. The tool set consists of two major components. The first component is a custom extension for ArcGIS 8.3 that allows the user to interactively create a sampling plan prior to entering the field. Additionally, the extension allows the user to upload field-collected data to the GIS with post-processing functionality. The second component is a custom ArcPad 6.0 applet. This applet provides the user with navigational capabilities to a selected origin point with the help of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) technology, and the recording of the sample data results into a hand-held field computer via ArcPad 6.0 software.

  13. Provision of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements from Age 6 to 18 Months Does Not Affect Infant Development Scores in a Randomized Trial in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Vosti, Steve A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Undernutrition during early life contributes to more than 200 million children globally not fulfilling their developmental potential. Our objective was to determine whether dietary supplementation with several formulations of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), which differed in dose per day and milk content, positively affect infant development in Malawi. Methods We randomly assigned 1932 infants agemonths to receive one of the following for 12 months: 10, 20 g, or 40 g/day milk-containing LNS, 20 g or 40 g/day milk-free LNS, or no supplement until 18 months of age (control group). We assessed motor, language, socio-emotional, and executive function at age 18 months. Primary analysis was by intention-to-treat and we also examined 13 potential effect modifiers, including the child's initial nutritional status and level of developmental stimulation. The study is registered as clinical trial NCT00945698. Results We found no significant differences between intervention groups in any scores. The difference in mean z-scores between children in the control group and children in the intervention groups ranged from -0.08 to 0.04 for motor development (p = 0.76), -0.05 to 0.01 for language development (p = 0.97), -0.15 to 0.11 for socio-emotional development (p = 0.22), and -0.02 to 0.20 for executive function (p = 0.24). We did not find that initial nutritional status, developmental stimulation, or other factors modified the effect LNS versus control group. Conclusions for Practice Our results suggest that in a population such as this one, provision of LNS from age 6 to 18 months would not affect motor, language, socio-emotional, or executive function skills at age 18 months.

  14. Provision of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements from Age 6 to 18 Months Does Not Affect Infant Development Scores in a Randomized Trial in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Prado, Elizabeth L; Phuka, John; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Vosti, Steve A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Undernutrition during early life contributes to more than 200 million children globally not fulfilling their developmental potential. Our objective was to determine whether dietary supplementation with several formulations of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS), which differed in dose per day and milk content, positively affect infant development in Malawi. Methods We randomly assigned 1932 infants agemonths to receive one of the following for 12 months: 10, 20 g, or 40 g/day milk-containing LNS, 20 g or 40 g/day milk-free LNS, or no supplement until 18 months of age (control group). We assessed motor, language, socio-emotional, and executive function at age 18 months. Primary analysis was by intention-to-treat and we also examined 13 potential effect modifiers, including the child's initial nutritional status and level of developmental stimulation. The study is registered as clinical trial NCT00945698. Results We found no significant differences between intervention groups in any scores. The difference in mean z-scores between children in the control group and children in the intervention groups ranged from -0.08 to 0.04 for motor development (p = 0.76), -0.05 to 0.01 for language development (p = 0.97), -0.15 to 0.11 for socio-emotional development (p = 0.22), and -0.02 to 0.20 for executive function (p = 0.24). We did not find that initial nutritional status, developmental stimulation, or other factors modified the effect LNS versus control group. Conclusions for Practice Our results suggest that in a population such as this one, provision of LNS from age 6 to 18 months would not affect motor, language, socio-emotional, or executive function skills at age 18 months. PMID:27395385

  15. Relative Echogenicity of Tendons and Ligaments of the Palmar Metacarpal Region in Foals from Birth to 4 Months of Age: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Giuseppe; Britti, Domenico; Loprete, Giovanni; Musella, Vincenzo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Vilar, Jose M; Valentini, Simona

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate relative echogenicity of superficial and deep digital flexor tendons, the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon and interosseous muscle of the metacarpal region in foals ages 1 week to 4 months; and assess the association between echogenicity and sex or side/laterality. Seven Standardbred trotter foals were examined. Right and left metacarpal regions (palmar surface) were ultrasonographically investigated, and four regions of interest were assessed. A significant increase in echogenicity was seen in superficial and deep digital flexor tendons, accessory ligament of deep digital flexor tendon, and interosseous muscle during growth from 1 week to 4 months of age. Echogenicity of examined tendons and ligaments was not influenced by gender nor laterality. Reference values for tendon and ligament echogenicity could function as a tool to discriminate between physiological and abnormal conditions such as congenital contractural conditions. PMID:27441630

  16. Relative Echogenicity of Tendons and Ligaments of the Palmar Metacarpal Region in Foals from Birth to 4 Months of Age: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Britti, Domenico; Loprete, Giovanni; Musella, Vincenzo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Vilar, Jose M.; Valentini, Simona

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate relative echogenicity of superficial and deep digital flexor tendons, the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon and interosseous muscle of the metacarpal region in foals ages 1 week to 4 months; and assess the association between echogenicity and sex or side/laterality. Seven Standardbred trotter foals were examined. Right and left metacarpal regions (palmar surface) were ultrasonographically investigated, and four regions of interest were assessed. A significant increase in echogenicity was seen in superficial and deep digital flexor tendons, accessory ligament of deep digital flexor tendon, and interosseous muscle during growth from 1 week to 4 months of age. Echogenicity of examined tendons and ligaments was not influenced by gender nor laterality. Reference values for tendon and ligament echogenicity could function as a tool to discriminate between physiological and abnormal conditions such as congenital contractural conditions. PMID:27441630

  17. Development of cortical shape in the human brain from 6 to 24months of age via a novel measure of shape complexity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Lyu, Ilwoo; Fonov, Vladimir S; Vachet, Clement; Hazlett, Heather C; Smith, Rachel G; Piven, Joseph; Dager, Stephen R; Mckinstry, Robert C; Pruett, John R; Evans, Alan C; Collins, D Louis; Botteron, Kelly N; Schultz, Robert T; Gerig, Guido; Styner, Martin A

    2016-07-15

    The quantification of local surface morphology in the human cortex is important for examining population differences as well as developmental changes in neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disorders. We propose a novel cortical shape measure, referred to as the 'shape complexity index' (SCI), that represents localized shape complexity as the difference between the observed distributions of local surface topology, as quantified by the shape index (SI) measure, to its best fitting simple topological model within a given neighborhood. We apply a relatively small, adaptive geodesic kernel to calculate the SCI. Due to the small size of the kernel, the proposed SCI measure captures fine differences of cortical shape. With this novel cortical feature, we aim to capture comparatively small local surface changes that capture a) the widening versus deepening of sulcal and gyral regions, as well as b) the emergence and development of secondary and tertiary sulci. Current cortical shape measures, such as the gyrification index (GI) or intrinsic curvature measures, investigate the cortical surface at a different scale and are less well suited to capture these particular cortical surface changes. In our experiments, the proposed SCI demonstrates higher complexity in the gyral/sulcal wall regions, lower complexity in wider gyral ridges and lowest complexity in wider sulcal fundus regions. In early postnatal brain development, our experiments show that SCI reveals a pattern of increased cortical shape complexity with age, as well as sexual dimorphisms in the insula, middle cingulate, parieto-occipital sulcal and Broca's regions. Overall, sex differences were greatest at 6months of age and were reduced at 24months, with the difference pattern switching from higher complexity in males at 6months to higher complexity in females at 24months. This is the first study of longitudinal, cortical complexity maturation and sex differences, in the early postnatal period from 6 to 24months

  18. Effect of Home-Based Complementary Food Fortification on Prevalence of Anemia Among Infants and Young Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Poor Rural Regions of China.

    PubMed

    Huo, Junsheng; Sun, Jing; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Begin, France; Hipgrave, David B; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-12-01

    Following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government instituted an infant and young and child nutrition program that included promotion of in-home fortification of complementary food with ying yang bao (YYB), a soy-based powder containing iron, 2.5 mg as iron-EDTA and 5 mg as ferrous fumarate, and other micronutrients. Ying yang bao was provided to participating families in 8 poor rural counties in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces by the Ministry of Health. We assessed hemoglobin levels among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6 to 23 months at baseline in May 2010 (n = 1290) and during follow-up in November 2010 (n = 1142), May 2011 (n = 1118), and November 2011 (n = 1040), using the Hemocue method. Interviewers collected basic demographic information and child feeding practices from the children's caretakers. Altitude-adjusted hemoglobin level averaged 10.8 g/dL, and total anemia prevalence was 49.5% at baseline. Average hemoglobin was 11.3 g/dL at 6 months, 11.6 g/dL at 12 months, and 11.7 g/dL at 18 months after introduction of YYB. Moderate anemia (hemoglobin: 70-99 g/dL) decreased from 20.3% at baseline to 7.5%, 5.8%, and 7.3% after 6, 12, and 18 months of home fortification, respectively (P < .001), whereas mild anemia (hemoglobin: 100-110 g/dL) decreased from 29.0% to 16.7%, 18.1%, and 15.4%, respectively (P < .001). Among infants aged 6 to 23 months, 95% had regularly been fed YYB during the observation period. Regression analysis showed that the duration of YYB consumption and number of sachets consumed per week correlated positively with hemoglobin levels and negatively with anemia rates. Home food fortification with YYB is feasible and effective for nutrition promotion among IYC in high-risk regions of China.

  19. Introduction of complementary feeding before 4months of age increases the risk of childhood overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Yuanjue; Xiong, Guoping; Chao, Tingting; Jin, Qiu; Liu, Rui; Hao, Liping; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Nianhong; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-01

    The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity. PMID:27440530

  20. High Prevalence and Increased Severity of Norovirus Mixed Infections Among Children 12-24 Months of Age Living in the Suburban Areas of Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Zambruni, Mara; Luna, Giannina; Silva, Maria; Bausch, Daniel G; Rivera, Fulton P; Velapatino, Grace; Campos, Miguel; Chea-Woo, Elsa; Baiocchi, Nelly; Cleary, Thomas G; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-09-01

    In an active diarrhea surveillance study of children aged 12-24 months in Lima, Peru, norovirus was the most common pathogen identified. The percentage of mixed (bacterial and noroviral) infections was significantly higher among norovirus-positive samples (53%) than among norovirus-negative samples (12%). The combination of norovirus with the most common bacterial pathogens was associated with increased clinical severity over that of either single-pathogen norovirus or single-pathogen bacterial infections. PMID:27534674

  1. Introduction of complementary feeding before 4months of age increases the risk of childhood overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Yuanjue; Xiong, Guoping; Chao, Tingting; Jin, Qiu; Liu, Rui; Hao, Liping; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Nianhong; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-01

    The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity.

  2. The impact of bilingual language learning on whole-word complexity and segmental accuracy among children aged 18 and 36 months.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Laukys, Kathryn; Rvachew, Susan

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the phonological acquisition of 19 monolingual English children and 21 English?French bilingual children at 18 and 36 months. It contributes to the understanding of age-related changes to phonological complexity and to differences due to bilingual language development. In addition, preliminary normative data is presented for English children and English?French bilingual children. Five measures were targeted to represent a range of indices of phonological development: the phonological mean length of utterance (pMLU) of the adult target, the pMLU produced by the child, the proportion of whole-word proximity (PWP), proportion of consonants correct (PCC), and proportion of whole words correct (PWC). The measures of children's productions showed improvements from 18 to 36 months; however, the rate of change varied across the measures, with PWP improving faster, then PCC, and finally PWC. The results indicated that bilingual children can keep pace with their monolingual peers at both 18 months and 36 months of age, at least in their dominant language. Based on these findings, discrepancies with monolingual phonological development that one might observe in a bilingual child's non-dominant language could be explained by reduced exposure to the language rather than a general slower acquisition of phonology.

  3. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Henriques, Bruno David; Carlos, Carla Fernanda Lisboa Valente; Sabino, Jusceli Souza Nogueira; do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5%) preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age.

  4. Depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants are decreased at 4 months corrected age with Family Nurture Intervention in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Welch, Martha G; Halperin, Meeka S; Austin, Judy; Stark, Raymond I; Hofer, Myron A; Hane, Amie A; Myers, Michael M

    2016-02-01

    Preterm delivery can precipitate maternal psychological morbidities. Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) was designed to minimize these by facilitating the emotional connection between mother and infant, beginning early in the infant's neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay. We examined depression and anxiety symptoms of mothers of preterm infants at 4 months infant corrected age (CA). One hundred fifteen mothers who delivered between 26 and 34 weeks gestational age were randomized to receive standard care (SC) or standard care plus FNI. Mothers' self-reported depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: CES-D) and state anxiety (Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: STAI) symptoms were assessed at enrollment, near to term age, and 4 months (CA). At 4 months CA, mean CES-D and STAI scores were significantly lower in FNI mothers compared to SC mothers. Effectiveness of FNI can only be evaluated as an integrated intervention strategy as it was not possible to control all aspects of FNI activities. Although there was considerable loss to follow-up, analyses suggest that resulting biases could have masked rather than inflated the measured effect size for depressive symptoms. FNI may be a feasible and practicable way to diminish the impact of premature delivery on maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  5. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas; Lima, Luciana Moreira; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Henriques, Bruno David; Carlos, Carla Fernanda Lisboa Valente; Sabino, Jusceli Souza Nogueira; do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5%) preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age. PMID:27626474

  6. Prevalence and Health Outcomes of Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants From Birth to 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Abkari, Abdelhak; Bellaiche, Marc; Benninga, Marc; Chouraqui, Jean Pierre; ÇokuÐraþ, FügenÇullu; Harb, Tracy; Hegar, Badriul; Lifschitz, Carlos; Ludwig, Thomas; Miqdady, Mohamed; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Osatakul, Seksit; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Thapar, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to review published evidence and the opinion of practising clinicians on the prevalence and long-term health consequences of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in infants younger than 12 months. Methods: PubMed was searched from inception to November 2014 to find articles reporting the prevalence and long-term health outcomes of infantile colic, regurgitation, functional constipation, functional diarrhoea, and dyschezia in infants younger than <12 months. A questionnaire was sent to practising clinicians worldwide, and a group of 15 international experts met to discuss the likely frequency and longer-term consequences of these symptoms. Results: The literature search identified 30 studies reporting the prevalence of infantile colic (2%–73%), 13 that of regurgitation (3%–87%), 8 that of functional constipation (0.05%–39.3%), 2 that of functional diarrhoea (2%–4.1%), and 3 that of dyschezia (0.9%–5.6%). The studies varied in design, populations investigated, and definition of the symptoms. Questionnaires were received from 369 respondents. The experts agreed that the likely prevalences for colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation were 20%, 30%, and 15%, respectively. The limited data in the literature for functional diarrhoea and dyschezia suggest prevalences <10%. Infantile colic may be associated with future health problems in a subset of infants. Conclusions: Functional gastrointestinal symptoms appear to occur in a significant proportion of infants younger than 12 months and may have an impact on future health outcomes. Prospective collection of data according to agreed criteria is needed to obtain more accurate estimates of the prevalence and consequences of these symptoms. PMID:26308317

  7. The Effects of Fast ForWord Language on the Phonemic Awareness and Reading Skills of School-Age Children with Language Impairments and Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of Fast ForWord Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method: A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills…

  8. Diarrheal Disease in Rural Mozambique: Burden, Risk Factors and Etiology of Diarrheal Disease among Children Aged 0–59 Months Seeking Care at Health Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Nhampossa, Tacilta; Mandomando, Inacio; Acacio, Sozinho; Quintó, Llorenç; Vubil, Delfino; Ruiz, Joaquin; Nhalungo, Delino; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhabanga, Arnaldo; Nhacolo, Ariel; Aide, Pedro; Machevo, Sónia; Sigaúque, Betuel; Nhama, Abel; Kotloff, Karen; Farag, Tamer; Nasrin, Dilruba; Bassat, Quique; Macete, Eusebio; Levine, Myron M.; Alonso, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of illness and death, particularly in low-income countries. Its burden, microbiological causes and risk factors were examined in children aged 0–59 months living in Manhiça, rural southern Mozambique. Methods Trends of diarrhea-related burden of disease were estimated during the period 2001–2012. A prospective, age-stratified and matched (by age, gender and geographical origin), case-control study was conducted during 2007–2011. Clinical, epidemiology, anthropometric measurement and fecal samples obtained from recruited children were used to estimate moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) weighted attributable fractions. Results Over the last decade the incidence of acute diarrhea has dropped by about 80%. Incidence of MSD per 100 child years at risk for the period 2007–2011 was 9.85, 7.73 and 2.10 for children aged 0–11, 12–23 and 24–59 months respectively. By adjusted population attributable fractions, most cases of MSD were due to rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, ETEC ST (ST only or ST/LT), Shigella and Adenovirus 40/41. Washing hands and having facilities to dispose child’s stools were associated with a reduced risk of MSD, while giving stored water to the child was associated with an increased risk of MSD. Conclusions Despite the predominantly decreasing trends observed throughout the last decade, diarrheal diseases remain today a major cause of morbidity among children aged 0–59 months living in this rural Mozambican area. Rotavirus, cryptosporidium, Shigella, ETEC ST and Adenovirus 40/41 were the most important aetiologies of MSD. Thus, well-known preventive strategies such as washing hands, improving the treatment of stored water, having facilities to dispose children stools, and accelerating the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine should be promoted on a wider scale to reduce the current burden of diarrheal diseases. PMID:25973880

  9. Breastfeeding among urban women of low-socioeconomic status: factors influencing introduction of supplemental feeds before four months of age.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A; Arora, S; Patwari, A K

    1998-03-01

    This study assessed characteristics of women who exclusively breast feed infants during the first 4 months and women who introduce early supplementation of foods in India. Data were obtained from interviews with 75 randomly selected mothers. 73.3% of mothers were 20-30 years old. 49.3% of birth weights were under 45 kg. 20% were under 145 cm in length. 55 mothers (73.3%) received prenatal care. 26 mothers were informed about breast feeding. 76% of mothers resumed full household and/or professional work within 45 days of delivery. 61.3% of births were males. 97.3% were normal vaginal deliveries. 98.7% roomed with their mother after delivery. 62.7% were breast fed within the first day of life. The rest were breast fed by the 3rd day. 51.3% were started on supplementary feeding within 6 weeks. 72% were started on supplementary feeding within 2 months. Duration of exclusive breast feeding was unrelated to maternal education or nutrition, socioeconomic status, family support, motivation for breast feeding, birth order, or gender of the infant. The most common reason for early food supplementation was insufficient breast milk (49.4%). 6 of 13 mothers related work resumption as the reason for artificial feeding. Most mothers used cow or buffalo milk. Most used bottles, and few had proper hygiene. Most diluted the supplements with water.

  10. Zinc Supplementation Sustained Normative Neurodevelopment in a Randomized, Controlled Trial of Peruvian Infants Aged 6–18 Months12

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, John; Zavaleta, Nelly; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Kapa, Leah L.; Caulfield, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of prevention of zinc deficiency on cognitive and sensorimotor development during infancy. At 6 mo of age, infants were randomly assigned to be administered a daily liquid supplement containing 10 mg/d of zinc (zinc sulfate), 10 mg/d of iron (ferrous sulfate), and 0.5 mg/d of copper (copper oxide), or an identical daily liquid supplement containing only 10 mg/d of iron and 0.5 mg/d of copper. Various controls were implemented to ensure adherence to the supplement protocol. A battery of developmental assessments was administered from 6 to 18 mo of age that included a visual habituation/recognition memory task augmented with heart rate at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID2) at 6, 12, and 18 mo; the A-not-B error task at 9 and 12 mo; and free-play attention tasks at 12 and 18 mo. Only infants supplemented with zinc had the normative decline in look duration from 6 to 12 mo during habituation and a normative decline in shifting between objects on free-play multiple-object attention tasks from 12 to 18 mo of age. The 2 groups did not differ on any of the psychophysiologic indices, the BSID2, or the A-not-B error task. The findings are consistent with zinc supplementation supporting a profile of normative information processing and active attentional profiles during the first 2 y of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00589264. PMID:24850625

  11. [ACOUSTIC FEATURES OF VOCALIZATIONS, REFLECTING THE DISCOMFORT AND COMFORT STATE OF INFANTS AGED THREE AND SIX MONTHS].

    PubMed

    Pavlikova, M I; Makarov, A K; Lyakso, E E

    2015-08-01

    The paper presented the possibility of recognition by adult the comfort and discomfort state of 3 and 6 months old infant's on the base of their vocalizations. The acoustic features of the vocalizations that are important for the recognition of the infant state of the characteristics of voice was described. It is shown that discomfort vocalizations differ from comfort ones on the basis of the average and maximum values of pitch, pitch values in the central and final part of the vocalization. A mathematical model is proposed and described a classification function signal of discomfort and comfort. Was found that the vocalizations of infants attributable adults with a probability of 0.75 and above the categories of comfort and discomfort with high reliability are recognized by the mathematical model based on a classification function.

  12. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament.

    PubMed

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lynch, John W; Smithers, Lisa G

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85) for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament. PMID:27027637

  13. Blood levels of the heavy metal, lead, and caries in children ages 24-72 months: NHANES III

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, RC; Long, DL; Jurevic, RJ

    2014-01-01

    Lead remains a significant pollutant. It has acute toxic and chronic effects on many tissues and accumulates in teeth and bones. The researchers for this study investigated the association of blood lead levels and the extent/severity of caries as measured by the number of decayed/filled teeth of children 24 to72 months using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) accounting for the excess zero caries in the analysis and using less than 2 μg/dL as the reference blood lead level (N=3127). Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression models indicated unadjusted extent/severity mean ratios of 1.79, 1.88, and 1.94 for the number of decayed/filled teeth in children whose blood lead levels were 2-5 μg/dL, 5-10 μg/dL, and >10 μg/dL, respectively when compared with children having less than 2 μg/dL blood lead levels. The results did not attenuate when other variables were added to the model for the 5-10 μg/dL, and >10 μg/dL levels of exposure. The adjusted extent/severity mean ratios were 1.84, 2.14, and 1.91, respectively for the categories. This study indicated a strong association of blood lead levels and increasing numbers of carious teeth in children 24 to72 months. These findings support other studies in an innovative analysis handling cases children with no caries. The findings may inform caries risk assessment. PMID:25358243

  14. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Lynch, John W.; Smithers, Lisa G.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into ‘easy’ and ‘difficult’. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85) for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament. PMID:27027637

  15. Development of the global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    DOE PAGES

    Rae, J. G. L.; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-07-24

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally based data sets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST data set. As a result, in the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extentmore » and volume; further work is required to rectify this in future configurations.« less

  16. Development of the global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, J. G. L.; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-07-24

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally based data sets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST data set. As a result, in the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extent and volume; further work is required to rectify this in future configurations.

  17. Development of global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    DOE PAGES

    Rae, J. . G. L; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-03-05

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally-based datasets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST dataset. In the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extent and volume; further work is requiredmore » to rectify this in future configurations.« less

  18. Ground Deformation in the Very Near Fault Region during the Mw 6.0 West Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, N.; Sitar, N.; Bray, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Mw 6.0 West Napa earthquake on August 24, 2014 provides a unique case history to study very near fault deformation in infrastructure. Initial reconnaissance of the residential neighborhoods in the Browns Valley area in western Napa following the earthquake noted extensive zones of surface deformation, consisting of compression features including buckled sidewalks, curbs and pavement. Whereas some deformation was associated with surface faulting, much of the observed deformation consisted of these compressional features, which occurred away from surface faulting, could not be attributed to any particular faulting mechanism. One neighborhood with significant effects of surface faulting and well expressed compressive features was chosen for detailed mapping over a three day period, August 26 to 28, 2014. Specifically, compression and extension features along streets and sidewalks parallel to the fault trace and along cross streets roughly orthogonal to the fault trace were measured in detail. A summary of the observations and recordings, as well as the potential deformation mechanisms, are discussed.

  19. Development of global sea ice 6.0 CICE configuration for the Met Office global coupled model

    SciTech Connect

    Rae, J. . G. L; Hewitt, H. T.; Keen, A. B.; Ridley, J. K.; West, A. E.; Harris, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Walters, D. N.

    2015-03-05

    The new sea ice configuration GSI6.0, used in the Met Office global coupled configuration GC2.0, is described and the sea ice extent, thickness and volume are compared with the previous configuration and with observationally-based datasets. In the Arctic, the sea ice is thicker in all seasons than in the previous configuration, and there is now better agreement of the modelled concentration and extent with the HadISST dataset. In the Antarctic, a warm bias in the ocean model has been exacerbated at the higher resolution of GC2.0, leading to a large reduction in ice extent and volume; further work is required to rectify this in future configurations.

  20. Combined UAVSAR and GPS Estimates of Fault Slip for the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Hawkins, B.; Hensley, S.; Jones, C. E.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Wang, J.; Pierce, M. E.; Rundle, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Combined UAVSAR and GPS Estimates of Fault Slip for the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake Andrea Donnellan, Jay Parker, Brian Hawkins, Scott Hensley, Cathleen Jones, Susan Owen, Angelyn Moore Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Marlon Pierce, Jun Wang Indiana University John Rundle University of California, Davis The South Napa to Santa Rosa area has been observed with NASA's UAVSAR since late 2009 as part of an experiment to monitor areas identified as having a high probability of an earthquake. The M 6.0 South Napa earthquake occurred on 24 August 2014. The area was flown 29 May 2014 preceeding the earthquake, and again on 29 August 2014, five days after the earthquake. The UAVSAR results show slip on a single fault at the south end of the rupture near the epicenter of the event. The rupture branches out into multiple faults further north near the Napa area. A combined inversion of rapid GPS results and the unwrapped UAVSAR interferogram indicate nearly pure strike slip motion. Using this assumption, the UAVSAR data show horizontal right-lateral slip across the fault of 19 cm at the south end of the rupture and increasing to 70 cm northward over a distance of 6.5 km. The joint inversion indicates slip of ~30 cm on a network of sub-parallel faults is concentrated in a zone about 17 km long. The lower depths of the faults are 5-8.5 km. The eastern two sub-parallel faults break the surface, while three faults to the west are buried at depths ranging from 2-6 km with deeper depths to the north and west. The geodetic moment release is equivalent to a M 6.1 event. Additional ruptures are observed in the interferogram, but the inversions suggest that they represent superficial slip that does not contribute to the overall moment release.

  1. Variation of Meat Quality Parameters Due to Conformation and Fat Class in Limousin Bulls Slaughtered at 25 to 27 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąska, Dominika; Pogorzelski, Grzegorz; Kozań, Karolina; Pietras, Jacek; Konarska, Małgorzata; Sakowska, Anna; Głąski, Krzysztof; Pogorzelska, Ewelina; Barszczewski, Jerzy; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of age of animal, hot carcass weight, pH, conformation and fat class on basic beef quality attributes (tenderness, sarcomere length, basic chemical composition, marbling and colour) in a group of purebred animals. The object of the study was beef of Limousin bulls (25 to 27 months, hot carcass weight - 432±31 kg, “U” conformation class, “2”–“3” fat class). Analysed cuts were Infraspinatus muscle from the blade and Longissimus dorsi muscle from the cube roll and the striploin. Tenderness was analysed with universal testing machine, colour - chromometer analysis, sarcomere length - microscopic method, basic chemical composition - near-infrared spectroscopy and marbling - computer image analysis. No differences in tenderness and sarcomere length were observed within the age groups of Limousin bulls (age of 25, 26, 27 months) (p>0.05). Moisture (p = 0.0123) and fat (p = 0.0250) content were significantly different for meat of animals slaughtered at the age of 25 and 27 months. No influence of pH value on tenderness was observed, but at the same time, influence on sarcomere length (p = 0.039) and b* component of colour (0.045) was found. For “U” conformation class, in subclasses, as well as for fat classes “2”–“3”, there were no differences in tenderness, sarcomere length and colour components. Higher fat content was observed in the higher fat class, rather than in lower, however this feature was not associated with marbling. PMID:25049844

  2. Resveratrol Enhances Neuroplastic Changes, Including Hippocampal Neurogenesis, and Memory in Balb/C Mice at Six Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Pérez, Mario; Tellez-Ballesteros, Ruth Ivonne; Ortiz-López, Leonardo; Ichwan, Muhammad; Vega-Rivera, Nelly Maritza; Castro-García, Mario; Gómez-Sánchez, Ariadna; Kempermann, Gerd; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Gerardo Bernabe

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (RVTL) is a flavonoid found in red wine and has been publicized heavily as an anti-aging compound. Indeed, basic research confirms that although there is much hype in the promotion of RVTL, flavonoids such as RVTL have a wide range of biological effects. We here investigated the effects of RVTL treatment on hippocampal plasticity and memory performance in female Balb/C mice, a strain with low baseline levels of adult neurogenesis. Two weeks of treatment with RVTL (40 mg/kg) induced the production of new neurons in vivo by increasing cell survival and possibly precursor cell proliferation. In addition, RVTL decreased the number of apoptotic cells. The number of doublecortin (DCX)-expressing intermediate cells was increased. RVTL stimulated neuronal differentiation in vitro without effects on proliferation. In the dentate gyrus, RVTL promoted the formation and maturation of spines on granule cell dendrites. RVTL also improved performance in the step down passive avoidance test. The RVTL-treated mice showed increase in the levels of two key signaling proteins, phospho-Akt and phospho-PKC, suggesting the involvement of these signaling pathways. Our results support the vision that flavonoids such as resveratrol deserve further examination as plasticity-inducing compounds in the context of successful cognitive aging. PMID:26695764

  3. Maternal Obesity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Affect the Offspring Neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 Months of Age – A Follow Up from the PREOBE Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Espinola, Francisco J.; Berglund, Staffan K; García-Valdés, Luz Mª; Segura, Mª Teresa; Jerez, Antonio; Campos, Daniel; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Rueda, Ricardo; Catena, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel; Campoy, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain development in fetal life and early infancy is critical to determine lifelong performance in various neuropsychological domains. Metabolic pathologies such as overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes in pregnant women are prevalent and increasing risk factors that may adversely affect long-term brain development in their offspring. Objective The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of maternal metabolic pathologies on the neurodevelopment of the offspring at 6 and 18 months of life. Design This was a prospective case-control study of 331 mother- and child pairs from Granada, Spain. The mothers were included during pregnancy into four groups according to their pre-gestational body mass index and their gestational diabetes status; overweight (n:56), obese (n:64), gestational diabetic (n:79), and healthy normal weight controls (n:132). At 6 months and 18 months we assessed the children with the Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment. Results At 6 months (n=215), we found significant group differences in cognition composite language, and expressive language. Post hoc test revealed unexpectedly higher scores in the obese group compared to the normal weight group and a similar trend in overweight and diabetic group. The effects on language remained significant after adjusting for confounders with an adjusted odds ratio for a value above median in composite language score of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 10.0; p=0.035) for children of obese mothers. At 18 month (n=197), the offspring born to obese mothers had lost five points in language composite scores and the previous differences in language and cognition was replaced by a suggestive trend of lower gross motor scores in the overweight, obese, and diabetic groups. Conclusions Infants of obese mothers had a temporary accelerated development of cognition and language, followed by a rapid deceleration until 18 months of age, particularly of language scores. This novel observation prompts

  4. Health Effects of Long-Term Rapamycin Treatment: The Impact on Mouse Health of Enteric Rapamycin Treatment from Four Months of Age throughout Life.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kathleen E; Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Soto, Vanessa Y; Han, Chul; Someya, Shinichi; Richardson, Arlan; Austad, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, has been shown to extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. It has been reported to extend lifespan in multiple strains of mice, administered chronically or acutely early or late in life. The ability of rapamycin to extend health (healthspan) as opposed to life is less well documented. To assess the effects chronic rapamycin treatment on healthspan, enteric rapamycin was given to male and female C57BL/6J mice starting at 4 months of age and continued throughout life. Repeated, longitudinal assessments of health in individual animals were made starting at 16 months of age (=12 months of treatment) until death. A number of health parameters were improved (female grip strength, female body mass and reduced sleep fragmentation in both sexes), others showed no significant difference, while at least one (male rotarod performance) was negatively affected. Rapamycin treatment affected many measures of health in a highly sex-specific manner. While sex-specific phenotypic effects of rapamycin treatment have been widely reported, in this study we document sex differences in the direction of phenotypic change. Rapamycin-fed males and females were both significantly different from controls; however the differences were in the opposite direction in measures of body mass, percent fat and resting metabolic rate, a pattern not previously reported. PMID:25978367

  5. Long-term treatment of aged Long Evans rats with a dietary supplement containing neuroprotective peptides (N-PEP-12) to prevent brain aging: effects of three months daily treatment by oral gavage.

    PubMed

    Hutter-Paier, B; Reininger-Gutmann, B; Wronski, R; Doppler, E; Moessler, H

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with morphological and functional changes in the brain, resulting in the deterioration of cognitive performance. Growth factors like BDNF are suggested to be involved in the regulation of age-related processes in the brain. A novel dietary supplement produced from purified nerve cell proteins, N-PEP-12, has shown to share properties with naturally occurring peptide growth factors by stimulating neurite outgrowth and beneficial effects on neuronal survival and protection against metabolic stress in cell cultures. The current study investigates the effects of long-term intake on age-dependent memory decline by assessing cognitive performance and synaptic density. All the experiments were performed in aged Long Evans rats randomly assigned to saline or N-PEP-12 once daily by gavage over a period of three months. Behavioral tests were performed in the Morris Water Maze after one, two and three months of treatment. Histological examinations were performed in the hippocampal formation and in the entorhinal cortex by measuring the synaptic density. This study shows that the oral intake of N-PEP-12 has beneficial effects on the cognitive performance of aged animals and that these effects go along with an increase in the synaptic density. Thus, N-PEP-12 may help maintain memory and learning performance during the aging process.

  6. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M.; Lanting, Caren I.; Joosten, Koen F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10–48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  7. Food Consumption and Nutrient Intake by Children Aged 10 to 48 Months Attending Day Care in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Rubingh, Carina M; Lanting, Caren I; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-01-01

    The diet of young children is an important determinant of long-term health effects, such as overweight and obesity. We analyzed two-day food consumption records from 1526 young children (10-48 months old) attending 199 daycare centers across The Netherlands. Data were observed and recorded in diaries by caregivers at the day nursery and by parents at home on days that the children attended the daycare center. According to national and European reference values, the children had an adequate nutrient intake with exception of low intakes of total fat, n-3 fatty acids from fish and possibly iron. Intakes of energy and protein were substantially higher than recommended and part of the population exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for sodium, zinc and retinol. Consumption of fruit, fats, fish, and fluids was substantially less than recommended. The children used mostly (semi-)skimmed milk products and non-refined bread and cereals, as recommended. Two thirds of the consumed beverages, however, contained sugar and contributed substantially to energy intake. In young children, low intakes of n-3 fatty acids and iron are a potential matter of concern, as are the high intakes of energy, protein, sugared beverages, and milk, since these may increase the risk of becoming overweight. PMID:27428995

  8. Effect of milk replacer program on calf performance and digestion of nutrients in dairy calves to 4 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Suarez-Mena, F X; Dennis, T S; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-10-01

    Calves fed >0.7kg of dry matter from milk replacer (MR) typically have greater growth preweaning but lower growth postweaning. This is partially explained by lower digestibility of starter due to less development of the rumen at and after weaning; however, it is unclear when digestibility matures postweaning to levels typical of mature ruminants. Thus, we fed Holstein calves (initially 2 to 3d of age) 3 MR programs (MOD=0.66kg daily for 39d, and then 0.33kg daily for 3d, n=15 calves; HIMOD=0.88kg daily for 5d, then 1.1kg daily for 23d, then 0.66kg daily for 18d, and then 0.33kg daily for 3d, n=16 calves; HI=0.88kg daily for 5d, then 1.1kg daily for 37d, and then 0.56kg daily for 7d, n=15 calves). The MR consisted of 28% crude protein and 20% fat and was reconstituted to 14% solids and fed at 0630 and 1400 h daily. A 39% starch textured starter (19% crude protein) was fed free-choice for the first 56d of a nursery trial with calves in individual pens. From 56 to 112d, calves were grouped by MR program into pens of 3 to 4 calves and offered a starter with the same ingredient composition blended with 5% chopped grass hay for ad libitum consumption. Digestion was estimated at 11 and 16wk. Measurements in the first and second 56d were analyzed separately in a completely randomized design using repeated measurements when applicable. Preplanned contrasts of MOD versus HIMOD and MOD versus HI were used to separate means. Milk replacer dry matter intake was 26.6, 42.4, and 48.7kg in calves fed MOD, HIMOD, and HI, respectively. Starter intake was less for calves fed HIMOD and HI versus MOD from 3 to 8wk. Efficiency of metabolizable energy and protein used for body weight gain did not differ among programs. During the second 56d, body weight gain and hip width changes were greater for calves fed MOD than HI. Total 112-d body weight gain and total hip width changes were 101.4, 101.3, and 101.7kg, and 9.0, 9.1, and 8.7cm for MOD, HIMOD, and HI, respectively. Digestibility of

  9. Effect of milk replacer program on calf performance and digestion of nutrients in dairy calves to 4 months of age.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Suarez-Mena, F X; Dennis, T S; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2016-10-01

    Calves fed >0.7kg of dry matter from milk replacer (MR) typically have greater growth preweaning but lower growth postweaning. This is partially explained by lower digestibility of starter due to less development of the rumen at and after weaning; however, it is unclear when digestibility matures postweaning to levels typical of mature ruminants. Thus, we fed Holstein calves (initially 2 to 3d of age) 3 MR programs (MOD=0.66kg daily for 39d, and then 0.33kg daily for 3d, n=15 calves; HIMOD=0.88kg daily for 5d, then 1.1kg daily for 23d, then 0.66kg daily for 18d, and then 0.33kg daily for 3d, n=16 calves; HI=0.88kg daily for 5d, then 1.1kg daily for 37d, and then 0.56kg daily for 7d, n=15 calves). The MR consisted of 28% crude protein and 20% fat and was reconstituted to 14% solids and fed at 0630 and 1400 h daily. A 39% starch textured starter (19% crude protein) was fed free-choice for the first 56d of a nursery trial with calves in individual pens. From 56 to 112d, calves were grouped by MR program into pens of 3 to 4 calves and offered a starter with the same ingredient composition blended with 5% chopped grass hay for ad libitum consumption. Digestion was estimated at 11 and 16wk. Measurements in the first and second 56d were analyzed separately in a completely randomized design using repeated measurements when applicable. Preplanned contrasts of MOD versus HIMOD and MOD versus HI were used to separate means. Milk replacer dry matter intake was 26.6, 42.4, and 48.7kg in calves fed MOD, HIMOD, and HI, respectively. Starter intake was less for calves fed HIMOD and HI versus MOD from 3 to 8wk. Efficiency of metabolizable energy and protein used for body weight gain did not differ among programs. During the second 56d, body weight gain and hip width changes were greater for calves fed MOD than HI. Total 112-d body weight gain and total hip width changes were 101.4, 101.3, and 101.7kg, and 9.0, 9.1, and 8.7cm for MOD, HIMOD, and HI, respectively. Digestibility of

  10. The use of oral sucrose for procedural pain relief in infants up to six months of age: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sally; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mathews, Judy; Pearson, Diane

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oral sucrose in decreasing pain during minor procedures in infants of 1-6 months corrected age. A blinded randomized controlled trial with infants aged 4-26 weeks who underwent venipuncture, heel lance or intravenous cannulation were stratified by corrected age into > 4-12 weeks and > 12-26 weeks. They received 2 mL of either 25% sucrose or sterile water orally 2 minutes before the painful procedure. Nonnutritional sucking and parental comfort, provided in adherence to hospital guidelines, were recorded. Pain behavior was recorded using a validated 10 point scale at baseline, during and following the procedure. Data collectors were blinded to the intervention. A total of 21 and 20 infants received sucrose and water, respectively, in the > 4-12-week age group, and 21 and 22, respectively, in the > 12-26-week age group. No statistical differences were found in pain scores between treatment and control groups at any data collection points in either age group. Infants aged > 4-12 weeks who did nonnutritional sucking showed statistically significantly lower median pain scores at 1, 2, and 3 minutes after the procedure than those who did not suck. Infants aged > 4-26 weeks exhibited pain behavior scores that indicated moderate to large pain during painful procedures; however, there was insufficient evidence to show that 2 mL 25% sucrose had a statistically significant effect in decreasing pain. Infants should be offered nonnutritional sucking in compliance with the Baby Friendly Health Initiative during painful procedures.

  11. Growth and reproductive development from weaning through 20 months of age among breeds of bulls in subtropical Florida.

    PubMed

    Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J; Larsen, R E; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Menchaca, M A; Randel, R D

    1997-02-01

    To determine the effect of breed on growth and reproductive development, weaned bulls in each of 2 yr were managed as a single group for approximately a year. In Year 1, the study group consisted of 24 Angus, 24 Brahman, 20 Hereford and 14 Senepol bulls, while in Year 2, it contained 25 Angus, 17 Brahman. 13 Romosinuano and 9 Nellore x Brahman bulls. Body and testicular growth measurements were recorded at 6-wk intervals. At approximately 1 yr of age and quarterly thereafter (4 periods), bulls were evaluated for libido, pubertal status, and GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion. Significant breed-by-age interactions occurred for most growth measurements. Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ) were (P < 0.05) older and heavier at puberty than Angus, Hereford, Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (Bos taurus ). Libido scores were lowest for Brahman and Nell ore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). highest for Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) and intermediate for Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds; P < 0.05). Differences were not consistent among breeds or between years for GnRH-induced LH secretion. In both years, basal testosterone concentrations and areas under the GnRH-induced testosterone curve were higher (P < 0.05) for Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate breeds) than for Brahman, Senepol, Romosinuano and Nellore x Brahman bulls (tropical breeds). In conclusion, reproductive development of Senepol and Romosinuano bulls (tropical Bos taurus breeds) was more similar to Angus and Hereford bulls (temperate Bos taurus breeds) than to Brahman and Nellore x Brahman bulls (Bos indicus ). PMID:16728024

  12. Maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy affects autonomic function of Peruvian children assessed at 54 months of age.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Laura E; Zavaleta, Nelly; Chen, Ping; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; DiPietro, Janet A

    2011-02-01

    Maternal prenatal zinc supplementation improved fetal autonomic regulation in a nutrient-deficient population in Peru. To evaluate whether differences in autonomic regulation existed in early childhood, we studied 165 children from a zinc supplementation trial (80% of original sample) as part of a comprehensive evaluation at age 54 mo. Electrocardiogram (ECG) data were collected from the children at rest and while they underwent a cognitive testing battery following a standardized protocol. Of these, 79 were born to mothers receiving 25 mg/d zinc in addition to 60 mg/d iron and 250 μg/d folic acid during pregnancy, and 86 were born to mothers receiving iron and folic acid only. Derived cardiac measures included heart period (HP), range, HP variability (HPV), mean square of successive differences (MSSD), and a measure of vagal tone (V). Children in the zinc supplementation group had greater HP (i.e. slower heart rate), greater range, higher time-independent (HPV) and time-dependent (MSSD) variability in HP, and higher V (P < 0.05) during baseline. Analyses conducted across the cognitive testing period revealed similar effects of prenatal zinc supplementation on cardiac patterns. Concurrent child zinc plasma concentration was also associated with longer HP, greater variability, and marginally higher range and V (P < 0.10). Differences in cardiac patterns due to prenatal zinc supplementation were detectable in children at 54 mo of age during conditions of both rest and challenge, indicating that supplementing zinc-deficient pregnant women has beneficial long-term consequences for neural development associated with autonomic regulation. PMID:21178078

  13. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  14. Factors affecting the benefits of a six-month supervised exercise program on community-dwelling older adults: interactions among age, gender, and participation

    PubMed Central

    Hulya, Tuna Donat; Sevi, Yeşilyaprak Subasi Sevgi; Serap, Acar; Ayse, Ozcan Edeer

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of age, gender, and participation on the benefits of a 6-month supervised exercise program on older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-five (37 women, 48 men) community-dwelling older adults participated. The chair sit-and-reach test, the 8-foot up-and-go test, the 6-minute walk test, the Berg Balance Scale, lower-body flexibility, dynamic balance, aerobic endurance, balance, metabolic rate, muscle strength, and position sense were evaluated. Repeated-measures of analysis of variance was performed including dependent variables of age, gender, and participation in the exercise program as dependent inter-subject factors and time of assessment as an intra-subject factor. [Results] Mean exercise participation was 29.88 ± 1.29 sessions. Flexibility, balance, position sense, and strength showed a significant main effect of time. There was a significant gender interaction for right shoulder flexion strength and knee extension strength, a significant gender-participation interaction for pre-/post-intervention measures of functional mobility, and a significant age-participation interaction for flexibility. [Conclusion] Exercise training improved outcomes after 6 months of supervised exercise, but the changes were similar regardless of participation level. Changes in strength were more pronounced in men than women. PMID:26157233

  15. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    PubMed Central

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  16. A Study to Determine the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections in Infants and Children Ages 4 Months to 6 Years With Febrile Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age) with febrile diarrhea, as outpatients. Methods: This was a prospective institutional review board–approved study. patients (between 4 months and 6 years of age) were enrolled in the study who presented to the pediatric emergency room with a complaint of fever (rectal temperature 101°F or more) and diarrhea (watery stools >3 in number). The patients were evaluated for state of hydration, and also urine samples were collected. For those children not toilet trained, urine specimens were collected by bladder catheterization, and for those children toilet trained, urine specimens were obtained by midstream collection method. The urine samples obtained were sent for analysis and culture. Results: Eighty patients were enrolled in the study. The number of specimens obtained by clean catch midstream was 20, and by bladder catheterization was 60. None of the urine specimens obtained by both methods of collection grew any organism. There was no increased incidence of infections in male children whether circumcised (10/60) or uncircumcised (50/60). The mean temperature was 102.8°F (range = 101°F to 105°F). Statistics: Using in silico online 2 × 2 χ2 test by comparing both the positive and negative urine culture results, 2-tailed P value is <.0001. Conclusions: Our prospective randomized study concluded that there is no increased incidence of UTIs in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age) with febrile diarrhea.

  17. A Study to Determine the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections in Infants and Children Ages 4 Months to 6 Years With Febrile Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age) with febrile diarrhea, as outpatients. Methods: This was a prospective institutional review board–approved study. patients (between 4 months and 6 years of age) were enrolled in the study who presented to the pediatric emergency room with a complaint of fever (rectal temperature 101°F or more) and diarrhea (watery stools >3 in number). The patients were evaluated for state of hydration, and also urine samples were collected. For those children not toilet trained, urine specimens were collected by bladder catheterization, and for those children toilet trained, urine specimens were obtained by midstream collection method. The urine samples obtained were sent for analysis and culture. Results: Eighty patients were enrolled in the study. The number of specimens obtained by clean catch midstream was 20, and by bladder catheterization was 60. None of the urine specimens obtained by both methods of collection grew any organism. There was no increased incidence of infections in male children whether circumcised (10/60) or uncircumcised (50/60). The mean temperature was 102.8°F (range = 101°F to 105°F). Statistics: Using in silico online 2 × 2 χ2 test by comparing both the positive and negative urine culture results, 2-tailed P value is <.0001. Conclusions: Our prospective randomized study concluded that there is no increased incidence of UTIs in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age) with febrile diarrhea. PMID:27660810

  18. Reasons for raising the maximum acceptable daily intake of EDTA and the benefits for iron fortification of foods for children 6-24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wreesmann, Carel Theo Jozef

    2014-10-01

    The current maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI) of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 1.9 mg day(-1) per kilogram bodyweight (mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) ) limits the daily intake of iron as iron EDTA [ferric sodium EDTA; sodium iron(III) EDTA] to approximately 2-2.5 mg day(-1) for children 6-24 months of age. This limit was defined by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 based on data from an animal-feed study published in 1963. Other animal studies indicate that this limit can be raised to 4.4 or possibly up to 21.7 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) , which is 2.3-11.4 times higher than the current value. For nearly 50 years, iron EDTA has been used in France in medicinal syrup for infants 1-6 months of age. The maximum recommended dosage of this drug is 37 times higher than the maximum ADI of EDTA. No adverse health effects have been reported as a result of this medicinal consumption of iron EDTA. Raising the maximum ADI of EDTA to only 4.4 mg day(-1)  kgbw(-1) would enable iron EDTA, an iron fortificant with proven bioavailability in phytate-rich meals, to be added in adequate amounts to cereal-based meals for children 6-24 months of age, who are at risk of iron deficiency.

  19. A randomized controlled study to evaluate the immunogenicity of a trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine at two dosages in children 6 to 35 months of age.

    PubMed

    Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Angel Rodriguez Weber, Miguel; Lau, Yu-Lung; Nelson, E Anthony S; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Huang, Li-Min; Silas, Peter; Qaqundah, Paul; Blatter, Mark; Jeanfreau, Robert; Lei, Paul; Jain, Varsha; El Idrissi, Mohamed; Feng, Yang; Innis, Bruce; Peeters, Mathieu; Devaster, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-09-01

    The trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine Fluarix™ is licensed in the US for adults and children from 3 years old. This randomized observer-blind study (NCT00764790) evaluated Fluarix™ at two doses; 0.25 ml (Flu-25) and 0.5 ml (Flu-50) in children aged 6-35 months. The primary objective was to demonstrate immunogenic non-inferiority vs. a control vaccine (Fluzone®; 0.25 ml). Children received Flu-25 (n = 1107), Flu-50 (n = 1106) or control vaccine (n = 1104) at Day 0 and for un-primed children, also on Day 28. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers were determined pre-vaccination and at Day 28 (primed) or Day 56 (un-primed). Non-inferiority was assessed by post-vaccination geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio, (upper 95% confidence interval [CI] ≤ 1.5) and difference in seroconversion rate (upper 95% CI ≤ 10%). Reactogenicity/safety was monitored. The immune response to Flu-50 met all regulatory criteria. Indicated by adjusted GMT ratios [with 95% CI], the criteria for non-inferiority of Flu-50 vs. control vaccine were reached for the B/Florida strain (1.13 [1.01-1.25]) but not for the A/Brisbane/H1N1 (1.74 [1.54-1.98]) or A/Uruguay/H3N2 (1.72 [1.57-1.89]) strains. In children aged 18-35 months similar immune responses were observed for Flu-50 and the control vaccine. Flu-50 induced a higher response than Flu-25 for all strains. Temperature (≥ 37.5°C) was reported in 6.2%, 6.4%, and 6.6% of the Flu-25, Flu-50, and control group, respectively. Reactogenicity/safety endpoints were within the same range for all vaccines. In children aged 6-35 months, immune responses with Flu-50 fulfilled regulatory criteria but did not meet the pre-defined criteria for non-inferiority vs. control. This appeared to be due to differences in immunogenicity in children aged<18 months.

  20. The B-cell response to a primary and booster course of MenACWY-CRM₁₉₇ vaccine administered at 2, 4 and 12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Snape, Matthew D; Kelly, Dominic F; O'Connor, Daniel; John, Tessa; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Ohene-Kena, Brigitte; Klinger, Chaam L; Odrljin, Tatjana; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-05-01

    A quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to CRM197 (MenACWY-CRM197) is immunogenic in young infants. We assessed the memory B-cell and antibody responses after a primary and booster course of MenACWY-CRM197 in children. At 5 months of age, following primary immunisation, serogroup-specific memory B-cells were detectable in fewer than 25% of children, although protective antibody titres (hSBA ≥ 4) were detectable in 69% of children against serogroup A and more than 95% against the other serogroups. At 12 months, before booster immunisation the percentages with hSBA ≥ 4 were 5% for serogroup A, and between 44 and 70% for the other serogroups. One month after booster immunisation with MenACWY-CRM197 over 50% of children had detectable memory B-cells, and 91% had hSBA ≥ 4 against serogroup A and more than 99% against the other serogroups. These data show that few antigen-specific anticapsular memory B-cells can be detected after two-doses priming with MenACWY-CRM197. For MenC and CRM197, the antigens with the highest number of B-cells at 5 months, there was a definite (p ≤0 .02) but weak correlation with antibody persistence at 12 months. Although previous studies suggest that measuring memory B-cell responses after priming immunisations in infancy can be used to predict antibody persistence and memory responses, this may not be suitable for all antigens in young children.

  1. Maternal nutrient restriction in sheep: hypertension and decreased nephron number in offspring at 9 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Lang, Alvin L; Grant, Angela R; Nijland, Mark J

    2005-05-15

    Pregnant ewes were fed either a 50% nutrient-restricted (NR; n= 8) or a control 100% (C; n= 8) diet from day 28 to day 78 of gestation (dGA; term = 150 dGA). Lambs were born naturally, and fed to appetite throughout the study period. At 245 +/- 1 days postnatal age (DPNA), offspring were instrumented for blood pressure measurements, with tissue collection at 270 DPNA. Protein expression was assessed using Western blot, glomerulus number determined via acid maceration and hormone changes by radioimmunoassay (RIA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). NR lambs had higher mean arterial pressure (MAP; 89.0 +/- 6.6 versus 73.4 +/- 1.6 mmHg; P < 0.05), fewer renal glomeruli (57.8 +/- 23.8 versus 64.6 +/- 19.3 x 10(4); P < 0.05), increased expression of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the renal cortex (942 +/- 130 versus 464 +/- 60 arbitrary pixel units (apu); P < 0.03), and increased angiotensin II receptor AT2 expression in the renal medulla (63.3 +/- 12.1 versus 19.5 +/- 44.2 x 10(4) apu; P < 0.03). All data are presented as mean +/-S.E.M. The present data indicate that global maternal nutrient restriction (50%) during early to mid-gestation impairs renal nephrogenesis, increases MAP, and alters expression of AT2 and ACE without an associated change in birth weight. These data demonstrate the existence of a critical window of fetal susceptibility during early to mid-gestation that alters kidney development and blood pressure regulation in later life.

  2. A Test of a Strong Ground Motion Prediction Methodology for the 7 September 1999, Mw=6.0 Athens Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L; Ioannidou, E; Voulgaris, N; Kalogeras, I; Savy, J; Foxall, W; Stavrakakis, G

    2004-08-06

    We test a methodology to predict the range of ground-motion hazard for a fixed magnitude earthquake along a specific fault or within a specific source volume, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this into probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). We modeled ground motion with empirical Green's functions. We tested our methodology with the 7 September 1999, Mw=6.0 Athens earthquake, we: (1) developed constraints on rupture parameters based on prior knowledge of earthquake rupture processes and sources in the region; (2) generated impulsive point shear source empirical Green's functions by deconvolving out the source contribution of M < 4.0 aftershocks; (3) used aftershocks that occurred throughout the area and not necessarily along the fault to be modeled; (4) ran a sufficient number of scenario earthquakes to span the full variability of ground motion possible; (5) found that our distribution of synthesized ground motions span what actually occurred and their distribution is realistically narrow; (6) determined that one of our source models generates records that match observed time histories well; (7) found that certain combinations of rupture parameters produced ''extreme'' ground motions at some stations; (8) identified that the ''best fitting'' rupture models occurred in the vicinity of 38.05{sup o} N 23.60{sup o} W with center of rupture near 12 km, and near unilateral rupture towards the areas of high damage, and this is consistent with independent investigations; and (9) synthesized strong motion records in high damage areas for which records from the earthquake were not recorded. We then developed a demonstration PSHA for a source region near Athens utilizing synthesized ground motion rather that traditional attenuation. We synthesized 500 earthquakes distributed throughout the source zone likely to have Mw=6.0 earthquakes near Athens. We assumed an average return period of 1000 years for this magnitude earthquake in the particular source zone, thereby having simulated a catalog of ground motion for a period of 500,000 years. The distribution of traditional ground motion parameters of peak acceleration or spectral ordinates then becomes the synthesized record from which we develop hazard curves in the form of the annual probability of exceedance. This approach replaces the aleatory uncertainty that current PSHA studies estimate by regression of empirical parameters from the worldwide database with epistemic uncertainty on what specific sources actually do at specific sites. This is a fundamental change for PSHA and eliminates the need to extrapolate current empirical data that was gathered over about 50 years to represent values for 10{sup -3} annual probability of exceedance or less. This difference becomes especially significant for very sensitive structures that require estimates for 10{sup -5} or less exceedance.

  3. The effect of the 2004 M6.0 earthquake on small repeating earthquakes recorded downhole at Parkfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonley, E.; Abercrombie, R. E.

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the sources of the three clusters of repeating M2 earthquakes targeted by SAFOD. They repeat regularly before the M6.0 mainshock, and then more frequently immediately after. The seismic source parameters of all three clusters are similar to those of small earthquakes elsewhere. The spectra of the earthquakes in the two shallow clusters appear unaffected by the M6.0, but the deeper cluster shows small but systematic changes in frequency content. Progress in understanding the dynamics of earthquake rupture is currently limited by the large uncertainties in the observed source parameters. This is particularly a problem for small earthquakes, the source parameters of which are needed to understand fundamental processes of earthquake rupture at all scales. Parkfield represents an ideal setting to improve our knowledge of small earthquakes for a number of reasons: downhole, high frequency recording by the HRSN began in 1987 providing exceptional, long-term borehole azimuthal coverage; the instrumentation in the SAFOD pilot hole (PH) began in 2002 greatly increasing the high frequency bandwidth; and the presence of highly clustered seismicity, including many repeating events, enables the use of empirical Green's function (EGF) analysis. Smaller earthquakes in a cluster can be used to represent the earth's transfer function between source and observer. The transfer function can then be removed, in either the time or frequency domain, from a co-located, similar earthquake of larger magnitude. Preliminary work by Abercrombie and Nadeau (2004) and Imanishi (2004) found that the stress drops of small earthquakes in Parkfield, including the two SAFOD target earthquakes in October 2003 (M2 and M2.2) and those in another cluster (M1) are similar to the stress drops found by seismic methods for earthquakes elsewhere. These results contrast with the extremely high stress drops previously suggested for these small earthquakes based on the fault slip rate (Nadeau and Johnston, 1998). We use nearby M1 clusters to represent the Green's Function in order to better resolve static parameters and radiated energy for repeating earthquakes between 1990 and 2005 recorded down-hole on the HRSN, in Parkfield, CA.

  4. Premature death of children aged 2 months to 5 years: the case of the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation, Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack, Félicitée; Mbassi Awa, Hubert D.; Dongmo, Roger; Nkwonkam Mafotso, Josiane; Ngo Um, Suzanne; Ambomatei, Calson; Koki Ndombo, Paul O.

    2016-01-01

    Background In hospital premature deaths of children less than 5 years of age admitted for different reasons still remains very high in our context warranting study in order to reverse the tendency (using appropriate means). Our study was aimed at describing and analyzing cases of those children aged from 2 months to 5 years who died within the first 48 hours of their admission at the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation (MCC/CBF). Methods It was a retrospective descriptive study. Data were extracted from the clinical records of the patients admitted from 2008 to 2012. Cases of accidental trauma were excluded from the study. Level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. The approval of the ethical committee of the Université des Montagnes was also obtained. Results During the period of our study, out of the 14,200 patients aged 2 months and 5 years who were hospitalized 522 premature deaths were registered. This gives an incidence of 4.9%, representing 74.3% of all hospitalized deaths in this age group. Considering the fact that some of the files had very little information, only 373 files were studied. The sex ratio was 1.2. More astonishing was that a majority of the deaths occurred between midnight and 8 am. The most frequent registered cases were patients with severe malaria (42.6%), severe sepsis (20.6%), and acute lower respiratory tract infections (RTI) (16.1%) cases. One third of the patients had a poor nutritional status. Conclusions The reinforcement of preventive measures and programs targeting the health of children such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Diseases (IMCD) would be a major priority in proffering a solution to this phenomenon. PMID:26835403

  5. Validation of a ground motion synthesis and prediction methodology for the 1988, M=6.0, Saguenay Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; Foxall, W.

    1998-01-01

    We model the 1988, M=6.0, Saguenay earthquake. We utilize an approach that has been developed to predict strong ground motion. this approach involves developing a set of rupture scenarios based upon bounds on rupture parameters. rupture parameters include rupture geometry, hypocenter, rupture roughness, rupture velocity, healing velocity (rise times), slip distribution, asperity size and location, and slip vector. Scenario here refers to specific values of these parameters for an hypothesized earthquake. Synthetic strong ground motion are then generated for each rupture scenario. A sufficient number of scenarios are run to span the variability in strong ground motion due to the source uncertainties. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to the site from the one standard deviation value of engineering parameters we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation, For this study we developed bounds on rupture scenarios from previous research on this earthquake. The time history closest to the observed ground motion was selected as a model for the Saguenay earthquake.

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose regimen of a combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live vaccine (ProQuad(®)) in infants from 9 months of age.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Becker, Thomas; Gajdos, Vincent; Fiquet, Anne; Thomas, Stéphane; Richard, Patrick; Baudin, Martine

    2012-04-26

    Vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) is currently recommended in developed countries for infants from 12 months of age. However, measles vaccination at 9 months of age is recommended by the WHO in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) schedule and it is therefore possible that MMR or MMRV vaccines might also be given at this age. This open-label, randomised, comparative study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a 2-dose schedule of ProQuad(®) (MMRV vaccine) given at a 3-month interval in healthy infants aged ≥9 months. For measles, the non-inferiority of the response rate post-Dose 2 was reached when Dose 1 was administered at 11 months (98%) compared with 12 months (99%) but was not reached when Dose 1 was administered at 9 months (95%). The response rate to measles post-Dose 1 increased with age, from 73% to 88% and 90% at 9, 11 and 12 months, respectively. For mumps, rubella and varicella, response rates were not different after Dose 1 (>95%) or Dose 2 (>99%) regardless of whether Dose 1 was administered at 9, 11 or 12 months of age. In conclusion, the age of administration of the first of a two-dose regimen of ProQuad may be lowered to 11 months. Dose 1 may be administered at 9 months if early protection is required, but it should be recognised that a second dose is required promptly with a minimum of 3-month interval between doses. PMID:22406278

  7. Age-related differences in memory expression during infancy: using eye-tracking to measure relational memory in 6- and 12-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Jenny L; Power, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    Relational memory, or the ability to bind components of an event into a network of linked representations, is a primary function of the hippocampus. Here we extend eye-tracking research showing that infants are capable of forming memories for the relation between arbitrarily paired scenes and faces, by looking at age-related changes in relational memory over the first year of life. Six- and 12-month-old infants were familiarized with pairs of faces and scenes before being tested with arrays of three familiar faces that were presented on a familiar scene. Preferential looking at the face that matches the scene is typically taken as evidence of relational memory. The results showed that while 6-month-old showed very early preferential looking when face/scene pairs were tested immediately, 12-month-old did not exhibit evidence of relational memory either immediately or after a short delay. Theoretical implications for the functional development of the hippocampus and practical implications for the use of eye tracking to measure memory during early life are discussed.

  8. Risk of developmental delay of children aged between two and 24 months and its association with the quality of family stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Alessandro Fernandes; de Carvalho, Davi Vilela; Machado, Nathália Ádila A.; Baptista, Regiane Aparecida N.; Lemos, Stela Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between neurodevelopment and the family environment resources of children from the coverage area of a Basic Health Unit (BHU) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, using a tool based on the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a non-probabilistic sample involving 298 children aged between 2-24 months old, who attended a BHU in 2010. The assessment of child development and family resources made at the BHU lasted, in average, 45 minutes and included two tests - an adaptation of the Handbook for Monitoring Child Development in the Context of IMCI and an adapted version of the Family Environment Resource (FER) inventary. The nonparametric tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The sample included 291 assessments, with 18.2% of children between 18 and 24 months old, 53.6% male gender, and 91.4% who did not attend day care centers. According to IMCI, 31.7% of the children were in the risk group for developmental delay. The total average score in FER was 38.0 points. Although it has been found an association between the IMCI outcome and the total FER score, all groups had low scores in the family environment assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate the need for childhood development screening in the primary health care and for early intervention programs aimed at this age group. PMID:24473949

  9. Early caregiving stress exposure moderates the relation between respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity at 1 month and biobehavioral outcomes at age 3

    PubMed Central

    CONRADT, ELISABETH; BEAUCHAINE, THEODORE; ABAR, BEAU; LAGASSE, LINDA; SHANKARAN, SEETHA; BADA, HENRIETTA; BAUER, CHARLES; WHITAKER, TONI; HAMMOND, JANE; LESTER, BARRY

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing scientific interest in the psychophysiological functioning of children living in low-socioeconomic status (SES) contexts, though this research is complicated by knowledge that physiology–behavior relations often operate differently in these environments among adults. Importantly, such research is made more difficult because SES may be a proxy for a wide range of risk factors including poor caregiving and exposure to parental substance use. We used factor analysis to organize risk-exposure data collected from 827 children—many of whom were raised in low-SES contexts and exposed to substances prenatally—into dissociable components including economic stress, caregiving stress (e.g., stress the caregiver may experience, including parental psychopathology), and postnatal substance exposure. These factors, along with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity at age 1 month, were used to predict behavior dysregulation and resting RSA at age 3 years. A significant RSA Reactivity × Caregiving Stress interaction indicated that infants who exhibited high RSA reactivity at 1 month experienced the greatest behavior dysregulation at 3 years, but only when they were exposed to high levels of caregiving stress. Among African Americans, the highest resting RSA at 3 years was found in infants with less RSA reactivity, but only if they also experienced less caregiving stress. Our work is consistent with biological sensitivity to context, adaptive calibration, and allostatic load models, and highlights the importance of studying Physiology × Environment interactions in low-SES contexts for predicting behavior and resting RSA. PMID:26681620

  10. Effect on longitudinal growth and anemia of zinc or multiple micronutrients added to vitamin A: a randomized controlled trial in children aged 6-24 months

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The benefits of zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementations in African children are uncertain. African children may differ from other populations of children in developing countries because of differences in the prevalence of zinc deficiency, low birth weight and preterm delivery, recurrent or chronic infections such as HIV, or the quality of complementary diets and genetic polymorphisms affecting iron metabolism. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether adding zinc or multiple micronutrients to vitamin A supplementation improves longitudinal growth or reduces prevalence of anemia in children aged 6-24 months. Methods Randomized, controlled double-blinded trial of prophylactic micronutrient supplementation to children aged 6-24 months. Children in three cohorts - 32 HIV-infected children, 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 187 uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers - were separately randomly assigned to receive daily vitamin A (VA) [n = 124], vitamin A plus zinc (VAZ) [n = 123], or multiple micronutrients that included vitamin A and zinc (MM) [n = 126]. Results Among all children there were no significant differences between intervention arms in length-for-age Z scores (LAZ) changes over 18 months. Among stunted children (LAZ below -2) [n = 62], those receiving MM had a 0.7 Z-score improvement in LAZ versus declines of 0.3 in VAZ and 0.2 in VA (P = 0.029 when comparing effects of treatment over time). In the 154 HIV-uninfected children, MM ameliorated the effect of repeated diarrhea on growth. Among those experiencing more than six episodes, those receiving MM had no decline in LAZ compared to 0.5 and 0.6 Z-score declines in children receiving VAZ and VA respectively (P = 0.06 for treatment by time interaction). After 12 months, there was 24% reduction in proportion of children with anemia (hemoglobin below 11 g/dL) in MM arm (P = 0.001), 11% in VAZ (P = 0.131) and 18% in VA (P = 0.019). Although the

  11. Effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve child feeding practices and growth in rural China: updated results at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxu; Shi, Ling; Chen, Da-Fang; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practices have led to, in part, significant disparities in growth and nutritional status between rural and urban children in China. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial was implemented in Laishui, China to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on caregivers' feeding practices and children's growth. Eight townships were randomly assigned to the intervention or control. Five hundred ninety-nine healthy infants were enrolled at 2-4 months old, and were followed up at ages 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. The intervention group received information on enhanced home-prepared recipes and food preparation and hygiene through group training, counselling and home visit. Key outcomes were children's physical growth, caregivers' knowledge and behaviours on complementary feeding, and the infant and child feeding index (ICFI). Analysis was by intention to treat. The intervention group achieved better knowledge and practices related to complementary feeding, and significantly higher ICFI scores at each follow-up point. Children in the intervention group achieved higher z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) than the control (0.18 vs. 0.01 and 0.49 vs. 0.19, respectively) at 18 months old, and were less likely to have stunted growth (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.94). Mixed model showed that the intervention group achieved significantly better linear growth over time, including WAZ (P = 0.016), WHZ (P = 0.030) and HAZ (P = 0.078). These results indicated that an educational intervention delivered through local health services can enhance caregivers' knowledge and practices of complementary feeding and ultimately improve children's growth.

  12. Afterslip Behavior Following the M6.0, 2014 South Napa Earthquake with Implications for Afterslip Forecasting on Other Seismogenic Faults.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienkaemper, J. J.; DeLong, S. B.; Domrose, C. J.; Rosa, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Surface slip on the 15-km-long 2014 Napa rupture occurred mostly as afterslip on its southern 8-9 km, but mostly coseismically on its northern section, with maximum coseismic slip reaching 0.4-0.5 m. Urban post-earthquake recovery demands rapid and realistic answers to: How much more afterslip can occur? How long will it last? About 69% of all surface slip was postseismic. Cumulative slip approaches 0.3-0.5 m in the middle of the rupture, estimated with program AFTER (Boatwright et al., 1989). At 1-yr post-earthquake, slip should be 96-99% complete on the southern section. However, 0.8 km north of the coseismic maximum (site NLOD), slip is ≤92% complete. Model estimates of total fault displacement (Uf) improved in the weeks following the earthquake. By 3 weeks, uncertainties were ≤±5 cm; by 3 months, 3 sites had stable Uf values and ≤±1 cm uncertainties, except site NLOD, where at 9 months its formal Uf-uncertainty was ±2 cm, but the model is uncertain. To estimate the impact of afterslip following a large future earthquake expected on the Hayward fault in the densely populated San Francisco East Bay, we are analyzing how rapidly we can resolve final displacement (Uf) from other records, e.g., the M6.0, 2004 Parkfield earthquake. Napa uncertainties resolve faster than Parkfield's by a few months. Although 1-yr solutions are shown to be accurate for the central Parkfield rupture, at the rupture tips, afterslip rates, and thus Uf estimates, increased considerably in later years. Unstable Uf values at NLOD resemble behavior at the Parkfield rupture tips. Unlike Napa, Parkfield afterslip was only ~74% complete after 1 year,~91% after 6 years, and ultimately taking 8-11 yr to reach interseismic creep rates. The Napa and Parkfield afterslip behaviors represent end members, locked-versus-creeping fault sections. Though we might expect the creeping Hayward Fault to behave more like Parkfield, its much larger expected magnitude (M6.8) could make an important

  13. Trends and spatial distribution of deaths of children aged 12-60 months in São Paulo, Brazil, 1980-98.

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in the mortality of children aged 12-60 months and to perform spatial data analysis of its distribution at the inner city district level in São Paulo from 1980 to 1998. METHODS: Official mortality data were analysed in relation to the underlying causes of death. The population of children aged 12-60 months, disaggregated by sex and age, was estimated for each year. Educational levels, income, employment status, and other socioeconomic indices were also assessed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software was used for the statistical processing of time series. The Cochrane-Orcutt procedure of generalized least squares regression analysis was used to estimate the regression parameters with control of first-order autocorrelation. Spatial data analysis employed the discrimination of death rates and socioeconomic indices at the inner city district level. For classifying area-level death rates the method of K-means cluster analysis was used. Spatial correlation between variables was analysed by the simultaneous autoregressive regression method. FINDINGS: There was a steady decline in death rates during the 1980s at an average rate of 3.08% per year, followed by a levelling off. Infectious diseases remained the major cause of mortality, accounting for 43.1% of deaths during the last three years of the study. Injuries accounted for 16.5% of deaths. Mortality rates at the area level clearly demonstrated inequity in the city's health profile: there was an increasing difference between the rich and the underprivileged social strata in this respect. CONCLUSION: The overall mortality rate among children aged 12-60 months dropped by almost 30% during the study period. Most of the decline happened during the 1980s. Many people still live in a state of deprivation in underserved areas. Time-series and spatial data analysis provided indications of potential value in the planning of social policies promoting well-being, through the identification

  14. Long-term (60-month) results for the implantable miniature telescope: efficacy and safety outcomes stratified by age in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, David; Freund, K Bailey; Regillo, Carl; Levy, Marc H; Garg, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of an implantable miniature telescope (IMT) in patients with bilateral, end-stage, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial with fellow eye controls enrolled 217 patients (mean age 76 years) with AMD and moderate-to-profound bilateral central visual acuity loss (20/80–20/800) resulting from untreatable geographic atrophy, disciform scars, or both. A subgroup analysis was performed with stratification for age (patient age 65 to <75 years [group 1; n=70] and patient age ≥75 years [group 2; n=127]), with a comparative evaluation of change in best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), quality of life, ocular complications from surgery, adverse events, and endothelial cell density (ECD). Follow-up in an extension study was 60 months. Results Data were available for 22, 38, and 31 patients in group 1 and 42, 46, and 32 patients in group 2 at 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Mean BCDVA improvement from baseline to 60 months was 2.41±2.69 lines in all patients (n=76), with 2.64±2.55 lines in group 1 and 2.09±2.88 lines in group 2. Quality of life scores were significantly higher in group 1. The most common significant surgery-related ocular complications in group 1 were iritis >30 days after surgery (7/70; 10%) and persistent corneal edema (3/70; 4.3%); and in group 2 were a decrease in BCDVA in the implanted eye or IMT removal (10/127 each; 7.9%), corneal edema >30 days after surgery (9/127; 7.1%), and persistent corneal edema (6/127; 4.7%). Significant adverse events included four corneal transplants, comprising two (2.9%) in group 1 and two (1.6%) in group 2. At 60 months, one patient in group 1 (3.2%) and three patients in group 2 (9.4%) had lost ≥2 lines of vision. The IMT was removed in one (1.4%) and ten (7.9%) patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean ECD loss was 20% at 3 months. Chronic loss was 3% per

  15. Absolute Locations of Repeating Mw 5.5 - 6.0 Earthquakes on Discovery Transform Fault, EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, M. L.; Boettcher, M. S.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that seismic cycles on intermediate and fast-slipping oceanic transform faults (OTFs) are remarkably regular [Boettcher and McGuire, 2009; McGuire, 2008]. The largest earthquakes on these OTFs are small compared to total fault area and are separated by rupture barriers [McGuire et al., 2011]. Here we investigate how the rupture patches on Discovery Transform Fault, East Pacific Rise (EPR) correlate with seafloor fault zone structure. We use a surface wave relative relocation technique [McGuire, 2008] to determine absolute locations of the largest earthquakes and compare these locations with high-resolution bathymetric data. Discovery transform fault, located at 4S on the EPR, consists of two sub-parallel fault segments separated by an intra-transform spreading center (ITSC). We used two multibeam bathymetry datasets, a Seabeam 2012 dataset collected in 2006 and an EM300 dataset collected in 2008, to delineate fault structure on a sub-kilometer scale. The western segment fault zone is narrow and well-defined (300-500 m wide) within ~7 km of the ridge crest. To the east the fault zone broadens into a lozenge-shaped valley (~12 km long and ~5 km wide) that is terminated to the east by a 3-km wide ridge that crosscuts the transform domain. East of this ridge, the western segment splays into two sub-parallel linear features that persist to the ITSC, both of which appear to be active fault traces. The eastern segment of Discovery is comprised of one primary fault trace that grades from a relatively narrow (1.5 km) fault zone east of the ITSC into a broad (5 km) nodal basin at the eastern ridge-transform intersection. Previously McGuire [2008] found four distinct groups of repeating Mw 5.5 - 6.0 earthquakes in the region of the Discovery transform fault. The data used were obtained from the global Moment Tensor (CMT) catalog, which has poor location resolution for mid-ocean earthquakes, with errors of up to ~45 km for the events relocated in this study. To compare absolute locations of the repeating events to the high-resolution bathymetric data, it was necessary to perform a relative relocation of the earthquake centroids. We used events from the NOAA hydroacoustic catalog, which have positional accuracies of ~2 km [Fox et al., 2001], to determine accurate absolute locations for the Mw 5.5 - 6.0 events. Initial results show that there are at least 5 distinct rupture patches on Discovery, including the 4 repeating patches found previously, with a mean spacing of 13 km. The repeat time between events in each repeating rupture patch is 5 - 6 years. The relocation technique placed each group within ~7 km of the fault trace. Three of the rupture groups locate on the western segment of Discovery; one on the edge of the lozenge-shaped valley, one in the splay zone, and one near the ITSC. Using the catalog of over 24,000 0≤Mw≤4.6 events recorded during our 2008 ocean bottom seismometer deployment on Discovery, we find that microseismicity on Discovery roughly clusters in the areas between the large-events, suggesting that the frictional properties differ significantly between the large-event rupture patches and the regions of abundant microseismicity.

  16. Borehole strainmeter measurements spanning the 2014, Mw6.0 South Napa Earthquake, California: The effect from instrument calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, John O.

    2015-01-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts-per-billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets of tidally calibrated strains differ by up to 130 ppb from predictions based on a moment tensor derived from seismic data. The large misfit can be attributed to a combination of poor instrument calibration and better modeling of the strain fit from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in-situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain-tides predicted by a model. Although the borehole strainmeter accurately measure the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point-source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 ppb to 18 ppb. This suggests that relying on tidal models to calibrate borehole strainmeters significantly reduces their accuracy.

  17. Borehole strainmeter measurements spanning the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa Earthquake, California: The effect from instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, John

    2015-10-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source, and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts per billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets of tidally calibrated strains differ by up to 130 ppb from predictions based on a moment tensor derived from seismic data. The large misfit can be attributed to a combination of poor instrument calibration and better modeling of the strain field from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain tides predicted by a model. Although the borehole strainmeter accurately measures the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 ppb to 18 ppb. This suggests that relying on tidal models to calibrate borehole strainmeters significantly reduces their accuracy.

  18. The 1999 Mw 6.0 earthquake sequence in the southern Baikal rift, Asia, and its seismotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziminovitch, Natalia; Déverchère, Jacques; Melnikova, Valentina; San'kov, Vladimir; Giljova, Nadezhda

    2005-05-01

    The 1999 February 25 earthquake (Mw= 6.0) is the largest event to have occurred in the Baikal rift system since the 1959 M= 6.8 earthquake. This earthquake sequence took place in the southern basin of Lake Baikal, a region characterized by a sharp transition from strike-slip faulting on the Main Sayan Fault to normal faulting along the border faults of the lake. Thanks to the development of the regional network and a temporal station installed after the main shock, we performed a relocation of the aftershocks to describe the rupture area and to determine fault-plane solutions. We show that the main shock was caused by normal faulting on an intrabasin fault striking northeast and steeply dipping to the northwest. Aftershock hypocentres did not cluster at the same depth but were spread from 5 to 25 km depth. Stress inversion carried out using focal mechanisms of the sequence reveals a radial extensive stress regime with a minimum principal stress axis σ3 (N155°E) slightly oblique to the regional stress field (N139°E), which depicts a stronger intermediate σ2-axis. This behaviour suggests transient stress perturbation induced by the main shock in the neighbouring zones of the rupture. Strain release deduced from GPS data and historical seismicity shows that within the southern tip of the Baikal rift basin, a significant stress release has occurred for at least two centuries, probably through active normal faulting shared among several faults, while the Main Sayan strike-slip fault further west was undergoing interseismic strain accumulation.

  19. Failure of standard antimicrobial therapy in children aged 3-59 months with mild or asymptomatic HIV infection and severe pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Jeena, Prakash; Thea, Donald M.; MacLeod, William B.; Chisaka, Noel; Fox, Matthew P.; Coovadia, H. M.; Qazi, Shamim

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children aged 3-59 months with mild or non-symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and WHO-defined severe pneumonia have a higher failure rate than do HIV-uninfected children when treated with the standard WHO treatment of parenteral penicillin or oral amoxicillin. METHODS: This study was a planned sub-analysis of a randomized trial of 3-59-month-old children presenting with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (the APPIS study). We included two sites with high HIV prevalence in Durban, South Africa and Ndola, Zambia. Primary outcome measures were clinical treatment failure at day 2 and day 14. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: CT00227331http://www.clinicaltrialsgov/show/NCT00227331). FINDINGS: Of the 523 children enrolled, HIV status was known for 464 participants; 106 (23%) of these were infected with HIV. By day 2, 57 (12.3%) children had failed treatment and 110 (23.7%) failed by day 14. Twenty (18.9%) HIV-infected children failed by day 2 compared with 37 (10.3%) uninfected children (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-4.00). Thirty-four (32.1%) HIV-infected children failed treatment by day 14 compared with 76 (21.2%) uninfected children (adjusted OR 1.88; 95% CI: 1.11-3.17). Analysis stratified by age showed that the greatest differential in treatment failure at day 2 and day 14 occurred in the children aged 3-5 months. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected children with severe pneumonia fail WHO-standard treatment with parenteral penicillin or amoxicillin at day 2 and day 14 more often than do HIV-uninfected children, especially young infants. Standard case management of acute respiratory infection (ARI) using WHO treatment guidelines is inadequate in areas of high HIV prevalence and reappraisal of empiric antimicrobial therapy is urgently needed for severe pneumonia associated with HIV-1. PMID:16628299

  20. The interplay of birth weight, dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), and early maternal care in the prediction of disorganized attachment at 36 months of age.

    PubMed

    Wazana, Ashley; Moss, Ellen; Jolicoeur-Martineau, Alexis; Graffi, Justin; Tsabari, Gal; Lecompte, Vanessa; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Babineau, Vanessa; Gordon-Green, Cathryn; Mileva, Viara; Atkinson, Leslie; Minde, Klaus; Bouvette-Turcot, André Anne; Sassi, Roberto; St-André, Martin; Carrey, Normand; Matthews, Stephen; Sokolowski, Marla; Lydon, John; Gaudreau, Helene; Steiner, Meir; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Levitan, Robert; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Disorganized attachment is an important early risk factor for socioemotional problems throughout childhood and into adulthood. Prevailing models of the etiology of disorganized attachment emphasize the role of highly dysfunctional parenting, to the exclusion of complex models examining the interplay of child and parental factors. Decades of research have established that extreme child birth weight may have long-term effects on developmental processes. These effects are typically negative, but this is not always the case. Recent studies have also identified the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) as a moderator of childrearing effects on the development of disorganized attachment. However, there are inconsistent findings concerning which variant of the polymorphism (seven-repeat long-form allele or non-seven-repeat short-form allele) is most likely to interact with caregiving in predicting disorganized versus organized attachment. In this study, we examined possible two- and three-way interactions and child DRD4 polymorphisms and birth weight and maternal caregiving at age 6 months in longitudinally predicting attachment disorganization at 36 months. Our sample is from the Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment project, a sample of 650 mother-child dyads. Birth weight was cross-referenced with normative data to calculate birth weight percentile. Infant DRD4 was obtained with buccal swabs and categorized according to the presence of the putative allele seven repeat. Macroanalytic and microanalytic measures of maternal behavior were extracted from a videotaped session of 20 min of nonfeeding interaction followed by a 10-min divided attention maternal task at 6 months. Attachment was assessed at 36 months using the Strange Situation procedure, and categorized into disorganized attachment and others. The results indicated that a main effect for DRD4 and a two-way interaction of birth weight and 6-month maternal attention (frequency of maternal looking away

  1. Effects of the Cessation of Mass Screening for Neuroblastoma at 6 Months of Age: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ioka, Akiko; Inoue, Masami; Yoneda, Akihiro; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Hara, Junichi; Hashii, Yoshiko; Sakata, Naoki; Yamato, Kazumi; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Kawa, Keisei

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2004, the Japanese government halted the 6-month mass screening program for neuroblastoma. We investigated whether its cessation had led to an increase not only in mortality due to this disease but also in the incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. Methods Study subjects were neuroblastoma patients retrieved from the population-based Osaka Cancer Registry. Trends of incidence and mortality from neuroblastoma were analyzed by calendar year and birth cohort. Prognostic factors, including stage and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog (MYCN) oncogene status, were compared before and after the cessation of mass screening. Results Age-standardized incidence rates in 2005–2009 (the cessation period of mass screening; 11.1 per million) were similar to those in 1975–1979 (the pre-screening period; 8.6 per million). Age-standardized mortality rates tended to decrease from 1975–1979 (4.0 per million) to 2005–2009 (2.7 per million) in parallel with the improvement in survival. Analysis by birth cohort indicated that the mortality rates in 2004–2005 (after cessation) for children 0–4 years of age were lower than those in 1975–1979 (O:E ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.03–0.90). For children 1–9 years of age, there was a not significant difference in the distribution of stage, MYCN oncogene status, and DNA ploidy between 1991–2003 (the mass screening period) and 2004–2008 (after cessation). Conclusions The cessation of mass screening for neuroblastoma does not appear to have increased mortality due to this disease or incidence of advanced-stage disease among older children. PMID:26548355

  2. Understanding and measuring parent use of food to soothe infant and toddler distress: A longitudinal study from 6 to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Moding, Kameron J

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the development of parent use of food to soothe infant distress by examining this feeding practice longitudinally when infants were 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Two measures of feeding to soothe were obtained: parent self-report and observations of food to soothe during each laboratory visit. Demographic and maternal predictors of food to soothe were examined as well as the outcome, infant weight gain. The findings showed that the two measures of food to soothe were unrelated but did reveal similar and unique relations with predictor variables such as parent feeding style and maternal self-efficacy. Only observations of the use of food to soothe were related to infant weight gain. The findings indicate that the two measures of food to soothe may be complementary and that observations of this feeding practice may capture certain relations that are not obtained through the use of self-report.

  3. Regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar

    2012-02-01

    Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants <2000 g from a geographically defined area were randomized to an intervention (71) or a control group (69), and compared with term infants (74). The intervention was a modified version of the "Mother-Infant Transaction Program". Regulatory competence was measured with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and social communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants.

  4. World Health Organization generic protocol to assess drug-resistant HIV among children <18 months of age and newly diagnosed with HIV in resource-limited countries.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolio, Silvia; Penazzato, Martina; Jordan, Michael R; Persaud, Deborah; Mofenson, Lynne M; Bennett, Diane E

    2012-05-01

    Increased use of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in pregnant and breastfeeding women will result in fewer children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, among children infected despite prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), a substantial proportion will acquire NNRTI-resistant HIV, potentially compromising response to NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). In countries scaling up PMTCT and pediatric ART programs, it is crucial to assess the proportion of young children with drug-resistant HIV to improve health outcomes and support national and global decision making on optimal selection of pediatric first-line ART. This article summarizes a new World Health Organization surveillance protocol to assess resistance using remnant dried blood spot specimens from a representative sample of children aged <18 months being tested for early infant diagnosis.

  5. Understanding and measuring parent use of food to soothe infant and toddler distress: A longitudinal study from 6 to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Stifter, Cynthia A; Moding, Kameron J

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the development of parent use of food to soothe infant distress by examining this feeding practice longitudinally when infants were 6, 12 and 18 months of age. Two measures of feeding to soothe were obtained: parent self-report and observations of food to soothe during each laboratory visit. Demographic and maternal predictors of food to soothe were examined as well as the outcome, infant weight gain. The findings showed that the two measures of food to soothe were unrelated but did reveal similar and unique relations with predictor variables such as parent feeding style and maternal self-efficacy. Only observations of the use of food to soothe were related to infant weight gain. The findings indicate that the two measures of food to soothe may be complementary and that observations of this feeding practice may capture certain relations that are not obtained through the use of self-report. PMID:26164121

  6. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age: effect on total hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-06-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS, the admission HRR was 0.53 (95% CI, .34-.84), with an effect of 0.30 (95% CI, .13-.70) for girls and 0.73 (95% CI, .42-1.28) for boys (P = .08, interaction test). The reduction in admissions was separately significant for measles infection (admission HRR, 0 [95% CI, 0-.24]) and respiratory infections (admission HRR, 0.37 [95% CI, .16-.89]). Early measles vaccine may have major benefits for infant morbidity patterns and healthcare costs. Clinical trials registration NCT00168558. PMID:24436454

  7. Role of Breastfeeding and Complementary Food on Hemoglobin and Ferritin Levels in a Cambodian Cross-Sectional Sample of Children Aged 3 to 24 Months

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Jordan, Irmgard; Herrmann, Johannes; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency derives from a low intake of dietary iron, poor absorption of iron, and high requirements due to growth as well as blood loss. An estimated number of about 50% of all anemia may be attributed to iron deficiency among young children in Cambodia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly chosen using stunting as a primary indicator of nutritional status. In total, 928 randomly selected households with children aged 3–23 months were included. Hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and retinol binding protein (RBP) were assessed from capillary blood samples. In addition, length/height and weight of mothers and children were taken and data on dietary diversity was collected. A child feeding index (CFI) was created. Associations between biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status and nutritional status or food intake were explored. Results Anemia prevalence was highest among 6- to 12-months-olds (71%). Ferritin and sTfR inversely correlated and were significantly associated with hemoglobin concentrations. The consumption of animal source foods (ASF) significantly impacts on the interaction between ferritin, sTfR and hemoglobin. Concentrations of RBP were significantly higher in children who had received a vitamin A supplement. The CFI was associated with sTfR and hemoglobin. Lower length and weight were associated with lower ferritin levels and showed an indirect effect on hemoglobin through ferritin. Conclusion Nutrition programs targeting children under 2 years of age need to focus on the preparation of complementary foods with high nutrient density to sustainably prevent micronutrient deficiency and generally improve nutritional status. Future assessments of the micronutrient status should include identification of hemoglobinopathies and parasitic infections to better understand all causes of anemia in Cambodian infants and young

  8. Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Association with Indometacin Therapy and Effects on Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 18-22 months Corrected Age

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Vohr, Betty R.; Saha, Shampa; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Walsh, Michele C.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) is associated with the use of postnatal glucocorticoids and indometacin in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. We hypothesized: 1) an association of SIP with the use of antenatal steroids (ANS) and indometacin either as prophylaxis for IVH (P Indo) or for treatment of PDA (Indo/PDA) and 2) an increased risk of death or abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants with SIP at 18-22 months corrected age. Design/Methods We retrospectively identified ELBW infants with SIP in the Neonatal Research Network’s generic database. Unadjusted analysis identified the differences in maternal, neonatal and clinical variables between infants with and without SIP. Logistic regression analysis identified the adjusted odds ratio for SIP with reference to ANS, P Indo and Indo/PDA. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed among survivors at 18 to 22 months corrected age. Results Indo/PDA was associated with an increased risk of SIP (adjusted OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.25,2.08), while P Indo and ANS were not. SIP was independently associated with an increased risk of death or NDI (adjusted OR−1.85; 95% CI 1.32,2.60) and NDI among survivors (adjusted OR−1.75, 95% CI 1.20,2.55). Conclusion Indometacin used for IVH prophylaxis and ANS were not associated with the occurrence of SIP in ELBW infants. Indometacin used for treatment of symptomatic PDA was however associated with an increased risk of SIP. ELBW infants with SIP have an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:22684157

  9. Digit Sucking Habit and Association with Dental Caries and Oral Hygiene Status of Children Aged 6 Months to 12 Years Resident in Semi-Urban Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Agbaje, Hakeem Olatunde; Oyedele, Titus Ayodeji; Oziegbe, Elizabeth Obhioneh; Onyejaka, Nneka Kate; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Oshomoji, Olusegun Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is a common behavior in childhood. The association between digit sucking, dental caries and oral health has been studied with inconclusive results. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of, and the association between digit sucking, caries and oral hygiene status of children age six months to 12 years, resident in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. Data were collected through a household survey using a multi-stage sampling procedure from children between six months and 12 years. Details of each child’s socio-demographic characteristics, digit sucking habits, caries status and oral health status were collected. The association between digit sucking, caries status and oral hygiene status was determined using Chi square and Logistic regression. Results The mean age of the 992 study participants was 5.8 ± (3.2) years. The prevalence of digit sucking, caries and poor oral hygiene were 7.2%, 10.5% and 2.4% respectively. The mean dmft score was 0.22 ± (0.80), mean DMFT score was 0.04 ± (0.30) while mean Oral Hygiene Index score was 1.27 ± (0.73). Digit sucking increased the odds of having caries (OR: 1.28; CI: 0.58–2.81) but decreased the odds of having poor oral hygiene (OR: 0.58; CI: 0.34–1.01) insignificantly. Conclusions Digit sucking was not a significant predictor of caries and oral hygiene status, although the odds of having caries increased while the odds of having poor oral hygiene decreased with digit sucking. PMID:26890262

  10. Determinants of default to fully completion of immunization among children aged 12 to 23 months in south Ethiopia: unmatched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Asfaw, Abiyot Getachew; Koye, Digsu Negese; Demssie, Amsalu Feleke; Zeleke, Ejigu Gebeye; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Immunization is a cost effective interventions of vaccine preventable disease. There is still, 2.5 million children die by vaccine preventable disease every year in developing countries. In Ethiopia, default to fully completion of child immunization is high and determinants of default to completions are not explored well in the study setting. The aim of the study was to identify determinants of default to fully completion of immunization among children between ages 12 to 23 months in Sodo Zurea District, Southern Ethiopia. Methods Community based unmatched case-control study was conducted. Census was done to identify cases and controls before the actual data collection. A total of 344 samples (172 cases and 172 controls) were selected by simple random sampling technique. Cases were children in the age group of 12 to 23 months old who missed at least one dose from the recommended schedule. Bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinant factors. Odds ratio, 95%CI and p - value less than 0.05 was used to measure the presence and strength of the association. Results Mothers of infants who are unable to read and write (AOR=8.9; 95%CI: 2.4, 33.9) and attended primary school (AOR=4.1; 95% CI:1.4-15.8), mothers who had no postnatal care follow up (AOR=0.4; 95%CI: 0.3, 0.7), good maternal knowledge towards immunization (AOR= 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8) and maternal favorable perception towards uses of health institution for maternal and child care (AOR= 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.6) were significant determinant factors to default to fully completion of immunization. Conclusion Working on maternal education, postnatal care follow up, promoting maternal knowledge and perception about child immunization are recommended measures to mitigate defaults to complete immunization. PMID:27222689

  11. Community vaccine perceptions and its role on vaccination uptake among children aged 12-23 months in the Ileje District, Tanzania: a cross section study

    PubMed Central

    Chambongo, Pai Elia; Nguku, Patrick; Wasswa, Peter; Semali, Innocent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Underutilization of vaccines still remains a challenge in many regions across the world. Ileje district is one of the districts in Tanzania with consistently low pentavalent vaccine uptake (69%) and with drop out of 15%. We determined the vaccination completion with regard to Oral Polio virus, Measles, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, and pentavalent vaccines and its association with community perceptions on vaccines. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in Ileje district from October to December 2013. We sampled 380 mothers using a multistage random sampling technique. We analysed data using EPI INFO. We summarized descriptive variables using mean and standard deviation and categorical variables using proportions. We conducted bivariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify factors influencing vaccination uptake, statistical significance was assessed at 95% confidence interval. Results Mean age of the mothers was 27 years (SD 6.5 years) while that of their children was 16 months (SD 3.6 months). Fully vaccinated children were 71.1% and partially vaccinated were 28.9%, 99.2% were vaccinated with BCG vaccine and 73.4% were vaccinated with all OPV vaccine. Predictors of vaccination completion included negative perception on the vaccine provider-client relationship (AOR 1.86, 95%CI1.03-3.35), Perceived satisfaction with vaccination services (AOR 2.63, 95%CI 1.1 - 6.3). Others include child being born in the health facility (AOR 13.8 95% CI 8.04-25.8) and younger age of a child (AOR 0.51, 95%CI 0.29-0.9). Conclusion Improving quality of vaccination services, promoting health education and sensitizing community on health facility delivery will improve child vaccination completion in the district PMID:27303578

  12. Performance of Motor Sequences in Children at Heightened vs. Low Risk for ASD: A Longitudinal Study from 18 to 36 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Focaroli, Valentina; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Parsons, Shelby M; Keller, Flavio; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-01-01

    Recent research shows that motor difficulties are a prominent component of the behavioral profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are also apparent from early in development in infants who have an older sibling with ASD (High Risk; HR). Delays have been reported for HR infants who do and who do not receive an eventual diagnosis of ASD. A growing body of prospective studies has focused on the emergence of early motor skills primarily during the first year of life. To date, however, relatively little work has examined motor skills in the second and third years. Thus, the present research was designed to investigate motor performance in object transport tasks longitudinally in HR and LR (Low Risk) children between the ages of 18 and 36 months. Participants (15 HR children and 14 LR children) were observed at 18, 24, and 36 months. Children completed two motor tasks, the Ball Task and the Block Task, each of which included two conditions that varied in terms of the precision demands of the goal action. Kinematic data were acquired via two magneto inertial sensors worn on each wrist. In the Block Task, HR children reached more slowly (i.e., mean acceleration was lower) compared to LR children. This finding is in line with growing evidence of early delays in fine motor skills in HR children and suggests that vulnerabilities in motor performance may persist into the preschool years in children at risk for ASD. PMID:27242630

  13. Performance of Motor Sequences in Children at Heightened vs. Low Risk for ASD: A Longitudinal Study from 18 to 36 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Focaroli, Valentina; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Parsons, Shelby M; Keller, Flavio; Iverson, Jana M

    2016-01-01

    Recent research shows that motor difficulties are a prominent component of the behavioral profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are also apparent from early in development in infants who have an older sibling with ASD (High Risk; HR). Delays have been reported for HR infants who do and who do not receive an eventual diagnosis of ASD. A growing body of prospective studies has focused on the emergence of early motor skills primarily during the first year of life. To date, however, relatively little work has examined motor skills in the second and third years. Thus, the present research was designed to investigate motor performance in object transport tasks longitudinally in HR and LR (Low Risk) children between the ages of 18 and 36 months. Participants (15 HR children and 14 LR children) were observed at 18, 24, and 36 months. Children completed two motor tasks, the Ball Task and the Block Task, each of which included two conditions that varied in terms of the precision demands of the goal action. Kinematic data were acquired via two magneto inertial sensors worn on each wrist. In the Block Task, HR children reached more slowly (i.e., mean acceleration was lower) compared to LR children. This finding is in line with growing evidence of early delays in fine motor skills in HR children and suggests that vulnerabilities in motor performance may persist into the preschool years in children at risk for ASD.

  14. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  15. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses.

  16. Performance of Motor Sequences in Children at Heightened vs. Low Risk for ASD: A Longitudinal Study from 18 to 36 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Focaroli, Valentina; Taffoni, Fabrizio; Parsons, Shelby M.; Keller, Flavio; Iverson, Jana M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research shows that motor difficulties are a prominent component of the behavioral profile of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and are also apparent from early in development in infants who have an older sibling with ASD (High Risk; HR). Delays have been reported for HR infants who do and who do not receive an eventual diagnosis of ASD. A growing body of prospective studies has focused on the emergence of early motor skills primarily during the first year of life. To date, however, relatively little work has examined motor skills in the second and third years. Thus, the present research was designed to investigate motor performance in object transport tasks longitudinally in HR and LR (Low Risk) children between the ages of 18 and 36 months. Participants (15 HR children and 14 LR children) were observed at 18, 24, and 36 months. Children completed two motor tasks, the Ball Task and the Block Task, each of which included two conditions that varied in terms of the precision demands of the goal action. Kinematic data were acquired via two magneto inertial sensors worn on each wrist. In the Block Task, HR children reached more slowly (i.e., mean acceleration was lower) compared to LR children. This finding is in line with growing evidence of early delays in fine motor skills in HR children and suggests that vulnerabilities in motor performance may persist into the preschool years in children at risk for ASD. PMID:27242630

  17. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses. PMID:26772449

  18. Offline Performance of the Filter Bank EEW Algorithm in the 2014 M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, M. A.; Heaton, T. H.; Clinton, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Medium size events like the M6.0 South Napa earthquake are very challenging for EEW: the damage such events produce can be severe, but it is generally confined to relatively small zones around the epicenter and the shaking duration is short. This leaves a very short window for timely EEW alerts. Algorithms that wait for several stations to trigger before sending out EEW alerts are typically not fast enough for these kind of events because their blind zone (the zone where strong ground motions start before the warnings arrive) typically covers all or most of the area that experiences strong ground motions. At the same time, single station algorithms are often too unreliable to provide useful alerts. The filter bank EEW algorithm is a new algorithm that is designed to provide maximally accurate and precise earthquake parameter estimates with minimum data input, with the goal of producing reliable EEW alerts when only a very small number of stations have been reached by the p-wave. It combines the strengths of single station and network based algorithms in that it starts parameter estimates as soon as 0.5 seconds of data are available from the first station, but then perpetually incorporates additional data from the same or from any number of other stations. The algorithm analyzes the time dependent frequency content of real time waveforms with a filter bank. It then uses an extensive training data set to find earthquake records from the past that have had similar frequency content at a given time since the p-wave onset. The source parameters of the most similar events are used to parameterize a likelihood function for the source parameters of the ongoing event, which can then be maximized to find the most likely parameter estimates. Our preliminary results show that the filter bank EEW algorithm correctly estimated the magnitude of the South Napa earthquake to be ~M6 with only 1 second worth of data at the nearest station to the epicenter. This estimate is then confirmed when updates based on more data from stations at farther distances become available. Because these early estimates saturate at ~M6.5, however, the magnitude estimate might have had to be considered a minimum bound.

  19. Dynamically Triggered Earthquakes in the Geysers Region following the 2014 M6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X.; Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.; Kilb, D.

    2014-12-01

    The 08/24/2014 M6.0 South Napa earthquake is the largest seismic event to strike the San Francisco Bay Area since the 10/17/1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. The South Napa event caused severe damage near the epicenter. Based on the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) catalog, we find a clear increase of seismicity near the Geysers Geothermal Field following the South Napa event, which is located along its rupture directivity path ~50 km NNW from the hypocenter. Visually inspecting 10 Hz high-pass filtered waveforms at seismic stations near Geysers, we can identify many local earthquakes during the surface waves of the mainshock event that are missing from the NCSN catalog. To obtain a more complete catalog, we apply a recently developed matched filter technique to detect new events within continuous seismic recordings from 74 seismic stations near the Geysers. We use 4000 local earthquakes listed in the NCSN catalog from 06/01/2014 to 09/10/2014 as templates and systematically scan continuous data within ±7 days from the South Napa mainshock. As a result, we detect ~10 times more earthquakes than in the NCSN catalog, and the magnitude of completeness reduces from 0.75 to -0.6. Of the 8091 new events, 28 occurred within the mainshock wavetrain. Depending on the filter used, the first triggered event has an inferred magnitude in the range 3.6-4.0. The intensive seismic activity near the Geysers gradually decays with a p-value of ~0.7 and returns to pre-shock level in about one day. We fit the seismicity rate in the week prior to the South Napa event with the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model and extrapolate to obtain a post-mainshock rate. The observed post-mainshock seismicity rate clearly deviates from the ETAS prediction, which suggests that not all increased seismicity near the Geysers can be explained as aftershocks of the first triggered event. Instead these new events may be associated with stress transients (e.g. creep) or fluid migration. Moreover, the spatial-temporal pattern of the detected events shows possible NW migration, which supports the creep or fluid migration hypothesis. Our next step is to repeat this analysis using events from the more complete Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) catalog as templates to detect additional events. Our updated results will be presented at the meeting.

  20. Rapid Response Products of The ARIA Project for the M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S. H.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Milillo, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Hudnut, K. W.; Dawson, T. E.; Mccrink, T. P.; Jo, M. J.; Barnhart, W. D.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Agram, P. S.; Moore, A. W.; Jung, H. S.; Webb, F.; Milillo, G.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    A magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck southern Napa county northeast of San Francisco, California, on Aug. 24, 2014, causing significant damage in the city of Napa and nearby areas. One day after the earthquake, the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team produced and released observations of coseismic ground displacement measured with continuous GPS stations of the Plate Boundary Observatory (operated by UNAVCO for the National Science Foundation) and the Bay Area Rapid Deformation network (operated by Berkeley Seismological Laboratory). Three days after the earthquake (Aug. 27), the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) satellite acquired their first post-event data. On the same day, the ARIA team, in collaboration with ASI and University of Basilicata, produced and released a coseismic interferogram that revealed ground deformation and surface rupture. The depiction of the surface rupture - discontinuities of color fringes in the CSK interferogram - helped guide field geologists from the US Geological Survey and the California Geological Survey (CGS) to features that may have otherwise gone undetected. Small-scale cracks were found on a runway of the Napa County Airport, as well as bridge damage and damaged roads. ARIA's response to this event highlighted the importance of timeliness for mapping surface deformation features. ARIA's rapid response products were shared through Southern California Earthquake Center's response website and the California Earthquake Clearinghouse. A damage proxy map derived from InSAR coherence of CSK data was produced and distributed on Aug. 27. Field crews from the CGS identified true and false positives, including mobile home damage, newly planted grape vines, and a cripple wall failure of a house. Finite fault slip models constrained from CSK interferograms and continuous GPS observations reveal a north-propagating rupture with well-resolved slip from 0-10.5 km depth. We also measured along-track coseismic displacements of about -30 to 30 cm, along the main surface rupture, using multiple aperture interferometry and SAR pixel offset calculation. We also processed the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1A data on Sep. 3 and compared the result with the CSK interferogram, finding a general agreement between the two observations of surface deformation.

  1. Modeling of the Coseismic Electromagnetic Field Observed during the 28 September 2004, M 6.0 Parkfield Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Harris, J. M.; Wen, J.; Chen, X.; Hu, H.

    2014-12-01

    On 28 September 2004, the M6.0 Parkfield earthquake took place on the San Andreas fault, California. A seismic station which is named PKD and located near the epicenter recorded both of the seismic and electromagnetic (EM) signals during this earthquake. This station is operated by Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and installed with broadband seismometer and EM sensors which are close to each other. Significant seismic signals as well as clear coseismic EM signals were recorded during this earthquake, providing a good opportunity to study the coseismic EM phenomenon. We modeled the coseismic EM signals from the viewpoint of the electrokinetic effect on the basis of Pride's equations. The earthquake source is taken as a finite fault with length of 40 km along the strike direction and width of 15 km along the dip direction. The source parameters that we use for calculation were inverted by Liu et al. [2006, BSSA] by utilizing the seismic data. While in their inversion the earth crust are treated as 7 horizontally-layered elastic solids, in our calculation these solid layers are regarded as porous media. Each porous layer has the same P-velocity, S-velocity and density to its counterpart solid layer. The salinity is set to be 0.1 mol/L for all the layers so that conductivity is uniformly distributed with the value of 0.036 S/m. To evaluate the electric and magnetic responses during the rupturing of the earthquake, we use the algorithm developed by Hu and Gao [2011, JGR] which calculates both the seismic and EM wavefields simultaneously. Since the inversion of source parameters was operated in the frequency band 0.16 Hz-1 Hz, we filter both of the synthetic seismoelectric wavefields and the real data before making comparison between them. Our preliminary result shows that in this frequency range, the amplitude of the simulated coseismic electric field is of the order of 1μV/m, which is the same to the real electric data. This supports the electrokinetic effect to be an effective and reasonable mechanism for the generation of the coseismic electric field.

  2. Factors Associated with Anemia among Children Aged 6-23 Months Attending Growth Monitoring at Tsitsika Health Center, Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woldie, Haile; Kebede, Yigzaw; Tariku, Amare

    2015-01-01

    Background. Globally, about 47.4% of children under five are suffering from anemia. In Ethiopia, 60.9% of children under two years are suffering from anemia. Anemia during infancy and young childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earnings potential in their adulthood life. However, there is scarcity of information showing the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia among young children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing prevalence and associated factors of iron deficiency anemia among children under two (6-23 months). Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March to May, 2014, at Tsitsika Health Center in Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique was employed. Automated hemoglobin machine was used to determine the hemoglobin level. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of association. Results. Total of 347 children participated in this study. The overall prevalence of anemia was 66.6%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, male sex (AOR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.60-5.81)), 9-11 months of age (AOR = 9.6 (95% CI: 3.61-25.47)), poor dietary diversity (AOR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.35-7.38)), stunting (AOR = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.20-6.05)), diarrhea (AOR = 4.9 (1.63-14.59)), no formal education (AOR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.26-5.27)), early initiation of complementary food (AOR = 11.1 (95% CI: 4.08-30.31)), and lowest wealth quintile (AOR = 3.0 (95% CI: 1.01-8.88)) were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of anemia among children who aged 6-23 months has sever public health importance in the study area. Integrated efforts need to be prioritized to improve health as well as appropriate infant and

  3. Neisseria meningitidis Group A IgG1 and IgG2 Subclass Immune Response in African Children Aged 12–23 Months Following Meningococcal Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Holme, Daniel; Findlow, Helen; Sow, Samba O.; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Carlone, George; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT, was licensed in 2010 and was previously studied in a phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate its safety and immunogenicity in African children 12–23 months of age. Methods. Subjects received either PsA-TT; meningococcal group A, C, W, Y polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY); or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib-TT). Forty weeks following primary vaccination, the 3 groups were further randomized to receive either PsA-TT, one-fifth dose of PsACWY, or Hib-TT. Group A–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass response was characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The predominant IgG subclass response, regardless of vaccine, was IgG1. One month following primary vaccination, the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of IgG1 and IgG2 in the PsA-TT group were 21.73 µg/mL and 6.27 µg/mL, whereas in the PsACWY group the mean GMCs were 2.01 µg/mL and 0.97 µg/mL, respectively (P < .0001). Group A–specific IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs remained greater in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group 40 weeks following primary vaccination (P < .0001). One week following revaccination, those given 2 doses of PsA-TT had the greatest IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs of 125.23 µg/mL and 36.12 µg/mL, respectively (P = .0008), and demonstrated a significant increase in IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio, indicative of the T-cell–dependent response associated with conjugate vaccines. Conclusions. Vaccination of African children aged 12–24 months with either PsA-TT or PsACWY elicited a predominantly IgG1 response. The IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio decreased following successive vaccination with PsACWY, indicating a shift toward IgG2, suggestive of the T-cell–independent immune response commonly associated with polysaccharide antigens. Clinical Trials Registration. SRCTN78147026. PMID:26553689

  4. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Hong, Seo-Ah; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Suh, Dong In; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Kim, Bong Sung; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results The median concentration of 25(OH)D in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2). One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations of 25.0-74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1%) showed concentrations of ≥75.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OH)D concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend=0.0004). Conclusion The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively). Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants. PMID:24244212

  5. Substitution of whole cows' milk with defatted milk for 4 months reduced serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB in a sample of Mexican school-age children (6-16 years of age).

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Salvador; Lara Zamudio, Yaveth; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Manzano, Alejandra Contreras; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor

    2015-09-14

    We carried out this study to compare the effect of consuming whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months on serum concentrations of blood indicators of cardiovascular risk (CVR) in Mexican children and adolescents. Children aged between 6 and 16 years living in indigenous boarding schools in Mexico and who were usual consumers of whole milk were recruited to this study. Totally, thirteen boarding schools were randomly selected to receive full supplies of whole, partially defatted and defatted cows' milk for 4 months. Serum total cholesterol (TC), TAG, HDL-cholesterol, apoA and total apoB, and Lp(a) concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Comparisons were made with multi-level mixed-effects linear regression models using the difference in differences approach. Compared with the whole milk group, TC, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total apoB were lower in defatted milk consumers by -0·43, -0·28, -0·16 mmol/l and -0·05 g/l, respectively (all P<0·001). Compared with the whole milk group, the group that consumed partially defatted milk showed a significant decrease in the concentrations of LDL-cholesterol (-0·12, P=0·01), apoA (-0·05 g/l, P=0·01) and total apoB (-0·05 g/l, P=0·001). Defatted milk intake for 4 months reduced some of the serum indicators of CVR.

  6. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  7. Parent behaviors moderate the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behaviors at 18 months corrected age in children born very prematurely.

    PubMed

    Vinall, Jillian; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-09-01

    Children born very preterm (≤ 32 weeks gestation) exhibit greater internalizing (anxious/depressed) behaviors compared to term-born peers as early as 2 years corrected age (CA); however, the role of early stress in the etiology of internalizing problems in preterm children remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship between neonatal pain and internalizing behavior at 18 months CA in children born very preterm and examined whether parent behavior and stress moderated this relationship. Participants were 145 children (96 very preterm, 49 full term) assessed at 18 months CA. Neonatal data were obtained from medical and nursing chart review. Neonatal pain was defined as the number of skin-breaking procedures. Cognitive ability was measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Parents completed the Parenting Stress Index III, Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5, and participated in a videotaped play session with their child, which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scale IV. Very preterm children displayed greater Internalizing behaviors compared to full-term control children (P=.02). Parent Sensitivity and Nonhostility moderated the relationship between neonatal pain and Internalizing behavior (all P<.05); higher parent education (P<.03), lower Parenting Stress (P=.001), and fewer children in the home (P<.01) were associated with lower Internalizing behavior in very preterm children, after adjusting for neonatal medical confounders, gender, and child cognitive ability (all P>.05). Parent Emotional Availability and stress were not associated with Internalizing behaviors in full-term control children. Positive parent interaction and lower stress appears to ameliorate negative effects of neonatal pain on stress-sensitive behaviors in this vulnerable population.

  8. Noninterference of Rotavirus Vaccine With Measles-Rubella Vaccine at 9 Months of Age and Improvements in Antirotavirus Immunity: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, K.; Fleming, Jessica A.; Victor, John C.; Yunus, Mohammad; Bari, Tajul Islam A.; Azim, Tasnim; Rahman, Mustafizur; Mowla, Syed Mohammad Niaz; Bellini, William J.; McNeal, Monica; Icenogle, Joseph P.; Lopman, Ben; Parashar, Umesh; Cortese, Margaret M.; Steele, A. Duncan; Neuzil, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The burden of rotavirus morbidity and mortality is high in children aged <5 years in developing countries, and evaluations indicate waning protection from rotavirus immunization in the second year. An additional dose of rotavirus vaccine may enhance the immune response and lengthen the period of protection against disease, but coadministration of this dose should not interfere with immune responses to concurrently given vaccines. Methods. A total of 480 9-month-old participants from Matlab, Bangladesh, were enrolled in a study with a primary objective to establish noninferiority of concomitant administration of measles-rubella vaccine (MR) and a third dose of human rotavirus vaccine (HRV; MR + HRV), compared with MR given alone. Secondary objectives included noninferiority of rubella antibody seroconversion and evaluating rotavirus IgA/IgG seroresponses in MR + HRV recipients. Results. Two months after vaccination, 75.3% and 74.3% of MR + HRV and MR recipients, respectively, had seroprotective levels of measles virus antibodies; 100.0% and 99.6%, respectively, showed anti–rubella virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroprotection. In the MR + HRV group, antirotavirus immunoglobulin A and IgG seropositivity frequencies before vaccination (52.7% and 66.3%, respectively) increased to 69.6% and 88.3% after vaccination. Conclusions. Vaccine-induced measles and rubella antibody responses are not negatively affected by concomitant administration of HRV. The HRV dose increases antirotavirus serum antibody titers and the proportion of infants with detectable antirotavirus antibody. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01700621. PMID:26823338

  9. An assessment of heat-transfer correlations for turbulent water flow through a pipe at Prandtl numbers of 6.0 and 11.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, J. J.; Yung, D. T.; Panchal, C. B.; Layton, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation assessed the accuracy of existing heat-transfer correlations for turbulent flow of water in smooth tubes at Prandtl numbers (Pr) of 6.0 and 11.6. The best correlations were selected for use in designing ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) heat exchangers. Two shell-and-tube heat exchangers, a plain-tube evaporator and a plain-tube condenser, were tested to obtain data for water at Pr = 6.0 (800 F) and Pr = 11.6 (400 F), respectively. From measured values of the overall heat-transfer coefficients, the water-side coefficients were determined by the Wilson plot method. The results were used as a data base for evaluating seven widely used heat-transfer correlations. Overall, the best correlations were found to be Petukhov-Popov and Sleicher-Rouse, both of which agree within + or - 5% with the experimental data over the entire Reynolds number range. The Dittus-Boelter and Sieder-Tate correlations, popular with heat-transfer engineers, underpredict the data by 5% to 15% and thus are considered too conservative. Predictions from the Kays correlation compare favorably with the data at Pr = 6.0 but are slightly high (nonconservative) at Pr = 11.6. The Eagle Ferguson correlation is acceptable at Pr = 6.0 but a little too conservative at Pr = 11.6.

  10. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6-71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2-40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2-12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7-22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8-26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4-3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1-2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions.

  11. A retrospective study of hearing, speech and language function in children with clefts following palatoplasty and veloplasty procedures at 18-24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Schönweiler, R; Lisson, J A; Schönweiler, B; Eckardt, A; Ptok, M; Tränkmann, J; Hausamen, J E

    1999-11-01

    Many cleft palate teams currently schedule palatoplasty and veloplasty within the child's first year of life. At Hannover Medical School, palatoplasty and veloplasty are performed at approximately 18-24 months of age. It was questioned which speech and language outcome was achieved and whether it may be influenced by: (1) type and extent of the clefts; (2) velopharyngeal inadequacy; and (3) hearing disorders. A retrospective evaluation of data collected from 1985 to 1993 was performed summarizing receptive and expressive speech and language skills of 370 children aged 4.5 years. Cleft types were unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP, 30.0%), bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP, 28.7%), cleft hard and soft palate (CP, 21.6%), cleft soft palate (cleft velum, CV, 10.8%), cleft lip and alveolus (CLA, 5.8%) and submucous clefts (SUB, 3.2%). n = 86 had constant normal hearing, and n = 284 had conductive hearing loss > 20 dB (500-4000 Hz). Severe developmental phonology errors were found in 30-50% of children with repaired cleft palate and in less than 8% of patients with CLA and SUB. Posterior compensatory misarticulation was below 15% in the groups UCLP, BCLP, CP, CV and SUB. Nasal resonance and air emission was nearly normal in CLA, but was increased in 27% to 38% of the other cleft types. Children with conductive hearing loss had significantly more and severely affected phonology, morphology, syntax, vocabulary, language comprehension, and auditory perception than normal hearing children. Findings indicated that speech and language function in CLP patients were predominantly related to the hearing status. PMID:10595666

  12. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M S; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  13. Safety and Efficacy of Gadoxetate Disodium–Enhanced Liver MRI in Pediatric Patients Aged >2 Months to <18 Years—Results of a Retrospective, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Geller, James; Kasahara, Mureo; Martinez, Mercedes; Soresina, Annarosa; Kashanian, Fran; Endrikat, Jan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the safety and efficacy of gadoxetate disodium–enhanced liver MR imaging in pediatric patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Retrospective, multicenter study including pediatric patients aged >2 months to <18 years who underwent contrast-enhanced liver MRI due to focal liver lesions. A single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025 to 0.05 mmol/kg body weight of gadoxetate disodium was administered. Adverse events (AEs) up to 24 hours after injection were recorded and a one-year follow-up was conducted for all serious and unexpected AEs. Efficacy was defined based on the additional diagnostic information obtained from the combined (pre- and postcontrast) image sets as compared with the precontrast image sets by blinded reading. RESULTS A total of 52 patients for safety and 51 patients for efficacy analyses were evaluated. Twenty-two patients (42.3%) reported a total of 51 serious AEs (SAEs) and one AE after one year. No SAE or AE was related to gadoxetate disodium injection. Gadoxetate disodium–related effects on vital signs were not seen. Additional diagnostic information was obtained for 86.3% of patients. The three most improved efficacy variables were lesion-to-background contrast, lesion characterization, and improved border delineation in 78.4%, 76.5%, and 70.6% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSION Gadoxetate disodium in pediatric patients did not raise any clinically significant safety concern. Contrast enhancement provided additional clinically relevant information. PMID:27478381

  14. Antibody Persistence 1–5 Years Following Vaccination With MenAfriVac in African Children Vaccinated at 12–23 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Milagritos D.; Findlow, Helen; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Enwere, Godwin C.; Elie, Cheryl; Parulekar, Varsha; Sow, Samba O.; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Diallo, Fatoumata; Doumbia, Moussa; Akinsola, Adebayo K.; Adegbola, Richard A.; Kampmann, Beate; Chaumont, Julie; Martellet, Lionel; Marchetti, Elisa; Viviani, Simonetta; Tang, Yuxiao; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Marc LaForce, F.; Carlone, George; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. Following mass vaccination campaigns in the African meningitis belt with group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac (PsA-TT), disease due to group A meningococci has nearly disappeared. Antibody persistence in healthy African toddlers was investigated. Methods. African children vaccinated at 12–23 months of age with PsA-TT were followed for evaluation of antibody persistence up to 5 years after primary vaccination. Antibody persistence was evaluated by measuring group A serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) with rabbit complement and by a group A–specific IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Group A antibodies measured by SBA and ELISA were shown to decline in the year following vaccination and plateaued at levels significantly above baseline for up to 5 years following primary vaccination. Conclusions. A single dose of PsA-TT induces long-term sustained levels of group A meningococcal antibodies for up to 5 years after vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRTCN78147026. PMID:26553683

  15. Temporal auditory processing at 17 months of age is associated with preliterate language comprehension and later word reading fluency: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    van Zuijen, Titia L; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A M; Been, Pieter; Maurits, Natasha M; Krikhaar, Evelien; van Driel, Joram; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-10-18

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with auditory processing deficits. We investigate whether temporal auditory processing is compromised in young children at-risk for dyslexia and whether it is associated with later language and reading skills. We recorded EEG from 17 months-old children with or without familial risk for dyslexia to investigate whether their auditory system was able to detect a temporal change in a tone pattern. The children were followed longitudinally and performed an intelligence- and language development test at ages 4 and 4.5 years. Literacy related skills were measured at the beginning of second grade, and word- and pseudo-word reading fluency were measured at the end of second grade. The EEG responses showed that control children could detect the temporal change as indicated by a mismatch response (MMR). The MMR was not observed in at-risk children. Furthermore, the fronto-central MMR amplitude correlated with preliterate language comprehension and with later word reading fluency, but not with phonological awareness. We conclude that temporal auditory processing differentiates young children at risk for dyslexia from controls and is a precursor of preliterate language comprehension and reading fluency. PMID:22981882

  16. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M S; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants. PMID:27190526

  17. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amarpreet; Singh, Karnail; Pannu, M. S.; Singh, Palwinder; Sehgal, Neeraj; Kaur, Rupinderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mother's milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001), bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012), bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005), otitis media (p value = 0.003), and skin diseases (p value = 0.047). Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414), bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705), bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706), meningitis (p value 0.043), and septicemia (p value 0.04). Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants. PMID:27190526

  18. Asymmetrical motor behaviour as a window to early leg preference: a longitudinal study in infants 7-12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Atun-Einy, Osnat

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored leg preference in infancy during half-kneel pulling-to-stand (PTS) and asymmetrical four-point kneeling, which is part of the typical motor repertoire of infants. The special characteristics of the half-kneel PTS as a discrete task, performed in a bilateral context provide the opportunity to explore leg preference during an asymmetrical behaviour. Twenty-seven infants were observed in their homes, every 3 weeks between the ages of 7-12 months. Leg preference was determined by the "lead-out" limb used as the infants pulled to stand from the half-kneeling position (half-kneel PTS). As a complementary measure, the leading leg during asymmetrical four-point kneeling and crawling ("asymmetrical four-point patterns") was used in the 10 infants who developed these patterns. The infants studied showed a general preference for using a leading leg during half-kneel PTS, which was mostly consistent over the study period. A strong correlation was found between leg preferences during half-kneel PTS and asymmetrical four-point patterns. The findings documented functional asymmetry in infant lower limbs during half-kneel PTS and asymmetrical four-point patterns, highlighting the importance of the tasks used to define leg preference.

  19. Temporal auditory processing at 17 months of age is associated with preliterate language comprehension and later word reading fluency: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    van Zuijen, Titia L; Plakas, Anna; Maassen, Ben A M; Been, Pieter; Maurits, Natasha M; Krikhaar, Evelien; van Driel, Joram; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-10-18

    Dyslexia is heritable and associated with auditory processing deficits. We investigate whether temporal auditory processing is compromised in young children at-risk for dyslexia and whether it is associated with later language and reading skills. We recorded EEG from 17 months-old children with or without familial risk for dyslexia to investigate whether their auditory system was able to detect a temporal change in a tone pattern. The children were followed longitudinally and performed an intelligence- and language development test at ages 4 and 4.5 years. Literacy related skills were measured at the beginning of second grade, and word- and pseudo-word reading fluency were measured at the end of second grade. The EEG responses showed that control children could detect the temporal change as indicated by a mismatch response (MMR). The MMR was not observed in at-risk children. Furthermore, the fronto-central MMR amplitude correlated with preliterate language comprehension and with later word reading fluency, but not with phonological awareness. We conclude that temporal auditory processing differentiates young children at risk for dyslexia from controls and is a precursor of preliterate language comprehension and reading fluency.

  20. Cluster Randomized Trial of Community Case Management of Severe Pneumonia with Oral Amoxicillin in Children 2-59 Months of Age in Haripur District, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Bari, Abdul; Sadruddin, Salim; Khan, Attaullah; Khan, Ibad ul Haque; Ullah, Aman; Lehri, Iqbal A.; Macleod, William B.; Fox, Matthew P.; Thea, Donald M; Qazi, Shamim A.

    2013-01-01

    Background First dose oral cotrimoxazole and referral is the recommended treatment for WHO-defined severe pneumonia. Difficulties with referral compliance are reported from many low resource settings resulting in low access to appropriate treatment. Methods In a cluster-randomized equivalence trial in Haripur District, Pakistan 28 clusters were randomized equally to intervention and control clusters. In 14 intervention clusters children 2-59 months of age with severe pneumonia were treated with oral amoxicillin by community-based Lady Health Workers (LHW). In 14 control clusters LHWs gave first dose of oral cotrimoxazole and referred to a health facility for appropriate treatment, which was standard of care. The objective was to determine whether community case-management (CCM) of severe pneumonia by LHW using oral amoxicillin was equivalent to current standard of care. Primary outcome was treatment failure on day 6 of treatment. Participants, care givers, and assessors were not blinded to study therapy. Per-protocol analysis was conducted adjusting for clustering within arms using generalized estimating equations. Findings 1995 children were randomized to intervention and 1477 to control clusters. We analysed 1857 children randomized to intervention and 1354 randomized to control clusters. They were similar in sex, age, and clinical characteristics. Treatment failure was 8·9% (165/1857) in intervention and 17·8% (241/1354) in control clusters. Cluster adjusted failure rates, the primary outcome, were significantly reduced in intervention clusters (risk difference (RD) -8·9%; 95% CI:-12.4% to -5.4%) by day 6. Further adjusting for baseline covariates made little difference (RD: -7·3%, CI: -10·1% to -4·5%). Three deaths occurred, only one in the intervention arm. Two deaths were before day 6, while one occurred between day 6 and 14. Most reduction in risk was in fever and lower chest indrawing on day 3 (RD -6·38%; 95% CI: -8·3% to -4·5%). Age, gender and

  1. Use of MenACWY-CRM vaccine in children aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2013.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jessica R; Rubin, Lorry; McNamara, Lucy; Briere, Elizabeth C; Clark, Thomas A; Cohn, Amanda C

    2014-06-20

    During its October 2013 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of a third meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, Novartis), as an additional option for vaccinating infants aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease. MenACWY-CRM is the first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine licensed for use in children aged 2 through 8 months. MenACWY-D (Menactra, Sanofi Pasteur) is recommended for use in children aged 9 through 23 months who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease, and Hib-MenCY-TT (MenHibrix, GlaxoSmithKline) is recommended for use in children aged 6 weeks through 18 months at increased risk. This report summarizes information on MenACWY-CRM administration in infants and provides recommendations for vaccine use in infants aged 2 through 23 months who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Because the burden of meningococcal disease in infants is low in the United States and the majority of cases that do occur are caused by serogroup B, which is not included in any vaccine licensed in the United States, only those infants who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease are recommended to receive a meningococcal vaccine.

  2. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Niamh; Gibbons, Helena; McNulty, Breige A.; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J.; Nugent, Anne P.

    2015-01-01

    potential negative effects for both short and longer term health. Hence, screening tools, such as NutricheQ described here, offer an opportunity for early identification and subsequent appropriate timely intervention from 12 months of age. This paper describes the development and validation of NutricheQ, a short user-friendly questionnaire. Designed to be administered by parents or carers, it aims to help healthcare professionals identify children at risk based on known, evidence-based nutritional risk factors. It is hoped in the longer term that this tool can be adapted for use globally and improve child health through early identification, which can be followed up by targeted, cost-effective interventions. PMID:26058751

  3. The association between the ratio of monocytes:lymphocytes at agemonths and risk of tuberculosis (TB) in the first two years of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent transcriptomic studies revived a hypothesis suggested by historical studies in rabbits that the ratio of peripheral blood monocytes to lymphocytes (ML) is associated with risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease. Recent data confirmed the hypothesis in cattle and in adults infected with HIV. Methods We tested this hypothesis in 1,336 infants (540 HIV-infected, 796 HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU)) prospectively followed in a randomized controlled trial of isoniazid prophylaxis in Southern Africa, the IMPAACT P1041 study. We modeled the relationship between ML ratio at enrollment (91 to 120 days after birth) and TB disease or death in HIV-infected children and latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, TB disease or death in HEU children within 96 weeks (with 12 week window) of randomization. Infants were followed-up prospectively and routinely assessed for MTB exposure and outcomes. Cox proportional hazards models allowing for non-linear associations were used; in all cases linear models were the most parsimonious. Results Increasing ML ratio at baseline was significantly associated with TB disease/death within two years (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.17 per unit increase in ML ratio; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 1.34; P = 0.03). Neither monocyte count nor lymphocyte counts alone were associated with TB disease. The association was not statistically dissimilar between HIV infected and HEU children. Baseline ML ratio was associated with composite endpoints of TB disease and death and/or TB infection. It was strongest when restricted to probable and definite TB disease (HR 1.50; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.89; P = 0.006). Therefore, per 0.1 unit increase in the ML ratio at three to four months of age, the hazard of probable or definite TB disease before two years was increased by roughly 4% (95% CI 1.7% to 6.6%). Conclusion Elevated ML ratio at three- to four-months old is associated with increased hazards of TB disease before two years among

  4. Validity of the ages and stages questionnaires in Korean compared to Bayley Scales of infant development-II for screening preterm infants at corrected age of 18-24 months for neurodevelopmental delay.

    PubMed

    Kwun, Yoojin; Park, Hye Won; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Byong Sop; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the ages and stages questionnaire in Korean (ASQ 1st edition, Korean Questionnaires, Seoul Community Rehabilitation Center, 2000) for premature infants. The study population consisted of 90 premature infants born between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, who were tested using the ASQ (Korean) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) (II) at a corrected age of 18-24 months. The validity of the ASQ (Korean) using cut-off values set at < -2 SD was examined by comparing it to the BSID (II) components, namely, the mental developmental index (MDI) or psychomotor developmental index (PDI), which were both set at < 85. The calculation of the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the ASQ (Korean) components revealed that they detected infants with neurodevelopmental delay with low sensitivity and positive predictive values, however, the communication domain showed moderate correlations with MDI. The failure in more than one domain of the ASQ (Korean) was significantly correlated with the failure in MDI. The ASQ (Korean) showed low validity for screening neurodevelopmentally delayed premature infants. PMID:25829813

  5. Validity of the ages and stages questionnaires in Korean compared to Bayley Scales of infant development-II for screening preterm infants at corrected age of 18-24 months for neurodevelopmental delay.

    PubMed

    Kwun, Yoojin; Park, Hye Won; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Byong Sop; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the ages and stages questionnaire in Korean (ASQ 1st edition, Korean Questionnaires, Seoul Community Rehabilitation Center, 2000) for premature infants. The study population consisted of 90 premature infants born between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, who were tested using the ASQ (Korean) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) (II) at a corrected age of 18-24 months. The validity of the ASQ (Korean) using cut-off values set at < -2 SD was examined by comparing it to the BSID (II) components, namely, the mental developmental index (MDI) or psychomotor developmental index (PDI), which were both set at < 85. The calculation of the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the ASQ (Korean) components revealed that they detected infants with neurodevelopmental delay with low sensitivity and positive predictive values, however, the communication domain showed moderate correlations with MDI. The failure in more than one domain of the ASQ (Korean) was significantly correlated with the failure in MDI. The ASQ (Korean) showed low validity for screening neurodevelopmentally delayed premature infants.

  6. How different are baby-led weaning and conventional complementary feeding? A cross-sectional study of infants aged 6–8 months

    PubMed Central

    Morison, Brittany J; Taylor, Rachael W; Haszard, Jillian J; Schramm, Claire J; Williams Erickson, Liz; Fangupo, Louise J; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Luciano, Ashley; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the food, nutrient and ‘family meal’ intakes of infants following baby-led weaning (BLW) with those of infants following a more traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) approach to complementary feeding. Study design and participants Cross-sectional study of dietary intake and feeding behaviours in 51 age-matched and sex-matched infants (n=25 BLW, 26 TSF) 6–8 months of age. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire, and weighed diet records (WDRs) on 1–3 non-consecutive days, to investigate food and nutrient intakes, the extent to which infants were self-fed or parent-fed, and infant involvement in ‘family meals’. Results BLW infants were more likely than TSF infants to have fed themselves all or most of their food when starting complementary feeding (67% vs 8%, p<0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the large number of infants consuming foods thought to pose a choking risk during the WDR (78% vs 58%, p=0.172), the CI was wide, so we cannot rule out increased odds with BLW (OR, 95% CI: 2.57, 0.63 to 10.44). No difference was observed in energy intake, but BLW infants appeared to consume more total (48% vs 42% energy, p<0.001) and saturated (22% vs 18% energy, p<0.001) fat, and less iron (1.6 vs 3.6 mg, p<0.001), zinc (3.0 vs 3.7 mg, p=0.001) and vitamin B12 (0.2 vs 0.5 μg, p<0.001) than TSF infants. BLW infants were more likely to eat with their family at lunch and at the evening meal (both p≤0.020). Conclusions Infants following BLW had similar energy intakes to those following TSF and were eating family meals more regularly, but appeared to have higher intakes of fat and saturated fat, and lower intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A high proportion of both groups were offered foods thought to pose a choking risk. PMID:27154478

  7. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6–71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2–40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2–12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7–22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8–26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2–2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4–3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1–2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions. PMID:26445270

  8. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency.

  9. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice.

  10. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    McAullay, Daniel; Strobel, Natalie A.; Marriott, Rhonda; Atkinson, David N.; Marley, Julia V.; Stanley, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months) have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants. Methods Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA). Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD]) on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation. Findings There were 3,382 (5.4%) Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6%) non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77–2.04, p = <0.001) and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98–2.33, p = <0.001) compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0%) of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88–2.39). The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1) infants in the total cohort (35.7%) was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5) infants (30.6%) (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.13, p = 0.356). Interpretation WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live. PMID:27120331

  11. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile.

  12. Effect of cross breeding and amount of finishing diet on growth parameters, carcass and meat composition of foals slaughtered at 15 months of age.

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniel; Crecente, Santiago; Vázquez, José Antonio; Gómez, María; Lorenzo, José M

    2013-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effects of cross breeding (GM: Galician Mountain; HB×GM: Hispano-Breton×Galician Mountain crossing) and finishing feed (1.5 kg vs. 3.0 kg of commercial feed in the finishing period) on growth, performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 15 months of age. For this study, twenty one foals of GM and HB×GM crossbred were used. Results obtained for the current study suggest an interesting potential for meat production, because the introduction of HB×GM stallions allows an advantage compared with the Galician breed, because they had better carcass weight, better conformation and the best carcass ratios. Other morphometric measurements related to the leg were also higher in HB×GM crossbred. On the other hand, the finishing diet had also significant influence in commercial cuts both in the front and hind quarter. A finishing diet with 3 kg of commercial feed increased carcass fat level. Regarding meat quality, genotype did not affect any physical-chemical trait, while finishing foals with 3 kg of fodder quadrupled intramuscular fat value and provided meat with a higher luminosity (35.9 vs. 38.2, P<0.05, for 1.5 and 3 kg concentrate/day, respectively). However, this increase in intramuscular fat was not correlated with improvements in meat textural parameters because they were not influenced (P>0.05) by either of the two effects studied. Nutritive profiles (both fatty and amino acids composition) were not influenced by genotype (P>0.05) whereas finishing effect modified almost all fatty acid finding.

  13. Improving the intake of nutritious food in children aged 6-23 months in Wuyi County, China – a multi-method approach

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiong; van Velthoven, Michelle H.M.M.T.; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Diana; Saftić, Vanja; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Ye; Scherpbier, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To develop affordable, appropriate, and nutritious recipes based on local food resources and dietary practices that have the potential to improve infant feeding practices. Methods We carried out a mixed methods study following the World Health Organization’s evaluation guidelines on the promotion of child feeding. We recruited caregivers with children aged 6-23 months in Wuyi County, Hebei Province, China. The study included a 24-hour dietary recall survey, local food market survey, and development of a key local food list, food combinations, and recipes. Mothers tested selected recipes at their homes for two weeks. We interviewed mothers to obtain their perceptions on the recipes. Results The 24-hour dietary recall survey included 110 mothers. Dietary diversity was poor; approximately 10% of children consumed meat and only 2% consumed vitamin A-rich vegetables. The main reason for not giving meat was the mothers’ belief that their children could not chew and digest meat. With the help of mothers, we developed six improved nutritious recipes with locally available and affordable foods. Overall, mothers liked the recipes and were willing to continue using them. Conclusions This is the first study using a systematic evidence-based method to develop infant complementary recipes that can address complementary feeding problems in China. We developed recipes based on local foods and preparation practices and identified the barriers that mothers faced toward feeding their children with nutritious food. To improve nutrition practices, it is important to both give mothers correct feeding knowledge and assist them in cooking nutritious foods for their children based on locally available products. Further research is needed to assess long-term effects of those recipes on the nutritional status of children. PMID:23630143

  14. Body composition, physical work capacity and physical activity habits at 18-month follow-up of middle-aged women participating in an exercise intervention program.

    PubMed

    MacKeen, P C; Franklin, B A; Nicholas, W C; Buskirk, E R

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-six sedentary women (29-47 yr) participated in a 12-week, 4-d/week physical conditioning program (CP) involving 15-25 min/d of walking/jogging at a heart rate corresponding to 75 percent of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Twenty-three were classified obese (O, greater than 30 percent body fat, mean = 38 percent) and 13 normal (N, less than 30 percent body fat, mean = 25 percent). Significant post-CP changes included increased VO2max and decreased body fat. At 18 months post-CP a volunteer subgroup of the original 36 subjects (Ss) were re-evaluated, 19 being hydrostatically weighed, 21 exercise-tested and 28 interviewed to assess physical activity over the preceding eight quarterly periods. At CP termination 80 percent of N and 78 percent of O had intended to continue jogging, but by follow-up only 40 percent of N and 33 percent of O were so engaged, none at CP frequency, many at reduced duration and intensity. There was no significant difference between follow-up and pre-CP mean h/week of jogging for the entire follow-up group, even though eight of them (28 percent) increased their jogging over pre-CP levels. Follow-up VO2max and percent body fat means were also not significantly different from pre-CP values. It is suggested that the majority of middle-aged women participating in supervised walk-jog conditioning interventions may regress to pre-program physiologic status when left to exercise ad libitum.

  15. A Randomized Trial of an Early Measles Vaccine at 4½ Months of Age in Guinea-Bissau: Sex-Differential Immunological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Andreas; Sartono, Erliyani; Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ullum, Henrik; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine Stabell; Erikstrup, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background After measles vaccine (MV), all-cause mortality is reduced more than can be explained by the prevention of measles, especially in females. Objective We aimed to study the biological mechanisms underlying the observed non-specific and sex-differential effects of MV on mortality. Methods Within a large randomised trial of MV at 4.5 months of age blood samples were obtained before and six weeks after randomisation to early MV or no early MV. We measured concentrations of cytokines and soluble receptors from plasma (interleukin-1 receptor agonist (IL-1Ra), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor), and secreted cytokines (interferon-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17) after in vitro challenge with innate agonists and recall antigens. We analysed the effect of MV in multiple imputation regression, overall and stratified by sex. The majority of the infants had previously been enrolled in a randomised trial of neonatal vitamin A. Post hoc we explored the potential effect modification by neonatal vitamin A. Results Overall, MV versus no MV was associated with higher plasma MCP-1 levels, but the effect was only significant among females. Additionally, MV was associated with increased plasma IL-1Ra. MV had significantly positive effects on plasma IL-1Ra and IL-8 levels in females, but not in males. These effects were strongest in vitamin A supplemented infants. Vitamin A shifted the effect of MV in a pro-inflammatory direction. Conclusions In this explorative study we found indications of sex-differential effects of MV on several of the plasma biomarkers investigated; in particular MV increased levels in females, most strongly in vitamin A recipients. The findings support that sex and micronutrient supplementation should be taken into account when analysing vaccine effects. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov number NCT 00168545 PMID:24835247

  16. The effect of livestock production system and concentrate level on carcass traits and meat quality of foals slaughtered at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J M; Crecente, S; Franco, D; Sarriés, M V; Gómez, M

    2014-03-01

    This trial was conducted to study the effect of livestock production system (freedom extensive system (FES) v. semi extensive system (SES)) and amount of finishing feed (1.5 v. 3.0 kg of commercial feed) in SES on carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of meat foal slaughtered at 18 months of age. For this study, a total of 49 foals (21 from FES and 28 from SES) were used. The obtained results showed that SES had a positive influence on carcass characteristic because these foals showed the best values for live weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, perimeter of leg (PL) and carcass compactness index. On the other hand, finishing feeding also had a significant (P<0.05) effect on PL and lean thickness, as the highest values were obtained in foals finished with 3 kg of commercial fodder. The physico-chemical properties were significantly affected by the livestock production system with the exception of ashes content (P>0.05). Foals finished in SES increased in 408% the intramuscular fat content (0.23 v. 1.17%, for foals reared in FES and SES, respectively). On the other hand, L*-value and a*-value were significantly (P<0.01) affected by livestock production system, as foals from the FES group had a more intense redder color (higher CIE a*-value) and higher lightness (higher CIE L*-value) compared with those from the SES group. Finally, meat nutritional value was significantly affected by livestock production system, as foals from an extensive production system on wood pasture could be considered as healthier in relation to their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio) as a result of the beneficial grass intake on meat fatty acid profile. PMID:24398030

  17. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

  18. The Rule of Dynamic Strain to Near Source Aftershock Distribution of the 2014, Mw 6.0, Napa (California) Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emolo, A.; De Matteis, R.; Convertito, V.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 Napa was recognized as a right-lateral strike-slip fault. About 400 aftershocks occurred, mainly in the near-source range, in the two months after the earthquake. They mostly occurred between 8 and 11 km depth interesting an area of about 10 km2 north-northwest-trending with respect to the mainshock hypocenter. However, the aftershock distribution was not able to constrain the mainshock fault plane. Since Parsons et al. (2014) have shown that Coulomb static stress change does not completely explain near-source aftershock distribution, we explore whether dynamic strain transfer, enhanced by source directivity, contributed to trigger the aftershock sequence. Indeed, dynamic strain transfer triggering attributes enhanced failure probabilities to increased shear stresses or strains, to permeability changes and maybe to fault weakening. In this respect, we observe that a single inverse power law fits the decay of aftershock density as function of distance from the fault plane, suggesting that dynamic stress/strain might have played a role in the aftershocks triggering. To test this hypothesis, we used Peak-Ground Velocities (PGVs) as a proxy for peak-dynamic strain/stress field, accounting for both fault finiteness and source directivity. We first use a point source to retrieve the best parameters of the directivity function from the inversion of the PGVs. Next, the same PGVs are used to jointly infer the surface fault projection and the dominant horizontal rupture direction. Finally, we map the peak-dynamic strain/stress, modified by source geometry and directivity, to resolve the relationship between the aftershocks location and the areas of large dynamic strain values. Thus, we believe that dynamic strain/stress actually contributed to the Napa aftershock distribution. Our results may help to better constrain the Napa causative fault and complement Coulomb static stress change to identify areas that will be more likely affected by aftershocks.

  19. Efficacy of baby-CIMT: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on infants below age 12 months, with clinical signs of unilateral CP

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants with unilateral brain lesions are at high risk of developing unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Given the great plasticity of the young brain, possible interventions for infants at risk of unilateral CP deserve exploration. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) is known to be effective for older children with unilateral CP but is not systematically used for infants. The development of CIMT for infants (baby-CIMT) is described here, as is the methodology of an RCT comparing the effects on manual ability development of baby-CIMT versus baby-massage. The main hypothesis is that infants receiving baby-CIMT will develop manual ability in the involved hand faster than will infants receiving baby-massage in the first year of life. Method and design The study will be a randomised, controlled, prospective parallel-group trial. Invited infants will be to be randomised to either the baby-CIMT or the baby-massage group if they: 1) are at risk of developing unilateral CP due to a known neonatal event affecting the brain or 2) have been referred to Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital due to asymmetric hand function. The inclusion criteria are age 3–8 months and established asymmetric hand use. Infants in both groups will receive two 6-weeks training periods separated by a 6-week pause, for 12 weeks in total of treatment. The primary outcome measure will be the new Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) for evaluating manual ability. In addition, the Parenting Sense of Competence scale and Alberta Infant Motor Scale will be used. Clinical neuroimaging will be utilized to characterise the brain lesion type. To compare outcomes between treatment groups generalised linear models will be used. Discussion The model of early intensive intervention for hand function, baby-CIMT evaluated by the Hand Assessment for Infants (HAI) will have the potential to significantly increase our understanding of how early intervention of upper limb function in infants at risk of

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules.

  1. What Happens When the School Year Is Over? The Use and Costs of Child Care for School-Age Children during the Summer Months. Occasional Paper. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Program To Assess Changing Social Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capizzano, Jeffrey; Adelman, Sarah; Stagner, Matthew

    This study examined child care patterns during the summer months among 6- to 12-year-old children with employed parents or primary caretakers. Using interview data from the 1999 National Survey of Americas Families, the study analyzed two key aspects of summer child care: the types of arrangements for school-age children and the amount families…

  2. Effect of Age at Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation on Catch-Up Growth within the First 24 Months among HIV-Infected Children in the IeDEA West African Pediatric Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jesson, Julie; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Diagne, Ndeye R.; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Kouéta, Fla; Aka, Addi; Lawson-Evi, Koko; Dicko, Fatoumata; Kouakou, Kouadio; Pety, Touré; Renner, Lorna; Eboua, Tanoh; Coffie, Patrick A.; Desmonde, Sophie; Leroy, Valériane

    2015-01-01

    Background We described malnutrition and the effect of age at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on catch-up growth over 24 months among HIV-infected children enrolled in the IeDEA West African paediatric cohort (pWADA). Methods Malnutrition was defined at ART initiation (baseline) by a Z-score <-2 SD, according to three anthropometric indicators: Weight-for-age (WAZ) for underweight, Height-for-age (HAZ) for stunting, and Weight-for-Height/BMI-for-age (WHZ/BAZ) for wasting. Kaplan-Meier estimates for catch-up growth (Z-score ≥-2 SD) on ART, adjusted for gender, immunodeficiency and malnutrition at ART initiation, ART regimen, time period and country, were compared by age at ART initiation. Cox proportional hazards regression models determined predictors of catch-up growth on ART over 24 months. Results Between 2001 and 2012, 2004 HIV-infected children < 10 years of age were included. At ART initiation, 51% were underweight, 48% were stunted and 33% were wasted. The 24-month adjusted estimates for catch-up growth were 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 57;80), 61% (95%CI: 47;70), and 90% (95%CI: 76;95) for WAZ, HAZ, and WHZ/BAZ, respectively. Adjusted catch-up growth was more likely for children <5 years of age at ART initiation compared to children ≥5 years for WAZ, HAZ (P<0.001), and for WHZ/BAZ (P = 0.026). Conclusions Malnutrition among these children is an additional burden that has to be urgently managed. Despite a significant growth improvement after 24 months on ART, especially in children <5 years, a substantial proportion of children still never achieved catch-up growth. Nutritional care should be part of the global healthcare of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25955835

  3. REO Monthly

    2010-12-31

    A spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that evaluates combinations of renewable energy technologies at a site and identifies the combination that minimizes life cycle cost. Constraints on the optimization such as percent of energy from renewable, available land area; available investment capital, etc make the optimization more useful. Inputs to the model include building location, number of square feet and floors; monthly energy use and cost for electric and any other fuels. Outputs include sizemore » of each RE technology total investment, utility costs, O&M costs; percent renewable; life cycle cost; rate of return; CO2 savings.« less

  4. A physical model for the precursory magnetic anomalies of the M5.4 Alum Rock and M6.0 Parkfield earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dologlou, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    Here, we propose an alternative physical model, based on the concept of criticality, for the explanation of the observed magnetic signals prior to the M6.0 Parkfield and the M5.4 Alum Rock earthquakes. Motivated by an analogous experience from major earthquakes in Greece, where both magnetic field variations and seismic electric signals were also recorded few weeks before the main shock, we suggest that in all these cases, similar dynamic processes characterized by critical behaviour should govern the corresponding pre-focal areas when the relevant precursory signals emerged.

  5. Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6-59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Harvey-Leeson, Sarah; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Hawes, Meaghan; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Bahizire, Esto; Akilimali, Pierre Z; Michaux, Kristina D; Lynd, Larry D; Whitfield, Kyly C; Moursi, Mourad; Boy, Erick; Foley, Jennifer; McLean, Judy; Houghton, Lisa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Green, Tim J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK) and Kongo Central (KC). We determined hemoglobin (Hb), serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC), children 6-23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC), and children 24-59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC), respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC), children 6-23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC), and children 24-59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC). Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP) deficiencies were all very low (<5%); RBP was 10% in children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC), children 6-23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC), and children 24-59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC). The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention.

  6. Anemia and Micronutrient Status of Women of Childbearing Age and Children 6–59 Months in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Harvey-Leeson, Sarah; Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Hawes, Meaghan; Tugirimana, Pierrot L.; Bahizire, Esto; Akilimali, Pierre Z.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Lynd, Larry D.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Moursi, Mourad; Boy, Erick; Foley, Jennifer; McLean, Judy; Houghton, Lisa A.; Gibson, Rosalind S.; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the micronutrient status of women and children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which is critical for the design of effective nutrition interventions. We recruited 744 mother-child pairs from South Kivu (SK) and Kongo Central (KC). We determined hemoglobin (Hb), serum zinc, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), retinol binding protein (RBP), C-reactive protein, and α-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations. Anemia prevalence was determined using Hb adjusted for altitude alone and Hb adjusted for both altitude and ethnicity. Anemia prevalence was lower after Hb adjustment for altitude and ethnicity, compared to only altitude, among women (6% vs. 17% in SK; 10% vs. 32% in KC), children 6–23 months (26% vs. 59% in SK; 25% vs. 42% in KC), and children 24–59 months (14% vs. 35% in SK; 23% vs. 44% in KC), respectively. Iron deficiency was seemingly higher with sTfR as compared to inflammation-adjusted ferritin among women (18% vs. 4% in SK; 21% vs. 5% in KC), children 6–23 months (51% vs. 14% in SK; 74% vs. 10% in KC), and children 24–59 months (23% vs. 4% in SK; 58% vs. 1% in KC). Regardless of indicator, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) never exceeded 3% in women. In children, IDA reached almost 20% when sTfR was used but was only 10% with ferritin. Folate, B12, and vitamin A (RBP) deficiencies were all very low (<5%); RBP was 10% in children. The prevalence of anemia was unexpectedly low. Inflammation-adjusted zinc deficiency was high among women (52% in SK; 58% in KC), children 6–23 months (23% in SK; 20% in KC), and children 24–59 months (25% in SK; 27% in KC). The rate of biochemical zinc deficiency among Congolese women and children requires attention. PMID:26901219

  7. Effects of an 8-Month Ashtanga-Based Yoga Intervention on Bone Metabolism in Middle-Aged Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SoJung; Bemben, Michael G.; Knehans, Allen W.; Bemben, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    Although Yoga has the potential to be an alternative physical activity to enhance bone health, there is a lack of high quality evidence for this type of intervention. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of a progressive 8-month Ashtanga-based Yoga program on bone turnover markers (BTM), areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone characteristics in premenopausal women. Thirty-four premenopausal women (35-50 years) were randomly assigned either to a Yoga group (YE, n = 16) or a control group (CON, n = 18). Participants in YE group performed 60 minutes of an Ashtanga-based Yoga series 2 times/week with one day between sessions for 8 months, and the session intensity was progressively increased by adding the number of sun salutations (SS). Participants in CON were encouraged to maintain their normal daily lifestyles monitored by the bone specific physical activity questionnaire (BPAQ) at 2 month intervals for 8 months. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase, Bone ALP) and bone resorption (Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase-5b, TRAP5b) markers were assessed at baseline and after 8 months. aBMD of total body, lumbar spine and dual proximal femur and tibia bone characteristics were measured using DXA and peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT), respectively. We found that the serum Bone ALP concentrations were maintained in YE, but significantly (p = 0.005) decreased in CON after the 8 month intervention, and there were significant (p = 0.002) group differences in Bone ALP percent changes (YE 9.1 ± 4.0% vs. CON -7.1 ± 2.3%). No changes in TRAP5b were found in either group. The 8-month Yoga program did not increase aBMD or tibia bone strength variables. Body composition results showed no changes in weight, fat mass, or % fat, but small significant increases in bone free lean body mass occurred in both groups. The findings of this study

  8. Inviscid Flow Computations of the Orbital Sciences X-34 Over a Mach Number Range of 1.25 to 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the results of an inviscid computational study conducted on the Orbital Sciences X-34 vehicle to compute its inviscid longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics over a Mach number range of 1.25 to 6.0. The unstructured grid software FELISA was used and th e aerodynamic characteristics were computed at Mach numbers 1.25, 1.6, 2.5, 4.0, 4.63, and 6.0, and an angle of attack range of -4 to 32 degrees. These results were compared with available aerodynamic data from wind tunnel test on X-34 models. The comparison showed excellent agreement in C(sub N). The computed pitching moment compared well at Mach numbers 2.5 and higher, and at angles of attack of up to 12 deg. The agreement was not good at higher angles of attack possibly due to viscous effects. At lower Mach numbers there were significant differences between computed and measured C(sub m) values. This could not be explained. Since the present computations are inviscid, the computed C(sub A) was consistently lower than the measured values as expected.

  9. Bimanual Behaviours in Children Aged 8-18 Months: A Literature Review to Select Toys that Elicit the Use of Two Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Susan; Imms, Christine; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Dodd, Karen; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2012-01-01

    Toys that provoke the use of both hands are required to develop a test of bimanual performance in children 8-18 months with unilateral cerebral palsy (Mini-AHA). To choose the toys, a conceptual model based on perception-action theory and object use was used to guide a literature review. Evidence was sought for three critical relationships…

  10. Child-Directed Teaching and Social Learning at 18 Months of Age: Evidence from Yucatec Mayan and US Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneidman, Laura; Gaskins, Suzanne; Woodward, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    In several previous studies, 18-month-old infants who were directly addressed demonstrated more robust imitative behaviors than infants who simply observed another's actions, leading theorists to suggest that child-directed interactions carried unique informational value. However, these data came exclusively from cultural communities where direct…

  11. Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) Screening at 18 Months of Age Predicts Concurrent Understanding of Desires, Word Learning and Expressive Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kristyn; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2012-01-01

    The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) is a 23-item questionnaire used in primary screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The current studies examine the concurrent validity of the M-CHAT in its ability to predict 18-month-olds' performance on theory of mind and word learning tasks. In Experiment 1, infants' understanding of…

  12. The Effect of a Maternal Double Megadose of Vitamin A Supplement on Serum Levels of Retinol in Children Aged under Six Months

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Carmina Silva; Kruze, Ilma; Fernandes, Taciana; Andreto, Luciana Marques; Figueiroa, José Natal; Diniz, Alcides da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To measure concentrations of serum retinol in children after the use of maternal vitamin A double megadose supplements. Design. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting. The study was conducted at two maternity hospitals in the city of Recife, in the northeast region of Brazil between August 2007 and June 2009. Subjects and Methods. 276 children/mothers were recruited after birth and the women received a 200,000 IU capsule of vitamin A. After ten days they were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group received a second 200.000 IU capsule, while the other received a placebo. The concentrations of retinol in the serum of the children from each group were measured at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results. 173 children completed the study. There was no difference between the two treatment groups (P = 0.514). The mean base retinol level was lower than that at four and six months (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The maternal double megadose supplement had no additional effect on the serum retinol levels of the children, although concentrations of retinol in the children rose in the first six months of life. This trial is registered with NCT00742937. PMID:24455219

  13. The impact of prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and maternal mood on mother-infant interactions at 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Mayes, Linda C; Grunau, Ruth E; Brain, Ursula; Oberlander, Tim F

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to maternal depression increases risks for altered mother-infant interactions. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants are increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal maternal illness. The impact of SRIs on early mother-infant interactions was unknown. Three-month-old infants of 32 depressed mothers treated with SRI medications during pregnancy and 43 non-medicated mothers were studied. Using an established face-to-face mother-infant interaction paradigm, dyad interactions were studied with and without a toy. Videotaped sessions yielded 4 measures: maternal sensitivity, dyadic organization, infant readiness to interact, and maternal interruptive behaviors. Even with prenatal SRI treatment, depressed mothers interrupted their infants more during toy play. In the absence of prenatal SRI treatment, maternal postnatal depression adversely influenced infant behavior. Higher levels of maternal depression symptoms at 3 months predicted poorer infant readiness to interact during the toy session. Conversely, in the SRI-exposed group, higher prenatal depression scores predicted greater infant readiness to interact at 3 months. Increased infant readiness with SRI exposure suggests a "fetal programming effect" whereby prenatal maternal mood disturbances shaped a future response to a postnatal depressed maternal environment. PMID:23728194

  14. Birth month affects longevity.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2010-09-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and player position. The authors determined that the most likely explanation is that those born during seasons when mortalities are highest are constitutionally weakened and more likely to succumb to life threatening conditions later in life. PMID:24482849

  15. Birth month affects longevity.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2010-09-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and player position. The authors determined that the most likely explanation is that those born during seasons when mortalities are highest are constitutionally weakened and more likely to succumb to life threatening conditions later in life.

  16. Elevated blood levels of inflammation-related proteins are associated with an attention problem at age 24 months in extremely preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, T. Michael; Joseph, Robert M.; Kuban, Karl C.K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Ware, Janice; Coster, Taryn; Fichorova, Raina N.; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm birth is associated with subsequent behavioral problems. We hypothesized that perinatal systemic inflammation, a risk factor for cerebral white matter injury and cognitive impairment, is associated with behavior problems observed at 2 years. Methods In a cohort of 600 children born before 28 weeks gestation, we measured 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood collected on postnatal days 1, 7, and 14, and identified behavior problems using parent responses to the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5–5 (CBCL/1.5-5) at two years of age. A persistent or recurrent protein elevation was defined as a concentration in the highest quartile (for gestational age and postnatal age) on at least two days approximately one week apart. Behavior problems were defined by CBCL/1.5-5 subscale scores at or above the 93rd percentile. Results A single-day elevation of ICAM-3 was associated with an increased risk of an attention problem, as were persistent or recurrent elevations of MPO, IL-6, TNF-RI, IL-8, ICAM-3, VEGF-R1, and VEGF-R2. These associations persisted among infants without white matter injury and cognitive impairment. Conclusion Among children born extremely prematurely, recurrent or persistent elevations of inflammation-related proteins in blood during in the first two postnatal weeks are associated with an attention problem at age 2 years. PMID:24614800

  17. Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child growth from birth to 54 months of age: a randomized trial in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of information on the optimal timing of food supplementation to malnourished pregnant women and possible combined effects of food and multiple micronutrient supplementations (MMS) on their offspring's growth. We evaluated the effects of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on postnatal child growth. The hypothesis was that prenatal MMS and early invitation to food supplementation would increase physical growth in the offspring during 0-54 months and a combination of these interventions would further improve these outcomes. Methods In the large, randomized MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab), Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were enrolled between November 2001 and October 2003 and their children were followed until March 2009. Participants were randomized into six groups comprising 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F), 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F) or MMS combined with either an early (immediately after identification of pregnancy) or a later usual (at the time of their choosing, i.e., usual care in this community) program invitation to food supplementation. The anthropometry of 3267 children was followed from birth to 54 months, and 2735 children were available for analysis at 54 months. Results There were no differences in characteristics of mothers and households among the different intervention groups. The average birth weight was 2694 g and birth length was 47.7 cm, with no difference among intervention groups. Early invitation to food supplementation (in comparison with usual invitation) reduced the proportion of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months for boys (p = 0.01), but not for girls (p = 0.31). MMS resulted in more stunting than standard Fe60F (p = 0.02). There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on the growth outcome. Conclusions Early food supplementation in pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting during 0-54 months in boys

  18. Associations between dietary intakes of first-time fathers and their 20-month-old children are moderated by fathers' BMI, education and age.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Adam D; Cameron, Adrian J; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J

    2015-09-28

    Children's learning about food is considerable during their formative years, with parental influence being pivotal. Research has focused predominantly on maternal influences, with little known about the relationships between fathers' and children's diets. Greater understanding of this relationship is necessary for the design of appropriate interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the diets of fathers and their children and the moderating effects of fathers' BMI, education and age on these associations. The diets of fathers and their first-born children (n 317) in the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program were assessed using an FFQ and 3 × 24-h recalls, respectively. The InFANT Program is a cluster-randomised controlled trial in the setting of first-time parents groups in Victoria, Australia. Associations between father and child fruit, vegetable, non-core food and non-core drink intakes were assessed using linear regression. The extent to which these associations were mediated by maternal intake was tested. Moderation of associations by paternal BMI, education and age was assessed. Positive associations were found between fathers' and children's intake of fruit, sweet snacks and take-away foods. Paternal BMI, education and age moderated the relationships found for the intakes of fruit (BMI), vegetables (age), savoury snacks (BMI and education) and take-away foods (BMI and education). Our findings suggest that associations exist at a young age and are moderated by paternal BMI, education and age. This study highlights the importance of fathers in modelling healthy diets for their children.

  19. A Shortened Barnes Maze Protocol Reveals Memory Deficits at 4-Months of Age in the Triple-Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Aida; Liu, Tingyu; Chan, Wai-Ting Coco; Hayes, Jane; Nejad, Mona; Lei, KaiChyuan; Bitan, Gal

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that manifests as memory loss, cognitive dysfunction, and dementia. Animal models of Alzheimer's disease have been instrumental in understanding the underlying pathological mechanism and in evaluation of potential therapies. The triple transgenic (3×Tg) mouse model of AD is unique because it recapitulates both pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease - amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The earliest cognitive deficits in this model have been shown at 6-m of age by most groups, necessitating aging of the mice to this age before initiating evaluation of the cognitive effects of therapies. To assess cognitive deficits in the 3×Tg mice, originally we employed a typical Barnes maze protocol of 15 training trials, but found no significant deficits in aged mice. Therefore, we shortened the protocol to include only 5 training trials to increase difficulty. We found cognitive deficits using this protocol using mainly measures from the probe day, rather than the training trials. This also decreased the effort involved with data analysis. We compared 3×Tg and wild-type mice at 4-m- and 15-m of age using both the original, long training, and the short training paradigms. We found that differences in learning between 3×Tg and wild-type mice disappeared after the 4th training trial. Measures of learning and memory on the probe day showed significant differences between 3×Tg and wild-type mice following the short, 5-training trial protocol but not the long, 15-training trial protocol. Importantly, we detected cognitive dysfunction already at 4-m of age in 3×Tg mice using the short Barnes-maze protocol. The ability to test learning and memory in 4-m old 3×Tg mice using a shortened Barnes maze protocol offers considerable time and cost savings and provides support for the utilization of this model at pre-pathology stages for therapeutic studies. PMID:24236177

  20. Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of fluticasone propionate lotion 0.05% for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in subjects from 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Miller, B H

    2006-04-01

    A novel lotion formulation of fluticasone propionate 0.05% has recently become available. Two large, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies involving 438 subjects demonstrated its efficacy and safety when applied once daily in the treatment of atopic dermatitis in subjects from 3 months to 87 years of age. The studies were limited to 4 weeks duration of use of fluticasone lotion and did not assess longer term efficacy or side effects.

  1. The immunogenicity and safety of a single 0.5 mL dose of virosomal subunit influenza vaccine administered to unprimed children aged ≥6 to <36 months: data from a randomized, Phase III study.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Marchisio, Paola; Montinaro, Valentina; Bianchini, Sonia; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Fabiano, Valentina; Pivetti, Valentina; Zanetti, Alessandro; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2012-11-19

    This study evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of a single 0.5 mL dose of the seasonal virosomal subunit influenza vaccine (Inflexal V, Crucell, Switzerland) in 205 healthy, unprimed children aged at least 6 to <36 months, evaluated at four weeks post-vaccination and seven months from baseline. Of the enrolled children, 102 received one single 0.5 mL dose and 103 received the standard two 0.25 mL doses given four weeks apart. Both treatments evoked an immune response that satisfied the EMA/CHMP criteria for yearly vaccine licensing for all three vaccine strains. Exploratory analyses revealed no differences between the groups at four weeks post-vaccination. Furthermore, immunogenicity was maintained seven months after the first vaccination after both the 0.5 mL and standard two 0.25 mL doses. Adverse events were comparable between groups and were as expected according to the safety profile of the vaccine; overall, the vaccine was well tolerated. Our results show that a single 0.5 mL dose effectively and safely provided long-term immunogenicity to all three influenza strains in unprimed children aged at least 6 to <36 months.

  2. Surface-wave site characterization at 53 strong-motion recording stations affected by the Parkfield, California, M6.0 earthquake of 28 September 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Eric M.; Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad; Tanaka, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    We present one-dimensional shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles at 52 strong-motion sites that recorded the 28 September 2004 Magnitude 6.0 Parkfield, Calif., earthquake. We estimate the VS profiles with the Spectral Analysis of Surface-Waves (SASW) method. The SASW method is a noninvasive method that indirectly estimates the VS at depth from variations in the Rayleigh wave phase velocity at the surface. To address the uncertainty associated with these measurements, we compare the SASW profiles to surface-source downhole-receiver (SSDR) profiles at four sites. Three of the four SSDR sites are in close agreement with the adjacent SASW site, while the SASW profile is considerably slower than the SSDR profile at one site.

  3. Experiments on ocular tissue ablation at 5.3 and 6.0 {mu}m with the Los Alamos advanced FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Ren, Q.; Hill, R.

    1995-12-31

    We investigated the ablation characteristics of a picosecond free-electron laser and compared its ablation effects on ocular tissues at 5.3 {mu}m and 6.0 {mu}m. The Advanced FEL at Los Alamos, operating in the wavelength range 4-6 {mu}m, was used for this study. The 10-{mu}s macropulse consisted of {approximately}1000 micropulses, each approximately 15 ps in length and separated from one another by 9.2 ns. The FEL beam was passed through a series of attenuator and focused to a 200-{mu}m spot in the sample with a 150-mm f.l. CaF{sub 2} lens. The energy in each macropulse ranged from 5 to 120 mJ. Five transplantable corneal-scleral buttons preserved in corneal storage media were used for this study. The tissue sample was positioned at the focused FEL beam for the ablation, and then fixed for histologic study. Corneal cuts made at 6.0 {mu}m revealed a well-defined ablation boundary. The measured lateral zone of the tissue damage was 11 {+-} 2 {mu}m. The integrity of the adjacent tissue was well maintained. By contrast, the ablation boundary of the corneal cuts made at 5.3 {mu}m appeared to be very disruptive. The collagen fiber near the ablation was thermally denatured and lost its organized structure. The lateral dimension of such effect extended out to 220 {mu}m beyond the intended cut into the surrounding tissues. We concluded that a short-pulsed laser operating at 6 {mu}m may be a potentially effective tool for cutting ocular tissues.

  4. Secondary Electrons from Water Vapor with the Impact of 6.0 MeV/u He2+ Ions: Atomic Data and their Application to Biomedical Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Y.; Soga, F.; Ohsawa, D.; Higashi, A.; Kawauchi, H.; Hirabayashi, M.; Okada, Y.; Uehara, S.; Nikjoo, H.

    2005-05-27

    We measured the energy and angular distributions (7 eV-10 keV and 20 degree sign -160 degree sign ) of secondary electrons produced in collisions of 6.0 MeV/u He2+ ions with water vapor. Binary-encounter collision peaks were clearly observed at the calculated energies at angles of <90 degree sign , as well as the K-LL Auger peak of oxygen at about 500 eV for all angles. From these measurements, the doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) of electron emissions were deduced with an estimated uncertainty of {+-}13%. The energy distribution (SDCS) was also obtained by integrating the DDCS values with respect to the ejected angles, and compared with an empirical model of Rudd. The energy spectrum (SDCS) showed good agreement with the model of Rudd in the energy range of secondary electrons of <100 eV. However, in the 100-1000 eV energy range, the experimental spectrum shows significant discrepancies, smaller by 30%, and is nearly twice greater in the region >3keV. To assess the new cross sections, these values were incorporated in the kurbuc Monte-Carlo track structure code system for a simulation of secondary electrons. Radial dose distributions for 6.0 MeV/u He2+ ions were obtained by analyzing the tracks generated by the code kurbuc using the new DDCS values. In the core with a radius (r) of less than 1 nm, the dose is very high due mainly to excitation events, induced by low-energy electrons. The penumbra shows a well-known r-2 dependence.

  5. Forecasting Three-Month Outcomes in a Laboratory School Comparison of Mixed Amphetamine Salts Extended Release (Adderall XR) and Atomoxetine (Strattera) in School-Aged Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Wigal, Sharon B.; Hodgkins, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Compare observed and forecasted efficacy of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS-XR; Adderall) with atomoxetine (Strattera) in ADHD children. Method: The authors analyze data from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group, forced-dose-escalation laboratory school study of children ages 6 to 12 with ADHD combined…

  6. Inclusion of tallow and soybean oil to calf starters fed to dairy calves from birth to four months of age on calf performance and digestion.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Quigley, J D; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2015-07-01

    Energy demands for calves can increase during periods of heat and cold stress. One way to potentially increase energy intake is to increase the energy density of the feed with fat. Trial 1a compared a control starter with no added fat or oil (CON) to starters with 2% tallow (TAL) and 2% soybean oil (SBO). Starters were 20% crude protein (CP) and 45 to 47% starch. Male Holstein calves that were initially 3 to 5d of age were fed a 27% CP, 17% fat milk replacer at 0.66kg of dry matter daily and fully weaned by 42d of a 56-d trial. Trial 1b estimated the digestion of the diets (employed chromic oxide as an indigestible digesta flow marker) using a subset of 5 weaned calves per treatment between d 52 and 56. Trial 2 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and SBO blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Trial 3 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and TAL blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Treatments were compared using repeated measures (where appropriate) in a completely randomized design. In trials 1a and 1b, preplanned contrasts compared CON versus TAL and CON versus SBO. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced starter intake, average daily gain, and digestion of dry matter, organic matter, and CP before 8wk of age. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced average daily gain and change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Compared with CON, calves fed TAL had reduced average daily gain and tended to have reduced change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Calculated metabolizable energy intake was not increased in any trial by added fat or oil. Tallow and soybean oil inclusion at 2% of the starter feed was not advantageous for calf growth before 4 mo of age.

  7. Variations between post- and pre-harvest seasons in stunting, wasting, and Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices among children 6-23 months of age in lowland and midland agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Roba, Kedir Teji; O’Connor, Thomas Pacelli; Belachew, Tefera; O’Brien, Nora Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food availability and access are strongly affected by seasonality in Ethiopia. However, there are little data on seasonal variation in Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices and malnutrition among 6-23 months old children in different agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. Methods Socio-demographic, anthropometry and IYCF indicators were assessed in post- and pre-harvest seasons among children aged 6–23 months of age randomly selected from rural villages of lowland and midland agro-ecological zones. Results Child stunting and underweight increased from prevalence of 39.8% and 26.9% in post-harvest to 46.0% and 31.8% in pre-harvest seasons, respectively. The biggest increase in prevalence of stunting and underweight between post- and pre-harvest seasons was noted in the midland zone. Wasting decreased from 11.6% post-harvest to 8.5% pre-harvest, with the biggest decline recorded in the lowland zone. Minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet and poor dietary diversity increased considerably in pre-harvest compared to post-harvest season in the lowland zone. Feeding practices and maternal age were predictors of wasting, while women’s dietary diversity and children age was predictor of child dietary diversity in both seasons. Conclusion There is seasonal variation in malnutrition and IYCF practices among children 6-23 months of age with more pronounced effect in midland agro-ecological zone. A major contributing factor for child malnutrition may be poor feeding practices. Health information strategies focused on both IYCF practices and dietary diversity of mothers could be a sensible approach to reduce the burden of child malnutrition in rural Ethiopia. PMID:27795761

  8. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b–Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6–23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2–5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6–23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2–5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases. PMID:25833163

  9. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.

  10. National trends in emergency department use of urinalysis, complete blood count, and blood culture for fever without a source among children ages 2–24 months in the PCV-7 era

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Alan E.; Lukacs, Susan L.; Mendola, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Objective The epidemiology of serious bacterial infections (SBI) in children has changed since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in 2000. Whether Emergency Department (ED) physicians have changed diagnostic approaches to fever without source (FWS) in response is unknown. We examine trends in rates of complete blood counts (CBC), urinalyses (UA), and blood cultures among 2–24 month old children with FWS since the introduction of PCV-7. Methods The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey-ED, 2001–2009 was used to identify visits to the ED by 2–24 month old children with FWS. Rates of CBC, UA, neither CBC nor UA, and blood culture were tracked across time. Trends were identified using Joinpoint regression, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regressions with year as the independent variable and ordering of each test as dependent variables. Results In bivariate and multivariate analysis, CBC orders declined between 2004 and 2009 for visits by all children 2–24 months, children 2–11 months, and boys 2–24 months (adjusted OR (aOR): 0.88 per year, p<0.01; aOR: 0.88, p<0.05; and aOR: 0.83, p<0.01, respectively). Between 2004 and 2009 ordering neither CBC nor UA increased among all children 2–24 months (aOR: 1.10, p<0.05) and among boys (aOR=1.16, p<0.05). Orders for blood cultures declined across the time period in bivariate, but not multivariate analysis. Conclusion The rate of ordering a CBC for children in the 2–24 month age group presenting to the ED with FWS declined, a change coincident with the changing epidemiology of SBI since the PCV-7 vaccine was introduced. PMID:23603643

  11. Association of diethylhexyl phthalate with obesity-related markers and body mass change from birth to 3 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Hyunkyung; Lee, Jangwoo; Cho, Geumjoon; Choi, Sooran; Choi, Gyuyeon; Kim, Su Young; Eun, So-Hee; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Gun-Ha; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Young Don; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Sungkyoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have suggested potential links of phthalates to obesity in children and adults. Limited evidence, however, has been available for the relations between diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and obesity-related markers or body mass change in early life. Methods 128 healthy pregnant women were recruited and, after delivery, their newborns’ first urine and umbilical cord blood samples were collected. We measured urinary levels of two DEHP metabolites, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). We also measured the levels of leptin, total cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in cord serum, and used them along with weight, length, head circumference and ponderal index (PI, 100 g/cm3) at birth, as obesity-related markers, and estimated the relations between DEHP metabolites and obesity-related markers using generalised linear models. For the evaluation of body mass increase by early life DEHP exposure, body mass index (BMI) z-score change during 3 months after birth by DEHP metabolites in the first urine samples of the newborns were evaluated using logistic regression. Results DEHP exposure was associated with decrease of PI and increase of TG (PI, β=−0.11, p=0.070 and TG, β=0.14, p=0.027), especially for boys (PI, β=−0.13, p=0.021; and TG, β=0.19, p=0.025). Moreover, DEHP exposure was positively associated with body mass increase during 3 months after birth (change of BMI z-scores, OR=4.35, p=0.025). Conclusions Our findings suggest that DEHP exposure may affect body mass change in early life through changes of obesity-related markers. PMID:26834143

  12. Mean corpuscular volume of control red blood cells determines the interpretation of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test result in infants aged less than 6 months.

    PubMed

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Bystrzycka, Weronika; Łukasik, Jan; Kotuła, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    Eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test is a flow cytometric test used to detect hereditary spherocytosis (HS). To perform the test sample from patients, 5-6 reference samples of red blood are needed. Our aim was to investigate how the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells influences on the value of fluorescence of bounded EMA dye and how the choice of reference samples affects the test result. EMA test was performed in peripheral blood from 404 individuals, including 31 children suffering from HS. Mean fluorescence channel of EMA-RBCs was measured with Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer. Mean corpuscular volume of RBCs was assessed with LH750 Beckman Coulter. Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad Prism. The correlation Spearman coefficient between mean channel of fluorescence of EMA-RBCs and MCV was r = 0.39, p < 0.0001. Interpretation of EMA test depends on MCV of the reference samples. If reference blood samples have lower MCV than the patients MCV, EMA test result might be negative. Due to different MCV values of RBCs in infancy and ca. Three months later, EMA test in neonates might be interpreted falsely negative. Samples from children younger than 3 months old had EMA test result 86.1 ± 11.7 %, whereas same samples that analyzed 4.1 ± 2.1 later had results of 75.4 ± 4.5 %, p < 0.05. Mean fluorescence of EMA-bound RBC depends on RBC's volume. MCV of reference samples affects EMA test results; thus, we recommend selection of reference samples with MCV in range of ±2 fL compared to MCV of patient RBC's.

  13. Processed complementary food does not improve growth or hemoglobin status of rural tanzanian infants from 6-12 months of age in Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mamiro, Peter S; Kolsteren, Patrick W; van Camp, John H; Roberfroid, Dominique A; Tatala, Simon; Opsomer, Anne S

    2004-05-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted from March 2001 to March 2002 involving 309 infants who received either a processed complementary food (CF) or an unprocessed placebo from 6 to 12 mo of age. The groups were comparable in baseline characteristics. The study took place in Kilosa district, Tanzania. The processed CF contained germinated, autoclaved, and dried finger millet (65.2%), kidney beans (19.1%), roasted-peanuts (8%), and mango purée (7.7%). The same blend, but not processed, served as the placebo. Processing increased iron solubility and energy density without affecting viscosity. Mean length for age, weight for age, hemoglobin, and zinc protoporphyrin at 6 and 12 mo did not differ between the 2 groups. The results show that the processed food did not differ from the unprocessed placebo in improving growth, hemoglobin, and iron status of infants when given under the study conditions. The control group consumed equal amounts of macronutrients, and the higher energy density in this study did not seem to have any benefits. In our study, there was a very intensive follow-up; at every encounter with mothers, giving the required amounts and adding extra lipids was strongly reinforced. Under those conditions, a well-balanced complementary food with additional lipids can meet the energy needs of young children. The reduction in phytates by 34% and improvement in iron solubility to 19% due to processing might not have been enough to compensate for the rather low iron content of the complementary food. PMID:15113950

  14. Age-Related Differences in 1- and 12-Month Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (from a Large Multicenter Data Repository).

    PubMed

    Attizzani, Guilherme F; Ohno, Yohei; Latib, Azeem; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Giannini, Cristina; Ettori, Federica; Fiorina, Claudia; Bedogni, Francesco; Brambilla, Nedy; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Colombo, Paola; Presbitero, Patrizia; Fiorilli, Rosario; Poli, Arnaldo; Barbanti, Marco; Colombo, Antonio; Tamburino, Corrado

    2016-10-01

    Scarce data are available on the impact of age on transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) outcomes. We therefore, analyzed 1,845 consecutive patients from 9 Italian centers who underwent TAVI with the Corevalve Revalving System from September 2007 to March 2014; patients were dichotomized according to their age in the date of the procedure, as follows: 75 to 85 years old and >85 years old. End points were defined according to Valve Academic Research Consortium definitions. In-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year clinical and echocardiographic data were available for 100% of the patients included. Propensity matching was performed. Procedural success rates were high (>94%) and comparable between groups. Although worse baseline renal function was observed in the older group, the incidence of acute kidney injury after procedure was comparable (17.1% and 17.4%, respectively for the 75- to 85- and >85-year-old group, p = 0.877); importantly, >99% of acute kidney injury episodes in both groups were grades 1 and 2. Procedural complications rates were low without between-group differences. In-hospital death (3.7% and 4.6%, p = 0.379) and stroke/transient ischemic attack (1.9% and 1.9%, respectively, p = 0.960) were comparable. The 1-year death rates were 14.9% and 17.2% (p = 0.197) in the 75- to 85- and >85-year-old group, respectively. Cardiovascular death was observed in 7.8% and 7% (p = 0.542), while stroke/transient ischemic attack was demonstrated in 5.2% and 4.4% (p = 0.496), respectively. Results were sustained after propensity matching. In conclusion, advanced age did not negatively impact the outcomes of TAVI through 1-year after procedure.

  15. Identifying factors related to Achilles tendon stress, strain, and stiffness before and after 6 months of growth in youth 10-14 years of age.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Jennifer M; Hawkins, David A

    2012-09-21

    The purposes of this study were (1) determine if youth peak Achilles tendon (AT) strain, peak AT stress, and AT stiffness, measured during an isometric plantar flexion, differed after six months (mos) of growth, and (2) determine if sex, physical activity level (Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C)), and/or growth rate (GR) were related to these properties. AT stress, strain, and stiffness were quantified in 20 boys (13.47±0.81 years) and 22 girls (11.18±0.82 years) at 2 times (0 and 6 mos). GR (change in height in 6 mos) was not significantly different between boys and girls (3.5±1.4 and 3.4±1.1cm/6 mos respectively). Peak AT strain and stiffness (mean 3.8±0.4% and 128.9±153.6N/mm, respectively) did not differ between testing sessions or sex. Peak AT stress (22.1±2.4 and 24.0±2.1MPa at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) did not differ between sex and increased significantly at 6 mos due to a significant decrease in AT cross-sectional area (40.6±1.3 and 38.1±1.6mm(2) at 0 and 6 mos, respectively) with no significant difference in peak AT force (882.3±93.9 and 900.3± 65.5N at 0 and 6 mos, respectively). Peak AT stress was significantly greater in subjects with greater PAQ-C scores (9.1% increase with 1 unit increase in PAQ-C score) and smaller in subjects with faster GRs (13.8% decrease with 1cm/6 mos increase in GR). These results indicate that of the AT mechanical properties quantified, none differed between sex, and only peak AT stress significantly differed after 6 months and was related to GR and physical activity.

  16. Determinants of undernutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in rural Zambézia Province, Mozambique: Results of two population-based serial cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Elizabeth S.; Blevins, Meridith; González-Calvo, Lazaro; Ndatimana, Elisée; Green, Ann F.; Lopez, Melanie; Olupona, Omo; Vermund, Sten H.; Moon, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background While many countries are transitioning from epidemics of undernutrition to overnutrition, Mozambique’s very high 44% prevalence of stunting in children under age 5 years is cause for serious concern. Methods We conducted two population-based cross-sectional surveys of ~4000 female heads of households each in Zambézia Province, Mozambique from August–September 2010 (Baseline) and April–May 2014 (Endline) as part of the USAID funded Strengthening Communities through Integrated Programs (SCIP) grant. Anthropometric measurements were collected on 560 children aged 6–59 months at Baseline and 912 children at Endline and classified as: “stunted,” a height-for-age z-score less than -2; “wasted,” weight-for-height z-score less than -2; and “underweight,” weight-for-age z-score less than -2. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression using Stata 13.1 were used to examine factors associated with undernutrition. Results Of children under age five years, 43% were undernourished in 2010 and 55% in 2014. The most common form of undernutrition was stunting (39% in 2010, 51% in 2014), followed by underweight (13% in both 2010 and 2014), and wasting (7% in 2010, 5% in 2014). Child’s age was found to have a non-linear association with stunting. Vitamin A supplementation was associated with a 31% (p=0.04) decreased odds of stunting. Children who were exclusively breastfed for at least six months had an 80% (p=0.02) lower odds of wasting in 2014 and 57% (p=0.05) decreased odds of being underweight in 2014. Introducing other foods after age six months was associated with a five-fold increased odds of wasting in 2014 (p=0.02); household food insecurity was associated with wasting (OR=2.08; p=0.03) and underweight in 2010 (OR=2.31; p=0.05). Children whose mother washed her hands with a cleaning agent had a 40% (p=0.05) decreased odds of being underweight. Surprisingly, per point increase in household dietary diversity score, children had 12% greater

  17. Drivers of the tropospheric ozone budget throughout the 21st century under the medium-high climate scenario RCP 6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revell, L. E.; Tummon, F.; Stenke, A.; Sukhodolov, T.; Coulon, A.; Rozanov, E.; Garny, H.; Grewe, V.; Peter, T.

    2015-05-01

    Because tropospheric ozone is both a greenhouse gas and harmful air pollutant, it is important to understand how anthropogenic activities may influence its abundance and distribution through the 21st century. Here, we present model simulations performed with the chemistry-climate model SOCOL, in which spatially disaggregated chemistry and transport tracers have been implemented in order to better understand the distribution and projected changes in tropospheric ozone. We examine the influences of ozone precursor emissions (nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), climate change (including methane effects) and stratospheric ozone recovery on the tropospheric ozone budget, in a simulation following the climate scenario Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 6.0 (a medium-high, and reasonably realistic climate scenario). Changes in ozone precursor emissions have the largest effect, leading to a global-mean increase in tropospheric ozone which maximizes in the early 21st century at 23% compared to 1960. The increase is most pronounced at northern midlatitudes, due to regional emission patterns: between 1990 and 2060, northern midlatitude tropospheric ozone remains at constantly large abundances: 31% larger than in 1960. Over this 70-year period, attempts to reduce emissions in Europe and North America do not have an effect on zonally averaged northern midlatitude ozone because of increasing emissions from Asia, together with the long lifetime of ozone in the troposphere. A simulation with fixed anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions of NOx, CO and non-methane VOCs at 1960 conditions shows a 6% increase in global-mean tropospheric ozone by the end of the 21st century, with an 11 % increase at northern midlatitudes. This increase maximizes in the 2080s and is mostly caused by methane, which maximizes in the 2080s following RCP 6.0, and plays an important role in controlling ozone directly, and indirectly through its influence on other VOCs and CO. Enhanced flux of ozone from the stratosphere to the troposphere as well as climate change-induced enhancements in lightning NOx emissions also increase the tropospheric ozone burden, although their impacts are relatively small. Overall, the results show that under this climate scenario, ozone in the future is governed largely by changes in methane and NOx; methane induces an increase in tropospheric ozone that is approximately one-third of that caused by NOx. Climate impacts on ozone through changes in tropospheric temperature, humidity and lightning NOx remain secondary compared with emission strategies relating to anthropogenic emissions of NOx, such as fossil fuel burning. Therefore, emission policies globally have a critical role to play in determining tropospheric ozone evolution through the 21st century.

  18. Drivers of the tropospheric ozone budget throughout the 21st century under the medium-high climate scenario RCP 6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revell, L. E.; Tummon, F.; Stenke, A.; Sukhodolov, T.; Coulon, A.; Rozanov, E.; Garny, H.; Grewe, V.; Peter, T.

    2015-01-01

    Because tropospheric ozone is both a~greenhouse gas and harmful air pollutant, it is important to understand how anthropogenic activities may influence its abundance and distribution through the 21st century. Here, we present model simulations performed with the chemistry-climate model SOCOL, in which spatially disaggregated chemistry and transport tracers have been implemented in order to better understand the distribution and projected changes in tropospheric ozone. We examine the influences of ozone precursor emissions (nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)), climate change and stratospheric ozone recovery on the tropospheric ozone budget, in a~simulation following the climate scenario Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 6.0. Changes in ozone precursor emissions have the largest effect, leading to a global-mean increase in tropospheric ozone which maximises in the early 21st century at 23%. The increase is most pronounced at northern midlatitudes, due to regional emission patterns: between 1990 and 2060, northern midlatitude tropospheric ozone remains at constantly large abundances: 31% larger than in 1960. Over this 70 year period, attempts to reduce emissions in Europe and North America do not have an effect on zonally-averaged northern midlatitude ozone because of increasing emissions from Asia, together with the longevity of ozone in the troposphere. A~simulation with fixed anthropogenic ozone precursor emissions of NOx, CO and non-methane VOCs at 1960 conditions shows a 6 % increase in global-mean tropospheric ozone, and an 11% increase at northern midlatitudes. This increase maximises in the 2080s, and is mostly caused by methane, which maximises in the 2080s following RCP 6.0, and plays an important role in controlling ozone directly, and indirectly through its influence on other VOCs and CO. Enhanced flux of ozone from the stratosphere to the troposphere as well as climate change-induced enhancements in lightning NOx emissions also increase the tropospheric ozone burden, although their impacts are relatively small. Overall, the results show that ozone in the future is governed largely by changes in methane and NOx; methane induces an increase in tropospheric ozone that is approximately one-third of that caused by NOx. Climate impacts on ozone through changes in tropospheric temperature, humidity and lightning NOx remain secondary compared with emission strategies relating to anthropogenic emissions of NOx, such as fossil fuel burning. Therefore, emission policies globally have a critical role to play in determining tropospheric ozone evolution through the 21st century.

  19. Multi-sensor Integration of Space and Ground Observations of Pre-earthquake Anomalies Associated with M6.0, August 24, 2014 Napa, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Tramutoli, Valerio; Pulinets, Sergey; Liu, Tiger; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Lisi, Mariano; Petrov, Leonid; Kafatos, Menas

    2015-04-01

    We integrate multiple space-born and ground sensors for monitoring pre-earthquake geophysical anomalies that can provide significant early notification for earthquakes higher than M5.5 worldwide. The latest M6.0 event of August 24, 2014 in South Napa, California generated pre-earthquake signatures during our outgoing tests for California, and an experimental warning was documented about 17 days in advance. We process in controlled environment different satellite and ground data for California (and several other test areas) by using: a) data from the NPOES sensors recording OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) in the infrared; b) 2/GNSS, FORMOSAT (GPS/TEC); c) Earth Observing System assimilation models from NASA; d) ground-based gas observations and meteorological data; e) TIR (Thermal Infrared) data from geostationary satellite (GOES). On Aug 4th, we detected (prospectively) a large anomaly of OLR transient field at the TOA over Northern California. The location was shifted in the northeast direction about 150 km from the Aug 23rd epicentral area. Compared to the reference field of August 2004 to 2014 the hotspot anomaly was the largest energy flux anomaly over the entire continental United States at this time. Based on the temporal and spatial estimates of the anomaly, on August 4th we issued an internal warning for a M5.5+ earthquake in Northern California within the next 1-4 weeks. TIR retrospective analysis showed significant (spatially extended and temporally persistent) sequences of TIR anomalies starting August 1st just in the future epicenter area and approximately in the same area affected by OLR anomalies in the following days. GPS/TEC retrospective analysis based on GIM and TGIM products show anomalies TEC variations 1-3 days, over region north form the Napa earthquake epicenter. The calculated index of atmospheric chemical potential based on the NASA numerical Assimilation weather model GEOS5 indicates for abnormal variations near the epicentral area days before the quake; Our real-time and post-event integration of several atmospheric parameters from satellite and ground observations during the M6.0 on 08.24.2014 in Napa California demonstrated the synergy of related variations of these parameters implying their connection with the earthquake preparation process.

  20. The 16 April 2015 M w 6.0 offshore eastern Crete earthquake and its aftershock sequence: implications for local/regional seismotectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgün, Ethem; Kekovalı, Kıvanç; Kalafat, Doğan

    2016-08-01

    We examine the 16 April 2015 M w 6.0 offshore eastern Crete earthquake and its aftershock sequence in southern Aegean Sea. Centroid moment tensors for 45 earthquakes with moment magnitudes (M w) between 3.3 and 6.0 are determined by applying a waveform inversion method. The mainshock is shallow focus thrust event with a strike-slip component at a depth of 30 km. The seismic moment (M o) of the mainshock is estimated as 1.33 × 1018 Nm, and rupture duration of the mainshock is 3.5 s. The focal mechanisms of aftershocks are mainly thrust faulting with a strike-slip component. The geometry of the moment tensors (M w ≥ 3.3) reveals a thrust-faulting regime with NE-SW-trending direction of T axis in the entire activated region. According to high-resolution hypocenter relocation of the eastern Crete earthquake sequence, one main cluster consisting of 352 events is revealed. The aftershock activity in the observation period between 5 January 2015 and 7 July 2015 extends from N to S direction. Seismic cross sections indicate a complex pattern of the hypocenter distribution with the activation of three segments. The subduction interface is clearly revealed with high-resolution hypocenter relocation and moment tensor solution. The best constrained focal depths indicate that the aftershock sequence is mainly confined in the upper plate (depth <40 km) and are ranging from about 4.5 to 39 km depth. A stress tensor inversion of focal mechanism data is performed to obtain a more precise picture of the offshore eastern Crete stress field. The stress tensor inversion results indicate a predominant thrust stress regime with a NW-SE-oriented maximum horizontal compressive stress (S H). According to variance of the stress tensor inversion, to first order, the Crete region is characterized by a homogeneous interplate stress field. We also investigate the Coulomb stress change associated with the mainshock to evaluate any significant enhancement of stresses along Crete and surrounding regions. Positive lobes with stress more than 3 bars are obtained for the mainshock, indicating that these values are large enough to increase the Coulomb stress failure toward NE-SW and NW-SE directions, respectively.

  1. Afterslip behavior following the M6.0, 2014 South Napa earthquake with implications for afterslip forecasting on other seismogenic faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Domrose, Carolyn J; Rosa, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    The M6.0, 24 Aug. 2014 South Napa, California, earthquake exhibited unusually large slip for a California strike-slip event of its size with a maximum coseismic surface slip of 40-50 cm in the north section of the 15 km-long rupture. Although only minor (<10 cm) surface slip occurred coseismically in the southern 9-km section of the rupture, there was considerable postseismic slip, so that the maximum total slip one year after the event approached 40-50 cm, about equal to the coseismic maximum in the north. We measured the accumulation of postseismic surface slip on four, ~100-m-long alignment arrays for one year following the event. Because prolonged afterslip can delay reconstruction of fault-damaged buildings and infrastructure, we analyzed its gradual decay to estimate when significant afterslip would likely end. This forecasting of Napa afterslip suggests how we might approach the scientific and engineering challenges of afterslip from a much larger M~7 earthquake anticipated on the nearby, urban Hayward Fault. However, we expect its afterslip to last much longer than one year.The M6.0, 24 Aug. 2014 South Napa, California, earthquake exhibited unusually large slip for a California strike-slip event of its size with a maximum coseismic surface slip of 40-50 cm in the north section of the 15 km-long rupture. Although only minor (<10 cm) surface slip occurred coseismically in the southern 9-km section of the rupture, there was considerable postseismic slip, so that the maximum total slip one year after the event approached 40-50 cm, about equal to the coseismic maximum in the north. We measured the accumulation of postseismic surface slip on four, ~100-m-long alignment arrays for one year following the event. Because prolonged afterslip can delay reconstruction of fault-damaged buildings and infrastructure, we analyzed its gradual decay to estimate when significant afterslip would likely end. This forecasting of Napa afterslip suggests how we might approach the scientific and engineering challenges of afterslip from a much larger M~7 earthquake anticipated on the nearby, urban Hayward Fault. However, we expect its afterslip to last much longer than one year.

  2. The Burden of Cryptosporidium Diarrheal Disease among Children < 24 Months of Age in Moderate/High Mortality Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, Utilizing Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)

    PubMed Central

    Nasrin, Dilruba; Blackwelder, William C.; Wu, Yukun; Farag, Tamer H.; Panchalingam, Sandra; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Saha, Debasish; Adegbola, Richard; Alonso, Pedro L.; Breiman, Robert F.; Bassat, Quique; Tamboura, Boubou; Sanogo, Doh; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Manna, Byomkesh; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Kanungo, Suman; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Qureshi, Shahida; Quadri, Farheen; Hossain, Anowar; Das, Sumon K.; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Mandomando, Inacio; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Acácio, Sozinho; Omore, Richard; Oundo, Joseph O.; Ochieng, John B.; Mintz, Eric D.; O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Berkeley, Lynette Y.; Livio, Sofie; Tennant, Sharon M.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Nataro, James P.; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Mishcherkin, Vladimir; Zhang, Jixian; Liu, Jie; Houpt, Eric R.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of Cryptosporidium as a pediatric enteropathogen in developing countries is recognized. Methods Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a 3-year, 7-site, case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and GEMS-1A (1-year study of MSD and less-severe diarrhea [LSD]) were analyzed. Stools from 12,110 MSD and 3,174 LSD cases among children aged <60 months and from 21,527 randomly-selected controls matched by age, sex and community were immunoassay-tested for Cryptosporidium. Species of a subset of Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were identified by PCR; GP60 sequencing identified anthroponotic C. parvum. Combined annual Cryptosporidium-attributable diarrhea incidences among children aged <24 months for African and Asian GEMS sites were extrapolated to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian regions to estimate region-wide MSD and LSD burdens. Attributable and excess mortality due to Cryptosporidium diarrhea were estimated. Findings Cryptosporidium was significantly associated with MSD and LSD below age 24 months. Among Cryptosporidium-positive MSD cases, C. hominis was detected in 77.8% (95% CI, 73.0%-81.9%) and C. parvum in 9.9% (95% CI, 7.1%-13.6%); 92% of C. parvum tested were anthroponotic genotypes. Annual Cryptosporidium-attributable MSD incidence was 3.48 (95% CI, 2.27–4.67) and 3.18 (95% CI, 1.85–4.52) per 100 child-years in African and Asian infants, respectively, and 1.41 (95% CI, 0.73–2.08) and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.66–2.05) per 100 child-years in toddlers. Corresponding Cryptosporidium-attributable LSD incidences per 100 child-years were 2.52 (95% CI, 0.33–5.01) and 4.88 (95% CI, 0.82–8.92) in infants and 4.04 (95% CI, 0.56–7.51) and 4.71 (95% CI, 0.24–9.18) in toddlers. We estimate 2.9 and 4.7 million Cryptosporidium-attributable cases annually in children aged <24 months in the sub-Saharan Africa and India/Pakistan/Bangladesh/Nepal/Afghanistan regions, respectively, and ~202,000 Cryptosporidium

  3. IMMUNOGENICITY AND SAFETY OF QUINVAXEM® (DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, WHOLE-CELL PERTUSSIS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE) GIVEN TO VIETNAMESE INFANTS AT 2 TO 4 MONTHS OF AGE.

    PubMed

    Huu, Tran Ngoc; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toan, Nguyen Trong; Thang, Ho Vinh

    2015-07-01

    Vietnam plans to replace the routine childhood diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus combination (DPT) vaccine with a pentavalent vaccine. The present study was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B (HepB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTwP-HepB-Hib) Quinvaxem® vaccine in children. A total of 131 infants received the Quinvaxem® vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months. Antibody levels were measured at baseline, at one month after the third injection and one year after the first injection. Seroprotection rates were high for each vaccine antigen at one month after the third dose: 93.1% for diphtheria, 98.5% for tetanus, 99.2% for pertussis (seroconversion rate), 93.1% for HepB, and 100% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The rate of children with protective antibodies persisting at one year after the first dose was 88.4% for diphtheria, 49.6% for pertussis, 82.2% for tetanus, 76.7% for HepB and 97.7% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The Quinvaxem® vaccine was well tolerated and has a low rate of adverse events. Quinvaxem® given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was immunogenic and safe for primary immunization among infants in Vietnam. PMID:26867396

  4. IMMUNOGENICITY AND SAFETY OF QUINVAXEM® (DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, WHOLE-CELL PERTUSSIS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE) GIVEN TO VIETNAMESE INFANTS AT 2 TO 4 MONTHS OF AGE.

    PubMed

    Huu, Tran Ngoc; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toan, Nguyen Trong; Thang, Ho Vinh

    2015-07-01

    Vietnam plans to replace the routine childhood diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus combination (DPT) vaccine with a pentavalent vaccine. The present study was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B (HepB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTwP-HepB-Hib) Quinvaxem® vaccine in children. A total of 131 infants received the Quinvaxem® vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months. Antibody levels were measured at baseline, at one month after the third injection and one year after the first injection. Seroprotection rates were high for each vaccine antigen at one month after the third dose: 93.1% for diphtheria, 98.5% for tetanus, 99.2% for pertussis (seroconversion rate), 93.1% for HepB, and 100% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The rate of children with protective antibodies persisting at one year after the first dose was 88.4% for diphtheria, 49.6% for pertussis, 82.2% for tetanus, 76.7% for HepB and 97.7% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The Quinvaxem® vaccine was well tolerated and has a low rate of adverse events. Quinvaxem® given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was immunogenic and safe for primary immunization among infants in Vietnam.

  5. Examination of weekly mammary parenchymal area by ultrasound, mammary mass, and composition in Holstein heifers reared on 1 of 3 diets from birth to 2 months of age.

    PubMed

    Esselburn, K M; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Fluharty, F L; Moeller, S J; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring in vivo growth of mammary parenchyma (PAR) has historically been difficult, necessitating slaughter studies to measure PAR quantity. Advances in ultrasound (US) technology warrant revisiting its use as a noninvasive tool to monitor PAR growth in vivo. The level of nutrient intake during the first 2mo of life may affect measures of mammary growth and composition. Objectives were to examine the utility of US as an in vivo tool to quantify PAR cross-sectional area in Holstein heifers reared on 1 of 3 diets from birth to 2mo of age, assessing potential dietary effects; assess the relationships between weekly US measurements, teat length, manual palpation of PAR scores, and PAR mass at 2mo of age; and examine mammary composition in experimental animals. Holstein heifers (n=24; 41±1kg of initial body weight) from a single farm were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 milk replacers that differed in source and amount of fat. Milk replacer was fed at 660g of dry matter/d until weaning at 42 d. Heifers had ad libitum access to a common calf starter (20% crude protein) and water for the duration of the 56-d trial. Teat length and palpation scores were obtained weekly. A real-time B-mode US with a 7.5-MHz convex probe was used to examine 2-dimensional PAR area in all 4 glands of heifers once weekly from 2 to 3 d of age to harvest at 56 d. The left front and left rear glands were also examined by US 24h postharvest to validate final US measurements, and then bisected to produce a sagittal plane view of PAR for comparison with US images. Mass and composition of mammary gland tissue were determined at 8 wk using standard methodology. Over the course of this 8-wk trial, average teat length increased from 11 to 17mm. The PAR area started small (6.6±3.2mm(2) per gland) and increased to 42.1±2.5mm(2) per gland by the end of the trial. As anticipated, based on measurements obtained at slaughter, US measurements were more related to amount of PAR (r=0.74) than either teat length

  6. An energy-dense complementary food is associated with a modest increase in weight gain when compared with a fortified porridge in Malawian children aged 6-18 months.

    PubMed

    Lin, Carol A; Manary, Mark J; Maleta, Ken; Briend, André; Ashorn, Per

    2008-03-01

    Poor complementary feeding practices are associated with stunting and growth faltering throughout the developing world. The objective was to compare the effect of using peanut-/soy-based fortified spread (FS) and corn porridge fortified with fish powder (FP) as complementary foods on growth in rural Malawian children. A total of 240 children were enrolled at the age of 6 mo and randomized to receive FS or FP. Both complementary foods provided 836 kJ/d from 6 to 9 mo of age and 1254 kJ/d from 9 to 18 mo of age. Children were followed monthly for anthropometry and fortnightly for the symptoms of fever, cough, or diarrhea until they were 18 mo old. Zn and Se status were assessed at 6 and 12 mo. The primary outcomes were the rates of weight and length gain from 6-12 mo and from 12-18 mo. Children who received FS gained 110 g more (95% CI 220 to 10) from 6-12 mo of age than children receiving FP. Weight gain did not differ between children receiving FS and FP between 12 and 18 mo of age, nor did statural growth from 6 to 12 mo or 12 to 18 mo. A total of 23% of all children were Zn deficient at 6 mo of age and this increased to 37% at 12 mo of age. Neither FS nor FP was associated with significantly improved Zn status. FS was associated with better weight gain from 6-12 mo of age and may be useful in conjunction with additional interventions to improve infant growth in the developing world.

  7. Effects on weight gain and gut microbiota in rats given bacterial supplements and a high-energy-dense diet from fetal life through to 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Caroline L J; Molin, Göran; Fåk, Frida; Johansson Hagslätt, Marie-Louise; Jakesevic, Maja; Håkansson, Åsa; Jeppsson, Bengt; Weström, Björn; Ahrné, Siv

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term effects of a high-energy-dense diet, supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) or Escherichia coli (Ec), on weight gain, fattening and the gut microbiota in rats. Since the mother's dietary habits can influence offspring physiology, dietary regimens started with the dams at pregnancy and throughout lactation and continued with the offspring for 6 months. The weight gain of group Lp was lower than that of groups C (control) and Ec (P = 0·086). More re