Science.gov

Sample records for aged animals exhibited

  1. The Relationship between Pupils' Age and the Content of Conversations Generated at Three Types of Animal Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to reveal the contents of the conversations of two main age groups of primary children who visited three types of animal exhibits: (1) at a museum; (2) live animals at the zoo; and (3) animated dinosaurs and preserved animals. The results raise concerns about whether effective science teaching is occurring in these…

  2. The relationship between pupils' age and the content of conversations generated at three types of animal exhibits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports a study designed to reveal the contents of the conversations of two main age groups of primary children who visited three types of animal exhibits, at a museum: live animals at the zoo; and, animated dinosaurs and preserved animals. The data show that the age of the child within a group had little effect on the content of the conversations. This finding gives rise to some concem. Furthermore, the data suggest that teachers were not developing the observations made by the children in ways appropriate for their stage of development. Whilst the data showed that observations were made at the animal exhibits and that there were more comments about affective issues as children developed, the lack of an age specific different emphasis on particular aspects such as body parts, that are important as defining attributes, is of concern. Zoology is an observational science and, as children develop, the data would be expected to have shown a focus on relevant concepts and attributes of the animals if effective science teaching was occurring.

  3. Lessons from life: Learning from exhibits, animals and interaction in a museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldowsky, Alexander Noah

    This study examines the effect of interaction on visitor behavior at a public aquarium, experimentally comparing one exhibit under interactive and noninteractive conditions. A quantitative analysis showed that the time visitor groups spent in the study area significantly increased in the interactive condition (median 73 vs. 32 seconds). Further, this effect extended only to those groups within the interactive condition in which at least one member operated the exhibit (median 102 vs. 36 seconds). Both median times and survival curves are compared, and the analysis controlled for group size, age and sex ratios, visitor density, queuing time, and animal activity. Qualitative analyses focused on visitors' spontaneous conversation at the exhibit. Interactive visitors were found to engage in more in-depth exploration, including conducting informal experiments. The amount of discussion was found to correlate with stay time (r = 0.47). Visitor discussion centered on the exhibit, with frequent observations of penguin behavior. Greater enthusiasm was observed for interactive visitors, and coding showed interactive visitors laughed more frequently, and were significantly more likely to speculate on the penguins' reactions and motivations for behaviors. The experimental setup included a control condition consisting of a typical aquarium exhibit, including live penguins, naturalistic habitat, and graphics. The interactive condition added a device designed to mediate a two-way interaction between the visitors and penguins: visitors moved a light beam across the bottom of the pool. The penguins, intern, chased the light. This exhibit was designed both to benefit visitors and to serve as behavioral enrichment for the penguins. A third condition employed an automatically moving light, which elicited similar penguin behaviors, but without allowing visitor interaction. Videotaped data was analyzed for 301 visitor groups (756 individuals). A supplemental study employed video recall

  4. Boy Talk/Girl Talk: Is It the Same at Animal Exhibits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    1998-01-01

    Explores the responses of primary school groups to animal exhibits. Data obtained from analysis of the content of conversation suggest more similarities than differences by gender. Contains 24 references. (DDR)

  5. The Animal Exhibits at the Field Museum. Activities for Focused Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickland, Thomas, J.

    Museum visits allow students to see animals from South America, North America, Africa, Asia, and the North Pole without rain, snow, or mosquitoes. This activity guide was developed for teachers, chaperones, and students to use with the animal exhibits in the Daniel F. and Ada L. Rice Wing of the Field Museum of Chicago. Activities are designed for…

  6. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444

  7. 77 FR 4858 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... determinations made by ] the Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  8. "Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Janet Marie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

  9. Molecular biomarkers for chronological age in animal ecology.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Simon N; Polanowski, Andrea M; Faux, Cassandra E; Robbins, Jooke; De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo; Bravington, Mark; Deagle, Bruce E

    2015-10-01

    The chronological age of an individual animal predicts many of its biological characteristics, and these in turn influence population-level ecological processes. Animal age information can therefore be valuable in ecological research, but many species have no external features that allow age to be reliably determined. Molecular age biomarkers provide a potential solution to this problem. Research in this area of molecular ecology has so far focused on a limited range of age biomarkers. The most commonly tested molecular age biomarker is change in average telomere length, which predicts age well in a small number of species and tissues, but performs poorly in many other situations. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression has recently been shown to cause age-related modifications to DNA and to cause changes in abundance of several RNA types throughout animal lifespans. Age biomarkers based on these epigenetic changes, and other new DNA-based assays, have already been applied to model organisms, humans and a limited number of wild animals. There is clear potential to apply these marker types more widely in ecological studies. For many species, these new approaches will produce age estimates where this was previously impractical. They will also enable age information to be gathered in cross-sectional studies and expand the range of demographic characteristics that can be quantified with molecular methods. We describe the range of molecular age biomarkers that have been investigated to date and suggest approaches for developing the newer marker types as age assays in nonmodel animal species. PMID:26308242

  10. 76 FR 60112 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Byzantium and Islam: Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Byzantium and Islam: Age of... Islam: Age of Transition (7th-9th Century),'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the... Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information, including a list of...

  11. Animal aging and regulation of sympathetic nerve discharge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Studies completed in human subjects have made seminal contributions to understanding the effects of age on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulation. Numerous experimental constraints limit the design of studies involving human subjects; therefore, completion of studies in animal models of aging would be expected to provide additional insight regarding mechanisms mediating age-related changes in sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) regulation. The present review assesses the current state of the literature regarding contributions from animal studies on the effects of advancing age on SND regulation, focusing primarily on studies that have used direct recordings of sympathetic nerve outflow. Few studies using direct SND recordings have been completed in animal models of aging, regardless of the fundamental component of SND regulation reviewed (basal levels, acute responsiveness, relationships between the discharges in sympathetic nerves, central neural regulation). SNS responsiveness to various acute stressors is altered in aged compared with young animals; however, mechanisms remain virtually unexplored. There is a marked dearth of studies that have used central neural microinjection techniques in conjunction with SND recordings in aged animals, making it difficult to develop an evidence-based framework regarding potential age-associated effects on central regulation of SND. Determination of age-related changes in mechanisms regulating SND is important for understanding relationships between chronic disease development and changes in SNS function; however, this can only be achieved by substantially extending the current knowledge base regarding the effects of age on SND regulation in animal studies. PMID:20651223

  12. Attitudes Toward Animals: Age-Related Development Among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews a study's findings on children's (N=267) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward animals and natural habitats. Research results indicate that existence of three stages in the development of children's perceptions of animals. Major differences in age, sex, ethnicity and urban/rural residence were also noted. (ML)

  13. An Interactive Exhibition about Animal Skeletons: Did the Visitors Learn Any Zoology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Laterveer-de Beer, Manon

    2002-01-01

    Explores museum visitors' understanding of skeleton exhibits and whether such exhibits increase their understanding of the zoology displayed. The exhibition under study focused on the diversity of vertebrae skeletons which were arranged according to the mode of locomotion. (DDR)

  14. Animism Begins at Forty: Evidence that Animism and Other Naive Beliefs Are Established before the Onset of Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Robert; Stuart-Hamilton, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Animism (erroneously believing inanimate objects are alive) is present in older adults (McDonald & Stuart-Hamilton, 2000). However, it is unclear if animism arises in later life or middle age. The current study tested 34 middle-aged adults (mean age 48 years) on Piaget's animism task and found a significant level of animism. Strength of animism…

  15. Hippocampal Subregions Exhibit Both Distinct and Shared Transcriptomic Responses to Aging and Nonneurodegenerative Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Masser, Dustin R.; Bixler, Georgina V.; Brucklacher, Robert M.; Yan, Han; Giles, Cory B.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Sonntag, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory with aging affects a large segment of the aged population. Hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA3, and DG) have been previously reported to express both common and specific morphological, functional, and gene/protein alterations with aging and cognitive decline. To comprehensively assess gene expression with aging and cognitive decline, transcriptomic analysis of CA1, CA3, and DG was conducted using Adult (12M) and Aged (26M) F344xBN rats behaviorally characterized by Morris water maze performance. Each subregion demonstrated a specific pattern of responses with aging and with cognitive performance. The CA1 and CA3 demonstrating the greatest degree of shared gene expression changes. Analysis of the pathways, processes, and regulators of these transcriptomic changes also exhibit a similar pattern of commonalities and differences across subregions. Gene expression changes between Aged cognitively Intact and Aged cognitively Impaired rats often showed an inversion of the changes between Adult and Aged rats. This failure to adapt rather than an exacerbation of the aging phenotype questions a conventional view that cognitive decline is exaggerated aging. These results are a resource for investigators studying cognitive decline and also demonstrate the need to individually examine hippocampal subregions in molecular analyses of aging and cognitive decline. PMID:24994846

  16. Hippocampal subregions exhibit both distinct and shared transcriptomic responses to aging and nonneurodegenerative cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Masser, Dustin R; Bixler, Georgina V; Brucklacher, Robert M; Yan, Han; Giles, Cory B; Wren, Jonathan D; Sonntag, William E; Freeman, Willard M

    2014-11-01

    Impairment of hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory with aging affects a large segment of the aged population. Hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA3, and DG) have been previously reported to express both common and specific morphological, functional, and gene/protein alterations with aging and cognitive decline. To comprehensively assess gene expression with aging and cognitive decline, transcriptomic analysis of CA1, CA3, and DG was conducted using Adult (12M) and Aged (26M) F344xBN rats behaviorally characterized by Morris water maze performance. Each subregion demonstrated a specific pattern of responses with aging and with cognitive performance. The CA1 and CA3 demonstrating the greatest degree of shared gene expression changes. Analysis of the pathways, processes, and regulators of these transcriptomic changes also exhibit a similar pattern of commonalities and differences across subregions. Gene expression changes between Aged cognitively Intact and Aged cognitively Impaired rats often showed an inversion of the changes between Adult and Aged rats. This failure to adapt rather than an exacerbation of the aging phenotype questions a conventional view that cognitive decline is exaggerated aging. These results are a resource for investigators studying cognitive decline and also demonstrate the need to individually examine hippocampal subregions in molecular analyses of aging and cognitive decline. PMID:24994846

  17. Characterizing cognitive aging in humans with links to animal models

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gene E.; Ryan, Lee; Bowers, Dawn; Foster, Thomas C.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Geldmacher, David S.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the use of cognitive tests to evaluate the effects of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease, the need for a set of standardized measures to characterize the cognitive profiles specific to healthy aging has been widely recognized. Here we present a review of selected methods and approaches that have been applied in human research studies to evaluate the effects of aging on cognition, including executive function, memory, processing speed, language, and visuospatial function. The effects of healthy aging on each of these cognitive domains are discussed with examples from cognitive/experimental and clinical/neuropsychological approaches. Further, we consider those measures that have clear conceptual and methodological links to tasks currently in use for non-human animal studies of aging, as well as those that have the potential for translation to animal aging research. Having a complementary set of measures to assess the cognitive profiles of healthy aging across species provides a unique opportunity to enhance research efforts for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies of cognitive aging. Taking a cross-species, translational approach will help to advance cognitive aging research, leading to a greater understanding of associated neurobiological mechanisms with the potential for developing effective interventions and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22988439

  18. Middle-aged adults exhibit altered spatial variations in Achilles tendon wave speed

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Laura Chernak; DeWall, Ryan; Martin, Jack; Lee, Kenneth; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial variations in measured wave speed in the relaxed and stretched Achilles tendons of young and middle-aged adults. Wave speed was measured from the distal Achilles tendon, soleus aponeurosis, medial gastrocnemius aponeurosis and medial gastrocnemius muscle in healthy young (n = 15, aged 25 ± 4 years) and middle-aged (n = 10, aged 49 ± 4 years) adults in resting, dorsiflexed and plantarflexed postures. In both age groups, Achilles tendon wave speed decreased proximally, with the lowest wave speed measured in the gastrocnemius aponeurosis. Measured wave speed increased with passive dorsiflexion, reflecting the strain-stiffening behavior of tendons. There were no significant aging effects on wave speed in the free tendon or soleus aponeurosis. However, a significant, inverse relationship between gastrocnemius aponeurosis wave speed and age was observed in the dorsiflexed posture. We also observed significantly lower wave speeds in the gastrocnemius muscles of middle-aged adults when compared with young adults. These results suggest that Achilles tendon compliance increases in a distal-to-proximal pattern, with middle-aged adults exhibiting greater compliance in the distal gastrocnemius muscle and tendinous structures. An age-related change in the spatial variation in Achilles tendon compliance could affect localised tissue deformation patterns and injury potential within the triceps surae muscle-tendon units. PMID:26020294

  19. Impairments of Synaptic Plasticity in Aged Animals and in Animal Models of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Balietti, Marta; Tamagnini, Francesco; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Burattini, Costanza; Casoli, Tiziana; Platano, Daniela; Lattanzio, Fabrizia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aging is associated with a gradual decline in cognitive functions, and more dramatic cognitive impairments occur in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Electrophysiological and molecular studies performed in aged animals and in animal models of AD have shown that cognitive decline is associated with significant modifications in synaptic plasticity (i.e., activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength) and have elucidated some of the cellular mechanisms underlying this process. Morphological studies have revealed a correlation between the quality of memory performance and the extent of structural changes of synaptic contacts occurring during memory consolidation. We briefly review recent experimental evidence here. PMID:22533439

  20. Sepsis in Old Age: Review of Human and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a serious problem among the geriatric population as its incidence and mortality rates dramatically increase with advanced age. Despite a large number of ongoing clinical and basic research studies, there is currently no effective therapeutic strategy that rescues elderly patients with severe sepsis. Recognition of this problem is relatively low as compared to other age-associated diseases. The disparity between clinical and basic studies is a problem, and this is likely due, in part, to the fact that most laboratory animals used for sepsis research are not old while the majority of sepsis cases occur in the geriatric population. The objective of this article is to review recent epidemiological studies and clinical observations, and compare these with findings from basic laboratory studies which have used aged animals in experimental sepsis. PMID:24729938

  1. Alternative conceptions in animal classification: A cross-age study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowbridge, John E.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    Employing a cross-age design, this study examined students' alternative conceptions in animal classification at the elementary, secondary, and college levels. Based on a previous study that made use of clinical interviews and a classification task, subjects (N = 468) were administered a multiple-choice/free-response instrument that probed understanding of the concept animal, the vertebrate/invertebrate distinction, and the principal vertebrate classes. Results suggest that students subscribe to a highly restricted view of animals; applying the label almost exclusively to vertebrates, especially to common mammals. When asked to distinguish between vertebrate and invertebrate animals and to classify several species into vertebrate groups, a wide range of alternative conceptions emerged. Cross-age comparisons indicate that many of these alternative views remain intact throughout the school years, while others yield more readily to formal instruction and/or nonschool experiences. Considered within the context of a neoconstructivist view of learning, several suggestions are offered for teaching concepts in animal classification.

  2. A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging investigation into an animal model exhibiting glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Bambery, K R; Schültke, E; Wood, B R; Rigley MacDonald, S T; Ataelmannan, K; Griebel, R W; Juurlink, B H J; McNaughton, D

    2006-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant human brain tumour for which no cure is available at present. Numerous clinical studies as well as animal experiments are under way with the goal being to understand tumour biology and develop potential therapeutic approaches. C6 cell glioma in the adult rat is a frequently used and well accepted animal model for the malignant human glial tumour. By combining standard analytical methods such as histology and immunohistochemistry with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopic imaging and multivariate statistical approaches, we are developing a novel approach to tumour diagnosis which allows us to obtain information about the structure and composition of tumour tissues that could not be obtained easily with either method alone. We have used a "Stingray" FTIR imaging spectrometer to analyse and compare the compositions of coronal brain tissue sections of a tumour-bearing animal and those from a healthy animal. We have found that the tumour tissue has a characteristic chemical signature, which distinguishes it from tumour-free brain tissue. The physical-chemical differences, determined by image and spectral comparison are consistent with changes in total protein absorbance, phosphodiester absorbance and physical dispersive artefacts. The results indicate that FTIR imaging analysis could become a valuable analytic method in brain tumour research and possibly in the diagnosis of human brain tumours. PMID:16815240

  3. Testing a model of aging in animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Tyurin YuN; Yakovlev AYu; Shi, J; Bass, L

    1995-03-01

    A stochastic model of aging is developed in terms of accumulation and expression of intracellular lesions caused by environment or intrinsic genetic program. In contrast to the commonly used Gompertz-Makeham approach to the parametric analysis of mortality data, the model yields a hazard function that is bounded from above. For testing the model in experiments aimed at studying animal longevity, a Kolmogorov-type statistical test is presented with regard to the hypothesis involving unknown parameters. Examples concerning longevity of intact animals of two different species, as well as the effect of a prolonged irradiation at a low dose rate, are given to illustrate the model application and goodness-of-fit testing. The results of the analysis of published data show that the rate of lesion formation is not sustained at a constant level throughout life, though in some cases its variations with age can be considered negligible. PMID:7766791

  4. Evidence for Family Engagement in Scientific Reasoning at Interactive Animal Exhibits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisiel, James; Rowe, Shawn; Vartabedian, Melanie Ani; Kopczak, Charles

    2012-01-01

    While the opportunity to engage in scientific reasoning has been identified as an important aspect of informal science learning (National Research Council, 2009), most studies have examined this strand of science learning within the context of physics-based science exhibits. Few have examined the presence of such activity in conjunction with live…

  5. A modified operational sequence methodology for zoo exhibit design and renovation: conceptualizing animals, staff, and visitors as interdependent coworkers.

    PubMed

    Kelling, Nicholas J; Gaalema, Diann E; Kelling, Angela S

    2014-01-01

    Human factors analyses have been used to improve efficiency and safety in various work environments. Although generally limited to humans, the universality of these analyses allows for their formal application to a much broader domain. This paper outlines a model for the use of human factors to enhance zoo exhibits and optimize spaces for all user groups; zoo animals, zoo visitors, and zoo staff members. Zoo exhibits are multi-faceted and each user group has a distinct set of requirements that can clash or complement each other. Careful analysis and a reframing of the three groups as interdependent coworkers can enhance safety, efficiency, and experience for all user groups. This paper details a general creation and specific examples of the use of the modified human factors tools of function allocation, operational sequence diagram and needs assessment. These tools allow for adaptability and ease of understanding in the design or renovation of exhibits. PMID:24838689

  6. The dog aging project: translational geroscience in companion animals.

    PubMed

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Creevy, Kate E; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the basic biology of aging have identified several genetic and pharmacological interventions that appear to modulate the rate of aging in laboratory model organisms, but a barrier to further progress has been the challenge of moving beyond these laboratory discoveries to impact health and quality of life for people. The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, offers a unique opportunity for surmounting this barrier in the near future. In particular, companion dogs share our environment and play an important role in improving the quality of life for millions of people. Here, we present a rationale for increasing the role of companion dogs as an animal model for both basic and clinical geroscience and describe complementary approaches and ongoing projects aimed at achieving this goal. PMID:27143112

  7. [Microgravity, life span and biological age of animals].

    PubMed

    Serova, L V

    2002-01-01

    Summarized are author's and literary data about the microgravity effects on life span and biological age of animals obtained in experiments with laboratory rats flown in biosatellites Kosmos. Exposure of rats in the spaceflight microgravity as long as 3 wk. (up to 1/50th of the life period of this species) did not reduce the life span post flight. Alterations in biological age as judged by the reproductive function, general resistance and tissue regeneration rate were minor and in a number of parameters were significantly less as compared with the shifts resulting from simulation of the physiological effects of microgravity in laboratory (for a similar period). Prospects of investigations into this problem are considered. PMID:12442585

  8. 76 FR 56492 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Antico: The Golden Age of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Antico: The Golden Age of..., 2003), I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Antico: The Golden Age of... Public Notice of these Determinations be published in the Federal Register. For Further...

  9. 75 FR 57102 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Titian and the Golden Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Titian and the Golden Age of... hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Titian and the Golden Age of... published in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information, including...

  10. 76 FR 51458 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Wonder of the Age: Master...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Wonder of the Age: Master Painters... Age: Master Painters of India, 1100-1900,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the... in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information, including a...

  11. NRMT1 knockout mice exhibit phenotypes associated with impaired DNA repair and premature aging

    PubMed Central

    Bonsignore, Lindsay A.; Tooley, John G.; Van Hoose, Patrick M.; Wang, Eugenia; Cheng, Alan; Cole, Marsha P.; Tooley, Christine E. Schaner

    2015-01-01

    Though defective genome maintenance and DNA repair have long been know to promote phenotypes of premature aging, the role protein methylation plays in these processes is only now emerging. We have recently identified the first N-terminal methyltransferase, NRMT1, which regulates protein-DNA interactions and is necessary for both accurate mitotic division and nucleotide excision repair. To demonstrate if complete loss of NRMT1 subsequently resulted in developmental or aging phenotypes, we constructed the first NRMT1 knockout (Nrmt1−/−) mouse. The majority of these mice die shortly after birth. However, the ones that survive exhibit decreased body size, female-specific infertility, kyphosis, decreased mitochondrial function, and early-onset liver degeneration; phenotypes characteristic of other mouse models deficient in DNA repair. The livers from Nrmt1−/− mice produce less reactive oxygen species (ROS) than wild type controls, and Nrmt1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts show a decreased capacity for handling oxidative damage. This indicates that decreased mitochondrial function may benefit Nrmt1−/− mice and protect them from excess internal ROS and subsequent DNA damage. These studies position the NRMT1 knockout mouse as a useful new system for studying the effects of genomic instability and defective DNA damage repair on organismal and tissue-specific aging. PMID:25843235

  12. Post-mortem oxidative stability of three yak (Bos grunniens) muscles as influenced by animal age.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wenting; Luo, Xiaolin; Xia, Baixue; Guan, Jiuqiang; Nie, Yuanyang; Li, Lu; Duan, Jingyue; Suman, Surendranath P; Sun, Qun

    2015-07-01

    The influence of animal age and muscle source on the oxidative stability of yak steaks was examined. Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscles from yaks of different age groups (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 years), and three muscle sources of LT, Psoas major (PM), and Biceps femoris (BF) from yaks of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 years, were evaluated for metmyoglobin content, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and antioxidant capacity. Oxidative stability was influenced (P<0.05) by muscle source and animal age. LT steaks from 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 year old yaks exhibited lower (P<0.05) metmyoglobin content than their PM and BF counterparts. Furthermore, LT steaks from 3.5 year old yaks demonstrated lower (P<0.05) metmyoglobin content and greater (P<0.05) activities of antioxidant enzymes than LT steaks from other age groups. These results indicated the necessity to develop muscle- and age-specific processing strategies to improve color and oxidative stability of yak meat. PMID:25839885

  13. Injury in aged animals robustly activates quiescent olfactory neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Brann, Jessica H.; Ellis, Deandrea P.; Ku, Benson S.; Spinazzi, Eleonora F.; Firestein, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    While the capacity of the olfactory epithelium (OE) to generate sensory neurons continues into middle age in mice, it is presumed that this regenerative potential is present throughout all developmental stages. However, little experimental evidence exists to support the idea that this regenerative capacity remains in late adulthood, and questions about the functionality of neurons born at these late stages remain unanswered. Here, we extend our previous work in the VNO to investigate basal rates of proliferation in the OE, as well as after olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), a commonly used surgical lesion. In addition, we show that the neural stem cell retains its capacity to generate mature olfactory sensory neurons in aged animals. Finally, we demonstrate that regardless of age, a stem cell in the OE, the horizontal basal cell (HBC), exhibits a morphological switch from a flattened, quiescent phenotype to a pyramidal, proliferative phenotype following chemical lesion in aged animals. These findings provide new insights into determining whether an HBC is active or quiescent based on a structural feature as opposed to a biochemical one. More importantly, it suggests that neural stem cells in aged mice are responsive to the same signals triggering proliferation as those observed in young mice. PMID:26500487

  14. Aging synaptic mitochondria exhibit dynamic proteomic changes while maintaining bioenergetic function

    PubMed Central

    Stauch, Kelly L.; Purnell, Phillip R.; Fox, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Aging correlates with a progressive impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis and is an influential factor for several forms of neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying age-related alterations in synaptosomal mitochondria, a neuronal mitochondria population highly susceptible to insults and critical for brain function, remain incompletely understood. Therefore this study investigates the synaptic mitochondrial proteomic and bioenergetic alterations that occur with age. The utilization of a state of the art quantitative proteomics approach allowed for the comparison of protein expression levels in synaptic mitochondria isolated from 5 (mature), 12 (old), and 24 (aged) month old mice. During the process of aging we find that dynamic proteomic alterations occur in synaptic mitochondria. Despite direct (mitochondrial DNA deletions) and indirect (increased antioxidant protein levels) signs of mitochondrial damage in the aged mice, there was an overall maintenance of mitochondrial function. Therefore the synaptic mitochondrial proteomic changes that occur with aging correlate with preservation of synaptic mitochondrial function. PMID:24827396

  15. Cleopatra's Egypt. A Museum Exhibition Explores Egypt during the Age of the Ptolemies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historical premises behind a traveling exhibit of Egyptian Hellenistic art from the Ptolemic Period. Focuses on the uniquely Egyptian characteristics of this art, including religious symbolism, costume elements, and characteristics of craftsmanship. (LS)

  16. Ablations of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor exhibit differential metabolic phenotypes and thermogenic capacity during aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a hallmark of aging in many Western societies, and is a precursor to numerous serious age-related diseases. Ghrelin ("Ghrl"), via its receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R), is shown to stimulate GH secretion and appetite. Surprisingly, our previous studies showed that "Gh...

  17. The Presentation of Self in the Age of Social Media: Distinguishing Performances and Exhibitions Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Bernie

    2010-01-01

    Presentation of self (via Goffman) is becoming increasingly popular as a means for explaining differences in meaning and activity of online participation. This article argues that self-presentation can be split into performances, which take place in synchronous "situations," and artifacts, which take place in asynchronous "exhibitions." Goffman's…

  18. [Distribution of the different patterns of aging over the system of animal world].

    PubMed

    Popov, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Since the system of animal world reflects evolutionary trends, an analysis of distribution of patterns of aging over this system provides information on the causes of the formation of differences among them. In this paper the system of the main animal groups in form of a table is presented, and the distribution of patterns demonstrating minimum and maximum of aging is discussed. Meanwhile the colonial animals are considered as a "minimum of aging", the animals demonstrating drastic self-liquidation after reproduction are considered as a "maximum of aging" (the most well-known example is the pink salmon). It is shown, that as far as the degree of difference from the simplest ancestor increases in process of evolution, the increase of the manifestations of aging takes place. Slow aging of relatively simple organisms cannot be a direct source of measures to prevent aging of complex ones. PMID:21957572

  19. 69 FR 8512 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: “Coming of Age in Ancient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-02-24

    ....), Delegation of Authority No. 234 of October 1, 1999 (64 FR 56014), Delegation of Authority No. 236 of October 19, 1999 (64 FR 57920), as amended, and Delegation of Authority No. 257 of April 15, 2003 (68 FR... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition; Determinations: ``Coming of Age in Ancient...

  20. Cross-Age Peer Coaching: Enhancing the Peer Interactions of Children Exhibiting Symptoms of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardo, Brigid A.; DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee; Hojnoski, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can experience social difficulties. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of cross-age peer coaching on social behaviors of first graders with significant symptoms of ADHD using a multiple baseline design. Four students who met criteria…

  1. Pathology of the Aging Brain in Domestic and Laboratory Animals, and Animal Models of Human Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Youssef, S A; Capucchio, M T; Rofina, J E; Chambers, J K; Uchida, K; Nakayama, H; Head, E

    2016-03-01

    According to the WHO, the proportion of people over 60 years is increasing and expected to reach 22% of total world's population in 2050. In parallel, recent animal demographic studies have shown that the life expectancy of pet dogs and cats is increasing. Brain aging is associated not only with molecular and morphological changes but also leads to different degrees of behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. Common age-related brain lesions in humans include brain atrophy, neuronal loss, amyloid plaques, cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy, vascular mineralization, neurofibrillary tangles, meningeal osseous metaplasia, and accumulation of lipofuscin. In aging humans, the most common neurodegenerative disorder is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which progressively impairs cognition, behavior, and quality of life. Pathologic changes comparable to the lesions of AD are described in several other animal species, although their clinical significance and effect on cognitive function are poorly documented. This review describes the commonly reported age-associated neurologic lesions in domestic and laboratory animals and the relationship of these lesions to cognitive dysfunction. Also described are the comparative interspecies similarities and differences to AD and other human neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, and the spontaneous and transgenic animal models of these diseases. PMID:26869150

  2. Rat adenocarcinoma 13762 expresses tumor rejection antigens but tumor-bearing animals exhibit tumor-specific immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Frey, A B; Appleman, L J

    1993-11-01

    Rat adenocarcinoma 13762 was adapted to continuous growth in culture and used in a variety of experiments to investigate the immune response to inoculation of animals with replication-defective tumor cells. The results demonstrate that 13762 cells express tumor-specific tumor rejection antigens that elicit protective immunity to tumorigenic challenge. By several criteria there is no apparent humoral component of the anti-tumor immunity; however, anti-tumor immunity is characterized by nylon-wool nonadherent spleen T cells. Anti-tumor T cells demonstrate tumoricidal activity in local adoptive transfer assays and are not found in spleens of naive animals or animals immunized against either nontumorigenic Rat 1 cells or a syngeneic fibrosarcoma. Despite the expression of tumor rejection antigens 13762 tumor, and the demonstrable ability of injection of irradiated tumor to induce anti-tumor immunity, tumors elicited in unimmunized syngeneic animals grow progressively. The reasons for growth of antigenic tumor are unknown but are shown not to be due to defective antigen expression in 13762 tumor since, in addition to being able to elicit T cell immune response in immunized animals, 13762 tumor expresses MHC Class I molecules and can be a target for allogeneic T cell recognition in vitro. These data suggest that in tumor-bearing animals an effective anti-tumor immune response is either not initiated or down-regulated. Since animals bearing 13762 tumors can be immunized against an unrelated syngeneic sarcoma, can produce humoral responses to several protein antigens, and can produce delayed type hypersensitivity response against dinitrofluorobenzene, the immune response to 13762-induced tumors appears specifically suppressed. In support of this contention, 13762 cells express high levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 in vitro which is postulated to impact upon the nascent anti-tumor immune response. PMID:8403560

  3. Comparative and alternative approaches and novel animal models for aging research

    PubMed Central

    Kristan, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    This special issue of AGE showcases powerful alternative or unconventional approaches to basic aging research, including the use of exceptionally long-lived animal model species and comparative methods from evolutionary biology. In this opening paper, we introduce several of these alternative aging research themes, including the comparative phylogenetic approach. This approach applies modern inferential methods for dissecting basic physiological and biochemical mechanisms correlated with phenotypic traits including longevity, slow aging, sustained somatic maintenance, and repair of molecular damage. Comparative methods can be used to assess the general relevance of specific aging mechanisms—including oxidative processes—to diverse animal species, as well as to assess their potential clinical relevance to humans and other mammals. We also introduce several other novel, underexploited approaches with particular relevance to biogerontology, including the use of model animal species or strains that retain natural genetic heterogeneity, studies of effects of infectious disease and parasites on aging and responses to caloric restriction, studies of reproductive aging, and naturally occurring sex differences in aging. We emphasize the importance of drawing inferences from aging phenomena in laboratory studies that can be applied to clinically relevant aging syndromes in long-lived, outbred animals, including humans. PMID:19424857

  4. Using prime-time animation to engage students in courses on aging.

    PubMed

    Curch, Lisa M

    2010-01-01

    Prime-time animation is a television genre that frequently reflects on issues that are significant in contemporary society, including aging issues. Using such programs to present aging-related content can be a constructive pedagogical device, offering a means of actively engaging students. This article provides a brief overview of the use of media, popular culture, and prime-time animation in college teaching and addresses specific issues in, as well as examples of, how such programs can be used in college courses, particularly aging courses. The article also reports on a small survey of students who were exposed to such a teaching technique in an undergraduate aging course. Results showed that, in general, students were positive about viewing prime-time animation videos in class and indicated that they found the viewings and associated assignments helpful for learning about concepts and issues in aging. PMID:21108101

  5. In vivo animal models of body composition in aging

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumura, S. |; Jones, K.; Spanne, P.; Schidlovsky, G.; Wielopolski, L.; Ren, X.; Glaros, D.; Xatzikonstantinou, Y. |

    1992-12-31

    We developed several techniques that provide data on body elemental composition from in vivo measurements in rats. These methods include total body potassium by whole-body counting of endogenous {sup 40}K; total body calcium (TBCa), sodium and chloride by in vivo neutron activation analysis and total body phosphorus (TBP) and nitrogen (TBN) by photon activation analysis. These elements provide information on total body fat, total body protein and skeletal mass. Measurements were made in 6-, 12- and 24-month-old rats. TBN Increased slightly between 6 and 12 months but was significantly lower by 24 months, indicating a substantial loss in total body protein. Working at the National Synchrotron light Source, we studied rat femurs by computed microtomography (CMT), and the elemental profile of the femur cortex by synchrotron-radiation induced X-ray emission (SRIXE). Although there were no significant changes in TBCA and TBP, indices of skeletal mass, CMT revealed a marked increase in the size and number of cavities in the endosteal region of the femur cortex with increasing age. The SRIXE analysis of this cortical bone revealed a parallel decrease in the endosteal Ca/P ratio. Thus, there are major alterations in bone morphology and regional elemental composition despite only modest changes in total skeletal mass.

  6. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, an active ginseng metabolite, exhibits strong antidepressant-like effects in animal tests.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changjiang; Teng, Jijun; Chen, Weidong; Ge, Qiang; Yang, Zhiqi; Yu, Chunying; Yang, Zirong; Jia, William

    2010-12-01

    Ginseng has been used for mood adjustment in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. Our previous study has shown that, total ginsenosides, the major pharmacologically functional ingredients of ginseng, possess antidepressant activity. In the present study, we hypothesized that an intestinal metabolite of ginseng, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (code name S111), as a post metabolism compound (PMC) of ingested ginsenosides, may be responsible for the antidepressant activity of ginseng. To test this hypothesis, antidepressant-like activity of orally given S111 was measured in animal tests including tail suspension test, forced swimming test and rat olfactory bulbectomy depression model. In all those tests, S111 demonstrated antidepressant-like activity as potent as fluoxetine. S111 treated bulbectomy animals had higher levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain and in vitro reuptake assay showed that S111 had a mild inhibitory effect. Furthermore, S111 but not fluoxetine significantly reduced brain oxidative stress and down-regulated serum corticosterone concentration in bulbectomy animals. No disturbance to central nervous system (CNS) normal functions were found in S111 treated animals. These results suggest that the ginseng active metabolite S111 is a potential antidepressant. Since the monoamine reuptake activity of this compound is rather weak, it remains to be investigated whether its antidepressant-like effect is by mechanisms that are different from current antidepressants. Furthermore, this study has demonstrated that post metabolism compounds (PMCs) of herb medicines such as S111 may be a novel source for drug discovery from medicinal herbs. PMID:20647027

  7. Bovine meniscal tissue exhibits age- and interleukin-1 dose-dependent degradation patterns and composition-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Ling, Carrie H-Y; Lai, Janice H; Wong, Ivan J; Levenston, Marc E

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing evidence that meniscal degeneration is an early event in the development of knee osteoarthritis, relatively little is known regarding the sequence or functional implications of cytokine-induced meniscal degradation or how degradation varies with age. This study examined dose-dependent patterns of interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced matrix degradation in explants from the radially middle regions of juvenile and adult bovine menisci. Tissue explants were cultured for 10 days in the presence of 0, 1.25, 5, or 20 ng/ml recombinant human IL-1α. Juvenile explants exhibited immediate and extensive sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) loss and subsequent collagen release beginning after 4-6 days, with relatively little IL-1 dose-dependence. Adult explants exhibited a more graded response to IL-1, with dose-dependent sGAG release and a lower fraction of sGAG released (but greater absolute release) than juvenile explants. In contrast to juvenile explants, adult explants exhibited minimal collagen release over the 10-day culture. Compressive and shear moduli reflected the changes in explant composition, with substantial decreases for both ages but a greater relative decrease in juvenile tissue. Dynamic moduli exhibited stronger dependence on explant sGAG content for juvenile tissue, likely reflecting concomitant changes to both proteoglycan and collagen tissue components. The patterns of tissue degradation suggest that, like in articular cartilage, meniscal proteoglycans may partially protect collagen from cell-mediated degeneration. A more detailed view of functional changes in meniscal tissue mechanics with degeneration will help to establish the relevance of in vitro culture models and will advance understanding of how meniscal degeneration contributes to overall joint changes in early stage osteoarthritis. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:801-811, 2016. PMID:26519862

  8. Effects of frame size and animal age on beef carcass quality and tenderness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 96) were used to determine the effects of frame size (medium, MED or small, SM) and animal age on beef carcass quality and tenderness in a forage finishing system. Steers grazed mixed pastures (bluegrass/white clover) and were slaughtered at 16.6, 18.6, and 20.3 mo of age in...

  9. Using Prime-Time Animation to Engage Students in Courses on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curch, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Prime-time animation is a television genre that frequently reflects on issues that are significant in contemporary society, including aging issues. Using such programs to present aging-related content can be a constructive pedagogical device, offering a means of actively engaging students. This article provides a brief overview of the use of…

  10. Characterizing cognitive aging of recognition memory and related processes in animal models and in humans

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sara N.; Ryan, Lee; Barnes, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of complex behaviors across the lifespan of animals can reveal the brain regions that are impacted by the normal aging process, thereby, elucidating potential therapeutic targets. Recent data from rats, monkeys, and humans converge, all indicating that recognition memory and complex visual perception are impaired in advanced age. These cognitive processes are also disrupted in animals with lesions of the perirhinal cortex, indicating that the the functional integrity of this structure is disrupted in old age. This current review summarizes these data, and highlights current methodologies for assessing perirhinal cortex-dependent behaviors across the lifespan. PMID:22988437

  11. Age-Related Effects of Alcohol from Adolescent, Adult, and Aged Populations Using Human and Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Van Skike, Candice E.; Nixon, Sara Jo; Matthews, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Background This review incorporates current research examining alcohol's differential effects on adolescents, adults, and aged populations in both animal and clinical models. Methods The studies presented range from cognitive, behavioral, molecular, and neuroimaging techniques, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of how acute and chronic alcohol use affects the brain throughout the life span. Results Age of life is a significant factor in determining the effect of alcohol on brain functioning. Adolescents and aged populations may be more negatively affected by heavy alcohol use when compared to adults. Conclusions Investigations limiting alcohol effects to a single age group constrains understanding of differential trajectories and outcomes following acute and chronic use. To meaningfully address the sequencing and interaction effects of alcohol and age, the field must incorporate collaborative and integrated research efforts focused on interdisciplinary questions facilitated by engaging basic and applied scientists with expertise in a range of disciplines including alcohol, neurodevelopment, and aging. PMID:25156779

  12. Aging and longevity in the simplest animals and the quest for immortality

    PubMed Central

    Petralia, Ronald S.; Mattson, Mark P.; Yao, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Here we review the examples of great longevity and potential immortality in the earliest animal types and contrast and compare these to humans and other higher animals. We start by discussing aging in single-celled organisms such as yeast and ciliates, and the idea of the immortal cell clone. Then we describe how these cell clones could become organized into colonies of different cell types that lead to multicellular animal life. We survey aging and longevity in all of the basal metazoan groups including ctenophores (comb jellies), sponges, placozoans, cnidarians (hydras, jellyfish, corals and sea anemones) and myxozoans. Then we move to the simplest bilaterian animals (with a head, three body cell layers, and bilateral symmetry), the two phyla of flatworms. A key determinant of longevity and immortality in most of these simple animals is the large numbers of pluripotent stem cells that underlie the remarkable abilities of these animals to regenerate and rejuvenate themselves. Finally, we discuss briefly the evolution of the higher bilaterians and how longevity was reduced and immortality lost due to attainment of greater body complexity and cell cycle strategies that protect these complex organisms from developing tumors. We also briefly consider how the evolution of multiple aging-related mechanisms/pathwayshinders our ability to understand and modify the aging process in higher organisms. PMID:24910306

  13. A nested PCR assay exhibits enhanced sensitivity for detection of Theileria parva infections in bovine blood samples from carrier animals.

    PubMed

    Odongo, David O; Sunter, Jack D; Kiara, Henry K; Skilton, Robert A; Bishop, Richard P

    2010-01-01

    Theileria parva causes East Coast fever, an economically important disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay for the detection of T. parva DNA in cattle blood spotted onto filter paper using primers derived from the T. parva-specific 104-kDa antigen (p104) gene. The sensitivity of this assay was compared to a previously described p104-based PCR and also the reverse line blot (RLB) technique, using serial dilutions of blood from a calf with known T. parva piroplasm parasitaemia. The relative sensitivities of the three assays were 0.4, 1.4 and 4 parasites/microl corresponding to blood parasitaemias of 9.2 x 10(-6)%, 2.8 x 10(-5)% and 8.3 x 10(-5)%, respectively. The three assays were applied to samples from two calves infected with the T. parva Muguga stock. Parasite DNA was consistently detectable by the two p104 PCR assays until 48 and 82 days post-infection, respectively, and thereafter sporadically. RLB detected parasite DNA in the two infected calves until days 43 and 45. Field samples from 151 Kenyan cattle exhibited 37.7% positivity for T. parva by regular p104 PCR and 42.3% positivity using p104 nPCR. Among 169 cattle blood samples from Southern Sudan, 36% were positive for T. parva using nPCR. The nPCR assay represents a highly sensitive tool for detection and monitoring of asymptomatic carrier state infections of T. parva in the blood of cattle. PMID:19902251

  14. Spatial variation in osteonal bone properties relative to tissue and animal age.

    PubMed

    Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Burket, Jayme C; Havill, Lorena M; DiCarlo, Edward; Doty, Stephen B; Mendelsohn, Richard; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H; Boskey, Adele L

    2009-07-01

    Little is known about osteonal bone mineral and matrix properties, although these properties are of major importance for the understanding of bone alterations related to age and bone diseases such as osteoporosis. During aging, bone undergoes modifications that compromise their structural integrity as shown clinically by the increase of fracture incidence with age. Based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis from baboons between 0 and 32 yr of age, consistent systematic variations in bone properties as a function of tissue age are reported within osteons. The patterns observed were independent of animal age and positively correlated with bone tissue elastic behavior measured by nano-indentation. As long as tissue age is expressed as a percentage of the entire osteon radius, osteonal analyses can be used to characterize disease changes independent of the size of the osteon. These mineral and matrix analyses can be used to explain bone fragility. The mineral content (mineral-to-matrix ratio) was correlated with the animal age in both old (interstitial) and newly formed bone tissue, showing for the first time that age-related changes in BMC can be explain by an alteration in the mineralization process itself and not only by an imbalance in the remodeling process. PMID:19210217

  15. Stepwise enrichment of 15N along food chains: Further evidence and the relation between δ 15N and animal age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minagawa, Masao; Wada, Eitaro

    1984-05-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrogen was measured in marine and fresh-water animals from the East China Sea, The Bering Sea, Lake Ashinoko and Usujiri intertidal zone. Primary producers, showed average δ15Nversus atmospheric nitrogen of +5.0%. (+3.4 to +7.5) in the Bering Sea and Lake Ashinoko, and +6.8%. (+6.0 to +7.6) in Usujiri intertidal zone. Blue green algae from the East China Sea show an average -0.55%. (-0.8 to +1.2). All consumers, Zooplankton, fish and bird exhibited Stepwise enrichment of 15N with increasing trophic level. The 15N enrichment at a single feeding process ranged from +1.3 to +5.3 averaging +3.4 ± 1.1%.. This isotopic fractionation seems to be independent of habitat. The effect of age in animals was obtained by analyzing two marine mussels. The soft tissue nitrogen showed +2.0%. enrichment relative to that of primary producers, and the magnitude was almost constant with shell ages ranging from 0 to 8 years. A similar 15N enrichment occurs in all Molluscs, Crustaceans, Insecta, Amphibia, Fish, Ave and Mammal species regardless of the difference in the form of excreted nitrogen and in laboratory cultured fish, brine shrimp and mice (+2.9 to +4.9%.). The excreted ammonia from guppy was sufficiently light to balance the concentration of 15N to animal body.

  16. Review of growth plate closure compared with age at sexual maturity and lifespan in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Kilborn, Susan H; Trudel, Guy; Uhthoff, Hans

    2002-09-01

    Although it is assumed that most mammals experience growth plate closure and cessation of bone growth soon after sexual maturity, bone growth in rats continues throughout their lifespan. The rat was compared to other laboratory animals to assess differences in the duration of bone growth and its relationship to age at sexual maturity and lifespan. We reviewed the literature from 1966 to March 1999 by searching MEDLINE and other databases. Growth closure times and age at sexual maturity were retrieved for the mouse, rabbit, dog, cat, sheep, cow, horse, nonhuman primates, and human. For all species, we calculated the ratios of: 1) age at growth plate closure to lifespan, 2) age at growth plate closure to age at sexual maturity, and 3) age at sexual maturity to average lifespan. The ratio of age at physis closure to the average lifespan was large for the rat (22 to 35) and showed some overlap with that of humans (17 to 25); this ratio was comparatively small in all other nonhuman species (range, 4 to 17). This finding indicates that bone growth continues in the rat for a greater proportion of their lifespan than does that in other species. The ratio of age at physis closure to age at sexual maturity was larger for the rat (5 to 6) than that for other species, indicating that bone growth continues much longer after sexual maturity in rats than in other animals. The ratio of age at sexual maturity to average lifespan was largest for humans and nonhuman primates (13 to 14), indicating the increased time to reach puberty versus that in other species. These differences are important for studies in which animal models are used in research involving bone growth. PMID:12213043

  17. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Eun; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation. PMID:26894429

  18. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation. PMID:26894429

  19. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  20. Antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Min; Gweon, Oh-Cheon; Seo, Yeong-Ju; Im, Jieun; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myo-Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in the diabetic state increases oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy can be strongly correlated with decreased risks for diabetic complications. The purpose of this study is to determine antioxidant effect of garlic and aged black garlic in animal model of type 2 diabetes. The antioxidant activity of garlic and aged black garlic was measured as the activity in scavenging free radicals by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Three week-old db/db mice were fed AIN-93G diet or diet containing 5% freeze-dried garlic or aged black garlic for 7 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Hepatic levels of lipid peroxides and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured. TEAC values of garlic and aged black garlic were 13.3 ± 0.5 and 59.2 ± 0.8 µmol/g wet weight, respectively. Consumption of aged black garlic significantly decreased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level compared with the garlic group which showed lower TBARS level than control group (p<0.05). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of garlic and aged black garlic group were significantly elevated compared to the control group. Catalase (CAT) activity of aged black garlic group was increased compared with the control group. These results show that aged black garlic exerts stronger antioxidant activity than garlic in vitro and in vivo, suggesting garlic and aged black garlic, to a greater extent, could be useful in preventing diabetic complications. PMID:20016716

  1. Early stage drug treatment that normalizes proinflammatory cytokine production attenuates synaptic dysfunction in a mouse model that exhibits age-dependent progression of Alzheimer's disease-related pathology.

    PubMed

    Bachstetter, Adam D; Norris, Christopher M; Sompol, Pradoldej; Wilcock, Donna M; Goulding, Danielle; Neltner, Janna H; St Clair, Daret; Watterson, D Martin; Van Eldik, Linda J

    2012-07-25

    Overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines in the CNS has been implicated as a key contributor to pathophysiology progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and extensive studies with animal models have shown that selective suppression of excessive glial proinflammatory cytokines can improve neurologic outcomes. The prior art, therefore, raises the logical postulation that intervention with drugs targeting dysregulated glial proinflammatory cytokine production might be effective disease-modifying therapeutics if used in the appropriate biological time window. To test the hypothesis that early stage intervention with such drugs might be therapeutically beneficial, we examined the impact of intervention with MW01-2-151SRM (MW-151), an experimental therapeutic that selectively attenuates proinflammatory cytokine production at low doses. MW-151 was tested in an APP/PS1 knock-in mouse model that exhibits increases in AD-relevant pathology progression with age, including increases in proinflammatory cytokine levels. Drug was administered during two distinct but overlapping therapeutic time windows of early stage pathology development. MW-151 treatment attenuated the increase in microglial and astrocyte activation and proinflammatory cytokine production in the cortex and yielded improvement in neurologic outcomes, such as protection against synaptic protein loss and synaptic plasticity impairment. The results also demonstrate that the therapeutic time window is an important consideration in efficacy studies of drugs that modulate glia biological responses involved in pathology progression and suggest that such paradigms should be considered in the development of new therapeutic regimens that seek to delay the onset or slow the progression of AD. PMID:22836255

  2. Clade age and not diversification rate explains species richness among animal taxa.

    PubMed

    McPeek, Mark A; Brown, Jonathan M

    2007-04-01

    Animal taxa show remarkable variability in species richness across phylogenetic groups. Most explanations for this disparity postulate that taxa with more species have phenotypes or ecologies that cause higher diversification rates (i.e., higher speciation rates or lower extinction rates). Here we show that clade longevity, and not diversification rate, has primarily shaped patterns of species richness across major animal clades: more diverse taxa are older and thus have had more time to accumulate species. Diversification rates calculated from 163 species-level molecular phylogenies were highly consistent within and among three major animal phyla (Arthropoda, Chordata, Mollusca) and did not correlate with species richness. Clades with higher estimated diversification rates were younger, but species numbers increased with increasing clade age. A fossil-based data set also revealed a strong, positive relationship between total extant species richness and crown group age across the orders of insects and vertebrates. These findings do not negate the importance of ecology or phenotype in influencing diversification rates, but they do show that clade longevity is the dominant signal in major animal biodiversity patterns. Thus, some key innovations may have acted through fostering clade longevity and not by heightening diversification rate. PMID:17427118

  3. Ossification score is a better indicator of maturity related changes in eating quality than animal age.

    PubMed

    Bonny, S P F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F; Gardner, G E

    2016-04-01

    Ossification score and animal age are both used as proxies for maturity-related collagen crosslinking and consequently decreases in beef tenderness. Ossification score is strongly influenced by the hormonal status of the animal and may therefore better reflect physiological maturity and consequently eating quality. As part of a broader cross-European study, local consumers scored 18 different muscle types cooked in three ways from 482 carcasses with ages ranging from 590 to 6135 days and ossification scores ranging from 110 to 590. The data were studied across three different maturity ranges; the complete range of maturities, a lesser range and a more mature range. The lesser maturity group consisted of carcasses having either an ossification score of 200 or less or an age of 987 days or less with the remainder in the greater maturity group. The three different maturity ranges were analysed separately with a linear mixed effects model. Across all the data, and for the greater maturity group, animal age had a greater magnitude of effect on eating quality than ossification score. This is likely due to a loss of sensitivity in mature carcasses where ossification approached and even reached the maximum value. In contrast, age had no relationship with eating quality for the lesser maturity group, leaving ossification score as the more appropriate measure. Therefore ossification score is more appropriate for most commercial beef carcasses, however it is inadequate for carcasses with greater maturity such as cull cows. Both measures may therefore be required in models to predict eating quality over populations with a wide range in maturity. PMID:26687476

  4. Y-QA31, a novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, exhibits antipsychotic-like properties in preclinical animal models of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xue; Gou, Hong-yan; Li, Fei; Lu, Guan-yi; Song, Rui; Yang, Ri-fang; Wu, Ning; Su, Rui-bin; Cong, Bin; Li, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the potential effects of Y-QA31, a novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, as an antipsychotic drug. Methods: A panel of radioligand-receptor binding assays was performed to identify the affinities of Y-QA31 for different G protein-coupled receptors. [35S]GTPγS-binding assays and Ca2+ imaging were used to assess its intrinsic activities. The antipsychotic profile of Y-QA31 was characterized in mouse models for the positive symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and extrapyramidal side effects with haloperidol and clozapine as positive controls. Results: In vitro, Y-QA31 is a dopamine D3 receptor antagonist that is 186-fold more potent at the D3 receptor than at the D2 receptor. Y-QA31 also exhibits 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist and α1A adrenoceptor antagonist activities with medium affinity, whereas it exhibits very little affinity for other receptors (100-fold lower than for the D3 receptor). In vivo, Y-QA31 (10–40 mg/kg, po) significantly inhibited MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion and methamphetamine-induced prepulse inhibition disruption in a dose-dependent manner. Y-QA31 also inhibited the avoidance response and methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion with potency lower than haloperidol. Y-QA31 was effective in alleviating the MK-801-induced disruption of novel object recognition at a low dose (1 mg/kg, po). Moreover, Y-QA31 itself did not affect spontaneous locomotion or induce cataleptic response until its dose reached 120 mg/kg. Conclusion: Y-QA31 is a selective D3R antagonist that exhibits antipsychotic effects in some animal models with positive symptoms and cognitive disorder and less extrapyramidal side effects. PMID:26775662

  5. Effect of in vivo loading on bone composition varies with animal age

    PubMed Central

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Checa, Sara; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N.; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Willie, Bettina M.

    2015-01-01

    Loading can increase bone mass and size and this response is reduced with aging. It is unclear, however how loading affects bone mineral and matrix properties. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and high resolution synchrotron scanning small angle X-ray scattering were used to study how bone’s microscale and nanoscale compositional properties were altered in the tibial midshaft of young, adult, and elderly female C57Bl/6J mice after two weeks of controlled in vivo compressive loading in comparison to physiological loading. The effect of controlled loading on bone composition varied with animal age, since it predominantly influenced the bone composition of elderly mice. Interestingly, controlled loading led to enhanced collagen maturity in elderly mice. In addition, although the rate of bone formation was increased by controlled loading based on histomorphometry, the newly formed tissue had similar material quality to new bone tissue formed during physiological loading. Similar to previous studies, our data showed that bone composition was animal and tissue age dependent during physiological loading. The findings that the new tissue formed in response to controlled loading and physiological loading had similar bone composition and that controlled loading enhanced bone composition in elderly mice further supports the use of physical activity as a noninvasive treatment to enhance bone quality as well as maintain bone mass in individuals suffering from age-related bone loss. PMID:25639943

  6. Effect of management practices and animal age on incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Tariq; Rahman, Abdur; Qureshi, Muhammand Subhan; Hussain, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Muhammad Shauib; Uddin, Siraj; Iqbal, Muhammad; Han, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Buffalo is an economically important dairy animal in South Asia but mostly ignored in research priorities. In this retrospective study, the effect of management practices and age of animal on the incidence of mastitis in Nili Ravi buffaloes was investigated. A total of 1,560 quarters of buffaloes (n = 390) were screened by visual examination of the udder and milk (clinical mastitis) and California mastitis test (subclinical mastitis). Household data was collected on a predesigned questionnaire and analyzed. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis, clinical mastitis, and blind quarters was 41.8, 13.6, and 9.7 %, respectively. The highest prevalence was noted in the hind quarters and left side as compared to that in the forequarters and right side. This data significantly (p < 0.05) supported the idea that larger herd size has more chances of mastitis, with the highest prevalence (40, 32, and 27 %) in the large, medium, and small herds, respectively. Stage of lactation was significantly (p < 0.01) involved in mastitis, and the highest incidence (43.3 %) was noted in early lactation. Milk production of lactating buffaloes that ranged 6-10 l/day showed a higher rate of mastitis occurrence (p < 0.05). The cleanliness condition of a farm also contributed significantly. Animal age significantly affected the incidence of mastitis. Results revealed that age of the animal has a positive correlation (R (2) = 0.772) with mastitis. This study concluded that some factors alone or in combination with other factors influence significantly the occurrence of mastitis, and to minimize the infection, these factors should be considered. The outcome of the study will be valuable for policy-making for positive management practices and implementation of preventive measures. PMID:25027737

  7. Neuroscientists as Cartographers: Mapping the Crossroads of Gonadal Hormones, Memory and Age Using Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.; Acosta, Jazmin I.; Talboom, Joshua S.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive function is multidimensional and complex, and research in multiple species indicates it is considerably impacted by age and gonadal hormone milieu. One domain of cognitive function particularly susceptible to age-related decrements is spatial memory. Gonadal hormones can alter spatial memory, and they are potent modulators of brain microstructure and function in many of the same brain areas affected by aging. In this paper, we review decades of animal and human literature to support a tertiary model representing interactions between gonadal hormones, spatial cognition and age given that: 1) gonadal hormones change with age, 2) age impacts spatial learning and memory, and 3) gonadal hormones impact spatial learning and memory. While much has been discovered regarding these individual tenets, the compass for future aging research points toward clarifying the interactions that exist between these three points, and understanding mediating variables. Indeed, identifying and aligning the various components of the complex interactions between these tenets, including evaluations using basic science, systems, and clinical perspectives, is the optimal approach to attempt to converge the many findings that may currently appear contradictory. In fact, as discoveries are being made it is becoming clear that the findings across studies that appear contradictory are not contradictory at all. Rather, there are mediating variables that are influencing outcome and affecting the extent, and even the direction, of the effects that gonadal hormones have on cognition during aging. These mediating variables are just starting to be understood. By aligning basic scientific discoveries with clinical interpretations, we can maximize the opportunities for discoveries and subsequent interventions to allow individuals to “optimize their aging” and find their own map to cognitive health as aging ensues. PMID:20877209

  8. Is Animal Age a Factor In the Response of Bone to Spaceflight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, E. R.; Garetto, L. P.; Doty, S. B.; Halloran, B. P.; Turner, R. T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The rodent bone response to spaceflight may be influenced by a multitude of actors including flight duration, strain, and housing. Review of bone formation rates during spaceflight suggests that age may also play a role in the response. Weanling rats show fewer bone changes than older rats. To determine if the long bones of weanling rats were insensitive to weight-bearing, a hindlimb unloading experiment was conducted simultaneously with a 9d shuttle flight in 34d old group-housed male rats. All animals were injected with bone markers 7d and 1d before flight and euthanized at landing, 24hr, and 72hr following recovery. If no differences in body weight, bone length, or bone formation at the tibiofibular junction were noted at the different time points, data were combined for each group. No significant differences in body weight were found at any time period among the groups. The humerus, tibia, and femur elongated significantly during the flight period with no difference in lengths between groups at the end of the flight period. The group-housed flight rats showed no change in cortical bone formation rate compared to preflight values, flight controls, or vivarium controls. However, the hindlimb unloading group showed a significant 30% decrease in bone formation rate compared to all other groups. Individually-housed 38d old animals flown for 14d showed approx. 10% suppression of cortical growth. We speculate that the mechanical threshold required for cross-sectional bone growth is reached in group-house weanling rats during spaceflight, perhaps, through physical interactions, and that the weanling animals are sensitive to loading. However, the threshold is not fully reached in either singly-housed flight or hindlimb unloaded weanling rats. Older singly-housed flight animals appear to show equal or greater bone changes compared to hindlimb unloaded rats. We conclude that age, flight duration, strain, and housing have important roles in rodent skeletal responses to

  9. New Lu-Hf and Pb-Pb age constraints on the earliest animal fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfod, Gry H.; Albarède, Francis; Knoll, Andrew H.; Xiao, Shuhai; Télouk, Philippe; Frei, Robert; Baker, Joel

    2002-07-01

    The Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, South China, preserves a unique assemblage of early multicellular fossils and overlies rocks, which are thought to have formed during an ice age of global extent. The age of this formation is thus critical for understanding the important biological and climatic events that occurred towards the end of the Proterozoic Eon. Until now, direct dating of sedimentary formations such as the Doushantuo has been difficult and associated with large uncertainties. Here, we show that dating of Doushantuo phosphorites by a novel Lu-Hf dating method and conventional Pb-Pb geochronometry independently yield ages of 584±26 Ma and 599.3±4.2 Ma, respectively. These ages are in agreement with bio- and chemostratigraphical observations and show that the Doushantuo animal remains predate diverse Ediacaran fossil assemblages, making them the oldest unambiguous remains of metazoans currently known. Furthermore, the Pb-Pb age for the post-glacial Doushantuo rocks suggests that the Neoproterozoic glaciation in China might predate glacial rocks in Eastern North America commonly associated with the younger (Marinoan) of two major Neoproterozoic glaciations. The combination of Lu-Hf and Pb-Pb dating shows considerable potential for dating other phosphorite successions and future application of these methods could therefore provide further constraints on Proterozoic biological and environmental history.

  10. Effect of animal age and trimming practices on the physical composition of Bonsmara beef.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nicolette; Schönfeldt, Hettie C; Pretorius, Beulah

    2016-02-15

    Increased economic incentive for producing young and leaner carcasses, as well as demand for lean meat from progressively health conscious consumers, are considered drivers for change in carcass composition over time. Furthermore, many retailers trim visible fat from meat to various degrees and consumers increasingly remove visible fat from meat prior to, or after, cooking. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of South African Bonsmara beef from four age groups from different production systems, as well as to extrapolate the effect of fat trimming on physical composition. Fat content of marketable beef has decreased notably since the 1930s, and beef from the South African Bonsmara breed contains less than 10g lipid per 100g after trimming of subcutaneous fat, irrespective of age. Removal of all visible fat reduces the lipid content to less than 5g per 100g, comparing favourably with other lean animal products. PMID:26433303

  11. Toward an animal model of extinction-induced despair: focus on aging and physiological indices.

    PubMed

    Huston, Joseph P; Schulz, Daniela; Topic, Bianca

    2009-08-01

    Behaviors that are under the control of positive or negative reinforcers undergo extinction when the anticipated reward/reinforcer is withheld. Despair, an important symptom of environmentally determined depression in humans, can be generated by extinction, or the failure of expected reward to accrue. Although well known to clinicians dealing with depressive patients, an animal model has not been available for extinction-induced depression. We have made a beginning towards validating such a model, based on the extinction of negatively reinforced behavior in the rat, i.e., upon removal of the possibility to escape onto a safety platform in the water maze. As a marker for despair, we employed behavioral immobility, i.e., the cessation of swimming in the attempt to find safety from the water, presumably, a type of learned helplessness. This measure was sensitive to antidepressants and correlated with neurotransmitter contents, neurotrophins and hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis markers in selected sites of the brain. Given that some cases of depression in the elderly may be biologically distinct from others and from early-onset depression, and since particularly the aged are prone to experience extinction-induced despair, we compared aged (ca. 24 months old) animals with adults in most of our studies. We found a number of distinct differences in behavioral and biological measures, indicative of differences in propensity to, as well as response to, extinction-induced despair between aged and adults. Our results add to the body of evidence for differences in the neurobiological substrates of depressive disorders between aged and adults, with the implication for the requirement of different treatment strategies in these two populations. PMID:19350220

  12. The pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil over a range of oral doses and animal ages in the foal.

    PubMed

    Duffee, N E; Stang, B E; Schaeffer, D J

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of foal age on the pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil, five foals were administered cefadroxil in a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg) and a single oral dose (10 or 20 mg/kg) at ages of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 months. Pharmacokinetic parameters of terminal elimination rate constant (beta(po)), oral mean residence time (MRTpo), mean absorption time (MAT), rate constant for oral absorption (Ka), bioavailability F, peak serum concentrations (Cmax) and time of peak concentration (tmax), were evaluated in a repeated measures analysis over dose. Across animal ages, parameters for the intravenous dose did not change significantly over animal age (P > or = 0.05). Mean values +/- SEM were: beta(IV) = 0.633 +/- 0.038 h-1; Cl = 0.316 +/- 0.010 L/kg/h; Vc = 0.196 +/- 0.008 L/kg; Varea = 0.526 +/- 0.024 L/kg; VSS = 0.374 +/- 0.014 L/kg; MRTiv = 1.22 +/- 0.07 h; Kel = 1.67 +/- 0.08 h-1. Following oral administration, drug absorption became faster with age (P < 0.05), as reflected by MRTpo, MAT, Ka and tmax. However, oral bioavailability (+/- SE) declined significantly (P < 0.05) from 99.6 +/- 3.69% at 0.5 months to 14.5 +/- 1.40% at 5 months of age. To evaluate a dose effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters, a series of oral doses (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) were administered to these foals at 1 month of age. beta(po) (0.548 +/- 0.023 h-1) and F (68.26 +/- 2.43%) were not affected significantly by the size of the dose. Cmax was approximately doubled with each two-fold increase in dose: 3.15 +/- 0.15, 5.84 +/- 0.48, 12.17 +/- 0.93 and 19.71 +/- 2.19 micrograms/mL. Dose-dependent kinetics were observed in MRTpo, MAT, Ka and tmax. PMID:9430765

  13. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D.; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Cerasoli, Douglas M.; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2009-09-02

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P{sub R} and P{sub S} stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P{sub R} stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents.

  14. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Cerasoli, Douglas M; Bahnson, Brian J

    2009-08-15

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P(R) and P(S) stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P(R) stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents. PMID:19394314

  15. Humulus japonicus extract exhibits antioxidative and anti-aging effects via modulation of the AMPK-SIRT1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    SUNG, BOKYUNG; CHUNG, JI WON; BAE, HA RAM; CHOI, JAE SUE; KIM, CHEOL MIN; KIM, NAM DEUK

    2015-01-01

    The perennial herb, Humulus japonicus, has been previously described as possessing potential antituberculosis and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the anti-aging activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of H. japonicus (HJE) was evaluated in yeast and human fibroblast cells. In addition, the antioxidant activity of HJE was analyzed using free radical scavenging assays. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying the hypothesized HJE-associated extension of lifespan was investigated, and the results indicated that HJE was able to extend the lifespan of yeast cells. Further experiments demonstrated that HJE upregulated the longevity-associated proteins, sirtuin 1 and AMP-activated protein kinase, and effectively inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the antioxidative potential of the active constituents of HJE, including luteolin, luteolin 7-glycoside, quercetin and quercitrin, was evaluated and the results demonstrated that these flavonoids were able to scavenge ROS in cell-free and intracellular systems. In summary, the results revealed that HJE possessed the potential for antioxidative activity; however, further in vivo investigations are required with the aim of developing safe, high-efficacy anti-aging agents. PMID:26136899

  16. Biogenesis of the mitochondrial Tom40 channel in skeletal muscle from aged animals and its adaptability to chronic contractile activity.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anna-Maria; Ljubicic, Vladimir; Adhihetty, Peter J; Hood, David A

    2010-06-01

    Evidence exists that mitochondrial content and/or function is reduced in muscle of aging individuals. The purposes of this study were to investigate the contribution of outer membrane protein import and assembly processes to this decline and to determine whether the assembly process could adapt to chronic contractile activity (CCA). Tom40 assembly into the translocases of the outer membrane (TOM complex) was measured in subsarcolemmal mitochondria obtained from young (6 mo old) and aged (36 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway animals. While the initial import of Tom40 did not differ between young and aged animals, its subsequent assembly into the final approximately 380 kDa complex was 2.2-fold higher (P < 0.05) in mitochondria from aged compared with young animals. This was associated with a higher abundance of Tom22, a protein vital for the assembly process. CCA induced a greater initial import and subsequent assembly of Tom40 in mitochondria from young animals, resulting in a CCA-induced 75% increase (P < 0.05) in Tom40 within mitochondria. This effect of CCA was attenuated in mitochondria from old animals. These data suggest that the import and assembly of proteins into the outer membrane do not contribute to reduced mitochondrial content or function in aged animals. Indeed, the greater assembly rate in mitochondria from aged animals may be a compensatory mechanism attempting to offset any decrements in mitochondrial content or function within aged muscle. Our data also indicate the potential of CCA to contribute to increased mitochondrial biogenesis in muscle through changes in the outer membrane import and assembly pathway. PMID:20107041

  17. Moringa oleifera mitigates memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal model of age-related dementia.

    PubMed

    Sutalangka, Chatchada; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

    2013-01-01

    To date, the preventive strategy against dementia is still essential due to the rapid growth of its prevalence and the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress in age-related dementia and the antioxidant and nootropic activities of Moringa oleifera, the enhancement of spatial memory and neuroprotection of M. oleifera leaves extract in animal model of age-related dementia was determined. The possible underlying mechanism was also investigated. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were orally given M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 7 days after the intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A bilaterally. Then, they were assessed memory, neuron density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and AChE in hippocampus. The results showed that the extract improved spatial memory and neurodegeneration in CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of hippocampus together with the decreased MDA level and AChE activity but increased SOD and CAT activities. Therefore, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract is the potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. The possible mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the enhanced cholinergic function. However, further explorations concerning active ingredient(s) are still required. PMID:24454988

  18. Moringa oleifera Mitigates Memory Impairment and Neurodegeneration in Animal Model of Age-Related Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sutalangka, Chatchada; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

    2013-01-01

    To date, the preventive strategy against dementia is still essential due to the rapid growth of its prevalence and the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress in age-related dementia and the antioxidant and nootropic activities of Moringa oleifera, the enhancement of spatial memory and neuroprotection of M. oleifera leaves extract in animal model of age-related dementia was determined. The possible underlying mechanism was also investigated. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–220 g, were orally given M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 7 days after the intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A bilaterally. Then, they were assessed memory, neuron density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and AChE in hippocampus. The results showed that the extract improved spatial memory and neurodegeneration in CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of hippocampus together with the decreased MDA level and AChE activity but increased SOD and CAT activities. Therefore, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract is the potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. The possible mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the enhanced cholinergic function. However, further explorations concerning active ingredient(s) are still required. PMID:24454988

  19. Medaka fish exhibits longevity gender gap, a natural drop in estrogen and telomere shortening during aging: a unique model for studying sex-dependent longevity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Females having a longer telomere and lifespan than males have been documented in many animals. Such linkage however has never been reported in fish. Progressive shortening of telomere length is an important aging mechanism. Mounting in vitro evidence has shown that telomere shortening beyond a critical length triggered replicative senescence or cell death. Estrogen has been postulated as a key factor contributing to maintenance of telomere and sex-dependent longevity in animals. This postulation remains unproven due to the lack of a suitable animal system for testing. Here, we introduce a teleost model, the Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes, which shows promise for research into the molecular mechanism(s) controlling sex difference in aging. Results Using the medaka, we demonstrate for the first time in teleost that (i) sex differences (female > male) in telomere length and longevity also exist in fish, and (ii) a natural, ‘menopause’-like decline of plasma estrogen was evident in females during aging. Estrogen levels significantly correlated with telomerase activity as well as telomere length in female organs (not in males), suggesting estrogen could modulate telomere length via telomerase activation in a sex -specific manner. A hypothetical in vivo ‘critical’ terminal restriction fragment (TRF, representing telomere) length of approximately 4 kb was deduced in medaka liver for prediction of organismal mortality, which is highly comparable with that for human cells. An age conversion model was also established to enable age translation between medaka (in months) and human (in years). These novel tools are useful for future research on comparative biology of aging using medaka. Conclusion The striking similarity in estrogen profile between aging female O. latipes and women enables studying the influence of “postmenopausal” decline of estrogen on telomere and longevity without the need of invasive ovariectomy. Medaka fish is advantageous

  20. Channel function reconstitution and re-animation: a single-channel strategy in the postcrystal age

    PubMed Central

    Oiki, Shigetoshi

    2015-01-01

    The most essential properties of ion channels for their physiologically relevant functions are ion-selective permeation and gating. Among the channel species, the potassium channel is primordial and the most ubiquitous in the biological world, and knowledge of this channel underlies the understanding of features of other ion channels. The strategy applied to studying channels changed dramatically after the crystal structure of the potassium channel was resolved. Given the abundant structural information available, we exploited the bacterial KcsA potassium channel as a simple model channel. In the postcrystal age, there are two effective frameworks with which to decipher the functional codes present in the channel structure, namely reconstitution and re-animation. Complex channel proteins are decomposed into essential functional components, and well-examined parts are rebuilt for integrating channel function in the membrane (reconstitution). Permeation and gating are dynamic operations, and one imagines the active channel by breathing life into the ‘frozen’ crystal (re-animation). Capturing the motion of channels at the single-molecule level is necessary to characterize the behaviour of functioning channels. Advanced techniques, including diffracted X-ray tracking, lipid bilayer methods and high-speed atomic force microscopy, have been used. Here, I present dynamic pictures of the KcsA potassium channel from the submolecular conformational changes to the supramolecular collective behaviour of channels in the membrane. These results form an integrated picture of the active channel and offer insights into the processes underlying the physiological function of the channel in the cell membrane. PMID:25833254

  1. Acute brain slice methods for adult and aging animals: application of targeted patch clampanalysis and optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Tanya L.; Chen, Qian; Feng, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    Summary The development of the living acute brain slice preparation for analyzing synaptic function roughly a half century ago was a pivotal achievement that greatly influenced the landscape of modern neuroscience. Indeed, many neuroscientists regard brain slices as the gold-standard model system for detailed cellular, molecular, and circuitry level analysis and perturbation of neuronal function. A critical limitation of this model system is the difficulty in preparing slices from adult and aging animals, and over the past several decades few substantial methodological improvements have emerged to facilitate patch clamp analysis in the mature adult stage. In this chapter we describe a robust and practical protocol for preparing brain slices from mature adult mice that are suitable for patch clamp analysis. This method reduces swelling and damage in superficial layers of the slices and improves the success rate for targeted patch clamp recordings, including recordings from fluorescently labeled populations in slices derived from transgenic mice. This adult brain slice method is suitable for diverse experimental applications, including both monitoring and manipulating neuronal activity with genetically encoded calcium indicators and optogenetic actuators, respectively. We describe the application of this adult brain slice platform and associated methods for screening kinetic properties of Channelrhodopsin (ChR) variants expressed in genetically-defined neuronal subtypes. PMID:25023312

  2. Moderate and late preterm infants exhibit widespread brain white matter microstructure alterations at term-equivalent age relative to term-born controls.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Claire E; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Gabra Fam, Lillian; Leemans, Alexander; Seal, Marc L; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J; Spittle, Alicia J; Thompson, Deanne K

    2016-03-01

    Despite the many studies documenting cerebral white matter microstructural alterations associated with very preterm birth (<32 weeks' gestation), there is a dearth of similar research in moderate and late preterm infants (born 32-36 weeks' gestation), who experience higher rates of neurodevelopmental delays than infants born at term (≥37 weeks' gestation). We therefore aimed to determine whether whole brain white matter microstructure differs between moderate and late preterm infants and term-born controls at term-equivalent age, as well as to identify potential perinatal risk factors for white matter microstructural alterations in moderate and late preterm infants. Whole brain white matter microstructure was studied in 193 moderate and late preterm infants and 83 controls at term-equivalent age by performing Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data. Moderate and late preterm infants had lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean, axial and radial diffusivities compared with controls in nearly 70 % of the brain's major white matter fiber tracts. In the moderate and late preterm group, being born small for gestational age and male sex were associated with lower fractional anisotropy, largely within the optic radiation, corpus callosum and corona radiata. In conclusion, moderate and late preterm infants exhibit widespread brain white matter microstructural alterations compared with controls at term-equivalent age, in patterns consistent with delayed or disrupted white matter microstructural development. These findings may underpin some of the neurodevelopmental delays observed in moderate and late preterm children. PMID:25739350

  3. Modulation of cognition and behavior in aged animals: role of antioxidant and essential fatty acid rich plant foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging results in the development of cognitive and motor deficits in humans and animals evident by mid-life. These deficits are thought to stem from neuronal damage and dysfunction due to a variety of stressors, including increased oxidative stress and modifications in brain lipid composition. Recen...

  4. Nutritional interventions protect against age-related deficits in behavior: from animals to humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks. Similar changes in behavior occur in humans with age, and the development of methods to retard or reverse these age-related neuronal and behavioral deficits could increase healthy aging and decrease health care costs. In the present s...

  5. BAC Transgenic Mice Expressing a Truncated Mutant Parkin Exhibit Age-dependent Hypokinetic Motor Deficits, Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration, and Accumulation of Proteinase K-Resistant Alpha-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiao-Hong; Fleming, Sheila M.; Meurers, Bernhard; Ackerson, Larry C.; Mortazavi, Farzad; Lo, Victor; Hernandez, Daniela; Sulzer, David; Jackson, George R.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Chesselet, Marie-Francoise; Yang, X. William

    2009-01-01

    Summary Recessive mutations in parkin are the most common cause of familial early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies suggest that certain parkin mutants may exert dominant toxic effects to cultured cells and such dominant toxicity can lead to progressive dopaminergic (DA) neuron degeneration in Drosophila. To explore whether mutant parkin could exert similar pathogenic effects to mammalian DA neurons in vivo, we developed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse model expressing a C-terminal truncated human mutant parkin (Parkin-Q311X) in DA neurons driven by a dopamine transporter promoter. Parkin-Q311X mice exhibit multiple late-onset and progressive hypokinetic motor deficits. Stereological analyses reveal that the mutant mice develop age-dependent DA neuron degeneration in substantia nigra accompanied by a significant loss of DA neuron terminals in the striatum. Neurochemical analyses reveal a significant reduction of the striatal dopamine level in mutant mice, which is significantly correlated with their hypokinetic motor deficits. Finally, mutant Parkin-Q311X mice, but not wild-type controls, exhibit age-dependent accumulation of proteinase-K resistant endogenous α-synuclein in substantia nigra and co-localized with 3-nitrotyrosine, a marker for oxidative protein damage. Hence, our study provides the first mammalian genetic evidence that dominant toxicity of a parkin mutant is sufficient to elicit age-dependent hypokinetic motor deficits and DA neuron loss in vivo, and uncovers a causal relationship between dominant parkin toxicity and progressive α-synuclein accumulation in DA neurons. Our study underscores the need to further explore the putative link between parkin dominant toxicity and PD. PMID:19228951

  6. MitoAge: a database for comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA, with a special focus on animal longevity

    PubMed Central

    Toren, Dmitri; Barzilay, Thomer; Tacutu, Robi; Lehmann, Gilad; Muradian, Khachik K.; Fraifeld, Vadim E.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are the only organelles in the animal cells that have their own genome. Due to a key role in energy production, generation of damaging factors (ROS, heat), and apoptosis, mitochondria and mtDNA in particular have long been considered one of the major players in the mechanisms of aging, longevity and age-related diseases. The rapidly increasing number of species with fully sequenced mtDNA, together with accumulated data on longevity records, provides a new fascinating basis for comparative analysis of the links between mtDNA features and animal longevity. To facilitate such analyses and to support the scientific community in carrying these out, we developed the MitoAge database containing calculated mtDNA compositional features of the entire mitochondrial genome, mtDNA coding (tRNA, rRNA, protein-coding genes) and non-coding (D-loop) regions, and codon usage/amino acids frequency for each protein-coding gene. MitoAge includes 922 species with fully sequenced mtDNA and maximum lifespan records. The database is available through the MitoAge website (www.mitoage.org or www.mitoage.info), which provides the necessary tools for searching, browsing, comparing and downloading the data sets of interest for selected taxonomic groups across the Kingdom Animalia. The MitoAge website assists in statistical analysis of different features of the mtDNA and their correlative links to longevity. PMID:26590258

  7. MitoAge: a database for comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA, with a special focus on animal longevity.

    PubMed

    Toren, Dmitri; Barzilay, Thomer; Tacutu, Robi; Lehmann, Gilad; Muradian, Khachik K; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are the only organelles in the animal cells that have their own genome. Due to a key role in energy production, generation of damaging factors (ROS, heat), and apoptosis, mitochondria and mtDNA in particular have long been considered one of the major players in the mechanisms of aging, longevity and age-related diseases. The rapidly increasing number of species with fully sequenced mtDNA, together with accumulated data on longevity records, provides a new fascinating basis for comparative analysis of the links between mtDNA features and animal longevity. To facilitate such analyses and to support the scientific community in carrying these out, we developed the MitoAge database containing calculated mtDNA compositional features of the entire mitochondrial genome, mtDNA coding (tRNA, rRNA, protein-coding genes) and non-coding (D-loop) regions, and codon usage/amino acids frequency for each protein-coding gene. MitoAge includes 922 species with fully sequenced mtDNA and maximum lifespan records. The database is available through the MitoAge website (www.mitoage.org or www.mitoage.info), which provides the necessary tools for searching, browsing, comparing and downloading the data sets of interest for selected taxonomic groups across the Kingdom Animalia. The MitoAge website assists in statistical analysis of different features of the mtDNA and their correlative links to longevity. PMID:26590258

  8. ADN-1184, a monoaminergic ligand with 5-HT6/7 receptor antagonist action, exhibits activity in animal models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Anna; Wasik, Anna; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Wesołowska, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include apathy, sleep problems, irritability, wandering, elation, agitation/aggression, and mood disorders such as depression and/or anxiety. Elderly patients are usually treated with second-generation antipsychotics; however, they present not enough efficacy against all symptoms observed. Hence, there still is an unmet need for novel pharmacotherapeutic agents targeted BPSD. A novel arylsulfonamide derivative ADN-1184 has been developed that possesses a preclinical profile of activity corresponding to criteria required for treatment of both psychosis and depressive symptoms of BPSD without exacerbating cognitive impairment or inducing motor disturbances. To broaden its pharmacological efficacy toward anxiety symptoms, its anxiolytic properties have been examined in common animal preclinical models in rats and mice. ADN-1184 significantly increased the number of entries into open arms measured in the elevated plus-maze test; however, it simultaneously increased parameters of exploratory activity. In the Vogel conflict drinking test, ADN-1184 dose-dependently and significantly increased the number of shocks accepted and the number of licks. Moreover, in mice, it also had specific anxiolytic-like activity in the four-plate test, and only negligible one at a specific mid-range dose measured in the spontaneous marble burying test. The obtained findings reveal that ADN-1184 displays anxiolytic-like activity in animal models of anxiety which employed punished stimuli. In its unusual combination of some anxiolytic action with already proven antipsychotic and antidepressant properties, and lack of any disruptive impact on learning and memory processes and motor coordination, ADN-1184 displays a profile that would be desired for a novel therapeutic for BPSD. PMID:26979176

  9. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  10. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  11. A novel rabies vaccine based-on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist PIKA adjuvant exhibiting excellent safety and efficacy in animal studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Shoufeng; Li, Wei; Hu, Yuchi; Zhao, Jinyan; Liu, Fang; Lin, Haixiang; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Liliang; Xu, Shu; Hu, Rongliang; Shao, Hui; Li, Lietao

    2016-02-01

    Vaccination alone is not sufficiently effective to protect human from post-exposure rabies virus infection due to delayed generation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and weak cellular immunity. Therefore, it is vital to develop safer and more efficacious vaccine against rabies. PIKA, a stabilized chemical analog of double-stranded RNA that interacts with TLR3, was employed as adjuvant of rabies vaccine. The efficacy and safety of PIKA rabies vaccine were evaluated. The results showed that PIKA rabies vaccine enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity. After viral challenge, PIKA rabies vaccine protected 70-80% of animals, while the survival rate of non-adjuvant vaccine group (control) was 20-30%. According to the results of toxicity tests, PIKA and PIKA rabies vaccine are shown to be well tolerated in mice. Thus, this study indicates that PIKA rabies vaccine is an effective and safe vaccine which has the potential to develop next-generation rabies vaccine and encourage the start of clinical studies. PMID:26765968

  12. Estimation of age-specific per capita home-produced food intake among populations that garden, farm, or raise animals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Linda; Moya, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Intake of home-produced foods may be a concern in areas where chemical contamination exists. Estimating exposure to contaminants in home-produced foods requires knowledge of the amount of these foods consumed. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Exposure Factors Handbook provides data on consumption of home-produced foods based on the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS), the most recent national food survey that contains the information necessary to estimate home-produced consumption. These data represent "consumer-only" intake rate distributions for various age and demographic categories. "Consumers-only" information is also provided for households who garden, farm, and raise animals for all age groups combined. However, these "consumer-only" values may not always be appropriate when assessing chronic exposures. Furthermore, data for all ages combined may not be useful for estimating exposure among age groups that may be of particular concern. This paper provides age-specific "per capita" intake rate distributions of home-produced foods specifically for the populations that garden, farm, and raise animals, using data from EPA's Exposure Factors Handbook. PMID:21522189

  13. Plant G-proteins come of age: Breaking the bond with animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botella, Jimmy; Trusov, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    G-proteins are universal signal transducers mediating many cellular responses. Plant G-protein signaling has been modeled on the well-established animal paradigm but accumulated experimental evidence indicates that G-protein-dependent signaling in plants has taken a very different evolutionary path. Here we review the differences between plant and animal G-proteins reported over past two decades. Most importantly, while in animal systems the G-protein signaling cycle is activated by seven transmembrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptors, the existence of these type of receptors in plants is highly controversial. Instead plant G-proteins have been proven to be functionally associated with atypical receptors such as the Arabidopsis RGS1 and a number of receptor-like kinases. We propose that, instead of the GTP/GDP cycle used in animals, plant G-proteins are activated/de-activated by phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation. We discuss the need of a fresh new look at these signaling molecules and provide a hypothetical model that departs fromthe accepted animal paradigm.

  14. Plant G-Proteins Come of Age: Breaking the Bond with Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Trusov, Yuri; Botella, José R.

    2016-01-01

    G-proteins are universal signal transducers mediating many cellular responses. Plant G-protein signaling has been modeled on the well-established animal paradigm but accumulated experimental evidence indicates that G-protein-dependent signaling in plants has taken a very different evolutionary path. Here we review the differences between plant and animal G-proteins reported over past two decades. Most importantly, while in animal systems the G-protein signaling cycle is activated by seven transmembrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptors, the existence of these type of receptors in plants is highly controversial. Instead plant G-proteins have been proven to be functionally associated with atypical receptors such as the Arabidopsis RGS1 and a number of receptor-like kinases. We propose that, instead of the GTP/GDP cycle used in animals, plant G-proteins are activated/de-activated by phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation. We discuss the need of a fresh new look at these signaling molecules and provide a hypothetical model that departs from the accepted animal paradigm. PMID:27252940

  15. Impact of nutrition on ageing the process. Bridging the gap: the animal perspective.

    PubMed

    Butterwick, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    In pets, as in humans, there is increasing interest in interventions that promote 'health and well-being' into later life and extend these beyond their current limits. The purpose of this review was to assess the relevance of current knowledge of ageing in humans, described in a companion paper, as well as reviewing recent research on ageing in pet populations. The role of diet and other factors that influence the ageing process and ultimately lifespan in pets are highlighted in this review; in addition, future opportunities and challenges to further our understanding of the ageing process in pets are identified. Advancing knowledge of the fundamental biology of ageing will be key for the development and evaluation of strategies that extend both the quality and the quantity of lifespan in human and pet populations. PMID:25588384

  16. The age of anxiety: role of animal models of anxiolytic action in drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, John F; Sweeney, Fabian F

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common, serious and a growing health problem worldwide. However, the causative factors, aetiology and underlying mechanisms of anxiety disorders, as for most psychiatric disorders, remain relatively poorly understood. Animal models are an important aid in giving insight into the aetiology, neurobiology and, ultimately, the therapy of human anxiety disorders. The approach, however, is challenged with a number of complexities. In particular, the heterogeneous nature of anxiety disorders in humans coupled with the associated multifaceted and descriptive diagnostic criteria, creates challenges in both animal modelling and in clinical research. In this paper, we describe some of the more widely used approaches for assessing the anxiolytic activity of known and potential therapeutic agents. These include ethological, conflict-based, hyponeophagia, vocalization-based, physiological and cognitive-based paradigms. Developments in the characterization of translational models are also summarized, as are the challenges facing researchers in their drug discovery efforts in developing new anxiolytic drugs, not least the ever-shifting clinical conceptualization of anxiety disorders. In conclusion, to date, although animal models of anxiety have relatively good validity, anxiolytic drugs with novel mechanisms have been slow to emerge. It is clear that a better alignment of the interactions between basic and clinical scientists is needed if this is to change. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4 PMID:21545412

  17. Animal breeding in the age of biotechnology: the investigative pathway behind the cloning of Dolly the sheep.

    PubMed

    García-Sancho, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses the 1996 cloning of Dolly the sheep, locating it within a long-standing tradition of animal breeding research in Edinburgh. Far from being an end in itself, the cell-nuclear transfer experiment from which Dolly was born should be seen as a step in an investigative pathway that sought the production of medically relevant transgenic animals. By historicising Dolly, I illustrate how the birth of this sheep captures a dramatic redefinition of the life sciences, when in the 1970s and 1980s the rise of neo-liberal governments and the emergence of the biotechnology market pushed research institutions to show tangible applications of their work. Through this broader interpretative framework, the Dolly story emerges as a case study of the deep transformations of agricultural experimentation during the last third of the twentieth century. The reorganisation of laboratory practice, human resources and institutional settings required by the production of transgenic animals had unanticipated consequences. One of these unanticipated effects was that the boundaries between animal and human health became blurred. As a result of this, new professional spaces emerged and the identity of Dolly the sheep was reconfigured, from an instrument for livestock improvement in the farm to a more universal symbol of the new cloning age. PMID:26205201

  18. Early land animals in north america: evidence from devonian age arthropods from gilboa, new york.

    PubMed

    Shear, W A; Bonamo, P M; Grierson, J D; Rolfe, W D; Smith, E L; Norton, R A

    1984-05-01

    A new fossil site near Gilboa, New York, is one of only three where fossils of terrestrial arthropods of Devonian age have been found. The new Gilboan fauna is younger than the other two but richer in taxa. Fragmentary remains and nearly whole specimens assigned to Eurypterida, Arachnida (Trigonotarbida, Araneae, Amblypygi, and Acari), Chilopoda [Craterostigmatomorpha(?) and Scuterigeromorpha(?)], and tentatively to Insecta (Archaeognatha) have been found. The centipedes and possible insects may represent the earliest records known for these groups. PMID:17753774

  19. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Perez-Formigo, Jesus; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Moreno, Javier; Benito, Agustin; Aseffa, Abraham; Custodio, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    Background A low dietary diversity score (DDS) and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF) are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia). Objectives This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF. Methods In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors. Results Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%). In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65) and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38) the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62) and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey. Conclusions The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended. PMID:26203904

  20. Validation of the Aging Hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) as an Animal Model for Uterine Leiomyomas1

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Sergio A.; Bahr, Janice M.; Hales, D. Buck; Braundmeier, Andrea G.; Quade, Bradley J.; Nowak, Romana A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, are the most frequent gynecological tumors in premenopausal women with as many as 65% of women becoming clinically symptomatic. Uterine fibroids are benign myometrial tumors that produce large quantities of extracellular matrix proteins. Despite its high morbidity, the molecular basis underlying the development of uterine leiomyomas is not well understood. Domestic hens of Gallus gallus domesticus develop oviductal leiomyomas similar to those found in humans. We investigated the natural history of chicken leiomyomas, in vivo expression of protein biomarkers, and in vitro expression of ovarian steroid receptors. Based on the analysis of 263 hens, tumor prevalence, tumor number per hen, and tumor size increased as the hens aged. Immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin confirmed the smooth muscle phenotype of the chicken leiomyomas. Intense collagen expression was detected in these oviductal leiomyomas by Mason's trichrome, and the tumors also showed increased expression of TGFB3 and collagen type I mRNAs. Consistent with human leiomyomas, chicken fibroids displayed increased BCL2 and estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) receptor expression. Chicken leiomyomas were dissociated for in vitro culture. Cells from explants were positive for SMA, desmin, and E and P receptors until the fourth passage. These cells also displayed a response similar to human cells when challenged with halofuginone, an antifibrotic agent. Our findings indicate that the chicken is an excellent complementary model for studies involving the pathophysiology of human uterine leiomyomas. PMID:22811571

  1. Validation of the aging hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) as an animal model for uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sergio A; Bahr, Janice M; Hales, D Buck; Braundmeier, Andrea G; Quade, Bradley J; Nowak, Romana A

    2012-10-01

    Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, are the most frequent gynecological tumors in premenopausal women with as many as 65% of women becoming clinically symptomatic. Uterine fibroids are benign myometrial tumors that produce large quantities of extracellular matrix proteins. Despite its high morbidity, the molecular basis underlying the development of uterine leiomyomas is not well understood. Domestic hens of Gallus gallus domesticus develop oviductal leiomyomas similar to those found in humans. We investigated the natural history of chicken leiomyomas, in vivo expression of protein biomarkers, and in vitro expression of ovarian steroid receptors. Based on the analysis of 263 hens, tumor prevalence, tumor number per hen, and tumor size increased as the hens aged. Immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and desmin confirmed the smooth muscle phenotype of the chicken leiomyomas. Intense collagen expression was detected in these oviductal leiomyomas by Mason's trichrome, and the tumors also showed increased expression of TGFB3 and collagen type I mRNAs. Consistent with human leiomyomas, chicken fibroids displayed increased BCL2 and estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) receptor expression. Chicken leiomyomas were dissociated for in vitro culture. Cells from explants were positive for SMA, desmin, and E and P receptors until the fourth passage. These cells also displayed a response similar to human cells when challenged with halofuginone, an antifibrotic agent. Our findings indicate that the chicken is an excellent complementary model for studies involving the pathophysiology of human uterine leiomyomas. PMID:22811571

  2. Thymulin-Based Gene Therapy and Pituitary Function in Animal Models of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Reggiani, Paula C.; Poch, Brenda; Cónsole, Gloria M.; Rimoldi, Omar J.; Schwerdt, Jose I.; Tüngler, Victoria; Garcia-Bravo, Margarita M.; Dardenne, Mireille; Goya, Rodolfo G.

    2011-01-01

    Thymulin is a thymic hormone exclusively produced by the thymic epithelial cells. After its discovery and initial characterization in the 1970s, it was demonstrated that thymulin production and secretion is strongly influenced by the neuroendocrine system. Conversely, a growing core of information, to be reviewed here, points to thymulin as a hypophysiotropic peptide. Additionally, thymulin was shown to possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the brain. In recent years, a synthetic DNA sequence coding for a biologically active analog of thymulin, metFTS, was constructed and cloned in different adenoviral vectors. These include bidirectional regulatable Tet-Off vector systems that simultaneously express metFTS and green fluorescent protein and that can be downregulated reversibly by the addition of the antibiotic doxycycline. A number of recent studies suggest that thymulin gene therapy may be a suitable therapeutic strategy to prevent some of the endocrine and reproductive alterations that typically appear in congenitally athymic (nude) mice, taken as a suitable model of neuroendocrine and reproductive aging. The present article briefly reviews the literature on the physiology of the thymulin-pituitary axis as well as on the new molecular tools available to exploit the therapeutic potential of thymulin. PMID:21952687

  3. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  4. Insights into the coupling of duplication events and macroevolution from an age profile of animal transmembrane gene families.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guohui; Kang, Jiuhong; Liu, Qi; Shi, Tieliu; Pei, Gang; Li, Yixue

    2006-08-11

    The evolution of new gene families subsequent to gene duplication may be coupled to the fluctuation of population and environment variables. Based upon that, we presented a systematic analysis of the animal transmembrane gene duplication events on a macroevolutionary scale by integrating the palaeontology repository. The age of duplication events was calculated by maximum likelihood method, and the age distribution was estimated by density histogram and normal kernel density estimation. We showed that the density of the duplicates displays a positive correlation with the estimates of maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, and the oxidation events played a key role in the major transitions of this density trace. Next, we focused on the Phanerozoic phase, during which more macroevolution data are available. The pulse mass extinction timepoints coincide with the local peaks of the age distribution, suggesting that the transmembrane gene duplicates fixed frequently when the environment changed dramatically. Moreover, a 61-million-year cycle is the most possible cycle in this phase by spectral analysis, which is consistent with the cycles recently detected in biodiversity. Our data thus elucidate a strong coupling of duplication events and macroevolution; furthermore, our method also provides a new way to address these questions. PMID:16895434

  5. Insights into the Coupling of Duplication Events and Macroevolution from an Age Profile of Animal Transmembrane Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Guohui; Kang, Jiuhong; Liu, Qi; Shi, Tieliu; Pei, Gang; Li, Yixue

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of new gene families subsequent to gene duplication may be coupled to the fluctuation of population and environment variables. Based upon that, we presented a systematic analysis of the animal transmembrane gene duplication events on a macroevolutionary scale by integrating the palaeontology repository. The age of duplication events was calculated by maximum likelihood method, and the age distribution was estimated by density histogram and normal kernel density estimation. We showed that the density of the duplicates displays a positive correlation with the estimates of maximum number of cell types of common ancestors, and the oxidation events played a key role in the major transitions of this density trace. Next, we focused on the Phanerozoic phase, during which more macroevolution data are available. The pulse mass extinction timepoints coincide with the local peaks of the age distribution, suggesting that the transmembrane gene duplicates fixed frequently when the environment changed dramatically. Moreover, a 61-million-year cycle is the most possible cycle in this phase by spectral analysis, which is consistent with the cycles recently detected in biodiversity. Our data thus elucidate a strong coupling of duplication events and macroevolution; furthermore, our method also provides a new way to address these questions. PMID:16895434

  6. Change in the amount of epsilon-hexosyllysine, UV absorbance, and fluorescence of collagen with age in different animal species

    SciTech Connect

    Miksik, I.; Deyl, Z. )

    1991-05-01

    Skin and aorta collagen specimens of Wistar rats, white mice, beagle dogs, cats, horses, and human necropsies of different ages were examined with respect to the content of glycated products. The data presented show that (a) glycation and accumulation of the chromophore(s) are comparable in collagen samples from different species of comparable age; (b) glycation and pigmented accumulation increase markedly during the first 5-10 years of age; (c) the extent of glycation is different in different tissues (in particular, glycation of aortal collagen is about twice that of skin collagen); and (d) collagen pigmentation as followed by fluorescence is comparable in aortal and skin collagen (except below 10 years); pigmentation measured by absorbance at 350 nm is, on the contrary, lower in aortal than in skin collagen. Based on the assumption of constant blood glucose level during the life span, it appears feasible to conclude that the degree of nonenzymatic collagen glycation reflects the time period for which the protein was exposed to the action of sugars. This period, because of increased cross-linking, is likely to be extended in older animals. Other factors, such as differences in collagen turnover between different tissues and the intensity of the removal process of the glycated products, should be taken into consideration as well.

  7. Endogenous nitrogen excretion by red kangaroos (Macropus rufus): effects of animal age and forage quality.

    PubMed

    Munn, Adam J; Dawson, Terence J; Hume, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) are large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupials common to arid and semiarid Australia. The population dynamics of red kangaroos are linked with environmental factors, operating largely through juvenile survival. A crucial period is the young-at-foot (YAF) stage, when juveniles have permanently left the mother's pouch but still take milk from a teat in the pouch. Forage quantity and quality have been implicated in drought-related mortalities of juvenile kangaroos. Here we compared how forage quality affected nitrogen (N) intake and excretion by YAF, weaned, and mature, nonlactating female red kangaroos. On high-quality forage (chopped lucerne hay, Medicago sativa) low in neutral-detergent fiber (43%+/-1%) and high in N (2.9%+/-0.1%), YAF and weaned kangaroos had ideal growth rates and retained 460-570 mg dietary N kg(-0.75) d(-1). But on poor-quality forage (chopped oaten hay, Avena sativa) high in neutral-detergent fiber (64%+/-1%) and low in N (0.9%+/-0.1%), YAF and weaned kangaroos could not sustain growth and were in negative N balance at -103+/-26 mg and -57+/-31 mg N kg(-0.75) d(-1), respectively. Notably, the YAF kangaroos excreted 64% of their truly digestible N intake from forage as nondietary fecal N (NDFN). By weaning age, the situation had improved, but the juveniles still lost 40% of their truly digestible N intake as NDFN compared with only 30% by the mature females. Our findings support field observations that forage quality, and not just quantity, is a major factor affecting the mortality of juvenile red kangaroos during drought. PMID:16555200

  8. Does the Animal Fun program improve social-emotional and behavioural outcomes in children aged 4-6 years?

    PubMed

    Piek, Jan P; Kane, Robert; Rigoli, Daniela; McLaren, Sue; Roberts, Clare M; Rooney, Rosanna; Jensen, Lynn; Dender, Alma; Packer, Tanya; Straker, Leon

    2015-10-01

    Animal Fun was designed to enhance motor and social development in young children. Its efficacy in improving motor skills was presented previously using a randomised controlled trial and a multivariate nested cohort design. Based on the Environmental Stress Hypothesis, it was argued that the program would also result in positive mental health outcomes, investigated in the current study. Pre-intervention scores were recorded for 511 children aged 4.83-6.17 years (M=5.42, SD=.30). Intervention and control groups were compared 6 months following intervention, and again in their first school year. Changes in teacher-rated prosocial behaviour and total difficulties were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and data analysed using Generalised Linear Mixed Models. There was a significant improvement in prosocial behaviour of children in the intervention group six months after initial testing, which remained at 18-month follow-up. Total difficulties decreased at 6 months for the intervention group, with no change at 18 months. This effect was present only for the hyperactivity/inattention subscale. The only significant change for the control group was an increase in hyperactivity/inattention scores from pre-intervention to 18-month follow-up. The Animal Fun program appears to be effective in improving social and behavioural outcomes. PMID:26298689

  9. Characterization of AβpN3 deposition in the brains of dogs of various ages and other animal species.

    PubMed

    Chambers, James K; Mutsuga, Mayu; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    Senile plaques (SP) are characteristic histopathological manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but are also found in normal aging (NA). Recent studies have demonstrated that beta amyloid (Aβ) proteins that have been truncated at the N-terminal position 3 (AβpN3) are the predominant component of SP in AD, but not in NA. The present study revealed that AβpN3 was deposited in an age-dependent manner in canine brains. Moreover, AβpN3 was the main component of the SP that developed in very old dogs. The deposition of AβpN3 increased in accordance with the number of SP, but that of N-terminally intact Aβ (AβN1) did not. In addition, AβpN3 was also deposited in the SP of a Japanese macaque and an American black bear, but not in a feline brain. Focal microvascular cerebral amyloid angiopathy was also observed in the deep cortices and the white matter of the dogs and a woodpecker. Those were always composed of both AβpN3 and AβN1. In conclusion, though non-human animals do not develop full pathology of AD of the human type, AβpN3 is widely deposited in the brains of senescent vertebrates. PMID:21557687

  10. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement.

    PubMed

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2015-02-01

    Ancient parasite eggs were recovered from environmental samples collected at a Viking-age settlement in Viborg, Denmark, dated 1018-1030 A.D. Morphological examination identified Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp., and Fasciola sp. eggs, but size and shape did not allow species identification. By carefully selecting genetic markers, PCR amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA (aDNA) isolates resulted in identification of: the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura , using SSUrRNA sequence homology; Ascaris sp. with 100% homology to cox1 haplotype 07; and Fasciola hepatica using ITS1 sequence homology. The identification of T. trichiura eggs indicates that human fecal material is present and, hence, that the Ascaris sp. haplotype 07 was most likely a human variant in Viking-age Denmark. The location of the F. hepatica finding suggests that sheep or cattle are the most likely hosts. Further, we sequenced the Ascaris sp. 18S rRNA gene in recent isolates from humans and pigs of global distribution and show that this is not a suited marker for species-specific identification. Finally, we discuss ancient parasitism in Denmark and the implementation of aDNA analysis methods in paleoparasitological studies. We argue that when employing species-specific identification, soil samples offer excellent opportunities for studies of human parasite infections and of human and animal interactions of the past. PMID:25357228

  11. Pharmacological interventions against aging through the cell plasma membrane: a review of the experimental results obtained in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Zs-Nagy, Imre

    2002-04-01

    As was shown in a recent review by this author (Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 928: 187-199, 2001), oxyradicals cannot be considered only as harmful by-products of the oxidative metabolism, but living cells and organisms implicitly require their production. This idea is supported by numerous facts and arguments, the most important of which is that the complete inhibition of the oxyradical production by KCN (or by any block of respiration) kills the living organisms long before the energy reserves would be exhausted. This new theoretical approach not only helps our understanding of the normal functions of the living organisms, such as the basic memory mechanisms in the brain cells, but also helps in identifying the site-specific, radical-induced damaging mechanisms that represent the undesirable side effects of oxygen free radicals. First of all, these effects make the cell plasma membrane vulnerable and cause a series of intracellular functional disorders, as described by the membrane hypothesis of aging (MHA). The logical way for any antiaging intervention therefore should be to increase the available number of loosely bound electrons inside the plasma membrane that are easily accessible for OH(*) free radical scavenging. The present review summarizes the available knowledge regarding the theory of the use of membrane-related antiaging pharmaca, like centrophenoxine (CPH), tested in both animal experiments and human clinical trials. A modified, developed version of CPH coded as BCE-001 is also reported. PMID:11976205

  12. Bone Mass and Strength in School-Age Children Exhibit Sexual Dimorphism Related to Differences in Lean Mass: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Heppe, Denise Hm; Yin, Jia-Lian; Trajanoska, Katerina; Uitterlinden, André G; Beck, Thomas J; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Rivadeneira, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Bone strength, a key determinant of fracture risk, has been shown to display clear sexual dimorphism after puberty. We sought to determine whether sex differences in bone mass and hip bone geometry as an index of strength exist in school-age prepubertal children and the degree to which the differences are independent of body size and lean mass. We studied 3514 children whose whole-body and hip scans were measured using the same densitometer (GE-Lunar iDXA) at a mean age of 6.2 years. Hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans underwent hip structural analyses (HSA) with derivation of bone strength indices. Sex differences in these parameters were assessed by regression models adjusted for age, height, ethnicity, weight, and lean mass fraction (LMF). Whole-body bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) levels were 1.3% and 4.3% higher in girls after adjustment by LMF. Independent of LMF, boys had 1.5% shorter femurs, 1.9% and 2.2% narrower shaft and femoral neck with 1.6% to 3.4% thicker cortices than girls. Consequent with this geometry configuration, girls observed 6.6% higher stresses in the medial femoral neck than boys. When considering LMF, the sexual differences on the derived bone strength indices were attenuated, suggesting that differences in muscle loads may reflect an innate disadvantage in bone strength in girls, as consequence of their lower muscular acquisition. In summary, we show that bone sexual dimorphism is already present at 6 years of age, with boys having stronger bones than girls, the relation of which is influenced by body composition and likely attributable to differential adaptation to mechanical loading. Our results support the view that early life interventions (ie, increased physical activity) targeted during the pre- and peripubertal stages may be of high importance, particularly in girls, because before puberty onset, muscle mass is strongly associated with bone density and geometry in children. © 2015 American

  13. Atp13a2-deficient mice exhibit neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, limited α-synuclein accumulation and age-dependent sensorimotor deficits

    PubMed Central

    Schultheis, Patrick J.; Fleming, Sheila M.; Clippinger, Amy K.; Lewis, Jada; Tsunemi, Taiji; Giasson, Benoit; Dickson, Dennis W.; Mazzulli, Joseph R.; Bardgett, Mark E.; Haik, Kristi L.; Ekhator, Osunde; Chava, Anil Kumar; Howard, John; Gannon, Matt; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Chen, Yinhuai; Prasad, Vikram; Linn, Stephen C.; Tamargo, Rafael J.; Westbroek, Wendy; Sidransky, Ellen; Krainc, Dimitri; Shull, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in ATP13A2 (PARK9), encoding a lysosomal P-type ATPase, are associated with both Kufor–Rakeb syndrome (KRS) and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). KRS has recently been classified as a rare genetic form of Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas NCL is a lysosomal storage disorder. Although the transport activity of ATP13A2 has not been defined, in vitro studies show that its loss compromises lysosomal function, which in turn is thought to cause neuronal degeneration. To understand the role of ATP13A2 dysfunction in disease, we disrupted its gene in mice. Atp13a2−/− and Atp13a2+/+ mice were tested behaviorally to assess sensorimotor and cognitive function at multiple ages. In the brain, lipofuscin accumulation, α-synuclein aggregation and dopaminergic pathology were measured. Behaviorally, Atp13a2−/− mice displayed late-onset sensorimotor deficits. Accelerated deposition of autofluorescent storage material (lipofuscin) was observed in the cerebellum and in neurons of the hippocampus and the cortex of Atp13a2−/− mice. Immunoblot analysis showed increased insoluble α-synuclein in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex or cerebellum. There was no change in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra or in striatal dopamine levels in aged Atp13a2−/− mice. These results show that the loss of Atp13a2 causes sensorimotor impairments, α-synuclein accumulation as occurs in PD and related synucleinopathies, and accumulation of lipofuscin deposits characteristic of NCL, thus providing the first direct demonstration that null mutations in Atp13a2 can cause pathological features of both diseases in the same organism. PMID:23393156

  14. Determination of Energy and Nutrient Utilization of Enzyme-treated Rump Round Meat and Lotus Root Designed for Senior People with Young and Age d Hens as an Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Okrim; Kim, Jong Woong; Lee, Hong-Jin; Kil, Dong Yong; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the nutrient utilization of rump round meat and lotus root using young (32 wk) and aged hens (108 wk) as an animal model. Rump round meat and lotus root were prepared with or without enzymatic treatment. For each age group of laying hens, a total of 24 Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allotted to one of two dietary treatments with six replicates. For rump round meat, the true total tract retention rate (TTTR) of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) were unaffected by either enzymatic treatment or hen age. However, aged hens had greater (p<0.01) TTTR of energy and crude fat than young hens. Enzymatic treatment did not influence the TTTR of energy or crude fat. In addition, we did not observe any significant interaction between the TTTR of DM, energy, N, or crude fat in rump round meat and hen age or enzymatic treatment. The TTTR of DM remained unchanged between controls and enzyme-treated lotus root for young hens. However, enzyme-treated lotus root exhibited greater (p<0.05) TTTR of DM than control lotus root for aged hens, resulting in a significant interaction (p<0.05). The TTTR of energy and N in lotus roots were greater (p<0.01) for aged hens than for young hens. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment exerted beneficial effects on energy and nutrient utilization in aged hens, suggesting the aged hen model is practical for simulation of metabolism of elderly individuals. PMID:27499671

  15. Determination of Energy and Nutrient Utilization of Enzyme-treated Rump Round Meat and Lotus Root Designed for Senior People with Young and Age d Hens as an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Woong; Kil, Dong Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the nutrient utilization of rump round meat and lotus root using young (32 wk) and aged hens (108 wk) as an animal model. Rump round meat and lotus root were prepared with or without enzymatic treatment. For each age group of laying hens, a total of 24 Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allotted to one of two dietary treatments with six replicates. For rump round meat, the true total tract retention rate (TTTR) of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) were unaffected by either enzymatic treatment or hen age. However, aged hens had greater (p<0.01) TTTR of energy and crude fat than young hens. Enzymatic treatment did not influence the TTTR of energy or crude fat. In addition, we did not observe any significant interaction between the TTTR of DM, energy, N, or crude fat in rump round meat and hen age or enzymatic treatment. The TTTR of DM remained unchanged between controls and enzyme-treated lotus root for young hens. However, enzyme-treated lotus root exhibited greater (p<0.05) TTTR of DM than control lotus root for aged hens, resulting in a significant interaction (p<0.05). The TTTR of energy and N in lotus roots were greater (p<0.01) for aged hens than for young hens. In conclusion, enzymatic treatment exerted beneficial effects on energy and nutrient utilization in aged hens, suggesting the aged hen model is practical for simulation of metabolism of elderly individuals. PMID:27499671

  16. [alpha]2A-Adrenoceptor Stimulation Improves Prefrontal Cortical Regulation of Behavior through Inhibition of cAMP Signaling in Aging Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verduzco, Luis; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Ramos, Brian P.; Stark, David

    2006-01-01

    The working-memory functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are improved by stimulation of postsynaptic, [alpha]2A-adrenoceptors, especially in aged animals with PFC cognitive deficits. Thus, the [alpha]2A-adrenoceptor agonist, guanfacine, greatly improves working-memory performance in monkeys and rats following systemic administration or…

  17. Interactive effects of age, sex, and strain on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of soybean meal and an animal by-product blend in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if age, sex, and strain of broilers affects the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of soybean meal (SBM) and an animal by-product blend (ABB). Chicks from two broiler strains, a commercially available and another in the test phase, were obta...

  18. Interactions among forest age, valley and channel morphology, and log jams regulate animal production in mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, D. M.; Venarsky, M. P.; Hall, R. O., Jr.; Herdrich, A.; Livers, B.; Winkelman, D.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    differences in stream morphology, but rather to changes in elevation and associated air temperatures. These results demonstrate strong indirect effects of forest age and valley morphometry on organic matter storage and animal secondary production in streams that is mediated by direct effects associated with the presence or absence of logjams.

  19. The golden age of bio-logging: how animal-borne sensors are advancing the frontiers of ecology.

    PubMed

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Nickel, Barry; Bryce, Caleb M; Smith, Justine A; Wheat, Rachel E; Yovovich, Veronica

    2015-07-01

    Great leaps forward in scientific understanding are often spurred by innovations in technology. The explosion of miniature sensors that are driving the boom in consumer electronics, such as smart phones, gaming platforms, and wearable fitness devices, are now becoming available to ecologists for remotely monitoring the activities of wild animals. While half a century ago researchers were attaching balloons to the backs of seals to measure their movement, today ecologists have access to an arsenal of sensors that can continuously measure most aspects of an animal's state (e.g., location, behavior, caloric expenditure, interactions with other animals) and external environment (e.g., temperature, salinity, depth). This technology is advancing our ability to study animal ecology by allowing researchers to (1) answer questions about the physiology, behavior, and ecology of wild animals in situ that would have previously been limited to tests on model organisms in highly controlled settings, (2) study cryptic or wide-ranging animals that have previously evaded investigation, and (3) develop and test entirely new theories. Here we explore how ecologists are using these tools to answer new questions about the physiological performance, energetics, foraging, migration, habitat selection, and sociality of wild animals, as well as collect data on the environments in which they live. PMID:26378296

  20. 1.6 Ga U-Pb zircon age for the Chorhat Sandstone, lower Vindhyan, India: Possible implications for early evolution of animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Birger; Bose, Pradip K.; Sarkar, Subir; Banerjee, Santanu; Fletcher, Ian R.; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2002-02-01

    Bedding-plane markings in the Chorhat Sandstone (lower Vindhyan), central India, were recently interpreted as burrows produced by triploblastic animals. Because the rocks were thought to be older than 1000 Ma, these structures were regarded as the oldest fossil evidence for metazoan life. However, the biological origin of the markings has been questioned, as has their age. Current age estimates are based on K-Ar, Rb-Sr, and fission- track dates, though some contentious evidence suggests that the rocks may be only 540 Ma. Here we provide the first robust age data for the lower Vindhyan by using SHRIMP (sensitive, high-resolution ion microprobe) U-Pb zircon geochronology to date silicified tuffs bounding the Chorhat Sandstone. Our results show that the sediments were deposited between 1628 ± 8 Ma and 1599 ± 8 Ma. If the Chorhat markings are burrows left by worm-like animals, then our data suggest that complex metazoans had evolved before 1600 Ma, 1 b.y. before the “Cambrian explosion” when animals rapidly diversified and became ecologically dominant. However, given the doubts expressed about the origin of the bedding-plane structures, as well as the surprisingly “old” age of the host rocks, further studies are urgently required to provide supportive evidence.

  1. Exhibits Enhanced by Stand-Alone Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rennes, Eve C.

    Both the development and evaluation of one of a set of computer programs designed for use by visitors as adjuncts to museum exhibits are described. Museum displays used were (1) a static, behind-glass exhibit on evolution; (2) a hands-on primitive stone age tools exhibit; and (3) a Foucault pendulum. A computer placed next to each exhibit served…

  2. Talking about Animals: Studies of Young Children Visiting Zoos, a Museum and a Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Susan Dale

    The purpose of this study was to identify the content and form of the conversations and recognize the variables that are acting during visits to animal exhibits, and the influence on conversational content of both different types of locations and animal exhibits and visit rationales. Conversations of children between the ages of 3 and 12 years and…

  3. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  4. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  5. The Impact of Animated Books on the Vocabulary and Language Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Two School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broemmel, Amy D.; Moran, Mary Jane; Wooten, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of electronic media over the past two decades, young children have been found to have increased exposure to video games, computer-based activities, and electronic books (e-books). This study explores how exposure to animated ebooks impacts young children's literacy development. A stratified convenience sample (n = 24) was…

  6. The effects of combined free radical scavenger and sildenafil therapy on age-associated erectile dysfunction: An animal model

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R.; DeYoung, Ling; Lehmann, Kyle J.; Chung, Eric; Brock, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Aging results in erectile dysfunction that is partially attributed to decreased nitric oxide (NO) and increased free radical generation. Vitamin E enhances endothelial cell function and acts as a free radical scavenger; however, its benefits on erectile function in the elderly are unknown. Aims: The aim of the following study is to determine if Vitamin E alone, or in combination with the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil, may improve erectile function and the NO signaling in a cohort of aged (13-15 month old) rats. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 28) were divided based upon age into young (4-5 months old, n = 7) and aged (13-15 months old, n = 21) cohorts. Aged rats were treated with Vitamin E, sildenafil or a combination of both. Penile cavernosal and dorsal nerve tissues were evaluated for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and caveolin-1 expression. Erectile function was assessed through intra-cavernous pressure (ICP) recordings. Results: nNOS and cavoelin-1 were significantly decreased in aged rats compared with young controls. In aged rats, both Vitamin E and sildenafil partially recovered nNOS expression but when combined, a synergistic elevation in nNOS was observed. The significant decreases in ICP recorded in aged rats were improved with sildenafil; however, Vitamin E did not yield any additional improvements in ICP. Conclusions: Diminished levels of nNOS and caveolin-1 are found in aged rats. When combined with sildenafil, Vitamin E synergistically increased nNOS expression. Since biochemical gains were not realized physiologically, other contributing factors likely exist. PMID:25371608

  7. [Age-related peculiarities of thymus reaction to the exposure to helium-neon laser and injured muscle alloplasty with the muscle tissue from the animals of the same age].

    PubMed

    Bulyakova, N V; Azarova, V S

    2015-01-01

    Histological, cytological and morphometric changes in the thymus of 1 month-old, adult (3-4 months-old) and old (24-30 months-old) rats (24 animals in each group) were studied during muscle regeneration after the alloplasty of the injured area with the muscle tissue from the animal of the same age. Muscles of the donor or recipient were subjected to the course of preliminary irradiation with He-Ne laser (dose: 4.5-5.4 J/cm2 for each extremity; total dose of 9.0-10.8 J/cm2 per animal). It was shown that the exposure of gastrocnemius muscles that were prepared for the operation to He-Ne laser radiation decreased morpho-functional activity of the thymus in young, adult and old recipient rats the before surgery. This was demonstrated by its weaker reaction to the allograft during the early time intervals after surgery. The observed effect was more pronounced with the increasing age of an animal. PMID:25958725

  8. How do animals optimize the size-number trade-off when aging? Insights from reproductive senescence patterns in marmots.

    PubMed

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-françois; Gaillard, Jean-michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of female age on five reproductive traits and on the offspring size-number trade-off from an extensive data set spanning 20 years of study on free-ranging Alpine marmots. Offspring mass increased with female age, whereas litter size and reproductive allocation remained constant in females up to 10 years of age and declined thereafter. Although reproductive allocation declined, post-weaning juvenile survival and the size-number trade-off did not change markedly throughout a female's lifetime. Senescence of annual reproductive success (i.e., the number of offspring surviving their first hibernation within a given litter) only resulted from senescence of litter size. The data were insufficient to determine whether the decrease in litter size with age was caused by declining litter size at birth, offspring pre-weaning survival, or both. Regardless, our findings demonstrate that marmot females display a size-number trade-off invariant with age, and that their reproductive tactic involves increasing offspring size at the cost of decreasing litter size with increasing age. As a result, reproductive performance remains constant throughout a female's lifetime, despite the deleterious effects of senescence in litter size. PMID:26236889

  9. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-07-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats.

  10. Ethics on Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  11. Comparison of Safety and Immunogenicity of PVRV and PCECV Immunized in Patients with WHO Category II Animal Exposure: A Study Based on Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the safety and immunogenicity between purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) and purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) in patients with WHO category II animal exposure, especially in different age groups. Methodology/Principal Findings In one-year clinical observation after vaccination with PVRV or PCECV under Zagreb (2-1-1) or Essen (1-1-1-1-1) regimens, information collection for the demographic and adverse events (AEs) and rabies virus laboratory examination of neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers were performed for all patients with WHO category II animal exposure in Wuhan city. The results showed no significant differences of safety and immunogenicity between PVRV and PCECV both in Zagreb and Essen regimens. However, when compared with other age groups, most systemic AEs (36/61) occurred in <5-year-old patients, and <5-year-old patients have significant lower RVNA titer and seroconversion rate (RVNA ≥0.5 IU/ml) at day 7 both in Zagreb and Essen regimens or PVRV and PCECV groups. Conclusions Our data showed that vaccination with PVRV is as safe and immunogenic as PCECV in patients of all age groups, but might be more popular for clinical use. When performing a vaccination with rabies vaccine in young children, the most optimal vaccine regimen should be selected. PMID:25522244

  12. Dietary Polyphenols, Berries, and Age-Related Bone Loss: A Review Based on Human, Animal, and Cell Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Patrice A.; Lee, Sang Gil; Lee, Sun-Kyeong; Chun, Ock K.

    2014-01-01

    Bone loss during aging has become an increasing public health concern as average life expectancy has increased. One of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone disease today is osteoporosis in which the body slows down bone formation and existing bone is increasingly being resorbed by the body to maintain the calcium balance. Some causes of this bone loss can be attributed to dysregulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity mediated by increased oxidative stress through the aging process. Due to certain serious adverse effects of the currently available therapeutic agents that limit their efficacy, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has garnered interest as a natural means for the prevention of this debilitating disease. Natural antioxidant supplementation, a type of CAM, has been researched to aid in reducing bone loss caused by oxidative stress. Naturally occurring polyphenols, such as anthocyanins rich in berries, are known to have anti-oxidative properties. Several studies have been reviewed to determine the impact polyphenol intake—particularly that of berries—has on bone health. Studies reveal a positive association of high berry intake and higher bone mass, implicating berries as possible inexpensive alternatives in reducing the risk of age related bone loss. PMID:26784669

  13. Total protein, animal protein, and physical activity in relation to muscle mass in middle-aged and older Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance training is recognized as a good strategy for retarding age-related declines in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies have also highlighted the potential value of protein intakes in excess of current recommendations. The roles that leisure-time physical activity and protein quality mig...

  14. Creatures in an Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    Adelaide Zoo, already home to 3,400 animals representing nearly 300 species of exotic and native mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish, just acquired a new specimen: Homo exhibitionist. For 28 days, four sets of six volunteers get to spend a week living the life of an animal, foraging and playing and partying like it's 1999 million years ago. The…

  15. An Exhibit for Touching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Susan

    1979-01-01

    An exhibit designed for visually handicapped persons presented by the Kalamazoo (Michigan) Institute of Art included bronze sculptures and oil paintings from the institute's permanent collection. (CL)

  16. San Rafael Schools Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Rafael City Schools, CA.

    The San Rafael City Schools' exhibit which was displayed at the 1983 Marin County Fair (California) is described. The exhibit, entitled "Education - A Real Winner," consisted of 12 display panels illustrating the following aspects of the school system: (1) early history from 1861; (2) present board and administration; (3) present schools and…

  17. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  18. Visitors Center Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A child enjoys building his own LEGO model at a play table which was included in the exhibit 'Travel in Space' World Show. The exhibit consisted of 21 displays designed to teach children about flight and space travel from the Wright brothers to future generations of space vehicles.

  19. Rare helical spheroidal fossils from the Doushantuo Lagerstätte: Ediacaran animal embryos come of age?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shuhai; Hagadorn, James W.; Zhou, Chuanming; Yuan, Xunlai

    2007-02-01

    A small quantity of helically coiled spheroidal fossils has been recovered from acid digestion of phosphorite samples from the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation, South China. These fossils consist of an internal body enclosed in a sculptured envelope that is very similar to that of Doushantuo animal eggs and blastula embryos such as Megasphaera ornata. A hallmark of these fossils is a three-dimensional spiral structure, which always consists of three clockwise coils, and occurs on both the envelope and the internal body. The spiral structure consists of a spiral tunnel or canal flanked by two raised levees, and it is punctured by a series of holes. Some specimens show evidence of uncoiling, invagination along the spiral structure, or bipectinate furrowing on the band between canals. A possible ontogenetic link between these helical spheroidal fossils and Megasphaera ornata is suggested by similar size, similar envelope sculptures, and co-occurrence. We tentatively interpret these fossils as postblastula embryos related to Megasphaera ornata. Thus, they may represent the most advanced embryonic fossils so far known from the Ediacaran, although their adult morphologies and phylogenetic affinity remain unknown.

  20. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J.; Morrow, C.

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. There are many ways for scientists to help develop science exhibitions. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). Two of its exhibitions, Space Weather Center and MarsQuest, are currently on tour. Another exhibition, Alien Earths, is in development. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot traveling exhibition. The exhibit's second 3-year tour began this January at the Detroit Science Center. It is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. The 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Besides the exhibits, SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous

  1. A whole mitochondria analysis of the Tyrolean Iceman's leather provides insights into the animal sources of Copper Age clothing.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Niall J; Teasdale, Matthew D; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Maixner, Frank; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G; Zink, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The attire of the Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old natural mummy from the Ötzal Italian Alps, provides a surviving example of ancient manufacturing technologies. Research into his garments has however, been limited by ambiguity surrounding their source species. Here we present a targeted enrichment and sequencing of full mitochondrial genomes sampled from his clothes and quiver, which elucidates the species of production for nine fragments. Results indicate that the majority of the samples originate from domestic ungulate species (cattle, sheep and goat), whose recovered haplogroups are now at high frequency in today's domestic populations. Intriguingly, the hat and quiver samples were produced from wild species, brown bear and roe deer respectively. Combined, these results suggest that Copper Age populations made considered choices of clothing material from both the wild and domestic populations available to them. Moreover, these results show the potential for the recovery of complete mitochondrial genomes from degraded prehistoric artefacts. PMID:27537861

  2. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  3. Test Control Center exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  4. Single and Combination Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines Adjuvanted with CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides or Monophosphoryl Lipid A Exhibit Differential Immunity That Is Not Correlated to Protection in Animal Models▿

    PubMed Central

    Khodai, Tansi; Chappell, Debbie; Christy, Clare; Cockle, Paul; Eyles, Jim; Hammond, Daisy; Gore, Katrina; McCluskie, Michael J.; Evans, Dana M.; Lang, Susanne; Loudon, Peter T.; Townend, Tim; Wright, Paul; West, Kate; Bright, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Despite several attempts to develop an effective prophylactic vaccine for HSV-2, all have failed to show efficacy in the clinic. The most recent of these failures was the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) subunit vaccine based on the glycoprotein gD with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). In a phase 3 clinical trial, this vaccine failed to protect from HSV-2 disease, even though good neutralizing antibody responses were elicited. We aimed to develop a superior, novel HSV-2 vaccine containing either gD or gB alone or in combination, together with the potent adjuvant CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CPG). The immunogenic properties of these vaccines were compared in mice. We show that gB/CPG/alum elicited a neutralizing antibody response similar to that elicited by gD/CPG/alum vaccine but a significantly greater gamma interferon (IFN-γ) T cell response. Furthermore, the combined gB-gD/CPG/alum vaccine elicited significantly greater neutralizing antibody and T cell responses than gD/MPL/alum. The efficacies of these candidate vaccines were compared in the mouse and guinea pig disease models, including a novel male guinea pig genital disease model. These studies demonstrated that increased immune response did not correlate to improved protection. First, despite a lower IFN-γ T cell response, the gD/CPG/alum vaccine was more effective than gB/CPG/alum in mice. Furthermore, the gB-gD/CPG/alum vaccine was no more effective than gD/MPL/alum in mice or male guinea pigs. We conclude that difficulties in correlating immune responses to efficacy in animal models will act as a deterrent to researchers attempting to develop effective HSV vaccines. PMID:21852545

  5. Single and combination herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein vaccines adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or monophosphoryl lipid A exhibit differential immunity that is not correlated to protection in animal models.

    PubMed

    Khodai, Tansi; Chappell, Debbie; Christy, Clare; Cockle, Paul; Eyles, Jim; Hammond, Daisy; Gore, Katrina; McCluskie, Michael J; Evans, Dana M; Lang, Susanne; Loudon, Peter T; Townend, Tim; Wright, Paul; West, Kate; Bright, Helen

    2011-10-01

    Despite several attempts to develop an effective prophylactic vaccine for HSV-2, all have failed to show efficacy in the clinic. The most recent of these failures was the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) subunit vaccine based on the glycoprotein gD with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). In a phase 3 clinical trial, this vaccine failed to protect from HSV-2 disease, even though good neutralizing antibody responses were elicited. We aimed to develop a superior, novel HSV-2 vaccine containing either gD or gB alone or in combination, together with the potent adjuvant CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CPG). The immunogenic properties of these vaccines were compared in mice. We show that gB/CPG/alum elicited a neutralizing antibody response similar to that elicited by gD/CPG/alum vaccine but a significantly greater gamma interferon (IFN-γ) T cell response. Furthermore, the combined gB-gD/CPG/alum vaccine elicited significantly greater neutralizing antibody and T cell responses than gD/MPL/alum. The efficacies of these candidate vaccines were compared in the mouse and guinea pig disease models, including a novel male guinea pig genital disease model. These studies demonstrated that increased immune response did not correlate to improved protection. First, despite a lower IFN-γ T cell response, the gD/CPG/alum vaccine was more effective than gB/CPG/alum in mice. Furthermore, the gB-gD/CPG/alum vaccine was no more effective than gD/MPL/alum in mice or male guinea pigs. We conclude that difficulties in correlating immune responses to efficacy in animal models will act as a deterrent to researchers attempting to develop effective HSV vaccines. PMID:21852545

  6. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  7. Exhibitions in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    During this past year a vast number of art shows have been exhibited across the United States. Their most striking features were their range and diversity. Here are some comments on Ben Shahn's paintings and photography focusing on social realism, some works by the Polish Constructivists, interested in redefining form in relation to space, the…

  8. Animals of the Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and student activities on how desert animals have adapted to dryness and heat, how and when animals move on the desert, and nocturnal/diurnal animals. Each activity includes objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. Ready-to-copy pages are included for a…

  9. Dietary diversity, animal source food consumption and linear growth among children aged 1-5 years in Bandung, Indonesia: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Muslimatun, Siti; Wiradnyani, Luh Ade Ari

    2016-07-01

    Dietary diversity involves adequate intake of macronutrient and micronutrient. The inclusion of animal source foods (ASF) in the diet helps prevent multiple nutrient deficiencies and any resultant, linear growth retardation. The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship between dietary diversity, ASF consumption and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) among children aged 12-59 months old across a 1-year observation. This longitudinal observational study without controls was conducted among four age groups: 12-23 months (n 57), 24-35 months (n 56), 36-47 months (n 58) and 48-59 months (n 56). Anthropometry and dietary intake were measured during each of four visits at 16-20-week intervals. The general characteristics and other observations were only collected at baseline and endline. During the year-long study period, approximately 27 % of the children ate a diverse diet (consumed ≥6 out of 9 food groups) according to ≥3 visits. ASF consumption was high, particularly for eggs, poultry, processed meats and liquid milk. Yet, micronutrient intake inadequacy, especially of Zn, Ca, Fe and vitamin A, was highly prevalent. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the consumption of a diverse diet and ASF was not significantly associated with the HAZ at endline, after controlling for demographic characteristics and the baseline HAZ. The consumption of a diverse diet was significantly associated with Ca intake adequacy. Moreover, ASF consumption was significantly associated with adequate intake of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, Ca and Zn. Thus, the recommendation is to continue and strengthen the promotion of consuming a diverse diet that includes ASF in supporting the linear growth of young children. PMID:26817493

  10. Skylab Exhibit Ribbon Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A metal strap became tangled over one of the folded solar array panels when Skylab lost its micro meteoroid shield during its launch. Cutters like the ones used to free the solar array were used to cut the ribbon opening to the public a new full-scale Skylab cluster exhibit at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Wielding the cutters are (left to right): Alabama Senator James B. Allen; Marshall Space Flight Center director, Dr. William R. Lucas, Huntsville Mayor, Joe Davis; Madison County Commission Chairman, James Record (standing behind Mayor Davis); and chairman of the Alabama Space Science Exhibit Commission, Jack Giles. Astronauts Conrad and Kerwin used the same type of tool in Earth orbit to cut the aluminum strap which jammed the Skylab solar array.

  11. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows Justin Varnadore, son of a Marshall TV employee, at the controls of one of the many displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  12. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  13. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. PMID:25532894

  14. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  15. What do Children Aged Four to Seven Know about the Digestive System and the Respiratory System of the Human Being and of Other Animals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Barros, Susana; Martínez-Losada, Cristina; Garrido, María

    2011-10-01

    The object of this paper is to learn what little children know about the inside of their bodies before they have studied these particular aspects at school. The data for our project were collected by means of drawings made by 342 Spanish children aged four to seven. They were required to depict where the food, drink, and air which enter their bodies go. In addition to this, we intend to study how the ideas of children evolve during three consecutive years. For this purpose, a group of 32 subjects was monitored. Our findings show that the children recognise specific organs in their own bodies which they associate with the intake of food and air. Furthermore, they usually extrapolate those organs to other animals they are familiar with. Their ideas about the digestive system are more adequate than the ones about the respiratory system, though their ideas improve as they become older, above all those concerning the digestive system. Taking these findings as a basis, this paper suggests some points to be taken into consideration for teaching purposes.

  16. How Do Children See Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    In order to name an animal they see, children must use their existing mental models to provide the animal with a name. In this study, pupils between the ages of 4 and 14 are presented with preserved specimens of 6 different animals and asked a series of questions about them. The results indicate that pupils of all ages mainly recognize and use…

  17. A Heart That Beats for 500 Years: Age-Related Changes in Cardiac Proteasome Activity, Oxidative Protein Damage and Expression of Heat Shock Proteins, Inflammatory Factors, and Mitochondrial Complexes in Arctica islandica, the Longest-Living Noncolonial Animal

    PubMed Central

    Sosnowska, Danuta; Richardson, Chris; Sonntag, William E.; Csiszar, Anna; Ridgway, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Study of negligibly senescent animals may provide clues that lead to better understanding of the cardiac aging process. To elucidate mechanisms of successful cardiac aging, we investigated age-related changes in proteasome activity, oxidative protein damage and expression of heat shock proteins, inflammatory factors, and mitochondrial complexes in the heart of the ocean quahog Arctica islandica, the longest-lived noncolonial animal (maximum life span potential: 508 years). We found that in the heart of A. islandica the level of oxidatively damaged proteins did not change significantly up to 120 years of age. No significant aging-induced changes were observed in caspase-like and trypsin-like proteasome activity. Chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity showed a significant early-life decline, then it remained stable for up to 182 years. No significant relationship was observed between the extent of protein ubiquitination and age. In the heart of A. islandica, an early-life decline in expression of HSP90 and five mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes was observed. We found significant age-related increases in the expression of three cytokine-like mediators (interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α) in the heart of A. islandica. Collectively, in extremely long-lived molluscs, maintenance of protein homeostasis likely contributes to the preservation of cardiac function. Our data also support the concept that low-grade chronic inflammation in the cardiovascular system is a universal feature of the aging process, which is also manifest in invertebrates. PMID:24347613

  18. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  19. Animal Model of Dermatophytosis

    PubMed Central

    Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Nobuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host's normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the present paper, we surveyed reports about the methodology of the dermatophytosis animal model for tinea corporis, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium and discussed future prospects. PMID:22619489

  20. 9 CFR 72.20 - Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhibition of noninfected cattle in... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BOVINE BABESIOSIS § 72.20 Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted. The exhibition of noninfected cattle...

  1. 9 CFR 72.20 - Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhibition of noninfected cattle in... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.20 Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted. The exhibition of...

  2. 9 CFR 72.20 - Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhibition of noninfected cattle in... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.20 Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted. The exhibition of...

  3. 9 CFR 72.20 - Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhibition of noninfected cattle in... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.20 Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted. The exhibition of...

  4. 9 CFR 72.20 - Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhibition of noninfected cattle in... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.20 Exhibition of noninfected cattle in the quarantined area; restrictions under which permitted. The exhibition of...

  5. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  6. The 5XFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease Exhibits an Age-Dependent Increase in Anti-Ceramide IgG and Exogenous Administration of Ceramide Further Increases Anti-Ceramide Titers and Amyloid Plaque Burden

    PubMed Central

    Dinkins, Michael B.; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Wang, Guanghu; Zhu, Gu; He, Qian; Kong, Ji Na; Bieberich, Erhard

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that 5XFAD Alzheimer's disease model mice develop an age-dependent increase in antibodies against ceramide, suggesting involvement of autoimmunity against ceramide in Alzheimer's disease pathology. To test this, we increased serum anti-ceramide IgG (2-fold) by ceramide administration and analyzed amyloid plaque formation in 5XFAD mice. There were no differences in soluble or total amyloid-β levels. However, females receiving ceramide had increased plaque burden (number, area, and size) compared to controls. Ceramide-treated mice showed an increase of serum exosomes (up to 3-fold using Alix as marker), suggesting that systemic anti-ceramide IgG and exosome levels are correlated with enhanced plaque formation. PMID:25720409

  7. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  8. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  9. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in pigs after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose of 8 mg/kg: dose proportionality, influence of the age of the animals and urinary elimination

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, M; Paulin, A; Dron, F; Woehrlé, F

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in pigs were evaluated as a function of dose and animal age following intravenous and intramuscular administration of a 16% solution (Forcyl®). The absolute bioavailability of marbofloxacin as well as the dose proportionality was evaluated in 27-week-old fattening pigs. Blood PK and urinary excretion of marbofloxacin were evaluated after a single intramuscular dose of 8 mg/kg in 16-week-old male pigs. An additional group of 12-week-old weaned piglets was used for the evaluation of age-related kinetics. The plasma and urine concentration of marbofloxacin was determined using a HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. After intravenous administration in 27-week-old fattening pigs, the total body clearance was 0.065 L/h·kg. After intramuscular administration to the same animals, the mean observed Cmax was 6.30 μg/mL, and the AUCINF was 115 μg·h/mL. The absolute bioavailability was 91.5%, and dose proportionality was shown within the dose range of 4–16 mg/kg. The renal clearance was about half of the value of the total clearance. The total systemic clearance values significantly decreased as a function of age, being 0.092 L/h·kg and 0.079 L/h·kg in pigs aged 12 and 16 weeks, respectively. PMID:24666477

  10. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in pigs after intravenous and intramuscular administration of a single dose of 8 mg/kg: dose proportionality, influence of the age of the animals and urinary elimination.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M; Paulin, A; Dron, F; Woehrlé, F

    2014-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in pigs were evaluated as a function of dose and animal age following intravenous and intramuscular administration of a 16% solution (Forcyl(®) ). The absolute bioavailability of marbofloxacin as well as the dose proportionality was evaluated in 27-week-old fattening pigs. Blood PK and urinary excretion of marbofloxacin were evaluated after a single intramuscular dose of 8 mg/kg in 16-week-old male pigs. An additional group of 12-week-old weaned piglets was used for the evaluation of age-related kinetics. The plasma and urine concentration of marbofloxacin was determined using a HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. After intravenous administration in 27-week-old fattening pigs, the total body clearance was 0.065 L/h·kg. After intramuscular administration to the same animals, the mean observed Cmax was 6.30 μg/mL, and the AUCINF was 115 μg·h/mL. The absolute bioavailability was 91.5%, and dose proportionality was shown within the dose range of 4-16 mg/kg. The renal clearance was about half of the value of the total clearance. The total systemic clearance values significantly decreased as a function of age, being 0.092 L/h·kg and 0.079 L/h·kg in pigs aged 12 and 16 weeks, respectively. PMID:24666477

  11. Method development to quantify Bv8 expression in circulating CD11b+ cells in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) exhibiting Anti-VEGF refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Timothy; Daniels, Tad; Perkins, Jill; Csaky, Karl G

    2016-07-01

    A subset of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) subjects appears to be refractory to the effects of anti-VEGF treatment and require frequent intravitreal injections. Prokineticin-2 (Bv8) expression in CD11b(+) cells has been linked to anti-VEGF response. We have developed a reproducible method to quantify gene expression in circulating CD11b + cells. Utilizing this method we tested the hypothesis that high Bv8 expression in circulating CD11b(+) cells is associated with anti-VEGF refractoriness in nvAMD patients. Two groups of nvAMD subjects undergoing treatment with anti-VEGF agents were recruited and classified as refractory or non-refractory to anti-VEGF treatment (n = 33 for each group). Two blood draws were obtained from each subject 1-9 months apart. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and CD11b(+) cells were purified via magnetic bead separation. RNA was purified, and relative expression of Bv8 among the subjects was compared via quantitative PCR analysis. Utilizing this approach no significant difference was detected in the mean LogRQ values between the first and second blood draws (t-test, p = 0.826) indicating low intra-patient variability and demonstrating good reproducibility of the assay. There was no significant difference in Bv8 expression between nvAMD subjects classified as refractory versus non-refractory. We were unable to find a correlation between Bv8 expression in CD11b + cells and anti-VEGF refractoriness in human nvAMD subjects. Relatively high expression in Bv8 in these subjects did not correlate with clinical treatment history, as measured by the frequency of injections. Utilizing this well characterized technique, studies are underway to examine alternative gene expression profiles in various circulating cell populations that may contribute to anti-VEGF refractoriness. PMID:27256991

  12. Traveling Exhibitions: translating current science into effective science exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Morrow, C.; Harold, J.

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop two other exhibitions called Cosmic Origins and InterActive Earth. Museum exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of earth and space outreach programs. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The focus of the presentation will be on the Institute's MarsQuest exhibition. This project is a 5000 square-foot, 2.5M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's 3-year tour is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient host museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents). The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibitions interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. SSI is also developing an interactive web site called MarsQuest On-line. The linkage between the web site, education program and exhibit will be discussed. MarsQuest and SSI's other exhibitions are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education.

  13. Exhibitions: Facing Outward, Pointing Inward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) Exhibitions Project of the early 1990s produced a range of work that continues to inform the practice of using exhibitions as a "360 degree" method of transforming teaching and learning, community connections, school design, and assessment. Among that work was this paper coupling the origins of exhibitions…

  14. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  15. An exploratory study of zoo visitors' exhibit experiences and reactions.

    PubMed

    Luebke, Jerry F; Matiasek, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Visiting a zoo or aquarium is not only fun, but can also have a positive impact on visitors' knowledge and attitudes regarding animals and the environment. The biggest challenge, however, is for these institutions to strategically provide opportunities for cognitive and affective learning while simultaneously facilitating enjoyment and fun. Recent studies in zoos and aquaria have examined various factors that can influence learning such as engaging visitors' emotions or connecting with visitors' prior knowledge and interests. The intent of the current study was to further this line of investigation and explore the relationship between visitors' predispositions and their cognitive and affective experiences and reactions as they walked through an animal exhibit. We selected three indoor immersion exhibits and one outdoor naturalistic exhibit for the study to obtain a wide range of different animals and exhibit settings. Research assistants randomly intercepted visitors leaving the exhibits and asked, among other things, the extent they experienced certain thoughts and feelings while they were walking through the exhibits. Results revealed that visitors' emotional responses to viewing animals were key experiences along with opportunities for introspection and reflection during their time in the exhibits. Implications of the study are discussed in reference to providing both fun and meaningful learning experiences for visitors. PMID:23740472

  16. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  17. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  18. What Do Children Aged Four to Seven Know about the Digestive System and the Respiratory System of the Human Being and of Other Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Barros, Susana; Martinez-Losada, Cristina; Garrido, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The object of this paper is to learn what little children know about the inside of their bodies before they have studied these particular aspects at school. The data for our project were collected by means of drawings made by 342 Spanish children aged four to seven. They were required to depict where the food, drink, and air which enter their…

  19. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson NIH Director Dr. Elias ... addresses visitors to the opening of the exhibition. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson Brothers Niko and Theo ...

  20. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Research in Bethesda. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson "Against the Odds" is a remarkable story of achievement ...

  1. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  2. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  3. [Phototactic behavior of Acheta domestica and Musca domestica in relation to aging processes].

    PubMed

    Stoll, S; Blösch, M; Kleider, H

    1990-01-01

    Individual phototactical behavior with age depends on sex and temperature in Acheta domesticus; its running time increases continually with age, whereas Musca domestica exhibits a minimum in young animals. There may be a connection in the mortality kinetics of populations of these insects. PMID:2392873

  4. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhamed, Amr; Hisasue, Shin-ichi; Shirai, Masato; Matsushita, Kazuhito; Wakumoto, Yoshiaki; Tsujimura, Akira; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Horie, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5) and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5). Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant). The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant). The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103) μm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103) μm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant). In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly smaller in the TRT group (4.93×103 μm2 [range 0.51–14.88×103]) than in the control group (6.08×103 μm2 [0.77–19.97×103]; P<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion This is the first study clearly indicating that TRT can decrease visceral fat cell size, which is a key modulator in the metabolic syndrome. However, a short course of TRT could not improve the ICP response in hypogonadal aged male rats. Further investigation is necessary to clarify the exact rationale of TRT on the visceral fat cell. PMID:25767790

  5. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve. PMID:26845298

  6. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  7. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation. PMID:16501652

  8. Gerbils exhibit stable open-arms exploration across repeated testing on the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Rico, Javier Leonardo; Penagos-Gil, Marion; Castañeda, Anderson F; Corredor, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Repeated testing on the elevated plus-maze (EPM) leads rats and mice to avoid the open-arms of the apparatus. The effect of multiple exposures to the EPM on the behavioral profile of gerbils is unknown. In this study, young and middle-aged gerbils were exposed to the EPM and four retests were carried out 24, 48, 72 and 96h after the first trial in order to determine whether animals exhibited open-arms avoidance. In addition, groups of young and middle-aged gerbils were exposed to the EPM for 20-min followed by a 5-min retest trial 24h apart to analyze the effect of a prolonged exposure to the EPM on open-arms exploration during first trial and retest. Gerbils exhibited high exploration of open-arms during the first trial and progressive locomotor decrease across repeated testing. Unlike previous reports for rats and mice, young gerbils showed a stable open-arms exploration both across multiple exposures and during a prolonged exposure to EPM. Middle-aged gerbils also exhibited a stable open-arms exploration during retest prior to the 20-min test. Results suggest a reliable repeated test paradigm for the EPM using our proposed methodology for gerbils. PMID:26621258

  9. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  10. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  11. Making Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

  12. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  13. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  14. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, YueYun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits. PMID:24782807

  15. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, Yueyun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits. PMID:24782807

  16. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Virve; Söderlund, Tim; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Gissler, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Contacts between humans and animals inevitably involve encounters possibly resulting in the human being injured. During the period of 2000 to 2014 almost 90 people died in this kind of conflict in Finland. Of these deaths, one third were associated with horses. In addition, over the same period 85 people died in traffic accidents in which an animal was hit by a car. Accidents requiring hospitalization occurred for approx. 8 000 people. PMID:27522833

  17. Considering High-Tech Exhibits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routman, Emily

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a variety of high-tech exhibit media used in The Living World, an educational facility operated by The Saint Louis Zoo. Considers the strengths and weaknesses of holograms, video, animatronics, video-equipped microscopes, and computer interactives. Computer interactives are treated with special attention. (LZ)

  18. A whole mitochondria analysis of the Tyrolean Iceman’s leather provides insights into the animal sources of Copper Age clothing

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Niall J.; Teasdale, Matthew D.; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Maixner, Frank; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G.; Zink, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The attire of the Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old natural mummy from the Ötzal Italian Alps, provides a surviving example of ancient manufacturing technologies. Research into his garments has however, been limited by ambiguity surrounding their source species. Here we present a targeted enrichment and sequencing of full mitochondrial genomes sampled from his clothes and quiver, which elucidates the species of production for nine fragments. Results indicate that the majority of the samples originate from domestic ungulate species (cattle, sheep and goat), whose recovered haplogroups are now at high frequency in today’s domestic populations. Intriguingly, the hat and quiver samples were produced from wild species, brown bear and roe deer respectively. Combined, these results suggest that Copper Age populations made considered choices of clothing material from both the wild and domestic populations available to them. Moreover, these results show the potential for the recovery of complete mitochondrial genomes from degraded prehistoric artefacts. PMID:27537861

  19. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  20. Freshly dissociated mature hippocampal astrocytes exhibit passive membrane conductance and low membrane resistance similarly to syncytial coupled astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yixing; Ma, Baofeng; Kiyoshi, Conrad M.; Alford, Catherine C.; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Mature astrocytes exhibit a linear current-to-voltage K+ membrane conductance (passive conductance) and an extremely low membrane resistance (Rm) in situ. The combination of these electrophysiological characteristics establishes a highly negative and stable membrane potential that is essential for basic functions, such as K+ spatial buffering and neurotransmitter uptake. However, astrocytes are coupled extensively in situ. It remains to be determined whether the observed passive behavior and low Rm are attributable to the intrinsic properties of membrane ion channels or to gap junction coupling in functionally mature astrocytes. In the present study, freshly dissociated hippocampal tissues were used as a new model to examine this basic question in young adult animals. The morphologically intact single astrocytes could be reliably dissociated from animals postnatal day 21 and older. At this animal age, dissociated single astrocytes exhibit passive conductance and resting membrane potential similar to those exhibited by astrocytes in situ. To precisely measure the Rm from single astrocytes, dual-patch single-astrocyte recording was performed. We show that dissociated single astrocytes exhibit a low Rm similarly to syncytial coupled astrocytes. Functionally, the symmetric expression of high-K+ conductance enabled rapid change in the intracellular K+ concentrations in response to changing K+ drive force. Altogether, we demonstrate that freshly dissociated tissue preparation is a highly useful model for study of the functional expression and regulation of ion channels, receptors, and transporters in astrocytes and that passive behavior and low Rm are the intrinsic properties of mature astrocytes. PMID:25810481

  1. Animal models for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, R T; Maran, A; Lotinun, S; Hefferan, T; Evans, G L; Zhang, M; Sibonga, J D

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge. PMID:11704974

  2. Animal models for osteoporosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Maran, A.; Lotinun, S.; Hefferan, T.; Evans, G. L.; Zhang, M.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge.

  3. Neuroprotective and neurorestorative activities of a novel iron chelator-brain selective monoamine oxidase-A/monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor in animal models of Parkinson's disease and aging.

    PubMed

    Bar-Am, Orit; Amit, Tamar; Kupershmidt, Lana; Aluf, Yuval; Mechlovich, Danit; Kabha, Hoda; Danovitch, Lena; Zurawski, Vincent R; Youdim, Moussa B H; Weinreb, Orly

    2015-03-01

    Recently, we have designed and synthesized a novel multipotent, brain-permeable iron-chelating drug, VAR10303 (VAR), possessing both propargyl and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory moieties. The present study was undertaken to determine the multiple pharmacological activities of VAR in neurodegenerative preclinical models. We demonstrate that VAR affords iron chelating/iron-induced lipid-peroxidation inhibitory potency and brain selective MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitory effects, with only limited tyramine-cardiovascular potentiation of blood pressure. The results show that in 6-hydroxydopamine rat (neuroprotection) and in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse (neurorescue) Parkinson's disease models, VAR significantly attenuated the loss of striatal dopamine levels, markedly reduced dopamine turnover, and increased tyrosine-hydroxylase levels. Furthermore, chronic systemic treatment of aged rats with VAR improved cognitive behavior deficits and enhanced the expression levels of neurotrophic factors (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, and nerve growth factor), Bcl-2 family members and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Our study indicates that the multitarget compound VAR exerted neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease and aging, further suggesting that a drug that can regulate multiple brain targets could be an ideal treatment-strategy for age-associated neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25499799

  4. Fermenting red ginseng enhances its safety and efficacy as a novel skin care anti-aging ingredient: in vitro and animal study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Park, Yooheon; Park, Hyo Jung; Chang, Un Jae; Kim, Sun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-aging potential and skin safety of red ginseng (RG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) using Lactobacillus brevis for use as cosmetic ingredients. Concentrations of uronic acid, polyphenols, and flavonoids, and antioxidant activities were greater in FRG compared to RG. The contents of total ginsenosides were not significantly different. However, the ginsenoside metabolite content was higher in FRG (14,914.3 μg/mL) compared to RG (5697.9 μg/mL). The tyrosinase inhibitory activity (IC(50)) of FRG was 27.63 μg/mL, and more potent compared with RG (34.14 μg/mL), (P<.05). The elastase inhibitory activity (IC(50)) of FRG was 117.07 μg/mL also higher compared with RG (157.90 μg/mL). In a primary skin irritation test, 10% RG and 10% FRG were classified as practically nonirritating materials. In a skin sensitization test, the RG group showed a sensitization rate of 100% and its mean evaluation score of irritation was 1.4, whereas the FRG group showed 20% and 0.2%, respectively. By fermentation of RG, FRG has increased contents of ginsenoside metabolites, such as Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, compound K, Rh1, F2, Rg2, and flavonoids content. Therefore, FRG offers increased anti-wrinkle efficacy, whitening efficacy, and reduced toxicological potency compared to RG. PMID:23126662

  5. Fermenting Red Ginseng Enhances Its Safety and Efficacy as a Novel Skin Care Anti-Aging Ingredient: In Vitro and Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Park, Yooheon; Park, Hyo Jung; Chang, Un Jae; Kim, Sun Young

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-aging potential and skin safety of red ginseng (RG) and fermented red ginseng (FRG) using Lactobacillus brevis for use as cosmetic ingredients. Concentrations of uronic acid, polyphenols, and flavonoids, and antioxidant activities were greater in FRG compared to RG. The contents of total ginsenosides were not significantly different. However, the ginsenoside metabolite content was higher in FRG (14,914.3 μg/mL) compared to RG (5697.9 μg/mL). The tyrosinase inhibitory activity (IC50) of FRG was 27.63 μg/mL, and more potent compared with RG (34.14 μg/mL), (P<.05). The elastase inhibitory activity (IC50) of FRG was 117.07 μg/mL also higher compared with RG (157.90 μg/mL). In a primary skin irritation test, 10% RG and 10% FRG were classified as practically nonirritating materials. In a skin sensitization test, the RG group showed a sensitization rate of 100% and its mean evaluation score of irritation was 1.4, whereas the FRG group showed 20% and 0.2%, respectively. By fermentation of RG, FRG has increased contents of ginsenoside metabolites, such as Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, compound K, Rh1, F2, Rg2, and flavonoids content. Therefore, FRG offers increased anti-wrinkle efficacy, whitening efficacy, and reduced toxicological potency compared to RG. PMID:23126662

  6. [Energy education exhibits for Insights El Paso Science Museum

    SciTech Connect

    Shubinski, R.

    1998-05-27

    The grant in question, DE-FG03-94ER75954, was awarded to Insights El Paso Science Museum to build key exhibits. These exhibits helped the Museum fulfill its mission to ``promote curiosity and stimulate interest by exploratory, entertaining, exciting, and participatory learning in a broad range of scientific disciplines to persons of all ages regionally and internationally.`` There are several current Board of Directors members who also were Board members during the grant period and who helped construct some of the exhibits. Through speaking with them and reviewing minutes of Board meetings during 1994, it has been determined that seven of the ten proposed exhibits were constructed, with an eighth exhibit constructed as an alternative. Photos of seven of the exhibits and preliminary sketches of some are attached. Following is a list of the constructed exhibits: Hot or Cold, Give and Take, Conduction, Convection, Sources of Energy, Wind Generator, Solar Tracker, and Perpetual Motion.

  7. Impaired control of body cooling during heterothermia represents the major energetic constraint in an aging non-human primate exposed to cold.

    PubMed

    Terrien, Jeremy; Zahariev, Alexandre; Blanc, Stephane; Aujard, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    Daily heterothermia is used by small mammals for energy and water savings, and seems to be preferentially exhibited during winter rather than during summer. This feature induces a trade-off between the energy saved during daily heterothermia and the energy cost of arousal, which can impact energy balance and survival under harsh environmental conditions. Especially, aging may significantly affect such trade off during cold-induced energy stress, but direct evidences are still lacking. We hypothesized that aging could alter the energetics of daily heterothermia, and that the effects could differ according to season. In the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a non-human primate species which exhibits daily heterothermia, we investigated the effects of exposures to 25 and 12 degrees C on body composition, energy balance, patterns of heterothermia and water turnover in adult (N = 8) and aged animals (N = 7) acclimated to winter-like or summer-like photoperiods. Acclimation to summer prevented animals from deep heterothermia, even during aging. During winter, adult animals at 12 degrees C and aged animals at 25 degrees C exhibited low levels of energy expenditure with minor modulations of heterothermia. The major effects of cold were observed during winter, and were particularly pronounced in aged mouse lemurs which exhibited deep heterothermia phases. Body composition was not significantly affected by age and could not explain the age-related differences in heterothermia patterns. However, aging was associated with increased levels of energy expenditure during cold exposure, in concomitance with impaired energy balance. Interestingly, increased energy expenditure and depth of heterothermia phases were strongly correlated. In conclusion, it appeared that the exhibition of shallow heterothermia allowed energy savings during winter in adult animals only. Aged animals exhibited deep heterothermia and increased levels of energy expenditure, impairing energy balance

  8. Adapting Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be adapted for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)

  9. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  10. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  11. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  12. Longwall - USA: International exhibition & conference

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Longwall-USA International Exhibition and Conference was held June 4-6, 1996 in Pittsburgh, PA. Seventeen papers are included in the proceedings that covered such topics as health and safety, development of gate roads, telemetry monitoring systems, fires, longwall miners, roof support technologies, dust control, moving car bunker systems, reducing longwall noise, vibration of longwall equipment, and the USBM`s strategic structures testing laboratory. A separate abstract with indexing was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  13. Why (--)deprenyl prolongs survivals of experimental animals: increase of anti-oxidant enzymes in brain and other body tissues as well as mobilization of various humoral factors may lead to systemic anti-aging effects.

    PubMed

    Kitani, Kenichi; Minami, Chiyoko; Isobe, Ken-ichi; Maehara, Kayoko; Kanai, Setsuko; Ivy, Gwen O; Carrillo, Maria-Christina

    2002-04-30

    (--)Deprenyl, a monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) inhibitor is known to upregulate activities of anti-oxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in brain dopaminergic regions. The drug is also the sole chemical which has been repeatedly shown to increase life spans of several animal species including rats, mice, hamsters and dogs. Further, the drug was recently found to enhance anti-oxidant enzyme activities not only in brain dopaminergic regions but also in extra-brain tissues such as the heart, kidneys, adrenal glands and the spleen. We and others have also observed mobilization of many humoral factors (interferone (INF)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukine (IL)-1beta,2,6, trophic factors, etc.) and enhancement of natural killer (NK) cell functions by (-)deprenyl administration. An apparent extension of life spans of experimental animals reported in the past may be better explained by these new observations that (-)deprenyl upregulate SOD and CAT activities not only in the brain but also in extra-brain vital organs and involve anti-tumorigenic as well as immunomodulatory effect as well. These combined drug effects may lead to the protection of the homeostatic regulations of the neuro-immuno-endocrine axis of an organism against aging. PMID:12044958

  14. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  15. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  16. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

  17. Animal picobirnavirus.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Masachessi, Gisela; Mladenova, Zornitsa

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of vertebrate hosts. The name 'Picobirnavirus' derives from the prefix 'pico' (latin for 'small') in reference to the small virion size, plus the prefix 'bi' (latin for 'two') and the word 'RNA' to indicate the nature of the viral genome. The serendipitous discovery of PBV dates back to 1988 from Brazil, when human fecal samples collected during the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected for routine rotavirus surveillance by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver straining (S/S). The PAGE gels after silver staining showed a typical 'two RNA band' pattern, and it was identified as Picobirnavirus. Likewise, the feces of wild black-footed pigmy rice rats (Oryzomys nigripes) subjected for PAGE assay by the same research group in Brazil reported the presence of PBV (Pereira et al., J Gen Virol 69:2749-2754, 1988). PBVs have been detected in faeces of humans and wide range of animal species with or without diarrhoea, worldwide. The probable role of PBV as either a 'primary diarrhoeal agent' in 'immunocompetent children'; or a 'potential pathogen' in 'immunocompromised individuals' or an 'innocuous virus' in the intestine remains elusive and needs to be investigated despite the numerous reports of the presence of PBV in fecal samples of various species of domestic mammals, wild animals, birds and snakes; our current knowledge of their biology, etiology, pathogenicity or their transmission characteristics remains subtle. This review aims to analyse the veterinary and zoonotic aspects of animal Picobirnavirus infections since its discovery. PMID:25674589

  18. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  19. Cystamine preparations exhibit anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Maria M; Holle, Lori A; Stember, Katherine G; Devette, Christa I; Monroe, Dougald M; Wolberg, Alisa S

    2015-01-01

    Transglutaminases are a superfamily of isoenzymes found in cells and plasma. These enzymes catalyze the formation of ε-N-(γ-glutamyl)-lysyl crosslinks between proteins. Cystamine blocks transglutaminase activity and is used in vitro in human samples and in vivo in mice and rats in studies of coagulation, immune dysfunction, and inflammatory disease. These studies have suggested cystamine blocks fibrin crosslinking and has anti-inflammatory effects, implicating transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of several diseases. We measured the effects of cystamine on fibrin crosslinking, tissue factor-triggered plasma clot formation and thrombin generation, and coagulation factor enzymatic activity. At concentrations that blocked fibrin crosslinking, cystamine also inhibited plasma clot formation and reduced thrombin generation. Cystamine inhibited the amidolytic activity of coagulation factor XI and thrombin towards chromogenic substrates. These findings demonstrate that cystamine exhibits anticoagulant activity during coagulation. Given the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation, these findings suggest prior studies that used cystamine to implicate transglutaminase activity in disease pathogenesis warrant re-examination. PMID:25915545

  20. Cystamine Preparations Exhibit Anticoagulant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Maria M.; Holle, Lori A.; Stember, Katherine G.; Devette, Christa I.; Monroe, Dougald M.; Wolberg, Alisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Transglutaminases are a superfamily of isoenzymes found in cells and plasma. These enzymes catalyze the formation of ε-N-(γ-glutamyl)-lysyl crosslinks between proteins. Cystamine blocks transglutaminase activity and is used in vitro in human samples and in vivo in mice and rats in studies of coagulation, immune dysfunction, and inflammatory disease. These studies have suggested cystamine blocks fibrin crosslinking and has anti-inflammatory effects, implicating transglutaminase activity in the pathogenesis of several diseases. We measured the effects of cystamine on fibrin crosslinking, tissue factor-triggered plasma clot formation and thrombin generation, and coagulation factor enzymatic activity. At concentrations that blocked fibrin crosslinking, cystamine also inhibited plasma clot formation and reduced thrombin generation. Cystamine inhibited the amidolytic activity of coagulation factor XI and thrombin towards chromogenic substrates. These findings demonstrate that cystamine exhibits anticoagulant activity during coagulation. Given the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation, these findings suggest prior studies that used cystamine to implicate transglutaminase activity in disease pathogenesis warrant re-examination. PMID:25915545

  1. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Michio W.; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M.; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J.; Zhang, Alice X.; Wagers, Amy J.; Havton, Leif A.; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro nor in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired de-differentiation, myelin clearance and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance. PMID:25033179

  2. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Painter, Michio W; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J; Zhang, Alice X; Wagers, Amy J; Havton, Leif A; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao; Woolf, Clifford J

    2014-07-16

    The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month-old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month-old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro or in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired dedifferentiation, myelin clearance, and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance. PMID:25033179

  3. Adolescent, but not adult, rats exhibit ethanol-mediated appetitive second-order conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Myers, Mallory; Spear, Linda Patia; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescent rats are less sensitive to the sedative effects of ethanol than older animals. They also seem to perceive the reinforcing properties of ethanol. However, unlike neonates or infants, ethanol-mediated appetitive behavior has yet to be clearly shown in adolescents. Appetitive ethanol reinforcement was assessed in adolescent (postnatal day 33, P33) and adult rats (P71) through second-order conditioning (SOC). Methods On P32 or P70 animals were intragastrically administered ethanol (0.5 or 2.0 g/kg) paired with intraoral pulses of sucrose (CS1, first-order conditioning phase). CS1 delivery took place either 5-20 (Early pairing) or 30-45 (Late pairing) min following ethanol. CS1 exposure and ethanol administration were separated by 240 min in unpaired controls. On P33 or P71, animals were presented the CS1 (second-order conditioning phase) while in a distinctive chamber (CS2). Then, they were tested for CS2 preference. Results Early and late paired adolescents, but not adults, had greater preference for the CS2 than controls, a result indicative of ontogenetic variation in ethanol-mediated reinforcement. During the CS1 - CS2 associative phase, paired adolescents given 2.0 g/kg ethanol wall-climbed more than controls. Blood and brain ethanol levels associated with the 0.5 and 2.0 g/kg doses at the onset of each conditioning phase did not differ substantially across age, with mean BECs of 38 and 112 mg %. Conclusions These data indicate age-related differences between adolescent and adult rats in terms of sensitivity to ethanol’s motivational effects. Adolescents exhibit high sensitivity for ethanol’s appetitive effects. These animals also showed EtOH-mediated behavioral activation during the second-order conditioning phase. The SOC preparation provides a valuable conditioning model for assessing ethanol’s motivational effects across ontogeny. PMID:18782343

  4. Effects of age on spatial information processing: relationship to senescent changes in brain noradrenergic and opioid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    A major focus in current research on aging is the identification of senescent changes in cognitive function in laboratory animals. This literature indicates that the processing of spatial information may be particularly impaired during senescence. The degree to which nonspecific factors (eg. sensory of motor deficits) contribute to behavioral impairments in aging, however, remains largely uninvestigated. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify senescent changes in brain structure and function which might underlie the behavioral manifestations of aging. In the behavioral experiments reported here, the authors tested young, middle-age, and senescent rates in several versions of a spatial memory task, the Morris water maze. The results of these investigations demonstrate that aged rats are significantly impaired in the Morris task compared to young or middle-age animals. In addition, these studies indicate that age-related deficits in the water maze reflect a specific dysfunction in the ability of older animals to effectively process spatial information rather than a senescent decline in sensory or motor functions. Using the subjects from the behavioral studies, additional investigations assessed whether age-dependent changes in neurochemical and neuroanatomical systems which are known to mediate spatial learning in young animals were related to the behavioral deficits exhibited by aged rats. The results of these studies demonstrate that a portion of senescent animals exhibit significant increases in lateral septal /sup 3/H-desmethylimipramine binding and decrease in /sup 3/H-naloxone binding in this same region as assessed by quantitative in vitro autoradiography.

  5. Age-related changes in the tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Townes-Anderson, E; Colantonio, A; St Jules, R S

    1998-05-01

    Tiger salamanders have been used in visual science because of the large size of their cells and the ease of preparation and maintenance of in vitro retinal preparations. We have found that salamanders over 27 cm in length show a variety of visual abnormalities. Compared to smaller animals (15-23 cm), large animals exhibited a decrease in visual responses determined by tests of the optomotor reflex. Small animals responded correctly an average of 84.5% of the time in visual testing at three light levels compared to an average of 68.4% for the large animals with the poorest visual performance at the lowest level of illumination. In addition, large animals contained (i) histological degeneration of the outer retina, in particular, loss and disruption of outer segments and abnormalities of the retinal pigmented epithelium, (ii) loss of cells, including photoreceptors, by apoptosis as evaluated with the TUNEL technique, and (iii) an increase in the number of macrophages and lymphocytes within the retina as determined by morphological examination. These histological changes were present in all large animals and all quadrants of their retinas. In contrast, small animals showed virtually no retinal degeneration, no TUNEL-positive cells, and few immune-like cells in the retina. Since large animals are also older animals. the visual changes are age-related. Loss of visual function and histological degeneration in the outer retina also typify aged human eyes. Thus, we propose that large salamanders serve as an animal model for age-related retinal degeneration. In addition to providing a source of aging retina that is readily accessible to experimental manipulation, the salamander provides a pigmented retina with a mixed (2:1, rod:cone) population of photoreceptors, similar to the degeneration-prone parafoveal region of the human eye. PMID:9631666

  6. Animal Intuitions.

    PubMed

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  7. Companion animal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Neidhart, Laura; Boyd, Renee

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the outcomes of companion animal adoptions, Bardsley & Neidhart Inc. conducted a series of 3 surveys over a 1-year period with dog and cat owners who had adopted their pet through either a (a) Luv-A-Pet location, (b) Adopt-a-thon, or (c) traditional shelter. This article suggests opportunities to improve owners' perceptions of their pets and the adoption process through (a) providing more information before adoption about pet health and behaviors, (b) providing counseling to potential adopters to place pets appropriately, and (c) educating adopters to promote companion animal health and retention. Results demonstrate that the pet's relationship to the family unit, such as where the pet sleeps and how much time is spent with the pet, is related to the amount of veterinary care the companion animal receives, and to long-term retention. Satisfaction and retention are attributed to the pet's personality, compatibility, and behavior, rather than demographic differences among adopters or between adoption settings. The age of the companion animal at adoption, the intended recipient, and presence of children in the home also play a role. Health problems were an issue initially for half of all adopted pets, but most were resolved within 12 months. Roughly one fourth of adopters who no longer have their companion animal said their pet died. Characteristics of pets that died support the contention that spaying and neutering profoundly affects a companion animal's life span. Although retention is similar for dogs and cats, mortality is higher among cats in the first year after adoption. PMID:12578739

  8. Animals Underground. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffault, Charlotte

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume explores the natural history of animals that live underground. Animals included are porcupine, insects, earthworm, mole, badger, rabbit, prairie dog, and beach animals. (YP)

  9. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  10. 9 CFR 2.60 - Prohibition on the purchase, sale, use, or transportation of stolen animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., exhibit, use for research, transport, or offer for transportation, any stolen animal. ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibition on the purchase, sale, use, or transportation of stolen animals. 2.60 Section 2.60 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  11. 9 CFR 2.60 - Prohibition on the purchase, sale, use, or transportation of stolen animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., exhibit, use for research, transport, or offer for transportation, any stolen animal. ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition on the purchase, sale, use, or transportation of stolen animals. 2.60 Section 2.60 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  12. [Variability of the dose effect in the radio-biologic experimentation on animals. Third communication: Influence of breed, sex, age as well as radiation dose on body weight and survival time in days after whole-body irradiation of Wistar and Siv-50 rats (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Peters, R; Sailer, U; Peters, K

    1981-02-01

    After a whole-body irradiation of Wistar and Siv-50 rat males and females with 600 to 900 R, the survival times and the development of weight of the irradiated animals were determined and compared. The development of body weight was influenced by the dose administered as well as by age, sex and breed of the animals. Furthermore, the weight curves showed also characteristic analogies. During a period of 30 days after the irradiation, there are generally two phases with a considerable weight loss which are both accompanied by a reduced absorption of drinking-water and the appearance of a gastrointestinal and hemopoietic irradiation damage as well as the resulting activity increase of the pituitary gland and the cortex of the suprarenal gland. The weight recovery occurring after sublethal radiation doses is also influenced by the administered dose and the age of the animals. The dropping weight curves of dying animals are equally dependent on the administered dose. With regard to the survival time in days in dependence upon the administered dose and the age of the animals, the authors proved that the survival time of the finally dying animals becomes longer as their radioresistance increases. During the last phase of the 30 days' experimentation, females show a markedly increased death rate whereas males seem to have continually better survival chances when they are still alive at the last phase. PMID:7222132

  13. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

  14. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a petition... proceeding. (f) Request for custody of physical exhibit. Any person may on motion to the Executive...

  15. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a petition... proceeding. (f) Request for custody of physical exhibit. Any person may on motion to the Executive...

  16. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a petition... proceeding. (f) Request for custody of physical exhibit. Any person may on motion to the Executive...

  17. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  18. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  19. Development of Exhibit on Arctic Climate Change Called The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Barbara W.

    2006-04-01

    The exhibition, The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely, was developed at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) as a part of the museum’s Forces of Change exhibit series on global change. It opened to the public in Spring 2006, in conjunction with another Forces of Change exhibit on the Earth’s atmosphere called Change Is in the Air. The exhibit was a 2000 square-foot presentation that explored the forces and consequences of the changing Arctic as documented by scientists and native residents alike. Native peoples of the Arctic have always lived with year-to-year fluctuations in weather and ice conditions. In recent decades, they have witnessed that the climate has become unpredictable, the land and sea unfamiliar. An elder in Arctic Canada recently described the weather as uggianaqtuq —an Inuit word that can suggest strange, unexpected behavior, sometimes described as that of “a friend acting strangely.” Scientists too have been documenting dramatic changes in the Arctic. Air temperatures have warmed over most—though not all—of the Arctic since the 1950s; Arctic precipitation may have increased by as much as 8%; seasonal melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased on average by 16% since 1979; polar-orbiting satellites have measured a 15¬–20% decline in sea ice extent since the 1970s; aircraft reconnaissance and ship observations show a steady decrease in sea ice since the 1950s. In response to this warming, plant distributions have begun to shift and animals are changing their migration routes. Some of these changes may have beneficial effects while others may bring hardship or have costly implications. And, many scientists consider arctic change to be a ‘bell-weather’ for large-scale changes in other regions of the world. The exhibition included text, photos artifacts, hands-on interactives and other exhibitry that illustrated the changes being documented by indigenous people and scientists alike.

  20. Explanatory Parent-Child Conversation Predominates at an Evolution Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tare, Medha; French, Jason; Frazier, Brandy N.; Diamond, Judy; Evans, E. Margaret

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how parents support children's learning at an exhibit on evolution, the conversations of 12 families were recorded, transcribed, and coded (6,263 utterances). Children (mean age 9.6 years) and parents visited Explore Evolution, which conveyed current research about the evolution of seven organisms. Families were engaged with the…

  1. Animal models of recurrent or bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Kasahara, T; Kubota-Sakashita, M; Kato, T M; Nakajima, K

    2016-05-01

    Animal models of mental disorders should ideally have construct, face, and predictive validity, but current animal models do not always satisfy these validity criteria. Additionally, animal models of depression rely mainly on stress-induced behavioral changes. These stress-induced models have limited validity, because stress is not a risk factor specific to depression, and the models do not recapitulate the recurrent and spontaneous nature of depressive episodes. Although animal models exhibiting recurrent depressive episodes or bipolar depression have not yet been established, several researchers are trying to generate such animals by modeling clinical risk factors as well as by manipulating a specific neural circuit using emerging techniques. PMID:26265551

  2. Marine bacteria exhibit a bipolar distribution.

    PubMed

    Sul, Woo Jun; Oliver, Thomas A; Ducklow, Hugh W; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2013-02-01

    The microbial cosmopolitan dispersion hypothesis often invoked to explain distribution patterns driven by high connectivity of oceanographic water masses and widespread dispersal ability has never been rigorously tested. By using a global marine bacterial dataset and iterative matrix randomization simulation, we show that marine bacteria exhibit a significantly greater dispersal limitation than predicted by our null model using the "everything is everywhere" tenet with no dispersal limitation scenario. Specifically, marine bacteria displayed bipolar distributions (i.e., species occurring exclusively at both poles and nowhere else) significantly less often than in the null model. Furthermore, we observed fewer taxa present in both hemispheres but more taxa present only in a single hemisphere than expected under the null model. Each of these trends diverged further from the null expectation as the compared habitats became more geographically distant but more environmentally similar. Our meta-analysis supported a latitudinal gradient in bacterial diversity with higher richness at lower latitudes, but decreased richness toward the poles. Bacteria in the tropics also demonstrated narrower latitudinal ranges at lower latitudes and relatively larger ranges in higher latitudes, conforming to the controversial macroecological pattern of the "Rapoport rule." Collectively, our findings suggest that bacteria follow biogeographic patterns more typical of macroscopic organisms, and that dispersal limitation, not just environmental selection, likely plays an important role. Distributions of microbes that deliver critical ecosystem services, particularly those in polar regions, may be vulnerable to the same impacts that environmental stressors, climate warming, and degradation in habitat quality are having on biodiversity in animal and plant species. PMID:23324742

  3. Rats exhibit reference-dependent choice behavior.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Mehwish; Jang, Hyeran; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2014-07-01

    Human preferences depend on whether a chosen outcome appears to be a loss or a gain compared with what had been expected, i.e., in comparison to a reference point. Because reference dependence has such a strong influence on human decision-making, it is important to uncover its origins, which will in turn help delineate the underlying mechanisms. It remains unknown whether rats use reference points in decision-making, and yet, the study of rats could help address the question of whether reference dependence is evolutionarily conserved among mammals and could provide a nonhuman animal model to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this important cognitive process. The aim of the current study was to determine whether rats show reference-dependent choice behavior. We developed a novel paradigm by modifying the "T" maze by installing "pockets" to the left and right of the "T" stem that held reward pellets so rats would potentially develop reference values for each option prior to choice. We found that the rats were indeed sensitive to the way alternatives were presented. That is, they exhibited reference-dependent choice behavior by avoiding the choice option framed as a loss (e.g., having four reward pellets in the pocket, but receiving only one), at least under conditions with certain outcomes and clear differences between the reference and outcome quantities. Despite the small number of rats in this study, this species-level capacity suggests that reference dependence in general and loss aversion in particular may be conserved traits that evolved at or before the emergence of mammals. PMID:24657593

  4. In Search of Memory Tests Equivalent for Experiments on Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Kołat, Estera; Różyk-Myrta, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Older people often exhibit memory impairments. Contemporary demographic trends cause aging of the society. In this situation, it is important to conduct clinical trials of drugs and use training methods to improve memory capacity. Development of new memory tests requires experiments on animals and then clinical trials in humans. Therefore, we decided to review the assessment methods and search for tests that evaluate analogous cognitive processes in animals and humans. This review has enabled us to propose 2 pairs of tests of the efficiency of working memory capacity in animals and humans. We propose a basic set of methods for complex clinical trials of drugs and training methods to improve memory, consisting of 2 pairs of tests: 1) the Novel Object Recognition Test – Sternberg Item Recognition Test and 2) the Object-Location Test – Visuospatial Memory Test. We postulate that further investigations of methods that are equivalent in animals experiments and observations performed on humans are necessary. PMID:25524993

  5. Age-Related Alterations in Regeneration of the Urinary Bladder after Subtotal Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Burmeister, David M.; AbouShwareb, Tamer; Bergman, Christopher R.; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Christ, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Prior work documented that surgical removal of approximately 70% of the bladder (subtotal cystectomy) in 12-week-old female rats induced complete functional regeneration of the bladder within 8 weeks. To determine whether animal age affects bladder regeneration, female F344 rats aged 12 weeks (young) and 12 months (old) underwent subtotal cystectomy, and then were evaluated from 1 to 26 weeks after subtotal cystectomy. At 26 weeks after subtotal cystectomy, bladder capacity in young animals was indistinguishable from that in age-matched controls, but bladder capacity in old animals was only approximately 56% of that in age-matched controls. There was no detectable difference in residual volume among treatment groups, but the diminished regeneration in old animals was associated with a corresponding increase in the ratio of residual volume to micturition volume. The majority of old animals exhibited evidence of chronic kidney damage after subtotal cystectomy. Maximal contraction of bladder strips to electrical field stimulation, as well as activation with carbachol, phenylephrine, and KCl, were lower in old than in young animals at 26 weeks after subtotal cystectomy. Immunostaining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Von Willebrand factor revealed delayed and/or diminished proliferative and angiogenic responses, respectively, in old animals. These results confirm prior work and suggest that multiple mechanisms may contribute to an age-related decline in the regenerative capacity of the bladder. PMID:24012523

  6. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Allen, J. S.; Mortillaro, C.; Ducceschi, C.; Rawlings, P.; Stocco, K.; Tobola, K.; Olendzenski, L.; Angermiller, L.

    2001-03-01

    A JSC-SCH team has produced an astrobiology exhibit and education module to augment the 'Microbes!' traveling exhibit. The astrobiology section focuses on life in extreme environments and considers the possibility of extraterrestrrial life.

  7. Learning by Doing, Creating a Museum Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Sarah; Kallquist, Dierdre

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exhibit called Kid's Kitchen, built within a major exhibit called Biodiversity: Life Supporting Life, in order to discuss environmental prompts hidden within the kitchen designed to surprise students and get them thinking. (ASK)

  8. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  9. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  10. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  11. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  12. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  13. 49 CFR 1114.7 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... practical the sheets of each exhibit and the lines of each sheet should be numbered. If the exhibit consists of five or more sheets, the first sheet or title-page should be confined to a brief statement of what the exhibit purports to show with reference by sheet and line to illustrative or typical...

  14. Cosmic Origins: A Traveling Science Exhibit and Education Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Space Science Institute of Boulder, Colorado, is developing a 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Cosmic Origins, which will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Cosmic Origins will have three interrelated exhibit areas: Star Formation, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about the wide range of conditions for life on Earth and how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Visitors will also learn about the tools scientists' use, such as space-based and ground-based telescopes, to improve our understanding of the cosmos. Exhibit content will address age-old questions that form the basis of NASA's Origins and Astrobiology programs: Where did we come from? Are we alone? In addition to the exhibit, our project will include workshops for educators and docents at host sites, as well as a public Web site that will use a virtual rendering of exhibit content. The exhibit's size will permit it to visit medium sized museums in underserved regions of the country. It will begin its 3-year tour to 9 host museums and science centers in early 2005. A second 3-year tour is also planned for 2008. The Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) will manage the exhibit's national tour. Current partners in the Cosmic Origins project include ASTC, the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Lawrence Hall of Science, NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA missions (e.g. PlanetQuest, SIRTF, and Kepler), New York Hall of Science, the SETI Institute, and the Space Telescope Science Institute. The exhibition is supported by grants from NSF and NASA. This report will focus on the Planet Quest part of the exhibition.

  15. Loss of perforated synapses in the dentate gyrus: morphological substrate of memory deficit in aged rats.

    PubMed Central

    Geinisman, Y; de Toledo-Morrell, L; Morrell, F

    1986-01-01

    Most, but not all, aged rats exhibit a profound deficit in spatial memory when tested in a radial maze--a task known to depend on the integrity of the hippocampal formation. In this study, animals were divided into three groups based on their spatial memory capacity: young adult rats with good memory, aged rats with impaired memory, and aged rats with good memory. Memory-impaired aged animals showed a loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation in comparison with either young adults or aged rats with good memory. This finding suggests that the loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the hippocampal formation underlies the age-related deficit in spatial memory. Images PMID:3458260

  16. The Relationship between Bullying and Animal Abuse Behaviors in Adolescents: The Importance of Witnessing Animal Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullone, Eleonora; Robertson, Nerida

    2008-01-01

    Children's abuse of animals may be predictive of aggression towards humans. This study assessed concurrent engagement in animal abuse and bullying behaviour in 241 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years. A total of 20.6% of youths reported abusing animals at least "sometimes" and 17.8% reported bullying others on at least one occasion in the past year.…

  17. Adrenarche: a survey of rodents, domestic animals, and primates.

    PubMed

    Cutler, G B; Glenn, M; Bush, M; Hodgen, G D; Graham, C E; Loriaux, D L

    1978-12-01

    The concentrations of the adrenal steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHAS), and delta 4-androstenedione (delta 4-A) have been measured by RIA before and after sexual maturation in plasma of rodents, domestic animals, and primates to determine whether these species exhibit and adrenarchal process comparable to man. The average concentrations of DHA and DHAS were less than 60 ng/dl and 5 microgram/dl, respectively, in plasma of sexually mature rodents and domestic animals, and a significant increase in the plasma DHA level after sexual maturation was seen only in the rabbit and dog. The concentrations of DHA, DHAS, and delta 4-A in 21 rhesus monekeys from 0-3 yr of age were 2021 +/- 235 ng/dl (mean +/- SE), 357 +/- 60 microgram/dl, and 107 +/- 9 ng/dl, respectively, and did not increase during sexual maturation. By contrast, DHA, DHAS, and delta 4-A levels in plasma of chimpanzees were 5.9-fold, 3.3-fold, and 4.8-fold greater, respectively, in 7- to 22-compared to 0- to 3-yr-old animals. Temporally, the increase in DHA levels in the chimpanzee is apparent at 5 yr and this precedes the increase in gonadal steroids, as is characteristic of human adrenarche. It is apparent that adrenal androgen levels and their developmental patterns differ markedly among species, and that among the species examined, only the chimpanzee exhibits an adrenarche comparable to that of man. PMID:155005

  18. Superoxide dismutase is dispensable for normal animal lifespan.

    PubMed

    Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy Michael; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2012-04-10

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic oxygen-containing molecules that can damage multiple components of the cell and have been proposed to be the primary cause of aging. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the only eukaryotic enzyme capable of detoxifying superoxide, one type of ROS. The fact that SOD is present in all aerobic organisms raises the question as to whether SOD is absolutely required for animal life and whether the loss of SOD activity will result in decreased lifespan. Here we use the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to generate an animal that completely lacks SOD activity (sod-12345 worms). We show that sod-12345 worms are viable and exhibit a normal lifespan, despite markedly increased sensitivity to multiple stresses. This is in stark contrast to what is observed in other genetic model organisms where the loss of a single sod gene can result in severely decreased survival. Investigating the mechanism underlying the normal lifespan of sod-12345 worms reveals that their longevity results from a balance between the prosurvival signaling and the toxicity of superoxide. Overall, our results demonstrate that SOD activity is dispensable for normal animal lifespan but is required to survive acute stresses. Moreover, our findings indicate that maintaining normal stress resistance is not crucial to the rate of aging. PMID:22451939

  19. EMF Responses in Farm Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Larry E. ); R Matthes, JH Bernhardt, and MH Repacholi

    1999-10-19

    Relatively few studies have been performed investigating the effects of EMF exposure on farm animals. Most of those that have been described in the literature are of surveys of animals living in the vicinity of power transmission lines. Even fewer studies have been conducted in large animals under controlled laboratory conditions. Results generally provide little evidence that electric and/or magnetic fields at environmental levels (under transmission lines up to 1000 kV) affect farm animals. There is limited evidence that cows exposed to EMF may exhibit slight changes in length of estrous cycle, although associated hormones (eg. progesterone) appear to be unaffected. The effects of electric fields on development in swine (some increase in birth defects and malformations) exposed to high strength electric fields were not consistent across generations nor supported by comparable rodent studies. Finally, electrical currents and"stray voltages", parameters associated with EMF, are found on some farms above perception levels. These voltages and currents can produce behavioral changes in farm animals and may impact production or health of the animals.

  20. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

  1. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-10-28

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor- depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current- induced resistive state.

  2. Evaluating Education and Science in the KSC Visitor Complex Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Lance K.

    2000-01-01

    The continuing development of exhibits at the Kennedy Space Center's Visitor Complex is an excellent opportunity for NASA personnel to promote science and provide insight into NASA programs and projects for the approximately 3 million visitors that come to KSC annually. Stated goals for the Visitor Complex, in fact, emphasize science awareness and recommend broadening the appeal of the displays and exhibits for all age groups. To this end, this summer project seeks to evaluate the science content of planned exhibits/displays in relation to these developing opportunities and identify specific areas for enhancement of existing or planned exhibits and displays. To help expand the educational and science content within the developing exhibits at the Visitor Complex, this project was structured to implement the goals of the Visitor Center Director. To accomplish this, the exhibits and displays planned for completion within the year underwent review and evaluation for science content and educational direction. Planning emphasis for the individual displays was directed at combining the elements of effective education with fundamental scientific integrity, within an appealing format.

  3. Age, stage and senescence in plants

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Hal; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    1. Senescence (an increase in the mortality rate or force of mortality, or a decrease in fertility, with increasing age) is a widespread phenomenon. Theories about the evolution of senescence have long focused on the age trajectories of the selection gradients on mortality and fertility. In purely age-classified models, these selection gradients are non-increasing with age, implying that traits expressed early in life have a greater impact on fitness than traits expressed later in life. This pattern leads inevitably to the evolution of senescence if there are trade-offs between early and late performance. 2. It has long been suspected that the stage- or size-dependent demography typical of plants might change these conclusions. In this paper, we develop a model that includes both stage- and age-dependence and derive the age-dependent, stage-dependent and age×stage-dependent selection gradients on mortality and fertility. 3. We applied this model to stage-classified population projection matrices for 36 species of plants, from a wide variety of growth forms (from mosses to trees) and habitats. 4. We found that the age-specific selection gradients within a life cycle stage can exhibit increases with age (we call these contra-senescent selection gradients). In later stages, often large size classes in plant demography, the duration of these contra-senescent gradients can exceed the life expectancy by several fold. 5. Synthesis. The interaction of age- and stage-dependence in plants leads to selection pressures on senescence fundamentally different from those found in previous, age-classified theories. This result may explain the observation that large plants seem less subject to senescence than most kinds of animals. The methods presented here can lead to improved analysis of both age-dependent and stage-dependent demographic properties of plant populations. PMID:23741075

  4. What Do Children Think Animals Need? Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers Jr, Olin; Saunders, Carol; Garrett, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Understanding how children think about the needs of animals may aid bridging from how they care about individual animals to caring about the environment more generally. This study explored changes with age in children's conceptions of animals' needs, including how such conceptions may extend beyond the individual animal to larger systems and…

  5. Attitudes of Undergraduate Students to the Uses of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanisstreet, Martin; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 244 British university undergraduates in biology, computer science, and English investigated attitudes about various uses of animals, including killing animals to make luxury clothing, killing of animals for food, general and medical research using animals, and captivity. Response differences by discipline, gender, and age were also…

  6. Risk behaviours exhibited by free-roaming cats in a suburban US town.

    PubMed

    Loyd, K A T; Hernandez, S M; Abernathy, K J; Shock, B C; Marshall, G J

    2013-09-28

    Free-roaming cats may experience numerous hazardous encounters in the outdoor environment, including: vehicular accidents, aggression from other animals and exposure to infectious disease. This research quantitatively examined the outdoor activities of 55 owned cats by monitoring pets outfitted with 'KittyCam' video cameras. KittyCams are a type of Crittercam, designed by National Geographic to allow recording of a cat-eye view without disrupting behaviour. We investigated the activities of free-roaming cats in suburban Athens-Clarke County, Georgia, during all four seasons. Research objectives included documenting the type and regularity of risk behaviours exhibited by free-roaming cats and identifying characteristics of pet cats (eg, age, sex, roaming habitat) which predict risky behaviour in the outdoors. The most common risk behaviours exhibited by suburban free-roaming cats included crossing roads (45 per cent of our sample), encountering strange cats (25 per cent), eating and drinking substances away from home (25 per cent), exploring storm drain systems (20 per cent), and entering crawlspaces of houses (20 per cent). Male cats were more likely to engage in risk behaviours than female cats, and older cats engaged in fewer risk behaviours than younger individuals. We hope this information can be used to encourage the public to keep cats indoors more often (with consideration for their indoor quality of life) or supervise them while outdoors. PMID:23913174

  7. Dysregulation of mitochondrial quality control processes contribute to sarcopenia in a mouse model of premature aging.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anna-Maria; Adhihetty, Peter J; Wawrzyniak, Nicholas R; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E; Picca, Anna; Kujoth, Gregory C; Prolla, Tomas A; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations lead to decrements in mitochondrial function and accelerated rates of these mutations has been linked to skeletal muscle loss (sarcopenia). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mtDNA mutations on mitochondrial quality control processes in skeletal muscle from animals (young; 3-6 months and older; 8-15 months) expressing a proofreading-deficient version of mtDNA polymerase gamma (PolG). This progeroid aging model exhibits elevated mtDNA mutation rates, mitochondrial dysfunction, and a premature aging phenotype that includes sarcopenia. We found increased expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and its target proteins, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in PolG animals compared to wild-type (WT) (P<0.05). Muscle from older PolG animals displayed higher mitochondrial fission protein 1 (Fis1) concurrent with greater induction of autophagy, as indicated by changes in Atg5 and p62 protein content (P<0.05). Additionally, levels of the Tom22 import protein were higher in PolG animals when compared to WT (P<0.05). In contrast, muscle from normally-aged animals exhibited a distinctly different expression profile compared to PolG animals. Older WT animals appeared to have higher fusion (greater Mfn1/Mfn2, and lower Fis1) and lower autophagy (Beclin-1 and p62) compared to young WT suggesting that autophagy is impaired in aging muscle. In conclusion, muscle from mtDNA mutator mice display higher mitochondrial fission and autophagy levels that likely contribute to the sarcopenic phenotype observed in premature aging and this differs from the response observed in normally-aged muscle. PMID:23935986

  8. Tuberculosis in domestic animal species.

    PubMed

    Pesciaroli, M; Alvarez, J; Boniotti, M B; Cagiola, M; Di Marco, V; Marianelli, C; Pacciarini, M; Pasquali, P

    2014-10-01

    M. bovis and M. caprae, members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), are the major causative agents of tuberculosis in domestic animals. Notably, M. bovis exhibits a wide host range; the infection has been reported in many domesticated animals and free or captive wildlife. Despite most of them acting as spill-over hosts in particular epidemiological scenarios, some domesticated species as pigs, camelids and goats may display high rates of infection and possibly play a role in the inter-species transmission of the disease. The aim of this review is to make an updated overview of the susceptibility and the role in the transmission of the disease of the most common domesticated animals species such as small ruminants, pigs, horses, camelids, dogs and cats. An overview of the diagnostic approaches to detect the infection in each of the species included in the review is also presented. PMID:25151859

  9. The Canine Sand Maze: An Appetitive Spatial Memory Paradigm Sensitive to Age-Related Change in Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvin, Hannah E.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Valenzuela, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Aged dogs exhibit a spectrum of cognitive abilities including a syndrome similar to Alzheimer's disease. A major impediment to research so far has been the lack of a quick and accurate test of visuospatial memory appropriate for community-based animals. We therefore report on the development and validation of the Canine Sand Maze. A 4.5-m-diameter…

  10. Storytelling through animation: Oxford Sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, D. M.; Cook, A.

    2013-12-01

    Oxford Sparks is a portal that launched in 2012, with the aim of bringing together resources that have been created across the University of Oxford and elsewhere for the purpose of wider engagement with science. To bring attention to this site, Oxford Sparks developed a set of high-quality short animations, each designed to tell a story relating to a current area of science. These animations have been launched on YouTube, and will shortly be available on iTunesU, and have covered broad areas of science from subduction zones (';Underwater Volcano Disaster'), through the early history of the solar system (';Rogue Planet') to the workings of the Large Hadron Collider (';A quick look around the LHC'). The animations have each been developed in close collaboration with researchers, created by a team with experience of education, engagement and outreach. The two minute scripts are intended to be both widely accessible and viewable as ';stand alone' stories. To this end, the scripts are humorous; while the animations are delightfully quirky, and created by professional animator with a degree-level science background. The animations are also intended to be used as ';lesson starters' in school, and educational activities graded for different age groups are being developed in parallel with the animations. They have been used, successfully, on pre-university summer schools, and in university classes. We are gathering both quantitative (analytics) and qualitative (school teacher and student focus group) feedback to monitor the success of the project, and to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the approach. In the first year since launch, Oxford Sparks animations were viewed over 80,000 times on YouTube, in part due to the surge of interest in the Large Hadron Collider animation after the discovery of the Higgs Boson.

  11. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  12. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  13. Strategies for Determining Exhibit Effectiveness. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettel, Harris H.; And Others

    This project was designed to develop research strategies and hypotheses for evaluating the effectiveness of exhibits. An exhibit on the role of the Federal Government in science and technology was used as the subject matter. Two basic groups of viewers were used, casual viewers and paid experimental viewers. Both were tested on knowledge gained…

  14. An Attention Model for Museum Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightner, John W.

    A qualitative study determined which factors in the museum exhibit environment or within the museum visitor may influence the visitor to attend an exhibit. Observations and interviews were conducted of 14 groups that visited a Chesapeake & Ohio steam locomotive at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan. An inductive or grounded theory…

  15. Learning4Life on the Exhibit Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The exhibit floor is a wealth of knowledge. One can read, view, and listen to information presented in many formats. Somewhere on the exhibit floor there are experts on every topic, ready and waiting for one's questions. But like any research topic, frequently a structured search is required to find the best answers. This article discusses how to…

  16. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (respondent) necessary for the rendition of service requested by the applicant. (6) Exhibit G—Flow diagram showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with proposed transmission facilities. A flow...—Flow diagram reflecting maximum capabilities. If Exhibit G does not reflect the maximum deliveries...

  17. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (respondent) necessary for the rendition of service requested by the applicant. (6) Exhibit G—Flow diagram showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with proposed transmission facilities. A flow...—Flow diagram reflecting maximum capabilities. If Exhibit G does not reflect the maximum deliveries...

  18. Animal Sentience: Where are We and Where are We Heading?

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Animal sentience refers to the ability of animals to experience pleasurable states such as joy, and aversive states such as pain and fear (Broom, D.M. Dis. Aquat. Org. 2007, 75, 99–108). The science of animal sentience underpins the entire animal welfare movement. Demonstrating objectively what animals are capable of is key to achieving a positive change in attitudes and actions towards animals, and a real, sustainable difference for animal welfare. This paper briefly summarises understanding of animal sentience through the ages. There follows a review of the current state of animal sentience, and concluding thoughts on its future in regards to animal welfare. Abstract The science of animal sentience underpins the entire animal welfare movement. Demonstrating objectively what animals are capable of is key to achieving a positive change in attitudes and actions towards animals, and a real, sustainable difference for animal welfare. This paper briefly summarises understanding and acceptance of animal sentience through the ages. Although not an exhaustive history, it highlights some of the leading figures whose opinions and work have most affected perspectives of animal sentience. There follows a review of the current state of animal sentience, what is known, and what the main limitations have been for the development of the study of sentience. The paper concludes with some thoughts for the future of the science, and where it should be going in order to most benefit animal welfare. PMID:26487167

  19. Diminished adult neurogenesis in the marmoset brain precedes old age

    PubMed Central

    Leuner, Benedetta; Kozorovitskiy, Yevgenia; Gross, Charles G.; Gould, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    With aging there is a decline in the number of newly generated neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In rodents and tree shrews, this age-related decrease in neurogenesis is evident long before the animals become aged. No previous studies have investigated whether primates exhibit a similar decline in hippocampal neurogenesis with aging. To investigate this possibility, young to middle aged adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were injected with BrdU and perfused 3 weeks later. The number of newly generated cells in the subgranular zone/granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus was significantly lower in older animals and decreased linearly with age. A similar age-related decline in new cells was observed in the subventricular zone but not in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus. These data demonstrate that a substantial decrease in neurogenesis occurs before the onset of old age in the adult marmoset brain, suggesting the possibility that similar alterations occur in the human brain. PMID:17940008

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  3. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not...

  5. Children's Ideas of Animals' Internal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Prokop, Matej; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Diran, Carla

    2007-01-01

    Children's understanding about animal internal structure can be affected by several factors which are poorly understood by teachers. We conducted a large sample study (n=702) of children aged 6-16 years (Grades 1-9) examining children's responses to animals of various size, species and dimensions (2D and 3D objects), and exploring factors which…

  6. Investigating Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Animal Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Jacob N.; Duran, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted regarding alternative conceptions about animal diversity and classification, many of which have used a cross-age approach to investigate how students' conceptions change over time. None of these studies, however, have investigated teachers' conceptions of animal classification. This study was intended to…

  7. Museum Exhibitions: Optimizing Development Using Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado, has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop a third exhibit called InterActive Earth. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The development of these exhibitions included a comprehensive evaluation plan. I will report on the important role evaluation plays in exhibit design and development using MarsQuest and InterActive Earth as models. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is nearing the end of a highly successful, fully-booked three-year tour. The Institute plans to send an enhanced and updated MarsQuest on a second three-year tour and is also developing Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest designed for smaller venues. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions into classrooms and museum-based education programs in an ongoing fashion. The centerpiece of the InterActive Earth project is a traveling exhibit that will cover about 4,000 square feet. The major goal of the proposed exhibit is to introduce students and the public to the complexity of the interconnections in the Earth system, and thereby, to inspire them to better understand planet Earth. Evaluation must be an integral part of the exhibition development process. For MarsQuest, a 3-phase evaluation (front end, formative and summative) was conducted by Randi Korn and Associates in close association with the development team. Sampling procedures for all three evaluation phases ensured the participation of all audiences, including family groups, students, and adults. Each phase of

  8. Animal contact as a source of human non-typhoidal salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella represents an important human and animal pathogen world-wide. Most human salmonellosis cases are foodborne, but each year infections are also acquired through direct or indirect animal contact in homes, veterinary clinics, zoological gardens, farm environments or other public, professional or private settings. Clinically affected animals may exhibit a higher prevalence of shedding than apparently healthy animals, but both can shed Salmonella over long periods of time. In addition, environmental contamination and indirect transmission through contaminated food and water may complicate control efforts. The public health risk varies by animal species, age group, husbandry practice and health status, and certain human subpopulations are at a heightened risk of infection due to biological or behavioral risk factors. Some serotypes such as Salmonella Dublin are adapted to individual host species, while others, for instance Salmonella Typhimurium, readily infect a broad range of host species, but the potential implications for human health are currently unclear. Basic hygiene practices and the implementation of scientifically based management strategies can efficiently mitigate the risks associated with animal contacts. However, the general public is frequently unaware of the specific disease risks involved, and high-risk behaviors are common. Here we describe the epidemiology and serotype distribution of Salmonella in a variety of host species. In addition, we review our current understanding of the public health risks associated with different types of contacts between humans and animals in public, professional or private settings, and, where appropriate, discuss potential risk mitigation strategies. PMID:21324103

  9. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading—whether scientifically aided or not—have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non‐human animals should be accorded. PMID:16446412

  10. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.; Petrov, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    This 2-voluem set discusses the problem of inter-relation between carcinogenesis and aging, and the phenomenon of age-related increase in cancer incidence in animals and humans. Covered topics include current concepts in mechanisms of carcinogenesis and aging; data on chemical, radiation, ultraviolet-light, hormonal and viral carcinogenesis in aging; data on the role of age-related shifts in the activity of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes; binding of carcinogens with macromolecules; DNA repair; tissue proliferation; and immunity and homono-metabolic patterns in realization of initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis.

  11. Can aging be 'drugged'?

    PubMed

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The engines that drive the complex process of aging are being identified by model-organism research, thereby providing potential targets and rationale for drug studies. Several studies of small molecules have already been completed in animal models with the hope of finding an elixir for aging, with a few compounds showing early promise. What lessons can we learn from drugs currently being tested, and which pitfalls can we avoid in our search for a therapeutic for aging? Finally, we must also ask whether an elixir for aging would be applicable to everyone, or whether we age differently, thus potentially shortening lifespan in some individuals. PMID:26646496

  12. New evidence of animal consciousness.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Donald R; Speck, Gayle B

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence that increases the probability that many animals experience at least simple levels of consciousness. First, the search for neural correlates of consciousness has not found any consciousness-producing structure or process that is limited to human brains. Second, appropriate responses to novel challenges for which the animal has not been prepared by genetic programming or previous experience provide suggestive evidence of animal consciousness because such versatility is most effectively organized by conscious thinking. For example, certain types of classical conditioning require awareness of the learned contingency in human subjects, suggesting comparable awareness in similarly conditioned animals. Other significant examples of versatile behavior suggestive of conscious thinking are scrub jays that exhibit all the objective attributes of episodic memory, evidence that monkeys sometimes know what they know, creative tool-making by crows, and recent interpretation of goal-directed behavior of rats as requiring simple nonreflexive consciousness. Third, animal communication often reports subjective experiences. Apes have demonstrated increased ability to use gestures or keyboard symbols to make requests and answer questions; and parrots have refined their ability to use the imitation of human words to ask for things they want and answer moderately complex questions. New data have demonstrated increased flexibility in the gestural communication of swarming honey bees that leads to vitally important group decisions as to which cavity a swarm should select as its new home. Although no single piece of evidence provides absolute proof of consciousness, this accumulation of strongly suggestive evidence increases significantly the likelihood that some animals experience at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings. The next challenge for cognitive ethologists is to investigate for particular animals the content of their awareness and what life is

  13. 36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of zoo animals... Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no person shall: (a) Kill, injure, or disturb any exhibit or research animal by any means except to secure personal safety; (b) Pet, attempt to pet,...

  14. 36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of zoo animals... Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no person shall: (a) Kill, injure, or disturb any exhibit or research animal by any means except to secure personal safety; (b) Pet, attempt to pet,...

  15. 36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of zoo animals... Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no person shall: (a) Kill, injure, or disturb any exhibit or research animal by any means except to secure personal safety; (b) Pet, attempt to pet,...

  16. 36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of zoo animals... Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no person shall: (a) Kill, injure, or disturb any exhibit or research animal by any means except to secure personal safety; (b) Pet, attempt to pet,...

  17. 36 CFR 520.4 - Protection of zoo animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Protection of zoo animals. 520... Protection of zoo animals. Except for official purposes, no person shall: (a) Kill, injure, or disturb any exhibit or research animal by any means except to secure personal safety; (b) Pet, attempt to pet,...

  18. The Making of a Museum Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleecker, Samuel E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the preparation of the Reptile and Amphibian exhibition at the American Museum of Natural History. Various steps involved in developing the ten showcases in a six-year period are presented. (SA)

  19. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the...

  20. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tractor-trailer transportation should be forwarded prior to November 15th previous to the year desired. A... time for which an exhibit is authorized will be determined by the nature of the event and the type...

  1. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tractor-trailer transportation should be forwarded prior to November 15th previous to the year desired. A... time for which an exhibit is authorized will be determined by the nature of the event and the type...

  2. Exhibit of School Architecture, 1996. Special Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Architect, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents selected winners of the Texas 1996 Exhibit of School Architecture Design Competition. The Caudill and honor award-winning projects are listed along with facility photos, brief descriptions, project credits, and the names of the construction companies used. (GR)

  3. Exhibit of School Architecture, 1997. Special Section.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Architect, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents selected winners of the Texas 1997 Exhibit of School Architecture Design Competition. The Caudill and honor award winning projects are listed along with facility photos, brief descriptions, project credits, and the names of the construction companies used. (GR)

  4. Physics for Animation Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  5. When Do Children Exhibit a "Yes" Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether one hundred and thirty-five 3- to 6-year-old children exhibit a yes bias to various yes-no questions and whether their knowledge status affects the production of a yes bias. Three-year-olds exhibited a yes bias to all yes-no questions such as "preference-object" and "knowledge-object" questions pertaining to…

  6. Reaching the Public through Traveling Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-11-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called Alien Earths and MarsQuest. It has just started to develop another exhibit called Giant Planets. These exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of these major outreach programs. Alien Earths was developed in partnership with various research missions. The focus of the presentation will be on MarsQuest and Giant Planets. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot, \\$3M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's second 3-year tour will enable millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents) and workshops for master educators near host museums and science centers. The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibition's interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. These exhibit programs are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education. The presentation will also discuss how Giant Planets, a proposed 3500 square-foot traveling exhibition on the mysteries and discoveries of the outer planets, will be able to take advantage of the connections and resources that have been developed by the MarsQuest project.

  7. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  8. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Lymphocytes from Different Age Groups of Bolivian Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis)

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Pramod N.; Hanley, Patrick W.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Yang, Guojun; Ruiz, Julio C.; Williams, Lawrence; Abee, Christian R.; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2013-01-01

    Due to many physiological and genetic characteristic similarities to humans, squirrel monkeys provide an ideal animal model specifically for studying malaria, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease). While squirrel monkeys three years and older are generally considered adult subjects suitable for use in medical research studies, little is known about the functional properties of lymphocytes in relation to the age of these animals, which could significantly impact the quality and quantity of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated differences in the phenotype and function of lymphocytes subsets of young (3–4 years), adult (8–10 years) and aged (16–19 years) squirrel monkeys. In general, animals in all three age groups exhibited comparable numbers of different lymphocyte subsets except for CD20+ B cells that were significantly lower in aged relative to young animals and T cells subsets expressing both CD4 and CD8 (double positive) were significantly higher in aged relative to young animals. With increasing age, phenotypic differences in central and effector memory T cells subsets were observed, that were more pronounced for the CD8+ T cells. Despite equal proportions of CD3+ T cells among the three age groups, responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to T cell mitogens PHA and Con A showed lower IFN-γ producing cells in the aged group than that in the young group. Furthermore, aged animals showed significantly higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12. These findings suggest that while the squirrel monkeys in general share phenotypic and functional similarities of lymphocyte subsets with humans in relation to age, specific differences exist in immune function of lymphocytes between young and old animals that could potentially impact experimental outcomes for which the measurement of immunologic endpoints are critical. PMID:24282512

  9. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  10. Daily rhythms of core temperature and locomotor activity indicate different adaptive strategies to cold exposure in adult and aged mouse lemurs acclimated to a summer-like photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Terrien, Jeremy; Zizzari, Philippe; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne

    2009-07-01

    Daily variations in core temperature (Tc) within the normothermic range imply thermoregulatory processes that are essential for optimal function and survival. Higher susceptibility towards cold exposure in older animals suggests that these processes are disturbed with age. In the mouse lemur, a long-day breeder, we tested whether aging affected circadian rhythmicity of Tc, locomotor activity (LA), and energy balance under long-day conditions when exposed to cold. Adult (N = 7) and aged (N = 5) mouse lemurs acclimated to LD14/10 were exposed to 10-day periods at 25 and 12 degrees C. Tc and LA rhythms were recorded by telemetry, and caloric intake (CI), body mass changes, and plasma IGF-1 were measured. During exposure to 25 degrees C, both adult and aged mouse lemurs exhibited strong daily variations in Tc. Aged animals exhibited lower levels of nocturnal LA and nocturnal and diurnal Tc levels in comparison to adults. Body mass and IGF-1 levels remained unchanged with aging. Under cold exposure, torpor bout occurrence was never observed whatever the age category. Adult and aged mouse lemurs maintained their Tc in the normothermic range and a positive energy balance. All animals exhibited increase in CI and decrease in IGF-1 in response to cold. The decrease in IGF-1 was delayed in aged mouse lemurs compared to adults. Moreover, both adult and aged animals responded to cold exposure by increasing their diurnal LA compared to those under Ta = 25 degrees C. However, aged animals exhibited a strong decrease in nocturnal LA and Tc, whereas cold effects were only slight in adults. The temporal organization and amplitude of the daily phase of low Tc were particularly well preserved under cold exposure in both age groups. Sexually active mouse lemurs exposed to cold thus seemed to prevent torpor exhibition and temporal disorganization of daily rhythms of Tc, even during aging. However, although energy balance was not impaired with age in mouse lemurs after cold exposure

  11. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  12. Animal issues and society.

    PubMed

    Grabau, J H

    1993-05-01

    Animal use topics are sensitive issues today. Animal uses issues are often presented as black and white or 'we' are right and 'they' are wrong. This is clearly demonstrated in the available literature from most organizations. Topics presented will include: delineation of issues and concerned groups; examples of animal issues in education and agriculture; the terrorist issue; examples of animal issues/sportsman issues; examples of political and legislative impact; and examples of biomedical and toxicology animal use issues. PMID:8516774

  13. Preserving Brain Function in Aging: The Anti-glycative Potential of Berry Fruit.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are naturally occurring macromolecules that are formed in vivo by the non-enzymatic modification of proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids by sugar, even in the absence of hyperglycemia. In the diet, AGEs are found in animal products, and additional AGEs are produced when those foods are cooked at high temperatures. Studies have linked AGEs to various age-related physiological changes, including wrinkles, diabetic complications, and neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease. Dietary berry fruits have been shown to reduce the severity or slow the progression of many physiological changes and disease pathologies that accompany aging. Emerging evidence has shown that the phytochemicals found in berry fruits exhibit anti-glycative activity. In this review, we briefly summarize the current evidence supporting the neuroprotective anti-glycative activity of berry fruits and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. PMID:27166828

  14. Modeling early-onset post-ischemic seizures in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chiping; Wang, Justin; Peng, Jessie; Patel, Nisarg; Huang, Yayi; Gao, Xiaoxing; Aljarallah, Salman; Eubanks, James H; McDonald, Robert; Zhang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in the aged population, with post-stroke seizures being a poor prognostic factor. The pathological processes underlying post-stroke seizures are not well understood and studies of these seizures in aging/aged animals remain scarce. Therefore, our primary objective was to model post-stroke seizures in aging mice (C57 black strain, 16–20 month-old), with a focus on early-onset, convulsive seizures that occur within 24-hours of brain ischemia. We utilized a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and examined seizure activity and brain injury using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic monitoring and histological assessments. Aging mice exhibited vigorous convulsive seizures within hours of the middle cerebral artery occlusion. These seizures manifested with jumping, rapid running, barrel-rolling and/or falling all in the absence of hippocampal-cortical electrographic discharges. Seizure development was closely associated with severe brain injury and acute mortality. Anticonvulsive treatments after seizure occurrence offered temporary seizure control but failed to improve animal survival. A separate cohort of adult mice (6–8 months-old) exhibited analogous early-onset convulsive seizures following the middle cerebral artery occlusion but had better survival outcomes following anticonvulsive treatment. Collectively, our data suggest that early-onset convulsive seizures are a result of severe brain ischemia in aging animals. PMID:25943585

  15. Using Comparative Planetology in Exhibit Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on three of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (currently on tour), Alien Earths (in fabrication), and Giant Planets (in development). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Giant Planets: Exploring the Outer Solar System will take advantage of the excitement generated by the Cassini mission and bring planetary and origins research and discoveries to students and the public. It will be organized around four thematic areas: Our Solar System; Colossal Worlds; Moons, Rings, and Fields; and Make Space for Kids. Giant Planets will open in 2007. This talk will focus on the importance of making Earth comparisons in the conceptual design of each exhibit and will show several examples of how these comparisons were manifested in

  16. Short and long term measures of anxiety exhibit opposite results.

    PubMed

    Fonio, Ehud; Benjamini, Yoav; Golani, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of human diseases of the central nervous system, generalized anxiety disorder included, are essential for the study of the brain-behavior interface and obligatory for drug development; yet, these models fail to yield new insights and efficacious drugs. By increasing testing duration hundredfold and arena size tenfold, and comparing the behavior of the common animal model to that of wild mice, we raise concerns that chronic anxiety might have been measured at the wrong time, for the wrong duration, and in the wrong animal. Furthermore, the mice start the experimental session with a short period of transient adaptation to the novel environment (habituation period) and a long period reflecting the respective trait of the mice. Using common measures of anxiety reveals that mice exhibit opposite results during these periods suggesting that chronic anxiety should be measured during the post-habituation period. We recommend tools for measuring the transient period, and provide suggestions for characterizing the post habituation period. PMID:23119008

  17. Induction and persistence of radiation-induced DNA damage is more pronounced in young animals than in old animals

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Darryl; Kovalchuk, Igor; Koturbash, Igor; Kolb, Bryan; Martin, Olga A.; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Younger individuals are more prone to develop cancer upon ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Radiation-induced tumors are associated with inefficient repair of IR-induced DNA damage and genome instability. Phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) is the initial event in repair of IR-induced DNA damage on the chromatin flanking the DNA strand breaks. This step is crucially important for the repair of DNA strand breaks and for the maintenance of genome stability. We studied the molecular underpinnings of the age-related IR effects using an animal model. By assaying for IR-induced γ-H2AX foci we analyzed the induction and repair of the DNA strand breaks in spleen, thymus, liver, lung, kidney, cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex and olfactory bulb of 7, 14, 24, 30 and 45 days old male and female mice as a function of age. We demonstrate that tissues of younger animals are much more susceptible to IR-induced DNA damage. Younger animals exhibited higher levels of γ-H2AX formation which partially correlated with cellular proliferation and expression of DNA repair proteins. Induction and persistence of γ-H2AX foci was the highest in lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen) of 7 and 14 day old mice. The lowest focal induction was seen in lung and brain of young animals. The mechanisms of cell and tissue-specificity of in vivo IR responses need to be further dissected. This study provides a roadmap for the future analyses of DNA damage and repair induction in young individuals. PMID:21685513

  18. Benzonidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats.

    PubMed

    Bulffer, Romina Fernanda; Castro, José Alberto; Fanelli, Silvia Laura

    2011-05-01

    Benznidazole (Bz) exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg). We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals. PMID:21655830

  19. Fgf8-Deficient Mice Compensate for Reduced GnRH Neuronal Population and Exhibit Normal Testicular Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Johnson, Joshua I.; Tsai, Pei-San

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is critical for the onset and maintenance of reproduction in vertebrates. The development of GnRH neurons is highly dependent on fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling. Mice with a hypomorphic Fgf8 allele (Fgf8 Het) exhibited a ~50% reduction in GnRH neuron number at birth. Female Fgf8 Het mice were fertile but showed significantly delayed puberty. However, it was unclear if these mice suffered additional loss of GnRH neurons after birth, and if male Fgf8 Het mice had normal pubertal transition and testicular function. In this study, we examined postnatal GnRH neuron number and hypothalamic GnRH content in Fgf8 Het mice from birth to 120 days of age. Further, we examined seminal vesicle and testicular growth, testicular histology, and circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) around and after pubertal transition. Our results showed that GnRH neuron numbers were significantly and consistently reduced in Fgf8 Het mice of both sexes in all ages examined, suggesting these animals were born with an inherently defective GnRH system, and no further postnatal loss of GnRH neurons had occurred. Despite an innately compromised GnRH system, male and female Fgf8 mice exhibited normal levels of immunoassayable hypothalamic GnRH peptide at all ages examined except on 60 days of age, suggesting increased GnRH synthesis or reduced turnover as a compensatory mechanism. Fgf8 Het males also had normal seminal vesicle and testicular mass/body mass ratios, testicular histology, and circulating LH. Overall, our data speak to the extraordinary ability of a GnRH system permanently compromised by developmental defect to overcome pre-existing deficiencies to ensure pubertal progression and reproduction. PMID:26441841

  20. Nociceptor Sensitization Depends on Age and Pain Chronicity123

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Amanda K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral inflammation causes mechanical pain behavior and increased action potential firing. However, most studies examine inflammatory pain at acute, rather than chronic time points, despite the greater burden of chronic pain on patient populations, especially aged individuals. Furthermore, there is disagreement in the field about whether primary afferents contribute to chronic pain. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the contribution of nociceptor activity to the generation of pain behaviors during the acute and chronic phases of inflammation in both young and aged mice. We found that both young (2 months old) and aged (>18 months old) mice exhibited prominent pain behaviors during both acute (2 day) and chronic (8 week) inflammation. However, young mice exhibited greater behavioral sensitization to mechanical stimuli than their aged counterparts. Teased fiber recordings in young animals revealed a twofold mechanical sensitization in C fibers during acute inflammation, but an unexpected twofold reduction in firing during chronic inflammation. Responsiveness to capsaicin and mechanical responsiveness of A-mechanonociceptor (AM) fibers were also reduced chronically. Importantly, this lack of sensitization in afferent firing during chronic inflammation occurred even as these inflamed mice exhibited continued behavioral sensitization. Interestingly, C fibers from inflamed aged animals showed no change in mechanical firing compared with controls during either the acute or chronic inflammatory phases, despite strong behavioral sensitization to mechanical stimuli at these time points. These results reveal the following two important findings: (1) nociceptor sensitization to mechanical stimulation depends on age and the chronicity of injury; and (2) maintenance of chronic inflammatory pain does not rely on enhanced peripheral drive. PMID:26866058

  1. Animal models of polymicrobial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Hraiech, Sami; Papazian, Laurent; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Bregeon, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of severe and occasionally life-threatening infections. The physiopathology of pneumonia has been extensively studied, providing information for the development of new treatments for this condition. In addition to in vitro research, animal models have been largely used in the field of pneumonia. Several models have been described and have provided a better understanding of pneumonia under different settings and with various pathogens. However, the concept of one pathogen leading to one infection has been challenged, and recent flu epidemics suggest that some pathogens exhibit highly virulent potential. Although “two hits” animal models have been used to study infectious diseases, few of these models have been described in pneumonia. Therefore the aims of this review were to provide an overview of the available literature in this field, to describe well-studied and uncommon pathogen associations, and to summarize the major insights obtained from this information. PMID:26170617

  2. Age determination of raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grau, G.A.; Sanderson, G.C.; Rogers, J.P.

    1970-01-01

    Age criteria, based on 61 skulls and eye lenses from 103 known-age captives, are described for separating raccoons (Procyon lotor) into eight age-classes as follows: young-of-the-year, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-7, > 7 years. Criteria studied were eye lens nitrogen, cranial suture closure, tooth wear and incisor cementum layers. Lens nitrogen increased rapidly up to 12 months of age, but at much reduced rate thereafter. Total lens nitrogen was useful only in separating young-of-the-year from adults. The closure sequence for five cranial sutures accurately divided the total known-age sample of males into seven groups, and the adults into five groups. The tooth wear criteria divided the known-age sample into five relative age groups, but aging of individuals by this method was inaccurate. Histological sectioning of known-age teeth was the best method of observing layering in the cementum tissue. The technique of basing estimation of age on cementum ring counts, although subjective, was accurate for aging individuals through their fourth year but tended to underestimate the age of animals over 4 years old. However, suture closure or tooth wear can be used to identify males over 4 years old. In field studies, technical difficulties limit the utility of age estimation by cementum layers. Maximum root thickness of the lower canine was accurate in determining the sex of individuals from 5 months to ,at least 48 months of age.

  3. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of “microglia aging.” This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging. PMID:26941889

  4. Animal-to-animal variation in fecal microbial diversity among beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Bono, James L; Desantis, Todd Z; Harhay, Dayna M; Andersen, Gary L; Keen, James E; Laegreid, William W; Clawson, Michael L

    2010-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are important for animal health, food safety, and methane emissions. This full-length sequencing survey of 11,171 16S rRNA genes reveals animal-to-animal variation in communities that cannot be attributed to breed, gender, diet, age, or weather. Beef communities differ from those of dairy. Core bovine taxa are identified. PMID:20472731

  5. Animal Communication: What Do Animals Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Eugene S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of animal communication, including possible relationships between the physical structure of vocalizations and their functions in communicating. Provides tables of mammalian and avian sounds (by species/family) used in hostile and friendly appeasing contexts. (JN)

  6. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... engineering design data in explanation and support of the diagrams and the proposed project, setting forth: (i... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exhibits. 156.5 Section 156.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...

  7. 10 CFR 205.303 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pertinent Federal and State laws. (c) Exhibit C. A general map showing the applicant's overall electric system and a detailed map highlighting the location of the facilities or the proposed facilities to be used for the generation and transmission of the electric energy to be exported. The detailed map...

  8. 10 CFR 205.303 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pertinent Federal and State laws. (c) Exhibit C. A general map showing the applicant's overall electric system and a detailed map highlighting the location of the facilities or the proposed facilities to be used for the generation and transmission of the electric energy to be exported. The detailed map...

  9. 18 CFR 34.4 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stockholders has been obtained. (c) Exhibit C. The Balance Sheet and attached notes for the most recent 12... computation of interest coverage Actual for the year ended mm-dd-yy OMB control No. 1902-0043, pro forma for the year ended mm-dd-yy Net income Add: Interest on Long-Term Debt, Interest on Short-Term Debt,...

  10. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exhibits. 156.5 Section 156.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... outlet connections at each compressor station. (iv) Pressures and volumes of gas at each intake...

  11. After Terror Charges, Artist Exhibits Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Kurtz, a professor of visual studies at the State University of New York, has been working with various bacteria as part of his counterculture exhibit artworks for nearly 20 years. Four years ago, federal agents raided his home in a bioterrorism investigation. The federal agents had been called to the house by local police officers…

  12. Do Online Students Exhibit Different Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausler, Joel; Sanders, John W.; Young, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between learning styles and student type. This research seeks to examine if online students exhibit different learning styles from onsite students; and, if so, what accommodations relating to learning style differences may be made for online students? Students (N = 80) were asked to complete an online survey in order…

  13. The medial prefrontal cortex exhibits money illusion

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Bernd; Rangel, Antonio; Wibral, Matthias; Falk, Armin

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral economists have proposed that money illusion, which is a deviation from rationality in which individuals engage in nominal evaluation, can explain a wide range of important economic and social phenomena. This proposition stands in sharp contrast to the standard economic assumption of rationality that requires individuals to judge the value of money only on the basis of the bundle of goods that it can buy—its real value—and not on the basis of the actual amount of currency—its nominal value. We used fMRI to investigate whether the brain's reward circuitry exhibits money illusion. Subjects received prizes in 2 different experimental conditions that were identical in real economic terms, but differed in nominal terms. Thus, in the absence of money illusion there should be no differences in activation in reward-related brain areas. In contrast, we found that areas of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which have been previously associated with the processing of anticipatory and experienced rewards, and the valuation of goods, exhibited money illusion. We also found that the amount of money illusion exhibited by the vmPFC was correlated with the amount of money illusion exhibited in the evaluation of economic transactions. PMID:19307555

  14. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (8) As Exhibit 8, a copy of applicant's most recent year-end general balance sheet certified by... general balance sheet as of a date no less recent than the end of the third month preceding the date of the filing of the application. The unaudited balance sheet shall be presented in account form...

  15. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (8) As Exhibit 8, a copy of applicant's most recent year-end general balance sheet certified by... general balance sheet as of a date no less recent than the end of the third month preceding the date of the filing of the application. The unaudited balance sheet shall be presented in account form...

  16. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE INTERSTATE ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES §...

  17. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... favorably only when not in conflict with recruiting requirements. (i) Requests for exhibits must be... among the Armed Forces, or with other agencies of the Federal Government. (i) All Navy activities will... concerned, via the chain of command. (3) The official OASD(PA) Request Form for Armed Forces...

  18. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE...

  19. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE...

  20. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS FOR PERMITS TO SITE...

  1. 18 CFR 153.8 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities in the United States and Canada or Mexico; (5) Exhibit E. If the proposal is to import or export... Seismic Risk Map of the United States, or where there is a risk of surface faulting or ground liquefaction... the Seismic Review of LNG Facilities,” NBSIR 84-2833. This document may be obtained from the...

  2. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... such enterprises or operations, a detailed explanation of each such relationship, including the... relationship. (5) Exhibit F—Location of facilities. A geographical map of suitable scale and detail showing all...—Construction, operation, and management. A concise statement setting forth arrangements for...

  3. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... explanation of each such relationship, including the percentage of voting strength represented by such... detailed explanation of each such relationship. (5) Exhibit E—Other pending applications and filings. A... abandoned. This map, or an additional map, shall clearly show the relationship of the new facilities to...

  4. 10 CFR 205.303 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Application for Authorization to Transmit Electric Energy... used for the generation and transmission of the electric energy to be exported. The detailed map shall... or fixing of rates for the purchase, sale or transmission of electric energy. (f) Exhibit F....

  5. 24 CFR 180.645 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhibits. 180.645 Section 180.645... OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Procedures at Hearing § 180.645... evidence could not reasonably be anticipated at that time. (c) Authenticity. The authenticity of...

  6. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...) Exhibit G—Flow diagrams showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with and without...

  7. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...) Exhibit G—Flow diagrams showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with and without...

  8. 18 CFR 157.14 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Act (42 U.S.C. 7101-7352); E.O. 12009, 3 CFR 142) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 157.14, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the...) Exhibit G—Flow diagrams showing daily design capacity and reflecting operation with and without...

  9. Animals in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Andrew N.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

  10. Animations in spreadsheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, Gordon J.; Bolland, T. Kenneth; Ziegler, Michael G.

    1999-12-01

    Recently, Ole Haglund mentioned in this journal that it was possible to incorporate animations into spreadsheets. We would like to describe what might be an easier way to incorporate animations into spreadsheets using Excel™ software.

  11. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  12. Vaccines and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Morton, D B

    2007-04-01

    Vaccination promotes animal welfare by protecting animal health, but it also has other welfare benefits, e.g. recent investigations have looked at the potential of vaccines in immunoneutering such as immunocastration--a humane alternative to the painful traditional methods. Similarly, vaccination can be used during disease outbreaks as a viable alternative to stamping-out, thus avoiding the welfare problems that on-farm mass slaughter can cause. Protecting animal health through vaccination leads to improved animal welfare, and maintaining good welfare ensures that animals can respond successfully to vaccination (as poor welfare can lead to immunosuppression, which can affect the response to vaccination). It is clear that vaccination has tremendous advantages for animal welfare and although the possible side effects of vaccination can have a negative effect on the welfare of some individual animals, the harm caused by these unwanted effects must be weighed against the undoubted benefits for groups of animals. PMID:17633300

  13. "Name" that Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  14. Ethology and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, D R

    1981-12-01

    Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

  15. Kindergarten Children's Perception of Animals Focusing on the Look and Fear of Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2012-01-01

    The study is focusing on the finding out the children's perceiving of animals from the view of look and fear. The additional aims were to find out the influence of gender and age on the perceiving of animals from the view of look and fear. The sample size was created by the 27 Czech kindergarten children from two kindergartens. The number of 5…

  16. MarsQuest: A National Traveling Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.

    1998-09-01

    With the successful landing of Mars Pathfinder and the arrival of Mars Global Surveyor, a new decade of Mars exploration has commenced. MarsQuest, a 5000 square foot traveling exhibition, is being developed to further bring the excitement and discoveries of this "Decade of Mars Exploration" to the public. MarsQuest is partially funded by the Informal Science Education Program of the National Science Foundation and NASA's Office of Space Science. The Space Science Institute (SSI) in Boulder, CO, is leading the project. Scientific and educational advisors from many different universities and government laboratories, most of whom are directly involved in the active and planned Mars missions, will ensure the scientific accuracy, timeliness, and relevance of the key concepts presented in the exhibition and accompanying programs. The traveling exhibit is the primary element of the MarsQuest project. The exhibition experience, carefully keyed to current events in Mars exploration, will transport visitors to the surface of the Red Planet via large murals, dioramas, and numerous interactive displays. There they will have the opportunity to share in the spirit and thrill of exploration, and come to appreciate the similarities and differences between Earth and Mars. A planetarium show, geared to the goals of the MarsQuest project, will be an important sensory addition to the traveling exhibit. The planetarium/star-theater venue presents a unique environment where audience members can literally be surrounded by Mars images. Education and outreach programs comprise the remainder of the MarsQuest project. The goal of these is to make scientific concepts and scientific and engineering processes understandable to students via Mars-inspired curricula. MarsQuest will open in late-1999, traveling to about nine sites throughout the United States and reaching an estimated two to three million children and adults during its planned three-year tour. Mars - coming soon to a museum near

  17. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    PubMed

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. PMID:21387395

  18. Pixel Palette: Palm Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Describes a project used with fifth-grade students in which they learned about animation. Explains that the students learned about animation used in art. States that they received a personal data assistant to create their own animation of a flower that was growing and pollinated by a butterfly. (CMK)

  19. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  20. Animals in Disguise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary C.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which first grade students learn why camouflage is important to an animal's survival. Students see living examples of animals who use camouflage for protection, then create their own camouflaged animals and hide them around the classroom. For assessment, students write and illustrate five things they learned from the study…

  1. A new way of telling earthquake stories: MOBEE - the MOBile Earthquake Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataru, Dragos; Toma-Danila, Dragos; Nastase, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades, the demand and acknowledged importance of science outreach, in general and geophysics in particular, has grown, as demonstrated by many international and national projects and other activities performed by research institutes. The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) from Romania is the leading national institution on earthquake monitoring and research, having at the same time a declared focus on informing and educating a wide audience about geosciences and especially seismology. This is more than welcome, since Romania is a very active country from a seismological point of view, but not too reactive when it comes to diminishing the possible effect of a major earthquake. Over the last few decades, the country has experienced several major earthquakes which have claimed thousands of lives and millions in property damage (1940; 1977; 1986 and 1990 Vrancea earthquakes). In this context, during a partnership started in 2014 together with the National Art University and Siveco IT company, a group of researchers from NIEP initiated the MOBile Earthquake Exhibition (MOBEE) project. The main goal was to design a portable museum to bring on the road educational activities focused on seismology, seismic hazard and Earth science. The exhibition is mainly focused on school students of all ages as it explains the main topics of geophysics through a unique combination of posters, digital animations and apps, large markets and exciting hand-on experiments, 3D printed models and posters. This project is singular in Romania and aims to transmit properly reviewed actual information, regarding the definition of earthquakes, the way natural hazards can affect people, buildings and the environment and the measures to be taken for prevent an aftermath. Many of the presented concepts can be used by teachers as a complementary way of demonstrating physics facts and concepts and explaining processes that shape the dynamic Earth features. It also involves

  2. Muscle-specificity of age-related changes in markers of autophagy and sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Russ, David W; Boyd, Iva M; McCoy, Katherine M; McCorkle, Katherine W

    2015-12-01

    Our previous findings indicate that the gastrocnemius muscle of aging rats exhibits impairments of muscle quality (force/unit muscle tissue) and autophagy and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum stress. The purpose of this study was to examine age-related changes in soleus muscle contractility and in markers of autophagy in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. We assessed in situ muscle force and size in the soleus muscle of adult (7-8 months) and aged (24-26 months) male, F344/BN rats. We used immunoblotting to compare abundance of markers of autophagy, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stress and sphingolipid metabolism in the soleus and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles of these animals. Relative to adults, aged rats maintained soleus muscle quality and increased muscle size, resulting in increased tetanic force production. Immunoblotting revealed a general pattern of an age-related reduction of basal autophagy, despite increases in indicators of SR stress and upstream autophagic pathway activation in the MG. The MG also exhibited changes in markers of sphingolipid metabolism suggestive of increased muscle ceramide. Minimal age-related changes were observed in the soleus. The soleus maintains muscle mass and quality with age, and exhibits fewer age-related changes in markers of stress and autophagy than the MG. Based on these data, we suggest that maintenance of autophagy may preserve muscle quality by preventing excessive SR stress. PMID:26296420

  3. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; O'Doherty, John V; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo. PMID:26901760

  4. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Áine M.; O’Doherty, John V.; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo. PMID:26901760

  5. Collective motion in animal groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzin, Iain

    2004-03-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the relationship between individual behavior and population-level properties in animal groups. One of the fundamental problems is related to spatial scale; how do interactions over a local range result in population properties at larger, averaged, scales, and how can we integrate the properties of aggregates over these scales? Many group-living animals exhibit complex, and coordinated, spatio-temporal patterns which despite their ubiquity and ecological importance are very poorly understood. This is largely due to the difficulties associated with quantifying the motion of, and interactions among, many animals simultaneously. It is on how these behaviors scale to collective behaviors that I will focus here. Using a combined empirical approach (using novel computer vision techniques) and individual-based computer models, I investigate pattern formation in both invertebrate and vertebrate systems, including - Collective memory and self-organized group structure in vertebrate groups (Couzin, I.D., Krause, J., James, R., Ruxton, G.D. & Franks, N.R. (2002) Journal of Theoretical Biology 218, 1-11. (2) Couzin, I.D. & Krause, J. (2003) Advances in the Study of Behavior 32, 1-75. (3) Hoare, D.J., Couzin, I.D. Godin, J.-G. & Krause, J. (2003) Animal Behaviour, in press.) - Self-organized lane formation and optimized traffic flow in army ants (Couzin, I.D. & Franks, N.R. (2003) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 270, 139-146) - Leadership and information transfer in flocks, schools and swarms. - Why do hoppers hop? Hopping and the generation of long-range order in some of the largest animal groups in nature, locust hopper bands.

  6. Multimodal audio guide for museums and exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbensleben, Sandra; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2006-02-01

    In our paper we introduce a new Audio Guide concept for exploring buildings, realms and exhibitions. Actual proposed solutions work in most cases with pre-defined devices, which users have to buy or borrow. These systems often go along with complex technical installations and require a great degree of user training for device handling. Furthermore, the activation of audio commentary related to the exhibition objects is typically based on additional components like infrared, radio frequency or GPS technology. Beside the necessity of installation of specific devices for user location, these approaches often only support automatic activation with no or limited user interaction. Therefore, elaboration of alternative concepts appears worthwhile. Motivated by these aspects, we introduce a new concept based on usage of the visitor's own mobile smart phone. The advantages in our approach are twofold: firstly the Audio Guide can be used in various places without any purchase and extensive installation of additional components in or around the exhibition object. Secondly, the visitors can experience the exhibition on individual tours only by uploading the Audio Guide at a single point of entry, the Audio Guide Service Counter, and keeping it on her or his personal device. Furthermore, since the user usually is quite familiar with the interface of her or his phone and can thus interact with the application device easily. Our technical concept makes use of two general ideas for location detection and activation. Firstly, we suggest an enhanced interactive number based activation by exploiting the visual capabilities of modern smart phones and secondly we outline an active digital audio watermarking approach, where information about objects are transmitted via an analog audio channel.

  7. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  8. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  9. Animals in the Lives of Young Maltese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Gatt, Suzanne; Agius, Catherine; Pizzuto, Sue Anne

    2008-01-01

    Young Maltese children have experience and knowledge of animals. We explored the range of animal with which they are familiar and the origin of this knowledge. The children interviewed were in Pre School, aged 4 years, and in the first year of compulsory education, aged 5 years Verb l questions and photographs were used as the probe to access…

  10. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries. PMID:12017891

  11. The E = mc{sup 2} exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.; Peshkin, M.

    1995-08-01

    The goal of this DOE-supported exhibition is to demystify Einstein`s formula E = mc{sup 2} by illustrating the interchangeability of matter (m) and energy (E), c{sup 2} being the exchange rate. The exhibition has two major parts, {open_quotes}matter into energy{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}energy into matter{close_quotes}, plus a video to connect them. {open_quotes}Matter into energy{close_quotes} has now been completed and has been placed on the museum floor. Positrons from a {sup 22}Na source are annihilated to produce gamma rays that are caught in NaI detectors. The viewer can alter the alignment of the detectors and observe the consequences for the rates of single and coincident counts. The viewer can also observe the effects of placing absorbers in front of the counters. Prototype explanatory graphics were placed around the exhibit and those will probably be changed after we have some experience with their effectiveness. The connecting video is in the process of being produced in collaboration with Fermilab. A cloud chamber for {open_quotes}energy into matter{close_quotes}, where gamma rays from a small Th source will produce observable pairs, was purchased and work to make the pairs visible has commenced.

  12. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  13. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  14. Animal Models of Subjective Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is one of the major audiological diseases, affecting a significant portion of the ageing society. Despite its huge personal and presumed economic impact there are only limited therapeutic options available. The reason for this deficiency lies in the very nature of the disease as it is deeply connected to elementary plasticity of auditory processing in the central nervous system. Understanding these mechanisms is essential for developing a therapy that reverses the plastic changes underlying the pathogenesis of tinnitus. This requires experiments that address individual neurons and small networks, something usually not feasible in human patients. However, in animals such invasive experiments on the level of single neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution are possible. Therefore, animal models are a very critical element in the combined efforts for engineering new therapies. This review provides an overview over the most important features of animal models of tinnitus: which laboratory species are suitable, how to induce tinnitus, and how to characterize the perceived tinnitus by behavioral means. In particular, these aspects of tinnitus animal models are discussed in the light of transferability to the human patients. PMID:24829805

  15. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753

  16. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  17. Alien Earths: A Traveling Science Exhibit and Education Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J.

    2004-05-01

    Where did we come from? Are we alone? These age-old questions form the basis of NASA's Origins Program, a series of missions spanning the next twenty years that will use a host of space- and ground-based observatories to understand the origin and development of galaxies, stars, planets, and the conditions necessary to support life. The Space Science Institute in Boulder, CO, is developing a 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, which will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths will have four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about the wide range of conditions for life on Earth and how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Visitors will also learn about the tools scientists use, such as space-based and ground-based telescopes, to improve our understanding of the cosmos. The exhibit's size will permit it to visit medium sized museums in all regions of the country. It will begin its 3-year tour to 9 host museums and science centers in early 2005 at the Lawrence Hall of Science in Berkeley, California. The Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) will manage the exhibit's national tour. In addition to the exhibit, the project includes workshops for educators and docents at host sites, as well as a public website that will use exhibit content to delve deeper into origins research. Current partners in the Alien Earths project include ASTC, Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Lawrence Hall of Science, NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA missions (Navigator, SIRTF, and Kepler), the SETI Institute, and the Space Telescope Science Institute

  18. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  19. Differential Expression of Brain Cannabinoid Receptors between Repeatedly Stressed Males and Females may Play a Role in Age and Gender-Related Difference in Traumatic Brain Injury: Implications from Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Guoqiang; Carlton, Janis; Jiang, Xiaolong; Wen, Jillian; Jia, Min; Li, He

    2014-01-01

    Inconsistent gender differences in the outcome of TBI have been reported. The mechanism is unknown. In a recent male animal study, repeated stress followed by TBI had synergistic effects on brain gene expression and caused greater behavioral deficits. Because females are more likely to develop anxiety after stress and because anxiety is mediated by cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) (CB1 and CB2), there is a need to compare CB1 and CB2 expression in stressed males and females. CB1 and CB2 mRNA expression was determined in the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hypothalamus of adolescent male and female rats after 3 days of repeated tail-shock stress using qPCR. PFC CB1 and CB2 protein levels were determined using Western blot techniques. Both gender and stress had significant effects on brain CB1 mRNA expression levels. Overall, females showed significantly higher CB1 and CB2 mRNA levels in all brain regions than males (p < 0.01). Repeated stress reduced CB1 mRNA levels in the amygdala, hippocampus, and PFC (p < 0.01, each). A gender × stress interaction was found in CB1 mRNA level in the hippocampus (p < 0.05), hypothalamus (p < 0.01), and PFC (p < 0.01). Within-sex one-way ANOVA analysis showed decreased CB1 mRNA in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and PFC of stressed females (p < 0.01, each) but increased CB1 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of stressed males (p < 01). There was a gender and stress interaction in prefrontal CB1 receptor protein levels (p < 0.05), which were decreased in stressed females only (p < 0.05). Prefrontal CB2 protein levels were decreased in both male and female animals after repeated stress (p < 0.05, each). High basal levels of CBR expression in young naïve females could protect against TBI damage whereas stress-induced CBR deficits could predict a poor outcome of TBI in repeatedly stressed females. Further animal studies could help evaluate this possibility. PMID:25221540

  20. Pigeons exhibit contextual cueing to both simple and complex backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Edward A; Teng, Yuejia; Castro, Leyre

    2014-05-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of this contextual cueing effect using a novel Cueing-Miscueing design. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four possible locations on four possible color backgrounds or four possible color photographs of real-world scenes. On 80% of the trials, each of the contexts was uniquely paired with one of the target locations; on the other 20% of the trials, each of the contexts was randomly paired with the remaining target locations. Pigeons came to exhibit robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 2s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on correctly-cued trials than on incorrectly-cued trials. Contextual cueing proved to be more robust with photographic backgrounds than with uniformly colored backgrounds. In addition, during the context-target delay, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. These findings confirm the effectiveness of animal models of contextual cueing and underscore the important part played by associative learning in producing the effect. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SQAB 2013: Contextual Con. PMID:24491468

  1. 75 FR 7536 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hendrick Avercamp (1585...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Little Ice Age'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the... Little Ice Age,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural... these Determinations be published in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For...

  2. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  3. Animal studies on Spacelab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.; Berry, W.

    1986-01-01

    The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rates on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hand-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity-dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space-adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferon production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatotrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythopoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

  4. Animal studies on Spacelab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Berry, W.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rats on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hands-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferom production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythropoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

  5. [Depression and aging].

    PubMed

    Léger, J M; Clément, J P

    1992-09-01

    Old age is a qualitative state during which depression frequently occurs. This illness presents particular features which should be considered in the course of both normal ageing and senility. Viewed as an existential crisis, ageing may be considered as a depression promoting factor. Rich in depression promoting factors, this period of life is a sequence of crises which result in reorganizations heavily dependent on the adaptive capabilities of the aged person. During ageing, depression exhibits particular features that one should be able to recognize and distinguish from the consequences of deficits that are the normal adjuncts of the ageing process. The same is true of alterations occurring in the cognitive sphere and which might result from demential alteration. During ageing, depression should be identified among the other decompensation patterns occurring in the aged patient by viewing the situation in terms of overhelmed mechanisms. Depression exhibits a pattern whereby it relates closely with the risk of dementia. Therapeutic management should take into account such a perspective, that one might call transnosographic, when considering the depressiveness of aged patients as a high-risk situation requiring long-term follow-up of their biological, psychodynamic, social and cognitive functions. PMID:1308847

  6. The representative animal

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The anthropocentric approach to the study of animal behavior uses representative nonhuman animals to understand human behavior. This approach raises problems concerning the comparison of the behavior of two different species. The datum of behavior analysis is the behavior of humans and representative animal phenotypes. The behavioral phenotype is the product of the ontogeny and phylogeny of each species, and this requires that contributions of genotype as well as behavioral history to experimental performance be considered. Behavior analysis tends to favor the ontogenetic over the phylogenetic component, yet both components are responsible for the performance of each individual animal. This paper raises questions about the role of genotype variables in the use of representative animals to understand human behavior. Examples indicating the role of genotype in human behavior are also discussed. The final section of the paper deals with considerations of genotype in the design of animal experiments. PMID:22478186

  7. Genes and small RNA transcripts exhibit dosage-dependent expression pattern in maize copy-number alterations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy-number alterations are widespread in animal and plant genomes, but their immediate impact on gene expression is still unclear. In animals, copy-number alterations usually exhibit dosage effects, except for sex chromosomes that tend to be dosage compensated. In plants, genes within small duplica...

  8. Lightning safety of animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  9. A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslami, Sassan N; Alaeian, Hadiseh; Koh, Ai Leen; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2013-09-11

    Advances in the field of metamaterials have enabled unprecedented control of light-matter interactions. Metamaterial constituents support high-frequency electric and magnetic dipoles, which can be used as building blocks for new materials capable of negative refraction, electromagnetic cloaking, strong visible-frequency circular dichroism, and enhancing magnetic or chiral transitions in ions and molecules. While all metamaterials to date have existed in the solid-state, considerable interest has emerged in designing a colloidal metamaterial or "metafluid". Such metafluids would combine the advantages of solution-based processing with facile integration into conventional optical components. Here we demonstrate the colloidal synthesis of an isotropic metafluid that exhibits a strong magnetic response at visible frequencies. Protein-antibody interactions are used to direct the solution-phase self-assembly of discrete metamolecules comprised of silver nanoparticles tightly packed around a single dielectric core. The electric and magnetic response of individual metamolecules and the bulk metamaterial solution are directly probed with optical scattering and spectroscopy. Effective medium calculations indicate that the bulk metamaterial exhibits a negative effective permeability and a negative refractive index at modest fill factors. This metafluid can be synthesized in large-quantity and high-quality and may accelerate development of advanced nanophotonic and metamaterial devices. PMID:23919764

  10. Nematic liquid crystals exhibiting high birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thingujam, Kiranmala; Bhattacharjee, Ayon; Choudhury, Basana; Dabrowski, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Two fluorinated isothiocyanato nematic liquid crystalline compounds, 4'-butylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocyanatobiphenyl and 4'-pentylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocynatobiphenyl are studied in detail to obtain their different physical parameters. Optical polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, density and dielectric studies have been carried out for the two samples. Both the samples were found to have high clearing temperature (>100 °C) and exhibit small enthalpy of transition. The two samples exhibit high optical birefringence (Δ n > 0.2). The values of order parameters for the two samples were obtained using different approaches, namely, Vuks', Neugebauer's, modified Vuks' and direct extrapolation method from birefringence data. Experimentally obtained values of order parameters have also been compared with theoretical Maier-Saupe values. The parallel and perpendicular components of dielectric permittivity values of the two compounds were also calculated and their anisotropy values were found to be small. The effect of temperature on the molecular dipole moment μ and the angle of inclination β of the dipole axis with the director have also been investigated in this work.

  11. Menopause accelerates biological aging.

    PubMed

    Levine, Morgan E; Lu, Ake T; Chen, Brian H; Hernandez, Dena G; Singleton, Andrew B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D J; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L; Horvath, Steve

    2016-08-16

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the "epigenetic clock"), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  12. The dying animal.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    The study of animal death is poised to blossom into an exciting new interdisciplinary field-and one with profound relevance for bioethics. Areas of interest include the biology and evolution of death-related behavior in nonhuman animals, as well as human social, psychological, cultural, and moral attitudes toward and practices related to animal death. In this paper, I offer a brief overview of what we know about death-related behavior in animals. I will then sketch some of the bioethical implications of this emerging field of research. PMID:24092402

  13. Whole animal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Singh; Solorio, Luis; Broome, Ann-Marie; Salem, Nicolas; Kolthammer, Jeff; Shah, Tejas; Flask, Chris; Duerk, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Translational research plays a vital role in understanding the underlying pathophysiology of human diseases, and hence development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options for their management. After creating an animal disease model, pathophysiologic changes and effects of a therapeutic intervention on them are often evaluated on the animals using immunohistologic or imaging techniques. In contrast to the immunohistologic techniques, the imaging techniques are noninvasive and hence can be used to investigate the whole animal, oftentimes in a single exam which provides opportunities to perform longitudinal studies and dynamic imaging of the same subject, and hence minimizes the experimental variability, requirement for the number of animals, and the time to perform a given experiment. Whole animal imaging can be performed by a number of techniques including x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, fluorescence imaging, and bioluminescence imaging, among others. Individual imaging techniques provide different kinds of information regarding the structure, metabolism, and physiology of the animal. Each technique has its own strengths and weaknesses, and none serves every purpose of image acquisition from all regions of an animal. In this review, a broad overview of basic principles, available contrast mechanisms, applications, challenges, and future prospects of many imaging techniques employed for whole animal imaging is provided. Our main goal is to briefly describe the current state of art to researchers and advanced students with a strong background in the field of animal research. PMID:20836038

  14. Diagnosis of animal allergy.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R

    1987-01-01

    The aims of the diagnostic evaluation are to establish the presence and severity of disease and the importance of animal exposure as the etiology of the disease. The evaluation of the importance of animals may be part of a general allergy evaluation or specifically directed toward an animal in certain cases, such as occupational exposure. The diagnostic techniques are medical history, physical examination, allergy skin tests or in vitro tests for IgE antibody and correlation of improvement in symptoms with animal avoidance. PMID:3477684

  15. Naked mole rats exhibit metabolic but not ventilatory plasticity following chronic sustained hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Danielle; Dzal, Yvonne A; Seow, Allison; Milsom, William K; Pamenter, Matthew E

    2016-03-30

    Naked mole rats are among the most hypoxia-tolerant mammals identified and live in chronic hypoxia throughout their lives. The physiological mechanisms underlying this tolerance, however, are poorly understood. Most vertebrates hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and exhibit an enhanced hyperventilation following acclimatization to chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH). Conversely, naked mole rats do not hyperventilate in acute hypoxia and their response to CSH has not been examined. In this study, we explored mechanisms of plasticity in the control of the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and hypoxic metabolic response (HMR) of freely behaving naked mole rats following 8-10 days of chronic sustained normoxia (CSN) or CSH. Specifically, we investigated the role of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in mediating these responses. Our study yielded three important findings. First, naked mole rats did not exhibit ventilatory plasticity following CSH, which is unique among adult animals studied to date. Second, GABA receptor (GABAR) antagonism altered breathing patterns in CSN and CSH animals and modulated the acute HVR in CSN animals. Third, naked mole rats exhibited GABAR-dependent metabolic plasticity following long-term hypoxia, such that the basal metabolic rate was approximately 25% higher in normoxic CSH animals than CSN animals, and GABAR antagonists modulated this increase. PMID:27009224

  16. Considerations on Temperature, Longevity and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    A modest reduction in body temperature prolongs longevity and possibly retards aging in both poikilotherm and homeotherm animals. Some of the possible mechanisms mediating these effects are considered here with respect to major aging models and theories. PMID:18425417

  17. Optimal Strouhal number for swimming animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloy, Christophe

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the swimming performances of aquatic animals, an important dimensionless quantity is the Strouhal number, St=fA/U, with f the tail-beat frequency, A the peak-to-peak tail amplitude, and U the swimming velocity. Experiments with flapping foils have exhibited maximum propulsive efficiency in the interval 0.25animals likely evolved to swim in the same narrow interval. Using Lighthill's elongated-body theory to address undulatory propulsion, it is demonstrated here that the optimal Strouhal number increases from 0.15 to 0.8 for animals spanning from the largest cetaceans to the smallest tadpoles. To assess the validity of this model, the swimming kinematics of 53 different species of aquatic animals have been compiled from the literature and it shows that their Strouhal numbers are consistently near the predicted optimum.

  18. Aging alters the expression of genes for neuroprotection and synaptic function following acute estradiol treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aenlle, Kristina K.; Foster, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    This study used microarray analysis to examine age-related changes in gene expression 6 and 12 hr following a single estradiol injection in ovariectomized mice. Estradiol-responsive gene expression at the 6 hr time point was reduced in aged (18 mo) animals compared to young (4 mo) and middle-aged (MA, 12 mo) mice. Examination of gene clustering within biological and functional pathways indicated that young and MA mice exhibited increased expression of genes for cellular components of the synapse and decreased expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction. At the 12 hr time point, estradiol-responsive gene expression increased in aged animals and decreased in young and MA mice compared to the 6 hr time point. Gene clustering analysis indicated that aged mice exhibited increased expression of genes for signaling pathways that are rapidly influenced by estradiol. The age differences in gene expression for rapid signaling pathways may relate to disparity in basal pathway activity and estradiol mediated activation of rapid signaling cascades. PMID:19790252

  19. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity.

    PubMed

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. PMID:26332996

  20. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    ScienceCinema

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2014-07-22

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  1. Nanoporous frameworks exhibiting multiple stimuli responsiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Pintu K.; Olsen, Gregory L.; Kiss, Vladimir; Klajn, Rafal

    2014-04-01

    Nanoporous frameworks are polymeric materials built from rigid molecules, which give rise to their nanoporous structures with applications in gas sorption and storage, catalysis and others. Conceptually new applications could emerge, should these beneficial properties be manipulated by external stimuli in a reversible manner. One approach to render nanoporous frameworks responsive to external signals would be to immobilize molecular switches within their nanopores. Although the majority of molecular switches require conformational freedom to isomerize, and switching in the solid state is prohibited, the nanopores may provide enough room for the switches to efficiently isomerize. Here we describe two families of nanoporous materials incorporating the spiropyran molecular switch. These materials exhibit a variety of interesting properties, including reversible photochromism and acidochromism under solvent-free conditions, light-controlled capture and release of metal ions, as well reversible chromism induced by solvation/desolvation.

  2. New Monolayered Materials Exhibiting Unusual Electronic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Martin, Ivar; Littlewood, Peter B.

    Computationally based approaches are allowing to progress in the discovery and design of nano-scaled materials. Here we propose a series of new mono-layered compounds with exotic properties. By means of density functional theory calculations we demonstrate that the pentagonal arrangement of SiC2 yields an inverted distribution of the p-bands which leads to an unusual electronic behaviour of the material under strain [J. Phys. Chem. C, 2015, 119 (33), pp 19469]. A different pentagonal arrangement of C atoms enables the formation of Dirac cones which, unlike graphene, exhibit a strain-mediated tunable band gap. This work is supported by DOE-BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  3. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2013-10-03

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  4. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  5. Aging-associated inflammation promotes selection for adaptive oncogenic events in B cell progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Curtis J.; Casás-Selves, Matias; Kim, Jihye; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Aghili, Leila; Daniel, Ashley E.; Jimenez, Linda; Azam, Tania; McNamee, Eoin N.; Clambey, Eric T.; Klawitter, Jelena; Serkova, Natalie J.; Tan, Aik Choon; Dinarello, Charles A.; DeGregori, James

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transferred from young mice into aged animals exhibited similar fitness defects. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of the oncogenes BCR-ABL, NRASV12, or Myc restored B cell progenitor fitness, leading to selection for oncogenically initiated cells and leukemogenesis specifically in the context of an aged hematopoietic system. Aging was associated with increased inflammation in the BM microenvironment, and induction of inflammation in young mice phenocopied aging-associated B lymphopoiesis. Conversely, a reduction of inflammation in aged mice via transgenic expression of α-1-antitrypsin or IL-37 preserved the function of B cell progenitors and prevented NRASV12-mediated oncogenesis. We conclude that chronic inflammatory microenvironments in old age lead to reductions in the fitness of B cell progenitor populations. This reduced progenitor pool fitness engenders selection for cells harboring oncogenic mutations, in part due to their ability to correct aging-associated functional defects. Thus, modulation of inflammation — a common feature of aging — has the potential to limit aging-associated oncogenesis. PMID:26551682

  6. A Traveling Exhibit of Cassini Image Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Hedman, M. M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ebel, D.; Mac Low, M.; Lovett, L. E.; Burns, J. K.; Schaff, N.; Bilson, E. M.

    2007-10-01

    An exhibit of Cassini's images will open at NYC's American Museum of Natural History in March 2008 and then visit the Johnson Art Museum (Cornell) throughout fall 2008, including during next year's DPS. It is under consideration by several other venues in the States and overseas. The exhibit will feature 40-50 images, ranging from letter size to large posters, taken by remote-sensing instruments aboard Cassini and Huygens. Photos will be organized into a half-dozen thematic clusters (e.g., organized by celestial target or by physical process); a panel will introduce each grouping with individual images identified briefly. The Saturn system is a perfect vehicle to educate citizens about planetary science and origins. The images’ beauty should capture the public's attention, allowing us to then engage their curiosity about the relevant science. Among the Saturn system's broad suite of objects are Enceladus and Titan, two satellites of astrobiological interest; moreover, the rings display many processes active in other astrophysical disks. Several auxiliary ideas will be implemented. In Ithaca, we will project images at night against the museum's sand-colored exterior walls. A 10-12 minute musical composition has been commissioned from Roberto Sierra to open the show. We will encourage school children to participate in a human orrery circling the museum and will seek volunteers to participate in several Saturnalia. At Cornell we will involve the university and local communities, by taping their reactions to the images’ exquisite beauty as well as to their scientific content. Cassini will be the E/PO focus of next year's DPS meeting; those materials will be employed throughout the fall at New York schools and be available to travel with the show. We intend to work with NYC partners to offer teacher credits for associated weekend courses. We will produce classroom materials, including a DVD, for teacher use.

  7. Extract from Ceratonia siliqua Exhibits Depigmentation Properties.

    PubMed

    Lall, Namrita; Kishore, Navneet; Momtaz, Saeideh; Hussein, Ahmed; Naidoo, Sanushka; Nqephe, Mabatho; Crampton, Bridget

    2015-11-01

    Skin hyper-pigmentation is a condition initiated by the overproduction of melanin existing in the melanocytes. Melanin pigment is responsible for the colour of skin in humans. It is formed through a series of oxidative reactions involving the amino acid tyrosine in the presence of the key enzyme tyrosinase. In continuation with our efforts to identify tyrosinase inhibitors from plants sources, the methanol extract from leaf, bark and fruit of Ceratonia siliqua were screened for tyrosinase inhibition and diphenolase activity. The bark extract exhibited significant inhibition on mushroom tyrosinase using L-tyrosine as a substrate and showed diphenolase activity. The extract further significantly lowered tyrosinase mRNA levels in B16-F10 mouse melanocytes. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of six compounds. Compounds (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose and gallocatechin-3-O-gallate showed tyrosinase inhibitions with the IC50 values of 27.52, 83.30 and 28.30 µg/mL, respectively. These compounds also exhibited L-DOPA activities with IC50 values of >200, 150 and 200 µg/mL, respectively. A clinical study was conducted using 20 volunteers in a patch testing trial for irritancy potential and skin depigmentation. The clinical results showed the sample to be non-irritant with irritancy potential of -34.21 and depigmentation trial showed an improvement in the even skin tone of UV induced pigmentation at 3% after 28 days of application. PMID:26201055

  8. Quiescent Fibroblasts Exhibit High Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lemons, Johanna M. S.; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; Bennett, Bryson D.; Legesse-Miller, Aster; Johnson, Elizabeth L.; Raitman, Irene; Pollina, Elizabeth A.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2010-01-01

    Many cells in mammals exist in the state of quiescence, which is characterized by reversible exit from the cell cycle. Quiescent cells are widely reported to exhibit reduced size, nucleotide synthesis, and metabolic activity. Much lower glycolytic rates have been reported in quiescent compared with proliferating lymphocytes. In contrast, we show here that primary human fibroblasts continue to exhibit high metabolic rates when induced into quiescence via contact inhibition. By monitoring isotope labeling through metabolic pathways and quantitatively identifying fluxes from the data, we show that contact-inhibited fibroblasts utilize glucose in all branches of central carbon metabolism at rates similar to those of proliferating cells, with greater overflow flux from the pentose phosphate pathway back to glycolysis. Inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway resulted in apoptosis preferentially in quiescent fibroblasts. By feeding the cells labeled glutamine, we also detected a “backwards” flux in the tricarboxylic acid cycle from α-ketoglutarate to citrate that was enhanced in contact-inhibited fibroblasts; this flux likely contributes to shuttling of NADPH from the mitochondrion to cytosol for redox defense or fatty acid synthesis. The high metabolic activity of the fibroblasts was directed in part toward breakdown and resynthesis of protein and lipid, and in part toward excretion of extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, reduced metabolic activity is not a hallmark of the quiescent state. Quiescent fibroblasts, relieved of the biosynthetic requirements associated with generating progeny, direct their metabolic activity to preservation of self integrity and alternative functions beneficial to the organism as a whole. PMID:21049082

  9. Ode to an Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelken, Miranda

    2008-01-01

    People know little about the non-domesticated animals that live around them. Somehow, they seem remote. In stories they hear about them, animals are often acting, speaking, and dressing like people. This article presents a lesson where students learn about the native species of their area while exploring the concept of interdependence through…

  10. Inuit-Style Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students create Inuit-style animals. Discusses the Inuit (Eskimo) artform in which the compositions utilize patterning and textures, such as small lines signifying fur. Explains that this project is well suited to a study of animals or to integrate with a social studies unit about Canada. (CMK)

  11. Dreams of the Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  12. Animating Preservice Teachers' Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Araujo, Zandra; Amador, Julie; Estapa, Anne; Weston, Tracy; Aming-Attai, Rachael; Kosko, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of animation in mathematics teacher education courses is one method for transforming practices and promoting practice-based education. Animation can be used as an approximation of practice that engages preservice teachers (PSTs) in creating classroom scenes in which they select characters, regulate movement, and construct…

  13. Exploring Animals, Glossopedia Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveen, Lois

    2007-01-01

    It's the first day of the "Animals" unit for Tami Brester's third-grade class and the first day her students are using Glossopedia, a free online multimedia science encyclopedia. But you wouldn't know that from observing the kids, who are excitedly researching animals on the internet. This is inquiry-based learning of a special kind, incorporating…

  14. Animal leptospirosis in Malaya*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. E. Gordon; Turner, L. H.; Harrison, J. L.; Broom, J. C.

    1961-01-01

    In recent years leptospirosis has been shown to be an important cause of human febrile illness in Malaya. Studies were therefore undertaken to determine its animal reservoirs and the factors influencing spread of infection from them to man and domestic animals. This paper presents the board picture obtained. A wide range of animal species were trapped in forest localities, ricefield areas, areas of scrub and cultivation and in several towns and villages. The maintenance hosts of leptospirosis in Malaya appear to be mainly or entirely rats, although evidence of infection has been found throughout the animal kingdom. Some rat species have characteristics which suggest that they are better maintenance hosts than others. Evidence was found of practically every serogroup of leptospires infecting animals in Malaya. Altogether 104 strains were isolated and identified, and 155 animals were found to have serological evidence of infection. Of 1763 rodents examined, 194 had evidence of infection, and 41 of 1083 other animals. A serum survey of domestic animals showed the highest incidence of antibodies to be in goats and the lowest in oxen. PMID:20604085

  15. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  16. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  17. Animals. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The material in this unit is designed to provide upper elementary students with information and experiences to develop a better understanding and appreciation of the variety of animals living today. Unit goals include fostering a better understanding of animals' roles in nature, developing observational skills, facilitating understanding of man's…

  18. Small Animal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Dennis W.; Fong, Stephen

    This small animal care course guide is designed for students who will be seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, grooming shops, pet shops, and small-animal laboratories. The guide begins with an introductory section that gives the educational philosophy of the course, job categories and opportunities, units of instruction required…

  19. Animals in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Use of animals in middle school science classrooms is a curriculum component worthy of consideration, providing proper investigation and planning are addressed. A responsible approach to this action, including safety, must be adopted for success. In this month's column, the author provides some suggestions on incorporating animals into the…

  20. Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, lla...

  1. Companion Animals. [Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

    This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

  2. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  3. Should we enhance animals?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Much bioethical discussion has been devoted to the subject of human enhancement through various technological means such as genetic modification. Although many of the same technologies could be, indeed in many cases already have been, applied to non-human animals, there has been very little consideration of the concept of “animal enhancement”, at least not in those specific terms. This paper addresses the notion of animal enhancement and the ethical issues surrounding it. A definition of animal enhancement is proposed that provides a framework within which to consider these issues; and it is argued that if human enhancement can be considered to be a moral obligation, so too can animal enhancement. PMID:19880704

  4. Animals in research.

    PubMed

    Smith, S J; Hendee, W R

    1988-04-01

    The authors urge American physicians and scientists to undertake a primary role in defending the use of animals in biomedical research against a strategy of progressively more restrictive legislation and regulation initiated by determined and well-financed opponents. They argue that medical progress may be impeded by the objectives of both those who seek only more humane treatment of an absolute minimum of research animals and those whose belief in animals' moral rights precludes all use of animals. Smith and Hendee maintain that the greatest danger to animal research is not the activities of its opponents but the inactivity of its defenders in presenting their arguments to legislators and the public. They appeal for an aggressive, organized campaign by the biomedical community not only at the national level but by local professional groups and individuals at the state and county level. PMID:3346982

  5. Diabetes Mellitus Induces Alzheimer’s Disease Pathology: Histopathological Evidence from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the major causative disease of dementia and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of senile plaques (SPs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Although genetic studies show that β-amyloid protein (Aβ), the major component of SPs, is the key factor underlying AD pathogenesis, it remains unclear why advanced age often leads to AD. Interestingly, several epidemiological and clinical studies show that type II diabetes mellitus (DM) patients are more likely to exhibit increased susceptibility to AD. Moreover, growing evidence suggests that there are several connections between the neuropathology that underlies AD and DM, and there is evidence that the experimental induction of DM can cause cognitive dysfunction, even in rodent animal models. This mini-review summarizes histopathological evidence that DM induces AD pathology in animal models and discusses the possibility that aberrant insulin signaling is a key factor in the induction of AD pathology. PMID:27058526

  6. Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Daniel B.; Ward, Lewis M.; Jones, CarriAyne; Sweeten, Brittany; Forth, Michael; Treusch, Alexander H.; Canfield, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    A rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the most popular explanations for the relatively late and abrupt appearance of animal life on Earth. In this scenario, Earth’s surface environment failed to meet the high oxygen requirements of animals up until the middle to late Neoproterozoic Era (850–542 million years ago), when oxygen concentrations sufficiently rose to permit the existence of animal life for the first time. Although multiple lines of geochemical evidence support an oxygenation of the Ediacaran oceans (635–542 million years ago), roughly corresponding with the first appearance of metazoans in the fossil record, the oxygen requirements of basal animals remain unclear. Here we show that modern demosponges, serving as analogs for early animals, can survive under low-oxygen conditions of 0.5–4.0% present atmospheric levels. Because the last common ancestor of metazoans likely exhibited a physiology and morphology similar to that of a modern sponge, its oxygen demands may have been met well before the enhanced oxygenation of the Ediacaran Period. Therefore, the origin of animals may not have been triggered by a contemporaneous rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans. Instead, other ecological and developmental processes are needed to adequately explain the origin and earliest evolution of animal life on Earth. PMID:24550467

  7. Early Signs of Pathological Cognitive Aging in Mice Lacking High-Affinity Nicotinic Receptors.

    PubMed

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Polissidis, Alexia V; Stamatakis, Antonios; Skaliora, Irini

    2016-01-01

    In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. A deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-), which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioral signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviors, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments in spatial learning. In addition, they document age-related deficits in other areas, such as recognition memory, burrowing and nesting building, thereby extending the validity of this animal model for the study of pathological aging. Finally, our data reveal deficits in spontaneous behavior and habituation processes that precede the onset of cognitive decline and could therefore be useful as a non-invasive behavioral screen for identifying animals at risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioral assessment of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioral changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging. PMID:27199738

  8. Early Signs of Pathological Cognitive Aging in Mice Lacking High-Affinity Nicotinic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Polissidis, Alexia V.; Stamatakis, Antonios; Skaliora, Irini

    2016-01-01

    In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. A deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-), which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioral signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviors, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments in spatial learning. In addition, they document age-related deficits in other areas, such as recognition memory, burrowing and nesting building, thereby extending the validity of this animal model for the study of pathological aging. Finally, our data reveal deficits in spontaneous behavior and habituation processes that precede the onset of cognitive decline and could therefore be useful as a non-invasive behavioral screen for identifying animals at risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioral assessment of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioral changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging. PMID:27199738

  9. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  10. Inefficient DNA Repair Is an Aging-Related Modifier of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sepe, Sara; Milanese, Chiara; Gabriels, Sylvia; Derks, Kasper W J; Payan-Gomez, Cesar; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Rijksen, Yvonne M A; Nigg, Alex L; Moreno, Sandra; Cerri, Silvia; Blandini, Fabio; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Mastroberardino, Pier G

    2016-05-31

    The underlying relation between Parkinson's disease (PD) etiopathology and its major risk factor, aging, is largely unknown. In light of the causative link between genome stability and aging, we investigate a possible nexus between DNA damage accumulation, aging, and PD by assessing aging-related DNA repair pathways in laboratory animal models and humans. We demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts from PD patients display flawed nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity and that Ercc1 mutant mice with mildly compromised NER exhibit typical PD-like pathological alterations, including decreased striatal dopaminergic innervation, increased phospho-synuclein levels, and defects in mitochondrial respiration. Ercc1 mouse mutants are also more sensitive to the prototypical PD toxin MPTP, and their transcriptomic landscape shares important similarities with that of PD patients. Our results demonstrate that specific defects in DNA repair impact the dopaminergic system and are associated with human PD pathology and might therefore constitute an age-related risk factor for PD. PMID:27210754

  11. Age-related impairment of humoral response to influenza is associated with changes in antigen specific T follicular helper cell responses.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Julie S; Masters, April R; Hopkins, Jacob W; Haynes, Laura

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper (TFH) cell responses are essential for generation of protective humoral immunity during influenza infection. Aging has a profound impact on CD4(+) T cell function and humoral immunity, yet the impact of aging on antigen specific TFH responses remains unclear. Influenza specific TFH cells are generated in similar numbers in young and aged animals during infection, but TFH cells from aged mice exhibit significant differences, including reduced expression of ICOS and elevated production of IL-10 and IFNγ, which potentially impairs interaction with cognate B cells. Also, more influenza specific T cells in aged mice have a regulatory phenotype, which could contribute to the impaired TFH function. Adoptive transfer studies with young T cells demonstrated that TGF-β1 in the aged environment can drive increased regulatory T cell accumulation. Aging and the aged environment thus impact antigen specific TFH cell function and formation, which contribute to reduced protective humoral responses. PMID:27109638

  12. Age-related impairment of humoral response to influenza is associated with changes in antigen specific T follicular helper cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Julie S; Masters, April R; Hopkins, Jacob W; Haynes, Laura

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper (TFH) cell responses are essential for generation of protective humoral immunity during influenza infection. Aging has a profound impact on CD4+ T cell function and humoral immunity, yet the impact of aging on antigen specific TFH responses remains unclear. Influenza specific TFH cells are generated in similar numbers in young and aged animals during infection, but TFH cells from aged mice exhibit significant differences, including reduced expression of ICOS and elevated production of IL-10 and IFNγ, which potentially impairs interaction with cognate B cells. Also, more influenza specific T cells in aged mice have a regulatory phenotype, which could contribute to the impaired TFH function. Adoptive transfer studies with young T cells demonstrated that TGF-β1 in the aged environment can drive increased regulatory T cell accumulation. Aging and the aged environment thus impact antigen specific TFH cell function and formation, which contribute to reduced protective humoral responses. PMID:27109638

  13. [A case of Williams syndrome who exhibited fetishism].

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Masayuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a rare congenital disease in which the etiological locus is a micro-deletion in chromosome 7. Here, we describe the case of a 22-year-old male who was diagnosed with Williams syndrome at the age of 3 years. As a child, the patient exhibited patterns of behavior characteristic of this syndrome including hyperactivity, attention deficit, and over-friendliness. He also showed persistent interest in construction vehicles, playgrounds, and gloves. He became interested in gloves after watching a television program in which the heroine fought her enemies while wearing gloves. Watching pornographic movies allowed him to attach strong sexual significance to gloves when he was 19 years old. Since that time, he has assaulted women wearing gloves four times to rob them of the gloves. The current paper discusses both the role of the cognitive profile unique to Williams syndrome and that of environmental factors in the development of fetishism in this case. PMID:15669216

  14. Survival analyses of radiated animals incorporating competing risks and covariates

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Albanese, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The United States Air Force has been interested in studying the effect of different types of radiation encountered by its personnel in space. A study was, therefore, conducted at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force, Texas with rhesus monkeys as experimental subjects. These subjects were exposed to different types of radiation such as: (1) electromagnetic radiation; (2) electrons; (3) protons; and (4) nuclei of elements of higher numbers with different amount of radiation. These subjects were followed over a period of 338 months. In this paper an interesting problem related to health and radiation has been addressed. The effects of radiation, taking into account the cause of death (cancer or heart disease) along with the covariates such as sex, age, type of exposure, dose, are examined. A general log-linear hazard model approach is studied. The model estimates the cause specific hazard rates, assuming piecewise exponential distribution, and exhibits the survival function for each of the covariate groups and the probability of death due to each cause. A data set called `Delayed Bio-Effects Colony,` of radiated animals, is analysed and some conclusions are drawn. Overall the study has brought out the effect of high and low dose of radiation on both the male and female groups. The procedure presented in the paper distinguishes between time varying hazards. Thus the methodology may be useful for other survival related environmental problems, be this with regard to animal or human survival. Thus, the paper could contribute to its more widespread use.

  15. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  16. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  17. Virtual Exhibition and Fruition of Archaeological Finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Garagnani, S.

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project's aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  18. Animal models of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Surendiran, Gangadaran; Chen, Li; Uitz, Elisabeth; Bahadori, Babak; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review several commonly used animal models of atherosclerosis have been discussed. Among them, emphasis has been made on mice, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates. Although these animal models have played a significant role in our understanding of induction of atherosclerotic lesions, we still lack a reliable animal model for regression of the disease. Researchers have reported several genetically modified and transgenic animal models that replicate human atherosclerosis, however each of current animal models have some limitations. Among these animal models, the apolipoprotein (apo) E-knockout (KO) mice have been used extensively because they develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Furthermore, atherosclerotic lesions developed in this model depending on experimental design may resemble humans’ stable and unstable atherosclerotic lesions. This mouse model of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis has been also used to investigate the impact of oxidative stress and inflammation on atherogenesis. Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-r-KO mice are a model of human familial hypercholesterolemia. However, unlike apo E-KO mice, the LDL-r-KO mice do not develop spontaneous atherosclerosis. Both apo E-KO and LDL-r-KO mice have been employed to generate other relevant mouse models of cardiovascular disease through breeding strategies. In addition to mice, rabbits have been used extensively particularly to understand the mechanisms of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. The present review paper details the characteristics of animal models that are used in atherosclerosis research. PMID:24868511

  19. Unraveling the fluctuations of animal motor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anteneodo, C.; Chialvo, D. R.

    2009-09-01

    Human and animal behavior exhibits power law correlations whose origin is controversial. In this work, the spontaneous motion of laboratory rodents was recorded during several days. It is found that animal motion is scale-free and that the scaling is introduced by the inactivity pauses both by its length as well as by its specific ordering. Furthermore, the scaling is also demonstrable in the rates of event's occurrence. A comparison with related results in humans is made and candidate models are discussed to provide clues for the origin of such dynamics.

  20. Science Experience Unit: Plant and Animal Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: No mention. Appears to be upper elementary. SUBJECT MATTER: Science units--plants and animals. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 35 activities. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The activities suggested aim to recreate common…

  1. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Exhibit A—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  2. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C—Provisions Exhibit... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  3. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Exhibit A—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  4. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Exhibit A—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  5. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Exhibit A—Budget Summary Exhibit B—Standard Grant and Cooperative Agreement Cover Page Exhibit C... Cooperative Agreements between NASA and the Commercial Space Centers Exhibit F—NASA 1674 Letter of Delegation... Reports Note: Exhibits are available at NASA Headquarters, Code HC, Washington, D.C. 20546....

  6. Estrogen effects on cognition and hippocampal transcription in middle-aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Aenlle, Kristina K.; Kumar, Ashok; Cui, Li; Jackson, Travis C.; Foster, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Young and middle-aged female mice were ovariectomized and given cyclic injections of either estradiol or vehicle treatments. During the fifth week after surgery the Morris water maze was used to assess cognitive function. Age and treatment effects emerged over the course of spatial training such that middle-aged vehicle treated mice exhibited deficits in acquiring a spatial search strategy compared to younger vehicle treated mice and middle-age estradiol treated mice. Following behavioral characterization, mice were maintained on their injection schedule until week seven and hippocampi were collected 24 hr after the last injection. Hippocampal RNA was extracted and genes responsive to age and estrogen were identified using cDNA microarrays. Estradiol treatment in middle-aged mice altered the expression of genes related to transcriptional regulation, biosynthesis, growth, neuroprotection, and elements of cell signaling pathways. Expression profiles for representative genes were confirmed in a separate set of animals using oligonucleotide arrays and RT-PCR. Our results indicate that estrogen treatment in middle-aged animals may promote hippocampal health during the aging process. PMID:17950954

  7. Fetal ACL Fibroblasts Exhibit Enhanced Cellular Properties Compared with Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stalling, Simone S.

    2008-01-01

    Fetal tendons and skin heal regeneratively without scar formation. Cells isolated from these fetal tissues exhibit enhanced cellular migration and collagen production in comparison to cells from adult tissue. We determined whether fetal and adult fibroblasts isolated from the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), a tissue that does not heal regeneratively, exhibit differences in cell migration rates and collagen elaboration. An in vitro migration assay showed fetal ACL fibroblasts migrated twice as fast as adult ACL fibroblasts at a rate of 38.90 ± 7.69 μm per hour compared with 18.88 ± 4.18 μm per hour, respectively. Quantification of Type I collagen elaboration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed fetal ACL fibroblasts produced four times the amount of Type I collagen compared with adult ACL fibroblasts after 7 days in culture. We observed no differences in Type III collagen with time for adult or fetal ACL fibroblasts. Our findings indicate fetal ACL fibroblasts are intrinsically different from adult ACL fibroblasts, suggesting the healing potential of the ACL may be age-dependent. PMID:18648900

  8. Animals Eponyms in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Nidhi; Jindal, Pooja; Kumar, Jeevan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jain, VK

    2014-01-01

    The world of Dermatology is flooded with inflexions among clinical conditions and signs and syndromes; making it interesting, but a tougher subject to remember. Signs and syndromes have always fascinated residents, but simultaneously burdened their minds, as these attractive names are difficult to remember. This work was undertaken to review dermatological conditions and signs based on commonly encountered daily words and objects like animals, etc. Fifty dermatological conditions were found to be based on animal eponyms. For example, the usage of animal terminology in dermatology like leonine facies is present in leprosy, sarcoidosis, mycosis fungoides (MF), and airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD). PMID:25484417

  9. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed. PMID:22215021

  10. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  11. Animal, but not human, faces engage the distributed face network in adolescents with autism.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Elisabeth M; Behrmann, Marlene; Minshew, Nancy J; Garcia, Natalie V; Scherf, K Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Multiple hypotheses have been offered to explain the impaired face-processing behavior and the accompanying underlying disruptions in neural circuitry among individuals with autism. We explored the specificity of atypical face-processing activation and potential alterations to fusiform gyrus (FG) morphology as potential underlying mechanisms. Adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) and age-matched typically developing (TD) adolescents were scanned with sMRI and fMRI as they observed human and animal faces. In spite of exhibiting comparable face recognition behavior, the HFA adolescents evinced hypo-activation throughout the face-processing system in response to unfamiliar human, but not animal, faces. They also exhibited greater activation in affective regions of the face-processing network in response to animal, but not human, faces. Importantly, this atypical pattern of activation in response to human faces was not related to atypical structural properties of the FG. This atypical neural response to human faces in autism may stem from abnormalities in the ability to represent the reward value of social (i.e. conspecific) stimuli. PMID:25873084

  12. [The significance of animals in biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Pawlik, W W

    1998-01-01

    The mission of medicine is maintenance of health, elimination of suffering and prolongation of life. These aims can be achieved by medicine based on experimental determination, because only then it becomes a real science. The nature of human mind has led the man since the beginning of humanity on the earth to the cognition of his environment and himself. Being intellectually superior than other living creatures, the man got power over them. In his endless efforts to expand knowledge about living organisms, including his own, he started to use animals. The man has used animals for cognitive purposes for ages and is still doing it, however his motivation has changed and is still changing. Cognition of functions of living organisms on the basis of observation solely, without any interference into the living body gave a lot of important information, yet, generally, this method was of little use for the development of science. Only the use of animals could give information about this what was earlier unknown and impossible. The long-lasting evolution of experimental studies of living functions of higher organisms resulted in achieving a perfect level in biomedical studies. Vivisection, as it was understood years ago, has become history. For a chronic experiment, an animal is surgically prepared according to the researcher's intention. The surgery and the postoperative period follow the principles used in human surgery. After the convalesce period, the animal is used for further experiments. On such prepared animals, the investigations in experimental cardiology, neurophysiology, gastroenterology and other medical disciplines are performed. The animal prepared for longlasting experiments do not suffer from pain during both the experiments and intervals between them. Another important achievement in chronic experiments is considerable reduction of the number of animals used in experimental medicine. Undoubtedly, the greatest achievements in medicine in the 19th and 20th

  13. Sensor-based animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Andrew

    The advent of Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies has provided wildlife researchers with new insights into the movement and habitat utilization patterns of wildlife species by being able to provide vast quantities of detailed location data. However, current wildlife tracking techniques have numerous limitations, as GPS locations can be biased to an unknown extent because animals move through habitats that are often denied GPS signals. This can result in some habitat types being under sampled or not sampled at all. Additionally, researchers using GPS tracking systems cannot understand what behaviour an animal is exhibiting at each GPS position without either relying on extensive field data or statistical techniques that may infer behaviour. Overall these issues, and others, limit the knowledge that can be derived from the data currently being collected by GPS collars alone. To address these limitations, a dead reckoning solution (called the NavAid) has been developed to augment GPS tracking collars, which enables both the acquisition of continuous movement trajectories for animals under study, and the collection of digital images on a user-defined schedule along travel routes. Analysis of an animal's velocity allows one to identify different types of movement behaviours that can be associated with foraging, searching for food, and locomotion between patches. In addition, the ability to capture continuous paths allows researchers to identify habitat that is important to a species, and habitat that is not---something that is not possible when relying solely on GPS. This new system weighs approximately 220 g and can be deployed on most conventional collar systems for a wide range of species. This thesis presents the research and development of this new system over the past four years, along with preliminary findings from field work carried out on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Analysis of tracking data suggests

  14. Waves in geomaterials exhibiting negative stiffness behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esin, Maxim; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Negative stiffness denotes the type of material behaviour when the force applied to the body decreases the body's deformation increases. Some geomaterials, for instance, rocks, demonstrate behaviour of this type at certain loads: during the compression tests the loading curves exhibit descending branch (post-peak softening). One of the possible mechanisms of the negative stiffness appearance in geomaterials is rotation of non-spherical grains. It is important to emphasize that in this case the descending branch may be reversible given that the testing machine is stiff enough (in general case it means an importance of boundary conditions). Existence of geomaterials with a negative modulus associated with rotations may have significant importance. In particular, important is understanding of the wave propagation in such materials. We study the stability of geomaterials with negative stiffness inclusions and wave propagation in it using two approaches: Cosserat continuum and discrete mass-spring models. In both cases we consider the rotational degrees of freedom in addition to the conventional translational ones. We show that despite non positiveness of the energy the materials with negative stiffness elements can be stable if certain conditions are met. In the case of Cosserat continuum the Cosserat shear modulus (the modulus relating the non-symmetrical part of shear stress and internal rotations) is allowed to assume negative values as long as its value does not exceed the value of the standard (positive) shear modulus. In the case of discrete mass-spring systems (with translational and rotational springs) the concentration of negative stiffness springs and the absolute values of negative spring stiffness are limited. The critical concentration when the system loses stability and the amplitude of the oscillations tends to infinity is equal to 1/2 and 3/5 for two- and three-dimensional cases respectively.

  15. Investigation of captive red wolf ejaculate characteristics in relation to age and inbreeding.

    PubMed

    Lockyear, K M; MacDonald, S E; Waddell, W T; Goodrowe, K L

    2016-09-15

    An evaluation of a large database of red wolf fresh ejaculate characteristics (n = 427 ejaculates from 64 wolves) was undertaken to increase knowledge of seminal characteristics in the red wolf and evaluate possible relationships between inbreeding, age, and seminal quality. Phase microscopy analysis of electroejaculates collected over 14 natural breeding seasons was compared with animal ages and inbreeding coefficients. Ejaculate volume increased and sperm concentration and total count decreased as wolves aged (P < 0.01, 0.001, and 0.05, respectively), and the proportion of sperm cell morphological abnormalities was greater in animals with higher coefficients of inbreeding (P < 0.001), particularly for older animals (P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean coefficient of inbreeding of animals that had failed to reproduce given at least one opportunity during their lifetimes was significantly greater than that of wolves with proven fertility, and wolves of proven fertility exhibited higher sperm concentrations and total counts than nonproven wolves. Thus, as the captive red wolf population becomes more inbred, the maximum age of reproduction is likely to decrease; an important finding to consider when projecting population dynamics and determining pairing recommendations. PMID:27283782

  16. Physics for Animation Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-11-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing (and now indispensable) component of their industry. Art students are keenly aware of these trends and understand that their future careers require them to have a broader exposure to science than in the past. Unfortunately, at present there is little overlap between art and science in the typical high school or college curriculum. This article describes our experience in bridging this gap at San Jose State University, with the hope that readers will find ideas that can be used in their own schools.

  17. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  18. The Classroom Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the physical and physiological characteristics of fruit flies. Explains their role and function in the study of heredity. Upholds their value as a manageable and safe laboratory animal. (ML)

  19. IRIS Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation demonstrates the launch and deployment of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission satellite via a Pegasus rocket. The launch is scheduled for June 26, 2013 from V...

  20. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the top How do you determine if a veterinary drug is safe to market? As mandated by the ... to the top How does CVM remove unsafe veterinary drugs from the market? See Withdrawal of New Animal ...

  1. The Classroom Animal: Cryptozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Explains how to establish and maintain a woodland terrarium. Points out how this environment can be used to study animal interaction and can serve as a focal point for learning about a variety of elementary science concepts. (ML)

  2. Morris Animal Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientific studies that advance the health of cats, dogs, horses and wildlife. Morris Animal Foundation News Remembering ... The top 5 causes of itchy skin in dogs and cats If you’ve ever lived with ...

  3. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  4. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  5. NPP Beauty Pass Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animator's conception shows the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite orbiting the earth and interpreting weather data through it's myriad sensors. The Satellite is part of a bridge mission...

  6. MMS Orbit Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the orbits of Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)mission, a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising of fouridentically instrumented spacecraft that will study the Earth’sm...

  7. Animal transportation networks

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  8. Animal transportation networks.

    PubMed

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  9. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Africa.

    PubMed

    Masiga, W N; Munyua, S J M

    2005-08-01

    Livestock production systems, production objectives, the cultural values of livestock keepers, and the close relationship between keepers and their livestock have evolved over the years and have influenced the quality of animal welfare in Africa. An equivalent level and quality of care is not evident for companion animals, especially dogs and donkeys, who are often mistreated and physically abused. In the densely populated highland and humid coastal belts of Africa, profit-driven commercial large-scale intensive livestock production systems predominate. As the main production objective of these operations is to maximise profit, the operators of these production systems do not exhibit the same kind of attachment to their livestock as traditional farmers. In some large-scale commercial systems animals and birds are kept in sub-standard poorly constructed structures that greatly restrict the animals' movements. In Africa, conservation of wildlife habitats is part of animal welfare, but due to an increasing human population and a greater demand for land for grazing, cultivation, and housing, wildlife reserves are quickly diminishing. This essentially means that the land that was previously set aside for wildlife and forests is being encroached upon and previously unsettled plains and marginal lands are being used for agriculture and mining. In most places there is significant conflict between humans and wildlife, such that wildlife are considered to be pests that need to be destroyed. This is a particular problem in areas where wildlife have destroyed crops, attacked man and/or livestock, or there has been disease transmission between animals and humans. In situations and/or areas that do not have official animal control services, crude weapons, poisons, and traps are used to kill the wildlife. Animal welfare issues, domestic and wildlife related, need to be urgently addressed through policy and legal frameworks and supported by community awareness of, education about

  10. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 4

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  11. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  12. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  13. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  14. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  15. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  16. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  17. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  18. Computer animation of clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  19. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  20. Draught animals and welfare.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, N S

    1994-03-01

    In fifty developing countries, which contain half of the total human population of the world, there is a heavy dependence on draught animals as an energy source. These animals are used for agriculture operations in 52% of cultivated areas of the world, as well as for hauling 25 million carts. This situation is likely to continue for at least another fifty years. The work performed annually by these draught animals would require 20 million tons of petroleum, valued at US$6 billion, if it were performed by motorized vehicles. The poor working conditions of these animals often adversely affect their productivity. The application of improved technology and better management (i.e. through better feed and health services, and improved design of agricultural implements and carts) could considerably improve the welfare of these animals. Improved systems would generate sufficient benefits for the economy to justify the required investment. High priority should therefore be given to draught animal power in the economic development agenda. PMID:8173096

  1. Methionine restriction improves renal insulin signalling in aged kidneys.

    PubMed

    Grant, Louise; Lees, Emma K; Forney, Laura A; Mody, Nimesh; Gettys, Thomas; Brown, Paul A J; Wilson, Heather M; Delibegovic, Mirela

    2016-07-01

    Dietary methionine restriction (MR) leads to loss of adiposity, improved insulin sensitivity and lifespan extension. The possibility that dietary MR can protect the kidney from age-associated deterioration has not been addressed. Aged (10-month old) male and female mice were placed on a MR (0.172% methionine) or control diet (0.86% methionine) for 8-weeks and blood glucose, renal insulin signalling, and gene expression were assessed. Methionine restriction lead to decreased blood glucose levels compared to control-fed mice, and enhanced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and S6 in kidneys, indicative of improved glucose homeostasis. Increased expression of lipogenic genes and downregulation of PEPCK were observed, suggesting that kidneys from MR-fed animals are more insulin sensitive. Interestingly, renal gene expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1 was upregulated in MR-fed animals, as were the anti-ageing and renoprotective genes Sirt1, FGF21, klotho, and β-klotho. This was associated with alterations in renal histology trending towards reduced frequency of proximal tubule intersections containing vacuoles in mice that had been on dietary MR for 190days compared to control-fed mice, which exhibited a pre-diabetic status. Our results indicate that dietary MR may offer therapeutic potential in ameliorating the renal functional decline related to ageing and other disorders associated with metabolic dysfunction by enhancing renal insulin sensitivity and renoprotective gene expression. PMID:27453066

  2. Age composition and antioxidant enzyme activities in blood of Black Sea teleosts.

    PubMed

    Rudneva, Irina I; Skuratovskaya, Ekaterina N; Kuzminova, Natalya S; Kovyrshina, Tatyana B

    2010-03-01

    Age composition and age-related trends of antioxidant enzyme activities superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (PER), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the blood of seven Black Sea teleosts (Carangidae, Centracanthidae, Gadidae, Mullidae, Gobiidae and Scorpaenidae) collected in marine coastal area of Sevastopol (Ukraine) were studied. In the catches the animals of 1-2 years of age dominated while in the Scorpaena porcus population the number of relatively elder individuals belonging to classes of 3-4 years was the highest. The trends of antioxidant enzyme activities in blood were not uniform. Three types of age-dependent responses were indicated in fish blood: 1. enzymatic activity did not change with age; 2. enzymatic activity decreased with age and 3. enzyme activity increased with age or varied unclearly. The interspecies differences of age-related enzymatic activities associated with the specificity of fish biology and ecology were indicated. Despite no clear evidence of age-related differences between fish species belonging to different ecological groups both benthic forms exhibited similar age-dependent trends of SOD and PER. The correlations between blood antioxidant enzyme activities in fish belonging to suprabenthic and benthic/pelagic groups demonstrated the intermediate values as compared to the benthic and pelagic forms. The results suggest the importance of age trends for biomarkers in fish monitoring studies. PMID:19897051

  3. The Epidemiology of Cancer in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, C. Richard

    1967-01-01

    The principles of epidemiology are applicable to the study of the distribution and determinants of cancer in both human and animal populations. There are many examples of epidemiologic factors (host, environment, agent and time) related to cancer in animals. Certain host characteristics such as age, sex and breed are related to risk of developing cancer. Some environmental influences are illustrated by differences in the geographical distribution of certain types of animal cancer. Aggregations of cancer cases have been reported in herds, families and households. However, the usual distribution of cases in a population does not resemble epidemics typical of infectious diseases. Several factors (radiological, chemical, dietary, parasitic, mechanical, genetic and viral) have been identified as influences that affect the development of animal tumors. Animal species that have been domesticated live longer and consequently malignant disease develops in more of them. Cancer incidence rates now available from data compiled by an animal neoplasm registry in Alameda and Contra Costa counties, California, indicate that some of the frequent sites of cancer in man (skin, breast and the hemic and lymphatic systems) are among the most frequent sites in dogs and cats, man's closest animal associates. PMID:4865378

  4. Animal, Plant, Living: Notes for Teachers. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Beverley

    The Learning in Science Project investigated the proportion of students at different ages who considered a horse, person, dolphin, worm, and spider to be animals. Although scientists would agree that they are indeed animals, findings indicate that many students of varying ages did not consider them to be animals; similar findings were reported for…

  5. Technology: Student Animation Projects: An Avenue to Promote Creativity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del

    2014-01-01

    Using readily available technology, students of all ages can easily create impressive animated products. Animation allows educators to capitalize on the natural desire that students of all ages hold to tell stories and share their understanding of the world. In the course of planning their animations, students conduct research on topics, organize…

  6. Ineffective oesophageal motility: Manometric subsets exhibit different symptom profiles

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Horst Gunter; Hansen, Ross David; Malcolm, Allison; Kellow, John Edward

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the demographic and clinical features of different manometric subsets of ineffective oesophageal motility (IOM; defined as ≥ 30% wet swallows with distal contractile amplitude < 30 mmHg), and to determine whether the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux differs between IOM subsets. METHODS: Clinical characteristics of manometric subsets were determined in 100 IOM patients (73 female, median age 58 years) and compared to those of 100 age-and gender-matched patient controls with oesophageal symptoms, but normal manometry. Supine oesophageal manometry was performed with an eight-channel DentSleeve water-perfused catheter, and an ambulatory pH study assessed gastro-oesophageal reflux. RESULTS: Patients in the IOM subset featuring a majority of low-amplitude simultaneous contractions (LASC) experienced less heartburn (prevalence 26%), but more dysphagia (57%) than those in the IOM subset featuring low-amplitude propagated contractions (LAP; heartburn 70%, dysphagia 24%; both P ≤ 0.01). LASC patients also experienced less heartburn and more dysphagia than patient controls (heartburn 68%, dysphagia 11%; both P < 0.001). The prevalence of heartburn and dysphagia in IOM patients featuring a majority of non-transmitted sequences (NT) was 54% (P = 0.04 vs LASC) and 36% (P < 0.01 vs controls), respectively. No differences in age and gender distribution, chest pain prevalence, acid exposure time (AET) and symptom/reflux association existed between IOM subsets, or between subsets and controls. CONCLUSION: IOM patients with LASC exhibit a different symptom profile to those with LAP, but do not differ in gastro-oesophageal reflux prevalence. These findings raise the possibility of different pathophysiological mechanisms in IOM subsets, which warrants further investigation. PMID:18595138

  7. Chronic food administration of Salvia sclarea oil reduces animals' anxious and dominant behavior.

    PubMed

    Gross, Moshe; Nesher, Elimelech; Tikhonov, Tatiana; Raz, Olga; Pinhasov, Albert

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that an oil extract from Salvia sclarea may provide clinical benefits in various pathological conditions. In comparison to extracts from other Salvia species, S. sclarea oil contains twice as much omega-3 fatty acids, which are involved in eicosanoid synthesis pathways, and has been found to contain significant levels of the psychoactive monoterpane linalool. In the present study, we examined the mood stabilizing and anxiolytic-like effects of chronic food administration of S. sclarea oil extract on behavioral and physiological parameters of mice with prominent dominant and submissive features in behavioral assays used to test mood stabilizing and antidepressant drugs. Experimental animals received oil supplemented food from the age of 4 weeks or from conception via their pregnant dams. Each age group received either S. sclarea oil- or sunflower oil-enriched feed. Dominant animals, whose pregnant mothers received S. sclarea oil-enriched feed from the date of conception, showed a significant reduction of dominant and anxiety-like behavior, in comparison to their sunflower oil-treated counterparts. S. sclarea oil-treated submissive animals exhibited a similar tendency, and showed a significant reduction in blood corticosterone levels. These findings enforce the hypothesis that S. sclarea oil possesses anxiolytic properties. PMID:23444964

  8. Influences on visitor behavior at a modern immersive zoo exhibit.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephen R; Gillespie, Katie L

    2009-09-01

    Zoos serve as centers for both research and education. The challenge is to convey messages about their conservation projects while meeting visitor expectations, which often include recreation and entertainment. One way this can be achieved is through the design of immersive exhibits that draw visitors in and engage them with interactive educational elements. Regenstein African Journey (RAJ) opened at Lincoln Park Zoo in 2003 and was designed to take visitors on a simulated safari through Africa. Because visitor experience was a major design goal, we conducted a timing and tracking study to evaluate use of the building and educational components. For a 9-week period in 2003, we tracked 338 visitors to RAJ and recorded continuous data as they moved through the building. Data were collected on handheld computers that provided precise timing data. The median visit was 11.08 min, 41% of which was spent looking at animals and 9% of which was spent engaged with interpretive elements. We found significant differences in the way visitors used signage: those in groups without children spent more of their visit engaged with signage than those with children and visitors who spent more of their visit interacting socially spent less time engaged with signage. By understanding how visitors use the educational opportunities presented to them, we can better meet their expectations and more effectively achieve the goal of conservation education. PMID:19821504

  9. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animal that has tested positive for scrapie or for the proteinase resistant protein associated with... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. 79.4 Section 79.4 Animals and Animal Products...

  10. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... animal that has tested positive for scrapie or for the proteinase resistant protein associated with... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. 79.4 Section 79.4 Animals and Animal Products...

  11. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... animal that has tested positive for scrapie or for the proteinase resistant protein associated with... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. 79.4 Section 79.4 Animals and Animal Products...

  12. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animal that has tested positive for scrapie or for the proteinase resistant protein associated with... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. 79.4 Section 79.4 Animals and Animal Products...

  13. 9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... animal that has tested positive for scrapie or for the proteinase resistant protein associated with... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Designation of scrapie-positive..., noncompliant flocks, and source flocks; notice to owners. 79.4 Section 79.4 Animals and Animal Products...

  14. Animal models of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  15. Animal learning and training: implications for animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Brando, Sabrina I C A

    2012-09-01

    Exotic animals are housed in a variety of settings, from pets at home, as display animals housed in wildlife centers and zoos, to those kept for interactive and outreach programs. The behavioral management program and medical care are major parts of an excellent animal care program. Because animals learn all the time, albeit through different mechanisms, animals are almost always "in training." Understanding animal learning when caring for and treating animals can greatly improve their welfare during experiences that are often related to involuntary procedures and where animals have little control over living conditions or procedures. PMID:22998957

  16. Venomous marine animals of Florida: morphology, behavior, health hazards.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S; Meinking, T

    1997-10-01

    This article reviews the dangers related to marine animal envenomations in Florida. Venomous marine animals exhibit diverse mechanisms of injury and toxicity. Information regarding the morphology, behavior, and health hazards of these dangerous organisms is presented to help medical personnel recognize, diagnose and treat marine envenomations. Hazardous marine animals discussed in this review include both invertebrates and vertebrates. Stinging invertebrate animals include sponges, coelenterates (jellyfish, hydroids, corals, and sea anemones), echinoderms (sea urchins, starfish and sea cucumbers), annelid worms (bristleworm), and mollusks (cone shells, octopi and nudibranches). Stinging vertebrates discussed include stingrays, catfish, scorpionfish, and leatherjacks. PMID:9360353

  17. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: ‘sugar’, ‘essential’, or ‘yeast-sugar’. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging. PMID:26147734

  18. Antibiotics Cure Anthrax in Animal Models▿

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Shay; Kobiler, David; Levy, Haim; Pass, Avi; Ophir, Yakir; Rothschild, Nili; Tal, Arnon; Schlomovitz, Josef; Altboum, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory anthrax, in the absence of early antibiotic treatment, is a fatal disease. This study aimed to test the efficiency of antibiotic therapy in curing infected animals and those sick with anthrax. Postexposure prophylaxis (24 h postinfection [p.i.]) of guinea pigs infected intranasally with Bacillus anthracis Vollum spores with doxycycline, ofloxacin, imipenem, and gentamicin conferred protection. However, upon termination of treatment, the animals died from respiratory anthrax. Combined treatment with antibiotics and active vaccination with a protective antigen-based vaccine leads to full protection even after cessation of treatment. Delaying the initiation of antibiotic administration to over 24 h p.i. resulted in treatment of animals with anthrax exhibiting various degrees of bacteremia and toxemia. Treatment with doxycycline or ciprofloxacin cured sick guinea pigs and rabbits exhibiting bacteremia levels up to 105 CFU/ml. Addition of anti-protective antigen (PA) antibodies augmented the efficiency of protection, allowing the cure of guinea pigs and rabbits with 10- to 20-fold-higher bacteremia levels, up to 7 × 105 CFU/ml and 2 × 106 CFU/ml, respectively. Treatment with ciprofloxacin and a monoclonal anti-PA antibody rescued rabbits with bacteremia levels up to 4 × 106 CFU/ml. During antibiotic administration, all surviving animals developed a protective immune response against development of a fatal disease and subcutaneous challenge with Vollum spores. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that antibiotic treatment can prevent the development of fatal disease in respiratory-anthrax-infected animals and can cure animals after disease establishment. A therapeutic time window of 40 h to 48 h from infection to initiation of efficient antibiotic-mediated cure was observed. PMID:21263056

  19. Chemiluminescent responses of alveolar macrophages from normal and Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated rabbits as a function of age.

    PubMed Central

    Chida, K; Myrvik, Q N; Leake, E S; Gordon, M R; Wood, P H; Ricardo, M J

    1987-01-01

    Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) responses of alveolar macrophages (AM) from normal and Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated infant and adult rabbits were compared. AM from 1-, 7-, and 14-day-old normal rabbits exhibited much lower peak CL responses than did AM from 28- and 42-day-old normal animals as well as rabbits 2 to 3 or 5 to 6 months and 1 to 2 years of age. The most striking differences among AM from infant and adult rabbits were noted when AM were obtained from 28-day-old and 5- to 6-month old rabbits 21 days after the rabbits were immunized with 200 micrograms of BCG intravenously. In this case, AM from 5- to 6-month-old animals gave peak counts per minute of 400,000 to 500,000 whereas AM from 28-day-old rabbits vaccinated with BCG (harvested at 49 days of age) gave peak counts per minute of only 40,715 +/- 2,688. These data reveal that AM from neonatal animals are grossly deficient as responders to phorbol myristate acetate-induced CL. This deficiency, which improved with age, is still apparent in AM from 28-day-old animals. The data also reveal that BCG vaccination of 28-day-old animals yields AM that are poor responders to phorbol myristate acetate compared with AM from BCG-vaccinated animals 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 months of age. AM from animals vaccinated with BCG at 28 days of age contained fewer and smaller electron-dense lysosomelike structures than did AM from adult rabbits similarly vaccinated. These findings provide an explanation for the difficulties infants have in developing effective cell-mediated immune responses against intracellular parasites. Images PMID:3553004

  20. 29 CFR 2204.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 2204.202 Section 2204.202 Labor... COMMISSION Information Required From Applicants § 2204.202 Net worth exhibit. (a) Each applicant except a... exhibit showing the net worth of the applicant as of the date specified by § 2204.105(c). The exhibit...