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Sample records for aged black garlic

  1. Effects of temperature on the quality of black garlic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyan; Li, Ningyang; Lu, Xiaoming; Liu, Pengli; Qiao, Xuguang

    2016-05-01

    Black garlic is a type of garlic product that is generally produced by heating raw garlic at high temperature with controlled humidity for more than 30 days. Black garlic has appeared on the market for many years. It is crucial to investigate the characteristics of quality formation of black garlic during processing at various temperatures. In this study, fresh garlic was processed to black garlic at temperatures of 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C. Moisture, amino acid nitrogen and allicin contents decreased gradually during thermal processing of various temperatures. Reducing sugar, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, total phenols, total acids contents and browning increased. The changing rate of quality indicators and flavour of black garlic varied at different temperatures. Browning intensity reached about 74 when black garlic aged. The sensory score was significantly higher in black garlic aged at 70 °C (39.95 ± 0.31) compared with that at other temperatures, suggesting that 70 °C might facilitate formation of good quality and flavour of black garlic during processing. Temperature had a remarkable impact on the quality and flavour of black garlic. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Dawon

    2017-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG) is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  3. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic.

    PubMed

    Choi, Il Sook; Cha, Han Sam; Lee, Young Soon

    2014-10-20

    Black garlic (BG) is a processed garlic product prepared by heat treatment of whole garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) at high temperature under high humidity for several days, resulting in black cloves with a sweet taste. BG has recently been introduced to the Korean market as a product beneficial to health. To clarify how BG changes during the 35 day aging period, the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activities were evaluated under controlled conditions of 70 °C and 90% relative humidity. Reducing sugar and total acidity of BG increased during the aging period, whereas pH decreased from pH 6.33 to 3.74. Lightness and yellowness values of BG radically decreased during the aging period, whereas redness values increased significantly. Antioxidant components, including the total polyphenol and total flavonoids contents of BG, increased significantly until the 21st day of aging (p < 0.05) and correspondingly, the antioxidant activities of BG, measured by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and reducing power assays, were highest on the 21st day of aging. These results indicate that BG can be considered to not only possess antioxidant properties during the aging period, but also to reach its optimal antioxidant properties at the 21st day of aging.

  4. Comparison of Immunomodulatory Effects of Fresh Garlic and Black Garlic Polysaccharides on RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Yan, Yi-Xi; Yu, Qing-Tao; Deng, Yong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Wang, Ying; Ge, Ya-Zhong; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Garlic has a long history to be used for medicine and food purposes. Black garlic, the fermented product of fresh garlic, is considered with better biological activities, such as antioxidant activity, and is developed as an increasingly popular functional food. Polysaccharides are the major components of fresh and black garlic, and immunomodulatory activity is one major pharmacological effect of polysaccharides. Therefore, chemical characteristics and immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides from fresh and black garlic are investigated and compared in vitro for the 1st time, in order to reveal their molecular and pharmacological differences. It is demonstrated that the molecular weights of polysaccharides from the 2 sources and molar ratios of monosaccharides after acid hydrolysis are greatly variant. The effects of polysaccharides from 2 sources on RAW 264.7 macrophages functions, including promotion of phagocytosis, release of NO, and expressions of several immune-related cytokines (including interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interferon gamma), were different from each other. The results indicated that fresh garlic polysaccharide exhibited stronger immunomodulatory activities than that of black garlic. Moreover, it is revealed that fructan might be the bioactive component in garlic and it is indicated that during the fermentation treatment, fructan constituents of garlic has degraded, and basically no immunomodulatory effect can be found in black garlic polysaccharides. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Black garlic: A critical review of its production, bioactivity, and application.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Tung, Yen-Chen; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Su, Nan-Wei; Lai, Ying-Jang; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Black garlic is obtained from fresh garlic (Allium sativum L.) that has been fermented for a period of time at a controlled high temperature (60-90°C) under controlled high humidity (80-90%). When compared with fresh garlic, black garlic does not release a strong offensive flavor owing to the reduced content of allicin. Enhanced bioactivity of black garlic compared with that of fresh garlic is attributed to its changes in physicochemical properties. Studies concerning the fundamental findings of black garlic, such as its production, bioactivity, and applications, have thus been conducted. Several types of black garlic products are also available in the market with a fair selling volume. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge of changes in the components, bioactivity, production, and applications of black garlic, as well as the proposed future prospects on their possible applications as a functional food product. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Preparation of S-Allylcysteine-Enriched Black Garlic Juice and Its Antidiabetic Effects in Streptozotocin-Induced Insulin-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Yu, Su Hyun; Cho, Yun Jeong; Pan, Jeong Hoon; Cho, Hyung Taek; Kim, Jeong Ho; Bong, Hyejin; Lee, Yeojin; Chang, Moon Han; Jeong, Ye Jin; Choi, Garam; Kim, Young Jun

    2017-01-18

    S-Allylcysteine (SAC), produced in large amounts during the aging process of garlic via enzymatic hydrolysis, is known as a key compound responsible for the multiple pharmacological activities of aged black garlic. This study investigated the effects of enzyme- and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-assisted extraction on the content of the bioactive compounds, including SAC, in black garlic juice (BGJ) and evaluated the antidiabetic effects of SAC-enriched BGJ in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. The aging process increased the contents of SAC, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids in garlic juice. More importantly, pretreatment of pectinase cocktail with HHP resulted in a greater increase in those compounds during aging. Enzyme-treated BGJ reduced hyperglycemia and improved islet architecture and β-cell function in STZ-treated mice. Moreover, these effects were more potent than those of BGJ prepared by the conventional aging process. These findings provide useful information for the production of black garlic with improved bioactivities.

  7. Changes in the Aromatic Profile, Sugars, and Bioactive Compounds When Purple Garlic Is Transformed into Black Garlic.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Casas, Lucía; Lage-Yusty, María; López-Hernández, Julia

    2017-12-13

    Black garlic is an elaborated product obtained from fresh garlic (Allium sativum L.) at a controlled high humidity and temperature, which leads to modifications in color, taste, and texture. To clarify the physicochemical changes that occur during the thermal process, this work aimed to evaluate and contrast the antioxidant capacity and that of other compounds between purple garlic ecotype "Purple from Las Pedroñeras" and its black garlic derivative. Our results showed numerous differences between both, because black garlic presented a significant divergence in its volatile profile, a decreased amount of ascorbic acid, an increment in sugar and polyphenol contents, a greater antioxidant capacity, and a different composition of phenolic acids and flavonoids.

  8. The Comparison of the Contents of Sugar, Amadori, and Heyns Compounds in Fresh and Black Garlic.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Heng; Sun, Linjuan; Chen, Min; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Black garlic is produced through thermal processing and is used as a healthy food throughout the world. Compared with fresh garlic, there are obvious changes in the color, taste, and biological functions of black garlic. To analyze and explain these changes, the contents of water-soluble sugars, fructan, and the key intermediate compounds (Heyns and Amadori) of the Maillard reaction in fresh raw garlic and black garlic were investigated, which were important to control and to evaluate the quality of black garlic. The results showed that the fructan contents in the black garlics were decreased by more than 84.6% compared with the fresh raw garlics, which translated into changes in the fructose and glucose contents. The water-soluble sugar content was drastically increased by values ranging from 187.79% to 790.96%. Therefore, the taste of the black garlic became very sweet. The sucrose content in black garlic was almost equivalent to fresh garlic. The Amadori and Heyns compounds were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring mode using the different characteristic fragment ions of Heyns and Amadori compounds. The total content of the 3 main Amadori and 3 Heyns compounds in black garlic ranged from 762.53 to 280.56 μg/g, which was 40 to 100-fold higher than the values in fresh raw garlic. This result was significant proof that the Maillard reaction in black garlic mainly utilized fructose and glucose, with some amino acids. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. An analysis of the changes on intermediate products during the thermal processing of black garlic.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Heng; Sun, Linjuan; Chen, Min; Wang, Jun

    2018-01-15

    The thermal processing of black garlic was simulated. Fresh garlic was incubated at 55°C with 80% humidity and sampled every 5 or 10days. The changes in relevant products were as follows: the fructan content was decreased by 84.79%, and the fructose content was increased by 508.11%. The contents of Maillard reaction intermediate products were first increased and then decreased. The colour of garlic gradually became dark and the pH decreased from 6.13 to 4.00. By analyzing these changes, the mechanism of black garlic formation and the changes on the Maillard reaction were revealed. The sweetness of black garlic resulted mainly from the fructose that was produced, and the black colour was largely due to the Maillard reaction between fructose/glucose and amino acids. An understanding of this process is useful to explain the formation mechanism of black garlic and could lead to better control of the quality of black garlic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers.

    PubMed

    Kirubakaran, A; Moorthy, M; Chitra, R; Prabakar, G

    2016-05-01

    To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers' body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Broiler's weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.

  11. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    PubMed Central

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01). Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  12. Comprehensive NMR analysis of compositional changes of black garlic during thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tingfu; Wei, Feifei; Lu, Yi; Kodani, Yoshinori; Nakada, Mitsuhiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2015-01-21

    Black garlic is a processed food product obtained by subjecting whole raw garlic to thermal processing that causes chemical reactions, such as the Maillard reaction, which change the composition of the garlic. In this paper, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of raw garlic and black garlic extracts to determine the compositional changes resulting from thermal processing. (1)H NMR spectra with a detailed signal assignment showed that 38 components were altered by thermal processing of raw garlic. For example, the contents of 11 l-amino acids increased during the first step of thermal processing over 5 days and then decreased. Multivariate data analysis revealed changes in the contents of fructose, glucose, acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, cycloalliin, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (5-HMF). Our results provide comprehensive information on changes in NMR-detectable components during thermal processing of whole garlic.

  13. Black grape and garlic extracts protect against cyclosporine a nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Durak, Ilker; Cetin, Recep; Candir, Ozden; Devrim, Erdinç; Kiliçoğlu, Bülent; Avci, Aslihan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the natural antioxidant foods, dried black grape and garlic, protect against cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were given Cyclosporine A (CsA) orally for 10 days, with the antioxidant food supplementation begun 3 days before CsA treatment and continued during the study period (totaling 13 days). In each group (control, CsA alone, CsA plus black grape, CsA plus aqueous garlic extract, aqueous garlic extract alone and black grape alone), there were 7 animals. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed; their kidneys were removed and prepared for biochemical and histopathological investigations. Oxidant (xanthine oxidase enzyme and malondialdehyde) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase enzymes) parameters were measured in the kidney tissues of the groups. Histopathological examinations of the tissues were also performed. It has been found that CsA creates oxidant load to the kidneys through both xanthine oxidase activation and impaired antioxidant defense system, which accelerates oxidation reactions in the kidney tissue. Supplementation with either dried black grape or aqueous garlic extract led to reduced malondialdehyde level in the kidney tissue possibly, by preventing oxidant reactions. In conclusion, the results suggest that impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance may play part in the CsA-induced nephrotoxicity, and some foods with high antioxidant power may ameliorate this toxicity, in agreement with studies with antioxidant vitamins.

  14. Composition analysis and antioxidant properties of black garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoming; Li, Ningyang; Qiao, Xuguang; Qiu, Zhichang; Liu, Pengli

    2017-04-01

    Black garlic produced from fresh garlic under controlled high temperature and humidity has strong antioxidant properties. To determine these compounds, five fractions (from F1 to F5) were separated and purified by elution with chloroform:methanol at different ratios (8:1, 6:1, 4:1, 2:1, and 0:1; v/v). The antioxidant activity of each fraction was analyzed. The results showed that F3 and F4 had higher phenolic contents and stronger 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than the others. Seven purified individual components were further separated using semipreparation high-performance liquid chromatography from these two intensely antioxidant fractions (F3 and F4), their structures were elucidated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, electrospray ionization, mass spectrometry, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Three compounds including adenosine, uridine, and 2-acetylpyrrole were first identified in black garlic, except for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, (1S, 3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, and (1R, 3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid. The cellular antioxidant activities of uridine, adenosine, carboline alkaloids, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and ethyl acetate extracts were consistent with the results of in vitro experimental antioxidant properties. The results provide useful information for understanding the health benefits of black garlic products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Elosta, Abdulhakim; Slevin, Mark; Rahman, Khalid; Ahmed, Nessar

    2017-01-01

    Protein glycation involves formation of early (Amadori) and late advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) together with free radicals via autoxidation of glucose and Amadori products. Glycation and increased free radical activity underlie the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study investigated whether aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract in vitro in a cell-free system. Proteins were glycated by incubation with sugars (glucose, methylglyoxal or ribose) ±5–15 mg/mL of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Advanced glycation endproducts were measured using SDS-PAGE gels and by ELISA whereas Amadori products were assessed by the fructosamine method. Colorimetric methods were used to assess antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, protein-bound carbonyl groups, thiol groups and metal chelation activities in addition to phenolic, total flavonoid and flavonol content of aged and fresh garlic extracts. Aged garlic inhibited AGEs by 56.4% compared to 33.5% for an equivalent concentration of fresh garlic extract. Similarly, aged garlic had a higher total phenolic content (129 ± 1.8 mg/g) compared to fresh garlic extract (56 ± 1.2 mg/g). Aged garlic has more potent antiglycation and antioxidant properties compared to fresh garlic extract and is more suitable for use in future in vivo studies. PMID:28051097

  16. 2-Furoylmethyl amino acids as indicators of Maillard reaction during the elaboration of black garlic.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Ríos, Karina L; Vázquez-Barrios, M Estela; Gaytán-Martínez, Marcela; Olano, Agustín; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar

    2018-02-01

    This study reports the formation of 2-furomethyl-amino acids (2-FM-AA) as indicators of Maillard reaction (MR) in black garlic elaboration, followed by the determination of furosine by ion-pair RP-HPLC-UV. The method was assessed for accuracy, repeatability and detection and quantitation limits indicating its adequacy. Traditional procedure of black garlic obtainment and the inclusion of convective drying (CDP) and ohmic heating (OHP) were assayed. For comparison purposes, three commercial black garlic samples were used. Together with furosine (2-FM-lysine), 2-furoylmethyl-γ-aminobutyric acid and 2-FM-arginine were detected. Levels of furosine were higher in CDP (46.6-110.1mg/100g protein) than in OHP (13.7-42.0mg/100g protein) samples, probably due to the most severe processing conditions used in the former. These results highlight the suitability of 2-FM-AA as chemical indicators to monitor the process of black garlic elaboration in order to obtain high quality products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual differences on immunostimulatory activity of raw and black garlic extract in human primary immune cells.

    PubMed

    Purev, Uranchimeg; Chung, Mi Ja; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2012-08-01

    The immunostimulatory activities of garlic extract using a cell line or animal models have been reported; however, no previous studies have evaluated individual differences in regards to the immunostimulatory activities. The immunostimulatory activities such as cell proliferation, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nitric oxides (NO) production of raw garlic and black garlic extracts on individual primary lymphocytes or macrophages isolated from the blood of 21 volunteers were evaluated. The antioxidant and anticancer effects of raw garlic and black garlic ethanol extract was measured to determine the optimum conditions for extraction. The 70% ethanol black garlic extracts at 70°C for 12 h (70% BGE) showed the strongest antioxidant and anticancer activities. Immunostimulatory activities of garlic extracts extracted under optimal condition on primary immune cells obtained from 21 volunteers were analyzed. Results showed that the cell proliferation, TNF-α and NO production of primary immune cells treated with 70% raw garlic extract (70% RGE) were significantly different; however, little difference was observed for the 70% BGE treatment. BGE showed stronger immunostimulatory activities than RGE. These results indicate that the immunostimulatory activities of RGE and BGE can be strongly correlated with the antioxidant and anticancer activities. Determination of immunostimulatory activities of different types of garlic using immune cells isolated from volunteers was dependent on the individual constituents due to changes in the composition of garlic during processing. Individual primary immune cells might be used as important tools to determine individual differences in all food ingredients for the development of personalized immunostimulatory active foods.

  18. Antioxidant mechanism of black garlic extract involving nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2017-06-01

    Although studies have revealed that black garlic is a potent antioxidant, its antioxidant mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine black garlic's antioxidant activities and possible antioxidant mechanisms related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 (Nrf2)-Keap1 complex. After four weeks of feeding rats with a normal fat diet (NF), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 0.5), a high-fat diet with 1.0% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.0), or a high-fat diet with 1.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.5), plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin,homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. As oxidative stress indices, plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF) were determined. To measure antioxidant capacities, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver were determined. The mRNA expression levels of antioxidant related proteins such as Nrf2, NAD(P)H: quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase alpha 2 (GSTA2) were examined. Plasma glucose level, plasma insulin level, and HOMA-IR in black garlic supplemented groups were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower than those in the HF group without dose-dependent effect. Plasma TBARS concentration and TAC in the HF+BGE 1.5 group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. The activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly ( P < 0.05) increased in the HF+BGE 1.0 and HF+BGE 1.5 groups compared to those of the HF group. The mRNA expression levels of hepatic Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and GSTA2 were significantly ( P < 0.05) increased in the HF with BGE groups compared to those in the HF group. The improvements of blood glucose homeostasis and antioxidant systems in rats fed with black garlic extract were

  19. Antioxidant mechanism of black garlic extract involving nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUN/OBJECTIVES Although studies have revealed that black garlic is a potent antioxidant, its antioxidant mechanism remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine black garlic's antioxidant activities and possible antioxidant mechanisms related to nuclear factor erythroid 2-like factor 2 (Nrf2)-Keap1 complex. METHODS/MATERIALS After four weeks of feeding rats with a normal fat diet (NF), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 0.5), a high-fat diet with 1.0% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.0), or a high-fat diet with 1.5% black garlic extract (HF+BGE 1.5), plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin,homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined. As oxidative stress indices, plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF) were determined. To measure antioxidant capacities, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and activities of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver were determined. The mRNA expression levels of antioxidant related proteins such as Nrf2, NAD(P)H: quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S-transferase alpha 2 (GSTA2) were examined. RESULTS Plasma glucose level, plasma insulin level, and HOMA-IR in black garlic supplemented groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those in the HF group without dose-dependent effect. Plasma TBARS concentration and TAC in the HF+BGE 1.5 group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. The activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the HF+BGE 1.0 and HF+BGE 1.5 groups compared to those of the HF group. The mRNA expression levels of hepatic Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, and GSTA2 were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the HF with BGE groups compared to those in the HF group. CONCLUSIONS The improvements of blood glucose homeostasis and

  20. Enrichment of antioxidants in black garlic juice using macroporous resins and their protective effects on oxidation-damaged human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Zhao, Mouming; Yang, Kun; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2017-08-15

    The black garlic juice is popular for its nutritive value. Enrichment of antioxidants is needed to make black garlic extract an effective functional ingredient. Five macroporous resins were evaluated for their capacity in adsorbing antioxidants in black garlic juice. XAD-16 resin was chosen for further study due to its high adsorption and desorption ratios. Pseudo-second-order kinetics (q e =625μmol Trolox equiv/g dry resin, k 2 =0.0001463) and Freundlich isotherm models (ΔH=-10.1547kJ/mol) were suitable for describing the whole exothermic and physical adsorption processes of the antioxidants from black garlic juice on XAD-16 resin. The antioxidants and phenolics were mostly enriched in 40% ethanol fraction by XAD-16 resin column chromatography. The black garlic extract and its fractions could protect erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis in dose-dependent manners. The pretreatment of AAPH-damaged erythrocytes with 40% ethanol fractions (2.5mg/mL) significantly decreased the hemolysis ratios from 53.58% to 3.79%. The 40% ethanol fraction possessing strong intracellular antioxidant activity could be used as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Ying, Tian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased. PMID:25671065

  2. Protective effect of black garlic extracts on tert-Butyl hydroperoxide-induced injury in hepatocytes via a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ko-Chao; Teng, Chih-Chuan; Shen, Chien-Heng; Huang, Wen-Shih; Lu, Chien-Chang; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Tung, Shui-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Black garlic has been reported to show multiple bioactivities against the development of different diseases. In the present study, the hepatoprotective effect of black garlic on injured liver cells was investigated. Rat clone-9 hepatocytes were used for all experiments; tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) was used to induce injury of rat clone-9 hepatocytes. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH); anti-oxidative enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx); and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in rat clone-9 hepatocytes were determined to evaluate the level of cell damage. Black garlic extracts were demonstrated to significantly attenuate tBHP-induced cell death of rat clone-9 hepatocytes (P<0.05). Pretreatment with black garlic extracts antagonized GSH depletion, tBHP-increased MDA accumulation and the mRNA expression level of IL-6/IL-8, and tBHP-decreased antioxidative enzyme activities (all P<0.05). Moreover, the present study revealed that c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling regulated black garlic-inhibited tBHP effects in rat clone-9 hepatocytes. Our findings demonstrate that black garlic has the hepatoprotective potential to block tBHP-damaged effects on cell death, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and inflammation in rat clone-9 hepatocytes. Thus, the present study indicates that black garlic may be an excellent natural candidate in the development of adjuvant therapy and healthy foods for liver protection. PMID:29456651

  3. Identification of the protein components displaying immunomodulatory activity in aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, P M; Venkatesh, Y P

    2009-07-30

    Traditionally, garlic (Allium sativum L.; Alliaceae) has been known to boost the immune system. Aged garlic has more potent immunomodulatory effects than raw garlic. These effects have been attributed to the transformed organosulfur compounds; the identity of the immunomodulatory proteins in aged garlic extract (AGE) is not known. The major aims are to examine the changes occurring in the protein fraction during ageing of garlic and to identify the immunomodulatory proteins. Changes occurring in garlic during ageing have been examined by protein quantitation and gel electrophoresis. Purification and identification of the immunomodulatory proteins have been achieved by Q-Sepharose chromatography and mitogenic activity. Only two major proteins (12-14 kDa range by SDS-PAGE) are observed in AGE. The purified protein components QA-1, QA-2, and QA-3 display immunomodulatory and mannose-binding activity; QA-2 shows the highest mitogenic activity. The identity of QA-2 and QA-1 proteins with the garlic lectins ASA I and ASA II, respectively, has been confirmed by hemagglutination analysis. QA-3 exhibits mitogenic activity, but no hemagglutination activity. The immunomodulatory activity of AGE is also contributed by immunomodulatory proteins. The major immunomodulatory proteins have been identified as the well-known garlic lectins.

  4. Purified aged garlic extract modulates allergic airway inflammation in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zare, Ahad; Farzaneh, Parvaneh; Pourpak, Zahra; Zahedi, Fatemeh; Moin, Mostafa; Shahabi, Shahram; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2008-09-01

    Garlic is known as a potent spice and a medicinal herb with broad therapeutic properties ranging from antibacterial to anticancer and anticoagulant. Our previous studies have shown some immunoregulatory effects for aged garlic extract, suggesting a key role for 14-kD glycoprotein of garlic in shifting the cytokine pattern to T helper-1. In present study, we investigated the effect of 1, 2, and 3 times intraperitoneal injections of aged garlic extract on an established allergic airway inflammation in murine model (BALB/c mice). The garlic extract, isolated by biochemical method, includes proteins precipitation by ammonium sulfate. After injection of the aged garlic extract, IFN-, anti allergen specific IgE and IgG1 were measured in lavage and serum by ELISA and histological assessment was performed on the lung tissues. The results indicated that three-time intra peritoneal injections of the aged garlic extract caused a significant decrease in the hallmark criteria of allergic airway inflammation levels which included eosinophil percentage in lavage, peribronchial lung eosinophils, IgG1 level in lavage and serum, mucous producing goblet cells grade and peribronchial and perivascular inflammation. Our findings in the present research suggested that aged garlic extract has the potential of attenuation of inflammatory features of allergic airway inflammation in murine model.

  5. Evolution of some physicochemical and antioxidant properties of black garlic whole bulbs and peeled cloves.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Medina, M Angeles; Pérez-Aparicio, Jesús; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Merinas-Amo, Tania

    2016-05-15

    Black garlic was processed at three different temperatures of heat treatment (72°, 75° and 78°C) and close to 90% of relative humidity. Two types of material source were used: whole bulbs and peeled cloves. Total soluble solids content (°Brix), pH, water activity (aw), browning intensive (L value), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol index of the raw and heated garlic were determined. This study showed the changes occurring in the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the garlic during the heat-treatment evolution. The soluble solids content (°Brix) in garlic increased gradually and the pH decreased in whole bulbs and peeled garlics. The polyphenol content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method showed a significant increase during the heat-treatment in all the cases. Also, the antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS radical increased significantly during the heat-treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physicochemical Characteristics of Black Garlic after Different Thermal Processing Steps

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ok-Ju

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical characteristics of black garlic (BG) after different thermal processing steps. Compared with fresh garlic (FG), the moisture content and pH in BG decreased significantly, while the ash content and browning intensity increased during thermal processing. The total mineral and the free sugar contents were significantly higher than that of the BG2 and BG4 samples, respectively. The free sugar content increased by 16-fold in the BG cloves compared with that of FG, while the amino acid content increased during the first stage of thermal processing, and subsequently decreased. The thiosulfinate content in all samples decreased to during thermal processing. The pyruvic acid content initially increased and then decreased during thermal processing. These results contribute to our understanding of the role of thermal processing in the quality formation of BG. PMID:28078257

  7. Aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine prevent formation of advanced glycation endproducts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muhammad Saeed; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Ahmed, Nessar

    2007-04-30

    Hyperglycaemia causes increased protein glycation and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts which underlie the complications of diabetes and ageing. Glycation is accompanied by metal-catalysed oxidation of glucose and Amadori products to form free radicals capable of protein fragmentation. Aged garlic extract is a potent antioxidant with established lipid-lowering effects attributed largely to a key ingredient called S-allyl cysteine. This study investigated the ability of aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine to inhibit advanced glycation in vitro. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was glycated in the presence of Cu(2+) ions and different concentrations of aged garlic extract and protein fragmentation was examined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Lysozyme was glycated by glucose or methylglyoxal in the presence of different concentrations of aged garlic extract or S-allyl cysteine with subsequent analysis of glycation-derived crosslinking using SDS-PAGE. Amadori-rich protein was prepared by dialysing lysozyme that had been glycated by ribose for 24 h. This ribated lysozyme was reincubated and the effects of aged garlic extract, S-allyl cysteine and pyridoxamine on glycation-induced crosslinking was monitored. Aged garlic extract inhibited metal-catalysed protein fragmentation. Both aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine inhibited formation of glucose and methylglyoxal derived advanced glycation endproducts and showed potent Amadorin activity when compared to pyridoxamine. S-allyl cysteine inhibited formation of carboxymethyllysine (CML), a non-crosslinked advanced glycation endproduct derived from oxidative processes. Further studies are required to assess whether aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine can protect against the harmful effects of glycation and free radicals in diabetes and ageing.

  8. Isolation, structural elucidation and immunomodulatory activity of fructans from aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Prashanth, Keelara V Harish; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2011-02-01

    Traditionally, garlic (Allium sativum) is known to be a significant immune booster. Aged garlic extract (AGE) possesses superior immunomodulatory effects than raw garlic; these effects are attributed to the transformed organosulfur compounds. AGE is also known to contain fructans; the amount of fructans in AGE represents a small fraction (0.22%) of the total fructans in raw garlic. In order to evaluate the biological activity of fructans present in AGE, both high molecular weight (>3.5 kDa; HF) and low molecular weight (<3 kDa; LF) fructans were isolated. The structures of purified HF and LF from AGE determined by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy revealed that both have (2→1) β-D-fructofuranosyl bonds linked to a terminal glucose at the non-reducing end and β-D-fructofuranosyl branching on its backbone. Biological activity of fructans was assessed by immunostimulatory activity using murine lymphocytes and peritoneal exudate cells (source of macrophages). Both HF and LF displayed mitogenic activity and activation of macrophages including phagocytosis. These activities were comparable to that of known polysaccharide immunomodulators such as zymosan and mannan. This study clearly demonstrates that garlic fructans also contribute to the immunomodulatory properties of AGE, and is the first such study on the biological effects of garlic fructans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ameliorating effects of aged garlic extracts against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In vitro antioxidant activities and neuron-like PC12 cell protective effects of solvent fractions from aged garlic extracts were investigated to evaluate their anti-amnesic functions. Ethyl acetate fractions of aged garlic had higher total phenolics than other fractions. Methods Antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic were examined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibitory effect using mouse whole brain homogenates. Levels of cellular oxidative stress as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). PC12 cell viability was investigated by 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydtrogenase (LDH) assay. The learning and memory impairment in institute of cancer research (ICR) mice was induced by neurotoxic amyloid beta protein (Aβ) to investigate in vivo anti-amnesic effects of aged garlic extracts by using Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. Results We discovered that ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and MDA inhibitory effect. Intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment in PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were presented in the medium compare to PC12 cells which was only treated with Aβ only. Ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic extracts showed protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Pre-administration with aged garlic extracts attenuated Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits in both in vivo tests. Conclusions Our findings suggest that aged garlic extracts with antioxidant activities may improve cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit, and possess a wide range of beneficial activities for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:24134394

  10. Aged Garlic Extract Modifies Human Immunity.

    PubMed

    Percival, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    Garlic contains numerous compounds that have the potential to influence immunity. Immune cells, especially innate immune cells, are responsible for the inflammation necessary to kill pathogens. Two innate lymphocytes, γδ-T and natural killer (NK) cells, appear to be susceptible to diet modification. The purpose of this review was to summarize the influence of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the immune system. The author's laboratory is interested in AGE's effects on cell proliferation and activation and inflammation and to learn whether those changes might affect the occurrence and severity of colds and flu. Healthy human participants (n = 120), between 21 and 50 y of age, were recruited for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-intervention study to consume 2.56 g AGE/d or placebo supplements for 90 d during the cold and flu season. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated before and after consumption, and γδ-T and NK cell function was assessed by flow cytometry. The effect on cold and flu symptoms was determined by using daily diary records of self-reported illnesses. After 45 d of AGE consumption, γδ-T and NK cells proliferated better and were more activated than cells from the placebo group. After 90 d, although the number of illnesses was not significantly different, the AGE group showed reduced cold and flu severity, with a reduction in the number of symptoms, the number of days participants functioned suboptimally, and the number of work/school days missed. These results suggest that AGE supplementation may enhance immune cell function and may be partly responsible for the reduced severity of colds and flu reported. The results also suggest that the immune system functions well with AGE supplementation, perhaps with less accompanying inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01390116. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Fructans from aged garlic extract produce a delayed immunoadjuvant response to ovalbumin antigen in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2012-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known for its innumerable biological activities including immunomodulation. Aged garlic extract (AGE), an odorless garlic preparation, has been shown to have superior immunomodulatory properties over raw garlic extract. Although garlic is a very rich source of fructans (17%, fresh weight basis), AGE contains only 0.22% of raw garlic fructans. Aged garlic fructans (AGF) have recently been shown to possess immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Natural adjuvants capable of eliciting better immune response of a model antigen are important in developing newer vaccines. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of AGF has been investigated in BALB/c mice using ovalbumin (OVA, 30 µg) as an experimental antigen. The body weights of animals did not change significantly indicating that the administration of garlic fructans is well-tolerated. AGF produce a significant humoral (serum IgG) response to OVA in BALB/c mice administered mucosally by either intranasal or oral route--a delayed response appearing on 50th day at a dose of 30 µg AGF by intranasal route. However, the serum IgG response was seen earlier on 35th day at a dose of 100 µg AGF by oral route. Higher concentrations of AGF (>50 µg) were inhibitory for adjuvant activity by intranasal administration. These observations indicate that AGF display immunoadjuvant activity for a test antigen though the humoral immune response is delayed.

  12. Anti-allergic action of aged black garlic extract in RBL-2H3 cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a food as well as a component of traditional medicine. Aged black garlic (ABG) is known to have various bioactivities. However, the effect of ABG on allergic response is almost unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether ABG can inhibit immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells as well as in vivo passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In in vitro tests, ethyl acetate extract (EBG) of ABG significantly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC₅₀, 1.53 mg/mL) and TNF-α (IC₅₀, 0.98 mg/mL). Moreover, BG10, an active fraction of EBG, dramatically suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase (IC₅₀, 53.60 μg/mL) and TNF-α (IC₅₀, 27.80 μg/mL). In addition, BG10 completely blocked the formation of prostaglandin E₂ and leukotriene B₄ at ≥25 μg/mL. When the effect of BG10 on FcɛRI receptor cascade was investigated, BG10 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Syk, but not Lyn. Furthermore, BG10 dose dependently decreased the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A₂ (cPLA₂) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Consistent with what has been mentioned earlier, BG10 also significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mice. In conclusion, these results indicate that ABG suppresses the allergic response, and the mechanism for its anti-allergic action may involve suppressions of Syk, cPLA₂, 5-LO, and COX-2. The anti-allergic actions of ABG, EBG, or BG10 suggest that they may be useful as functional foods for allergic diseases.

  13. Aged black garlic extract inhibits HT29 colon cancer cell growth via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    DONG, MENGHUA; YANG, GUIQING; LIU, HANCHEN; LIU, XIAOXU; LIN, SIXIANG; SUN, DONGNING; WANG, YISHAN

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that aged black garlic extract (ABGE) may prove beneficial in preventing or inhibiting oncogenesis; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ABGE on the proliferation and apoptosis of HT29 colon cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that ABGE inhibited HT29 cell growth via the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We further investigated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signal transduction pathway and the molecular mechanisms underlying the ABGE-induced inhibition of HT29 cell proliferation. We observed that ABGE may regulate the function of the PI3K/Akt pathway through upregulating PTEN and downregulating Akt and p-Akt expression, as well as suppressing its downstream target, 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway is crucial for the development of colon cancer. ABGE inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells through the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, suggesting that ABGE may be effective in the prevention and treatment of colon cancer in humans. PMID:24649105

  14. Renoprotective effect of aged garlic extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Shiju, T. M.; Rajesh, N. G.; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been proven to exhibit antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties. However, its effect on diabetic nephropathy was unexplored. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the renoprotective effect of AGE in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of streptozotocin. Commercially available AGE was supplemented orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Aminoguanidine, which has been proven to be an anti-glycation agent was used as positive control and was supplemented at a dose of 1 g/L in drinking water. The serum and urinary biochemical parameters were analyzed in all the groups and at the end of 12 weeks follow up, the renal histological examination were performed using H & E and PAS staining. Results: The diabetic rats showed a significant change in the urine (P < 0.001) and serum (P < 0.01) constituents such as albumin, creatinine, urea nitrogen and glycated hemoglobin. In addition, the serum lipid profile of the diabetic rats were altered significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of the control rats. However, the diabetic rats supplemented with aged garlic extract restored all these biochemical changes. The efficacy of the extract was substantiated by the histopathological changes in the kidney. Conclusion: From our results, we conclude that aged garlic extract has the ability to ameliorate kidney damage in diabetic rats and the renoprotective effect of AGE may be attributed to its anti-glycation and hypolipidemic activities. PMID:23543654

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kyo, E; Uda, N; Kasuga, S; Itakura, Y

    2001-03-01

    Using various kinds of models, we examined the effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on immune functions. In the immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic mouse model, AGE significantly decreased the antigen-specific ear swelling induced by picryl chloride ointment to the ear and intravenous administration of antitrinitrophenyl antibody. In the transplanted carcinoma cell model, AGE significantly inhibited the growth of Sarcoma-180 (allogenic) and LL/2 lung carcinoma (syngenic) cells transplanted into mice. Concomitantly, increases in natural killer (NK) and killer activities of spleen cells were observed in Sarcoma-180--bearing mice administered AGE. In the psychological stress model, AGE significantly prevented the decrease in spleen weight and restored the reduction of anti-SRBC hemolytic plaque-forming cells caused by the electrical stress. These studies strongly suggest that AGE could be a promising candidate as an immune modifier, which maintains the homeostasis of immune functions; further studies are warranted to determine when it is most beneficial.

  16. [New pharmacological activities of garlic and its constituents].

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, H

    1997-10-01

    According to the recent pharmacological findings, garlic is a preventive rather than therapeutic. Epidemiological studies in China, Italy and USA showed the inverse relationship between stomach and colon cancer incidences and dietary garlic intake. Anti-carcinogenic activities of garlic and its constituents including sulfides and S-allyl cysteine, have been demonstrated using several animal models. Garlic preparations has been also shown to lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, which are major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, through inhibition of their bio-synthesis in the liver, and to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that aged garlic extract stimulated immune functions, such as proliferation of lymphocyte, cytokine release, NK activity and phagocytosis. More recently, aged garlic extract has been demonstrated to prolong life span of senescence accelerated mice and prevent brain atrophy. Manufacturing processes significantly affect chemical constituents in garlic preparations. Different forms contain different phytochemicals and may have different effects and toxicities. For example, aged garlic extract inhibited t-BuOOH-induced oxidation, whereas raw garlic stimulated the oxidation. Although garlic has been used as a condiment and folklore for a long time, it has been noted to cause adverse reactions, such as stomach ulcer and anemia. Among the garlic preparations, only aged garlic extract has been proven to be safe through toxicological studies. Thus, aged garlic extract could be the most promising garlic preparation for disease prevention.

  17. Garlic in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were included. The results suggest that oral administration of garlic is effective on immunologic properties, cutaneous microcirculation, protection against UVB and cancer treatment. Additionally, topical application of garlic extract can potentially be effective on psoriasis, alopecia areata, keloid scar, wound healing, cutaneous corn, viral and fungal infection, leishmaniasis, skin aging and rejuvenation. Clinical effectiveness of oral and topical garlic extract is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as so far. PMID:25386259

  18. Garlic and Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Ravi; Budoff, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Thousands of studies have been published based on animal and human studies evaluating garlic's effects and safety. We reviewed the available literature investigating the effects of garlic supplements on hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, C-reactive protein (CRP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and coronary artery calcium (CAC), as well as available data on side effects. We searched PubMed for all human studies using medical subject heading words through 30 May 2013 and assessed relevant review articles and original studies. Only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses of double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. The review of articles and data extraction were performed by 2 independent authors, with any disagreements resolved by consensus. Garlic supplementation reduced blood pressure by 7-16 mm Hg (systolic) and 5-9 mm Hg (diastolic) (4 meta-analyses and 2 original studies). It reduced total cholesterol by 7.4-29.8 mg/dL (8 meta-analyses). The most consistent benefits were shown in studies that used aged garlic extract (AGE). A few small studies that used AGE also showed favorable effects on CAC, CRP, and PWV. Although garlic is generally safe, rare adverse reactions have been documented with limited causality established. We conclude that garlic supplementation has the potential for cardiovascular protection based on risk factor reduction (hypertension and total cholesterol) and surrogate markers (CRP, PWV, and CAC) of atherosclerosis. Larger studies are warranted to evaluate these effects further. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Chemical and Biological Properties of S-1-Propenyl-l-Cysteine in Aged Garlic Extract.

    PubMed

    Kodera, Yukihioro; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Amano, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Jun-Ichiro; Matsutomo, Toshiaki

    2017-03-31

    S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (S1PC) is a stereoisomer of S-1-Propenyl-l-cysteine (SAC), an important sulfur-containing amino acid that plays a role for the beneficial pharmacological effects of aged garlic extract (AGE). The existence of S1PC in garlic preparations has been known since the 1960's. However, there was no report regarding the biological and/or pharmacological activity of S1PC until 2016. Recently, we performed a series of studies to examine the chemical, biological, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of S1PC, and obtained some interesting results. S1PC existed only in trace amounts in raw garlic, but its concentration increased almost up to the level similar of SAC through aging process of AGE. S1PC showed immunomodulatory effects in vitro and in vivo, and reduced blood pressure in a hypertensive animal model. A pharmacokinetic study revealed that S1PC was readily absorbed after oral administration in rats and dogs with bioavailability of 88-100%. Additionally, S1PC had little inhibitory influence on human cytochrome P450 activities, even at a concentration of 1 mM. Based on these findings, S1PC was suggested to be another important, pharmacologically active and safe component of AGE similar to SAC. In this review, we highlight some results from recent studies on S1PC and discuss the potential medicinal value of S1PC.

  20. Historical perspective on the use of garlic.

    PubMed

    Rivlin, R S

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this review is to examine briefly the medical uses of garlic throughout the ages and the role that it was considered to play in prevention and treatment of disease. Interest in the potential benefits of garlic has origins in antiquity and is one of the earliest documented examples of plants employed for treatment of disease and maintenance of health. Garlic was in use at the beginning of recorded history and was found in Egyptian pyramids and ancient Greek temples. There are Biblical references to garlic. Ancient medical texts from Egypt, Greece, Rome, China and India each prescribed medical applications for garlic. In many cultures, garlic was administered to provide strength and increase work capacity for laborers. Hippocrates, the revered physician, prescribed garlic for a variety of conditions. Garlic was given to the original Olympic athletes in Greece, as perhaps one of the earliest "performance enhancing" agents. It is of interest that cultures that developed without contact with one another came to similar conclusions about the efficacy of garlic. Modern science is tending to confirm many of the beliefs of ancient cultures regarding garlic, defining mechanisms of action and exploring garlic's potential for disease prevention and treatment.

  1. Occupational asthma induced by garlic dust.

    PubMed

    Añibarro, B; Fontela, J L; De La Hoz, F

    1997-12-01

    Garlic dust has not been a frequently encountered cause of IgE-mediated disease. We report on 12 patients (all of them garlic workers) with the clinical criteria for occupational asthma. Skin prick tests and serum-specific IgE determinations were performed with common inhalants, garlic, and other members of the Liliaceae family (onion, leek, and asparagus). Bronchial challenge test with garlic powder was performed in all patients. Garlic and onion extract proteins were separated by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunoblot and IgE immunoblot inhibition analyses were performed with patients' sera on extracts of garlic, onion, and pollens of Phleum pratense and Chenopodium album. Garlic sensitization was demonstrated by bronchial challenge test in seven patients (group 1) and ruled out in the remaining five (group 2). Clinical data were similar in both groups. The patients with garlic allergy had a mean age of 27 years, and all of them had pollen allergy; sensitization to other members of the Liliaceae family was also common. Electrophoresis of garlic extract revealed two major protein bands at approximately 12 and 54 kd. During IgE immunoblotting, the pool of sera reacted with garlic proteins mainly at 54 kd. Preincubation with onion, Phleum, and Chenopodium partially abolished the IgE binding to several allergens of garlic. We report on seven patients in whom an occupational garlic allergy was demonstrated. Garlic allergy is relatively rare but seems to affect young subjects with pollen allergy, and sensitization to other members of the Liliaceae family is common. The results of this study confirm the presence of some structurally similar allergens in garlic, onion, and certain pollens.

  2. The Antioxidant Mechanisms Underlying the Aged Garlic Extract- and S-Allylcysteine-Induced Protection

    PubMed Central

    Colín-González, Ana L.; Santana, Ricardo A.; Silva-Islas, Carlos A.; Chánez-Cárdenas, Maria E.; Santamaría, Abel; Maldonado, Perla D.

    2012-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) is an odorless garlic preparation containing S-allylcysteine (SAC) as its most abundant compound. A large number of studies have demonstrated the antioxidant activity of AGE and SAC in both in vivo—in diverse experimental animal models associated to oxidative stress—and in vitro conditions—using several methods to scavenge reactive oxygen species or to induce oxidative damage. Derived from these experiments, the protective effects of AGE and SAC have been associated with the prevention or amelioration of oxidative stress. In this work, we reviewed different antioxidant mechanisms (scavenging of free radicals and prooxidant species, induction of antioxidant enzymes, activation of Nrf2 factor, inhibition of prooxidant enzymes, and chelating effects) involved in the protective actions of AGE and SAC, thereby emphasizing their potential use as therapeutic agents. In addition, we highlight the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor—a master regulator of the cellular redox state. Here, we include original data showing the ability of SAC to activate Nrf2 factor in cerebral cortex. Therefore, we conclude that the therapeutic properties of these molecules comprise cellular and molecular mechanisms at different levels. PMID:22685624

  3. Neuroprotective Effects of Garlic A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, BC; Biju, RS

    2008-01-01

    Garlic has been investigated extensively for health benefits, resulting in more than one thousand publications over the last decade alone. It is considered one of the best disease preventive foods, based on its potent and varied effects. Midlife risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as high serum total cholesterol, raised LDL, increased LDL oxidation, increased platelet aggregation, impaired fibrinolysis, hypertension and homocystinemia are important risk factors for dementia in later years. These risk factors play a major role in the genesis of atherosclerosis of vital arteries causing both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Garlic is best known for its lipid lowering and anti-atherogenic effects. Possible mechanisms of action include inhibition of the hepatic activities of lipogenic and cholesterogenic enzymes that are thought to be the genesis for dyslipidemias, increased excretion of cholesterol and suppression of LDL-oxidation. Oxidative stress caused by increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies have demonstrated the antioxidant properties of garlic and its different preparations including Aged Garlic Extract (AGE). AGE and S-allyl-cysteines (SAC), a bioactive and bioavailable component in garlic preparations have been shown in a number of in vitro studies to protect neuronal cells against beta-amyloid (A) toxicity and apoptosis. Thus the broad range of anti-atherogenic, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic protection afforded by garlic may be extended to its neuroprotective action, helping to reduce the risk of dementia, including vascular dementia and AD. PMID:21499478

  4. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Safari, Elahe; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Garlic is used all over the world for treatment of different diseases. A wide range of biological activities of garlic has been verified in vitro and in vivo. One of major proteins of garlic which has been isolated and purified is the 14 kDa protein. This protein has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract (AGE) was investigated on maturation and immunomodulatory activity of dendritic cells (DC). Proteins were purified from AGE by biochemical method; the semi-purified 14 kDa protein was run on gel filtration Sephadex G50 and its purity was checked by SDS-PAGE. DC were isolated from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to plastic dish. 14 kDa protein from AGE was added to overnight culture of DC medium and the expression percentage of CD40, CD86, and MHC-II was evaluated by flowcytometric analysis. Also, proliferation of T-cells was measured by allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) test. The purified 14 kDa protein isolated from AGE increased the expression of CD40 molecule on DC, but it did not influence CD86 and MHCII molecules. Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed in the pulsed-DC with 14 kDa protein and non-pulsed DC on the MLR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Untargeted analysis to monitor metabolic changes of garlic along heat treatment by LC-QTOF MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Molina-Calle, María; Sánchez de Medina, Verónica; Calderón-Santiago, Mónica; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María D

    2017-09-01

    Black garlic is increasing its popularity in cuisine around the world; however, scant information exists on the composition of this processed product. In this study, polar compounds in fresh garlic and in samples taken at different times during the heat treatment process to obtain black garlic have been characterized by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry in high resolution mode. Ninety-five compounds (mainly amino acids and metabolites, organosulfur compounds, and saccharides and derivatives) were tentatively identified in all the analysed samples and classified as a function of the family they belong to. Statistical analysis of the results allowed establishing that the major changes in garlic occur during the first days of treatment, and they mainly affect to the three representative families. The main pathways involved in the synthesis of the compounds affected by heat treatment, and their evolution during the process were studied. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g-1, respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating reactive

  7. Isolation and Identification of Three γ-Glutamyl Tripeptides and Their Putative Production Mechanism in Aged Garlic Extract.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Masashi; Fujii, Takuto; Matsutomo, Toshiaki; Kodera, Yukihiro

    2018-03-21

    We analyzed aged garlic extract (AGE) to understand its complex sulfur chemistry using post-column high-performance liquid chromatography with an iodoplatinate reagent and liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We observed unidentified peaks of putative sulfur compounds. Three compounds were isolated and identified as γ-glutamyl-γ-glutamyl- S-methylcysteine, γ-glutamyl-γ-glutamyl- S-allylcysteine (GGSAC) and γ-glutamyl-γ-glutamyl- S-1-propenyl-cysteine (GGS1PC) by nuclear magnetic resonance and LC-MS analysis based on comparisons with chemically synthesized reference compounds. GGSAC and GGS1PC were novel compounds. Trace amounts of these compounds were detected in raw garlic, but the contents of these compounds increased during the aging process. Production of these compounds was inhibited using a γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) inhibitor in the model reaction mixtures. These findings suggest that γ-glutamyl tripeptides in AGE are produced by GGT during the aging process.

  8. Effect of 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein molecules of age garlic extract on peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Daneshmandi, Saeed; Hajimoradi, Monire; Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Roudbary, Maryam; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2011-03-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), traditionally being used as a spice worldwide, has different applications and is claimed to possess beneficial effects in several health ailments such as tumor and atherosclerosis. Garlic is also an immunomodulator and its different components are responsible for different properties. The present work aimed to assess the effect of protein fractions of garlic on peritoneal macrophages. 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein fractions of garlic were purified. Mice peritoneal macrophages were lavaged and cultured in a microtiter plate and exposed to different concentrations of garlic proteins. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the viability of macrophage. The amount of nitric oxide (NO) was detected in culture supernatants of macrophages by Griess reagent and furthermore, the cytotoxicity study of culture supernatants was carried out on WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cell line as tumor necrosis factor-α bioassay. MTT assay results for both 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein fractions of stimulated macrophages were not significant (P > 0.05). Both 14-kDa and 47-kDa fractions significantly suppressed production of NO from macrophages (P = 0.007 and P = 0.003, respectively). Cytotoxicity of macrophages' supernatant on WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells was not affected by garlic protein fractions (P = 0.066 for 14-kDa and P = 0.085 for 47-kDa fractions). according to our finding, 14-kDa and 47-kDa fractions of aged garlic extract are able to suppress NO production from macrophages, which can be used as a biological advantage. These molecules had no cytotoxic effect on macrophages and do not increase tumoricidal property of macrophages.

  9. Occupational tellurium exposure and garlic odour.

    PubMed

    Berriault, C J; Lightfoot, N E

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have considered garlic odour as a socially important outcome of occupational tellurium (Te) exposure or concurrent exposures, and most known guidelines focus on other signs and symptoms (e.g. weight loss and somnolence). This study considers workers exposed to tellurium and selenium (Se) at an Ontario, Canada silver refinery. To establish the relation of urinary tellurium concentrations to reporting garlic odour, while considering other work-related factors such as concurrent urinary selenium concentrations. Historical surveillance records of urinary analyses for tellurium and selenium concentrations (μmol Te or Se/mol creatinine in urine) and symptom self-reports were used. Records were available from December 1986 to June 2002. Logistic regression models were fitted using age at sampling, tellurium and selenium urine concentration and duration of employment. Individual main effects were age adjusted and the final model was fitted for tellurium and selenium urine concentration and duration of employment. Urinary tellurium concentration was significantly associated with garlic odour reporting (odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.97, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the likelihood of reporting garlic odour rose as workers reached urinary tellurium concentrations >1 μmol/mol creatinine. Tellurium urinary concentrations of <1 μmol/mol creatinine appear to limit, but not eliminate, the likelihood of reporting garlic odour. Future studies should consider the effect of concurrent selenium exposure as well as other workplace factors and hygiene.

  10. Prevention of psychological stress-induced immune suppression by aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Kyo, E; Uda, N; Ushijima, M; Kasuga, S; Itakura, Y

    1999-11-01

    We determined the effect of Aged Garlic Extract (AGE) on damage caused to immune function by a psychological stress using a communication box. After four days of a psychological stress, a decrease in spleen weight and spleen cells was observed in the psychological stress-exposed mice as compared normal mice (non-stress). AGE significantly prevented the decreases in spleen weight and cells. Additionally, AGE significantly prevented the reduction of hemolytic plaque-forming-cells in spleen cells and anti-SRBC antibody titer in serum caused by this psychological stress. Moreover, a reduction in NK activities was observed in the psychological stress-exposed mice as compared with normal mice (non-stress), whereas NK activities in the AGE administered mice were almost the same as normal mice (non-stress). These results indicate that psychological stress qualitatively and quantitatively impairs immune function, and that AGE is extremely useful for preventing psychologically-induced damage.

  11. Aged Garlic Extract Improves Adiponectin Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Lahera, Vicente; Oubiña, Pilar; Valero-Muñoz, Maria; de las Heras, Natalia; Rodríguez, Yudy; García, Ronald Gerardo; Camacho, Paul Anthony; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2013-01-01

    Background. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been shown to have important benefits in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the administration of aged garlic extract (AGE) on the risk factors that constitute the cluster of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods and Design. Double-blind, crossover, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of 1.2 g/day of AGE (Kyolic), for 24 weeks of treatment (12 weeks of AGE and 12 weeks of placebo), on subjects with MS. Results. The administration of AGE increased the plasma levels of adiponectin (P = 0.027). No serious side effects associated with the intervention were reported. Conclusion. The present results have shown for the first time that the administration of AGE for 12 weeks increased plasma adiponectin levels in patients with MS. This suggests that AGE might be a useful, novel, nonpharmacological therapeutic intervention to increase adiponectin and to prevent cardiovascular (CV) complications in individuals with MS. PMID:23533302

  12. Anticancer effects of garlic and garlic-derived compounds for breast cancer control.

    PubMed

    Tsubura, Airo; Lai, Yen-Chang; Kuwata, Maki; Uehara, Norihisa; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko

    2011-03-01

    Garlic and garlic-derived compounds reduce the development of mammary cancer in animals and suppress the growth of human breast cancer cells in culture. Oil-soluble compounds derived from garlic, such as diallyl disulfide (DADS), are more effective than water-soluble compounds in suppressing breast cancer. Mechanisms of action include the activation of metabolizing enzymes that detoxify carcinogens, the suppression of DNA adduct formation, the inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species, the regulation of cell-cycle arrest and the induction of apoptosis. Selenium-enriched garlic or organoselenium compounds provide more potent protection against mammary carcinogenesis in rats and greater inhibition of breast cancer cells in culture than natural garlic or the respective organosulfur analogues. DADS synergizes the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid, a breast cancer suppressor, and antagonizes the effect of linoleic acid, a breast cancer enhancer. Moreover, garlic extract reduces the side effects caused by anti-cancer agents. Thus, garlic and garlic-derived compounds are promising candidates for breast cancer control.

  13. Does regular garlic intake affect the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in asymptomatic subjects?

    PubMed

    Salih, Barik A; Abasiyanik, Fatih M

    2003-08-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activity of garlic against Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is well documented and the potential for its use in vivo was suggested. Garlic intake, a traditional habit by the Taskopru population in Turkey for decades, was examined for its effect on the prevalence of H. pylori and compared with the non garlic consuming group. Eighty-one garlic consuming asymptomatic subjects in Kastamonu province in Turkey (68 males, 13 females) of 23-82 years of age (average 46) were selected on a very restricted bases in regards to the garlic intake (raw or cooked, or both), amount, duration and other criteria. Control group (non-garlic consuming) of 81 asymptomatic subjects (66 males, 15 females) of 23-90 years of age (average 43) were enrolled for comparison with the garlic consuming group. Serum samples were collected from both groups during the period from September 2001 through to April 2002 and examined by the enzyme linked immunoassay test for anti H.pylori antibodies. An overall H.pylori prevalence of 79% and 81% was detected in the garlic and non garlic consuming groups. A significantly lower average antibody titer was detected in the garlic consuming group than that of the control group and similarly in those who consumed mixture of raw plus cooked garlic as compared to those who consumed raw or cooked garlic alone. Garlic intake for long durations (years) did not appear to have an effect on the prevalence of H.pylori infection. Garlic consuming subjects had a significantly lower average antibody titer than non garlic consuming groups, which might suggest an indirect inhibitory effect on the reproduction of H.pylori and possibly progression to more serious peptic ulcer diseases.

  14. Protective effect of aged garlic extract on the small intestinal damage of rats induced by methotrexate administration.

    PubMed

    Horie, T; Matsumoto, H; Kasagi, M; Sugiyama, A; Kikuchi, M; Karasawa, C; Awazu, S; Itakura, Y; Fuwa, T

    1999-08-01

    The methotrexate (MTX) administration to rats causes the damage of small intestine. The small intestinal damage was evaluated by measuring the intestinal permeability of the poorly absorbable compound, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran (average molecular weight, 4,400) (FD-4) using the in vitro everted intestine technique and by determining the FD-4 that appeared in plasma using the in situ closed loop intestine technique. The MTX administration to rats fed with the standard laboratory diet increased the small intestinal permeability of FD-4 due to the damage of the small intestine. Interestingly, the permeability of FD-4, when MTX was administered to rats fed with the aged garlic extract containing diet, was depressed almost to the level of control rats without the MTX treatment. The present study showed that the aged garlic extract protected the small intestine from the damage induced by the action of MTX on the crypt cells.

  15. Aged garlic extract protects against methotrexate-induced apoptotic cell injury of IEC-6 cells.

    PubMed

    Horie, Toshiharu; Li, Tiesong; Ito, Kousei; Sumi, Shin-ichiro; Fuwa, Toru

    2006-03-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity is one of the most serious side effects of methotrexate (MTX) treatment. The side effects often disrupt the cancer chemotherapy. We previously reported that aged garlic extract (AGE) protects the small intestine of rats from MTX-induced damage. In this study, the protection of AGE against MTX-induced damage of IEC-6 cells originating from the rat jejunum crypt was investigated. MTX decreased the viability of IEC-6 cells, but this effect was prevented by AGE (0.5%). The MTX-induced apoptosis of IEC-6 cells was depressed by AGE. These results indicated that AGE protects IEC-6 cells from the MTX-induced damage. AGE may be useful in cancer chemotherapy with MTX because it reduces MTX-induced intestinal damage.

  16. GarlicESTdb: an online database and mining tool for garlic EST sequences.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Won; Jung, Tae-Sung; Nam, Seong-Hyeuk; Kwon, Hyuk-Ryul; Kim, Aeri; Chae, Sung-Hwa; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Ryong Nam; Park, Hong-Seog

    2009-05-18

    Allium sativum., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus (Allium), which is a large and diverse one containing over 1,250 species. Its close relatives include chives, onion, leek and shallot. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for culinary, medicinal use and health benefits. Currently, the interest in garlic is highly increasing due to nutritional and pharmaceutical value including high blood pressure and cholesterol, atherosclerosis and cancer. For all that, there are no comprehensive databases available for Expressed Sequence Tags(EST) of garlic for gene discovery and future efforts of genome annotation. That is why we developed a new garlic database and applications to enable comprehensive analysis of garlic gene expression. GarlicESTdb is an integrated database and mining tool for large-scale garlic (Allium sativum) EST sequencing. A total of 21,595 ESTs collected from an in-house cDNA library were used to construct the database. The analysis pipeline is an automated system written in JAVA and consists of the following components: automatic preprocessing of EST reads, assembly of raw sequences, annotation of the assembled sequences, storage of the analyzed information into MySQL databases, and graphic display of all processed data. A web application was implemented with the latest J2EE (Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition) software technology (JSP/EJB/JavaServlet) for browsing and querying the database, for creation of dynamic web pages on the client side, and for mapping annotated enzymes to KEGG pathways, the AJAX framework was also used partially. The online resources, such as putative annotation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and tandem repeat data sets, can be searched by text, explored on the website, searched using BLAST, and downloaded. To archive more significant BLAST results, a curation system was introduced with which biologists can easily edit best-hit annotation information for others to view. The Garlic

  17. Anaphylaxis induced by ingestion of raw garlic.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shikun; Yin, Jia

    2012-08-01

    Patients allergic to garlic often present dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria after ingestion of garlic, contact with garlic, or exposure to garlic dust. Garlic-related anaphylaxis is rare, and the impact of heating on garlic allergens is not very clear. We report a case of anaphylaxis induced by ingestion of raw rather than cooked garlic with manifestations different from previous reports, and we hypothesized that heating could reduce the allergenicity of garlic. Serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE were tested using the Phadia CAP System FEIA (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden). Protein extracts from raw and cooked garlic were analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. Serum-specific IgE for garlic was 8.16 kUA/L. IgE banding proteins could only be detected in raw garlic extract, because allergens in garlic were mostly degraded into small fragments after heating, as shown in SDS-PAGE profile. In conclusion, raw garlic could induce life-threatening anaphylaxis. However, most of its allergens are heat labile, and patients allergic to garlic might tolerate the cooked one well.

  18. Composition, Stability, and Bioavailability of Garlic Products Being Used in a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Larry D.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    In support of a new clinical trial designed to compare the effects of crushed fresh garlic and two types of garlic supplement tablets (enteric-coated dried fresh garlic and dried aged garlic extract) on serum lipids, the three garlic products have been characterized for (a) composition (14 sulfur and 2 non-sulfur compounds), (b) stability of suspected active compounds, and (c) availability of allyl thiosulfinates (mainly allicin) under both simulated gastrointestinal (tablet dissolution) conditions and in vivo. The allyl thiosulfinates of blended fresh garlic were stable for at least two years when stored at −80 °C. The dissolution release of thiosulfinates from the enteric-coated garlic tablets was found to be >95%. The bioavailability of allyl thiosulfinates from these tablets, measured as breath allyl methyl sulfide, was found to be complete and equivalent to that of crushed fresh garlic. S-allylcysteine was stable for 12 months at ambient temperature. The stability of the suspected active compounds under the conditions of the study and the bioavailability of allyl thiosulfinates from the dried garlic supplement have validated the use of these preparations for comparison in a clinical trial. PMID:16076102

  19. Simultaneous detection of four garlic viruses by multiplex reverse transcription PCR and their distribution in Indian garlic accessions.

    PubMed

    Majumder, S; Baranwal, V K

    2014-06-01

    Indian garlic is infected with Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Shallot latent virus (SLV), Garlic common latent virus (GarCLV) and allexiviruses. Identity and distribution of garlic viruses in various garlic accessions from different geographical regions of India were investigated. OYDV and allexiviruses were observed in all the garlic accessions, while SLV and GarCLV were observed only in a few accessions. A multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of OYDV, SLV, GarCLV and Allexivirus infecting garlic accessions in India. This multiplex protocol standardized in this study will be useful in indexing of garlic viruses and production of virus free seed material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Myneni, Ajay A.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K.; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A.; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence of anti-cancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in-vitro and in-vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiological evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. Methods We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiological data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Results Compared to no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for <2 times per week = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39–0.81 and aOR for ≥2 times per week = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34 – 0.74; Ptrend = 0.0002). Exploratory analysis showed an additive interaction of raw garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. Impact This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. PMID:26809277

  1. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for <2 times/week = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39-0.81 and aOR for ≥2 times/week = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34-0.74; Ptrend = 0.0002). Exploratory analysis showed an additive interaction of raw garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Identification and HPLC quantitation of the sulfides and dialk(en)yl thiosulfinates in commercial garlic products.

    PubMed

    Lawson, L D; Wang, Z J; Hughes, B G

    1991-08-01

    The content of dialk(en)yl thiosulfinates, including allicin, and their degradation products has been determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using the respective determined extinction coefficients, for a number of commercially available garlic products. Quantitation has been achieved for the thiosulfinates; diallyl, methyl allyl, and diethyl mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexasulfides; the vinyldithiins; and (E)- and (Z)-ajoene. The thiosulfinates were found to be released only from garlic cloves and garlic powder products. The vinyldithiins and ajoenes were found only in products containing garlic macerated in vegetable oil. The diallyl, methyl allyl, and dimethyl sulfide series were the exclusive constituents found in products containing the oil of steam-distilled garlic. Typical steam-distilled garlic oil products contained about the same amount of total sulfur compounds as total thiosulfinates released from freshly homogenized garlic cloves; however, oil-macerated products contained only 20% of that amount, while garlic powder products varied from 0 to 100%. Products containing garlic powder suspended in a a gel or garlic aged in aqueous alcohol did not contain detectable amounts of these non-ionic sulfur compounds. A comparison of several brands of each type of garlic product revealed a large range in content (4-fold for oil-macerates and 33-fold for steam-distilled garlic oils), indicating the importance of analysis before garlic products are used for clinical investigations or commercial distribution.

  3. Salmonella survival during thermal dehydration of fresh garlic and storage of dehydrated garlic products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmei; Qi, Yan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shaokang; Deng, Xiangyu

    2017-12-18

    Salmonella survival was characterized and modeled during thermal dehydration of fresh garlic and storage of dehydrated garlic products. In our experiments that simulated commercial dehydration processing at 80±5°C, moderate level of Salmonella contamination (4-5logCFU/g) on fresh garlic was reduced below the enumeration limit (1.7logCFU/g) after 4.5h of dehydration and not detectable by culture enrichment after 7h. With high level of contamination (7-8logCFU/g), the Salmonella population persisted at 3.6logCFU/g after 8h of processing. By increasing the dehydration temperature to 90±5°C, the moderate and high levels of initial Salmonella load on fresh garlic dropped below the enumeration limit after 1.5 and 3.75h of processing and became undetectable by culture enrichment after 2.5 and 6h, respectively. During the storage of dried garlic products, Salmonella was not able to grow under all tested combinations of temperature (25 and 35°C) and water activity (0.56-0.98) levels, suggesting active inhibition. Storage temperature played a primary role in determining Salmonella survival on dehydrated garlic flakes. Under a typical storage condition at 25°C and ambient relative humidity, Salmonella could persist over months with the population gradually declining (4.3 log reduction over 88days). Granular size of dehydrated garlic had an impact on Salmonella survival, with better survival of the pathogen observed in bigger granules. At the early stage of dehydrated garlic storage (until 7days), rising water activity appeared to initially promote but then inhibited Salmonella survival, resulting in a water activity threshold at 0.73 where Salmonella displayed strongest persistence. However, this phenomenon was less apparent during extended storage (after 14days). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of S-1-propenylcysteine, a sulfur compound in aged garlic extract, on blood pressure and peripheral circulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Takashima, Miyuki; Kunimura, Kayo; Kodera, Yukihiro; Morihara, Naoaki; Tamura, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of S-1-propenylcysteine, a characteristic sulfur compound in aged garlic extract, using a hypertensive rat model. The blood pressure and tail blood flow of both spontaneously hypertensive rats and control Wistar Kyoto rats were measured by the tail-cuff method and the noncontact laser Doppler method, respectively, at various times after single oral administration of a test compound for 24 h. Treatment with S-1-propenylcysteine (6.5 mg/kg BW) significantly decreased the systolic blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rat approximately 10% at 3 h after administration, and thereafter, the systolic blood pressure gradually returned to the baseline level in 24 h. The effect of S-1-propenylcysteine was dose-dependent and was maximal at the dose of 6.5 mg/kg BW at 3 h. However, the other compounds such as S-allylcysteine and S-allylmercaptocysteine in aged garlic extract were ineffective. In addition, S-1-propenylcysteine had no effect on systolic blood pressure of control Wistar Kyoto rats. Furthermore, S-1-propenylcysteine significantly increased the blood flow at 3 h after administration at the dose of 6.5 mg/kg BW. S-1-propenylcysteine is a key constituent of aged garlic extract responsible for its antihypertensive effect, and the effect of S-1-propenylcysteine involves the improvement in peripheral circulation. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Gastroprotective effect of garlic in indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Eman G; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Selim, Hend M

    2016-01-01

    Garlic, in its natural plant state, has a great history in ancient medicine as a remedy for many diseases. In our study, the gastroprotective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated in an experimental model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (normal control, n = 20), ulcer control (indomethacin group, n = 20), (omeprazole group, n = 30) and (garlic group, n = 20). Each dose of garlic and omeprazole was given to rats orally daily for 10 consecutive days before induction of ulcer by indomethacin. Indomethacin was given as a single oral dose (100 mg/kg). Four hours later after indomethacin treatment, the rats were sacrificed and gastric tissue was obtained for histopathological examination, calculation of ulcer index and measurement of oxidative stress markers as well as gastroprotective mediators. The results showed that indomethacin induced gastric ulcer (ulcer index = 2900), was associated with a significant increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde, and significant decrease of the gastroprotective mediators prostaglandin E2, glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) compared with normal control. Pretreatment with AGE produced comparable results with those obtained in the omeprazole group; the preventive index in the AGE group was 83.4% compared with 94.5% in the omeprazole group. The prophylactic role of AGE in indomethacin-induced ulcer was, in part, mediated by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing gastric level of PGE2, GSH, and NO. AGE corrected the histopathological abnormalities in gastric tissue and proved a promising gastroprotective role in gastric ulcer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1317 Garlic and its derivatives. (a) Garlic is the... derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic oil...

  7. Molecular Characterization of Kastamonu Garlic: An Economically Important Garlic Clone in Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to assess genetic relationship of Kastamonu garlic, which is very popular in Turkey due to its high quality features, along with some previously characterized garlic clones collected from different regions of the world using AFLP and locus specific DNA markers. UPGMA cluste...

  8. An Aromatic Adventure with Allelopathy: Using Garlic to Study Allelopathy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Haberman, Vickie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the potential of garlic ("Allium sativum L.") to illustrate the concept of allelopathy and demonstrate the biological activity of plant volatiles. This article describes several classroom experiments involving garlic that can be used as a method of introducing students of various ages to the following important…

  9. Garlic: empiricism or science?

    PubMed

    Aviello, Gabriella; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo Antonio; Lembo, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Capasso, Francesco

    2009-12-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used as a food and a spice. Garlic constituents include enzymes (for example, alliinase) and sulfur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin). Traditionally, it has been employed to treat infections, wounds, diarrhea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes, and many other disorders. Experimentally, it has been shown to exert antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antineoplastic, antibacterial, immunostimulant and hypoglycemic actions. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of conditions, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, common cold, as an insect repellent, and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. However, the clinical evidence is far from compelling. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.

  10. Aged red garlic extract reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and acute pulmonary inflammation through haeme oxygenase-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Park, H-J; Jeon, B T; Kim, H C; Roh, G S; Shin, J-H; Sung, N-J; Han, J; Kang, D

    2012-05-01

    It is known that garlic has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Aged red garlic (ARG), a novel aged garlic formulation, has higher antioxidant effects than fresh raw garlic. This study was performed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of ARG extract (ARGE). The anti-inflammatory effects of ARGE were evaluated in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Raw 264.7 macrophages and acute lung inflammatory mice. NO production was determined by the Griess method, and iNOS, HO-1 and COX-2 expressions were measured using Western blot analysis. Histology and inflammation extent of lung were analysed using haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. ARGE treatment markedly reduced LPS-induced nitrite production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Treatment of cells with ARGE led to a significant increase in haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, which was mediated by stimulating the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Treatment with zinc protoporphyrin, a selective inhibitor of HO-1, significantly reversed the ARGE-mediated inhibition of nitrite production (P < 0.05). In LPS-induced inflammatory mice, ARGE treatment down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expressions, while it up-regulated HO-1 expression. These results show that ARGE reduces LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction and suggest that ARGE may have potential effects on prevention and treatment of acute inflammatory lung injury. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  11. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions

  12. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2012-03-14

    Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four. To determine whether garlic (allium sativum) is effective for either the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2011, Issue 4), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965), MEDLINE (January 1966 to November week 3, 2011), EMBASE (1974 to December 2011) and AMED (1985 to December 2011). Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment. Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data. Of the six trials identified as potentially relevant from our searches, only one trial met the inclusion criteria. This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily) for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and

  13. Effect of porphobilinogen on the formation of garlic green pigments.

    PubMed

    Mou, Conghua; Hao, Xiaoran; Xu, Zhixiang; Qiao, Xuguang

    2013-08-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulb is processed into various forms such as crushed garlic, garlic juice, granules, dehydrated garlic pieces and garlic powder. However, greening is often a major problem when garlic is crushed, since it affects the appearance and quality of the resulting product. Therefore study of the formation mechanism of garlic green pigments is very important for garlic processing. The effect of porphobilinogen (PBG) on the formation of garlic green pigments was investigated in this study. As the storage time increased, there was a significant positive correlation between garlic greening and PBG content at low temperature (4 °C). PBG content decreased significantly during the garlic greening process. When treated with respiration inhibitor, both garlic greening strength and PBG content decreased as the concentration of respiration inhibitor increased. The green colour was generated when extracted PBG and allicin mixed thoroughly. There was a clear relationship between PBG content and garlic greening. As a provider of pyrrolyl compounds, PBG plays an important role in the formation of garlic green pigments. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Perceptions of successful aging in Black older adults.

    PubMed

    Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A; Mavellia, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Successful aging is important; however, there is a lack of knowledge on how to promote successful aging in Black older adults. In this study, which examined Black older adults' perceptions of successful aging, a cross-sectional descriptive design was used to examine the psychometric properties of the Successful Aging Inventory and qualitative characteristics of successful aging in 100 Black older adults. The participants' responses to an open-ended question, "What does successful aging mean to you?" revealed relevant aspects of successful aging. Six broad categories emerged: Independence/Ability, Health, Mindset, Activity/Service, Family, and Spirituality. These categories suggest foci for potential interventions to promote successful aging in Black older adults.

  15. [Does garlic protect against vampires? An experimental study].

    PubMed

    Sandvik, H; Baerheim, A

    1994-12-10

    Vampires are feared everywhere, but the Balkan region has been especially haunted. Garlic has been regarded as an effective prophylactic against vampires. We wanted to explore this alleged effect experimentally. Owing to the lack of vampires, we used leeches instead. In strictly standardized research surroundings, the leeches were to attach themselves to either a hand smeared with garlic or to a clean hand. The garlic-smeared hand was preferred in two out of three cases (95% confidence interval 50.4% to 80.4%). When they preferred the garlic the leeches used only 14.9 seconds to attach themselves, compared with 44.9 seconds when going to the non-garlic hand (p < 0.05). The traditional belief that garlic has prophylactic properties is probably wrong. The reverse may in fact be true. This study indicates that garlic possibly attracts vampires. Therefore to avoid a Balkan-like development in Norway, restrictions on the use of garlic should be considered.

  16. Lactic acid fermentation and storage of blanched garlic.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A; Montaño, A; Sánchez, A H; Rejano, L

    1998-02-17

    The controlled fermentation of peeled, blanched garlic, using a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum, was studied and compared with that of unblanched garlic. Blanching was carried out in hot water (90 degrees C) for 15 min. The starter grew abundantly in the case of blanched garlic, producing mainly lactic acid and reaching a pH of 3.8 after 7 days, but its growth was inhibited in unblanched garlic. Ethanol and fructose, coming from enzymatic activities of the garlic, and a green pigment were formed during the fermentation of unblanched garlic, but not of blanched garlic. The blanched garlic fermented by L. plantarum, even without a preservation treatment (pasteurization), was microbiologically stable during storage at 30 degrees C in an acidified brine (approximately 3% (w/w) NaCl and pH 3.5 at equilibrium), but fructans were hydrolyzed. The packed fermented product and that obtained by direct packing without fermentation were not significantly different with regard to flavour.

  17. Garlic Mustard (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1999-01-01

    Garlic mustard was used as an edible green in Europe and may have been brought to North America by European settlers. The coarsely toothed leaves give off a garlic-like odor when crushed, accounting for its common name and use in cooking. It is a member of the mustard family.

  18. The Mathematics of Garlic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Nathan T.; Deming, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The garlic problem presented in this article develops several themes related to dimensional analysis and also introduces students to a few basic statistical ideas. This garlic problem was used in a university preparatory chemistry class, designed for students with no chemistry background. However, this course is unique because one of the primary…

  19. Modulation of cholesterol levels in broiler meat by dietary garlic and copper.

    PubMed

    Konjufca, V H; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1997-09-01

    Male Ross x Ross 208 chickens were fed from hatching to 21 d of age either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of a commercial garlic powder in Experiments 1 and 2. Once the dose-response relationship was established, 3% garlic powder or 63 or 180 mg/kg copper as cupric citrate or cupric sulfate pentahydrate were supplemented to the diet (Experiments 3, 4, 5, and 6). In the first two experiments, reductions of plasma cholesterol (P = 0.006) and triacylglycerols (P = 0.013) and liver (P = 0.012) and breast muscle (P = 0.165) cholesterol were observed in garlic-supplemented birds. Feeding either garlic powder or copper (63 and 180 mg/kg) resulted in reduced levels of plasma cholesterol, liver cholesterol, blood reduced glutathione, and breast and thigh muscle cholesterol. Differences were significant at P < 0.05 in at least one experiment. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl reductase activity was decreased due to dietary garlic (P = 0.0369), but not by pharmacological levels of dietary copper (P = 0.982). The activity of fatty acid synthetase was decreased in birds fed copper (P = 0.035). Both garlic and copper supplements decreased cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity (P = 0.024 and P = 0.022, respectively). The results of these trials confirm the findings that garlic and copper alter lipid and cholesterol metabolism. However, they do not work by the same mechanism. Feeding dietary garlic or copper for 21 d reduced cholesterol levels of broiler meat without altering growth of the chickens or feed efficiency.

  20. Effect of garlic solution to Bacillus sp. removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainol, N.; Rahim, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Biofilm is a microbial derived sessile community characterized by cells that are irreversibly attached to a substratum or interface to each other, embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. Bacillus sp. was used as biofilm model in this study. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Garlic solution in term of ratio of water and Garlic solution (W/G) and ratio of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. (GS/B) on Bacillus sp removal. Garlic solution was used to remove Bacillus sp. In this study, Garlic solution was prepared by crushing the garlic and mixed it with water. the Garlic solution was added into Bacillus sp. mixture and mixed well. The mixture then was spread on nutrient agar. The Bacillus sp. weight on agar plate was measured by using dry weight measurement method. In this study, initially Garlic solution volume and Garlic solution concentration were studied using one factor at time (OFAT). Later two-level-factorial analysis was done to determine the most contributing factor in Bacillus sp. removal. Design Expert software (Version 7) was used to construct experimental table where all the factors were randomized. Bacilus sp removal was ranging between 42.13% to 99.6%. The analysis of the results showed that at W/G of 1:1, Bacillus sp. removal increased when more Garlic solution was added to Bacillus sp. Effect of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. will be understood which in turn may be beneficial for the industrial purpose.

  1. Garlic

    MedlinePlus

    ... impact of dietary changes and dietary supplements on lipid profile. Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 2011;27(4): ... CM, et al. The impact of garlic on lipid parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis . Nutrition ...

  2. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale)

    PubMed Central

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D.; Dosoky, Noura S.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Garlic, Allium sativum, is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale, has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum, cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species. PMID:28783070

  3. The Chemical Compositions of the Volatile Oils of Garlic (Allium sativum) and Wild Garlic (Allium vineale).

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Craft, Jonathan D; Dosoky, Noura S; Setzer, William N

    2017-08-05

    Garlic, Allium sativum , is broadly used around the world for its numerous culinary and medicinal uses. Wild garlic, Allium vineale , has been used as a substitute for garlic, both in food as well as in herbal medicine. The present study investigated the chemical compositions of A. sativum and A. vineale essential oils. The essential oils from the bulbs of A. sativum , cultivated in Spain, were obtained by three different methods: laboratory hydrodistillation, industrial hydrodistillation, and industrial steam distillation. The essential oils of wild-growing A. vineale from north Alabama were obtained by hydrodistillation. The resulting essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both A. sativum and A. vineale oils were dominated by allyl polysulfides. There were minor quantitative differences between the A. sativum oils owing to the distillation methods employed, as well as differences from previously reported garlic oils from other geographical locations. Allium vineale oil showed a qualitative similarity to Allium ursinum essential oil. The compositions of garlic and wild garlic are consistent with their use as flavoring agents in foods as well as their uses as herbal medicines. However, quantitative differences are likely to affect the flavor and bioactivity profiles of these Allium species.

  4. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sanjay K; Maulik, Subir K

    2002-01-01

    Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. Though many clinical trials showed a positive effect of garlic on almost all cardiovascular conditions mentioned above, however a number of negative studies have recently cast doubt on the efficary of garlic specially its cholesterol lowering effect of garlic. It is a great challenge for scientists all over the world to make a proper use of garlic and enjoy its maximum beneficial effect as it is the cheapest way to prevent cardiovascular disease. This review has attempted to make a bridge the gap between experimental and clinical study and to discuss the possible mechanisms of such therapeutic actions of garlic. PMID:12537594

  6. The effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genshuan, Wei; Guanghui, Wang; Ruipu, Yang; Jilan, Wu

    1996-02-01

    A study of the effects of γ-radiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide and disulfide was carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant when stored for 10 months. The main components of garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3CHOH radical into acetaldehyde, which means that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited.

  7. Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dhrubajyoti; Banerjee, Sugato

    2013-12-01

    Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.

  8. Development of an Analytic Method for Sulfur Compounds in Aged Garlic Extract with the Use of a Postcolumn High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method with Sulfur-Specific Detection.

    PubMed

    Matsutomo, Toshiaki; Kodera, Yukihiro

    2016-02-01

    Garlic and its processed preparations contain numerous sulfur compounds that are difficult to analyze in a single run using HPLC. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid and convenient sulfur-specific HPLC method to analyze sulfur compounds in aged garlic extract (AGE). We modified a conventional postcolumn HPLC method by employing a hexaiodoplatinate reagent. Identification and structural analysis of sulfur compounds were conducted by LC-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance. The production mechanisms of cis-S-1-propenylcysteine (cis-S1PC) and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) were examined by model reactions. Our method has the following advantages: less interference from nonsulfur compounds, high sensitivity, good correlation coefficients (r > 0.98), and high resolution that can separate >20 sulfur compounds, including several isomers, in garlic preparations in a single run. This method was adapted for LC-MS analysis. We identified cis-S1PC and γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-mercaptocysteine in AGE. The results of model reactions suggest that cis-S1PC is produced from trans-S1PC through an isomerization reaction and that SAMC is produced by a reaction involving S-allylcysteine/S1PC and diallyldisulfide during the aging period. We developed a rapid postcolumn HPLC method for both qualitative and quantitative analyses of sulfur compounds, and this method helped elucidate a potential mechanism of cis-S1PC and SAMC action in AGE. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  10. Alleviation by garlic of antitumor drug-induced damage to the intestine.

    PubMed

    Horie, T; Awazu, S; Itakura, Y; Fuwa, T

    2001-03-01

    Antitumour drugs such as methotrexate (MTX) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) induce intestinal damage. This is a serious side effect of cancer chemotherapy. The present studies examined whether or not aged garlic extract (AGE) protects against damage from these antitumor drugs. Both drugs were administered orally for 4 or 5 d to rats fed a standard laboratory diet with and without 2% AGE. The small intestinal absorption of the poorly absorbable compound, fluorescein isothiocyanate--labeled dextran (FD-4; average molecular weight, 4400) was used to evaluate the damage to the intestine using the in vitro everted intestine technique and the in situ intestinal loop technique. FD-4 absorption increased in the antitumour drug-treated rats fed the diet without garlic. Interestingly, FD-4 absorption was depressed in rats fed the diet containing AGE. These results suggest that AGE may protect the small intestine of rats from antitumour drug-induced damage.

  11. How Does Your Garlic Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Fearing, Vickie

    1993-01-01

    Garlic is an ideal plant for the elementary classroom. It grows rapidly in water without aeration for several weeks and remains relatively free of microbial contamination. Simple experiments with garlic purchased at grocery stores can illustrate various aspects of plant growth. (PR)

  12. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Gil-Ortiz, Mariana; Albarrán, Gabriela; Barbachano-Esparza, Laura; Menjívar, Marta; Medina-Campos, Omar N

    2004-01-01

    Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a) aqueous garlic extracts or (b) garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled garlic cloves, microwave-treated garlic cloves, and pickled garlic were studied. It was also studied if the above mentioned preparations were able to chelate Cu2+. Methods Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm and 37°C by 240 min in a phosphate buffer 20 mM, pH 7.4. Blood serum and CuSO4 were added to a final concentration of 0.67% and 0.0125 mM, respectively. The lag time and the area under the curve from the oxidation curves were obtained. The Cu2+-chelating properties of garlic extracts were assessed using an approach based upon restoring the activity of xanthine oxidase inhibited in the presence of 0.050 mM Cu2+. The activity of xanthine oxidase was assessed by monitoring the production of superoxide anion at 560 nm and the formation of uric acid at 295 nm. Data were compared by parametric or non-parametric analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Results Extracts from garlic powder and raw garlic inhibited in a dose-dependent way Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation. The heating of garlic extracts or garlic cloves was unable to alter significantly the increase in lag time and the decrease in the area under the curve observed with the unheated garlic extracts or raw garlic. In addition, it was found that the garlic extracts were unable to chelate Cu2+. Conclusions (a) the heating of aqueous extracts of raw garlic or garlic powder or the heating of garlic cloves by boiling, microwave or pickling do not

  13. Comparative studies of bioactive organosulphur compounds and antioxidant activities in garlic (Allium sativum L.), elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Dan-Bi; Jin, Wenjie; Park, Junghyuck; Yoon, Wonjin; Lee, Yunyeol; Kim, Soyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Sungsoo; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Shin, Dongbin; Yoo, Miyoung

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables, including garlic, elephant garlic and onion, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among organosulphur compounds, elephant garlic had considerable γ-glutamyl peptides, and garlic had the highest alliin content. Onion had low level of organosulphur compounds than did elephant garlic and garlic. In addition, antioxidant capacities were evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. The results showed that garlic had the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by elephant garlic and onion. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between antioxidant activities and organosulphur compounds (R > 0.77). Therefore, our results indicate that there was a close relationship between antioxidant capacity and organosulphur compounds in Allium vegetables.

  14. Garlic and onion sensitization among Saudi patients screened for food allergy: a hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Almogren, A; Shakoor, Z; Adam, M H

    2013-09-01

    Detection of specific IgE antibodies against food materials indicates allergic sensitization. Some very widely consumed foods materials such as garlic and onion have rarely been investigated for their allergenic potential. To assess the presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in patients investigated for food allergy. Radioallergosorbent test (RAST) results of 108 patients with clinical suspicion of food allergy who were specifically screened for garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies along with other food allergens were analyzed retrospectively at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2008 and April 2009. This group of patients included 73 males and 35 females with mean age 27+13.2 years. Estimation of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies was performed by radioallergosorbent test (RAST) using Pharmacia ImmunoCAP 250 analyzer. Out of the 108 patients 15 (13.8%) had garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in their sera. Garlic specific IgE antibodies with the RAST scores between one to four were present in 14 and onion specific IgE were detected in 13 patients. For garlic specific IgEs majority of patients (08) had RAST score of one (0.35-0.69 kU/L) and for onion specific IgE antibodies seven patients had RAST score of two (0.70-3.49 kU/L). Among these patients 12 (80%) were found to have coexisting specific IgE antibodies against garlic and onion. The presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in a sizeable number of patients indicate sensitization and allergenic potential of these food materials.

  15. Studies on the antimutagenic activities of garlic extract

    SciTech Connect

    Knasmueller, S.; Szakmary, A.; Domjan, G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with Salmonella tester strains indicated that aqueous garlic extract possesses antimutagenic properties toward ionizing radiation, peroxides, adriamycin, and N-methyl-N{prime}-nitro-nitrosoguanidine. The assumption that radical scavenging garlic constituents, i.e., molecules with sulfur moieties, might be responsible for the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract toward mutagenesis induced by radiation and radiomimetic compounds was confirmed by the results of subsequent experiments; (1) garlic extract attenuated the lethal effects of {gamma}-rays on repair-deficient E. coli strains; (2) the garlic constituent allicin (thio-2-propene-1-sulfinic acid S-allyl ester) is partly responsible for the reduced radiation-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102. No such inhibitory effects were detectedmore » with alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) or cysteine; (3) aqueous garlic extract inhibited hydrogen-peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. Results obtained in preliminary experiments with Chinese hamster ovary cells suggest that the antimutagenic properties of garlic extract are not restricted to procaryotic cells.« less

  16. Antimicrobial Properties of Garlic Oil against Human Enteric Bacteria: Evaluation of Methodologies and Comparisons with Garlic Oil Sulfides and Garlic Powder

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Z. M.; O'Gara, E. A.; Hill, D. J.; Sleightholme, H. V.; Maslin, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous garlic extracts are well established but those of garlic oil (GO) are little known. Methodologies for estimating the antimicrobial activity of GO were assessed and GO, GO sulfide constituents, and garlic powder (GP) were compared in tests against human enteric bacteria. Test methodologies were identified as capable of producing underestimates of GO activity. Antimicrobial activity was greater in media lacking tryptone or cysteine, suggesting that, as for allicin, GO effects may involve sulfhydryl reactivity. All bacteria tested, which included both gram-negative and -positive bacteria and pathogenic forms, were susceptible to garlic materials. On a weight-of-product basis, 24 h MICs for GO (0.02 to 5.5 mg/ml, 62 enteric isolates) and dimethyl trisulfide (0.02 to 0.31 mg/ml, 6 enteric isolates) were lower than those for a mixture of diallyl sulfides (0.63 to 25 mg/ml, 6 enteric isolates) and for GP, which also exhibited a smaller MIC range (6.25 to 12.5 mg/ml, 29 enteric isolates). Viability time studies of GO and GP against Enterobacter aerogenes showed time- and dose-dependent effects. Based upon its thiosulfinate content, GP was more active than GO against most bacteria, although some properties of GO are identified as offering greater therapeutic potential. Further exploration of the potential of GP and GO in enteric disease control appears warranted. PMID:11133485

  17. Synergistic effect of aged garlic extract and naltrexone on improving immune responses to experimentally induced fibrosarcoma tumor in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Tabari, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Aghajanzadeh, Hamid; Behzadi, Manijeh Yousefi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Garlic, a medicinal plant, and Naltrexone (NTX), an opioid receptor antagonist, both have immunomodulatory and antitumor effects. Current study was designed to evaluate synergistic antitumor effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) and NTX. Materials and Methods: WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells were implanted subcutaneously on day 0 into right flank of 80 BALB/c mice at age of 8 weeks. Mice were randomly categorized in four separate groups: The first group received AGE (100 mg/kg, i.p.), the second group received NTX (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), the third group received both of them, and the fourth group received phosphate buffered saline as control group. Treatments were administered three times per week. Tumor growth was measured and morbidity was recorded. Subpopulations of CD4+/CD8+ T cells were determined using flowcytometery. WEHI-164 cell specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes and in vitro production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) cytokines were measured. All statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS 16 software and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The mice who received AGE+NTX had significantly longer survival time compared with the mice treated with AGE or NTX alone. An enhanced inhibitory effect on tumor growth was seen in combination therapy group. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio and in vitro IFN-γ production of splenocytes were significantly increased in AGE+NTX and NTX groups. WEHI-164 specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes was also significantly increased at 25:1 E:T ratio in AGE+NTX treated mice. Coadministration of AGE with NTX resulted in improvement of immune responses against experimentally implanted fibrosarcoma tumors in BALB/c mice. Conclusions: AGE showed synergistic effects with NTX on inhibition of tumor growth and increment of survival times. PMID:23901215

  18. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  19. Identity of the immunomodulatory proteins from garlic (Allium sativum) with the major garlic lectins or agglutinins.

    PubMed

    Clement, Fatima; Pramod, Siddanakoppalu N; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2010-03-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), an important medicinal spice, displays a plethora of biological effects including immunomodulation. Although some immunomodulatory proteins from garlic have been described, their identities are still unknown. The present study was envisaged to isolate immunomodulatory proteins from raw garlic, and examine their effects on certain cells of the immune system (lymphocytes, mast cells, and basophils) in relation to mitogenicity and hypersensitivity. Three protein components of approximately 13 kD (QR-1, QR-2, and QR-3 in the ratio 7:28:1) were separated by Q-Sepharose chromatography of 30 kD ultrafiltrate of raw garlic extract. All the 3 proteins exhibited mitogenic activity towards human peripheral blood lymphocytes, murine splenocytes and thymocytes. The mitogenicity of QR-2 was the highest among the three immunomodulatory proteins. QR-1 and QR-2 displayed hemagglutination and mannose-binding activities; QR-3 showed only mannose-binding activity. Immunoreactivity of rabbit anti-QR-1 and anti-QR-2 polyclonal antisera showed specificity for their respective antigens as well as mutual cross-reactivity; QR-3 was better recognized by anti-QR-2 (82%) than by anti-QR-1 (55%). QR-2 induced a 2-fold higher histamine release in vitro from leukocytes of atopic subjects compared to that of non-atopic subjects. In all functional studies, QR-2 was more potent compared to QR-1. Taken together, all these results indicate that the two major proteins QR-2 and QR-1 present in a ratio of 4:1 in raw garlic contribute to garlic's immunomodulatory activity, and their characteristics are markedly similar to the abundant Allium sativum agglutinins (ASA) I and II, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-Proliferation Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on the Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyung-Sook; Shin, Su-Jin; Lee, Na Young; Cheon, Se-Yun; Park, Wansu; Sun, Seung-Ho; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a urologic disease that affects most of men over the age 50. But until now there is no such perfect cure without side effects. Because of diverse adverse effects, it is desirable to develop effective and long term-safety-herbal medicines to inhibit the progress of BPH. In spite of garlic's large use and a wide spectrum of studies, including anti-hyperlipidemic, cardio-protective, and anti-inflammatory activities, there was none to prove efficacy for BPH. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of garlic to prove its suppressing effects on BPH. Garlic administration decreased relative prostate weight ratio, suppressed mRNA expression level of AR, DHT serum levels, and the growth of prostatic tissue in BPH-induced rats. Moreover, garlic administration decreased the levels of inflammatory proteins, iNOS, and COX-2 in prostatic tissue. Further investigation showed that garlic induced accumulation of death-inducing signal complex and activation of AMPK and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and survivin. These results suggest that garlic may have suppressing effects on BPH and it has great potential to be developed as treatment for BPH. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Garlic Influences Gene Expression In Vivo and In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Novotny, Janet A

    2016-02-01

    There is a large body of preclinical research aimed at understanding the roles of garlic and garlic-derived preparations in the promotion of human health. Most of this research has targeted the possible functions of garlic in maintaining cardiovascular health and in preventing and treating cancer. A wide range of outcome variables has been used to investigate the bioactivity of garlic, ranging from direct measures of health status such as cholesterol concentrations, blood pressure, and changes in tumor size and number, to molecular and biochemical measures such as mRNA gene expression, protein concentration, enzyme activity, and histone acetylation status. Determination of how garlic influences mRNA gene expression has proven to be a valuable approach to elucidating the mechanisms of garlic bioactivity. Preclinical studies investigating the health benefits of garlic far outnumber human studies and have made frequent use of mRNA gene expression measurement. There is an immediate need to understand mRNA gene expression in humans as well. Although safety and ethical constraints limit the types of available human tissue, peripheral whole blood is readily accessible, and measuring mRNA gene expression in whole blood may provide a unique window to understanding how garlic intake affects human health. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Measuring Successful Aging in Southern Black Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.; Bentley, Monica

    2011-01-01

    With the growing size of the population of aging Black individuals, it is important to understand successful aging in this group. This study, therefore, piloted the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) with a convenience sample of Black older adults. Participants completed a demographic form, the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction…

  3. Garlic as an anti-diabetic agent: recent progress and patent reviews.

    PubMed

    Padiya, Raju; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews recent literature on the usage and relevance of garlic and its bioactive components in controlling diabetes and diabetes-associated pathologies; and also updates recent patents on the subject. Antidiabetic effect of garlic is well documented even in ancient medical literature. Garlic and its active ingredients have been extensively studied for their antidiabetic efficacies in either experimentally induced or genetic animal models of diabetes. Human studies are also available where hypoglycemic effect of garlic was reported. The beneficial effects of garlic are mainly attributed to the presence of volatile sulfur compounds like alliin, allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine, ajoene and allyl mercaptan. Garlic and garlic extracts have been shown to be effective in reducing insulin resistance. Therefore, considering the importance of garlic in controlling diabetic complications, several preparations and food processes containing garlic have been patented. This review discusses some of the recent progresses made in this field and consolidates the results.

  4. Evaluation of Aged Garlic Extract Neuroprotective Effect in a Focal Model of Cerebral Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Penélope; Maldonado, Perla D.; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Barrera, Diana; Chánez-Cárdenas, María Elena

    2008-02-01

    The oxidant species generated in cerebral ischemia have been implicated as important mediators of neuronal injury through damage to lipids, DNA, and proteins. Since ischemia as well as reperfusion insults generate oxidative stress, the administration of antioxidants may limit oxidative damage and ameliorate disease progression. The present work shows the transitory neuroprotective effect of the aged garlic extract (AGE) administration (a proposed antioxidant compound) in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats and established its therapeutic window. To determine the optimal time of administration, animal received AGE (1.2 mL/kg) intraperitoneally 30 min before onset of reperfusion (-0.5 R), at the beginning of reperfusion (0R), or 1 h after onset of reperfusion (1R). Additional doses were administrated after 1, 2, or 3 h after onset of reperfusion. To establish the therapeutic window of AGE, the infarct area was determined for each treatment after different times of reperfusion. Results show that the administration of AGE at the onset of reperfusion reduced the infarct area by 70% (evaluated after 2 h reperfusion). The therapeutic window of AGE was determined. Repeated doses did not extend the temporal window of protection. A significant reduction in the nitrotyrosine level was observed in the brain tissue subjected to MCAO after AGE treatment at the onset of reperfusion. Data in the present work show that AGE exerts a transitory neuroprotective effect in response to ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury.

  5. Garlic compounds modulate macrophage and T-lymphocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Lau, B H; Yamasaki, T; Gridley, D S

    1991-06-01

    Organosulfur compounds of garlic have been shown to inhibit growth of animal tumors and to modulate the activity of diverse chemical carcinogens. There is also evidence that garlic may modulate antitumor immunity. In this study, we determined the effects of an aqueous garlic extract and a protein fraction isolated from the extract on the chemiluminescent oxidative burst of the murine J774 macrophage cell line and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages obtained from BALB/c mice. T-lymphocyte activity was determined using mouse splenocytes incubated with phytohemagglutinin, labeled with [3H]-thymidine and assayed for lymphoproliferation. Significant dose-related augmentation of oxidative burst was observed with garlic extract and the protein fraction. The protein fraction also enhanced the T-lymphocyte blastogenesis. The data suggest that garlic compounds may serve as biological response modifiers by augmenting macrophage and T-lymphocyte functions.

  6. Mechanism of the greening color formation of "laba" garlic, a traditional homemade chinese food product.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhengfu; Liao, Xiaojun; Zhao, Guanghua; Hu, Xiaosong

    2005-09-07

    While green discoloration during garlic processing is of a major concern, this greening is desirable and required for the traditional homemade Chinese "Laba" garlic. To obtain insights into the mechanism of color formation, simulation of the greening of "Laba" garlic was carried out in the laboratory by soaking aged garlic in 5% (v/v, pH 2.33) acetic acid solution. After 2 days, the garlic cloves turned green. Up to 4 days, pigment(s) diffused from garlic cloves to the pickling solution. The solution exhibits two maximal absorbances at approximately 440 and approximately 590 nm, corresponding to yellow and blue species, respectively, the combination of which creates the green coloration. With increasing time from 4 to 25 days, the concentration of both yellow and blue species increases at nearly the same rate, while after 25 days, the concentration of the yellow species increases faster than that of the blue species. Interestingly, most thiosulfinates ( approximately 85%) in garlic cloves were converted within 4 days, suggesting that thiosulfinate conversion is proportional to the formation of the pigments. Consistent with this conclusion, alliinase and acetic acid were required for the color formation. UV-vis spectral measurements and pH results suggest that the color formation occurs by two kinds of processes: one enzymatic and the other nonenzymatic. Low pH (2.0-3.0) favors nonenzymatic reactions, while high pH (6.0 or above) is conducive to enzymatic reactions. Thus, the ideal pH for the entire process of garlic greening is between 4.0 and 5.0, which is a compromise of the optimal pH of both the enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions.

  7. Cyanide in the chemical arsenal of garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata.

    PubMed

    Cipollini, Don; Gruner, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide production has been reported from over 2500 plant species, including some members of the Brassicaceae. We report that the important invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, produces levels of cyanide in its tissues that can reach 100 ppm fresh weight (FW), a level considered toxic to many vertebrates. In a comparative study, levels of cyanide in leaves of young first-year plants were 25 times higher than in leaves of young Arabidopsis thaliana plants and over 150 times higher than in leaves of young Brassica kaber, B. rapa, and B. napus. In first-year plants, cyanide levels were highest in young leaves of seedlings and declined with leaf age on individual plants. Leaves of young plants infested with green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) produced just over half as much cyanide as leaves of healthy plants, suggesting that aphid feeding led to loss of cyanide from intact tissues before analysis, or that aphid feeding inhibited cyanide precursor production. In a developmental study, levels of cyanide in the youngest and oldest leaf of young garlic mustard plants were four times lower than in the youngest and oldest leaf of young Sorghum sudanense (cv. Cadan 97) plants, but cyanide levels did not decline in these leaves with plant age as in S. sudanense. Different populations of garlic mustard varied moderately in the constitutive and inducible expression of cyanide in leaves, but no populations studied were acyanogenic. Although cyanide production could result from breakdown products of glucosinolates, no cyanide was detected in vitro from decomposition of sinigrin, the major glucosinolate of garlic mustard. These studies indicate that cyanide produced from an as yet unidentified cyanogenic compound is a part of the battery of chemical defenses expressed by garlic mustard.

  8. Fungitoxicity of lyophilized and spray-dried garlic extracts.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Boggian, Marisa; Vecchiati, Giorgio; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    Among the compounds discussed for anti-microbial and anti-fungal use allicin (allylthiosulfinate, diallyl disulfide-S-monoxide), an active ingredient of garlic, has attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the antifungal activity of a local garlic ecotype (Voghiera) extracts against different pathogens. Primary screening was carried out by the agar plates technique using ethanol garlic extract at four final concentrations against the following organisms: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Colletotrichum acutatum, Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium gramineareum, Gliocladium roseum 47, Pythium splendens, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Stemphylium vesicarium, Trichoderma longibranchiatum, and Botrytis cinerea. Secondary screening was carried out using a lyophilized and a spray-dried preparation at different concentrations against the organisms selected for the high inhibition garlic effect in the primary screening and compared with the commercial fungicides mancozeb and iprodione. The best results were observed for the spray-dried garlic compound that showed a good fungicidal activity at the concentration of 1.5 g/10 mL while lyophilized garlic at the same concentration exhibited less inhibition activity against the four fungi analyzed in the second screening.

  9. Consumption of garlic positively affects hedonic perception of axillary body odour.

    PubMed

    Fialová, Jitka; Roberts, S Craig; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Beneficial health properties of garlic, as well as its most common adverse effect - distinctive breath odour - are well-known. In contrast, analogous research on the effect of garlic on axillary odour is currently missing. Here, in three studies varying in the amount and nature of garlic provided (raw garlic in study 1 and 2, garlic capsules in study 3), we tested the effect of garlic consumption on the quality of axillary odour. A balanced within-subject experimental design was used. In total, 42 male odour donors were allocated to either a "garlic" or "non-garlic" condition, after which they wore axillary pads for 12 h to collect body odour. One week later, the conditions were reversed. Odour samples were then judged for their pleasantness, attractiveness, masculinity and intensity by 82 women. We found no significant differences in ratings of any characteristics in study 1. However, the odour of donors after an increased garlic dosage was assessed as significantly more pleasant, attractive and less intense (study 2), and more attractive and less intense in study 3. Our results indicate that garlic consumption may have positive effects on perceived body odour hedonicity, perhaps due to its health effects (e.g., antioxidant properties, antimicrobial activity). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Black carbon radiative forcing at TOA decreased during aging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Cheng, Tianhai; Zheng, Lijuan; Chen, Hao

    2016-12-05

    During aging processing, black carbon (also called soot) particles may tend to be mixed with other aerosols, and highly influence their radiative forcing. In this study, freshly emitted soot particles were simulated as fractal aggregates composed of small spherical primary monomers. After aging in the atmosphere, soot monomers were coated by a thinly layer of sulfate as thinly coated soot particles. These soot particles were entirely embedded into large sulfate particle by further aging, and becoming heavily coated soot particles. In clear-sky conditions, black carbon radiative forcing with different aging states were investigated for the bottom and top of atmosphere (BOA and TOA). The simulations showed that black carbon radiative forcing increased at BOA and decreased at TOA after their aging processes. Thinly and heavily coated states increased up to ~12% and ~35% black carbon radiative forcing at BOA, and black carbon radiative forcing at TOA can reach to ~20% and ~100% smaller for thinly and heavily coated states than those of freshly emitted states, respectively. The effect of aging states of black carbon radiative forcing was varied with surface albedo, aerosol optical depth and solar zenith angles. These findings would be helpful for the assessments of climate change.

  11. Repeated administration of fresh garlic increases memory retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, Saida; Naz, Nosheen; Khaliq, Saima; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2008-12-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is regarded as both a food and a medicinal herb. Increasing attention has focused on the biological functions and health benefits of garlic as a potentially major dietary component. Chronic garlic administration has been shown to enhance memory function. Evidence also shows that garlic administration in rats affects brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) levels. 5-HT, a neurotransmitter involved in a number of physiological functions, is also known to enhance cognitive performance. The present study was designed to investigate the probable neurochemical mechanism responsible for the enhancement of memory following garlic administration. Sixteen adult locally bred male albino Wistar rats were divided into control (n = 8) and test (n = 8) groups. The test group was orally administered 250 mg/kg fresh garlic homogenate (FGH), while control animals received an equal amount of water daily for 21 days. Estimation of plasma free and total tryptophan (TRP) and whole brain TRP, 5-HT, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. For assessment of memory, a step-through passive avoidance paradigm (electric shock avoidance) was used. The results showed that the levels of plasma free TRP significantly increased (P < .01) and plasma total TRP significantly decreased (P < .01) in garlic-treated rats. Brain TRP, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA levels were also significantly increased following garlic administration. A significant improvement in memory function was exhibited by garlic-treated rats in the passive avoidance test. Increased brain 5-HT levels were associated with improved cognitive performance. The present results, therefore, demonstrate that the memory-enhancing effect of garlic may be associated with increased brain 5-HT metabolism in rats. The results further support the use of garlic as a food supplement for the enhancement of memory.

  12. Effect of aged garlic extract on immune responses to experimental fibrosarcoma tumor in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Tabari, M Abouhosseini; Ebrahimpour, S

    2014-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has many biological activities including radical scavenging, antioxidative and immunomodulative effects. In this research work, the antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of AGE against fibrosarcoma implanted tumor were studied. WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells were implanted subcutaneously on day 0 into the right flank of 40 BALB/c mice at age of 8 weeks. Mice were randomly categorized in two separate groups: First received AGE (100 mg/kg, IP), second group as the control group received phosphate buffered saline. Treatments were carried out 3 times/week. Tumor growth was measured and morbidity was recorded. Subpopulations of CD4+/CD8+ T cells were determined using flow cytometry. WEHI-164 cell specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes and in vitro production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 cytokines were measured. The mice received AGE had significantly longer survival time compared with the control mice. The inhibitory effect on tumor growth was seen in AGE treated mice. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio and in vitro IFN-γ production of splenocytes were significantly increased in AGE group. WEHI-164 specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes from AGE mice was also significantly increased at 25:1 E: T ratio. Administration of AGE resulted in improved immune responses against experimentally implanted fibrosarcoma tumors in BALB/c mice. AGE showed significant effects on inhibition of tumor growth and longevity of survival times.

  13. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-07-29

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes.

  14. Protective Effect of Garlic on Cellular Senescence in UVB-Exposed HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells, which induces the cellular senescence and photoaging. The present study investigated the protective effects of garlic on photo-damage and cellular senescence in UVB-exposed human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. An in vitro cell free system was used to examine the scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of garlic extract on ROS formation, MMP-1 protein and mRNA expressions, cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, senescence associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, and silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) activity were determined in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. Garlic exhibited strong DPPH radical and NO scavenging activity in cell free system exhibiting IC50 values of 2.50 mg/mL and 4.38 mg/mL, respectively. Garlic pretreatment attenuated the production of UVB-induced intracellular ROS. MMP-1 level, which has been known to be induced by ROS, was dramatically elevated by UVB irradiation, and UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly reduced by garlic treatment (50 µg/mL) comparable to those of UV-unexposed control cells. UV-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine productions (IL-6 and IL-1β) were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with garlic in a dose-dependent manner. SA-β-gal activity, a classical biomarker of cellular senescence, and SIRT1 activity, which has attracted attention as an anti-aging factor in recent years, were ameliorated by garlic treatment in UV-irradiated HaCaT cells. The present study provides the first evidence of garlic inhibiting UVB-induced photoaging as a result of augmentation of cellular senescence in HaCaT human keratinocytes. PMID:27483310

  15. Aging Black Women and Public Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jacquelyne Johnson

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the following questions: (1) what is the effect of the stereotyped characterization of old black women on their well-being; (2) what are the major issues surrounding the social, economic, and health conditions of subgroups of aging black women; and (3) what should be the substantive content of advocatory efforts on their behalf? (BJV)

  16. Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of garlic and synergistic effect between garlic and ciprofloxacin in a chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Dong Wan; Han, Chang Hee; Jung, Yun Seok; Kim, Sung In; Kim, Sae Woong; Cho, Yong-Hyun

    2009-09-01

    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP), which is characterised by recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and persistence of pathogenic bacteria and evidence of inflammation in the prostatic secretions, is one of the most common causes of relapsing UTI in men. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic as well as the synergistic effect of garlic with ciprofloxacin on the treatment of CBP in an animal model. An experimental CBP model was induced in 60 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by instillation of 0.2 mL of bacterial suspension (Escherichia coli Z17, O2:K1:H-) containing 1 x 10(8) colony-forming units/mL into the prostatic urethra. Microbiologically and histologically proven CBP was demonstrated in 68.3% (41/60) of the rats after 4 weeks of bacterial instillation. The 41 rats demonstrating CBP were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control; garlic; ciprofloxacin; and garlic plus ciprofloxacin. After 3 weeks of treatment, microbiological cultures of the urine and prostate samples as well as histological findings of the prostate were analysed. Microbiological cultures and histological findings of the prostate samples demonstrated reduced bacterial growth and improved inflammatory responses in all three experimental groups compared with the control group. The garlic group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the control group. The garlic plus ciprofloxacin group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the ciprofloxacin group. These results suggest that garlic may have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects as well as a synergistic effect with ciprofloxacin. We therefore suggest that the combination of garlic and ciprofloxacin may be effective in treating CBP with a higher success rate.

  17. Immunomodulatory and antiparasitic effects of garlic extract on Eimeria vermiformis-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Atef Mohammed; Yasuda, Masahiro; Farid, Ayman Samir; Desouky, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohi-Eldin, Mouchira Mohammed; Haridy, Mohie; Horii, Yoichiro

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the immunomodulatory and parasiticidal effects of garlic extract on coccidiosis caused by Eimeria vermiformis infection in male ICR mice. One group received garlic extract daily until the end of the experiment by the oral route from 10 days prior to oral infection with 300 sporulated E. vermiformis oocysts (infected-garlic(+)). The other group served as a control positive with E. vermiformis infection alone (infected-garlic(-)). In the infected-garlic(+) group, garlic extract treatment induced a significant reduction in fecal oocyst output when compared with the infected-garlic(-) group. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and gene expression analysis for inflammatory cytokines in ileal tissues showed that the garlic extract treatment impaired intracellular development of E. vermiformis during the early stages by increasing the number of intraepithelial CD8(+) T cells and decreasing IL-10 expression. This induced cell cytotoxicity which was reflected by a decrease in oocyst numbers in the intestinal villi and the feces, indicating anticoccidial effects of the garlic extract. However, further studies to explore the precise mechanism of the observed effects of garlic treatment during Eimeria infection are needed to verify our results.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... obtained from Allium sativum, a genus of the lily family. Its derivatives include essential oils, oleo-resins, and natural extractives obtained from garlic. (b) Garlic oil meets the specifications of the...

  19. The Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Organosulfur Compounds in Cancer Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Georgia; Kaschula, Catherine H.

    2014-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used for centuries as a prophylactic and therapeutic medicinal agent. Importantly, garlic has been suggested to have both cancer-preventive potential as well as significant enhancing effects on the immune system. While these observations are supported experimentally both in vitro and in vivo, the impact of garlic in assisting the immune system in the prevention of cancer still lacks experimental confirmation. Studies addressing the immunomodulatory effects of garlic reveal conflicting data as to pro- or anti-inflammatory responses depending on the particular experimental set-ups and the garlic preparation used (i.e. garlic extract versus chemically pure garlic compounds). Here we provide an overview of the chemistry of the major garlic organosulfur compounds, summarize the current understanding and propose a link between the immunomodulating activity of garlic and the prevention of cancer. We hypothesize that garlic rather elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative responses that aid in priming the organism towards eradication of an emerging tumor. PMID:24237225

  20. Garlic-Derived Organic Polysulfides and Myocardial Protection123

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jessica M; Organ, Chelsea L; Lefer, David J

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, garlic has been shown to exert substantial medicinal effects and is considered to be one of the best disease-preventative foods. Diet is important in the maintenance of health and prevention of many diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that garlic reduces risks associated with CVD by lowering cholesterol, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and lowering blood pressure. In recent years, emerging evidence has shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has cardioprotective and cytoprotective properties. The active metabolite in garlic, allicin, is readily degraded into organic diallyl polysulfides that are potent H2S donors in the presence of thiols. Preclinical studies have shown that enhancement of endogenous H2S has an impact on vascular reactivity. In CVD models, the administration of H2S prevents myocardial injury and dysfunction. It is hypothesized that these beneficial effects of garlic may be mediated by H2S-dependent mechanisms. This review evaluates the current knowledge concerning the cardioprotective effects of garlic-derived diallyl polysulfides. PMID:26764335

  1. Onion and garlic dehydration in the San Emidio Desert, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Integrated Ingredients dedicated their new onion and garlic processing plant on May 25th. {open_quotes}Grunion{close_quotes} as the new community of 72 employees has been labeled, is located just south of Empire and Gerlach and about 100 miles north of Reno, Nevada. The plant, run by Integrated Ingredients (based in Alameda, CA), is a division of Burns Philp Food, Inc., which owns brands such as Spice Islands, Durkee-French and Fleischmann`s. This plant gives the company the ability to produce its own products for industrial and consumer markets instead of purchasing them. The plant was located in the San Emidio Desert at themore » edge of the vast Black Rock Desert and the Great Basin to take advantage of the high temperature geothermal resource (approximately 270{degrees}F). The resource is also used by the OESI/AMOR II 3.6 MW binary plant about a mile south of the dehydration plant and a gold heap leaching operation just to the north of the plant (Wind Mt. mine operated by AMAX). In addition to the geothermal energy, the high desert is an ideal location for onion and garlic processing because the cold winters kill damaging microbes. Dry winters and summers also help.« less

  2. Potential of garlic (Allium sativum) in lowering high blood pressure: mechanisms of action and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, lowering blood pressure (BP) by about 10 mmHg systolic and 8 mmHg diastolic, similar to standard BP medication. Aged garlic extract, which contains S-allylcysteine as the bioactive sulfur compound, in particular is standardizable and highly tolerable, with little or no known harmful interaction when taken with other BP-reducing or blood-thinning medication. Here we describe biologically plausible mechanisms of garlic’s BP-lowering effect. Garlic-derived polysulfides stimulate the production of the vascular gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and enhance the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which induce smooth muscle cell relaxation, vasodilation, and BP reduction. Several dietary and genetic factors influence the efficiency of the H2S and NO signaling pathways and may contribute to the development of hypertension. Sulfur deficiency might play a part in the etiology of hypertension, and could be alleviated with supplementation of organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. PMID:25525386

  3. Garlic intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li-qiong; Liu, Yun-hui; Zhang, Yi-yi

    2015-01-01

    Garlic is a common spicy flavouring agent also used for certain therapeutic purposes. Garlic's effects on blood glucose have been the subject of many clinical and animal studies, however, studies reporting hypoglycemic effects of garlic in humans are conflicting. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of garlic or garlic extracts on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial glucose (PPG), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c)]. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic intake on human was done to assess garlic's effectiveness in lowering glucose levels. Two reviewers extracted data from each of the identified studies. Seven eligible randomized controlled trials with 513 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that garlic intake results in a statistically significant lowering in FBG [SMD=-1.67; 95% CI (-2.80, -0.55), p=0.004]. Our pooled analyses did not include PPG control and HbA1c outcomes. Because only 1 study included in the meta-analysis reported PPG variables and only 2 studies reported HbA1c variables. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the administration of garlic resulted in a significant reduction in FBG concentrations. More trials are needed to investigate the effectiveness of garlic on HbA1c and PPG.

  4. Effects of dietary intake of garlic on intestinal trematodes.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Alba; García-Ferrús, Miguel; Sotillo, Javier; Guillermo Esteban, J; Toledo, Rafael; Muñoz-Antolí, Carla

    2017-08-01

    The current strategy for the control of helminth infections relies on chemotherapy. However, resistance appearance is promoting the necessity of developing new drugs against trematodes. Herein, potential trematocidal effects of garlic (Allium sativum) are investigated in the context of intestinal foodborne trematodes, employing the Echinostoma caproni-mouse model. Daily administration of dietary doses of garlic was conducted in three groups of mice: (i) before infection (prophylaxis), (ii) after infection (therapeutic) and (iii) both, before and after infection (continuous). A fourth group of mice, not exposed to garlic, was used as control. No differences in worm recovery, fecundity and local cytokine expression profiles were found with respect to control infections. However, considerable alterations in tegument structure, including swelling, furrowing, vacuolization and changes in secretory bodies were detected in garlic-exposed parasites using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Protein secretion was markedly reduced in response to garlic, whereas up-regulation of several proteins, such as major vault protein and tER-ATPase, was observed in treated worms. The results presented herein provide new insights in the anthelminthic activity of bioactive garlic compounds and the manner that parasites respond to toxins.

  5. Detection of Fumonisins in Fresh and Dehydrated Commercial Garlic.

    PubMed

    Tonti, Stefano; Mandrioli, Mara; Nipoti, Paola; Pisi, Annamaria; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Prodi, Antonio

    2017-08-16

    An epidemic fungal disease caused by Fusarium proliferatum, responsible for fumonisin production (FB1, FB2, and FB3), has been reported in the main garlic-producing countries in recent years. Fumonisins are a group of structurally related toxic metabolites produced by this pathogen. The aim of this work was to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure, mostly applied to cereals, that is suitable for fumonisin detection in garlic and compare these results to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and screening of fresh and dehydrated garlic for toxicological risk. The results show good correlation between the two analytical methods. In fresh symptomatic garlic, fumonisin levels were higher in the basal plates than those in the portions with necrotic spots. Among the 56 commercially dehydrated garlic samples screened, three were positive by ELISA test and only one was above the limit of quantitation. The same samples analyzed by HPLC showed the presence of FB1 in trace amounts that was below the limit of quantitation; FB2 and FB3 were absent. The results are reassuring, because no substantial contamination by fumonisins was found in commercial garlic.

  6. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  7. Effect of aged garlic extract against methotrexate-induced damage to the small intestine in rats.

    PubMed

    Yüncü, Mehmet; Eralp, Ayhan; Celik, Ahmet

    2006-06-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy is often accompanied by side effects such as gastrointestinal ulceration and diarrhea. The aim of this study was to examine histologically whether an aged garlic extract (AGE) had a protective effect on the small intestine of rats with MTX-induced damage. Forty male Wistar albino rats were randomized into experimental and control groups and divided into four groups of ten animals. To the first group, MTX was applied as a single dose (20 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. To the second group, in addition to MTX application, AGE (250 mg/kg) was administered orally every day at the same time by intragastric intubation until the rats were killed. To the third group, AGE only was given. The fourth group was the control. All animals were killed 4 days after the intraperitoneal injection of MTX for histopathologic analysis and tissue MDA levels. Before killing, intracardiac blood was obtained from each animal to perform biochemical analysis (plasma lactate level). MTX was found to lead to damage in the jejunal tissues and to increase the MDA and lactate levels in the plasma. Administration of the AGE decreased the severity of jejunal damage, but increased MDA and lactate levels caused by MTX treatment on the other hand. These results suggest that AGE may protect the small intestine of rats from MTX-induced damage. Thus this study substantiated the thought that the protective effect of AGE is derived from the manner in which it interacts with crypt cells.

  8. The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts

    PubMed Central

    Boonpeng, Suwannaporn; Siripongvutikorn, Sunisa; Sae-wong, Chutha; Sutthirak, Pornpong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties. PMID:25493198

  9. Green tea extract and aged garlic extract inhibit anion transport and sickle cell dehydration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, S T; Ohnishi, T; Ogunmola, G B

    2001-01-01

    Both green tea extract (GTE or tea polyphenols) and aged garlic extract (AGE) effectively inhibited in vitro dehydration of sickle red blood cells induced by K-Cl cotransport or red cell storage. For K-Cl cotransport induced by 500 mM urea, 0.3 mg/ml EGCg (epigallocatechin gallate; a major component in GTE) almost completely inhibited dehydration, and 6 mg/ml AGE inhibited dehydration to 30% of the control level. Both vitamins E and C had no effect at the level of 2 mM. Different tea extracts had different degrees of inhibition, but the inhibitory activity increased when the number of hydroxyl groups in the compounds increased. With storage of sickle cells at 4 degrees C for 6 days, the cells started to undergo spontaneous dehydration when incubated at 37 degrees C. Neither inhibitors for Ca-induced K efflux nor K-Cl cotransport could inhibit cell dehydration of stored sickle cells, but both GTE and AGE effectively inhibited it. Chloride efflux measurements using a chloride electrode demonstrated that both GTE and AGE inhibited anion transport in red blood cells. The inhibitory mechanism of these compounds may be related to anion transport inhibition, although involvement of their antioxidant activities can not yet be ruled out. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. The Effect of Garlic Extract on Expression of INFγ And Inos Genes in Macrophages Infected with Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Gharavi, MJ; Nobakht, M; Khademvatan, SH; Bandani, E; Bakhshayesh, M; Roozbehani, M

    2011-01-01

    Background The study was aimed to show the effect of molecular mechanism of Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) on expression of IFNγ and iNOS genes in Leishmania major. Methods Leishmania major promastigotes (MRHO/IR/75/ER) were added to the in-vitro cultured J774 cell line, the cells were incubated for 72 hours. Various concentrations of garlic extract (9.25, 18.5, 37, 74, 148 mg/ml) were added to the infected cells. MTT assay was applied for cellular proliferation. After 72 hours of incubation, supernatants were collected and total RNA was extracted from the infected cells. The express of IFNγ and iNOS genes were studied by RT-PCR method. Results The colorimetric MTT assay after 3 days of incubation showed cytotoxic effect of garlic extract with an IC50 of 37 mg/ml. In addition, IFNγ and iNOS genes expression by RT-PCR indicated that garlic extract lead to over expression of these genes in J774 cell line infected with L. major. Conclusion Garlic extract exerts cytotoxic effect on infected J774 cell line. In addition, the hypothesis that garlic can improve cellular immunity with raising the expression of IFNγ and of iNOS genes confirmed. PMID:22347300

  11. Meta-analysis: Does garlic intake reduce risk of gastric cancer?

    PubMed

    Kodali, R T; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, various epidemiological studies investigated whether garlic can positively modify the risk of gastric cancer. Garlic contains numerous sulfide compounds, including diallyl trisulfide, which have anticarcinogenic properties. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine if garlic intake reduces the risk of gastric cancer. An electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE to June 2014 was completed. There were 14 case control studies, 2 randomized controlled studies, and 1 cohort study that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of gastric cancer with garlic consumption. Meta-analysis of a total of 8,621 cases and 14,889 controls was conducted. Significant variability in duration of garlic intake and reference categories for amount of intake was noted. High, low, and any garlic intake were all associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. High intake had the most significant risk reduction, OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.38-0.62). Heterogeneity was low (I² = 30.85, P = 0.17). A more modest risk reduction was associated with low intake, OR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.97). Half of the studies did not separate garlic intake into high or low amounts, intake was only noted as consumption vs. non-consumption. Any amount of consumption still showed a risk reduction similar to low intake, OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-1.00). Low and any amount of consumption showed moderate heterogeneity (58% and 45%, respectively). Garlic intake appears to be associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. Further high quality studies are required to confirm this finding and to assess the amount of garlic that needs to be consumed for protective effect.

  12. Study of the effects of raw garlic consumption on the level of lipids and other blood biochemical factors in hyperlipidemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, M; Islami, M R; Asadi Karam, G R; Khaksari, M; Sahebghadam Lotfi, A; Hajizadeh, M R; Mirzaee, M R

    2006-10-01

    Hyperlipidemia is one of the famous disorders that can lead to atherosclerosis. Garlic has been considered as one of the blood lipids lowering agents for ages, and various studies have been carried out, some of them confirmed this effect of garlic and some did not. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of raw garlic consumption on human blood biochemical factors in hyperlipidemic individuals. This clinical trial was conducted on 30 volunteer individuals with blood cholesterol higher than 245 mg/dl. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical tests. The volunteers consumed 5 g raw garlic twice a day for 42 days. Second fasting blood samples were collected and the individuals did not use any kind of garlic for next 42 days. After that, the third fasting blood samples were collected and the biochemical factors were measured. After 42 days of garlic consumption the mean of blood total cholesterol (p<0.001) triglycerides (p<0.01) and FBS (p<0.01) were reduced significantly, but HDL-C was increased (p<0.001) significantly. Following 42 days of no garlic consumption total cholesterol (p<0.001), triglycerides and FBS (p<0.05) were significantly increased and HDL-C (p<0.01) decreased. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum lipids, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia. Garlic can be used in mild hyperlipidemia or when the patients cannot tolerate the chemical drugs.

  13. Relationship between gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity and garlic greening, as controlled by temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Hu, Dan; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Fang; Hu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Guanghua

    2008-02-13

    It was established that storage at low temperature (less than 10 degrees C) was required for garlic greening occurring either during processing or in the course of "Laba" garlic preparation while storage at high temperature (higher than 20 degrees C) inhibited its occurrence. However, the reason for this observation is unclear. To obtain insights into a tie connected between storage temperature and garlic greening, it was detected if the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity correlated with garlic greening because the activity of this enzyme is very sensitive to storage temperature. Results showed that garlic puree (which was prepared from fresh garlic) turned green upon addition of GGT but the color of garlic puree remained unchanged when either water or heat-treated GGT (which has no activity due to heat treatment) was used, a result giving a positive answer to the above proposal. Subsequently, to further clarify the relationship between the GGT activity and garlic greening, the GGT activity, the degree of garlic greening, and the concentration of total thiosulfinates in garlic bulbs were determined respectively after the garlic bulbs had been stored at 4 degrees C for up to 59 days followed by storage at 35 degrees C for up to 22 days. It was found that cold storage facilitated the GGT activity whereas warm storage inhibited the activity of this enzyme, just like the effect of storage temperature on greening, indicating that the increase of GGT activity could be a direct factor resulting in garlic greening. Consistent with this conclusion, the concentration of total thiosulfinates (the color developers) in garlic purees likewise exhibited a reversible change by moving garlic bulbs from one low storage temperature to a higher one; namely, it increased with increasing storage time during storage at 4 degrees C while decreasing as storage time increased during storage at 35 degrees C. The present study provided direct evidence that the GGT is involved in

  14. Effect of milk on the deodorization of malodorous breath after garlic ingestion.

    PubMed

    Hansanugrum, Areerat; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2010-08-01

    The effect of milk and milk components on the deodorization of diallyl disulfide (DADS), allyl methyl disulfide (AMDS), allyl mercaptan (AM), allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), and methyl mercaptan (MM) in the headspace of garlic as well as in the mouth- and nose-space after garlic ingestion was investigated using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Fat-free and whole milk significantly reduced the head-, mouth-, and nose-space concentrations of all volatiles. Water was the major component in milk responsible for the deodorization of volatiles. Due to its higher fat content, whole milk was more effective than fat-free milk in the deodorization of the more hydrophobic volatiles diallyl disulfide and allyl methyl disulfide. Milk was more effective than water and 10% sodium caseinate in the deodorization of allyl methyl sulfide, a persistent garlic odor, in the mouth after garlic ingestion. Addition of milk to garlic before ingestion had a higher deodorizing effect on the volatiles in the mouth than drinking milk after consuming garlic. Practical Application: Ingesting beverages or foods with high water and/or fat content such as milk may help reduce the malodorous odor in breath after garlic ingestion and mask the garlic flavor during eating. To enhance the deodorizing effect, deodorant foods should be mixed with garlic before ingestion.

  15. Garlic-in-oil associated botulism: episode leads to product modification.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, D L; Pickard, L K; Guzewich, J J; Devine, B D; Shayegani, M

    1990-01-01

    In February 1989, three cases of botulism occurred in persons who consumed garlic bread made from a garlic-in-oil product. Testing of leftover garlic-in-oil showed it to have a pH of 5.7 and to contain high concentrations of Clostridium botulinum organisms and toxin. This was the second episode of botulism associated with a low acid garlic-in-oil product which needs constant refrigeration. In response, the Food and Drug Administration has taken steps to prevent a recurrence by requiring that microbial inhibitors or acidifying agents be added to such products. PMID:2240308

  16. Investigating the protective effects of aged garlic extract on cyclosporin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Wongmekiat, Orawan; Thamprasert, Kamthorn

    2005-10-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) nephrotoxicity has been described in solid organ recipients and in the patients who were treated for autoimmune diseases. Reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidations are implicated in the pathophysiology of CsA-induced renal injury. Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been reported to exhibit potent antioxidative and free radical scavenging abilities in various disease conditions. The present study was designed to investigate whether AGE could possibly have a protective effect against nephrotoxicity induced by CsA. Male Wistar rats were treated orally with CsA (50 mg/kg/day), CsA + AGE (0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg/day started 3 days before the first dose of CsA), or the vehicle of CsA for a period of 10 days. Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, and renal histopathological changes were evaluated after 24 h of the last treatment. CsA caused an increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine by 117 and 100%, respectively, whereas it decreased creatinine clearance by 78% compared with the vehicle-treated rats (all P < 0.001). AGE treatment (0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg) significantly protected animals against CsA-induced biochemical changes, albeit blood urea nitrogen and creatinine clearance in the 0.5 g/kg AGE treated-animals were only partially restored. Kidney sections taken from CsA-treated rats showed severe vacuolations and tubular necrosis. These histopathological changes were markedly improved by pretreatment of rats with AGE at the dose of 0.5--2 g/kg. The results indicate that AGE ameliorates renal dysfunction and morphological changes induced by CsA, and imply that it could be a beneficial remedy for attenuating the CsA nephrotoxicity.

  17. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Zeh, Gina; Hauf, Katharina; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. PMID:27275838

  18. Antioxidant effects of supercritical fluid garlic extracts in sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Perretti, Giuseppe; Falconi, Caterina; Marconi, Ombretta; Fantozzi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Lipid oxidation causes changes in quality attributes of vegetable oils. Synthetic antioxidants have been used to preserve oils; however, there is interest in replacing them with natural ones. Garlic and its thiosulfinate compound allicin are known for their antioxidant activities. This study assesses a novel formulation, the supercritical fluid extract of garlic, on sunflower oil oxidation during an accelerated shelf-life test. Three quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide values, and p-anisidine values) were evaluated in each of the six oil samples. The samples included sunflower oil alone, sunflower oil supplemented with BHT, the undiluted supercritical fluid extract of garlic, and sunflower oils supplemented with three levels of garlic extract. The oils were also investigated for their antioxidant properties using the DPPH and the FRAP assays. The results were compared with the effect of the synthetic BHT. Our results underlined that the highest level of garlic extract may be superior, or at least comparable, with BHT in preserving sunflower oil. The oxidative degradation of oily samples can be limited by using supercritical fluid extract of garlic as it is a safe and an effective natural antioxidant formulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic)

    PubMed Central

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms “Allium sativum,” “Garlic,” “Allicin,” “Ajoene,” “Leishmania,” “in vitro,” “in vivo,” and “clinical trial,” alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:26721553

  20. Detection of Volatile Metabolites Derived from Garlic (Allium sativum) in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Laura; Sauermann, Yvonne; Heinlein, Anja; Sharapa, Constanze; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The metabolism and excretion of flavor constituents of garlic, a common plant used in flavoring foods and attributed with several health benefits, in humans is not fully understood. Likewise, the physiologically active principles of garlic have not been fully clarified to date. It is possible that not only the parent compounds present in garlic but also its metabolites are responsible for the specific physiological properties of garlic, including its influence on the characteristic body odor signature of humans after garlic consumption. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate potential garlic-derived metabolites in human urine. To this aim, 14 sets of urine samples were obtained from 12 volunteers, whereby each set comprised one sample that was collected prior to consumption of food-relevant concentrations of garlic, followed by five to eight subsequent samples after garlic consumption that covered a time interval of up to 26 h. The samples were analyzed chemo-analytically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially by a trained human panel. The analyses revealed three different garlic-derived metabolites in urine, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2), confirming our previous findings on human milk metabolite composition. The excretion rates of these metabolites into urine were strongly time-dependent with distinct inter-individual differences. These findings indicate that the volatile odorant fraction of garlic is heavily biotransformed in humans, opening up a window into substance circulation within the human body with potential wider ramifications in view of physiological effects of this aromatic plant that is appreciated by humans in their daily diet. PMID:27916960

  1. An umbrella review of garlic intake and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Missbach, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Georg

    2016-10-15

    To gain further insight into the strength of evidence and extent of possible biases in the scope of studies investigating the impact of garlic and garlic supplement intake on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, we performed an umbrella review of all published meta-analyses synthesizing data from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials. Electronic database PubMed (between 1966 and June 2015) was searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses using following search terms: ("garlic" OR "allium sativum" OR "allicin" OR "organosulfur") AND ("cardiovascular" OR "coronary" OR "cholesterol" OR "triglyceride" OR "atherosclerosis" OR "blood pressure" OR "hypertension" OR "blood glucose") AND ("systematic review" OR "meta-analysis"), with no restriction to calendar data and language. Hand-search of reference lists and relevant clinical guidelines was performed as well. Nine systematic reviews investigated the effects of garlic on lipid parameters and eight systematic reviews analyzed the effects on blood pressure parameters were identified. Eight of nine meta-analyses synthesizing the effect of garlic on blood lipids reported significantly decreased total cholesterol levels. Inconsistent results could be detected for HDL-cholestrol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerols. The effect of garlic on systolic blood pressure showed consistent results across publications with 7 out of 8 meta-analyses demonstrating a substantial decrease in systolic blood pressure. Similar results could be reported regarding the effect of garlic on diastolic blood pressure, i.e. 6 out of 8 meta-analyses detected significant reductions in diastolic blood pressure levels following interventions with garlic. According to the data summarized in the present umbrella review, garlic preparations as well as garlic exerted some positive effects on indicators and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, typically without causing any serious side effects. However, with regard to the

  2. Tropical green leafy vegetables prevent garlic-induced hepatotoxicity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2006-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is popularly consumed because of its role in the treatment and management of several diseases. However, unregulated and chronic intake of garlic can cause damage to cells through the production of free radicals. This study was carried out in order to assess the ability of some tropical green leafy vegetables (Telfairia occidentalis, Solanum macrocapon, Corchorus olitorius, Baselia alba, Cnidoscolus acontifolus, Amarantus cruentus, and Ocimum gratissimum) to prevent garlic-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Wistar strain albino rats were fed diet containing 4% garlic along with or without 40% green leafy vegetable supplement for 14 days. Thereafter, the feeding trial was terminated, the serum of the blood was prepared, and the liver, spleen, intestine, and organ were isolated for gross pathological investigation. The results of the study revealed that there was a significant increase (P < .05) in serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) of the albino rats fed diet containing 4% garlic supplement when compared with the rats fed the basal diet without garlic and vegetable (40%) supplement. However, there was a significant decrease (P < .05) in the serum total protein and albumin levels in those rats. Conversely, there was a consistent significant decrease (P < .05) in the SGOT and SGPT of the rats fed diet containing garlic (4%) and T. occidentalis (40%) and C. acontifolus (40%) supplement compared with those rats fed diet containing garlic (4%) supplement, while there were no consistent significant decrease in those rats fed diet with garlic (4%) alongside with 40% of other leafy vegetables (S. macrocanum, C. olitorius, B. alba, A. cruentus, and O. gratissimum). An increase in serum level of total protein and albumin was also observed in the rats fed T. occidentalis and C. acontifolus. Thus, T. occidentalis and C. acontifolus proved to be better vegetables in preventing garlic

  3. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  4. Prevention of garlic-induced hemolytic anemia using some tropical green leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is popularly consumed in Nigeria because of its health benefit in treatment and management of several disease conditions. However, excessive intake of garlic may cause hemolytic anemia. This project sought to investigate the ability of some commonly consumed tropical green leafy vegetables-namely, Amaranthus cruentus, Baselia alba, Solanum macrocarpon, Ocimum gratissimum, and Corchorus olitorius-to prevent garlic-induced hemolytic anemia. Wister strain albino rats were fed diet containing 4% garlic with or without 40% vegetable supplement. The study showed that there was a decrease in daily feed intake (6.7-7.2 g/rat/day), daily weight gain (0.7-1.5 g/rat/day), and digestibility (70.4-91.5%) of rats fed diet with garlic (4%), with or without vegetable (40%) supplement, compared with those rats fed the basal diet without garlic (4%) and vegetable (40%) supplement (digestibility, 95.5%; daily feed intake, 7.5 g/rat/day; and daily weight gain, 2.0 g/rat/day). However, there was a significant decrease (P < .05) in the packed cell volume (PCV) (31.0%), hemoglobin (Hb) (10.2 g/dL), red blood cells (RBCs) (4.3 x 10(6)/microL), and white blood cells (WBCs) (3.5 x 10(6)/microL) of rats fed diet with garlic (4%) but without vegetable compared with those rats fed diet without garlic (4%) and vegetable (40%) supplements (PCV, 38.2%; Hb, 13.0 g/dL; RBCs, 5.5 x 10(6)/microL; and WBCs, 4.0 x 10(6)/microL). Conversely, there was a significant increase in the PCV (33.5-35.6%), Hb (12.0-12.5 g/dL), and RBCs (4.9-5.3 x 10(6)/microL) of rats fed diet with garlic (4%) and vegetable (40%) supplement compared with rats fed diet with 4% garlic supplement (except S. macrocarpon and C. olitorius). Furthermore, there was a significant decrease (P < .05) in mean corpuscular volume (69.2-72.0 fL) of rats fed the basal and those fed diet with garlic and vegetable (except C. olitorus and S. macrocarpon) supplement compared with the rats fed diet with garlic but without

  5. Systemic production of IFN-alpha by garlic (Allium sativum) in humans.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Mau; Girish, G V; Karmohapatra, Soumendra K; Samad, S A; Sinha, Asru K

    2007-05-01

    The effect of foods on the production of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is currently unknown. Garlic (Allium sativum) used as a folk medicine is reported to stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production. We investigated the systemic increase of NO due to the ingestion of garlic on the plasma IFN-alpha level in normal volunteers. Normal volunteers (10 groups, 10 in each group) ate 2 g fresh garlic, and plasma NO and IFN-alpha levels were determined after 2 and 4 h. The participants were also asked to eat garlic for various periods of time, and plasma NO and IFN-alpha were similarly assayed. Ingestion of 2 g fresh, but not boiled, garlic was found to increase the basal plasma level of NO from 2.7 +/- 0.1 microM to 8.76 +/- 0.21 microM at 2 and 4 h, respectively. The basal plasma IFN-alpha level increased from 9.51 +/- 0.26 nM to 46.3 +/- 1.2 nM in normal volunteers (n = 10) at the same time. The chronic eating of garlic was found to maintain IFN-alpha at high levels for at least 7 days. The exposure of neutrophils to garlic in vivo or in vitro, which also stimulated synthesis of NO in these cells, was found to stimulate IFN-alpha synthesis as measured by the stimulation of IFN-alpha mRNA synthesis. Thus, consumption of garlic resulted in stimulated synthesis of NO and, in turn, IFN-alpha in humans, which could be beneficial in viral or proliferative diseases.

  6. Work-related allergic respiratory disease and asthma in spice mill workers is associated with inhalant chili pepper and garlic exposures.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, Anita; Singh, Tanusha; Baatjies, Roslynn; Lopata, Andreas Ludwig; Jeebhay, Mohamed Fareed

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for allergic respiratory disease in spice mill workers. A cross-sectional study of 150 workers used European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaires, Phadiatop, serum specific IgE (garlic, chili pepper), spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Personal air samples (n=62) collected from eight-hour shifts were analysed for inhalable particulate mass. Novel immunological assays quantified airborne garlic and chili pepper allergen concentrations. Mean dust particulate mass (geometric mean (GM)=2.06 mg/m(3)), chili pepper (GM=0.44 µg/m(3)) and garlic allergen (GM=0.24 µg/m(3)) were highest in blending and were highly correlated. Workers' mean age was 33 years, 71% were men, 46% current smokers and 45% atopic. Spice-dust-related asthma-like symptoms (17%) were common, as was garlic sensitisation (19%), with 13% being monosensitised and 6% cosensitised to chili pepper. Airflow reversibility and FeNO>50 ppb was present in 4% and 8% of workers respectively. Spice-dust-related ocular-nasal (OR 2.40, CI 1.09 to 5.27) and asthma-like (OR 4.15, CI 1.09 to 15.72) symptoms were strongly associated with airborne garlic in the highly exposed (>0.235 µg/m(3)) workers. Workers monosensitised to garlic were more likely to be exposed to higher airborne chili pepper (>0.92 µg/m(3)) (OR 11.52, CI 1.17 to 113.11) than garlic allergens (OR 5.08, CI 1.17 to 22.08) in this mill. Probable asthma was also more strongly associated with chili pepper than with garlic sensitisation. Exposure to inhalable spice dust (GM >2.06 mg/m(3)) containing garlic (GM>0.24 µg/m³) and chili pepper (GM >0.44 µg/m(3)) allergens increase the risk of allergic respiratory disease and asthma.

  7. Immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic compounds.

    PubMed

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects.

  8. Total phenolic levels in diverse garlics (Allium sativum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a specialty crop that is highly responsive to growth environment with respect to bulb size and coloration. Ten genetically diverse garlic cultivars were grown at twelve locations for two consecutive years. Soil characteristics and bulb phenotypic characters including ...

  9. Effects of garlic extract on spreading depression: In vitro and in vivo investigations.

    PubMed

    Marschollek, Claudia; Karimzadeh, Fariba; Jafarian, Maryam; Ahmadi, Milad; Mohajeri, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Sadegh; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Gorji, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different types of headaches has been suggested by several medieval literatures. Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a propagating wave of neuroglial depolarization, was established as a target for anti-migraine drugs. This study was designed to investigate the effect of garlic extract on CSD in adult rats. CSD was induced by KCl microinjection in the somatosensory cortex. The effects of five different concentrations of garlic oil (1-500 μl/l) were tested on different characteristic features of CSD in necocortical slices. In in vivo experiments, the effects of garlic oil on electrophysiological and morphological changes induced by CSD were investigated. Garlic oil in a dose-dependent manner decreased the amplitude of CSD but not its duration and velocity in neocortical brain slices. Garlic oil at concentration of 500 μl/l reversibly reduced the amplitude of the field excitatory post-synaptic potentials and inhibited induction of long-term potentiation in the third layer of neocortical slices. In in vivo studies, systemic application of garlic oil (1 ml/l) for three consecutive days reduced the amplitude and repetition rate of CSD. Garlic oil also prevented of CSD-induced reactive astrocytosis in the neocortex. Garlic oil suppresses CSD, likely via inhibition of synaptic plasticity, and prevents its harmful effects on astrocyte. Further studies are required to identify the exact active ingredient(s) of garlic oil that inhibit CSD and may have the potential to use in treatment of CSD-related disorders.

  10. Influence of steeping solution and storage temperature on the color change of garlic.

    PubMed

    Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Seog-Won; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Jin Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the browning of garlic under different steeping conditions and storage temperatures. The brown indices of steeped garlics showed lowest values (7.3 and 7) in 25% and 50% EtOH at 7 d of storage. The degree of browning of steeped garlics was lowest (10.2 in 25% EtOH and 10.4 in 50% EtOH) in the samples soaked for 8 h at 13 d of storage. As the storage temperature was increased from 10 to 40 degrees C, the brown indices of garlics revealed an increasing trend relative to storage time regardless of steeping treatment. Overall, the kinetic parameters showed relatively low R(2) and irregular reaction constants, but the k(o) values showed an increasing trend with temperature under a zero-order model. The highest polyphenol content within the garlic bulbs was seen in controls (without steeping treatment, 588.9 microg/g), than 0% EtOH (water, 392.5 microg/g), than 25% EtOH (211.3 microg/g), and finally 50% EtOH (155.6 microg/g). The polyphenol oxidase activity of garlic showed a similar trend to that of polyphenol content. However, the texture properties of garlics steeped with 25% and 50% did not change. The garlic color preferred by consumers is a creamy-white, but this is susceptible to enzymatic browning when pre-peeled and chopped. When garlic was steeped in the 25% and 50% alcohol, the browning of garlic was prevented during storage.

  11. Identification and immunologic characterization of an allergen, alliin lyase, from garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Kao, Shao-Hsuan; Hsu, Ching-Hsian; Su, Song-Nan; Hor, Wei-Ting; Chang T, Wen-Hong; Chow, Lu-Ping

    2004-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is one of the most common relishes used in cooking worldwide. Very few garlic allergens have been reported, and garlic allergy has been rarely studied. The aim of the study was to identify allergenic proteins in garlic and to investigate their importance in allergies to other Allium species (leek, shallot, and onion). A crude extract of garlic proteins was separated by SDS-PAGE and 2-dimensional electrophoresis; immunoblotting was then performed with the use of individual and pooled sera from patients with garlic allergy, and the major IgE-binding proteins were analyzed by amino acid sequencing and mass spectrometry. The putative allergens were further purified by chromatography; the antigenicity, allergenicity, and IgE-binding cross-reactivity of the purified protein were then studied by immunoblotting, periodate oxidation, skin tests, and IgE-binding inhibition assays. A major allergen, alliin lyase, was identified by mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing and purified to homogeneity through the use of a simple 2-step chromatographic method. Skin tests showed that the purified protein elicited IgE-mediated hypersensitive responses in patients with garlic allergy. Periodate oxidation showed that carbohydrate groups were involved in the antigenicity, allergenicity, and cross-reactivity. Garlic alliin lyase showed strong cross-reactivity with alliin lyases from other Allium species, namely leek, shallot, and onion. Alliin lyase was found to be a major garlic allergen in a garlic-allergic group of patients in Taiwan. The wide distribution of alliin lyase in Allium suggests it may be a new cross-reactive allergen.

  12. Efficacy of garlic based treatments against monogenean parasites infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata (Peters)).

    PubMed

    Fridman, S; Sinai, T; Zilberg, D

    2014-06-16

    Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Garlic (Allium sativum) is a well-known spice which also possesses anti-microbial and anti-parasitical properties. The current work aimed to test the efficacy of garlic-based treatments against infection with monogenean sp. in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Clipped sections of tail fins of guppies heavily infected with Gyrodactylus turnbulli were exposed to aqueous garlic extract (7.5 to 30 mL L(-1)) and visually observed under a dissecting microscope. Results revealed that exposure to garlic caused detachment of parasite and cessation of movement indicating death. A positive correlation was seen between garlic concentration and time to detachment and death of parasites, which, at the highest concentration of 30 mL L(-1), occurred at 4.1 and 8.6 min, respectively. Bathing in aqueous garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) was tested in guppies infected with G. turnbulli. Prior acute toxicity tests revealed the maximum tolerance levels of guppies to garlic extract to be 12.5 mL L(-1) for 1h. Bathing of infected fish in garlic extract (7.5 and 12.5 mL L(-1)) significantly (p<0.05) reduced infection prevalence and intensity as compared to the control. Oral treatments using dry garlic powder-supplemented diet were tested on guppies infected with G. turnbulli and Dactylogyrus sp. Fish were fed with food containing 10% and 20% dry garlic powder for 14 days. Groups fed with garlic supplemented diets showed significantly reduced (p<0.05) mean prevalence and mean intensity of parasites as compared to the control. Dietary application of garlic did not appear to affect palatability. Fresh crushed garlic was added at a level of 1 gL(-1) and applied as an indefinite bath for 14 days. This treatment was seen to significantly reduce (p<0.05) parasite prevalence and mean intensity as compared to the control. Histopathology revealed elevated muscular dystrophy in the 20% garlic

  13. Epidemiology of bone fracture across the age span in blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    Pressley, Joyce C; Kendig, Tiffany D; Frencher, Stanley K; Barlow, Barbara; Quitel, Lodze; Waqar, Fauzia

    2011-11-01

    Gender and racial disparities in injury mortality have been well established, but less is known regarding differences in fracture-related hospitalizations across the age span. Cross-sectional analysis of annual incident fracture hospital admissions used statewide acute care hospital discharge data (Statewide Program and Research Cooperative System) for non-Hispanic White (n = 138,763) and non-Hispanic Black (n = 19,588) residents of New York State between 2000 and 2002. US census data with intercensal estimates were used to ascertain the population at risk. Gender- and race-specific incident fracture was calculated in 5-year age intervals. The χ test was used to analyze categorical variables. Mechanisms of injury vary by race and gender in their relative contribution to injury-related fractures across the age span. Black males exhibited higher fracture incidence until approximately age 62, while incidence in women diverged around age 45. Total motor vehicle traffic-related fracture hospitalization is bimodal in Whites but not in Blacks. Over the life span, all groups exhibited bimodal pedestrian fractures with pedestrian fractures accounting for 8.8% and 2.5% of all fractures in Blacks and Whites, respectively. Racial disparities were present from preschool through age 70. Violence-related fractures were 10 times higher in Blacks, accounting for 18.2% of hospitalizations. Black males exhibit higher fracture incidence due to violence by age 5 and higher gun violence by age 10; both remain elevated through age 75. Despite historical studies demonstrating higher bone density in Blacks, this study found racial disparities with increased fracture risk in both Black children and adults across most nonfall-related injury mechanisms examined.

  14. Biobleaching of Industrial Important Dyes with Peroxidase Partially Purified from Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Osuji, Akudo Chigozirim; Eze, Sabinus Oscar O.; Osayi, Emmanuel Emeka; Chilaka, Ferdinand Chiemeka

    2014-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum) and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and V max for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5–5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources) show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range. PMID:25401128

  15. Biobleaching of industrial important dyes with peroxidase partially purified from garlic.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Akudo Chigozirim; Eze, Sabinus Oscar O; Osayi, Emmanuel Emeka; Chilaka, Ferdinand Chiemeka

    2014-01-01

    An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum) and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and V max for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5-5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources) show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range.

  16. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical localization of two major proteins in garlic bulb.

    PubMed

    Wen, G Y; Mato, A; Wisniewski, H M; Malik, M N; Jenkins, E C; Sheikh, A M; Kim, K S

    1995-08-01

    Garlic is known as a potent spice and a medicine with broad therapeutic properties ranging from antibacterial to anticancer, antidiabetic, and anticoagulant. Two major proteins of 40 KD and 14 KD constituting approximately 96% of total garlic proteins have been recently purified at our Institute. This immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study revealed that the 40 KD protein was localized in the parenchyma sheath cells (PSC) of garlic bulbs, whereas the 14 KD protein was present in the cortical cells (CC). Immunogold electron microscopy study indicated that the 40 KD protein was specifically localized in the globular granules of the cytoplasmic area of PSC. Each globular granule was amorphous and homogenous with membrane limiting its outermost layer. The yellowish color of PSC in freshly cut slices of garlic bulb suggested that PSC may have sulfur-containing compounds such as allicin, the primary contributor of the pungency and medicinal properties of garlic. Ellman's reagent test quantitatively revealed that there were 17.8 n moles sulfhydryl (SH)/ml of 40 KD garlic protein. Microtubule tubulin in mitotic figures from PHA-stimulated human short-term whole blood cultures reacted strongly with antitubulin antibody but reacted negatively with anti-40 KD garlic protein antibodies and therefore was not related to the 40 KD garlic protein immunocytochemically.

  17. Prevention of CCl4-induced liver damage by ginger, garlic and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K C; Wegwu, M O; Ayalogu, E O

    2007-02-15

    The hepatoprotective effects of garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and vitamin E pre-treatment against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in male wistar albino rats were investigated. Carbon tetrachloride (0.5 mL kg(-1) body weight) was administered after 28 days of feeding animals with diets containing ginger, garlic, vitamin E and various mixtures of ginger and garlic. Serum alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels, 24 h after CCl4 administration, decreased significantly (p < or = 0.05) in rats pre-treated with garlic, ginger, vitamin E and various mixtures of garlic and ginger than in CCl4-treated rats only. Lipid peroxidation expressed by serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was assayed to assess the extent of liver damage by CCl4; including the extent of hepatoprotection by garlic, ginger and vitamin E. MDA concentration was significantly decreased (p < or = 0.05) in rats pretreated with garlic, ginger, vitamin E and various mixtures of garlic and ginger than in rats administered CCl4-alone. Histological examination of the liver revealed severe infiltration of inflammatory cells in rats treated with CCl4 alone. However, the observed alteration in the normal architecture of the hepatic cells decreased remarkably in pre-treated rats.

  18. Sulfur-containing components of gamma-irradiated garlic bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Choi, Jong-Uck; Yoon, Hyung-Sik

    Sulfur-containing components associated with garlic flavors were investigated to determine the effect of γ-irradiation at 0.1 kGy on the quality of garlic bulbs ( Allium sativum L.) during storage at 3±1°C and 80±5% RH for 10 months. Irradiation treatment had no influence on the amount of total sulfur and thiosulfinate of stored garlic for 10 months, while the storage period brought about a significant reduction ( P<0.05) in the content of both components after the 6-8th month of storage compared with that at the beginning of storage period. The identity of irradiated alliin ( S-allyl- L-cysteine sulfoxide) at sprout-inhibition dose was confirmed according to thin-layer chromatography, i.r. and NMR spectroscopy data.

  19. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  20. Development and evaluation of garlic incorporated ready-to-eat extruded snacks.

    PubMed

    Haritha, D; Vijayalakshmi, V; Gulla, S

    2014-11-01

    The present study was carried out to develop and evaluate ready to eat extruded snacks incorporated with garlic powder at various levels (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %). The organoleptic evaluation was conducted for the developed products and the well accepted products were selected for further studies like physical properties and shelf life (stored at room temperature for 2 months). The organoleptic evaluation of the developed snacks revealed that 15 % and 20 % garlic incorporated snacks were not acceptable due to strong garlic flavor, therefore T1 (control), T2 (5 % garlic) and T3 ( 10 % garlic) were selected for further studies. The physical properties showed significant changes with incorporation of garlic powder at 0 %-10 % level. There was an increase in mass flow rate, tap density and bulk density but decrease in the water holding capacity, oil absorption capacity and expansion ratio. The water soluble index and moisture retention of the products showed the same values for all the three selected treatments. The products were packed by ordinary, nitrogen and vacuum packing and stored for 2 months. It was found that there was an increase in moisture content and microbial load, however the increase was within limits. The increase in the moisture content was low in nitrogen packed products where as the microbial load decreased with increase in the percentage of garlic incorporation. The nitrogen and vacuum packed products showed less microbial load than the ordinary packed products. Garlic powder can be incorporated at 5 and 10 % levels in ready-to-eat extruded snacks with well acceptability and can be stored for a period of 2 months with nitrogen packing as an effective packaging.

  1. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects. PMID:25961060

  2. Immunomodulatory activity of a protein isolated from garlic extract on delayed type hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfari, Tooba; Hassan, Zuhair M; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2002-10-01

    Garlic is known as a potent spice and a medicine with broad therapeutic properties ranging from antibacterial to anticancer, and anticoagulant. One major protein has been isolated and purified; it is the 14-kDa glycoprotein. This protein has shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, two sources of garlic (freshly prepared and commercial tablet) were used. Both sources of garlic were augmented delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, the optimum enhancement were detected at 20 mg/kg. Histological studies indicate that 20 mg/kg caused a hyperplasia and hypertrophy of periarteriolar lymphoid sheath of spleen and paracortical zone of lymph nodes. Partial purified fraction could increase the DTH response comparing to garlic extract, and purified protein could highly increase the DTH response comparing to both garlic extract and partial purified fraction. Garlic at all doses employed did not exhibit any effect on enhancement of antibody titer to SRBC.

  3. Novel Sulfur Metabolites of Garlic Attenuate Cardiac Hypertrophy and Remodeling through Induction of Na+/K+-ATPase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Khatua, Tarak N.; Borkar, Roshan M.; Mohammed, Soheb A.; Dinda, Amit K.; Srinivas, R.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies show an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular basis for the beneficial effect of garlic on the heart is not known. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to (1) investigate the effect of raw garlic on isoproterenol (Iso) induced cardiac hypertrophy (2) find the active metabolites of garlic responsible for the beneficial effect. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rats by subcutaneous single injection of Iso 5 mg kg-1 day-1 for 15 days and the effect of garlic (250 mg/kg/day orally) was evaluated. Garlic metabolites in in vivo were identified by LC/MS study. The effect of garlic and its metabolites were evaluated against hypertrophy in H9C2 cells. Garlic normalized cardiac oxidative stress after Iso administration. Cardiac pathology and mitochondrial enzyme activities were improved in hypertrophy heart after garlic administration. Decreased Na+/K+-ATPase protein level that observed in hypertrophy heart was increased after garlic administration. We identified three garlic metabolites in rat serum. To confirm the role of garlic metabolites on cardiac hypertrophy, Na+/K+-ATPase expression and intracellular calcium levels were measured after treating H9C2 cells with raw garlic and two of its active metabolites, allyl methyl sulfide and allyl methyl sulfoxide. Raw garlic and both metabolites increased Na+/K+-ATPase protein level and decreased intracellular calcium levels and cell size in Iso treated H9C2 cells. This antihypertrophic effect of garlic and its sulfur metabolites were lost in H9C2 cells in presence of Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor. In conclusion, garlic and its active metabolites increased Na+/K+-ATPase in rat heart, and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and associated remodeling. Our data suggest that identified new garlic metabolites may be useful for therapeutic intervention against cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:28194108

  4. Heat Inactivation of Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Abrogates Growth Inhibition of HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Chintapalli, Renuka; Murray, Matthew J J; Murray, James T

    2016-07-01

    The potential anticancer properties of garlic (Allium sativum) may depend on the method of preparation and its storage. Storage of garlic has not been thoroughly investigated to determine whether anticancer properties are retained. Garlic was prepared and processed to mimic normal options for storage and preparation for consumption. Cytotoxicity was determined by crystal violet assay and mechanisms of cytotoxicity were established by microscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western immunoblotting. Significant (P < 0.0001) cytotoxicity was observed in all preparations, except with boiled (cooked) garlic. Depending on the method of storage, garlic extract induced either type I or type II programmed cell death, detectable by caspase 9 cleavage, or Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and LC3-II accumulation, respectively. The conflicting literature on the anticancer properties of garlic may be explained by differences in processing and storage. This study has highlighted that the potency of the antiproliferative properties of cooked garlic, compared to the uncooked form, is diminished in HeLa cells.

  5. Effects of garlic extract on platelet aggregation: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Morris, J; Burke, V; Mori, T A; Vandongen, R; Beilin, L J

    1995-01-01

    1. Studies of the effects of garlic on platelet aggregation have produced inconsistent results possibly related to variations in study design and in the garlic preparations used. 2. The present study examined the effects on platelet aggregation and serum thromboxane and lyso-platelet activating factor, of feeding garlic extract to healthy men using a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. The effects of the same garlic preparation on platelet aggregation in vitro were also investigated. 3. There were no significant differences in platelet aggregation with adenosine diphosphate, platelet activating factor (PAF) or collagen according to treatment group. Serum thromboxane and lysoPAF also showed no change related to garlic supplements. 4. In vitro aggregation with collagen decreased linearly with increasing amounts of garlic extract, but concentrations were higher than those attainable in vivo. Gastrointestinal side effects prevented the use of higher doses of garlic which must be considered to be pharmacological as they exceed changes achievable by dietary modification.

  6. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haiyan; Liu, Menglong; Hayat, Sikandar; Feng, Han

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production. PMID:27095440

  7. Fresh garlic: a possible vehicle for Salmonella Virchow.

    PubMed

    Bennett, C M; Dalton, C; Beers-Deeble, M; Milazzo, A; Kraa, E; Davos, D; Puech, M; Tan, A; Heuzenroeder, M W

    2003-12-01

    A sustained increase in Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow notifications in South Eastern Australia between September 1997 and May 1998 instigated a case-control study and environmental investigations. Cases were defined as having locally acquired culture-confirmed S. Virchow phage-type 8 infection and diarrhoeal disease. Matched controls were selected by progressive digit dialling based on cases' telephone numbers. An exposure and food history questionnaire was administered by telephone. Phage typing and pulse field gel electrophoresis were performed on case and environmental isolates. Thirty-two notifications of S. Virchow infection met the case definition, 37% reported bloody diarrhoea and S. Virchow was isolated from blood in 13% of cases. Twelve patients were admitted to hospital and one died. Fresh garlic (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.3-12.8) and semi-dried tomatoes (OR 12.6, 95% CI 1.5-103.1) were associated with these cases. The associations remained significant after adjusting for sex and age. S. Virchow (PT 8) was cultured from two brands of semi-dried tomatoes associated with cases in two different states. We provide sufficient evidence for semi-dried tomatoes and fresh garlic to be considered as potential risk foods in future Salmonella outbreak investigations.

  8. Microbiological contamination of dried and lyophilized garlic as a potential source of food spoilage.

    PubMed

    Kłębukowska, Lucyna; Zadernowska, Anna; Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Wioleta

    2015-03-01

    Garlic is valued more for its flavoring and used in a wide variety of foods. In food technology, fresh garlic is not used, but instead its processed forms, most often dried and lyophilized, are utilized. The quality and safety of the final product largely depends on their microbiological quality. This research has provided information about effect of garlic fixation methods and provided information about effect of microbiological contamination of garlic used as a spice for quality of garlic mayonnaise sauce. The authors decided to undertake studies following a report from one of the manufacturers of garlic sauces on product defects which originated in dried garlic used in the production process. Samples of garlic (n = 26) were examinated using standard cultural methods (counts of fungi, lactic acid bacteria-LAB, spore-producing Bacillus sp. and the presence of anaerobic saccharolytic and proteolytic clostridia), automated system TEMPO (total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae), immunoenzymatic method using VIDAS tests (occurrence of Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes). The number of total viable count was ranged from 3.51 to 6.85 log CFU/g. Enterobacteriaceae were detected only in one sample. Comparably low values were recorded for fungi (1.30 to 3.47 log CFU/g). The number of LAB was ranged from 2.34 to 5.49 log CFU/g. Clostridium sp. were detected in 22 samples. Salmonella sp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected. It was found that garlic, regardless of th preservation procedure, might be a source of contamination of garlic mayonnaise sauce especially with lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium sp. spores.

  9. The effect of garlic supplements and phytochemicals on the ADMET properties of drugs.

    PubMed

    Berginc, Katja; Kristl, Albin

    2012-03-01

    Garlic supplements have received wide public attention because of their health-beneficial effects. Although these products are considered as innocuous, several case reports and studies have shown the capacity of individual garlic phytochemicals/supplements to interfere with drug pharmacokinetics. This review covers recently published literature on garlic chemistry and composition, and provides a thorough review of published studies evaluating drug-garlic interactions. The authors illustrate the mechanisms underlying pharmacokinetic interactions, which could serve as important highlights in further research to explain results for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices or for drugs, utilizing multiple absorption, distribution and metabolism pathways. To increase the relevance of further research on safety and efficacy of garlic supplements and phytochemicals, their composition should be addressed before conducting in vitro or in vivo research. It is also strongly recommended to characterize in vitro formulation performance to assess the rate and extent of garlic phytochemical release in order to anticipate the in vivo impact on the pharmacokinetics of concomitantly consumed drugs. The main conclusion of this review is that the impact of garlic on different stages of pharmacokinetics, especially on drug absorption and metabolism, is drug specific and dependent on the type/quality of utilized supplement.

  10. Black and Garlic Mustard Plants Are Highly Suitable for the Development of Two Native Pierid Butterflies.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Robin; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2016-04-22

    In multivoltine insects that oviposit and develop on short-lived plants, different herbivore generations across a growing season often exploit different plant species. Here, we compare the development time, pupal mass, and survival of two closely related oligophagous herbivore species on two species of brassicaceous plants that grow in different habitats and which exhibit little overlap in temporal growth phenology. In central Europe, the green-veined white butterfly, Pieris napi L., is bivoltine, whereas the small cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae L., has two to three generations a year. Moreover, P. napi is primarily found in moist, open (e.g., meadow), and forest habitats, whereas P. rapae prefers drier, open habitats. Both butterflies were reared on Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), which is shade-tolerant and grows early in spring in forest undergrowth, and Black mustard (Brassica nigra), which prefers open disturbed habitats and is most common in summer. Both host plant species differ in other traits such as secondary chemistry. We hypothesized that, owing to habitat preference, P. napi would develop equally well on both plants but that P. rapae would perform better on B. nigra The results provide partial support for this hypothesis, as both herbivores performed equally well on A. petiolata and B. nigra However, there were differences in these parameters that were species-specific: on both plants P. rapae developed faster and had larger pupae than P. napi Our results show that specialized herbivores can exploit different species of related plants that grow at different times of the season, enabling them to have multiple generations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Genetic Characterization of Allium Tuncelianum: An Endemic Edible Allium Species With Garlic Odor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A. tuncelianum is a native species to the Eastern Anatolia. Its plant architecture resembles garlic (A. sativum) and it has mild garlic odor and flavor. Because of these similarities, it has been locally called “garlic”. In addition, it has 16 chromosomes number in its diploid genome like garlic. ...

  12. Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Activity of Allium sativum (Garlic): A Review.

    PubMed

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Tappeh, Khosrow Hazrati; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa belonging to Leishmania genus. The current drugs for treatment of leishmaniasis possess many disadvantages; therefore, researchers are continuously looking for the more effective and safer drugs. The aim of this study is to review the effectiveness, toxicities, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of different garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds isolated from garlic against Leishmania spp. in a variety of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials reports. All relevant databases were searched using the terms "Allium sativum," "Garlic," "Allicin," "Ajoene," "Leishmania," "in vitro," "in vivo," and "clinical trial," alone or in combination from 5 English databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar) and 3 Persian databases (Scientific Information Database, Iran Medex, and Magiran) from 1990 to 2014. In summary, garlic with immunomodulatory effects and apoptosis induction contributes to the treatment of leishmaniasis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Garlic induces a shift in cytokine pattern in Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfari, T; Hassan, Z M; Ebtekar, M; Ahmadiani, A; Naderi, G; Azar, A

    2000-11-01

    The regulation of T helper (Th)1- and Th2-type cytokine patterns is important in the final outcome of leishmaniasis in human and murine models. We examined the efficacy of garlic therapy or a combination of garlic and an antimonial drug (glucantime) in promoting healing and regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine patterns in highly susceptible BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. Separate groups of infected mice received 20 mg/kg/day garlic, 60 mg/kg/day glucantime or a combination of the two, from day 30 after infection for 2 weeks. An enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was performed on spleen cell culture supernatants for interferon(IFN)-gamma interleukin(IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10. The results indicate that garlic therapy is more effective than the usual antileishmanial drug in curing the infection. Garlic-treated mice developed Th1-type cytokine responses. In contrast, glucantime therapy led to a Th2-type response in the control group with a lower level of IL-2. However, a combination of garlic and glucantime treatment was more effective than either treatment alone, and resulted in a Th1-type response similar to that which developed with garlic treatment. These results suggest that garlic extract in combination with an antimonial drug, may provide effective therapy against L. major. The immunomodulatory properties of garlic were elucidated in terms of shifting the cytokine response to a Th1-type pattern and therefore causing the protective response.

  14. Garlic Supplementation Ameliorates UV-Induced Photoaging in Hairless Mice by Regulating Antioxidative Activity and MMPs Expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-08

    UV exposure is associated with oxidative stress and is the primary factor in skin photoaging. UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause the up-regulation of metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the degradation of dermal collagen and elastic fibers. Garlic and its components have been reported to exert antioxidative effects. The present study investigated the protective effect of garlic on UV-induced photoaging and MMPs regulation in hairless mice. Garlic was supplemented in the diet, and Skh-1 hairless mice were exposed to UV irradiation five days/week for eight weeks. Mice were divided into four groups; Non-UV, UV-irradiated control, UV+1% garlic powder diet group, and UV+2% garlic powder diet group. Chronic UV irradiation induced rough wrinkling of the skin with hyperkeratosis, and administration of garlic diminished the coarse wrinkle formation. UV-induced dorsal skin and epidermal thickness were also ameliorated by garlic supplementation. ROS generation, skin and serum malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased by UV exposure and were ameliorated by garlic administration although the effects were not dose-dependent. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in skin tissues were markedly reduced by UV irradiation and garlic treatment increased these enzyme activities. UV-induced MMP-1 and MMP-2 protein levels were suppressed by garlic administration. Furthermore, garlic supplementation prevented the UV-induced increase of MMP-1 mRNA expression and the UV-induced decrease of procollagen mRNA expression. These results suggest that garlic may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UV irradiation through the antioxidative system and MMP regulation.

  15. Antibacterial Effect of Garlic Aqueous Extract on Staphylococcus aureus in Hamburger

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffari Nejad, Amir Sasan; Shabani, Shahrokh; Bayat, Mansour; Hosseini, Seyed Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Using garlic is widespread in Iran and other countries as a medicine and a natural spice. Garlic is a potential inhibitor for food pathogens. Foods contaminated with pathogens pose a potential danger to the consumer’s health. The use of garlic can increase the shelf life and decrease the possibilities of food poisoning and spoilage in processed foods. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of garlic aqueous extract on growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this study, the garlic aqueous extract was prepared under sterile conditions and was added in 1, 2, and 3 mL to 100g hamburger samples. A group of samples was prepared to be used as treatment sample, while a group was stored at 4°C and -18°C. The samples were kept in refrigerator for one and two weeks and they were frozen for one, two and three months and then subjected to microbial tests. Results: Statistical evaluation of the first and second week samples indicated a significant growth decreased by all the 1, 2, and 3-mL extracts. In treatment of one, two and three-month samples, the growth of S. aureus was significantly decreased by the 2 and 3-mL extracts. The 1-mL extract was effective in decreasing the growth, and a significant difference was observed in treatments with 2 and 3-mL extracts. However, there was no significant difference between the two and three-month samples, though they were significantly different from the one-month samples. After evaluations, treatment with the 2-mL extract was found to be the best one. Conclusions: Garlic aqueous extract has antibacterial properties against S. aureus present in hamburger. Moreover, garlic aqueous extract can be used not only as a flavor but also as a natural additive for hamburger. In addition, garlic has antibacterial properties against other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which must be investigated in further studies. PMID:25774277

  16. Deodorization of Garlic Breath by Foods, and the Role of Polyphenol Oxidase and Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mirondo, Rita; Barringer, Sheryl

    2016-10-01

    Garlic causes a strong garlic breath that may persist for almost a day. Therefore, it is important to study deodorization techniques for garlic breath. The volatiles responsible for garlic breath include diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, allyl methyl disulfide, and allyl methyl sulfide. After eating garlic, water (control), raw, juiced or heated apple, raw or heated lettuce, raw or juiced mint leaves, or green tea were consumed immediately. The levels of the garlic volatiles on the breath were analyzed from 1 to 60 min by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Garlic was also blended with water (control), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), rosemarinic acid, quercetin or catechin, and the volatiles in the headspace analyzed from 3 to 40 min by SIFT-MS. Raw apple, raw lettuce, and mint leaves significantly decreased all of the garlic breath volatiles in vivo. The proposed mechanism is enzymatic deodorization where volatiles react with phenolic compounds. Apple juice and mint juice also had a deodorizing effect on most of the garlic volatiles but were generally not as effective as the raw food, probably because the juice had enzymatic activity but the phenolic compounds had already polymerized. Both heated apple and heated lettuce produced a significant reduction of diallyl disulfide and allyl mercaptan. The presence of phenolic compounds that react with the volatile compounds even in the absence of enzymes is the most likely mechanism. Green tea had no deodorizing effect on the garlic volatile compounds. Rosmarinic acid, catechin, quercetin, and PPO significantly decreased all garlic breath volatiles in vitro. Rosmarinic acid was the most effective at deodorization. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jiating; Gao, Yuxi, E-mail: gaoyx@ihep.ac.cn; Li, Yu-Feng

    2013-08-15

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−}) or selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation ofmore » Hg when Hg{sup 2+} levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2−} were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH){sub 2} and Hg(Met){sub 2}. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH){sub 2}, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ► Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ► Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ► Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se.« less

  18. Effect of dietary garlic bulb and husk on the physicochemical properties of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y J; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to compare the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken thigh muscles from broilers fed different levels of garlic bulb (GB) and garlic husk (GH). Two hundred male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with 2 and 4% of GB and GH powder for 5 wk. There were no differences among diets in moisture and ash contents. However, dietary supplementation with GB and GH resulted in significantly greater protein content and lower fat content in chicken thigh muscle compared with muscle from birds fed nonsupplemented diets (P<0.05). Increasing the level of garlic supplementation resulted in lower shear force and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values (P<0.05). Dietary supplementation with garlic led to decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in broiler blood, and the greatest level of garlic supplementation decreased saturated fatty acid and increased unsaturated fatty acid levels (%) in broiler thigh muscle (P<0.05). Sensory panelists recorded greater hardness and flavor scores to the samples with garlic dietary supplementation (P<0.05). These data suggest that supplementing broiler chicken diets with garlic can produce chicken meat with favorable lipid profiles and can enhance eating quality because sensory panels found that thigh meat from chickens fed a garlic-supplemented diet had better texture and flavor. Therefore, the treatment with the most significant effects in this study was that with the high level of garlic husk.

  19. Consumption of garlic and risk of colorectal cancer: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ji-Yi; Hu, Yi-Wang; Zhou, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Meng-Wen; Li, Dan; Zheng, Shu

    2014-11-07

    To conduct an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies addressing the association between garlic consumption and colorectal cancer. Eligible cohort studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (PubMed) and screening the references of related articles published up to October 2013. Meta-analyses were conducted for colorectal cancer in relation to consumption of raw and cooked (RC) garlic and garlic supplements, separately. The summary relative risks (RR) with 95%CI were calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects model depending on the heterogeneity among studies. A total of 5 prospective cohort studies were identified. In contrast to the previous meta-analysis, no significant associations were found between consumption of RC garlic (RR: 1.06; 95%CI: 0.95-1.19) or garlic supplements (RR: 1.12; 95%CI: 0.96-1.31) and risk of colorectal cancer. A non-significant protective effect of garlic supplement intake against colorectal cancer was observed in females (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0.64-1.11), but the opposite was the case in males (RR: 1.24; 95%CI: 0.96-1.59). Consumption of RC garlic or garlic supplements is not significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk.

  20. Healthy Aging Among Older Black and White Men: What Is the Role of Mastery?

    PubMed

    Latham-Mintus, Kenzie; Vowels, Ashley; Huskins, Kyle

    2018-01-11

    This research explores black-white differences in healthy aging and investigates whether mastery acts as a buffer against poor health for older black and white men. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (2008-2012), a series of binary logit models were created to assess healthy aging over a 2-year period. Healthy aging was defined as good subjective health and free of disability at both waves. Mastery was lagged, and analyses (n = 4,892) controlled for social and health factors. Black-white disparities in healthy aging were observed, where older black men had lower odds of healthy aging. Mastery was associated with higher odds of healthy aging, and race moderated the relationship between mastery and healthy aging. The predicted probability of healthy aging was relatively flat across all levels of mastery among black men, yet white men saw consistent gains in the probability of healthy aging with higher levels of mastery. In race-stratified models, mastery was not a significant predictor of healthy aging among black men. High levels of mastery are linked to positive health-often acting as a buffer against stressful life events. However, among older black men, higher levels of mastery did not necessarily equate to healthy aging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effect of Raw Crushed Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Components of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Prema Ram; Jani, Rameshchandra D; Sharma, Megh Shyam

    2017-09-28

    Metabolic syndrome consists of a group of risk factors characterized by abdominal obesity, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and prothrombotic and proinflammatory conditions. Raw garlic homogenate has been reported to reduce serum lipid levels in animal model; however, no precise studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of raw crushed garlic (Allium sativum L.) on components of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of raw crushed garlic on components of metabolic syndrome. A total of 40 metabolic syndrome patients were randomly selected from the diabetic center of SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India. They underwent treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight raw crushed garlic 2 times a day with standard diet for 4 weeks; their anthropometric and serum biochemical variables were measured at both the beginning and the end of the study. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 20, and Student's paired "t" test was used to compare variables before and after treatment with garlic preparation. Raw crushed garlic significantly reduced components of metabolic syndrome including waist circumference (p < .05), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < .001), triglycerides (p < .01), fasting blood glucose (p < .0001) and significantly increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < .0001). There was no significant difference found in body mass index (p > .05) of patients with metabolic syndrome after consumption of raw crushed garlic for 4 weeks. Raw crushed garlic has beneficial effects on components of metabolic syndrome; therefore, it can be used as an accompanying remedy for prevention and treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  2. Garlic for hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Xiong, X J; Wang, P Q; Li, S J; Li, X K; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, J

    2015-03-15

    In the past decade, garlic has become one of the most popular complementary therapies for blood pressure (BP) control used by hypertensive patients. Numerous clinical studies have focused on the BP-lowering effect of garlic, but results have been inconsistent. Overall, there is a dearth of information available to guide the clinical community on the efficacy of garlic in hypertensive patients. To systematically review the medical literature to investigate the current evidence of garlic for the treatment of hypertension. PubMed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched for appropriate articles from their respective inceptions until August 2014. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials comparing garlic vs. a placebo in patients with hypertension were considered. Papers were independently reviewed by two reviewers and were analyzed using Cochrane software Revman 5.2. A total of seven randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified. Compared with the placebo, this meta-analysis revealed a significant lowering effect of garlic on both systolic BP (WMD: -6.71 mmHg; 95% CI: -12.44 to -0.99; P = 0.02) and diastolic BP (WMD: -4.79 mmHg; 95% CI: -6.60 to -2.99; P < 0.00001). No serious adverse events were reported in any of the trials. The present review suggests that garlic is an effective and safe approach for hypertension. However, more rigorously designed randomized controlled trials focusing on primary endpoints with long-term follow-up are still warranted before garlic can be recommended to treat hypertensive patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. SSR-based genetic diversity and structure of garlic accessions from Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Camila Pinto; Resende, Francisco Vilela; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2014-10-01

    Garlic is a spice and a medicinal plant; hence, there is an increasing interest in 'developing' new varieties with different culinary properties or with high content of nutraceutical compounds. Phenotypic traits and dominant molecular markers are predominantly used to evaluate the genetic diversity of garlic clones. However, 24 SSR markers (codominant) specific for garlic are available in the literature, fostering germplasm researches. In this study, we genotyped 130 garlic accessions from Brazil and abroad using 17 polymorphic SSR markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure. This is the first attempt to evaluate a large set of accessions maintained by Brazilian institutions. A high level of redundancy was detected in the collection (50 % of the accessions represented eight haplotypes). However, non-redundant accessions presented high genetic diversity. We detected on average five alleles per locus, Shannon index of 1.2, HO of 0.5, and HE of 0.6. A core collection was set with 17 accessions, covering 100 % of the alleles with minimum redundancy. Overall FST and D values indicate a strong genetic structure within accessions. Two major groups identified by both model-based (Bayesian approach) and hierarchical clustering (UPGMA dendrogram) techniques were coherent with the classification of accessions according to maturity time (growth cycle): early-late and midseason accessions. Assessing genetic diversity and structure of garlic collections is the first step towards an efficient management and conservation of accessions in genebanks, as well as to advance future genetic studies and improvement of garlic worldwide.

  4. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Margaret T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Seashols, Sarah J.; Brown, Kelly L.; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49–55, black women are 7.5 years biologically “older” than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited. PMID:20436780

  5. 76 FR 78694 - Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-683 (Third Review)] Fresh Garlic From... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from China would be likely to lead to... submitted by the Fresh Garlic Producers Association and its individual members Christopher Ranch L.L.C., The...

  6. Addition of Garlic Extract in Ration to Reduce Cholesterol Level of Broiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, M. M. D.; Pantaya, D.; Agus, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the effect of garlic extract (GE) in reducing cholesterol level of broiler chicken by analyzing cholesterol level of broiler chicken blood. Two hundred one day broiler age were used in this study for 35 days. The chickens were randomly divided into four treatments, each treatment consist of five replications and each repetition consist of ten chickens. This research is used completely randomized design, such as: T0: 0% EBP, T1: 2%, T2: 4% and T3: 6%. Furthermore, at age 35 days each chicken was taken blood to be analyzed cholesterol levels, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and calculated the ratio of LDL and HDL levels. The data obtained were analyzed using software from Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS 16.0). The results of significant analysis continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Addition of GE from the 2% level decreases (P <0.05) of LDL and total cholesterol, and increases HDL and HDL-LDL ratio. The conclusions is obtained garlic extract plays an important role in lowering cholesterol levels of broiler meat.

  7. Clinical effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Pittler, Max H; Ernst, Edzard

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this review is to update and assess the clinical evidence based on rigorous trials of the effectiveness of garlic (A. sativum). Systematic searches were carried out in Medline, Embase, Amed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Natural Standard, and the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (search date December 2006). Our own files, the bibliographies of relevant papers and the contents pages of all issues of the review journal FACT were searched for further studies. No language restrictions were imposed. To be included, trials were required to state that they were randomized and double blind. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of garlic were included if based on the results of randomized, double-blind trials. The literature searches identified six relevant systematic reviews and meta-analysis and double-blind randomized trials (RCT) that were published subsequently. These relate to cancer, common cold, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease and pre-eclampsia. The evidence based on rigorous clinical trials of garlic is not convincing. For hypercholesterolemia, the reported effects are small and may therefore not be of clinical relevance. For reducing blood pressure, few studies are available and the reported effects are too small to be clinically meaningful. For all other conditions not enough data are available for clinical recommendations.

  8. High temperature- and high pressure-processed garlic improves lipid profiles in rats fed high cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong; Kim, Mee Ree

    2012-05-01

    Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles.

  9. High Temperature- and High Pressure-Processed Garlic Improves Lipid Profiles in Rats Fed High Cholesterol Diets

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Chan Wok; Kim, Hyunae; You, Bo Ram; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Ji Yeon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Kun Jong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garlic protects against degenerative diseases such as hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. However, raw garlic has a strong pungency, which is unpleasant. In this study, we examined the effect of high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic on plasma lipid profiles in rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a normal control diet, a high cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol) diet (HCD) only, or a high cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic (HCP) or raw garlic (HCR) for 10 weeks. The body weights of the rats fed the garlic-supplemented diets decreased, mostly because of reduced fat pad weights. Plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) in the HCP and HCR groups decreased significantly compared with those in the HCD group. Additionally, fecal TC and TG increased significantly in the HCP and HCR groups. It is notable that no significant differences in plasma or fecal lipid profiles were observed between the HCP and HCR groups. High temperature/high pressure-processed garlic contained a higher amount of S-allyl cysteine than raw garlic (P<.05). The results suggest that high temperature/high pressure-processed garlic may be useful as a functional food to improve lipid profiles. PMID:22404600

  10. Consumption of garlic and risk of colorectal cancer: An updated meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ji-Yi; Hu, Yi-Wang; Zhou, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Meng-Wen; Li, Dan; Zheng, Shu

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To conduct an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies addressing the association between garlic consumption and colorectal cancer. METHODS: Eligible cohort studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (PubMed) and screening the references of related articles published up to October 2013. Meta-analyses were conducted for colorectal cancer in relation to consumption of raw and cooked (RC) garlic and garlic supplements, separately. The summary relative risks (RR) with 95%CI were calculated using fixed-effects or random-effects model depending on the heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS: A total of 5 prospective cohort studies were identified. In contrast to the previous meta-analysis, no significant associations were found between consumption of RC garlic (RR: 1.06; 95%CI: 0.95-1.19) or garlic supplements (RR: 1.12; 95%CI: 0.96-1.31) and risk of colorectal cancer. A non-significant protective effect of garlic supplement intake against colorectal cancer was observed in females (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0.64-1.11), but the opposite was the case in males (RR: 1.24; 95%CI: 0.96-1.59). CONCLUSION: Consumption of RC garlic or garlic supplements is not significantly associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk. PMID:25386091

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and indel markers from the transcriptome of garlic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is cultivated world-wide and widely appreciated for its culinary uses. In spite of primarily being asexually propagated, garlic shows great diversity for adaptation to diverse production environments and bulb phenotypes. Anonymous molecular markers have been used to assess...

  12. Hypolipidemic influence of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Mukthamba, Puttaswamy; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-09-01

    The cardioprotective influence of dietary fibre-rich fenugreek seeds and the well-established hypolipidemic spice garlic was evaluated both individually and in combination in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. It was particularly examined whether pretreatment with dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic would be beneficial under hypercholesterolemic conditions by their influence on the tissue lipid profile. Four groups each of male Wistar rats were maintained on either a basal diet or a high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions with fenugreek, garlic and the combination of fenugreek and garlic were made by including 10% fenugreek seed powder, 2% freeze-dried garlic powder, and 10% fenugreek seed powder + 2% garlic powder. At the end of the diet regimen, myocardial infarction was induced with isoproterenol (i.p. 80 mg kg(-1)) twice at intervals of 12 h. The disturbed activities of cardiac marker enzymes in serum and the heart confirmed isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction. Dietary fenugreek, garlic or fenugreek + garlic was found to ameliorate the pathological changes in heart tissue and lipid abnormalities in serum and the heart, the beneficial effect being higher with the combination of fenugreek and garlic, invariably amounting to an additive effect. The results also indicated that the hypercholesterolemic situation aggravated the myocardial damage during isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. This dietary intervention study suggested that the combination of fenugreek seeds and garlic offers a higher beneficial influence in exerting the cardioprotective effect.

  13. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important limitations of garlic cultivation is the presence of various soil pathogens. Fusarium proliferatum and Sclerotinium cepivorum and nematode Ditilenchus dipsaci cause such problems that prevent the repetition of the crop in the same field for at least 5 -8 years or soil disinfection is necessary. Chemical disinfection treatments have an uncertain future, in the European Union are reviewing their use, due to the effect on the non-pathogenic soil fauna. This situation causes a itinerant cultivation to avoid the limitations imposed by soil diseases, thereby increasing production costs. The Santa Monica Cooperative (Albacete, Spain) requested advice on possible alternative techniques, solarization and biosolarization. For which a trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness on the riverside area of the municipality. This place has recently authorized irrigation, which would allow the repeated cultivation of garlic if the incidence of soil diseases and the consequent soil fatigue could be avoided. Additionally, this work will serve to promote the cultivation of organic garlic. Last, but not least, the biosolarization technique allows to use waste from wineries, oil mills and mushroom crops. (Bello et al. 2003). The essay should serve as demonstrative proof for farmers' cooperative members. The specific objective for this first year is to assess, the effect on the global soil biota, on the final garlic production and quality and the effect of biosolarization to control soil pathogens. The trial is set on a cooperative's plot previously cultivated with corn. 5 treatments were set, defined by different amounts of organic matter applied, 7.5, 5, 2.5 kg m -2, a solarized with no organic matter, and a control without any treatment. The plot has inground sprinkler for full coverage with four sprinkler lines demarcating the five bands of differential treatment, randomly arranged. Organic matter was incorporated the August 14, 2013, then thoroughly

  14. Garlic and associated allyl sulfur components inhibit N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, E M; Liu, J Z; Green, J; Dangler, C A; Milner, J A

    1996-04-19

    Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary garlic powder supplementation inhibits N-nitrosamine induced DNA alkylation in liver and mammary tissue. The present studies compared the impact of dietary supplementation with garlic powder or two garlic constituents, water-soluble S-allyl cysteine (SAC) and oil-soluble diallyl disulfide (DADS), on the incidence of mammary tumorigenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed semi-purified casein based diets with or without supplements of garlic powder(20g/kg), SAC (57 micromol/kg) or DADS (57 micromol/kg) for 2 weeks prior to treatment with MNU (15 mg/kg body wt). Garlic powder, SAC and DADS supplementation significantly delayed the onset of mammary tumors compared to rats receiving the unsupplemented diet. Tumor incidence 23 weeks after MNU treatment was reduced by 76, 41 and 53% in rats fed garlic, SAC and DADS, respectively, compared to controls (P<0.05). Total tumor number was reduced 81, 35 and 65% by these supplements, respectively (P<0.05). In a separate study the quantity of mammary DNA alkylation occurring 3 h after MNU treatment was reduced in rats fed garlic, SAC or DADS (P<0.05). Specifically, O(6)-methylguanine adducts were reduced by 27, 18 and 23% in rats fed supplemental garlic, SAC and DADS, respectively, compared to controls. N(7)-Methylguanine adducts decreased by 48, 22 and 21% respectively, compared to rats fed the control diet. These studies demonstrate that garlic and associated allyl sulfur components, SAC and DADS, are effective inhibitors of MNU-induced mammary carcinogenesis.

  15. Garlic activates SIRT-3 to prevent cardiac oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Md Razia; Bagul, Pankaj K; Katare, Parameshwar B; Anwar Mohammed, Soheb; Padiya, Raju; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac complications are major contributor in the mortality of diabetic people. Mitochondrial dysfunctioning is a crucial contributor for the cardiac complications in diabetes, and SIRT-3 remains the major mitochondrial deacetylase. We hypothesized whether garlic has any role on SIRT-3 to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic heart. Rats with developed hyperglycemia after STZ injection were divided into two groups; diabetic (Dia) and diabetic+garlic (Dia+Garl). Garlic was administered at a dose of 250mg/kg/day, orally for four weeks. An additional group was maintained to evaluate the effect of raw garlic administration on control rat heart. We have observed altered functioning of cardiac mitochondrial enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, and increased levels of cardiac ROS with decreased activity of catalase and SOD in diabetic rats. Cardiac mRNA expression of TFAM, PGC-1α, and CO1 was also altered in diabetes. In addition, reduced levels of electron transport chain complexes that observed in Dia group were normalized with garlic administration. This indicates the presence of increased oxidative stress with mitochondrial dysfunctioning in diabetic heart. We have observed reduced activity of SIRT3 and increased acetylation of MnSOD. Silencing SIRT-3 in cells also revealed the same. However, administration of garlic improved the SIRT-3 and MnSOD activity, by deacetylating MnSOD. Increased SOD activity was correlated with reduced levels of ROS in garlic-administered rat hearts. Collectively, our results provide an insight into garlic's protection to T1DM heart through activation of SIRT3-MnSOD pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vitro and Cryopreservation Techniques for Conservation of Snow Mountain Garlic.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is an important medicinal herb of culinary value by imparting its flavors and odors to the food. Allicin, a notable flavonoid in garlic, is a powerful antibiotic and antifungal compound. Due to poor bioavailability, garlic is of limited use for oral human consumption. Being sexually sterile, propagation of garlic is done by individual cloves from a bulb which increases the chances of transfer of viral diseases. In this chapter, an efficient and improved regeneration protocol for explant establishment and shoot multiplication under in vitro conditions is described. A high rate of shoot multiplication is obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BAP, 1.0 mg/l KN, and 2.0 mg/l GA3. Addition of 1.0 mg/l NAA to MS medium resulted in rooting at the shoot bases. A detailed method for encapsulation of explant in sodium alginate beads and their cryopreservation using encapsulation-dehydration is also described.

  17. Effects of garlic extract on TNF-α expression and oxidative stress status in the kidneys of rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ziamajidi, Nasrin; Nasiri, Abolfazl; Abbasalipourkabir, Roghayeh; Sadeghi Moheb, Somayeh

    2017-12-01

    Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae) (garlic) is a medicinal plant that is widely used in herbal medicine. Nephropathy is a complication of diabetes that is induced by long-term hyperglycaemia. The effects of aqueous extract of garlic (AGE) on the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and oxidative stress status were studied in the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin (STZ) + nicotinamide-induced diabetes. Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats, rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes that received a single dose of STZ (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, diabetic rats that were treated with garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage), and normal rats that received garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage). The glucose level was determined in the start of study, 7 d after induction of diabetes and 33 d after treatment with garlic. At the end of the treatment period, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were estimated in sera. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), nitric oxide (NO) levels and TNF-α gene and protein expression were measured in the renal tissues of the rats. The glucose, uric acid, and urea levels increased in the serum of diabetic rats compared with control rats, and decreased in garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p < 0.05). MDA, TOS and NO increased (p < 0.001) in diabetic rats compared with the control group, and decreased in garlic-treated diabetic rats compared with diabetic rats (p < 0.01). The level of TNF-α mRNA did not differ between groups but the TNF-α protein level in diabetic rats was higher than in the control rats (p < 0.01), whereas after treatment with garlic, it was close to the normal level (p < 0.01). These results indicate that garlic extract has hypoglycaemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; therefore, it can be useful for the alleviation of diabetic complications.

  18. Discrimination of Geographical Origin of Asian Garlic Using Isotopic and Chemical Datasets under Stepwise Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tsang-Sen; Lin, Jhen-Nan; Peng, Tsung-Ren

    2018-01-16

    Isotopic compositions of δ 2 H, δ 18 O, δ 13 C, and δ 15 N and concentrations of 22 trace elements from garlic samples were analyzed and processed with stepwise principal component analysis (PCA) to discriminate garlic's country of origin among Asian regions including South Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, and China. Results indicate that there is no single trace-element concentration or isotopic composition that can accomplish the study's purpose and the stepwise PCA approach proposed does allow for discrimination between countries on a regional basis. Sequentially, Step-1 PCA distinguishes garlic's country of origin among Taiwanese, South Korean, and Vietnamese samples; Step-2 PCA discriminates Chinese garlic from South Korean garlic; and Step-3 and Step-4 PCA, Chinese garlic from Vietnamese garlic. In model tests, countries of origin of all audit samples were correctly discriminated by stepwise PCA. Consequently, this study demonstrates that stepwise PCA as applied is a simple and effective approach to discriminating country of origin among Asian garlics. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. 2-(1H-pyrrolyl)carboxylic acids as pigment precursors in garlic greening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Nanding, Husile; Han, Na; Chen, Fang; Zhao, Guanghua

    2008-02-27

    Six model compounds having a 2-(1 H-pyrrolyl)carboxylic acid moiety and a hydrophobic R group were synthesized to study their effects on garlic greening, the structures of which are similar to that of 2-(3,4-dimethyl-1 H-pyrrolyl)-3-methylbutanoic acid (PP-Val) (a possible pigment precursor for garlic greening). The puree of freshly harvested garlic bulbs turned green after being soaked in solutions of all these compounds, and with both increasing concentrations and incubation time the green color of the puree became deeper. In contrast, neither pyrrole alone nor pyrrole combined with free amino acids had the ability to discolor the puree. The compounds exhibited a good relationship between structure and activity of garlic greening, namely, the smaller the size of the R group, the larger the contribution. Also, it was found that the unidentified yellow species can be produced by reacting the model compounds with pyruvic acid at room temperature (23-25 degrees C). Moreover, blue species were formed by incubation of the model compounds with di(2-propenyl) thiosulfinate at room temperature. On the basis of these observations, a pathway for garlic greening was proposed.

  20. Think Yellow and Keep Green-Role of Sulfanes from Garlic in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Awais; Gould, Emma; Tinson, Ryan; Groom, Murree; Hamilton, Chris J

    2016-12-30

    Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils. Herein, their activity against various crop-damaging pests is reviewed. In many cases, there seems to be a broad range of activity associated with the sulfur-containing compounds derived from Allium species, which manifests itself in diverse insecticidal, antifungal, and nematicidal activities. These activities open a new understanding to develop this natural chemistry as a "green pesticide".

  1. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of garlic preparation in freeze injury model of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sobenin, Igor A; Andrianova, Irina V; Lakunin, Konstantin Y; Karagodin, Vasilii P; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-10-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the most popular substances used to reduce various risks associated with cardiovascular disease. However, little is known on the direct effects of garlic on atherosclerosis. In the present study we have examined the effect of per oral administration of the time-released garlic herbal preparation on serum atherogenicity and formation of intimal thickening after freeze injury in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Group 1 rabbits maintained on the standard cholesterol-rich diet served as the control. Group 2 rabbits were fed the cholesterol-rich diet and treated with garlic preparation containing 300 mg garlic powder. Local thickening of the aortic media (i.e., the neointima formation) in the freeze injury zone was observed in all the rabbits. Regular garlic preparation therapy prevented the neointima formation and the accumulation of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and collagen in the neointima, the effects being statistically significant. Garlic preparation also decreased serum lipid content by 1.5-fold and lowered atherogenic activity of blood serum (ability to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells) induced by cholesterol-rich diet. The results obtained indicate that garlic preparation prevents the development of cholesterol-induced experimental atherosclerosis and possesses the direct anti-atherogenic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. HS-GC/MS volatile profile of different varieties of garlic and their behavior under heating.

    PubMed

    Molina-Calle, María; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; de Castro, María D Luque

    2016-05-01

    Garlic is one of the most used seasonings in the world whose beneficial health effects, mainly ascribed to organosulfur compounds, are shared with the rest of the Allium family. The fact that many of these compounds are volatile makes the evaluation of the volatile profile of garlic interesting. For this purpose, three garlic varieties-White, Purple, and Chinese-cultivated in the South of Spain were analyzed by a method based on a headspace (HS) device coupled to a gas chromatograph and mass detector (HS-GC/MS). The main temperatures in the HS were optimized to achieve the highest concentration of volatiles. A total number of 45 volatiles were tentatively identified (among them 17 were identified for the first time in garlic); then, all were classified, also for the first time, and their relative concentration in three garlic varieties was used to evaluate differences among them and to study their profiles according to the heating time. Chinese garlic was found to be the richest variety in sulfur volatiles, while the three varieties presented a similar trend under preset heating times allowing differentiation between varieties and heating time using principal component analysis. Graphical Abstract HS-GC/MS analysis of the volatile profile of garlic.

  3. Oral Administration of (S)-Allyl-l-Cysteine and Aged Garlic Extract to Rats: Determination of Metabolites and Their Pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Taehoon; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Joo Hyun; Park, Sang Cheol; Jang, Young Pyo; Lee, Young-Joo

    2017-11-01

    ( S )-Allyl-l-cysteine is the major bioactive compound in garlic. ( S )-Allyl-l-cysteine is metabolized to ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide after oral administration. An accurate LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites in rat plasma, and the feasibility of using it in pharmacokinetic studies was tested. The analytes were quantified by multiple reaction monitoring using an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer. Because significant quantitative interference was observed between ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine as a result of the decomposition of N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine at the detector source, chromatographic separation was required to discriminate ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites on a reversed-phase C 18 analytical column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. The calibration curves of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine, and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide were linear over each concentration range, and the lower limits of quantification were 0.1 µg/mL [( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine] and 0.25 µg/mL [( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide and N -acetyl-( S )-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide]. Acceptable intraday and inter-day precisions and accuracies were obtained at three concentration levels. The method satisfied the regulatory requirements for matrix effects, recovery, and stability. The validated LC-MS/MS method was successfully used to determine the concentration of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine and its metabolites in rat plasma samples after the administration of ( S )-allyl-l-cysteine or aged garlic extract. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Think Yellow and Keep Green—Role of Sulfanes from Garlic in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Awais; Gould, Emma; Tinson, Ryan; Groom, Murree; Hamilton, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils. Herein, their activity against various crop-damaging pests is reviewed. In many cases, there seems to be a broad range of activity associated with the sulfur-containing compounds derived from Allium species, which manifests itself in diverse insecticidal, antifungal, and nematicidal activities. These activities open a new understanding to develop this natural chemistry as a “green pesticide”. PMID:28042817

  5. Altered cytokeratin expression during chemoprevention of experimental hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by garlic.

    PubMed

    Balasenthil, S; Rao, K S; Nagini, S

    2002-03-01

    Cytokeratins (also known as keratins (K)) are members of the family of intermediate filaments and form major components of the mammalian epithelial cell cytoskeleton. Cytokeratins have emerged as reliable cellular markers of oral cancer development and chemoprevention because of their abundance, stability and high antigenicity. We investigated the effect of aqueous garlic extract on cytokeratin expression during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals. Animals in group 1 were painted with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin, on the right buccal pouches, three times a week for 14 weeks. Group 2 animals were painted with DMBA as in group 1 and also received 250 mg/kg body weight aqueous garlic extract orally on alternate days to the DMBA application. Group 3 animals received garlic extract only, as in group 2. Group 4 animals received neither DMBA nor garlic extract and served as the control. The hamsters were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Cytokeratin expression was studied using human monoclonal antibodies AE1 and AE3, which react with type I and II keratins. In DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas, decreased expression of high molecular weight keratins was observed. Administration of garlic extract to animals painted with DMBA suppressed HBP carcinomas and restored normal cytokeratin expression. The results of the present study suggest that inhibition of HBP carcinogenesis by garlic may be due to its regulatory effects on differentiation, tumour invasiveness, migratory and metastatic potential. We suggest that one of the mechanisms of tumour inhibition by garlic is an influence on cellular differentiation.

  6. Role of Garlic Usage in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: An Evidence-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Tabinda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Rapidly growing prevalence of cardiovascular disease is a major threat for the developed as well as developing world warranting urgent need of intervention. Complementary and alternative medicines are gaining popularity among general population because of their safety profile and easy administration. Garlic, in particular, is considered to be one of the best disease-preventive foods because of its potent and widespread effects. This study was done to find out the role of garlic usage in cardiovascular disease prevention. Methodology. Major databases including Google, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library view were used for the literature search. Clinical trials conducted on humans assessing role of garlic usage in cardiovascular disease prevention and the possible mechanisms responsible for such therapeutic actions were assessed. Results. Various clinical trials and meta-analyses conducted have shown positive impact of garlic in cardiovascular-disease prevention especially its effects on lipid levels; however, some contradictory results are also reported. Similarly, its effects on hypertension control, and platelet are also mild with limited data availability. The possible reason for these inconsistent results is the difference in preparations with diverse composition, variations in sulphur content present in different garlic preparations used, and methodological variations in subject recruitment, duration of study, dietary control and so forth. Conclusion. Garlic can be used as an adjuvant with lipid-lowering drugs for control of lipids, however, its role as a main therapeutic agent cannot be recommended and it is suggested that more meta-analyses using standardized preparations with a close watch on methodological shortfalls should be conducted to prove its role. PMID:23690831

  7. The antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (ciğ köfte).

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ali; Bostan, Kamil; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Bingöl, Bariş

    2007-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial effects of chopped garlic in ground beef and raw meatball (çig köfte), which is a traditional food product eaten raw. Fresh minced ground beef and raw meatball batter prepared with traditional methods were separated into groups. Chopped and crushed garlic was added to each batch in order to reach various concentrations from 0% to 10%. The ground beef samples were stored at refrigerator and ambient temperatures. The raw meatball samples were only stored at room temperature. All samples were analyzed in order to determine the microbial counts at the 2(nd), 6(th), 12(th), and 24(th) hours of storage. Garlic addition decreased the microbial growth in some ground beef samples kept either at room temperature or in the refrigerator. However, microbial growth increased in some ground beef samples kept in similar conditions. The difference was found in samples kept in the refrigerator for 24 hours in terms of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and coliform bacteria when garlic used at 10%. The effects of garlic on the microbial growth of both coliforms and Staphylococcus/Micrococcus in the samples kept at room temperature were increased. The yeast and mold counts in ground beef samples kept in any condition were not affected by garlic addition. However, the addition of garlic to the raw meatball mix decreased the microbial count, in terms of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and yeast and mold counts, when the garlic was added at 5% or 10% (P < .05). The addition of 10% garlic to raw meatball caused a permanent decrease in yeast and mold count, unlike in ground beef. The results of this study indicate that the chopped garlic has a slowing-down effect on microbiological growth in ground meat depending on the garlic concentration, but this effect was not at an expected level even at the highest concentration, because potential antimicrobial agents in chopped garlic were probably insufficiently extracted.

  8. Comparative assessment of onion and garlic extracts on endogenous hepatic and renal antioxidant status in rat.

    PubMed

    Suru, Stephen M; Ugwu, Chidiebere E

    2015-07-01

    Despite growing claims of functional health benefits in folkloric medicine, the safety of chronic/elevated intakes of onion and garlic cannot be assumed. Therefore, this study assesses oral administration of varied doses of onion and garlic on some biomarkers of hepatic and renal functions in rats. Animals were divided into five groups: control group received vehicle and extract-treated groups received varied doses of onion or garlic extract (0.5 mL and 1.0 mL/100 g bwt/day) for 6 weeks. Both doses of onion caused marked (p<0.05) increase in hepatic and renal levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and marked (p<0.05) decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA). Treatment with low dose of garlic elicited similar trend except in hepatic CAT, renal SOD and GST levels. A high dose of garlic only caused marked (p<0.05) increase in hepatic GST, renal GST, and SOD. Both doses of onion and low dose of garlic significantly (p<0.05) enhanced renal Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Only a high dose of onion caused significant (p<0.05) increase in hepatic aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and decrease in plasma AST activities. These findings suggest antioxidant enhancing capability for both doses of onion and low dose of garlic, while high dose of garlic elicited pro-oxidant conditions.

  9. Phenotypic Characteristics Of Ten Garlic Cultivars Grown At Different North American Locations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs are marketed for their health and culinary values. It is difficult to identify garlic cultivars or classes grown under diverse conditions as a result of their highly elastic environmental responses, particularly relating to skin color and clove arrangement of bulbs....

  10. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... determined that two requests for a new shipper review (NSR) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Department published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from...

  12. 76 FR 4284 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Status; Tulkoff Food Products, Inc. (Dehydrated Garlic), Baltimore, MD Pursuant to its authority under..., has made application to the Board for authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the garlic... garlic products at the Tulkoff Food Products, Inc., facility located in Baltimore, Maryland (Subzone 74C...

  13. [Allelopathy of garlic root exudates on different receiver vegetables].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-li; Cheng, Zhi-hui; Meng, Huan-wen

    2007-01-01

    By the method of tissue culture under sterilized condition, this paper studied the allelopathy of garlic root exudates on lettuce, hot pepper, radish, cucumber, Chinese cabbage, and tomato. The results showed that garlic root exudates had no evident effects on the germination rate, germination index, shoot height, and protective enzyme system of test crops, but significantly increased the root length, aboveground fresh mass, and root fresh mass of lettuce, with the RIs being +0.163, +0.106, +0.318, respectively. The exudates also increased the root length of Chinese cabbage, with a RI of +0.120. For other test crops, no significant difference was observed between the treatments and the control. Garlic root exudates significantly increased the chlorophyll content and root activity of the receiver vegetables. The strongest promotion effects were found on chlorophyll content in radish, with RI being +0.282, and on root activity of cucumber, with RI being +0.184. The exudates promoted the nutrient absorption of all the receiver vegetables.

  14. [Study on garlic oil combined with 5-FU induced apoptosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line ACC-M].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fayin; Zhou, Hefeng; Fan, Zhiying; Zhu, Yawen; Li, Yongye; Yao, Yukun; Ran, Dan

    2014-02-01

    To observe the effect of garlic oil combined with 5-FU induced apoptosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line ACC-M. Human salivary in adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line AC-M was cultured, divided into the experimental group (5-FU group, garlic oil group, garlic oil + 5-FU group) and the control group, to observe the growth activity of tumor cells by MTT methods; to analyse the changes of cell cycle and apoptosis rate by flow cytometry. MTT experiments showed that 5-FU, garlic oil, garlic oil and 5-FU on ACC-M cells have inhibition in different concentration, with the increase of concentration and action time of the rise; Cell cycle analysis showed significant changes in flow cytometry. With the increase of concentration and the acting time, the G0/G1, phase of the cell ratio increased, S had no significant change, but G2/M phase cells decreased. Apoptosis rate display showed garlic oil combined with 5-FU induced apoptosis of ACC-M cells was significantly stronger than single group. Garlic oil can effectively induce the apoptosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma cell line ACC-M. The effect of garlic oil combined with 5-FU on ACC-M cells was stronger than the garlic oil, 5-FU used alone.

  15. Speciation and identification of tellurium-containing metabolites in garlic, Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Anan, Yasumi; Yoshida, Miyuki; Hasegawa, Saki; Katai, Ryota; Tokumoto, Maki; Ouerdane, Laurent; Łobiński, Ryszard; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2013-09-01

    Tellurium (Te) is a widely used metalloid in industry because of its unique chemical and physical properties. However, information about the biological and toxicological activities of Te in plants and animals is limited. Although Te is expected to be metabolized in organisms via the same pathway as sulfur and selenium (Se), no precise metabolic pathways are known in organisms, particularly in plants. To reveal the metabolic pathway of Te in plants, garlic, a well-known Se accumulator, was chosen as the model plant. Garlic was hydroponically cultivated and exposed to sodium tellurate, and Te-containing metabolites in the water extract of garlic leaves were identified using HPLC coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS). At least three Te-containing metabolites were detected using HPLC-ICP-MS, and two of them were subjected to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS for identification. The MS spectra obtained by ESI-MS-MS indicated that the metabolite was Te-methyltellurocysteine oxide (MeTeCysO). Then, MeTeCysO was chemically synthesized and its chromatographic behavior matched with that of the Te-containing metabolite in garlic. The other was assigned as cysteine S-methyltellurosulfide. These results suggest that garlic can assimilate tellurate, an inorganic Te compound, and tellurate is transformed into a Te-containing amino acid, the so-called telluroamino acid. This is the first report addressing that telluroamino acid is de novo synthesized in a higher plant.

  16. Garlic oil polysulfides: H2S- and O2-independent prooxidants in buffer and antioxidants in cells

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon, Eric R.; Gao, Yan; Huang, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of garlic and other organosulfur-containing foods are well recognized and have been attributed to both prooxidant and antioxidant activities. The effects of garlic are surprisingly similar to those of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is also known to be released from garlic under certain conditions. However, recent evidence suggests that polysulfides, not H2S, may be the actual mediator of physiological signaling. In this study, we monitored formation of H2S and polysulfides from garlic oil in buffer and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells with fluorescent dyes, 7-azido-4-methylcoumarin and SSP4, respectively and redox activity with two redox indicators redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) and DCF. Our results show that H2S release from garlic oil in buffer requires other low-molecular-weight thiols, such as cysteine (Cys) or glutathione (GSH), whereas polysulfides are readily detected in garlic oil alone. Administration of garlic oil to cells rapidly increases intracellular polysulfide but has minimal effects on H2S unless Cys or GSH are also present in the extracellular medium. We also observed that garlic oil and diallyltrisulfide (DATS) potently oxidized roGFP in buffer but did not affect DCF. This appears to be a direct polysulfide-mediated oxidation that does not require a reactive oxygen species intermediate. Conversely, when applied to cells, garlic oil became a significant intracellular reductant independent of extracellular Cys or GSH. This suggests that intracellular metabolism and further processing of the sulfur moieties are necessary to confer antioxidant properties to garlic oil in vivo. PMID:27101293

  17. Garlic oil polysulfides: H2S- and O2-independent prooxidants in buffer and antioxidants in cells.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Eric R; Gao, Yan; Huang, Evelyn; Olson, Kenneth R

    2016-06-01

    The health benefits of garlic and other organosulfur-containing foods are well recognized and have been attributed to both prooxidant and antioxidant activities. The effects of garlic are surprisingly similar to those of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is also known to be released from garlic under certain conditions. However, recent evidence suggests that polysulfides, not H2S, may be the actual mediator of physiological signaling. In this study, we monitored formation of H2S and polysulfides from garlic oil in buffer and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells with fluorescent dyes, 7-azido-4-methylcoumarin and SSP4, respectively and redox activity with two redox indicators redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP) and DCF. Our results show that H2S release from garlic oil in buffer requires other low-molecular-weight thiols, such as cysteine (Cys) or glutathione (GSH), whereas polysulfides are readily detected in garlic oil alone. Administration of garlic oil to cells rapidly increases intracellular polysulfide but has minimal effects on H2S unless Cys or GSH are also present in the extracellular medium. We also observed that garlic oil and diallyltrisulfide (DATS) potently oxidized roGFP in buffer but did not affect DCF. This appears to be a direct polysulfide-mediated oxidation that does not require a reactive oxygen species intermediate. Conversely, when applied to cells, garlic oil became a significant intracellular reductant independent of extracellular Cys or GSH. This suggests that intracellular metabolism and further processing of the sulfur moieties are necessary to confer antioxidant properties to garlic oil in vivo. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. 77 FR 73980 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), covering the period of review (POR... the AR for 100 companies for whom requests for review were withdrawn. See Fresh Garlic From the People...

  19. Growth of wheat and lettuce and enzyme activities of soils under garlic stalk decomposition for different durations.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2017-07-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) stalk is a byproduct of garlic production that is normally thought of as waste but is now considered a useful biological resource. It is necessary to utilize this resource efficiently and reasonably to reduce environmental pollution and achieve sustainable agricultural development. The effect of garlic stalk decomposed for different durations was investigated in this study using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa L.) as test plants. Garlic stalk in early stages of decomposition inhibited the shoot and root lengths of wheat and lettuce, but it promoted the shoot and root lengths in later stages; longer durations of garlic stalk decomposition significantly increased the shoot and root fresh weights of wheat and lettuce, whereas shorter decomposing durations significantly decreased the shoot and root fresh weights; and garlic stalk at different decomposition durations increased the activities of urease, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase in soil where wheat or lettuce was planted. Garlic stalk decomposed for 30 or 40 days could promote the growth of wheat and lettuce plants as well as soil enzyme activities. These results may provide a scientific basis for the study and application of garlic stalk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Elaboration of garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jéssica F; Junqueira, Gabriela; Gonçalves, Carla S; Carneiro, João D S; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Nunes, Cleiton A

    2014-12-01

    Garlic and salt spice is widely used in Brazilian cookery, but it has a high sodium content; as high sodium intake has been strongly correlated to the incidence of chronic diseases. This study aimed to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake. Sensory evaluation was conducted by applying the spices to cooked rice. First, the optimal concentration of spice added during rice preparation was determined. Subsequently, seasonings (3:1) were prepared containing 0%, 50% and 25% less NaCl using a mixture of salts consisting of KCl and monosodium glutamate; a seasoning with a 0% NaCl reduction was established as a control. Three formulations of rice with different spices were assessed according to sensory testing acceptance, time-intensity and temporal domain of sensations. The proportions of salts used in the garlic and salt spice did not generate a strange or bad taste in the products; instead, the mixtures were less salty. However, the seasonings with lower sodium levels (F2 and F3) were better accepted in comparison to the traditional seasoning (F1). Therefore, a mixture of NaCl, KCl and monosodium glutamate is a viable alternative to develop a garlic and salt spice with reduced sodium intake.

  1. Ovicidal and Larvicidal Effects of Garlic and Asafoetida Essential Oils Against West Nile Virus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Ramirez, Jose L; Zilkowski, Bruce; Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We examined the chemical composition of garlic and asafoetida essential oils and their individual and combined toxicity against larvae of Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Culex restuans Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae). The effect of the two essential oils on egg hatch was also examined. Ten and 12 compounds, respectively, were identified in garlic and asafoetida essential oils. Allyl disulfide (49.13%) and diallyl trisulfide (31.08%) were the most abundant compounds in garlic essential oil accounting for 80.2% of the total oil. In contrast, (E)-sec-butyl propenyl disulfide (30.03%), (Z)-sec-butyl propenyl disulfide (24.32%), and disulfide, methyl 1-(methylthio)propyl (21.87%) were the most abundant compounds in asafoetida essential oil. Allyl disulfide accounted for 7.38% of the total oil in asafoetida essential oil and was one of only three compounds found in both oils. For both mosquito species, garlic essential oil was more toxic than asafoetida essential oil with Cx. restuans (LC50: garlic = 2.7 ppm; asafoetida = 10.1 ppm) being more sensitive than Cx. pipiens (LC50: garlic = 7.5 ppm; asafoetida = 13.5 ppm). When combined, the two essential oils had antagonistic effects. The majority of Culex egg rafts exposed to garlic (73.1%) or asafoetida (55.8%) essential oils failed to hatch and larvae of the few that did hatch mostly died as first instars. Allyl disulfide exhibited strong ovicidal and larvicidal activity suggesting its important contribution to the overall toxicity of the two essential oils. Thus, garlic and asafoetida essential oils are potent mosquito ovicides and larvicides but if used jointly, they could undermine vector control programs. PMID:29718505

  2. Trials for the control of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in hatchery reared Oreochromis niloticus fries by using garlic.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Galil, Mohamed A A; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2012-04-30

    The present work was designed to study the prevalence of trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis in Oreochromis niloticus fries, and to test the therapeutic efficacy and preventive efficacy of garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves. Trichodinosis and gyrodactylosis are ectoparasitic diseases that affect most warm freshwater fish, especially fries and fingerlings. In a private O. niloticus fish hatchery, the prevalence of trichodinosis in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 37%, 23% and 40.5%, respectively. The highest infection intensity was detected in 30-day-old-fries. The gyrodactylosis was reported only in combination with trichodinosis. In addition, we found that its prevalence in 5-, 15- and 30-day-old-fries was 17%, 19.5% and 29%, respectively. Mortality rate of fry in the first month of life was 53% as a result of injury to these two types of parasites. The garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves were tested in both in vitro and earthen ponds of the hatchery. Using 2-, 2.5- and 3-ppt (parts per thousand) garlic oil for 4h in vitro water bath treatment resulted in 100% recovery, while 1 and 1.5 ppt garlic oil, respectively, needed 24 and 16 h to treat the infected fries. The treatment by 3 ppt garlic oil as a water bath for 1h treated the two diseases in 55% in 7 days from application in the hatchery earthen pond. In the mean time, 300 mg L(-1) crushed garlic cloves as an indefinite bath in the hatchery earthen pond eliminated 68% of the diseases. The same protocol for preventing the two diseases resulted in obtaining 65% and 75% of parasite free fries, for garlic oil and crushed garlic cloves, respectively, compared to 53% of the control fries. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and characterization of phosphatidylcholine nanovesicles, containing garlic extract, with antilisterial activity in milk.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Cristian Mauricio Barreto; Noreña, Caciano Pelayo Zapata; Brandelli, Adriano

    2017-04-01

    Phospholipid nanovesicles were developed to improve the stability of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract. Electron microscopy of liposomes revealed nanometric and spherical-shaped vesicles with a mean particle size of 174.6±17.3nm and polydispersity index of 0.26±0.02. The entrapment efficiency was 47.5±7.3% and the nanoliposomes had a zeta potential of -16.2±5.5mV. The antimicrobial activity of free and encapsulated garlic extract was evaluated against different strains of Listeria spp. in milk at 37°C for 24h. For free and encapsulated garlic extracts at 5% concentration, a decrease of 4log cycles in viable cell counts was observed at 10h, against four of the five strains of Listeria spp. tested. The results indicate that liposomes constitute a suitable system for encapsulation of unstable garlic active compounds and the encapsulation of garlic extract proves to be a promising technology for multiple applications, including antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity by concomitant administration of garlic aqueous extract in rat.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Walaa; Zaki, Amr; Nabil, Taghred

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) has been widely used for treatment of cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, but its use has been limited by its nephrotoxicity. This study was carried out to determine whether garlic exerts a protective effect against MTX-induced nephrotoxicity. Nephrotoxicity was induced in rats after a single i.p. injection of MTX (20 mg/kg). Garlic extract (1 mL/100 g b.w.) was given orally for 7 days before and after MTX administration. Serum samples were collected to evaluate urea, creatinine, sodium, phosphorous, potassium, and calcium. Reduced glutathione, catalase, adenosine deaminase, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde were measured in renal tissue. Tubular injury was evaluated by histopathological examination. MTX increased urea and creatinine levels and led to imbalances in some electrolytes. It also depleted renal antioxidant enzyme levels and increased malondialdehyde, adenosine deaminase, and nitric oxide levels. Histopathological examination showed glomerular and tubular alterations. Pretreatment with garlic significantly improved renal function and increased renal antioxidant enzyme activities. Furthermore, garlic reduced renal oxidative stress and prevented alterations in renal morphology. Garlic treatment has a reversible biochemical and histological effect upon MTX-induced nephrotoxicity.

  5. Effect of garlic extract on selected pests and yield of bell pepper, Capsicum Anuum L. (var. Capistrano)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions in the findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. To assess garlic, Allium sativum L., extract efficacy against pests...

  6. EXTENSION OF STORAGE LIFE OF GARLIC BULBS BY $gamma$-IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, P.B.

    1963-12-01

    Garlic bulbs were packaged in polyethylene bags and irradiated with 5 krad of Co/sup 60/ gamma rays. Irradiated and control bulbs were stored at 11- 12 deg C. Weight loss, number of bulbs sprouted, and number of bulbs decayed were greater in the control group than in the irradiated group. No adverse effect on the taste, flavor, texture, or pungency of irradiated garlic bulbs was determined organo-leptically at the end of seven months storage. (H.M.G.)

  7. In vivo and in vitro control of Leishmania mexicana due to garlic-induced NO production.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-León, M R; Aranda-González, I; Mut-Martín, M; García-Miss, M R; Dumonteil, E

    2007-11-01

    Leishmania mexicana is the main causal agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Yucatán peninsula in Mexico. Control of this disease is associated with a Th1-type immune response and garlic extract has been reported as a Th1 immunomodulator in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. In this study, we investigated the effect of garlic extracts on L. mexicana infection in vivo and in vitro. Garlic extract reduced footpad lesions in L. mexicana-infected BALB/c mice by inducing IFN-gamma production from T cells. In vitro, garlic extract reduced macrophage infection through induction of nitric oxide (NO) production. Garlic extract may thus act on both T cells and macrophages to stimulate IFN-gamma production and NO synthesis for parasite killing. A 10- to 14-kDa fraction was identified as responsible for the in vitro effect of the whole extract and may lead to the identification of novel immunomodulating drugs and therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  8. Chronic crude garlic-feeding modified adult male rat testicular markers: mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Hammami, Imen; Amara, Souheila; Benahmed, Mohamed; El May, Michèle V; Mauduit, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Background Garlic or Allium sativum (As) shows therapeutic effects such as reduction of blood pressure or hypercholesterolemia but side-effects on reproductive functions remain poorly investigated. Because of garlic's chemical complexity, the processing methods and yield in preparations differ in efficacy and safety. In this context, we clarify the mechanisms of action of crushed crude garlic on testicular markers. Methods During one month of treatment, 24 male rats were fed 5%, 10% and 15% crude garlic. Results We showed that crude garlic-feeding induced apoptosis in testicular germ cells (spermatocytes and spermatids). This cell death process was characterized by increased levels of active CASP3 but not CASP6. Expression of the caspase inhibitors BIRC3 and BIRC2 was increased at all doses of As while expression of XIAP and BIRC5 was unchanged. Moreover, expression of the IAP inhibitor DIABLO was increased at doses 10% and 15% of As. The germ cell death process induced by As might be related to a decrease in testosterone production because of the reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes (Star, Cyp11a, Hsd3b5 and Hsd17b). Evaluation of Sertoli markers showed that TUBB3 and GSTA2 expression was unchanged. In contrast, AMH, RHOX5 and CDKN1B expression was decreased while GATA4 expression was increased. Conclusion In summary, we showed that feeding with crude garlic inhibited Leydig steroidogenic enzyme expression and Sertoli cell markers. These alterations might induce apoptosis in testicular germ cells. PMID:19552815

  9. Role of precursors on greening in crushed garlic (Allium sativum) bulbs, and its control with freeze-dried onion powder.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungeun; Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Seung Koo

    2012-01-30

    Lachrymatory factor (LF) synthase in onion bulbs reacts with S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), a key compound in garlic greening. In this study, freeze-dried onion powder containing LF synthase was used in treatments to control garlic greening. Prior to the use of freeze-dried onion powder to treat greening garlic bulbs, model reactions were conducted to confirm the reactivity of 1-PeCSO in onion bulbs to garlic greening. While pink pigments were generated from 1-PeCSO, green pigments were produced from the combination of 1-PeCSO and S-2-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (2-PeCSO). However, pigments were formed in the systems containing 1-PeCSO, amino acid and alliinase. Even non-greening garlic bulbs stored at 20 °C turned green with the reaction of 200 g L(-1) 1-PeCSO; therefore 1-PeCSO isolated from onion bulbs had the same role as 1-PeCSO in garlic bulbs in terms of greening. Onion bulbs turned green after the addition of 600 g L(-1) 2-PeCSO. The addition of freeze-dried onion powder inhibited garlic greening, and treatment with 15 g kg(-1) onion powder gave the best storage stability of crushed garlic bulbs. The addition of freeze-dried onion powder inhibited the greening in crushed garlic bulbs, and treatment with 15 g kg(-1) onion powder gave the best storage stability of crushed garlic bulbs. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Methods Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Results Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come

  11. Combined antibacterial activity of stingless bee (Apis mellipodae) honey and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andualem, Berhanu

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the synergic antibacterial activity of garlic and tazma honey against standard and clinical pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of tazma honey, garlic and mixture of them against pathogenic bacteria were determined. Chloramphenicol and water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of antimicrobial samples were determined using standard methods. Inhibition zone of mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all tested pathogens was significantly (P≤0.05) greater than garlic and tazma honey alone. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from (18±1) to (35±1) mm for mixture of garlic and tazma honey, (12±1) to (20±1) mm for tazma honey and (14±1) to (22±1) mm for garlic as compared with (10±1) to (30±1) mm for chloramphenicol. The combination of garlic and tazma honey (30-35 mm) was more significantly (P≤0.05) effective against Salmonella (NCTC 8385), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Lyesria moncytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC 63). Results also showed considerable antimicrobial activity of garlic and tazma honey. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against total test bacteria was 88.9%. MIC of mixture of garlic and tazma honey at 6.25% against Gram positive and negative were 100% and 83.33%, respectively. The bactericidal activities of garlic, tazma honey, and mixture of garlic and tazma honey against all pathogenic bacteria at 6.25% concentration were 66.6%, 55.6% and 55.6%, respectively. This finding strongly supports the claim of the local community to use the combination of tazma honey and garlic for the treatment of different pathogenic bacterial infections. Therefore, garlic in combination with tazma honey can serve as an alternative natural antimicrobial drug for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. Further in vivo study is recommended to come up with a comprehensive conclusion.

  12. Tissue-Specific Accumulation of Sulfur Compounds and Saponins in Different Parts of Garlic Cloves from Purple and White Ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Argandoña, Javier; Castillo, Purificación; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2017-08-20

    This study set out to determine the distribution of sulfur compounds and saponin metabolites in different parts of garlic cloves. Three fractions from purple and white garlic ecotypes were obtained: the tunic (SS), internal (IS) and external (ES) parts of the clove. Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), together with bioinformatics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Clustering (HCL) and correlation network analyses were carried out. Results showed that the distribution of these metabolites in the different parts of garlic bulbs was different for the purple and the white ecotypes, with the main difference being a slightly higher number of sulfur compounds in purple garlic. The SS fraction in purple garlic had a higher content of sulfur metabolites, while the ES in white garlic was more enriched by these compounds. The correlation network indicated that diallyl disulfide was the most relevant metabolite with regards to sulfur compound metabolism in garlic. The total number of saponins was almost 40-fold higher in purple garlic than in the white variety, with ES having the highest content. Interestingly, five saponins including desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, proto-desgalactotigonin, proto-desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, voghieroside D1, sativoside B1-rhamnose and sativoside R1 were exclusive to the purple variety. Data obtained from saponin analyses revealed a very different network between white and purple garlic, thus suggesting a very robust and tight coregulation of saponin metabolism in garlic. Findings in this study point to the possibility of using tunics from purple garlic in the food and medical industries, since it contains many functional compounds which can be exploited as ingredients.

  13. Cloning and expression of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and its relationship to greening in crushed garlic (Allium sativum) cloves.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungeun; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil; Lee, Seung Koo

    2012-01-30

    Garlic greening occurs when garlic cloves are stored at low temperature, increasing 1-propenyl cysteine sulfoxide, which is induced by γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity. Although the metabolism of the γ-glutamyl peptide is important for the biosynthesis of green pigments in crushed garlic cloves, garlic GGT is poorly characterised. For the analysis of GGT at the gene level, the garlic GGT sequence was partially cloned using an onion GGT sequence. The relationship between garlic greening and related gene expressions, depending on storage condition, was investigated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for garlic GGT and alliinase. Three storage conditions were set: A, storage at a constant temperature of 20 °C; B, storage at 20 °C for 3 months and then transfer to 0 °C for an additional 3 months; C, storage at 0 °C for 3 months and then transfer to 20 °C for an additional 3 months. GGT expression increased under storage condition B and decreased under storage condition C. However, alliinase expression was not affected by storage condition. Greening in crushed garlic cloves increases with increasing GGT expression at low temperature, while alliinase expression is not affected. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Organosulfur compounds and possible mechanism of garlic in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Omar, S.H.; Al-Wabel, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), a member of the family Liliaceae, contains an abundance of chemical compounds that have been shown to possess beneficial effects to protect against several diseases, including cancer. Evidence supports the protective effects of garlic in stomach, colorectal, breast cancer in humans. The protective effects appear to be related to the presence of organosulfur compounds, predominantly allyl derivatives, which also have been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis in forestomach, esophagus, colon, mammary gland and lung of experimental animals. The exact mechanisms of the cancer-preventive effects are not clear, although several hypotheses have been proposed. Organosulfur compounds modulate the activity of several metabolizing enzymes that activate (cytochrome P450s) or detoxify (glutathione S-transferases) carcinogens and inhibit the formation of DNA adducts in several target tissues. Antiproliferative activity has been described in several tumor cell lines, which is possibly mediated by induction of apoptosis and alterations of the cell cycle. Organosulfur compounds in garlic are thus possible cancer-preventive agents. Clinical trials will be required to define the effective dose that has no toxicity in humans. PMID:23960721

  15. Autophagy Therapeutic Potential of Garlic in Human Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yung-Lin; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Lin, Shu-Hsi; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Cheng, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Shih-Hang; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases against humans. To tackle this menace, humans have developed several high-technology therapies, such as chemotherapy, tomotherapy, targeted therapy, and antibody therapy. However, all these therapies have their own adverse side effects. Therefore, recent years have seen increased attention being given to the natural food for complementary therapy, which have less side effects. Garlic (Dà Suàn; Allium sativum), is one of most powerful food used in many of the civilizations for both culinary and medicinal purpose. In general, these foods induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, or necrosis. Studies have discussed how natural food factors regulate cell survival or death by autophagy in cancer cells. From many literature reviews, garlic could not only induce apoptosis but also autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy, which is called type-II programmed cell death, provides new strategy in cancer therapy. In conclusion, we wish that garlic could be the pioneer food of complementary therapy in clinical cancer treatment and increase the life quality of cancer patients. PMID:24716172

  16. Autophagy therapeutic potential of garlic in human cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yung-Lin; Raghu, Rajasekaran; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Chun-Ting; Lin, Shu-Hsi; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Cheng, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Shih-Hang; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2013-07-01

    Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases against humans. To tackle this menace, humans have developed several high-technology therapies, such as chemotherapy, tomotherapy, targeted therapy, and antibody therapy. However, all these therapies have their own adverse side effects. Therefore, recent years have seen increased attention being given to the natural food for complementary therapy, which have less side effects. Garlic (Dà Suàn; Allium sativum), is one of most powerful food used in many of the civilizations for both culinary and medicinal purpose. In general, these foods induce cancer cell death by apoptosis, autophagy, or necrosis. Studies have discussed how natural food factors regulate cell survival or death by autophagy in cancer cells. From many literature reviews, garlic could not only induce apoptosis but also autophagy in cancer cells. Autophagy, which is called type-II programmed cell death, provides new strategy in cancer therapy. In conclusion, we wish that garlic could be the pioneer food of complementary therapy in clinical cancer treatment and increase the life quality of cancer patients.

  17. Deodorization of garlic breath volatiles by food and food components.

    PubMed

    Munch, Ryan; Barringer, Sheryl A

    2014-04-01

    The ability of foods and beverages to reduce allyl methyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl sulfide on human breath after consumption of raw garlic was examined. The treatments were consumed immediately following raw garlic consumption for breath measurements, or were blended with garlic prior to headspace measurements. Measurements were done using a selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometer. Chlorophyllin treatment demonstrated no deodorization in comparison to the control. Successful treatments may be due to enzymatic, polyphenolic, or acid deodorization. Enzymatic deodorization involved oxidation of polyphenolic compounds by enzymes, with the oxidized polyphenols causing deodorization. This was the probable mechanism in raw apple, parsley, spinach, and mint treatments. Polyphenolic deodorization involved deodorization by polyphenolic compounds without enzymatic activity. This probably occurred for microwaved apple, green tea, and lemon juice treatments. When pH is below 3.6, the enzyme alliinase is inactivated, which causes a reduction in volatile formation. This was demonstrated in pH-adjusted headspace measurements. However, the mechanism for volatile reduction on human breath (after volatile formation) is unclear, and may have occurred in soft drink and lemon juice breath treatments. Whey protein was not an effective garlic breath deodorant and had no enzymatic activity, polyphenolic compounds, or acidity. Headspace concentrations did not correlate well to breath treatments. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. 78 FR 18316 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) \\1... rescinding the NSRs of both Fuyi and Maycarrier. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China...

  19. 75 FR 61130 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Ranch L.L.C., the Garlic Company, Valley Garlic, and Vessey and Company, Inc. (collectively, Petitioners... reconsideration of its valuation of the labor wage rate for this review. The Department gave interested parties... Valuation of Garlic Bulbs Issue 3: Use of India Wholesale Price Index as Inflator for Surrogate Values Issue...

  20. Alliinase and cysteine synthase transcription in developing garlic (Allium sativum L.) over time.

    PubMed

    Mitrová, Katarina; Svoboda, Pavel; Milella, Luigi; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2018-06-15

    Garlic is a valuable source of healthy compounds, including secondary metabolites rich in sulphur such as cysteine sulphoxides (CSOs). Here, we present new qRT-PCR assays analysing the transcription of two genes encoding key enzymes in CSO biosynthetic pathways (cysteine synthase and alliinase) in developing garlic. We also identified a set of genes (ACT I, GAPDH, and TUB) to use as transcription normalisation controls. We showed that the (normalised) transcription of both enzymes was highest during sprouting and decreased significantly in fully developed leaves, which are the major CSO-producing organs. Transcriptional activity further declined at the end of the growing season. Different cultivars show similar sulphur metabolism gene expression when European garlics were compared to Chinese and American genotypes. The qRT-PCR assays presented are also suitable for investigating the effects of agricultural practices on CSO formation in garlic to satisfy consumer demands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effect of different light spectra on the pigmentation of stored elephant garlic.

    PubMed

    Comparini, Diego; Nguyen, Hieu Th; Ueda, Kota; Moritaka, Kyoshi; Kihara, Toshihiko; Kawano, Tomonori

    2018-05-01

    In the present study high-brightness light-emitting diodes were used to investigate the influence of different light spectra on garlic discoloration at different humidity levels and temperature. Many processes involved in the discoloration process of garlic/leek during storage under different conditions remain unanswered. For this reason in this study the ability of specific light spectra to enhance the production of desirable pigments has been evaluated in elephant garlic. It is well known that the pigments involved in the discoloration reaction are of great interest because of their potential ability to increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the food. In the present study, we show how the chlorophyll content of the sprout increases directly proportionally to the wavelength of the light tested; green/blue light delays the greening process of garlic young shoots whilst red/infra-red light irradiance conditions increase the greening process at different storage temperatures and humidity. Moreover different lights in the visible spectrum have been observed to stimulate and enhance the outer layer purple coloration. The use of different lights to modulate garlic pigmentation has been demonstrated and, in particular, the utilisation of red/green/blue lights and lower temperature resulted in higher red/pink pigments production supporting the hypothesis that this process involves more than one light to be fully performed and the low temperature is a condition that influences the formation of these products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of garlic compounds against Gyrodactylus turnbulli infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Schelkle, Bettina; Snellgrove, Donna; Cable, Joanne

    2013-11-15

    Traditional compounds used to treat fish diseases in aquaculture and the ornamental fish industry (such as formalin and malachite green) can be more toxic to the hosts than their parasites. With the reviviscence in the use of herbal products, various botanicals have been heralded as cures for particular pathogens, but the efficacy of these compounds for parasitic worms is questionable. Here, we tested a range of garlic (Allium sativum) products against a major aquarium pathogen, Gyrodactylus turnbulli, infecting the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). All garlic products significantly reduced parasite mean survival time in vitro, from 13 h to <1 h. In fully randomised trials, the number of parasites was also significantly reduced on infected fish exposed to garlic from different sources. Two garlic treatments (minced and granule forms) reduced worm burdens by 66% and 75% after three doses, whereas Chinese freeze-dried garlic and allyl disulphide were 95% effective after a single application. In fact, Chinese freeze dried garlic was equally effective as Levamisole, a licensed livestock dewormer that is highly effective against G. turnbulli but not routinely prescribed for use in fish; hence, garlic may be a potential alternative treatment for gyrodactylosis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effects of garlic oil, age and sex on n-hexane metabolism in rats].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jie; Yin, Hong-yin; Liu, Zhong; Chi, De-feng; Li, Yang; Fu, Qiang-qiang; Xie, Ke-qin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate effects of garlic oil (GO), age and sex on n-hexane metabolism in rats. The Wistar rats were used as experimental animals. (1) Intragastric administration: n-hexane group (3000 mg/kg n-hexane), GO treated group (80 mg/kg GO ig. an hour earlier than 3000 mg/kg n-hexane), then blood was taken from tails of rats at 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 h points after n-hexane administration. (2) Intraperitoneal injection: n-hexane group (1000 mg/kg n-hexane), GO treated group (80 mg/kg GO ig. an hour earlier than 1000 mg/kg n-hexane), then took blood was taken from tails of rats at 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 h points after n-hexane injection. (3) 7 rats each group of 6, 8, 10 weeks age were administrated by 3000 mg/kg n-hexane intragastrically, then were taken blood from tails at 16, 20, 24 h points after administration. (4) 7 male and 7 female rats of 8 weeks age were administrated by 3000 mg/kg n-hexane intragastrically, then were taken blood from tails at 16, 20, 24, 28 h points after administration. The gas chromatography was used to determine the metabolite 2, 5-hexanedione concentration of n-hexane in serum and 2, 5-hexanedione concentration was compared between GO and no GO treated rats, different ages and different sexes. (1) Intragastric administration: 2, 5-hexanedione concentrations in serum of n-hexane group and GO treated group had the peak 19.2 and 12.3 µg/ml at 20h and 24 h points. Compared with n-hexane group, the serum 2, 5-hexanedione concentration of GO treated group was lower at time points prior to peak and 2, 5-hexanedione eliminating process was slower after peak. (2) Intraperitoneal injection: effects of GO on the serum 2, 5-hexanedione concentrations was very similar to intragastric administration, 2, 5-hexanedione concentrations in serum of n-hexane group and GO treated group had the peak 15.0 and 6.7 µg/ml at 12 h and 16 h points. (3) Comparison of the serum 2, 5-hexanedione concentrations of different weeks age rats: The serum 2, 5

  4. Garlic Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Individuals, Regulates Serum Cholesterol, and Stimulates Immunity: An Updated Meta-analysis and Review.

    PubMed

    Ried, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Garlic has been shown to have cardiovascular protective and immunomodulatory properties. We updated a previous meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure and reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. We searched the Medline database for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1955 and December 2013 on the effect of garlic preparations on blood pressure. In addition, we reviewed the effect of garlic on cholesterol and immunity. Our updated meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood pressure, which included 20 trials with 970 participants, showed a mean ± SE decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 5.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001) and a mean ± SE decrease in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 2.5 ± 1.6 mm Hg (P < 0.002) compared with placebo. Subgroup analysis of trials in hypertensive subjects (SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg) at baseline revealed a larger significant reduction in SBP of 8.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 10) and in DBP of 6.1 ± 1.3 mm Hg (P < 0.001; n = 6). A previously published meta-analysis on the effect of garlic on blood lipids, which included 39 primary RCTs and 2300 adults treated for a minimum of 2 wk, suggested garlic to be effective in reducing total and LDL cholesterol by 10% if taken for >2 mo by individuals with slightly elevated concentrations [e.g., total cholesterol >200 mg/dL (>5.5 mmol/L)]. Garlic has immunomodulating effects by increasing macrophage activity, natural killer cells, and the production of T and B cells. Clinical trials have shown garlic to significantly reduce the number, duration, and severity of upper respiratory infections. Our review suggests that garlic supplements have the potential to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, to regulate slightly elevated cholesterol concentrations, and to stimulate the immune system. Garlic supplements are highly tolerated and may be considered as a complementary treatment option for hypertension, slightly elevated cholesterol

  5. Effects of garlic on blood pressure in patients with and without systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Kurt M; Coleman, Craig I; Teevan, Colleen; Vachhani, Payal; White, C Michael

    2008-12-01

    Garlic has been suggested to lower blood pressure; however, studies evaluating this parameter have provided conflicting results. To examine the effect of garlic on blood pressure in patients with and without elevated systolic blood pressure (SPB) through meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials in humans evaluating garlic's effect on blood pressure. All databases were searched from their inception through June 26, 2008, using the key words garlic, Allium sativum, and allicin. A manual search of published literature was used to identify additional relevant studies. To be included in the analysis, studies must have been written in English or German and reported endpoints of SBP or diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Studies whose population had a mean baseline SBP greater than 140 mm Hg were evaluated separately from those whose population had lower baseline blood pressures. Garlic's effect on SBP and DBP was treated as a continuous variable and weighted mean differences were calculated using a random-effects model. Ten trials were included in the analysis; 3 of these had patients with elevated SBP. Garlic reduced SBP by 16.3 mm Hg (95% CI 6.2 to 26.5) and DBP by 9.3 mm Hg (95% CI 5.3 to 13.3) compared with placebo in patients with elevated SBP. However, the use of garlic did not reduce SBP or DBP in patients without elevated SBP. There was only a minor degree of heterogeneity in the analyses and publication bias did not appear to influence the results. This meta-analysis suggests that garlic is associated with blood pressure reductions in patients with an elevated SBP although not in those without elevated SBP. Future research should focus on the impact of garlic on clinical events and the assessment of the long-term risk of harm.

  6. Uptake and speciation of selenium in garlic cultivated in soil amended with symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) and selenate.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Erik H; Lobinski, Ryszard; Burger-Meÿer, Karin; Hansen, Marianne; Ruzik, Rafal; Mazurowska, Lena; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Sloth, Jens J; Scholten, Olga; Kik, Chris

    2006-07-01

    The scope of the work was to investigate the influence of selenate fertilisation and the addition of symbiotic fungi (mycorrhiza) to soil on selenium and selenium species concentrations in garlic. The selenium species were extracted from garlic cultivated in experimental plots by proteolytic enzymes, which ensured liberation of selenium species contained in peptides or proteins. Separate extractions using an aqueous solution of enzyme-deactivating hydroxylamine hydrochloride counteracted the possible degradation of labile selenium species by enzymes (such as alliinase) that occur naturally in garlic. The selenium content in garlic, which was analysed by ICP-MS, showed that addition of mycorrhiza to the natural soil increased the selenium uptake by garlic tenfold to 15 microg g(-1) (dry mass). Fertilisation with selenate and addition of mycorrhiza strongly increased the selenium content in garlic to around one part per thousand. The parallel analysis of the sample extracts by cation exchange and reversed-phase HPLC with ICP-MS detection showed that gamma-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine amounted to 2/3, whereas methylselenocysteine, selenomethionine and selenate each amounted to a few percent of the total chromatographed selenium in all garlic samples. Se-allyl-selenocysteine and Se-propyl-selenocysteine, which are selenium analogues of biologically active sulfur-containing amino acids known to occur in garlic, were searched for but not detected in any of the extracts. The amendment of soil by mycorrhiza and/or by selenate increased the content of selenium but not the distribution of detected selenium species in garlic. Finally, the use of two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by reversed-phase) allowed the structural characterisation of gamma-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenocysteine and gamma-glutamyl-Se-methyl-selenomethionine in isolated chromatographic fractions by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

  7. Garlic Revisited: Therapeutic for the Major Diseases of Our Times?

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Tariq H.; Kandil, O.; Elkadi, A.; Carter, J.

    1988-01-01

    Garlic may play an invaluable role in the prevention and therapy of the major causes of death. Anecdotal, basic, and clinical research data are confirming the efficacy of this herb in the treatment of hyperlipemia, cancer, heavy-metal intoxication, infectious diseases, hypertension, free-radical damage, and immune deficiency states. Garlic's broad antimicrobial spectra and its ability to modulate immunity may play a strategic role in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pandemic. A review of the literature supports a greater scrutiny of this herb's therapeutic potential. PMID:3290502

  8. Effect of garlic powder on acrylamide formation in a low-moisture model system and bread baking.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinwang; Zuo, Jie; Qiao, Xuguang; Zhang, Yongju; Xu, Zhixiang

    2016-02-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is of concern worldwide because of its neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity. Consequently, methods for minimizing AA formation during food processing are vital. In this study, the formation and elimination of AA in an asparagine/glucose low-moisture model system were investigated by response surface methodology. The effect of garlic powder on the kinetics of AA formation/elimination was also evaluated. The AA content reached a maximum level (674.0 nmol) with 1.2 mmol of glucose and 1.2 mmol of asparagine after heating at 200 °C for 6 min. The AA content was greatly reduced with the addition of garlic powder. Compared to without garlic powder, an AA reduction rate of 43% was obtained with addition of garlic powder at a mass fraction of 0.05 g. Garlic powder inhibited AA formation during the generation-predominant kinetic stage and had no effect on the degradation-predominant kinetic stage. The effect of garlic powder on AA formation in bread and bread quality was also investigated. Adding a garlic powder mass fraction of 15 g to 500 g of dough significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the formation of AA (reduction rate of 46%) and had no obvious effect on the sensory qualities of the bread. This study provides a possible method for reducing the AA content in bread and other heat-treated starch-rich foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of low Molecular Weight Compounds in Garlic (Allium sativum L.) with Gold Nanoparticle Enhanced Target.

    PubMed

    Misiorek, Maria; Sekuła, Justyna; Ruman, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is the subject of many studies due to its numerous beneficial properties. Although compounds of garlic have been studied by various analytical methods, their tissue distributions are still unclear. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) appears to be a very powerful tool for the identification of the localisation of compounds within a garlic clove. Visualisation of the spatial distribution of garlic low-molecular weight compounds with nanoparticle-based MSI. Compounds occurring on the cross-section of sprouted garlic has been transferred to gold-nanoparticle enhanced target (AuNPET) by imprinting. The imprint was then subjected to MSI analysis. The results suggest that low molecular weight compounds, such as amino acids, dipeptides, fatty acids, organosulphur and organoselenium compounds are distributed within the garlic clove in a characteristic manner. It can be connected with their biological functions and metabolic properties in the plant. New methodology for the visualisation of low molecular weight compounds allowed a correlation to be made between their spatial distribution within a sprouted garlic clove and their biological function. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. 75 FR 74002 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... Trading, Inc.), Milton Koch (Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd.), Justin Neuman (Shenzhen Bainong Co... Department published the initiation of the new shipper reviews of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic...

  11. Potentiation of anti-cholelithogenic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental mice

    PubMed Central

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K.; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Dietary fibre-rich tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; CB) are known to exert beneficial cholesterol lowering influence. We examined the influence of a combination of dietary tender CB and garlic (Allium sativum) in reducing the cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Methods: Cholesterol gallstones were induced in Swiss mice by feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 wk. Dietary interventions were made with 10 per cent CB and 1 per cent garlic included individually or together along with HCD. A total of 100 mice were divided into five groups of 20 mice each. Results: Dietary CB, garlic and CB+garlic reduced the formation of cholesterol gallstones by 44, 25 and 56 per cent, respectively, lowered cholesterol by 23-48, 16-24, and 24-58 in bile, serum, and liver, respectively. Cholesterol saturation index in bile and cholesterol: phospholipid ratio in circulation and hepatic tissue were significantly lowered by these dietary interventions, with highest beneficial effect from CB+garlic. Activities of hepatic cholesterol metabolizing enzymes were modulated by CB, garlic and CB+garlic. Elevation in lipid peroxides caused by HCD was also countered by these dietary interventions, the combination producing the highest effect. Interpretation & conclusions: The results showed that the prevention of experimentally induced formation of cholesterol gallstones by dietary CB and garlic was due to decreased biliary cholesterol secretion and increased cholesterol saturation index. In addition of anti-lithogenic effect, dietary CB and garlic in combination had a beneficial antioxidant effect. PMID:26609039

  12. Potentiation of anti-cholelithogenic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in experimental mice.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fibre-rich tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba; CB) are known to exert beneficial cholesterol lowering influence. We examined the influence of a combination of dietary tender CB and garlic (Allium sativum) in reducing the cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. Cholesterol gallstones were induced in Swiss mice by feeding a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 10 wk. Dietary interventions were made with 10 per cent CB and 1 per cent garlic included individually or together along with HCD. A total of 100 mice were divided into five groups of 20 mice each. Dietary CB, garlic and CB+garlic reduced the formation of cholesterol gallstones by 44, 25 and 56 per cent, respectively, lowered cholesterol by 23-48, 16-24, and 24-58 in bile, serum, and liver, respectively. Cholesterol saturation index in bile and cholesterol: phospholipid ratio in circulation and hepatic tissue were significantly lowered by these dietary interventions, with highest beneficial effect from CB+garlic. Activities of hepatic cholesterol metabolizing enzymes were modulated by CB, garlic and CB+garlic. Elevation in lipid peroxides caused by HCD was also countered by these dietary interventions, the combination producing the highest effect. The results showed that the prevention of experimentally induced formation of cholesterol gallstones by dietary CB and garlic was due to decreased biliary cholesterol secretion and increased cholesterol saturation index. In addition of anti-lithogenic effect, dietary CB and garlic in combination had a beneficial antioxidant effect.

  13. Preventive effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on oxidative stress and histopathology of cardiac tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Naderi, R; Mohaddes, G; Mohammadi, M; Alihemmati, A; Badalzadeh, R; Ghaznavi, R; Ghyasi, R; Mohammadi, Sh

    2015-12-01

    Since some complications of diabetes mellitus may be caused or exacerbated by an oxidative stress, the protective effects of garlic (Allium sativum) were investigated in the blood and heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, garlic, diabetic, and diabetic+garlic. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) in male rats. Rats were fed with raw fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/kg) six days a week by gavage for a period of 6 weeks. At the end of the 6th week blood samples and heart tissues were collected and used for determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and histological evaluation. Induction of diabetes increased MDA levels in blood and homogenates of heart. In diabetic rats treated with garlic, MDA levels decreased in blood and heart homogenates. Treatment of diabetic rats with garlic increased SOD, GPX and CAT in blood and heart homogenates. Histopathological finding of the myocardial tissue confirmed a protective role for garlic in diabetic rats. Thus, the present study reveals that garlic may effectively modulate antioxidants status in the blood and heart of streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats.

  14. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    PubMed

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  15. 76 FR 68128 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Partial Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... limit to issue the preliminary results by 100 days. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China...

  16. Chinese chives and garlic in intercropping in strawberry high tunnels for Neopamera bilobata Say (Hemiptera: Rhyparochromidae) control.

    PubMed

    Hata, F T; Ventura, M U; Béga, V L; Camacho, I M; de Paula, M T

    2018-05-08

    Strawberry is affected by several pests and diseases. Neopamera bilobata is an emerging pest that has been reported by several strawberry growers, usually associated with catfacing symptoms in fruits. We evaluated intercropping garlic or Chinese chives on N. bilobata populations on strawberry crops grown in high tunnels in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated N. bilobata populations on strawberry intercropping with garlic plants (three densities: 8, 16, 24 GP - garlic plant per plot) on the bags by taking 12 samples from December 2015 to April 2017. N. bilobata populations on strawberry were also assessed when Chinese chives were grown under the suspended wooden structures in which strawberry plants are grown ('undercropping') (14 samples), in two high tunnels, from November 2016 to March 2017. The number of nymphs and adults on 14 randomly selected fruits per plot were assessed. During the garlic intercropping experiment, the treatments of three densities of garlic reduced N. bilobata populations; however, the 24 GP treatment caused a greater reduction than the 8 GP treatment. Garlic densities reduced N. bilobata populations by 35, 50, and 64% for the 8, 16, and 24 GP treatments, respectively. Chinese chives cultivated under the structures reduced N. bilobata populations by 47%. The results suggest that intercropping garlic or undercropping Chinese chives are suitable tools to be tested in integrated pest management in strawberry crops.

  17. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  18. Effect of garlic and garlic-green tea mixture on serum lipids in MNNG-induced experimental gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesion.

    PubMed

    Su, Qi; Luo, Zhao-Yang; Teng, Hua; Yun, Wei-Dong; Li, Yi-Qing; He, Xin-E

    1998-02-01

    INTRODUCTION:To study effect of garlic and garlic-green tea mixture on serum contents of Tch,LDL and HDL in MNNG induced gastric carcinoma (GC) and precancerous lesion (PL) in Wistar rats.METHODS:Serum contents of Tch,LDL and HDL in normal control group (n=10,NG),MNNG group (n=30,MG),prevention group (n=30,PG),treatment group I (n=20,TG I) and treatment group II(n=20,TG II) were detected by PGE 6000/COD.RESULTS:Serum Tch and LDL of rats of MG (6.86±1.39 3.72±1.10) and its GC(6.95±1.37 3.77±1.08) and PL(6.42±1.04 3.56±0.74) were lower than that of NG (8.74±1.89 5.89±1.61) PG(7.73±3.18 4.96±2.89) and its GC(8.36±3.41 5.93±3.31) and PL(7.45±3.16 4.55±2.71),TGI(8.86±1.75 5.38±1.76) and its GC (9.10±2.27 5.55±2.51) and PL (8.61±1.17 5.22±0.55) and TG II (8.16±0.76 5.32±0.72) and its GC(8.52±0.67 5.96±0.48) and PL (8.02±0.79 5.09±0.65),respectively (P <0.01-0.05).Serum HDL of MG rats (2.76±0.48) and its GC(2.79±0.48) were remarkably higher than that of MG (2.20±0.85) and GC of PG (2.24±0.38) (P <0.05).CONCLUSION:Experimental gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesion were associated with hypocholesterolaemia,LDL and HDL.Garlic and garlic-green tea mixture can inhibit and reverse MNNG-induced gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesion in Wistar rats.

  19. Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cholinergic, Glutamatergic and GABAergic Systems with Regard to Cognitive Impairment in Aβ-Induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thorajak, Piyaporn; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Umka Welbat, Jariya; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Sripanidkulchai, Kittisak; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been linked to the degeneration of central cholinergic and glutamatergic transmission, which correlates with progressive memory loss and the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ). It has been claimed that aged garlic extract (AGE) has a beneficial effect in preventing neurodegeneration in AD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of AGE on Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction with a biochemical basis in the cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic systems in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were orally administered three doses of AGE (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) daily for 65 days. At day 56, they were injected with 1 μL of aggregated Aβ (1–42) into each lateral ventricle, bilaterally. After six days of Aβ injection, the rats’ working and reference memory was tested using a radial arm maze. The rats were then euthanized to investigate any changes to the cholinergic neurons, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and 2 proteins (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2), and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in the hippocampus. The results showed that AGE significantly improved the working memory and tended to improve the reference memory in cognitively-impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly ameliorated the loss of cholinergic neurons and increased the VGLUT1 and GAD levels in the hippocampus of rat brains with Aβ-induced toxicity. In contrast, the VGLUT2 protein levels did not change in any of the treated groups. We concluded that AGE was able to attenuate the impairment of working memory via the modification of cholinergic neurons, VGLUT1, and GAD in the hippocampus of Aβ-induced rats. PMID:28671572

  20. Boiling enriches the linear polysulfides and the hydrogen sulfide-releasing activity of garlic.

    PubMed

    Tocmo, Restituto; Wu, Yuchen; Liang, Dong; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Huang, Dejian

    2017-04-15

    Garlic is rich in polysulfides, and some of them can be H 2 S donors. This study was conducted to explore the effect of cooking on garlic's organopolysulfides and H 2 S-releasing activity. Garlic bulbs were crushed and boiled for a period ranging from 3 to 30min and the solvent extracts were analyzed by GC-MS/FID and HPLC. A cell-based assay was used to measure the H 2 S-releasing activity of the extracts. Results showed that the amounts of allyl polysulfides increased in crushed garlic boiled for 6-10min; however, prolonging the thermal treatment to 20 or 30min decreased their concentrations. Data of the H 2 S-releasing activity, expressed as diallyl trisulfide equivalents (DATS-E), parallel this trend, being significantly higher at 6 and 10min boiling. Our results showed enhancement of H 2 S-releasing activity upon moderate boiling, suggesting that shorter cooking time may maximize its health benefits as a dietary source of natural H 2 S donors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reference. Copies may be obtained from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) Garlic and its derivatives are used...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reference. Copies may be obtained from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) Garlic and its derivatives are used...

  3. 76 FR 10335 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China. See Initiation of Antidumping and... duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  4. 75 FR 19364 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People... (Department) published the initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic... the preliminary results of this antidumping duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic From the...

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of garlic against ethanol-induced liver injury: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Guan, Min-Jie; Zhao, Ning; Xie, Ke-Qin; Zeng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a progressively aggravated liver disease with a diverse spectrum from steatosis to hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Epidemiological studies reveal that alcohol is one of the major causes of advanced liver disease in Europe, United States, and China. Despite the considerable harm, progression in ALD research is slow and the current therapies for ALD have less efficient. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a flavoring agent and also a folk medicine since ancient time. Along with the prosperity in the use of herbal medicines for the treatment of human diseases in recent decades, a series of studies have focused on the beneficial effects of garlic against ALD. This mini-review highlighted the protective roles of garlic against ALD and the potential mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Model studies on precursor system generating blue pigment in onion and garlic.

    PubMed

    Imai, Shinsuke; Akita, Kaori; Tomotake, Muneaki; Sawada, Hiroshi

    2006-02-08

    Reactions involved in blue-green discoloration in a mixture of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) were investigated. Vivid-blue color was successfully reproduced by using a defined model reaction system comprising only trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO) from onion, S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (2-PeCSO) from garlic, purified alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4), and glycine (or some other amino acids). Four reaction steps identified and factors affecting the blue color formation were in good agreement with those suggested by earlier investigators. When crude onion alliinase was used in place of garlic alliinase, less pigment was formed. This result was explained by a difference in the amount of thiosulfinates, colorless intermediates termed color developers, yielded from 1-PeCSO by these enzymes.

  7. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-04-20

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20-40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control.

  8. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20–40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control. PMID:28425475

  9. Histopathological study of the combination of metformin and garlic juice for the attenuation of gentamicin renal toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran, Azar; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tubular toxicity is one of the most important side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics, especially gentamicin.Objectives: We histopathologically studied the effect of garlic extract and metformin co-administration, in attenuation of genetamicin induced tubular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study seventy rats were divided into seven equal groups and except group 1 (control) were injected 100 mg/kg/day gentamicin (GM) intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 10 days. Other than GM, group III received 20 mg/kg garlic (i.p.), group IV metformin (MF) (100 mg/kg, orally), group V a combination of MF with garlic juice (100 and 20 mg/kg/day, respectively) and group VI a combination of MF and garlic juice (50 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively) for following 10 days. Group VII received a combination of MF and garlic juice (100 and 20 mg/kg, respectively) along with GM. Animals were sacrificed on the 20th day of the experiment and the kidneys were removed for histological examinations. Results: GM induced nephrotoxicity and garlic or MF alone and a combination of both with high doses (not low doses) significantly abolished the kidney tubular injury induced by GM. In addition, co-administration of GM, MF and garlic (group 7) prevented the GM- induced tissue damage more than the groups in which MF and garlic were injected 10 days post GM administration. Conclusion: Garlic extract and Metformin, alone or in a combination, might be safely used to ameliorate GM induced tubular toxicity. PMID:25340116

  10. 75 FR 29314 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China covering the period November 1, 2007 through... the preliminary results of this antidumping duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic From the...

  11. 76 FR 775 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... Department) issued the preliminary results of the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the People's... Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Reviews and...

  12. Performance of crossbred calves with dietary supplementation of garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Mehla, R K; Sirohi, S K; Tomar, S K

    2011-08-01

    Twelve crossbred calves (Holstein cross) in their pre-ruminant stage were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance and they were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups in equal number. Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake [dry matter (DM); total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)], feed conversion efficiency (DM, TDN and CP), fecal score and fecal coliform count. Diets were same for both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW/day/calf. BW measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, fecal scores monitored daily and fecal coliform count done weekly. There was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in mean BW gain and feed intake and a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in severity of scours as measured by fecal score in the treatment group compared to the control group. The results suggest that garlic extract can be supplemented to the calves for better performance. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Von White, Gregory; Kerscher, Petra; Brown, Ryan M.; Morella, Jacob D.; McAllister, William; Dean, Delphine; Kitchens, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature where Allium sativum (garlic) extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the post-synthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray chemical analysis, and high performance liquid chromatography indicated that the carbohydrates present in the garlic extract are the most likely nanoparticle stabilizing chemistry. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomeical applications, owing to the 1) enhanced stability in biological media, 2) resistance to oxidation by the addition of H2O2, 3) ease and scalability of synthesis, and 4) lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, confirming that garlic extract prepared silver nanoparticles are ideal candidates for future experimentation and implementation into biomedical applications. PMID:24683414

  14. Green Synthesis of Robust, Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Garlic Extract.

    PubMed

    Von White, Gregory; Kerscher, Petra; Brown, Ryan M; Morella, Jacob D; McAllister, William; Dean, Delphine; Kitchens, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    This paper details a facile approach for the synthesis of stable and monodisperse silver nanoparticles performed at ambient/low temperature where Allium sativum (garlic) extract functions as the silver salt reducing agent during nanoparticle synthesis as well as the post-synthesis stabilizing ligands. Varying the synthesis conditions provides control of particle size, size-distribution, and kinetics of particle formation. Infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray chemical analysis, and high performance liquid chromatography indicated that the carbohydrates present in the garlic extract are the most likely nanoparticle stabilizing chemistry. The synthesized silver nanoparticles also demonstrate potential for biomeical applications, owing to the 1) enhanced stability in biological media, 2) resistance to oxidation by the addition of H 2 O 2 , 3) ease and scalability of synthesis, and 4) lack of harsh chemicals required for synthesis. Cytotoxicity assays indicated no decrease in cellular proliferation for vascular smooth muscle cells and 3T3 fibroblasts at a concentration of 25 μg/ml, confirming that garlic extract prepared silver nanoparticles are ideal candidates for future experimentation and implementation into biomedical applications.

  15. Modulatory effects of garlic extract against the cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sowjanya, B Lakshmi; Devi, K Rudrama; Madhavi, D

    2009-09-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive agent which is used in the treatment of wide range of cancers and autoimmune diseases. Besides that it is a well known carcinogen. In this study by using chromosomal aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) assays method, the modulatory effects exerted by the extract of garlic against the CP induced genotoxicity in the human lymphocyte cultures in vitro were tested. Three different doses of garlic extract were tested for their modulatory capacity on the mutagenecity exerted by 100 microg ml(-1) of CR The results indicate a significant decrease in the frequency of CA and SCE suggesting that the garlic extract modulates the CP induced genotoxicity in a dose dependent manner. These findings provide the future directions for the research on design and development of possible modulatory drugs containing garlic extract.

  16. 77 FR 38583 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC.... 2010) (Diamond Sawblades). \\6\\ See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

  17. 76 FR 45230 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... Commerce (the Department) issued the preliminary intent to rescind the new shipper reviews of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China for Jining Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd. and Shenzhen Bainong Co...

  18. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiating; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin; Dong, Yuanxing; Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying; Chai, Zhifang

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) and selenite (SeO3(2-)) or selenate (SeO4(2-)). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1mg/L of SeO3(2-) or SeO4(2-)) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg(2+) levels are higher than 1mg/L in culture media. SeO3(2-) and SeO4(2-) were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg-S bonding as Hg(GSH)2 and Hg(Met)2. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg-S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH)2, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Fresh Garlic on Lipid Oxidation and Microbiological Changes of Pork Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two levels (1.4 vs 2.8%) of fresh garlic on lipid oxidation and microbial growth in pork patties were evaluated. Hunter color (L, a, b), pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidative volatile compounds, total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae in the pork patties with or without fresh garlic were measured during storage at 4℃. Addition of fresh garlic decreased redness (a), while increased pH and yellowness (b) values of the fresh pork patties were observed, regardless of the levels added. The TBARS values of the pork patties were increased with the addition of fresh garlic (p<0.05). Similar results were observed in oxidative volatile compounds. A total of 13 volatile compounds were detected in the patties (5 sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl mercaptan, allyl methyl sulfide, diallyl sulfide, methyl-(E)-propenyl-disulfide, and diallyl disulfide, and the 8 other oxidative compounds, including 1-pentanol, hexanal, 1-hexanol, heptanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-2-octenal and nonanal). Fresh garlic accelerated development of oxidative products in the pork patties, especially hexanal and the total oxidative volatile compounds. However, the addition of 1.4 and 2.8% of fresh garlic inhibited the growth of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, indicating low total bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae than the controls. PMID:26761498

  20. 77 FR 17409 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... of the administrative review are currently due no later than April 5, 2012. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From... Part, the 2009-2010 Administrative Review, 76 FR 65172 (October 20, 2011). \\2\\ See Fresh Garlic From...

  1. 75 FR 38778 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People... (the Department) issued the preliminary results of the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the... the period of review of November 1, 2008 through April 30, 2009. See Fresh Garlic from the People's...

  2. [Work related sensitization risk in hotel school students, the role of garlic].

    PubMed

    Montalti, M; Lucadei, P; Fioriti, M; Luchetti, E; Sanchez, M A; Filippousi, M; Cupelli, V; Arcangeli, G

    2007-01-01

    We want to evaluate the incidence of allergic problems in a population of catering students at the beginning and after 3 and 5 years of their course. We enrolled in the study 601 students of a professional catering school: 412 in the first year and 189 in the fifth years. We used two questionnaires to investigate respiratory problems and dermatological ones. All the subjects were also patch tested with 10 aptens. The incidence of reported symptoms of allergy was higher in fifth year than in first one. We can observe a rising in positive reaction between the two group of students to Balsam Perù, Nickel, Fragrance mix and Garlic. In particular we found an higher incidence of positive patch reaction in female population. On the contrary the rising in positive reaction to Garlic is higher in male. About two third of the subjects positive to garlic present a sensitization to diallyl disulphide. The rising of positive patch test reactions to Garlic and Balsam Perù should be caused by the contact with cooking spices. The higher incidence of allergic pathology between students during fifth year of school and students at first year is probably due to scholastic practical activity.

  3. Antifungal activity, kinetics and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Dai, Huan-Qin; Liang, Qing; Xie, Xiao-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Zhao, Guang-Ze; Zhang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal activity, kinetics, and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans were investigated in this study using multiple methods. Using the poisoned food technique, we determined that the minimum inhibitory concentration of garlic oil was 0.35 μg/mL. Observation by transmission electron microscopy indicated that garlic oil could penetrate the cellular membrane of C. albicans as well as the membranes of organelles such as the mitochondria, resulting in organelle destruction and ultimately cell death. RNA sequencing analysis showed that garlic oil induced differential expression of critical genes including those involved in oxidation-reduction processes, pathogenesis, and cellular response to drugs and starvation. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes were mainly clustered in 19 KEGG pathways, representing vital cellular processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, the spliceosome, the cell cycle, and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, four upregulated proteins selected after two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis were identified with high probability by mass spectrometry as putative cytoplasmic adenylate kinase, pyruvate decarboxylase, hexokinase, and heat shock proteins. This is suggestive of a C. albicans stress responses to garlic oil treatment. On the other hand, a large number of proteins were downregulated, leading to significant disruption of the normal metabolism and physical functions of C. albicans. PMID:26948845

  4. Investigating Antibacterial Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) Concentrate and Garlic-Derived Organosulfur Compounds on Campylobacter jejuni by Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and Electron Microscopy ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaonan; Rasco, Barbara A.; Jabal, Jamie M. F.; Aston, D. Eric; Lin, Mengshi; Konkel, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the cell injury and inactivation of Campylobacter jejuni from exposure to antioxidants from garlic. C. jejuni was treated with various concentrations of garlic concentrate and garlic-derived organosulfur compounds in growth media and saline at 4, 22, and 35°C. The antimicrobial activities of the diallyl sulfides increased with the number of sulfur atoms (diallyl sulfide < diallyl disulfide < diallyl trisulfide). FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed that organosulfur compounds are responsible for the substantial antimicrobial activity of garlic, much greater than those of garlic phenolic compounds, as indicated by changes in the spectral features of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides in the bacterial cell membranes. Confocal Raman microscopy (532-nm-gold-particle substrate) and Raman mapping of a single bacterium confirmed the intracellular uptake of sulfur and phenolic components. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to verify cell damage. Principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant function analysis (DFA), and soft independent modeling of class analogs (SIMCA) were performed, and results were cross validated to differentiate bacteria based upon the degree of cell injury. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) was employed to quantify and predict actual numbers of healthy and injured bacterial cells remaining following treatment. PLSR-based loading plots were investigated to further verify the changes in the cell membrane of C. jejuni treated with organosulfur compounds. We demonstrated that bacterial injury and inactivation could be accurately investigated by complementary infrared and Raman spectroscopies using a chemical-based, “whole-organism fingerprint” with the aid of chemometrics and electron microscopy. PMID:21642409

  5. 77 FR 36255 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... case is not in harmony with Garlic AR8 Final Results \\3\\ and is amending the final results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (``PRC...

  6. A single meal containing raw, crushed garlic influences expression of immunity- and cancer-related genes in whole blood of humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preclinical and epidemiological studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. To probe mechanisms of garlic action in humans, we conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing...

  7. 76 FR 19322 - Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Garlic Company, Valley Garlic, and Vessey and Company, Inc.) (collectively, Petitioners) requested an... section below), the parties addressed, in their case and rebuttal briefs, three surrogate valuation issues...

  8. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biological processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  9. Preventive Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Serum Biochemical Factors and Histopathology of Pancreas and Liver in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Masjedi, Fatemeh; Gol, Ali; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2013-01-01

    Antidiabetic action of garlic is established in animal studies. Since all of the pervious studies have focused on the therapeutic role of garlic, this study investigated the preventive effect of garlic juice on biochemical factors and histological features in Streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetic rats. Forty male rats were divided into five groups (n = 8): 1-Normal group (N), 2-Normal+Garlic group (N+G) received garlic juice (1 mL/100g BW) for 6 weeks, 3-Diabetic group (D) was injected with STZ (60 mg/kg, IP), 4-Diabetic+Garlic-before group (D+Gb) received garlic juice for 3 weeks before STZ injection and continued for another 3 weeks, 5-Diabetic+Garlic-after group (D+Ga), three days after STZ injection, they received garlic juice for 3 weeks. Serum biochemical factors were measured by the enzymatic methods and H&E stained sections of pancreas and liver were prepared for light microscopy. In diabetic rats, elevated levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides, the increment of the activities of ALT and AST, increased food and water consumption were observed. The abnormal increases were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in D+Gb groups compared to D group. In D group, scattered degeneration of the hepatocytes with lymphocytic infiltration in the portal areas, decrease of pancreatic islets numbers and diameter, atrophy of pancreatic islets were observed. These abnormal histological signs were dramatically ameliorated in D+Gb group compared to D group. In D+Ga group compared to D+Gb group slighter effects of garlic juice on histopathological and biochemical changes were seen. These results indicate that garlic juice may help in the prevention of the complications of diabetes. PMID:24250639

  10. Vital Signs: Racial Disparities in Age-Specific Mortality Among Blacks or African Americans - United States, 1999-2015.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Croft, Janet B; Liu, Yong; Lu, Hua; Eke, Paul I; Giles, Wayne H

    2017-05-05

    Although the overall life expectancy at birth has increased for both blacks and whites and the gap between these populations has narrowed, disparities in life expectancy and the leading causes of death for blacks compared with whites in the United States remain substantial. Understanding how factors that influence these disparities vary across the life span might enhance the targeting of appropriate interventions. Trends during 1999-2015 in mortality rates for the leading causes of death were examined by black and white race and age group. Multiple 2014 and 2015 national data sources were analyzed to compare blacks with whites in selected age groups by sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health behaviors, health-related quality of life indicators, use of health services, and chronic conditions. During 1999-2015, age-adjusted death rates decreased significantly in both populations, with rates declining more sharply among blacks for most leading causes of death. Thus, the disparity gap in all-cause mortality rates narrowed from 33% in 1999 to 16% in 2015. However, during 2015, blacks still had higher death rates than whites for all-cause mortality in all groups aged <65 years. Compared with whites, blacks in age groups <65 years had higher levels of some self-reported risk factors and chronic diseases and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and cancer, diseases that are most common among persons aged ≥65 years. To continue to reduce the gap in health disparities, these findings suggest an ongoing need for universal and targeted interventions that address the leading causes of deaths among blacks (especially cardiovascular disease and cancer and their risk factors) across the life span and create equal opportunities for health.

  11. Graphene quantum dots as enhanced plant growth regulators: effects on coriander and garlic plants.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Disha; Erande, Manisha B; Late, Dattatray J

    2015-10-01

    We report investigations on the use of graphene quantum dots for growth enhancement in coriander (Coriandrum sativam L.) and garlic (Allium sativum) plants. The as-received seeds of coriander and garlic were treated with 0.2 mg mL(-1) of graphene quantum dots for 3 h before planting. Graphene quantum dots enhanced the growth rate in coriander and garlic plants, including leaves, roots, shoots, flowers and fruits, when the seeds were treated with graphene quantum dots. Our investigations open up the opportunity to use graphene quantum dots as plant growth regulators that can be used in a variety of other food plants for high yield. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of addition of wild garlic (Allium ursinum) on the quality of kefirs from sheep's milk.

    PubMed

    Znamirowska, Agata; Szajnar, Katarzyna; Rożek, Przemysław; Kalicka, Dorota; Kuźniar, Piotr; Hanus, Paweł; Kotula, Krzysztof; Obirek, Marcin; Kluz, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Sheep’s milk has a high content of total solids, which qualifies it as a very good raw material for the production of fermented milk drinks. Currently, there are commercially produced kefirs and yogurts from sheep’s milk in the countries of the Mediterranean region. The growing interest in the consumption of these products is justified not only by their taste merits, but also because of their health-promoting proper- ties. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the addition of 1% of lyophilized wild garlic powder on the properties of kefirs from sheep’s milk. Sheep’s milk was pasteurized (85°C, 30 min), cooled down, enriched with 1% of freeze-dried wild garlic powder, inoculated with a Commercial VITAL kefir culture and fermented for 16 hours (26°C). The influence of wild garlic on acidity (pH, °SH), syneresis (%), texture (TPA test), colour (L*a*b*) and the sensory profile of kefirs was conducted. Wild garlic could be used as a taste and flavour modifier in the production of kefir from sheep’s milk. The addition of 1% of freeze-dried wild garlic slowed down the fermentation of kefir, changed colour and reduced syneresis. Wild garlic could be used as a valuable supplement and a modifier of taste and flavour in kefir from sheep’s milk.

  13. Evaluation of garlic oil in nano-emulsified form: Optimization and its efficacy in high-fat diet induced dyslipidemia in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ragavan, Gokulakannan; Muralidaran, Yuvashree; Sridharan, Badrinathan; Nachiappa Ganesh, Rajesh; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2017-07-01

    Garlic oil nanoemulsion was formulated using ultrasonic emulsification and the optimized garlic oil nanoemulsion ratio (1:2) of oil: surfactant showed spherical, with tiny droplet size 24.9 ± 1.11 nm. It was observed that the prepared nanoemulsion has the zeta potential of -42.63 ± 1.58 mV and a low polydispersity index of 0.2 ± 0.09 with excellent stability. The formulation was subjected to in vivo acute and sub-acute toxicity. In acute toxicity study, single oral administration of 18.63 ml of garlic oil nanoemulsion/kg resulted in immediate mortality. However, garlic oil nanoemulsion (0.46 ml/kg) and tween 80 (0.5 ml/kg) administered rats did not exhibit any toxicity and showed no changes in hematological and histological parameters. Further, both preventive and curative studies of garlic oil nanoemulsion were evaluated in high-fat diet fed dyslipidemic Wistar rats. Garlic oil nanoemulsion administered groups showed a significant effect in reducing the levels of lipid profiles (p < 0.001) compared to atorvastatin and garlic oil. Evaluation of lipid deposits in hepatic tissues was analyzed by Oil Red O staining, which revealed that garlic oil nanoemulsion administered rats markedly reduced the fat depots. Our findings suggest that garlic oil nano-emulsified form reduced toxicity and improved efficacy in preventing and treating dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil Properties, Nutrient Dynamics, and Soil Enzyme Activities Associated with Garlic Stalk Decomposition under Various Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xu; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen

    2012-01-01

    The garlic stalk is a byproduct of garlic production and normally abandoned or burned, both of which cause environmental pollution. It is therefore appropriate to determine the conditions of efficient decomposition, and equally appropriate to determine the impact of this decomposition on soil properties. In this study, the soil properties, enzyme activities and nutrient dynamics associated with the decomposition of garlic stalk at different temperatures, concentrations and durations were investigated. Stalk decomposition significantly increased the values of soil pH and electrical conductivity. In addition, total nitrogen and organic carbon concentration were significantly increased by decomposing stalks at 40°C, with a 5∶100 ratio and for 10 or 60 days. The highest activities of sucrase, urease and alkaline phosphatase in soil were detected when stalk decomposition was performed at the lowest temperature (10°C), highest concentration (5∶100), and shortest duration (10 or 20 days). The evidence presented here suggests that garlic stalk decomposition improves the quality of soil by altering the value of soil pH and electrical conductivity and by changing nutrient dynamics and soil enzyme activity, compared to the soil decomposition without garlic stalks. PMID:23226411

  15. A review of studies of garlic (Allium sativum) on serum lipids and blood pressure before and after 1994: does the amount of allicin released from garlic powder tablets play a role?

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Marc P.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify studies measuring garlic powder tablets effects on systolic and diastolic blood pressure and to investigate if studies published prior to January 1994 would perform better than those published later. Methods Using MEDLINE (January 1966 through December 2004) studies involving human subjects that examined the effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on serum lipids and blood pressure were obtained. Studies that were conducted using garlic in the form of garlic powder tablets were included in the data extraction. Correlation coefficients were calculated for total serum cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure with respect to date of publication. Trials published prior to January 1994 were placed into an “earlier” group and compared to the “latter” group of studies published from January 1994 onward. Results Eighteen trials were identified whereupon the inverse associations between total serum cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures with respect to time of publication were correlated (−0.614, −0.627, and −0.587 respectively, p < 0.05). No significant associations were observed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure with respect to total serum cholesterol (0.388 and 0.431 respectively). The following differences between the earlier and later groups were observed for total serum cholesterol (31.4 ± 19.0 vs. 3.5 ± 5.8 mg/dl, p = .004); systolic blood pressure (11.0 ± 9.2 vs. 2.0 ± 4.4 mmHg, p = .133) and diastolic blood pressure (5.8 ± 3.4 vs. 0.9 ± 2.4 mmHg, p = .018). Conclusions Publications published prior to January 1994 performed better than those published after January 1994, suggesting that allicin may be responsible for the antihypertensive effects of garlic powder tablets. However, a lack of correlation between changes in total serum cholesterol and blood pressure suggests that other organo-sulfur compounds may also play a role in the antihyper-tensive mechanisms of garlic. PMID:19674660

  16. Antimicrobial activity of fresh garlic juice: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Seema; Trivedi, Niyati A.; Bhatt, Jagat D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance has been a global concern. Currently, interest has been focused on exploring antimicrobial properties of plants and herbs. One such botanical is Allium sativum (garlic). Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of fresh juice of garlic. Materials and Methods: Varying concentrations of fresh garlic juice (FGJ) were tested for their antimicrobial activity against common pathogenic organisms isolated at SSG Hospital, Vadodara, using well diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of FGJ were tested using broth dilution method. Sensitivity pattern of the conventional antimicrobials against common pathogenic bacteria was tested using disc diffusion method. Results: FGJ produced dose-dependent increase in the zone of inhibition at a concentration of 10% and higher. MIC of FGJ against the pathogens ranged from 4% to 16% v/v whereas MLC value ranged from 4% to 32% v/v with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus spp. showed highest sensitivity. Conclusion: FGJ has definite antimicrobial activity against common pathogenic organisms isolated at SSG Hospital, Vadodara. Further studies are needed to find out the efficacy, safety, and kinetic data of its active ingredients. PMID:27011724

  17. The effect of ginger and garlic addition during cooking on the volatile profile of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) soup.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Lin; Tu, Zong-Cai; Zhang, Lu; Sha, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Hui; Pang, Juan-Juan; Tang, Ping-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Ginger and garlic have long been used in Asian countries to enhance the flavor and to neutralize any unpleasant odors present in fish soup. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change in the amount of volatile components present in fish soup compared to boiled water solutions of ginger and garlic. The fish soup was prepared by boiling oil-fried grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ) with or without ginger and/or garlic. Generally, boiling garlic and ginger in water led to a decrease in the amount of the principal volatile constituents of these spices, together with the formation of some new volatiles such as pentanal, hexanal, and nonanal. The results showed that 16 terpenes present in raw ginger, predominantly camphene, β -phellandrene, β -citral, α -zingiberene, and ( E )-neral, were detected in fish soup with added ginger and thus remained in the solution even after boiling. Similarly, 2-propen-1-ol and three sulfur compounds (allyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl trisulfide) present in raw garlic, were present in trace amounts in the boiled garlic solution, but were present in considerably larger amounts in the boiled fish solution with garlic or garlic plus ginger. In conclusion, the effect of adding spices on the volatile profile of grass carp soup can be attributed to the dissolution of flavor volatiles mainly derived from raw spices into the solution, with few additional volatiles being formed during boiling. In addition, boiling previously fried grass carp with spices led to enhanced volatile levels compared to boiled spice solutions.

  18. The favorable effects of garlic intake on metabolic profiles, hs-CRP, biomarkers of oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aalami-Harandi, Rezvan; Karamali, Maryam; Asemi, Zatollah

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the favorable effects of garlic on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 44 pregnant women, primigravida, aged 18-40 years old at 27 weeks' gestation with positive roll-over test. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either one garlic tablet (equal to 400 mg garlic and 1 mg allicin) (n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) once daily for 9 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 9 weeks' intervention to measure metabolic profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Administration of garlic compared with the placebo resulted in decreased levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-1425.90 versus 1360.50 ng/mL, p = 0.01) and increased plasma glutathione (GSH) (+98.10 versus. -49.87 µmol/l, p = 0.03). A trend toward a significant effect of garlic intake on reducing fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (p = 0.07), insulin (p = 0.09) and increasing quantitative insulin sensitivity check (QUICKI) (p = 0.05) was also observed. Consumption of garlic for 9 weeks among pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia led to decreased hs-CRP and increased GSH, but did not affect lipid profiles, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Isolation and characterization of N-feruloyltyramine as the P-selectin expression suppressor from garlic (Allium sativum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because garlic (Allium sativum) is believed to have positive health effects on cardiovascular disease, the screening of isolated fractions from a garlic extract against cardiovascular disease related-processes should help identify active compounds. Both P-selectin expression suppressing activity ag...

  20. Garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress, hypertrophy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: a role for nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In ancient times, plants were recognized for their medicinal properties. Later, the arrival of synthetic drugs pushed it to the backstage. However, from being merely used for food, plants are now been widely explored for their therapeutic value. The current study explores the potential of skin and flesh extracts from a hard-necked Rocambole variety of purple garlic in preventing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Methods Norepinephrine (NE) was used to induce hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Cell death was measured as ratio of rod to round shaped cardiomyocytes. Fluorescent probes were used to measure apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes treated with and without extracts and NE. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were used to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic extracts. Garlic extract samples were also tested for alliin and allicin concentrations. Results Exposure of cardiomyocytes to NE induced an increase in cell size and cell death; this increase was significantly prevented upon treatment with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Norepinephrine increased apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes which was prevented upon pretreatment with skin and flesh extracts; NO, and H2S blockers significantly inhibited this beneficial effect. Allicin and alliin concentration were significantly higher in garlic flesh extract when compared to the skin extract. Conclusion These results suggest that both skin and flesh garlic extracts are effective in preventing NE induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Reduction in oxidative stress may also play an important role in the anti-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic properties of garlic extracts. These beneficial effects may in part be mediated by NO and H2S. PMID:22931510

  1. The Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Garlic Administration on Lead-Induced Neural Damage in Rat Offspring's Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Akram; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Alireza; Alipour, Fatemeh; Fazel, Alireza; Haghir, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate ascorbic acid and garlic protective effects on lead-induced neurotoxicity during rat hippocampus development. 90 pregnant wistar rats were divided randomly into nine groups: 1- Animals received leaded water (L). 2- Rats received leaded water and ascorbic acid (L+AA). 3- Animals received leaded water and garlic juice (L+G). 4-Animals received leaded water, ascorbic acid and garlic juice (L+G+AA). 5- Rats treated with ascorbic acid (AA). 6- Rats treated with garlic juice (G). 7- Rats treated with ascorbic acid and garlic juice (AA+G). 8- Rats treated with tap water plus 0.4 ml/l normal hydrogen chloride (HCl) and 0.5 mg/l Glucose (Sham). 9- Normal group (N). Leaded water (1500 ppm), garlic juice (1 ml/100g/day, gavage) and ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg/day, IP) were used. Finally, blood lead levels (BLL) were measured in both rats and their offspring. The rat offspring brain sections were stained using Toluidine Blue and photographed. Dark neurons (DNs) were counted to compare all groups. BLL significantly increased in L group compared to control and sham groups and decreased in L+G and L+AA groups in comparison to the L group (P<0.05). the number of DNs in the CA1, CA3, and DG of rat offspring hippocampus significantly increased in L group in comparison to control and sham groups (P<0.05) and decreased in L+G and L+AA groups compared to L group (P<0.05). Garlic juice and ascorbic acid administration during pregnancy and lactation may protect lead-induced neural damage in rat offspring hippocampus.

  2. Fungal infection control by garlic extracts (Allium sativum L.) and modulation of peritoneal macrophages activity in murine model of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Burian, J P; Sacramento, L V S; Carlos, I Z

    2017-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America), is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines' production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12) and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

  3. Disassortative Age-Mixing Does Not Explain Differences in HIV Prevalence between Young White and Black MSM: Findings from Four Studies

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Jeremy Alexander; Rothenberg, Richard B.; Sullivan, Patrick Sean; Rosenberg, Eli Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Age disassortativity is one hypothesis for HIV disparities between Black and White MSM. We examined differences in age mixing by race and the effect of partner age difference on the association between race and HIV status. Design We used data from four studies of MSM. Participants reported information about recent sexual partners, including age, race, and sexual behavior. Two studies were online with a US sample and two focused on MSM in Atlanta. Methods We computed concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) by race across strata of partner type, participant HIV status, condom use, and number of partners. We used Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to compare Black and White MSM on partner age differences across five age groups. Finally, we used logistic regression models using race, age, and partner age difference to determine the odds ratio of HIV-positive serostatus. Results Of 48 CCC comparisons, Black MSM were more age-disassortative than White MSM in only two. Furthermore, of 20 comparisons of median partner age, Black and White MSM differed in two age groups. One indicated larger age gaps among the Black MSM (18-19). Prevalent HIV infection was associated with race and age. Including partner age difference in the model resulted in a 2% change in the relative odds of infection among Black MSM. Conclusions Partner age disassortativity and partner age differences do not differ by race. Partner age difference offers little predictive value in understanding prevalent HIV infection among Black and White MSM, including diagnosis of HIV-positive status among self-reported HIV-negative individuals. PMID:26090814

  4. Statistical Analysis of Mineral Concentration for the Geographic Identification of Garlic Samples from Sicily (Italy), Tunisia and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Vadalà, Rossella; Mottese, Antonio F.; Bua, Giuseppe D.; Salvo, Andrea; Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Vasi, Sebastiano; Giofrè, Salvatore V.; Alfa, Maria; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    We performed a statistical analysis of the concentration of mineral elements, by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), in different varieties of garlic from Spain, Tunisia, and Italy. Nubia Red Garlic (Sicily) is one of the most known Italian varieties that belongs to traditional Italian food products (P.A.T.) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry. The obtained results suggest that the concentrations of the considered elements may serve as geographical indicators for the discrimination of the origin of the different samples. In particular, we found a relatively high content of Selenium in the garlic variety known as Nubia red garlic, and, indeed, it could be used as an anticarcinogenic agent. PMID:28231115

  5. An exploration of the antioxidant effects of garlic saponins in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji Sook; Kim, Sung Ok; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung Woo; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Wun-Jae; Kim, Cheol Min; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to confirm the protective effects of garlic saponins against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts. Relative cell viability was determined by 3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Comet assay was used to measure DNA damage and oxidative stress was determined using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate to measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Western blot analysis and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based knockdown were used in order to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms. Our results revealed that garlic saponins prevented hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced growth inhibition and exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular ROS. We also observed that garlic saponins prevented H2O2-induced comet tail formation and decreased the phosphorylation levels of γH2AX expression, suggesting that they can prevent H2O2-induced DNA damage. In addition, garlic saponins increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent antioxidant enzyme associated with the induction and phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol into the nucleus. However, the protective effects of garlic saponins on H2O2-induced ROS generation and growth inhibition were significantly reduced by zinc protoporphyrin Ⅸ, an HO-1 competitive inhibitor. In addition, the potential of garlic saponins to mediate HO-1 induction and protect against H2O2‑mediated growth inhibition was adversely affected by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific siRNA. Garlic saponins activated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, whereas a specific ERK inhibitor was able to inhibit HO-1 upregulation, as well as Nrf2 induction and phosphorylation. Taken together, the findings of our study suggest that garlic saponins activate the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by enabling

  6. Garlic Organosulfur Compounds Reduce Inflammation and Oxidative Stress during Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Alex; Troupin, Andrea; Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Colpitts, Tonya M.

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes significant global human disease and mortality. One approach to develop treatments for DENV infection and the prevention of severe disease is through investigation of natural medicines. Inflammation plays both beneficial and harmful roles during DENV infection. Studies have proposed that the oxidative stress response may be one mechanism responsible for triggering inflammation during DENV infection. Thus, blocking the oxidative stress response could reduce inflammation and the development of severe disease. Garlic has been shown to both reduce inflammation and affect the oxidative stress response. Here, we show that the garlic active compounds diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl sulfide (DAS) and alliin reduced inflammation during DENV infection and show that this reduction is due to the effects on the oxidative stress response. These results suggest that garlic could be used as an alternative treatment for DENV infection and for the prevention of severe disease development. PMID:28644404

  7. Assessment of antibacterial effect of garlic in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori using urease breath test

    PubMed Central

    Zardast, Mahmoud; Namakin, Kokab; Esmaelian Kaho, Jamil; Hashemi, Sarira Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common pathogenic bacteria in the stomach. The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of oral garlic administration on bacterial urease activity inside the stomach and its contribution to the treatment of H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 15 patients were studied quantitatively with Urease Breath Test (UBT). The patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a positive serum H. pylori IgG were enrolled. UBT was performed for each patient in three sessions as follows: at the beginning of the study, an initial UBT was performed based on which, the positive cases entered the study and the negative ones were excluded. Second UBT was done three days later in patients who were not receiving any treatment and were considered as the control, whereas the third UBT was performed three days after prescribing two medium-sized cloves of garlic (3 g) with their meal, twice a day (at noon and in the evening). The collected data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests and the significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: the mean UBT significantly differed before and after treatment with garlic cloves, being significantly lower after garlic consumption. No meaningful difference was observed in the mean UBT without garlic consumption between the first and second steps. Conclusion: Raw garlic has anti-bacterial effects against H. pylori residing in the stomach and may be prescribed along with routine drugs for the treatment of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:27761418

  8. Motor Performance Age and Race Differences between Black and Caucasian Boys Six to Nine Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNucci, James M.

    This study was undertaken to compare the motor performance age and race differences between black and caucasian boys ages six to nine. One hundred and twenty subjects were administered 25 test items which measured (a) muscular strength, (b) muscular endurance, (c) cardio-respiratory endurance, (d) speed, (e) power, (f) agility, (g) balance, and…

  9. 'Laba' garlic processed by dense phase carbon dioxide: the relation between green colour generation and cellular structure, alliin consumption and alliinase activity.

    PubMed

    Tao, Dandan; Zhou, Bing; Zhang, Luyao; Hu, Xiaosong; Liao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Yan

    2016-07-01

    'Laba' garlic is usually processed by soaking garlic in vinegar for more than 1 week during winter. It is popular for its unique green colour and tasty flavour. Greening is desirable and required for this product as its characteristic. Dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) had a significant effect on the greening of intact garlic (Allium sativum L.) cloves. The relation between green colour generation and alliin consumption, alliinase activity and the cellular structure of garlic, respectively, were investigated in this work. The effects of treatment time, pressure and temperature of DPCD were also analysed and discussed. DPCD had a significant effect on the cellular structure of garlic cells. Garlic protoplast underwent greater morphological change after DPCD treatments at higher temperatures while the amount of precipitate increased with greater treatment time and temperature. Common trends on garlic greening and alliin consumption were observed except for DPCD treatment at 10 MPa and 65 °C. The alliinase activity decreased with increasing treatment time, pressure and temperature. It reached the lowest level at 13 MPa and 55 °C. The formation of the green colour was a comprehensive result of DPCD on changing cellular structure, alliin consumption and alliinase activity. DPCD treatment at 10 MPa and 55 °C was the optimum condition for the greening of 'Laba' garlic. This work further facilitated the application of DPCD in the industrial production of 'Laba' garlic. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effects of dietary oregano and garlic essential oils on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Kirkpinar, F; Ünlü, H B; Serdaroğlu, M; Turp, G Y

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the individual and combined effects of two essential oils, oregano and garlic, on carcass characteristics, meat composition, colour, pH and sensory quality of broiler meat. 2. The diets were supplemented with no essential oil (control), oregano essential oil or garlic essential oil at 300 mg/kg and oregano essential oil at 150 mg/kg + garlic essential oil at 150 mg/kg. 3. Dietary oregano and garlic oil supplementation did not affect carcass yields, the relative weight of carcass parts, breast and thigh meat composition, pH or b* value of breast meat. Oregano + garlic oil supplementation significantly decreased the L* value. The a* value of breast meat in birds given a diet supplemented with oregano oil was lower than that in birds given a diet supplemented with garlic oil and oregano oil + garlic oil. The essential oil addition had no positive effect on the oxidative stability. There was no difference between the treatments in breast appearance. 4. The juiciness, flavour, oxidised flavour and acceptability of breast meat samples were affected by treatments.

  11. [Growth of Clostridium botulinum in media with garlic (Allium sativum)].

    PubMed

    Giménez, M A; Solanes, R E; Giménez, D F

    1988-01-01

    The effect of garlic on the growth and toxin formation of Clostridium botulinum (GT) was studied in A) crude juice obtained from a pool of cloves by i) crushing, ii) pressing out and iii) filtration, and B) minced garlic (6 to 8 pieces per clove). For both, "white" and "red" garlic varieties were used. The juice (pH 5.7 to 6.0, for different batches) was activated 30 min at 37 degrees C and diluted (log 2) in PGY broth (g%: peptone (Difco) 1.0; glucose 0.5; yeast extract (Difco) 0.5; pH 7.3). A small drop from a 18 h at 37 degrees C chopped meat medium culture of a highly toxigenic autochthonous strain (110) of C. botulinum type A, was transferred to the juice dilutions, incubating anaerobically 15d at 37 degrees C. As a control of the inhibitory effect of the juice, four microorganisms were cultured 48 h at 37 degrees C in the juice dilutions (Table 1). Clove pieces were suspended to 50% (w/v) either in PGY broth or distilled water without pH adjustment. Aliquots were heated in water bath 15 min at 100 degrees C. After seeded with the A 110 strain, duplicate tubes and their controls were incubated 15 d at 37 degrees C in aerated and anaerobic conditions (Table 2). Titers of botulinum toxin were empirically estimated by the time to death of a pair of mice injected with 0.5 ml each, via IP, observed 72 h. Results are shown in tables 1 and 2. Garlic reduces (in undiluted juice, traces or 3 to 5 DL50/ml were recorded in separate experiments) but not inhibit GT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Taste-Active Maillard Reaction Products in Roasted Garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-07-27

    In order to gain first insight into candidate Maillard reaction products formed upon thermal processing of garlic, mixtures of glucose and S-allyl-l-cysteine, the major sulfur-containing amino acid in garlic, were low-moisture heated, and nine major reaction products were isolated. LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D NMR, and CD spectroscopy led to their identification as acortatarin A (1), pollenopyrroside A (2), epi-acortatarin A (3), xylapyrroside A (4), 5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(5-hydroxymethyl-2-furanyl)methyl]-1H-pyrrole-2-carbalde-hyde (5), 3-(allylthio)-2-(2-formyl-5-hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)propanoic acid (6), (4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (7), (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-[(4R)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl]propanoic acid (8), and (2R)-3-(allylthio)-2-((4S)-4-(allylthiomethyl)-6-formyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrrolo-[1,2-a]pyrazin-2(1H)-yl)propanoic acid (9). Among the Maillard reaction products identified, compounds 5-9 have not previously been published. The thermal generation of the literature known spiroalkaloids 1-4 is reported for the first time. Sensory analysis revealed a bitter taste with thresholds between 0.5 and 785 μmol/kg for 1-5 and 7-9. Compound 6 did not show any intrinsic taste (water) but exhibited a strong mouthfullness (kokumi) enhancing activity above 186 μmol/kg. LC-MS/MS analysis showed 1-9 to be generated upon pan-frying of garlic with the highest concentration of 793.7 μmol/kg found for 6, thus exceeding its kokumi threshold by a factor of 4 and giving evidence for its potential taste modulation activity in processed garlic preparations.

  13. Garlic powder intake and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jin Sook; Kim, Ji Yeon; Paek, Ju Eun; Lee, You Jin; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Park, Dong-Sik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although preclinical studies suggest that garlic has potential preventive effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, clinical trials and reports from systematic reviews or meta-analyses present inconsistent results. The contradiction might be attributed to variations in the manufacturing process that can markedly influence the composition of garlic products. To investigate this issue further, we performed a meta-analysis of the effects of garlic powder on CVD risk factors. MATERIALS/METHODS We searched PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct and EMBASE through May 2014. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on 22 trials reporting total cholesterol (TC), 17 trials reporting LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), 18 trials reporting HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), 4 trials reporting fasting blood glucose (FBG), 9 trials reporting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 10 trials reporting diastolic blood pressure (DBP). RESULTS The overall garlic powder intake significantly reduced blood TC and LDL-C by -0.41 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.69, -0.12) (-15.83 mg/dL [95% CI, -26.64, -4.63]) and -0.21 mmol/L (95% CI, -0.40, -0.03) (-8.11 mg/dL [95% CI, -15.44, -1.16]), respectively. The mean difference in the reduction of FBG levels was -0.96 mmol/L (95% CI, -1.91, -0.01) (-17.30 mg/dL [95% CI, -34.41, -0.18]). Evidence for SBP and DBP reduction in the garlic supplementation group was also demonstrated by decreases of -4.34 mmHg (95% CI, -8.38, -0.29) and -2.36 mmHg (95% CI, -4.56, -0.15), respectively. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis provides consistent evidence that garlic powder intake reduces the CVD risk factors of TC, LDL-C, FBG and BP. PMID:25489404

  14. Garlic powder intake and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jin Sook; Kim, Ji Yeon; Paek, Ju Eun; Lee, You Jin; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Park, Dong-Sik; Kwon, Oran

    2014-12-01

    Although preclinical studies suggest that garlic has potential preventive effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, clinical trials and reports from systematic reviews or meta-analyses present inconsistent results. The contradiction might be attributed to variations in the manufacturing process that can markedly influence the composition of garlic products. To investigate this issue further, we performed a meta-analysis of the effects of garlic powder on CVD risk factors. We searched PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct and EMBASE through May 2014. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on 22 trials reporting total cholesterol (TC), 17 trials reporting LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), 18 trials reporting HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), 4 trials reporting fasting blood glucose (FBG), 9 trials reporting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 10 trials reporting diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The overall garlic powder intake significantly reduced blood TC and LDL-C by -0.41 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.69, -0.12) (-15.83 mg/dL [95% CI, -26.64, -4.63]) and -0.21 mmol/L (95% CI, -0.40, -0.03) (-8.11 mg/dL [95% CI, -15.44, -1.16]), respectively. The mean difference in the reduction of FBG levels was -0.96 mmol/L (95% CI, -1.91, -0.01) (-17.30 mg/dL [95% CI, -34.41, -0.18]). Evidence for SBP and DBP reduction in the garlic supplementation group was also demonstrated by decreases of -4.34 mmHg (95% CI, -8.38, -0.29) and -2.36 mmHg (95% CI, -4.56, -0.15), respectively. This meta-analysis provides consistent evidence that garlic powder intake reduces the CVD risk factors of TC, LDL-C, FBG and BP.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of garlic 14-kDa protein on LPS-stimulated-J774A.1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Shahrzad Zamani Taghizadeh; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Siadat, Zahra; Rastin, Maryam; Rabe, Shahin Zamani Taghizadeh; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Garlic 14-kDa protein is purified from garlic (Allium sativum L.) which is used in traditional medicine and exerts various immunomodulatory activities. The present study investigated the suppressive effect of garlic 14-kDa protein on LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and underlying mechanism in inflammatory macrophages. J774A.1 macrophages were treated with 14-kDa protein (5-30 μg/ml) with/without LPS (1 μg/ml) and the production of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, and IL-1β released were measured using ELISA. Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined using the Griess method. The anti-inflammatory activity of 14-kDa protein was examined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins using western blot. The expression of nuclear NF-κB p65 subunit was assessed by western blot. Garlic 14-kDa protein significantly inhibited the excessive production of NO, PGE, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 macrophages in a concentration-related manner without cytotoxic effect. Western blot analysis demonstrated that garlic 14-kDa protein suppressed corresponding inducible NO synthase expression and activated cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression. The inhibitory effect was mediated partly by a reduction in the activity and expression of transcription factor NF-κB protein. Our results suggested, for the first time, garlic 14-kDa protein exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages possibly by suppressing the inflammatory mediators via the inhibition of transcription factor NF-κB signaling pathway. The traditional use of garlic as anti-inflammatory remedy could be ascribed partly to 14-kDa protein content. This protein might be a useful candidate for controlling inflammatory diseases and further investigations in vivo.

  16. The relation of age to low birth weight rates among foreign-born black mothers: a population-based exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Deal, Stephanie B; Bennett, Amanda C; Rankin, Kristin M; Collins, James W

    2014-01-01

    In stark contrast to the J or U- shaped relationship between age and low birth weight rates (< 2500g) seen among non-Latino White and Mexican American mothers, low birth weight rates among US-born Blacks are lowest in their teens and rise with increasing age (ie, weathering). The age-related pattern of low birth weight rates among foreign-born Black mothers is unknown. To determine the relationship between age and low birth weight rates among foreign-born Black mothers. Stratified analyses were performed on the 2003-2004 National Center for Health Statistics vital record datasets of foreign-born Black mothers. Maternal age was categorized into six subgroups. Potential confounding variables examined included marital status, parity, and prenatal care usage. Foreign-born Black mothers (N = 143,235) demonstrated a J/U-shaped age-related pattern of low birth weight rates with the lowest rates observed among those in their twenties and early thirties. The subgroups of 15-19 and 35-39 year old mothers had low birth weight rates of 12.0% and 11.4% compared to 9.1% for 25-29 year old mothers; RR = 1.31 (1.22-1.42) and 1.25 (1.20-1.31), respectively. The J/U-shaped age-related pattern persisted independent of marital status, parity and prenatal care usage. Foreign-born black mothers do not exhibit a weathering pattern of rising low birth weight rates with advancing age regardless of traditional individual-level risk factors. Further research into the age-related pattern of birth outcome among impoverished foreign-born Black mothers is warranted.

  17. Green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanocrystals with tunable surface plasmon resonance using garlic phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Menon, Deepthy; Basanth, Amritha; Retnakumari, Archana; Manzoor, K; Nair, Shantikumar V

    2012-12-01

    Synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles having tunable optical absorbance finds immense use in biomedical applications such as cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Hence, it is imperative to develop environment and bio-friendly green chemical processes that aid in preparing gold nanoparticles with tunable optical properties. In the present work, phytochemicals present in the medicinal herb, viz., garlic, were used to provide the dual effects of reduction of gold salts to gold nanoparticles as well as stabilization, in a single step process. The optical tunability of nanogold with respect to concentration of precursor and volume of garlic extract, processing conditions of garlic, its differing molecular weight fractions, reaction time and temperature has been demonstrated. The presence of a range of anisotropic nanogold including nanotriangles, nanorods and nanospheres as evident from TEM endows the colloid with a tunable optical absorption, specifically into the near infrared region. In vitro stability studies of the colloidal suspension in various media including saline, BSA, histidine and PBS showed that gold nanoparticles did not aggregate with time or differing pH conditions. The role of the garlic phytochemicals in providing stability against agglomeration was also substantiated by FTIR studies. Cytotoxicity studies performed using spherical and anisotropic gold nanoparticles on MCF-7 and L929 cell lines proved the biocompatibility of the material up to high doses of 500 microg/ml. The present work highlights the role of garlic phytochemicals in preparing biocompatible metallic gold nanoparticles with tunable optical properties and good in vitro stability, suggesting its potential use for molecular imaging or therapeutic nanomedicines.

  18. 78 FR 36168 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...- Market Economy Unit regarding ``Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Deadline...'s Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011 AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  19. Adjuvant action of garlic sugar solution in animals immunized with Ehrlich ascites tumor cells attenuated with allicin.

    PubMed

    Nakata, T; Fujiwara, M

    1975-08-01

    Ethanol-insoluble components were extracted from fresh garlic with 0.9% NaCl solution containing streptomycin and penicillin. This extract, containing approximately 10% sugar, 0.3% nitrogen, and 0.4% ash, was termed garlic sugar solution. This garlic sugar solution (Medium 1) was used as the suspending medium for Ehrlich ascites tumor cells attenuated with allicin, the main principle of garlic, and 0.9% NaCl solution containing streptomycin and penicillin (Medium 2) was also used as the suspending medium. Mice of DDD strain were immunized with the attenuated tumor cells suspended in Medium 1 or 2. After immunization, the immunized and control mice were challenged intraperitoneally with viable Ehrlich ascites tumorcells. Animals immunized with the attenuated tumor cells suspended in Medium 1 acquired significantly stronger resistance against the tumor cells than animals immunized with those suspended in Medium 2.

  20. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation.

    PubMed

    Paludan-Müller, C; Huss, H H; Gram, L

    1999-02-18

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50-CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically associated with fish fillet and minced fish, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with boiled rice and Weisella confusa with garlic mix and banana leaves. In addition, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus were isolated from raw materials. A succession of aciduric, homofermentative lactobacillus species, dominated by Lb. plantarum/pentosus, was found during fermentation. In total, 9% of the strains fermented starch and 19% fermented garlic, the two main carbohydrate components in som-fak. The ability to ferment garlic was paralleled by a capacity to ferment inulin. An increased percentage of garlic fermenting strains was found during fermentation of som-fak, from 8% at day 1 to 40% at day 5. No starch fermenting strains were isolated during fermentation. Three mixed LAB cultures, composed of either starch fermenting Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei, or garlic fermenting Lb. plantarum and Pd. pentosaceus, or a combination of these strains were inoculated into laboratory prepared som-fak with or without garlic. In som-fak without garlic, pH was above 4.8 after three days, irrespective of addition of mixed LAB cultures. The starch fermenting LAB were unable to ferment som-fak and sensory spoilage occurred after three days. Fermentation with the combined mix of starch and garlic fermenting strains led to production of 2.5% acid and a decrease in pH to 4.5 in two days. The fermentation was slightly slower with the garlic fermenting strains alone. This is the first report describing the role of garlic as carbohydrate source for LAB in fermented fish products.

  1. Polysulfides as biologically active ingredients of garlic.

    PubMed

    Münchberg, Ute; Anwar, Awais; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Jacob, Claus

    2007-05-21

    Garlic has long been considered as a natural remedy against a range of human illnesses, including various bacterial, viral and fungal infections. This kind of antibiotic activity of garlic has mostly been associated with the thiosulfinate allicin. Even so, recent studies have pointed towards a significant biological activity of trisulfides and tetrasulfides found in various Allium species, including a wide range of antibiotic properties and the ability of polysulfides to cause the death of certain cancer cells. The chemistry underlying the biological activity of these polysulfides is currently emerging. It seems to include a combination of several distinct transformations, such as oxidation reactions, superoxide radical and peroxide generation, decomposition with release of highly electrophilic S(x) species, inhibition of metalloenzymes, disturbance of metal homeostasis and membrane integrity and interference with different cellular signalling pathways. Further research in this area is required to provide a better understanding of polysulfide reactions within a biochemical context. This knowledge may ultimately form the basis for the development of 'green' antibiotics, fungicides and possibly anticancer agents with dramatically reduced side effects in humans.

  2. Development of immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) to Aeromonas hydrophila after the dietary application of garlic.

    PubMed

    Nya, E J; Austin, B

    2011-03-01

    The development and duration of immune protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infections with garlic as an immunostimulant in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was studied. Rainbow trout fingerlings of 14 g average weight were fed with 0 g (=Control), 0.5 g and 1.0 g of garlic 100 g(-1) of feed for 14 days. Physiological factors, biochemical, immunological, haematological parameters and electrolyte indices were evaluated after a further 14, 21 and 28 days before challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fourteen days after the cessation of feeding with garlic, mortality rates of 12% (relative percent survival [RPS] = 86%) and 16% (RPS = 80%) were recorded in groups which received 0.5 g and 1.0 g of garlic 100 g(-1) of feed, respectively, compared to 84% mortalities in the controls. The corresponding RPS 21 days after ending the feeding regime was 75% and 68, respectively. One week later, the RPS had dropped to 55% and 46% in the groups fed with 0.5 g and 1.0 g garlic 100 g(-1) of feed, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased Utilization of Salty Food with Age Among Preteenage Black Girls

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Robert J.; Williams, Clara; Grant, Jeanne-Olivia

    1980-01-01

    In a survey of black inner-city school children 10 to 13 years of age, a significant correlation was found for obesity index (weight/height2) and measurements of systolic blood pressure. Significant correlations were found for both blood pressure and obesity index of mothers and daughters. No such relationships were found for mothers and sons. There was an increased availability of sodium-rich foods found for girls as their age increased. This was not found for boys. Both obesity and a sodium-rich diet are risk factors for the development of hypertension. The present study suggests that among over-weight black girls in the preteen years, attempts should be made (1) to identify (and limit) any increase in the consumption of salty foods and (2) to limit weight gain appropriately. PMID:7392064

  4. Comparison of the metabolism of inorganic and organic selenium species between two selenium accumulator plants, garlic and Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Ogihara, Yurie; Anan, Yasumi

    2017-01-25

    The metabolism of selenomethionine (SeMet) in two major selenium (Se) accumulator plants, garlic and Indian mustard, was compared to that of stable isotope labeled selenate. Indian mustard more efficiently transported Se from roots to leaves than garlic. In addition, Indian mustard accumulated larger amounts of Se than garlic. γ-Glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine (γ-GluMeSeCys) and Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys) were the common metabolites of selenate and SeMet in garlic and Indian mustard. Indian mustard had a specific metabolic pathway to selenohomolanthionine (SeHLan) from both inorganic and organic Se species. SeMet was a more effective fertilizer for cultivating Se-enriched plants than selenate in terms of the production of selenoamino acids.

  5. Protective effects of ascorbic acid and garlic extract against lead-induced apoptosis in developing rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan, Ali-Reza; Hami, Javad; Alipour, Fatemeh; Haghir, Hossein; Fazel, Ali-Reza; Sadeghi, Akram

    2016-10-01

    Lead exposure has negative effects on developing nervous system and induces apoptosis in newly generated neurons. Natural antioxidants (i.e. Ascorbic acid and Garlic) might protect against lead-induced neuronal cell damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Ascorbic acid and Garlic administration during pregnancy and lactation on lead-induced apoptosis in rat developing hippocampus. Timed pregnant Wistar rats were administrated with Lead (1500 ppm) via drinking water (Pb group) or lead plus Ascorbic acid (Pb + AA Group, 500 mg/kg, IP), or lead plus Garlic Extract (Pb + G Group, 1 ml garlic juice/100 g BW, via Gavage) from early gestation (GD 0) until postnatal day 50 (PN 50). At the end of experiments, the pups' brains were carefully dissected. To identify neuronal death, the brain sections were stained with TUNEL assay. Mean of blood and brain lead levels increased significantly in Pb group comparing to other studied groups (P < 0.01). There was significant reduction in blood and brain lead level in Pb + AA and Pb + G groups when compared to those of Pb group (P < 0.01). The mean number of TUNEL positive cells in the CA1, CA3, and DG was significantly lower in the groups treated by either Ascorbic acid or Garlic (P < 0.05). Administration of Ascorbic acid and Garlic during pregnancy and lactation protect against lead-induced neuronal cell apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups partially via the reduction of Pb concentration in the blood and in the brain.

  6. Fusarium proliferatum - Causal agent of garlic bulb rot in Spain: Genetic variability and mycotoxin production.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Laura; Urbaniak, Monika; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz; Palmero, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is a world-wide occurring fungal pathogen affecting several crops included garlic bulbs. In Spain, this is the most frequent pathogenic fungus associated with garlic rot during storage. Moreover, F. proliferatum is an important mycotoxigenic species, producing a broad range of toxins, which may pose a risk for food safety. The aim of this study is to assess the intraspecific variability of the garlic pathogen in Spain implied by analyses of translation elongation factor (tef-1α) and FUM1 gene sequences as well as the differences in growth rates. Phylogenetic characterization has been complemented with the characterization of mating type alleles as well as the species potential as a toxin producer. Phylogenetic trees based on the sequence of the translation elongation factor and FUM1 genes from seventy nine isolates from garlic revealed a considerable intraspecific variability as well as high level of diversity in growth speed. Based on the MAT alleles amplified by PCR, F. proliferatum isolates were separated into different groups on both trees. All isolates collected from garlic in Spain proved to be fumonisin B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 producers. Quantitative analyses of fumonisins, beauvericin and moniliformin (common secondary metabolites of F. proliferatum) showed no correlation with phylogenetic analysis neither mycelial growth. This pathogen presents a high intraspecific variability within the same geographical region and host, which is necessary to be considered in the management of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Beneficial effects of aged garlic extract and coenzyme Q10 on vascular elasticity and endothelial function: The FAITH randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Larijani, Vahid Nabavi; Ahmadi, Naser; Zeb, Irfan; Khan, Faraz; Flores, Ferdinand; Budoff, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aged garlic extract (AGE) is associated with a significant decrease in atherosclerotic plaque progression and endothelial function improvement. Similarly, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has significant beneficial effects on endothelial function. A stressful lifestyle is a well-known risk factor for the presence and progression of atherosclerosis. This study investigated the effect of AGE plus CoQ10 on vascular elasticity measured by pulse-wave velocity (PWV) and endothelial function measured by digital thermal monitoring (DTM) in firefighters. Methods Sixty-five Los-Angeles County firefighters who met the eligibility criteria were enrolled in this placebo-controlled, double-blinded randomized trial. The firefighters were randomized to four tablets of AGE (300 mg/tablet) plus CoQ10 (30 mg/tablet) or placebo. The participants underwent quarterly visits and 1-year follow-up. PWV and DTM were measured at baseline and at the 1-year follow-up. Results There were no significant differences in age, cardiovascular risk factors, PWV, and DTM between the AGE/CoQ10 and placebo groups at baseline (P > 0.5). At 1-y, PWV and DTM significantly improved in the AGE/CoQ10 compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05). After an adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and statin therapy, the mean decrease in vascular stiffness (PWV) was 1.21 m/s in the AGE/CoQ10 compared with the placebo group (P = 0.005). Similarly, the mean increase in the area under the temperature curve, the DTM index of endothelial function, was 31.3 in the AGE/CoQ10 compared with the placebo group (P = 0.01). Conclusion The combination of AGE and CoQ10 was independently associated with significant beneficial effects on vascular elasticity and endothelial function in firefighters with high occupational stress, highlighting the important role of AGE and CoQ10 in atherosclerotic prevention of such individuals. PMID:22858191

  8. Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of blue pigments in crushed garlic cloves (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungeun; Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Lee, Seung Koo; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2009-01-01

    The color-forming ability of amino acids with thiosulfinate in crushed garlic was investigated. We developed reaction systems for generating pure blue pigments using extracted thiosulfinate from crushed garlic and onion and all 22 amino acids. Each amino acid was reacted with thiosulfinate solution and was then incubated at 60 degrees C for 3 h to generate pigments. Unknown blue pigments, responsible for discoloration in crushed garlic cloves (Allium sativum L.), were separated and tentatively characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector ranging between 200 and 700 nm. Blue pigment solutions exhibited 2 maximal absorbance peaks at 440 nm and 580 nm, corresponding to yellow and blue, respectively, with different retention times. Our findings indicated that green discoloration is created by the combination of yellow and blue pigments. Eight naturally occurring blue pigments were separated from discolored garlic extracts using HPLC at 580 nm. This suggests that garlic discoloration is not caused by only 1 blue pigment, as reported earlier, but by as many as 8 pigments. Overall, free amino acids that formed blue pigment when reacted with thiosulfinate were glycine, arginine, lysine, serine, alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, and tyrosine. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine had spectra that were more similar to naturally greened garlic extract.

  9. [Protective effect of garlic oil given at different time against acute liver injury induced by CCl4].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-li; Zeng, Tao; Wang, Qing-shan; Zhao, Xiu-lan; Song, Fu-yong; Xie, Ke-qin

    2010-03-01

    To observe and compare the protective effect of garlic oil against carbon tetrachloride (CCL)-induced acute liver injury. The experiments include 4 preventive groups and 2 therapeutic groups. In every preventive and therapeutic group, the mice were randomized into 6 groups with 15 each, including one negative control group, one solvent control group, one CCl4 model group and 3 garlic oil groups (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight). Before given a single gavage of CCl4 (80 mg/kg), the mice were pretreated with garlic oil by gavage in preventive group 1 (30 days, once daily), preventive group 2 (5 days, once daily), preventive group 3 (ahead of 2 h, once), preventive group 4 (immediately, once) or the vehicle (corn oil, 10 ml/kg) in solvent control group. In therapeutic groups, the mice were gavaged garlic oil 2 h (once, in therapeutic 1) or for 5 days (once daily, in therapeutic 2) after administration CCl. After 24 h of the last administration, blood was collected and centrifuged at 2500 r/min at 4 degrees C for 10 min, and serum was removed to measure ALT and AST activities. The liver was dissected, weighed to calculate the liver coefficient (relative liver weight). At the same time, the liver samples were studied by histological examinations. Compared with negative group, the liver coefficient and the activities of ALT and AST in serum of model group were increased remarkably (P < 0.01). Compared with CCl model group, the liver coefficient and the activities of ALT and AST in serum were decreased significantly (P < 0.01) by garlic oil dose-dependently in each preventive group. Simultaneously, histological assessment showed that garlic oil effectively alleviated hepatocyte injuries induced by CCl4. Comparing the preventive effects of garlic oil in every group, it was better in preventive group 3 than others. However, all indexes and histological examinations in therapeutic group 1 did not show the difference with those of CCl4 model group. In therapeutic group 2

  10. Raw garlic consumption as a protective factor for lung cancer, a population-based case-control study in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zi-Yi; Wu, Ming; Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2013-01-01

    Protective effect of garlic on the development of cancer has been reported in vitro and in vivo experimental studies, however, few human epidemiological studies have evaluated the relationship. A population-based case-control study has been conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010, with the aim to explore the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer. Epidemiological data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a standard questionnaire among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and to evaluate ratio of odds ratios (ROR) for multiplicative interactions between raw garlic consumption and other risk factors. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, raw garlic consumption of ≥ 2 times per week is inversely associated with lung cancer (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.44-0.72) with a monotonic dose-response relationship (p for trend <0.001). Furthermore, strong interactions at either additive and/or multiplicative scales were observed between raw garlic consumption and tobacco smoking (Synergy Index (SI) = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.57-0.85; and ROR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67-0.90), as well as high-temperature cooking oil fume (ROR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.59-1.00). In conclusion, protective association between intake of raw garlic and lung cancer has been observed with a dose-response pattern, suggesting that garlic may potentially serve as a chemopreventive agent for lung cancer. Effective components in garlic in lung cancer chemoprevention warrant further in-depth investigation. PMID:23658367

  11. Support Services and Aged Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Peggye D.

    This exploratory study assesses the sources from which elderly blacks draw support for needed services. A total of 208 elderly blacks were questioned concerning whom they would turn to for companionship, when feeling depressed, when in need of necessities like food or medicine, and in emergency situations. For each area, respondents indicated…

  12. Microsatellite analysis and marker development in garlic: distribution in EST sequence, genetic diversity analysis, and marker transferability across Alliaceae.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Karina; Beretta, Vanesa; Kozub, Perla C; Salinas, Cecilia; Morgenfeld, Mauro M; Galmarini, Claudio R; Cavagnaro, Pablo F

    2018-04-28

    Allium vegetables, such as garlic and onion, have understudied genomes and limited molecular resources, hindering advances in genetic research and breeding of these species. In this study, we characterized and compared the simple sequence repeats (SSR) landscape in the transcriptomes of garlic and related Allium (A. cepa, A. fistulosum, and A. tuberosum) and non-Allium monocot species. In addition, 110 SSR markers were developed from garlic ESTs, and they were characterized-along with 112 previously developed SSRs-at various levels, including transferability across Alliaceae species, and their usefulness for genetic diversity analysis. Among the Allium species analyzed, garlic ESTs had the highest overall SSR density, the lowest frequency of trinucleotides, and the highest of di- and tetranucleotides. When compared to more distantly related monocots, outside the Asparagales order, it was evident that ESTs of Allium species shared major commonalities with regards to SSR density, frequency distribution, sequence motifs, and GC content. A significant fraction of the SSR markers were successfully transferred across Allium species, including crops for which no SSR markers have been developed yet, such as leek, shallot, chives, and elephant garlic. Diversity analysis of garlic cultivars with selected SSRs revealed 36 alleles, with 2-5 alleles/locus, and PIC = 0.38. Cluster analysis grouped the accessions according to their flowering behavior, botanical variety, and ecophysiological characteristics. Results from this study contribute to the characterization of Allium transcriptomes. The new SSR markers developed, along with the data from the polymorphism and transferability analyses, will aid in assisting genetic research and breeding in garlic and other Allium.

  13. Recent Research Progress on Garlic (大蒜 dà suàn) as a Potential Anticarcinogenic Agent Against Major Digestive Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Raghu, Rajasekaran; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; the bulb of Allium sativum), bestowed with an array of organosulfur compounds finds its application in treating many ailments including cardiovascular problems, common cold, bacterial and fungal infections and cancer. Numerous epidemiological evidences document the beneficial effects of various bioactive organosulfur compounds of garlic against different types of cancer. Studies involving the animal and cell models indicate garlic bioactive compounds could be effective in treating all the stages of cancer. This review gives an update on the recent pre-clinical and clinical trials, carried out to evaluate the efficacy of various garlic bioactive compounds along with the mechanism of action pertaining to major digestive cancers including liver, gastric and colorectal cancers. The major anti-carcinogenic mechanisms are caspase dependent and/or independent induction of apoptosis, anti-proliferative, anti-metastasis, anti-oxidant and immunomodulative properties. Form the clinical trials an increase in the garlic consumption of 20 g/day reduced the risk of gastric and colorectal cancer. In summary, increased uptake of garlic in diet may prevent the incidence of digestive cancers. PMID:24716132

  14. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  15. Efficacy of Co-administration of Garlic Extract and Metformin for Prevention of Gentamicin–Renal Toxicity in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Baradaran, Azar; Merrikhi, Alireza; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Madihi, Yahya; Nasri, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity has been related to oxidative stress. Garlic and metformin (MF) have anti-oxadant activity and therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the preventive and curative effects of garlic, MF and their combination on GM indeced tubular toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods: In a pre-clinical study, 70 male Wistar rats were randomly designated into 7 groups of 10 and treated as follows: Group 1: Received saline for 20 days. Group 2: Were injected 100 mg/kg/d of GM intraperitoneally (ip), for 10 days and saline for 10 more days. Group 3: Received GM for 10 days then 20 mg/kg garlic ip for the next 10 days. Group 4: Received GM for 10 days and MF (100 mg/kg) orally for the next 10 days. Group 5: Received GM for 10 days and a combination of MF and garlic for the next 10 days (100 and 20 mg/kg, respectively). Group 6: The same as group 5but with half-doses of MF and Garlic. Group 7: Received GM for 10 days together with a combination ofMF and garlic. On 20th day of the experiment the serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were measured and compared in different groups. Results: GM injection significantly increased the serum BUN and Cr (P < 0.05). Administration of MF, garlic or their combination with or after injection of GM (high doses) could atenuate BUN and Cr. Conclusions: The results indicate that MF and garlic or their combination have curative and protective activity against GM nephrotoxicity. PMID:23626881

  16. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P < 0.05).In addition,serum levels of LDL-C was lower in the III and IV group than those in the IV group (P < 0.001 for each). However, cholesterol efflux capacity was positively correlated with HDL cholesterol concentration (P < 0 · 0001). It was also directly correlated with garlic supplementation (P < 0 · 0001). Together Taken, the results are clearly indicative of the beneficial effects of garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1317 - Garlic and its derivatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Garlic and its derivatives. 184.1317 Section 184.1317 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  18. The effect of starch-garlic powder ratio on degradation rate of Gadung starch bioplastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairiza, L.; Mariana; Ramadhany, M.; Feviyussa, C. A.

    2018-03-01

    Bioplastic is one of the solutions for environmental problems caused by plastics waste. Utilization of toxic gadung starch in the manufacturing of bioplastic would be as an alternative, due to gadung bulb has high starch content, and it is still not used optimally. This research aimed to learn about the using of gadung starch-mixed with garlic powder of making biodegradable plastic packaging. Also, to observe the duration of degradation, as a level of biodegradability of plastic film produced. The method used making this bioplastic was casting method. The variables used in this study were the ratios of starch and powdered garlic, were 10:0; 8:2; 6:4, and the concentration of garlic powder were 2%; 4%; 6%; and 8 %. The degradation test was done by soil burial test. The results of the soil burial test shown that the film was more rapidly degraded at ratio of 6: 4 compared to the ratio of 8: 2 and 10: 0. The results shown that bioplastic at the starch-garlic powder ratio of 10: 0 was decomposed in 21 days, at the the ratio of 8:2 was 15 days, while at the ratio of 6:4, the plastic film was degraded in the 11 days.

  19. The Black Elderly in Poverty. Hearing before the Congressional Black Caucus, "Brain Trust on Aging" and the Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, September 27, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congressional Black Caucus, Washington, DC.

    This document presents a transcript of a hearing on the problems of the black elderly poor. Statements read by nine advocates for the aged and agency representatives are included. Among the issues discussed are cutbacks of Federal income support and maintenance programs, housing, health care, and nutrition; and the fact that older blacks are three…

  20. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P < 0.01). The results suggest that garlic extract can be supplemented to the calves for better performance.

  1. Preparation methods for monodispersed garlic oil microspheres in water using the microemulsion technique and their potential as antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hua Ming; Li, Hou Bin; Wang, Da Wei; Liu, Dun

    2013-08-01

    Garlic oil is considered as a natural broad-spectrum antibiotic because of its well-known antimicrobial activity. However, the characteristics of easy volatility and poor aqueous solubility limit the application of garlic oil in industry. The purpose of the present work is to develop and evaluate an oil-free microemulsion by loading garlic oil in microemulsion system. Microemulsions were prepared with ethoxylated hydrogenated castor (Cremophor RH40) as surfactant, n-butanol (or ethanol) as cosurfactant, oleic acid-containing garlic oil as oil phase, and ultrapure water as water phase. The effects of the ratio of surfactant to cosurfactant and different oil concentration on the area of oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion region in pseudoternary phase diagrams were investigated. The particle size and garlic oil encapsulation efficiency of the formed microemulsions with different formulations were also investigated. In addition, the antimicrobial activity in vitro against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed. The experimental results show that a stable microemulsion region can be obtained when the mass ratio of surfactant to cosurfactant is, respectively, 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1. Especially, when the mixture surfactants of RH40/n-butanol 2/1 (w/w) is used in the microemulsion formulation, the area of O/W microemulsion region is 0.089 with the particle size 13.29 to 13.85 nm and garlic oil encapsulation efficiency 99.5%. The prepared microemulsion solution exhibits remarkable antibacterial activity against S. aureus. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Integrated transcriptome catalogue and organ-specific profiling of gene expression in fertile garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Kamenetsky, Rina; Faigenboim, Adi; Shemesh Mayer, Einat; Ben Michael, Tomer; Gershberg, Chen; Kimhi, Sagie; Esquira, Itzhak; Rohkin Shalom, Sarit; Eshel, Dani; Rabinowitch, Haim D; Sherman, Amir

    2015-01-22

    Garlic is cultivated and consumed worldwide as a popular condiment and green vegetable with medicinal and neutraceutical properties. Garlic cultivars do not produce seeds, and therefore, this plant has not been the subject of either classical breeding or genetic studies. However, recent achievements in fertility restoration in a number of genotypes have led to flowering and seed production, thus enabling genetic studies and breeding in garlic. A transcriptome catalogue of fertile garlic was produced from multiplexed gene libraries, using RNA collected from various plant organs, including inflorescences and flowers. Over 32 million 250-bp paired-end reads were assembled into an extensive transcriptome of 240,000 contigs. An abundant transcriptome assembled separately from 102,000 highly expressed contigs was annotated and analyzed for gene ontology and metabolic pathways. Organ-specific analysis showed significant variation of gene expression between plant organs, with the highest number of specific reads in inflorescences and flowers. Analysis of the enriched biological processes and molecular functions revealed characteristic patterns for stress response, flower development and photosynthetic activity. Orthologues of key flowering genes were differentially expressed, not only in reproductive tissues, but also in leaves and bulbs, suggesting their role in flower-signal transduction and the bulbing process. More than 100 variants and isoforms of enzymes involved in organosulfur metabolism were differentially expressed and had organ-specific patterns. In addition to plant genes, viral RNA of at least four garlic viruses was detected, mostly in the roots and cloves, whereas only 1-4% of the reads were found in the foliage leaves. The de novo transcriptome of fertile garlic represents a new resource for research and breeding of this important crop, as well as for the development of effective molecular markers for useful traits, including fertility and seed production

  3. 78 FR 88 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...'s Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review; 2011-2012 AGENCY: Import... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) meets the statutory and regulatory requirements... Order: Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China, 59 FR 59209 (November 16, 1994). Pursuant to...

  4. 77 FR 26579 - Fresh Garlic From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the... from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in... contained in USITC Publication 4316 (April 2012), entitled Fresh Garlic from China: Investigation No. 731-TA...

  5. Morphological changes induced by different doses of gamma irradiation in garlic sprouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, C. N.; Croci, C. A.; Orioli, G. A.

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma rays applied in dormancy and post-dormancy on garlic bulbs in relation with some morphophysiological parameters. High (commercial) doses cause the complete inhibition of sprouting and mitosis (due to nuclear aberrations). Relatively low doses show no effects on bulbs but doses of 10 Gy applied in post-dormancy reduce sprouting and stop mitosis. This inhibition becomes noticeable from 150 days post-harvest onwards. Exogenous growth regulators can reverse these effects. Results may reinforce the good practice of radioinhibition processes in garlic.

  6. Diversity evaluation based on morphological, physiological and isozyme variation in genetic resources of garlic (Allium sativum L.) collected worldwide.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Sho; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2016-11-26

    The aim of this study was to obtain primary information about the global diversity of garlic (Allium sativum L.) by evaluating morphological, physiological and isozyme variation. A total of 107 garlic accessions collected worldwide were grown in Yamaguchi, Japan. Five morphological traits (bulb weight, bulb diameter, number of cloves per bulb, number of bulbils and scape length) and one physiological trait (bolting period) of the collected garlic showed wide variation. Meanwhile, a total of 140 garlic accessions, including the 107 mentioned above, were characterized by leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) isozyme analyses; they clearly showed polymorphisms in putative isozyme loci (Lap-1, Lap-2 and Pgi-1). Allelic frequencies were estimated in each group of accessions categorized by their geographical origin, and the observed (H o ) and expected (H e ) heterozygosities were calculated. The allelic frequencies differed between groups. A principal component analysis based on morpho-physiological data indicated a grouping of the garlic accessions into Central Asian and Northern Mediterranean groups as well as others. We discuss the roles of artificial and natural selection that may have caused differentiation in these traits, on the assumption that ancestral domesticated garlic populations have adapted in various regions using standing variation or mutations that accumulated during expansion, and have evolved along with human-preferred traits over a long history of cultivation.

  7. Family Socioeconomic Status at Birth and Youth Impulsivity at Age 15; Blacks' Diminished Return.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Mincy, Ron

    2018-05-01

    Minorities’ Diminished Return theory suggests that health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) are systemically smaller for racial and ethnic minorities compared to Whites. To test the relevance of Minorities’ Diminished Return theory for youth impulsivity, we investigated Black⁻White differences in the effects of family SES at birth on subsequent youth impulsivity at age 15. Data came from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), 1998⁻2016, a 15-year longitudinal study of urban families from the birth of their children to age 15. This analysis included 1931 families who were either White ( n = 495) or Black ( n = 1436). The independent variables of this study were family income, maternal education, and family structure at birth. Youth impulsivity at age 15 was the dependent variable. Gender was the covariate and race was the focal moderator. We ran linear regressions in the overall sample and specific to each race. In the overall sample, higher household income (b = −0.01, 95% CI = −0.01 to 0.00) and maternal education (b = −0.24, 95% CI = −0.44 to −0.04) at birth were associated with lower youth impulsivity at age 15, independent of race, gender, and family structure. A significant interaction was found between race and household income at birth (b = 0.01, 95% CI = 0.00 to 0.02) on subsequent youth impulsivity, which was indicative of a stronger protective effect for Whites compared to Blacks. Blacks’ diminished return exists for the long-term protective effects of family income at birth against subsequent youth impulsivity. The relative disadvantage of Blacks in comparison to Whites is in line with a growing literature showing that Black families gain less from high SES, which is possibly due to the existing structural racism in the US.

  8. Growth rate and age distribution of deep-sea black corals in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, N.G.; Roark, E.B.; Buster, N.A.; Ross, Steve W.

    2011-01-01

    Black corals (order Antipatharia) are important long-lived, habitat-forming, sessile, benthic suspension feeders that are found in all oceans and are usually found in water depths greater than 30 m. Deep-water black corals are some of the slowest-growing, longest-lived deep-sea corals known. Previous age dating of a limited number of black coral samples in the Gulf of Mexico focused on extrapolated ages and growth rates based on skeletal 210Pb dating. Our results greatly expand the age and growth rate data of black corals from the Gulf of Mexico. Radiocarbon analysis of the oldest Leiopathes sp. specimen from the upper De Soto Slope at 300 m water depth indicates that these animals have been growing continuously for at least the last 2 millennia, with growth rates ranging from 8 to 22 µm yr–1. Visual growth ring counts based on scanning electron microscopy images were in good agreement with the 14C-derived ages, suggestive of annual ring formation. The presence of bomb-derived 14C in the outermost samples confirms sinking particulate organic matter as the dominant carbon source and suggests a link between the deep-sea and surface ocean. There was a high degree of reproducibility found between multiple discs cut from the base of each specimen, as well as within duplicate subsamples. Robust 14C-derived chronologies and known surface ocean 14C reservoir age constraints in the Gulf of Mexico provided reliable calendar ages with future application to the development of proxy records.

  9. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  10. 75 FR 32361 - Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From The People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... Commerce (``Department'') published a notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from...

  11. 76 FR 41759 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... (``Department'') published a notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's...

  12. Age-period-cohort analysis of suicide mortality by gender among white and black Americans, 1983-2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-07-13

    Previous studies suggested that the racial differences in U.S. suicide rates are decreasing, particularly for African Americans, but the cause behind the temporal variations has yet to be determined. This study aims to investigate the long-term trends in suicide mortality in the U.S. between 1983 and 2012 and to examine age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects by gender and race. Suicide mortality data were collected from the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) and analyzed with the Joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. We found that although age-standardized rate of suicide in white males, white females, black males, and black females all changed at different degrees, the overall situation almost has not changed since these changes offset each other. By APC analysis, while the age effect on suicide demonstrate an obvious difference between white males and females (with the peak at 75 to 79 for white males and 45 to 54 for white females), young black people are predominantly susceptible to suicide (risk peaks in early 20s for black males and late 20s for black females). Cohort effects all showed a descending trend, except that in white males and females which showed an obvious increase peaked in around cohort 1960. There was a similar period effect trend between different genders in the same race group, but between the races, differences were found in the period before 1990 and after 2000. We confirmed that the distinction in age-specific suicide rate patterns does exist by gender and by race after controlling for period and cohort effects, which suggested that minorities' age patterns of suicide may have been masked up by the white people in the whole population. The differences of period effects and cohort effects between white and black Americans were likely to be mainly explained by the difference in race susceptibility to economic depression.

  13. Effects of γ-irradiation on the lipid composition of inner sprout of garlic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M. B.; Curzio, O. A.; Aveldaño, M. I.; Croci, C. A.

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of a dose of 60.0 Gy of 60Co γ-rays on the concentration and composition of lipids from the inner sprout of garlic cloves. 210 days after treatment, the levels of phospholipids, triacylglycerols and glycolipids were significantly reduced as a result of radiation. Levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids from these lipid fractions such as linoleic acids showed a similar trend of decrease. Irradiation also brought about an increase in diacylglycerols. Results are correlated with sprouting inhibition induced by γ-irradiation in garlic.

  14. Definition of Life Stress among Black and White Urban Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rosalie F.; And Others

    The effects of stress on the psychosocial well-being of older persons have been well documented. Research on stress among the aged has generally considered recent life events as salient stressors in late life and has focussed on older persons without regard to racial differences. Interviews were conducted with 400 elderly black and white residents…

  15. Insight into the biochemical, kinetic and spectroscopic characterization of garlic (Allium sativum) phytocystatin: Implication for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohd Faizan; Ahmed, Azaj; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-02-01

    Phytocystatins are cysteine proteinase inhibitors present in plants. They play crucial role in maintaining protease-anti protease balance and are involved in various endogenous processes. Thus, they are suitable and convenient targets for genetic engineering which makes their isolation and characterisation from different sources the need of the hour. In the present study a phytocystatin has been isolated from garlic (Allium sativum) by a simple two-step process using ammonium sulphate fractionation and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100HR with a fold purification of 152.6 and yield 48.9%. A single band on native gel electrophoresis confirms the homogeneity of the purified inhibitor. The molecular weight of the purified inhibitor was found to be 12.5kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. The garlic phytocystatin was found to be stable under broad range of pH (6-8) and temperature (30°C-60°C). Kinetic studies suggests that garlic phytocystatins are reversible and non-competitive inhibitors having highest affinity for papain followed by ficin and bromelain. UV and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed significant conformational change upon garlic phytocystatin-papain complex formation. Secondary structure analysis was performed using CD and FTIR. Garlic phytocystatin possesses 33.9% alpha-helical content as assessed by CD spectroscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil Chemical Property Changes in Eggplant/Garlic Relay Intercropping Systems under Continuous Cropping

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg−1, significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg−1 in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg−1 in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg−1 in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production. PMID:25340875

  17. Soil chemical property changes in eggplant/garlic relay intercropping systems under continuous cropping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyi; Wu, Cuinan; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Zhang, Mengru; Zhang, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil sickness is a critical problem for eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under continuous cropping that affects sustainable eggplant production. Relay intercropping is a significant technique on promoting soil quality, improving eco-environment, and raising output. Field experiments were conducted from September 2010 to November 2012 in northwest China to determine the effects of relay intercropping eggplant with garlic (Allium sativum L.) on soil enzyme activities, available nutrient contents, and pH value under a plastic tunnel. Three treatments were in triplicate using randomized block design: eggplant monoculture (CK), eggplant relay intercropping with normal garlic (NG) and eggplant relay intercropping with green garlic (GG). The major results are as follows: (1) the activities of soil invertase, urease, and alkaline phosphatase were generally enhanced in NG and GG treatments; (2) relay intercropping significantly increased the soil available nutrient contents, and they were mostly higher in GG than NG. On April 11, 2011, the eggplant/garlic co-growth stage, the available nitrogen content in GG was 76.30 mg·kg(-1), significantly higher than 61.95 mg·kg(-1) in NG. For available potassium on April 17, 2012, they were 398.48 and 387.97 mg·kg(-1) in NG and GG, both were significantly higher than 314.84 mg·kg(-1) in CK; (3) the soil pH showed a significantly higher level in NG treatment, but lower in GG treatment compared with CK. For the last samples in 2012, soil pH in NG and GG were 7.70 and 7.46, the highest and lowest one among them; (4) the alkaline phosphatase activity and pH displayed a similar decreasing trend with continuous cropping. These findings indicate that relay intercropping eggplant with garlic could be an ideal farming system to effectively improve soil nutrient content, increase soil fertility, and alleviate soil sickness to some extent. These findings are important in helping to develop sustainable eggplant production.

  18. Quantitative Determination of Fusarium proliferatum Concentration in Intact Garlic Cloves Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Elena; Mamolini, Elisabetta; De Bastiani, Morena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is considered to be a pathogen of many economically important plants, including garlic. The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly determine fungal concentration in intact garlic cloves, avoiding the laborious and time-consuming procedures of traditional assays. Preventive detection of infection before seeding is of great interest for farmers, because it could avoid serious losses of yield during harvesting and storage. Spectra were collected on 95 garlic cloves, divided in five classes of infection (from 1-healthy to 5-very highly infected) in the range of fungal concentration 0.34–7231.15 ppb. Calibration and cross validation models were developed with partial least squares regression (PLSR) on pretreated spectra (standard normal variate, SNV, and derivatives), providing good accuracy in prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.829 and 0.774, respectively, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 615.17 ppb, and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 717.41 ppb. The calibration model was then used to predict fungal concentration in unknown samples, peeled and unpeeled. The results showed that NIRS could be used as a reliable tool to directly detect and quantify F. proliferatum infection in peeled intact garlic cloves, but the presence of the external peel strongly affected the prediction reliability. PMID:27428978

  19. Quantitative Determination of Fusarium proliferatum Concentration in Intact Garlic Cloves Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Elena; Mamolini, Elisabetta; De Bastiani, Morena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella

    2016-07-15

    Fusarium proliferatum is considered to be a pathogen of many economically important plants, including garlic. The objective of this research was to apply near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to rapidly determine fungal concentration in intact garlic cloves, avoiding the laborious and time-consuming procedures of traditional assays. Preventive detection of infection before seeding is of great interest for farmers, because it could avoid serious losses of yield during harvesting and storage. Spectra were collected on 95 garlic cloves, divided in five classes of infection (from 1-healthy to 5-very highly infected) in the range of fungal concentration 0.34-7231.15 ppb. Calibration and cross validation models were developed with partial least squares regression (PLSR) on pretreated spectra (standard normal variate, SNV, and derivatives), providing good accuracy in prediction, with a coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.829 and 0.774, respectively, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 615.17 ppb, and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 717.41 ppb. The calibration model was then used to predict fungal concentration in unknown samples, peeled and unpeeled. The results showed that NIRS could be used as a reliable tool to directly detect and quantify F. proliferatum infection in peeled intact garlic cloves, but the presence of the external peel strongly affected the prediction reliability.

  20. Garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk in man: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer shows large incidence variations worldwide that have been attributed to different dietary factors. We conducted a meta-analysis on the relationship between garlic consumption and colorectal cancer risk. We systematically reviewed publications obtained by searching ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE and EMBASE literature databases. We extracted the risk estimate of the highest and the lowest reported categories of intake from each study and conducted meta-analysis using a random-effects model. The pooled analysis of all fourteen studies, seven cohort and seven case-control, indicated that garlic consumption was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·82, 1·06, P=0·281; I 2=83·6 %, P≤0·001). Separate analyses on the basis of cancer sites and sex also revealed no statistically significant effects on cancer risk. However, when separately analysed on the basis of study type, we found that garlic was associated with an approximately 37 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk in the case-control studies (combined risk estimate=0·63, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·82, P=0·001; I 2=75·6 %, P≤0·001). Our results suggest that consumption of garlic is not associated with a reduced colorectal cancer risk. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the discrepancy between results obtained from different types of epidemiological studies.

  1. Effect of garlic on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Corina; Ursoniu, Sorin; Banach, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Garlic can play an essential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis, but the research addressing the effect of garlic on the concentration of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has not been fully demonstrated. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) concentrations through systematic review of literature and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials. The literature search included SCOPUS, PubMed-Medline, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases up to March 10, 2015 to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) concentrations. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Overall, the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) levels was reported in six trials. Meta-analysis did not suggest a significant alteration in plasma Lp(a) levels after garlic consumption (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 16.86%; 95% confidence interval, -4.59 to 38.31; P = 0.124). This result was robust in the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. When the studies were categorized according to the duration of supplementation, there was no effect in the subgroup of trials lasting ≤12 wk (WMD = 2.01%; 95% CI, -14.67 to 18.68; P = 0.813) but a significant elevation of plasma Lp(a) concentrations was found in trials lasting >12 wk (WMD = 54.59%; 95% CI, 30.47-78.71; P < 0.001). Random-effects meta-regression suggested an inverse association between the changes in plasma concentrations of Lp(a) and duration of supplementation (slope 1.71; 95% CI, 0.46-2.97; P = 0.007). The present meta-analysis did not suggest a significant effect of garlic supplementation on the reduction of Lp(a) levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection and Antigenic Profiling of Undeclared Peanut in Imported Garlic Using an xMAP Multiplex Immunoassay for Food Allergens.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ronnie O; Peters, Tim; Panda, Rakhi; Wehling, Paul; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-07-01

    A shipment of imported garlic powder was suspected of containing peanut. Samples (subs) collected from the shipment displayed considerable variability in peanut antigenicity when analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This raised questions regarding whether peanut was actually present, the amount present, and the basis for the variability in antigenic content. Analyses that used an xMAP multiplex assay for the detection of peanut and additional food allergens generated responses that were characteristic of peanut. Specifically, the relative intensities of two different peanut-specific antibodies coupled to beads (peanut-37 and -38) and the antigen profiles were identical to garlic controls spiked with peanut. In addition, the xMAP data did not indicate the presence of other allergens. Quantitative analyses indicated an approximately fivefold variation in peanut concentration among different subs. In contrast, within a sub, the apparent peanut concentration appeared constant. Particle size analyses of the garlic powder subs indicated a single distribution profile, with a peak at 380 μm. ELISA analysis of sieve-fractionated garlic powder from one of the subs indicated that slightly less than half of the detectable peanut was smaller than 212 μm, with the remainder almost evenly split between 212 and 300 μm and >300 μm. Modeling to predict possible oral exposure levels of peanut other than those directly measured requires additional research on the physicochemical properties of peanut and garlic, along with information on the production of the garlic powder.

  3. Chemiluminescence measurements on irradiated garlic powder by the single photon counting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narvaiz, P.

    1995-02-01

    The feasibility of identifying irradiated garlic powder measuring chemiluminescence by liquid scintillation spectrometry was studied. Samples packed in 100 μm thick polyethylene bags were irradiated in a 60Co semi-industrial facility, with doses of 10 and 30 kGy. Control and irradiated samples were stored at 20 ± 4°C and 70 ± 10% RH in darkness for 2 years. Assays were performed to establish the best sample concentration and pH of the buffer solution in which garlic powder was to be suspended for its measurement. The water content of garlic samples was also analyzed throughout storage time, as it related to the stability of the species causing luminescence. Chemiluminescence values diminished in every sample over storage time following an exponential pattern. Irradiated samples showed values significantly higher than those of the control samples, according to the radiation dose, throughout the storage period. This does not necessarily imply that the identification of the irradiated samples would be certain, since values of control samples coming from different origins have been found to fluctuate within a rather wide range. Nonetheless, in principle, the method looks promising for the measurement of chemiluminescence in irradiated samples

  4. Potentiation of antioxidant effect of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) by garlic (Allium sativum) in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Pande, Shubhra; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant role of tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, CB), a rich source of soluble fibre, was investigated in a hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress situation in rats. In the context of dietary garlic (Allium sativa) potentiating the hypocholesterolemic influence of CB, we also examined if dietary garlic enhances the antioxidant potential of CB. Groups of Wistar rats were rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding them a 0.5% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Dietary interventions were made by inclusion of 15% tender CB powder or 1% garlic powder or their combination in a high-cholesterol diet. Concentrations of antioxidant molecules and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and liver were examined. Dietary CB displayed an antioxidant influence in terms of elevating ascorbic acid and glutathione concentrations and stimulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes both in blood and liver. The antioxidant effect of dietary CB was generally potentiated by co-administration of garlic. Thus, consumption of tender CB and garlic together could form a strategy for improving the body's antioxidant status.

  5. The Global Trade in Fresh Produce and the Vagility of Plant Viruses: A Case Study in Garlic

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Stephen J.; Li, Hua; Saqib, Muhammad; Jones, Michael G. K.

    2014-01-01

    As cuisine becomes globalized, large volumes of fresh produce are traded internationally. The potential exists for pathogens infecting fresh produce to hitchhike to new locations and perhaps to establish there. It is difficult to identify them using traditional methods if pathogens are novel, scarce, and/or unexpected. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, we used high-throughput sequencing technology as a means of detecting all RNA viruses infecting garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs imported into Australia from China, the USA, Mexico, Argentina and Spain, and those growing in Australia. Bulbs tested were grown over multiple vegetative generations and all were stably infected with one or more viruses, including two species not previously recorded in Australia. Present in various combinations from 10 garlic bulbs were 41 virus isolates representing potyviruses (Onion yellow dwarf virus, Leek yellow stripe virus), carlaviruses (Shallot latent virus, Garlic common latent virus) and allexiviruses (Garlic virus A, B, C, D, and X), for which 19 complete and 22 partial genome sequences were obtained, including the first complete genome sequences of two isolates of GarVD. The most genetically distinct isolates of GarVA and GarVX described so far were identified from Mexico and Argentina, and possible scenarios explaining this are presented. The complete genome sequence of an isolate of the potexvirus Asparagus virus 3 (AV3) was obtained in Australia from wild garlic (A. vineale L.), a naturalized weed. This is first time AV3 has been identified from wild garlic and the first time it has been identified beyond China and Japan. The need for routine generic diagnosis and appropriate legislation to address the risks to primary production and wild plant communities from pathogens spread through the international trade in fresh produce is discussed. PMID:25133543

  6. Effect of Garlic, Gingko, and St. John's Wort Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine: A Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Turkanovic, Jasmina; Ward, Michael B; Gerber, Jacobus P; Milne, Robert W

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of garlic and ginkgo herbal extracts on the pharmacokinetics of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) substrate fexofenadine. Male rats were dosed orally with garlic (120 mg/kg), ginkgo (17 mg/kg), St. John's wort (SJW; 1000 mg/kg; positive control), or Milli-Q water for 14 days. On day 15, rats either were administered fexofenadine (orally or i.v.), had their livers isolated and perfused with fexofenadine, or had their small intestines divided into four segments (SI-SIV) and analyzed for P-gp and Oatp1a5. In vivo, SJW increased the clearance of i.v. administered fexofenadine by 28%. Garlic increased the area under the curve 0-∞ and maximum plasma concentration of orally administered fexofenadine by 47% and 85%, respectively. Ginkgo and SJW had no effect on the oral absorption of fexofenadine. In the perfused liver, garlic, ginkgo, and SJW increased the biliary clearance of fexofenadine with respect to perfusate by 71%, 121%, and 234%, respectively. SJW increased the biliary clearance relative to the liver concentration by 64%. The ratio of liver to perfusate concentrations significantly increased in all treated groups. The expression of Oatp1a5 in SI was increased by garlic (88%) and SJW (63%). There were no significant changes in the expression of P-gp. Induction of intestinal Oatp1a5 by garlic may explain the increased absorption of orally administered fexofenadine. Ginkgo had no effect on the expression of intestinal P-gp or Oatp1a5. A dual inductive effect by SJW on opposing intestinal epithelial transport by Oatp1a5 and P-gp remains a possibility. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Interactive effects of saffron with garlic and curcumin against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Kumpati; Kavitha, Sundramoorthy; Santhiya, Sathiyavedu T; Ramesh, A-Rabandi; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn

    2004-01-01

    Saffron is a well-known spice and food colorant commonly consumed in different parts of the world. Recently, much attention has been focused on the biological and medicinal properties of saffron. In the present study the interactive effects of saffron with two commonly consumed dietary agents, garlic and curcumin was evaluated for anti-genotoxic effects against cyclophosphamide (CPH) in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Experimental animals were orally pretreated with saffron (100 mg/kg body weight), garlic (250 mg/kg body weight) and curcumin (10 mg/kg body weight), either alone or in combination for five consecutive days, 2h prior to the administration of CPH. Maximum reduction in the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (Mn PCEs) induced by CPH was observed when all the three test compounds were administered together. Furthermore, the protective effects were more pronounced in the garlic-administered groups compared to curcumin and/or saffron administered groups.

  8. Protective Effects of AGE and Its Components on Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhe; Mossine, Valeri V; Cui, Jiankun; Sun, Grace Y; Gu, Zezong

    2016-09-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used for culinary and medicinal purposes in diverse cultures worldwide. When fresh garlic is soaked in aqueous ethanol under ambient environment over 4 months or longer, the majority of irritating taste and odor is eliminated and the antioxidant profile in the resulting aged garlic extract (AGE) changes significantly. Recently, AGE and its components have been demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and cerebral ischemia. Because of its health supporting potential, there is increasing interest in understanding the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and the underlying mechanisms for its protective effects in heath and disease. There is evidence for AGE to exert its action on distinct signaling pathways associated with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, although the primary molecular mechanisms remain unclear. By utilizing quantitative proteomic approaches, we demonstrated that AGE and two of its major ingredients, S-allyl-L-cysteine and N (α)-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine, can attenuate neuroinflammatory responses in microglial cells through modulation of Nrf2-mediated signaling as well as other oxidative stress-related pathways. These experimental data provide information for the molecular targets of AGE and its components to mitigate neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation and show a promising potential of these compounds as dietary supplements for health maintenance.

  9. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans.

    PubMed

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-11-01

    Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of 5 of the 7 genes that were upregulated in the human trial were also upregulated in cell culture at 3 and 6 h: AHR, HIF1A, JUN, OSM, and REL. Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts in cell culture ranged from 1.7 (HIF1A) to 12.1 (JUN) (P < 0.01). OSM protein was measured by ELISA and was significantly higher than the control at 3, 6, and 24 h (24 h: 19.5 ± 1.4 and 74.8 ± 1.4 pg/mL for control and garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that inhibits several tumor cell lines in culture

  10. Age and size effects on seed productivity of northern black spruce

    Treesearch

    J. N. Viglas; C. D. Brown; J. F. Johnstone

    2013-01-01

    Slow-growing conifers of the northern boreal forest may require several decades to reach reproductive maturity, making them vulnerable to increases in disturbance frequency. Here, we examine the relationship between stand age and seed productivity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) in Yukon Territory and Alaska....

  11. The effects of garlic-supplemented diets on skin mucosal immune responses, stress resistance and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry.

    PubMed

    Ghehdarijani, Mahbubeh Salmanian; Hajimoradloo, Abdolmajid; Ghorbani, Rasol; Roohi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of garlic supplementation on some skin mucus immune parameters, mucus antimicrobial activity and growth performance of the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) fry. Fish (1 ± 0.07 g) were divided into four groups fed diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10 and 15 g kg(-1) garlic for 8 weeks. The results showed that there was a significant increase in weight gain and specific growth rate in those fish fed garlic diets compared with the control (P < 0.05). Condition factor was not significantly affected by garlic dosage. At the end of trial, the epidermal mucus protein level, alkaline phosphatase and antimicrobial activity against 2 g-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens) and gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecium and Micrococcus luteus) were measured. Skin mucus alkaline phosphatase, protein levels and antimicrobial activity were increased following garlic administration, and the bacterial growth inhibition zones were significantly elevated in garlic-fed fish (P < 0.05). In salinity stress experiment, no differences were observed for survival rate among the experimental diets. No mortality was recorded during the feeding trial. These results indicated that dietary garlic beneficially affects the skin mucus immune parameters and growth performance of the Caspian roach fry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A biophysical insight into the formation of aggregates upon trifluoroethanol induced structural and conformational changes in garlic cystatin.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohd Faizan; Bano, Bilqees

    2018-06-06

    Intrinsic and extrinsic factors are responsible for the transition of soluble proteins into aggregated form. Trifluoroethanol is among such potent extrinsic factor which facilitates the formation of aggregated structure. It disrupts the interactive forces and destabilizes the native structure of the protein. The present study investigates the effect of trifluoroethanol (TFE) on garlic cystatin. Garlic cystatin was incubated with increasing concentration of TFE (0-90% v/v) for 4 h. Incubation of GPC with TFE induces structural changes thereby resulting in the formation of aggregates. Inactivation of garlic phytocystatin was confirmed by cysteine proteinase inhibitory activity. Garlic cystatin at 30% TFE exhibits native-like secondary structure and high ANS fluorescence, thus suggesting the presence of molten globule state. Circular dichroism and FTIR confirmed the transition of the native alpha-helical structure of garlic cystatin to the beta-sheet structure at 60% TFE. Furthermore, increased ThT fluorescence and redshift in Congo red absorbance assay confirmed the presence of aggregates. Rayleigh and turbidity assay was also performed to validate the aggregation results. Scanning electron microscopy was followed to analyze the morphological changes which confirm the presence of sheath-like structure at 60% TFE. The study sheds light on the conformational behavior of a plant protein when kept under stress condition induced by an extrinsic factor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple garlic (Allium sativum L.) microRNAs regulate the immunity against the basal rot fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cepae.

    PubMed

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Mishra, Rukmini; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The basal plate rot fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC), is the most devastating pathogen posing a serious threat to garlic (Allium sativum L.) production worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key modulators of gene expression related to development and defense responses in eukaryotes. However, the miRNA species associated with garlic immunity against FOC are yet to be explored. In the present study, a small RNA library developed from FOC infected resistant garlic line was sequenced to identify immune responsive miRNAs. Forty-five miRNAs representing 39 conserved and six novel sequences responsive to FOC were detected. qRT-PCR analyses further classified them into three classes based on their expression patterns in susceptible line CBT-As11 and in the resistant line CBT-As153. North-blot analyses of six selective miRNAs confirmed the qRT-PCR results. Expression studies on a selective set of target genes revealed a negative correlation with the complementary miRNAs. Furthermore, transgenic garlic plant overexpresing miR164a, miR168a and miR393 showed enhanced resistance to FOC, as revealed by decreased fungal growth and up-regulated expression of defense-responsive genes. These results indicate that multiple miRNAs are involved in garlic immunity against FOC and that the overexpression of miR164a, miR168a and miR393 can augment garlic resistance to Fusarium basal rot infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel reductive amination method with isotopic formaldehydes for the preparation of internal standard and standards for determining organosulfur compounds in garlic.

    PubMed

    Tsai, De-Cheng; Liu, Meng-Chieh; Lin, Yi-Reng; Huang, Mei-Fang; Liang, Shih-Shin

    2016-04-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is a long-cultivated plant that is widely utilized in cooking and has been employed as a medicine for over 4000 years. In this study, we fabricated standards and internal standards (ISs) for absolute quantification via reductive amination with isotopic formaldehydes. Garlic has four abundant organosulfur compounds (OSCs): S-allylcysteine, S-allylcysteinine sulfoxide, S-methylcysteine, and S-ethylcysteine are abundant in garlic. OSCs with primary amine groups were reacted with isotopic formaldehydes to synthesize ISs and standards. Cooked and uncooked garlic samples were compared, and we utilized tandem mass spectrometry equipped with a selective reaction monitoring technique to absolutely quantify the four organosulfur compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental monitoring at age 11 and smoking initiation up to age 17 among Blacks and Whites: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Kipling M; Ríos-Bedoya, Carlos F; Breslau, Naomi

    2009-12-01

    Parental monitoring has been identified as a predictor of adolescent smoking initiation. However, it is uncertain if the association is uniform across different racial groups. Random samples of low birth-weight and normal birth-weight children were drawn from newborn discharge lists (1983-1985) of two major hospitals in southeast Michigan, one serving an inner city and the other serving suburbs. Assessments occurred at ages 6, 11, and 17 years. Statistical analysis was conducted on children with data on parent monitoring at age 11 and tobacco use at age 17 who had never smoked a cigarette up to age 11 (n = 572). Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between parent monitoring and children's smoking initiation. Two-way interactions were tested. The relationship between parent monitoring at age 11 and child smoking initiation from ages 11 to 17 varied by race. Among White children, an increase of 1 point on the parent monitoring scale signaled an 11% reduction in the odds of initiating smoking by age 17. In contrast, parent monitoring was not significantly associated with smoking initiation among Black children. The results suggest a differential influence of parent monitoring on adolescent smoking between White and Black children. Future research would benefit from close attention to parental goals and concerns and to extra-familial factors that shape smoking behavior across racially and socially disparate communities.

  16. Repellent activities of dichloromethane extract of Allium sativum (garlic) (Liliaceae) against Hyalomma rufipes (Acari).

    PubMed

    Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2016-12-02

    Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.

  17. Antischistosomal and anti-inflammatory activity of garlic and allicin compared with that of praziquantel in vivo.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Dina M; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; Alanazi, Mohammad; Alzahrany, Sanaa B; Semlali, Abdelhabib

    2018-04-27

    Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic zoonotic parasitic disease caused by trematode worms. The host inflammatory response to schistosome eggs leads to perioval granulomata formation, mainly in the liver and intestine. This study investigated the potential antischistosomal and anti-inflammatory activity of both garlic extract and allicin on liver fibrotic markers in BALB/c mice with schistosomiasis (S. mansoni infection) compared with that of the commonly used drug, praziquantel (PZQ). In this study, 140 female BALB/c mice (7-weeks old) were divided into seven groups with 20 mice each. Six groups were infected with S. mansoni cercariae and treated with garlic, allicin, or PZQ. The seventh group was the negative control. Twenty-four hours after the final treatment, the mice were euthanised and perfused for worm recovery. The liver and intestines were harvested for parasitological and histological assessment and to analyse the proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression. Prophylactic administration of garlic and allicin to the infected mice significantly reduced the worm burden. Serum concentrations of liver fibrosis markers and proinflammatory cytokines were also reduced. PZQ was the most efficacious for reduction in the number of worms. These results are similar to those normally obtained using PZQ. Crushed garlic homogenate and allicin are potential complementary treatments that may be used with PZQ.

  18. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) fertility: transcriptome and proteome analyses provide insight into flower and pollen development

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh-Mayer, Einat; Ben-Michael, Tomer; Rotem, Neta; Rabinowitch, Haim D.; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Perlikowski, Dawid; Sherman, Amir; Kamenetsky, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Commercial cultivars of garlic, a popular condiment, are sterile, making genetic studies and breeding of this plant challenging. However, recent fertility restoration has enabled advanced physiological and genetic research and hybridization in this important crop. Morphophysiological studies, combined with transcriptome and proteome analyses and quantitative PCR validation, enabled the identification of genes and specific processes involved in gametogenesis in fertile and male-sterile garlic genotypes. Both genotypes exhibit normal meiosis at early stages of anther development, but in the male-sterile plants, tapetal hypertrophy after microspore release leads to pollen degeneration. Transcriptome analysis and global gene-expression profiling showed that >16,000 genes are differentially expressed in the fertile vs. male-sterile developing flowers. Proteome analysis and quantitative comparison of 2D-gel protein maps revealed 36 significantly different protein spots, 9 of which were present only in the male-sterile genotype. Bioinformatic and quantitative PCR validation of 10 candidate genes exhibited significant expression differences between male-sterile and fertile flowers. A comparison of morphophysiological and molecular traits of fertile and male-sterile garlic flowers suggests that respiratory restrictions and/or non-regulated programmed cell death of the tapetum can lead to energy deficiency and consequent pollen abortion. Potential molecular markers for male fertility and sterility in garlic are proposed. PMID:25972879

  19. A Single Meal Containing Raw, Crushed Garlic Influences Expression of Immunity- and Cancer-Related Genes in Whole Blood of Humans1234

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Craig S; Dawson, Harry D; Albaugh, George P; Solverson, Patrick M; Vinyard, Bryan T; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I; Molokin, Aleksey; Novotny, Janet A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preclinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that garlic intake is inversely associated with the progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Objective: We designed a study to probe the mechanisms of garlic action in humans. Methods: We conducted a randomized crossover feeding trial in which 17 volunteers consumed a garlic-containing meal (100 g white bread, 15 g butter, and 5 g raw, crushed garlic) or a garlic-free control meal (100 g white bread and 15 g butter) after 10 d of consuming a controlled, garlic-free diet. Blood was collected before and 3 h after test meal consumption for gene expression analysis in whole blood. Illumina BeadArray was used to screen for genes of interest, followed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) on selected genes. To augment human study findings, Mono Mac 6 cells were treated with a purified garlic extract (0.5 μL/mL), and mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h. Results: The following 7 genes were found to be upregulated by garlic intake: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), proto-oncogene c-Jun (JUN), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activating protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif 1 (NFAM1), oncostatin M (OSM), and V-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (REL). Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts ranged from 1.6 (HIF1A) to 3.0 (NFAM1) (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of 5 of the 7 genes that were upregulated in the human trial were also upregulated in cell culture at 3 and 6 h: AHR, HIF1A, JUN, OSM, and REL. Fold-increases in mRNA transcripts in cell culture ranged from 1.7 (HIF1A) to 12.1 (JUN) (P < 0.01). OSM protein was measured by ELISA and was significantly higher than the control at 3, 6, and 24 h (24 h: 19.5 ± 1.4 and 74.8 ± 1.4 pg/mL for control and garlic, respectively). OSM is a pleiotropic cytokine that

  20. Improving knowledge of garlic paste greening through the design of an experimental strategy.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Miguel; Rincón, Francisco

    2007-12-12

    The furthering of scientific knowledge depends in part upon the reproducibility of experimental results. When experimental conditions are not set with sufficient precision, the resulting background noise often leads to poorly reproduced and even faulty experiments. An example of the catastrophic consequences of this background noise can be found in the design of strategies for the development of solutions aimed at preventing garlic paste greening, where reported results are contradictory. To avoid such consequences, this paper presents a two-step strategy based on the concept of experimental design. In the first step, the critical factors inherent to the problem are identified, using a 2(III)(7-4) Plackett-Burman experimental design, from a list of seven apparent critical factors (ACF); subsequently, the critical factors thus identified are considered as the factors to be optimized (FO), and optimization is performed using a Box and Wilson experimental design to identify the stationary point of the system. Optimal conditions for preventing garlic greening are examined after analysis of the complex process of green-pigment development, which involves both chemical and enzymatic reactions and is strongly influenced by pH, with an overall pH optimum of 4.5. The critical step in the greening process is the synthesis of thiosulfinates (allicin) from cysteine sulfoxides (alliin). Cysteine inhibits the greening process at this critical stage; no greening precursors are formed in the presence of around 1% cysteine. However, the optimal conditions for greening prevention are very sensitive both to the type of garlic and to manufacturing conditions. This suggests that optimal solutions for garlic greening prevention should be sought on a case-by-case basis, using the strategy presented here.

  1. Protective effect of dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and garlic (Allium sativum) on induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in rats.

    PubMed

    Mukthamba, Puttaswamy; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and garlic (Allium sativum) have been previously observed to have cardioprotective influence in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats. Since low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is a key factor in the arteriosclerotic process, we evaluated their potential in minimizing the LDL oxidation in rats. Fenugreek seeds, garlic, and their combination were included along with a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Iron-induced oxidation of LDL in vivo was considerably lowered by dietary fenugreek and garlic. The extent of copper-induced oxidation of isolated LDL in vitro was also significantly lesser in fenugreek-fed or fenugreek+garlic-fed rats. Anodic electrophoretic mobility of the oxidized LDL on agarose gel in case of spice-fed animals was decreased and hence consistent with the observed protective influence on LDL oxidation. Dietary fenugreek, garlic, and their combination significantly lowered lipid peroxide levels in plasma, liver, and heart in iron (II)-administered rats. The results suggest that these two dietary spices have protective effect on LDL oxidation under normal situation as well as in hypercholesterolemic situation. The protective effect of the combination of dietary fenugreek and garlic on LDL oxidation both in vivo and in vitro was greater than that of the individual spices. The protective effect of dietary fenugreek and garlic on LDL oxidation both in vivo and in vitro as evidenced in the present study is suggestive of their cardioprotective potential since LDL oxidation is a key factor in the arteriosclerotic process.

  2. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar ‘74-x’ had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’; the bulbs of cultivar ‘Gailiang’ had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of ‘Hanzhong purple’ also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar ‘74-x’ had highest protection capability, following by cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’, and the bulbs of cultivar ‘No. 105 from Korea’ had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  3. 76 FR 37321 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Rescission, in Part, of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... members of the FGPA are Christopher Ranch L.L.C., The Garlic Company, Valley Garlic, and Vessey and... submitted rebuttal comments concerning the valuation of factors of production. On February 4, 2011, Xinboda...: Wholesale Price Index Comment 5: Xinboda's Water Valuation Comment 6: Surrogate Financial Ratios Comment 7...

  4. [Garlic effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Denisov, L N; Andrianova, I V; Timofeeva, S S

    1999-01-01

    To perform of clinical trial of alisate--a garlic preparation produced in Russia. An open controlled trial of alisate enrolled 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). 15 patients with RA of varying clinical form, stage and activity were given alisate in a dose 300 mg (1 tablet) twice a day for 4-6 weeks. 15 control RA patients received conventional antirheumatic therapy. The alisate group achieved a good and partial response in 86.5% of cases. The drug was well tolerated and had no side effects. In control group, some parameters changed for the worse. Alisate can be recommended for treatment of RA patients in combined and monotherapy.

  5. Prophylactic action of garlic on the histological and histochemical patterns of hepatic and gastric tissues in rats injected with a snake venom.

    PubMed

    Rahmy, T R; Hemmaid, K Z

    2001-05-01

    The present study aimed to examine the prophylactic action of oral administration of two doses of garlic on the histological and histochemical patterns of the gastric and hepatic tissues in rats envenomed with cobra snake. The study included the following groups: Group I contained control rats orally administered distilled water for ten days. Group II included rats orally administered daily for ten days with the equivalent therapeutic dose of garlic to rat (18 mg/kg body weight). Group III included rats orally administered daily for ten days with double the equivalent therapeutic dose of garlic to rat (36 mg/kg body weight). Group IV contained rats intramuscularly (i.m.) injected with 1/2 LD50 of cobra venom (0.0125 microg venom/gm body weight) and dissected after 6 hr from injection. Groups V and VI contained rats daily administered with the previous two doses of garlic for ten days, respectively, followed by a single i.m. injection of the above dose of cobra venom after 24 hr from the last garlic application. Rats of these two groups were dissected after 6 hr from venom injection. Administration of the therapeutic dose of garlic induced slight cytoplasmic granulation in some hepatic cells. However, administration of double the therapeutic dose caused swelling, necrosis, and damage of the gastric glandular epithelia together with signs of erosion, exfoliation, and necrosis of the surface mucosal cells. It also induced swelling and coalescence of the hepatic cells, loss of the normal arrangement of the hepatic cords, and hypertrophy of Kupffer cells. Injection with cobra venom caused loss of the normal characteristic appearance of the gastric glands and the epithelial lining cells of the gastric folds and the appearance of numerous inflammatory cells in the lamina properia. It also induced the occurrence of highly swollen hepatic cells, hepatic cellular necrosis and damage, as well as activated Kupffer cells. Nevertheless, pretreatment with the therapeutic dose of

  6. Age-dependent changes in sperm production, semen quality, and testicular volume in the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes).

    PubMed

    Wolf, K N; Wildt, D E; Vargas, A; Marinari, P E; Kreeger, J S; Ottinger, M A; Howard, J G

    2000-07-01

    The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), which was extirpated from its native North American prairie habitat during the 1980s, is being reintroduced to the wild because of a successful captive-breeding program. To enhance propagation, the reproductive biology of this endangered species is being studied intensively. The typical life span of the black-footed ferret is approximately 7 yr. Female fecundity declines after 3 yr of age, but the influence of age on male reproduction is unknown. In this study, testis volume, seminal traits, sperm morphology, and serum testosterone were compared in 116 males from 1 to 7 yr of age living in captivity. Results demonstrated that testes volume during the peak breeding season was similar (P > 0.05) among males 1 to 5 yr of age, reduced (P < 0.05) among males 6 yr of age, and further reduced (P < 0.05) among males 7 yr of age. Motile sperm/ejaculate was similar in males 1 to 6 yr of age but diminished (P < 0.05) in those 7 yr of age. Males at 6 and 7 yr of age produced fewer (P < 0.05) structurally normal sperm than younger counterparts; however, serum testosterone concentrations were not reduced (P > 0.05) in older males. Histological comparison of testicular/epididymal tissue from 5- and 7-yr-old black-footed ferrets confirmed that the interval between these two ages may represent a transitional period to reproductive senescence. In summary, functional reproductive capacity of male black-footed ferrets exceeds that of females by at least 2 yr. Testes and seminal quality are indistinguishable among males 1 to 5 yr of age, with progressive reproductive aging occurring thereafter.

  7. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  8. Evaluation of garlic plant and indinavir drug efficacy in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in experimentally immumosuppressed rats.

    PubMed

    Toulah, Fawzia H; El-Shafei, Amal A; Al-Rashidi, Hyat S

    2012-08-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of garlic plant and Indinavir on cryptosporidiosis in experimentally immunosuppressed infected rats. One hundred forty five Wister rats aging 3 weeks were divided into five groups: GI: normal control, GII: Indinavir treated control, GIII: immunosuppressed infected, GIV: immunosuppressed infected and treated with garlic and GV: immunosuppressed infected and treated with Indinavir. All were subjected to clinical, parasitological and histopathological examination at different days post infection (P.I.). The results showed that in GIII, all rats had diarrhea, loss of appetite, weakness and limited movement, with 51.4% death rate. In both treated groups, some rats regained activities, with death rate of 33.3% (GV) and non GIV. There was significant decrease in the number of excreted oocysts at 5th and 10th day post treatment (P.T.) in treated groups. One week P.T., in GIV, the number of excreted oocysts had continued in decreasing while in GV, it was insignificantly increased. No cure rate was detected in both treated groups as oocysts still excreted till the end of experiment. The histopathological changes improved in treated groups in spite of the presence of some parasites on the epithelial surfaces of ileum.

  9. Biology of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) of the 1960 year class, isolated in the Big Garlic River, Michigan, 1960-65

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.; McLain, Alberton L.

    1971-01-01

    The capture of four recently metamorphosed sea lampreys (two males and two females), 152-172 mm long, in the fall of 1965, established the minimum age at transformation for larvae in the Big Garlic River at 5 years. Age and length (with the exception of a possible minimum length) were determined not to be critical factors in metamorphosis. The presence of larvae 65-176 mm long (mean, 107 mm) in the river in 1965 indicated that metamorphosis of lampreys in a single year class takes place over a period of years.

  10. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Chand, Subodh K; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5' RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars.

  11. Effects of garlic and diallyl trisulfide on the growth, photosynthesis, and alkaline phosphatase activity of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shoubing; Wang, Yuanan; Ma, Xiaoxue; Xu, Ziran

    2016-03-01

    To identify a botanical algicide and elucidate the response of cyanobacteria to the extract from higher plants, the effects of garlic and garlic-derived diallyl trisulfide on Microcystis aeruginosa were studied. Effects were evaluated by changes in cell density, chlorophyll a, maximum effective quantum yield (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (YII), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and rapid light curves of M. aeruginosa. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was measured when M. aeruginosa was incubated with diallyl trisulfide. Results indicated that the inhibition by garlic and diallyl trisulfide was significant. The 120-h 50 % effective concentrations of garlic and diallyl trisulfide (EC50) were 0.75 g L(-1) and 2.84 mg L(-1), respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory rate increased with increasing concentration and the growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited by 90.0 % at the highest concentrations. We also show that the response of M. aeruginosa to stress could involve both impairment of the photosynthetic center PSII and alteration of APA. For example, at high garlic concentration (2.0 g L(-1)), Fv/Fm significantly decreased from 0.501 to 0.084 (p < 0.05) after 120 h of exposure. Furthermore, the total APA was significantly decreased by exposure to a high diallyl trisulfide concentration after 24 h exposure. As new algal inhibitors, there are several advantages for their utilization, such as being common, cheap, non-toxic, and with high efficiency. It would be meaningful to further research on garlic as an environmentally friendly algicide.

  12. Regulation of miR394 in Response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) Infection in Garlic (Allium sativum L)

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Subodh K.; Nanda, Satyabrata; Joshi, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional regulators that negatively regulate gene expression through target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition and play important roles in plant development and stress response. In the present study, six conserved miRNAs from garlic (Allium sativum L.) were analyzed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in response to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) infection. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed that miR394 is significantly induced in garlic seedlings post-treatment with FOC for 72 h. The induction of miR394 expression during FOC infection was restricted to the basal stem plate tissue, the primary site of infection. Garlic miR394 was also upregulated by exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Two putative targets of miR394 encoding F-box domain and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family proteins were predicted and verified using 5′ RLM-RACE (RNA ligase mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends) assay. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcript levels of the predicted targets were significantly reduced in garlic plants exposed to FOC. When garlic cultivars with variable sensitivity to FOC were exposed to the pathogen, an upregulation of miR394 and down regulation of the targets were observed in both varieties. However, the expression pattern was delayed in the resistant genotypes. These results suggest that miR394 functions in negative modulation of FOC resistance and the difference in timing and levels of expression in variable genotypes could be examined as markers for selection of FOC resistant garlic cultivars. PMID:26973694

  13. True Density Prediction of Garlic Slices Dehydrated by Convection.

    PubMed

    López-Ortiz, Anabel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass-heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi-theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave-down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi-theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave-down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti ), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs ) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti . An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second-order phase changes, are then presented. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology "Genotyping-by-Sequencing" Platform (DArTseq).

    PubMed

    Egea, Leticia A; Mérida-García, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Garlic ( Allium sativum ) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i) assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions); (ii) create a core collection; (iii) relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv) describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming.

  15. Age structure and growth of California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    Barrett A. Garrison; Christopher D. otahal; Matthew L. Triggs

    2002-01-01

    Age structure and growth of California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) was determined from tagged trees at four 26.1-acre study stands in Placer County, California. Stands were dominated by large diameter (>20 inch dbh) California black oak and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). Randomly selected trees were tagged in June-August...

  16. Comparison between swallowing and chewing of garlic on levels of serum lipids, cyclosporine, creatinine and lipid peroxidation in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Abbas; Argani, Hassan; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Mahdavi, Reza

    2005-05-19

    Hyperlipidemia and increased degree of oxidative stress are among the important risk factors for Atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients (RTR). The Medical treatment of hyperlipidemia in RTR because of drugs side effects has been problematic, therefore alternative methods such as using of Garlic as an effective material in cholesterol lowering and inhibition of LDL Oxidation has been noted. For evaluation of garlic effect on RTR, 50 renal transplant patients with stable renal function were selected and divided into 2 groups. They took one clove of garlic (1 gr) by chewing or swallowing for two months, after one month wash-out period, they took garlic by the other route. Results indicated that although lipid profile, BUN, Cr, serum levels of cyclosporine and diastolic blood pressure did not change, Systolic blood pressure decreased from 138.2 to 132.8 mmHg (p=0.001) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased from 2.4 to 1.7 nmol/ml (p=0.009) by swallowing route, Cholesterol decreased from 205.1 to 195.3 mg/dl (p=0.03), triglyceride decreased from 195.7 to 174.8 mg/dl (p=0.008), MDA decreased from 2.5 to 1.6 nmol/ml (p=0.001), systolic blood pressure decreased from 137.5 to 129.8 mmHg (p=0.001), diastolic blood pressure decreased from 84.6 to 77.6 mmHg (p=0.001) and Cr decreased from 1.51 to 1.44 mg/dl (p=0.03) by chewing route too. However HDL, LDL and cyclosporine serum levels had no significant differences by both of swallowing and chewing routes. We conclude that undamaged garlic (swallowed) had no lowering effect on lipid level of serum. But Crushed garlic (chewed) reduces cholesterol, triglyceride, MDA and blood pressure. Additionally creatinine reduced without notable decrease in cyclosporine serum levels may be due to cyclosporine nephrotoxicity ameliorating effect of garlic.

  17. Development of an Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation System and Production of Herbicide-Resistant Transgenic Plants in Garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-01-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest efficiency in transient gene transfer during Agrobacterium co-cultivation with calli derived from the roots of in vitro plantlets. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed on the basis of hygromycin resistance and sGFP expression. Of the hygromycin-resistant calli initially produced, only sGFP-expressing calli were subcultured for selection of transgenic calli. Transgenic plantlets produced from these calli were grown to maturity. The transformation efficiency increased up to 10.6% via our optimized procedure. DNA and RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that transgenic garlic plants stably integrated and expressed the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. A herbicide spraying assay demonstrated that transgenic plants of garlic conferred herbicide resistance, whilst non-transgenic plants and weeds died. These results indicate that our transformation system can be efficiently utilized to produce transgenic garlic plants with agronomic benefits. PMID:23832764

  18. Development of an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system and production of herbicide-resistant transgenic plants in garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2013-08-01

    The genetic improvement of garlic plants (Allium sativum L.) with agronomical beneficial traits is rarely achieved due to the lack of an applicable transformation system. Here, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure with Danyang, an elite Korean garlic cultivar. Examination of sGFP (synthetic green fluorescence protein) expression revealed that treatment with 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (MES), L-cysteine and/or dithiothreitol (DTT) gives the highest efficiency in transient gene transfer during Agrobacterium co-cultivation with calli derived from the roots of in vitro plantlets. To increase stable transformation efficiency, a two-step selection was employed on the basis of hygromycin resistance and sGFP expression. Of the hygromycin-resistant calli initially produced, only sGFP-expressing calli were subcultured for selection of transgenic calli. Transgenic plantlets produced from these calli were grown to maturity. The transformation efficiency increased up to 10.6% via our optimized procedure. DNA and RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that transgenic garlic plants stably integrated and expressed the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene. A herbicide spraying assay demonstrated that transgenic plants of garlic conferred herbicide resistance, whilst nontransgenic plants and weeds died. These results indicate that our transformation system can be efficiently utilized to produce transgenic garlic plants with agronomic benefits.

  19. Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Garlic (Allium sativum ) in Spain: Taxonomy and In Vitro Fungicide Response

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Laura; Gil-Serna, Jéssica; García, Marta; Iglesias, Concepción; Palmero, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S. solani. Conidial morphology of the isolates corresponded to that of S. vesicarium and clearly discriminated them from S. alfalfae and S. herbarum on the basis of the size and septation pattern of mature conidia. Conidial morphology as well as conidial length, width and length:width ratio also allowed the Spanish isolates to be distinguished from S. botryosum and S. herbarum. Control of leaf blight of garlic is not well established. Few studies are available regarding the effectiveness of chemical treatments to reduce Stemphylium spp. incidence on garlic. The effectiveness of nine fungicides of different chemical groups to reduce Stemphylium mycelial growth in vitro was tested. Boscalid + pyraclostrobin (group name, succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors + quinone outside inhibitors), iprodione (dicar-boximide), and prochloraz (demethylation inhibitors) were highly effective at reducing mycelial growth in S. vesicarium with EC50 values less than 5 ppm. In general, the effectiveness of the fungicide was enhanced with increasing dosage. PMID:27721688

  20. Garlic oil suppressed the hematological disorders induced by chemotherapy and radiotherapy in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Li, Yang; Zhang, Cui-Li; Yu, Li-Hua; Zhu, Zhen-Ping; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2013-06-01

    Although the anticancer effects of garlic and its products have been demonstrated by a variety of studies; however, few studies were conducted to investigate the effects of garlic on the adverse effects of chemo/radiotherapy. In order to clarify the above question and make a more comprehensive understanding of the anticancer effects of garlic, tumor xenograft mice model was established by subcutaneous injection of H22 tumor cells, and was used for the investigation of effects of garlic oil (GO) on the chemo/radiotherapy. In the chemotherapy test, tumor-bearing mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CTX) or CTX plus GO (25 or 50 mg/kg bw) for 14 d, while the mice received a single 5 Gy total body radiation or radiation plus GO (25 or 50 mg/kg bw) in radiotherapy test. The results showed that GO did not increase the tumor inhibitory rate of CTX/radiation, which indicated that GO could not enhance the chemo/radiosensitivity of cancer cells. However, the decrease of the peripheral total white blood cells (WBCs) count induced by CTX/radiation was significantly suppressed by GO cotreatment. Furthermore, GO cotreatment significantly inhibited the decrease of the DNA contents and the micronuclei ratio of the bone marrow. Lastly, the reduction of the endogenous spleen colonies induced by CTX/radiation was significantly suppressed by GO cotreatment. These findings support the idea that GO consumption may benefit for the cancer patients receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Biochemical study on the hypoglycemic effects of onion and garlic in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, F M; Yousef, M I; El-Naga, N I Abou

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of onion (Allium cepa Linn) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn) juices on biochemical parameters, enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Alloxan was administered as a single dose (120 mg/kg BW) to induce diabetes. A dose of 1 ml of either onion or garlic juices/100 g body weight (equivalent to 0.4 g/100 g BW) was orally administered daily to alloxan-diabetic rats for four weeks. The levels of glucose, urea, creatinine and bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05) increased in plasma of alloxan-diabetic rats compared to the control group. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline and acid phosphatases (AlP, AcP) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in plasma and testes of alloxan-diabetic rats, while these activities were decreased in liver compared with the control group. Brain LDH was significantly (p<0.05) increased. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of glutathione S-transferase in plasma, liver, testes, brain, and kidney were increased in alloxan-diabetic rats. Treatment of the diabetic rats with repeated doses of either garlic or onion juices could restore the changes of the above parameters to their normal levels. The present results showed that garlic and onion juices exerted antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects and consequently may alleviate liver and renal damage caused by alloxan-induced diabetes.

  2. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Black Mats, Spring-Fed Streams, and Late-Glacial-Age Recharge in the Southern Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quade, Jay; Forester, R.M.; Pratt, W.L.; Carter, C.

    1998-01-01

    Black mats are prominent features of the late Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphic record in the southern Great Basin. Faunal, geochemical, and sedimentological evidence shows that the black mats formed in several microenvironments related to spring discharge, ranging from wet meadows to shallow ponds. Small land snails such as Gastrocopta tappaniana and Vertigo berryi are the most common mollusk taxa present. Semiaquatic and aquatic taxa are less abundant and include Catinellids, Fossaria parva, Gyraulus parvus, and others living today in and around perennial seeps and ponds. The ostracodes Cypridopsis okeechobi and Scottia tumida, typical of seeps and low-discharge springs today, as well as other taxa typical of springs and wetlands, are common in the black mats. Several new species that lived in the saturated subsurface also are present, but lacustrine ostracodes are absent. The ??13C values of organic matter in the black mats range from -12 to -26???, reflecting contributions of tissue from both C3 (sedges, most shrubs and trees) and C4 (saltbush, saltgrass) plants. Carbon-14 dates on the humate fraction of 55 black mats fall between 11,800 to 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. to modern. The total absence of mats in our sample between 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. likely reflects increased aridity associated with the mid-Holocene Altithermal. The oldest black mats date to 11,800-11,600 14C yr B.P., and the peak in the 14C black mat distribution falls at ???10,000 14C yr B.P. As the formation of black mats is spring related, their abundance reflects refilling of valley aquifers starting no later than 11,800 and peaking after 11,000 14C yrB.P. Reactivation of spring-fed channels shortly before 11,200 14C yr B.P. is also apparent in the stratigraphic records from the Las Vegas and Pahrump Valleys. This age distribution suggests that black mats and related spring-fed channels in part may have formed in response to Younger Dryas (YD)-age recharge in the region. However, the

  5. Black Mats, Spring-Fed Streams, and Late-Glacial-Age Recharge in the Southern Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quade, Jay; Forester, Richard M.; Pratt, William L.; Carter, Claire

    1998-03-01

    Black mats are prominent features of the late Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphic record in the southern Great Basin. Faunal, geochemical, and sedimentological evidence shows that the black mats formed in several microenvironments related to spring discharge, ranging from wet meadows to shallow ponds. Small land snails such as Gastrocopta tappanianaand Vertigo berryiare the most common mollusk taxa present. Semiaquatic and aquatic taxa are less abundant and include Catinellids, Fossaria parva, Gyraulus parvus,and others living today in and around perennial seeps and ponds. The ostracodes Cypridopsis okeechobiand Scottia tumida,typical of seeps and low-discharge springs today, as well as other taxa typical of springs and wetlands, are common in the black mats. Several new species that lived in the saturated subsurface also are present, but lacustrine ostracodes are absent. The δ 13C values of organic matter in the black mats range from -12 to -26‰, reflecting contributions of tissue from both C 3(sedges, most shrubs and trees) and C 4(saltbush, saltgrass) plants. Carbon-14 dates on the humate fraction of 55 black mats fall between 11,800 to 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. to modern. The total absence of mats in our sample between 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. likely reflects increased aridity associated with the mid-Holocene Altithermal. The oldest black mats date to 11,800-11,600 14C yr B.P., and the peak in the 14C black mat distribution falls at ˜10,000 14C yr B.P. As the formation of black mats is spring related, their abundance reflects refilling of valley aquifers starting no later than 11,800 and peaking after 11,000 14C yr B.P. Reactivation of spring-fed channels shortly before 11,200 14C yr B.P. is also apparent in the stratigraphic records from the Las Vegas and Pahrump Valleys. This age distribution suggests that black mats and related spring-fed channels in part may have formed in response to Younger Dryas (YD)-age recharge in the region. However, the

  6. Hyperspectral imaging for predicting the allicin and soluble solid content of garlic with variable selection algorithms and chemometric models.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anisur; Faqeerzada, Mohammad A; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2018-03-14

    Allicin and soluble solid content (SSC) in garlic is the responsible for its pungent flavor and odor. However, current conventional methods such as the use of high-pressure liquid chromatography and a refractometer have critical drawbacks in that they are time-consuming, labor-intensive and destructive procedures. The present study aimed to predict allicin and SSC in garlic using hyperspectral imaging in combination with variable selection algorithms and calibration models. Hyperspectral images of 100 garlic cloves were acquired that covered two spectral ranges, from which the mean spectra of each clove were extracted. The calibration models included partial least squares (PLS) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) regression, as well as different spectral pre-processing techniques, from which the highest performing spectral preprocessing technique and spectral range were selected. Then, variable selection methods, such as regression coefficients, variable importance in projection (VIP) and the successive projections algorithm (SPA), were evaluated for the selection of effective wavelengths (EWs). Furthermore, PLS and LS-SVM regression methods were applied to quantitatively predict the quality attributes of garlic using the selected EWs. Of the established models, the SPA-LS-SVM model obtained an Rpred2 of 0.90 and standard error of prediction (SEP) of 1.01% for SSC prediction, whereas the VIP-LS-SVM model produced the best result with an Rpred2 of 0.83 and SEP of 0.19 mg g -1 for allicin prediction in the range 1000-1700 nm. Furthermore, chemical images of garlic were developed using the best predictive model to facilitate visualization of the spatial distributions of allicin and SSC. The present study clearly demonstrates that hyperspectral imaging combined with an appropriate chemometrics method can potentially be employed as a fast, non-invasive method to predict the allicin and SSC in garlic. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018

  7. GARLIC - A general purpose atmospheric radiative transfer line-by-line infrared-microwave code: Implementation and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Franz; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Hedelt, Pascal; Hess, Michael; Mendrok, Jana; Vasquez, Mayte; Xu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    A suite of programs for high resolution infrared-microwave atmospheric radiative transfer modeling has been developed with emphasis on efficient and reliable numerical algorithms and a modular approach appropriate for simulation and/or retrieval in a variety of applications. The Generic Atmospheric Radiation Line-by-line Infrared Code - GARLIC - is suitable for arbitrary observation geometry, instrumental field-of-view, and line shape. The core of GARLIC's subroutines constitutes the basis of forward models used to implement inversion codes to retrieve atmospheric state parameters from limb and nadir sounding instruments. This paper briefly introduces the physical and mathematical basics of GARLIC and its descendants and continues with an in-depth presentation of various implementation aspects: An optimized Voigt function algorithm combined with a two-grid approach is used to accelerate the line-by-line modeling of molecular cross sections; various quadrature methods are implemented to evaluate the Schwarzschild and Beer integrals; and Jacobians, i.e. derivatives with respect to the unknowns of the atmospheric inverse problem, are implemented by means of automatic differentiation. For an assessment of GARLIC's performance, a comparison of the quadrature methods for solution of the path integral is provided. Verification and validation are demonstrated using intercomparisons with other line-by-line codes and comparisons of synthetic spectra with spectra observed on Earth and from Venus.

  8. Insecticidal activity and fungitoxicity of plant extracts and components of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) and garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Paola; Leis, Marilena; Pezzi, Marco; Civolani, Stefano; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    To avoid environmental pollution and health problems caused by the use of traditional synthetic pesticides, there is a trend to search for naturally occurring toxicants from plants. Among the compounds discussed for anti-fungal and insecticidal activity, the natural extracts from garlic and horseradish have attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the insecticidal and anti-fungal activity of Armoracia rusticana and Allium sativum L. extracts against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and some pathogenic fungi. For the insecticidal test, horseradish and garlic extracts were prepared from fresh plants (cultivated in Emilia Romagna region) in a solution of ethanol 80 % and the two different solutions were used at different concentrations (for the determination of the lethal dose) against the fourth instar mosquito's larvae. The fungicidal test was carried out by the agar plates technique using garlic and horseradish extracts in a 10 % ethanol solution against the following organisms: Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and Fusarium culmorum (Wm. G. Sm.) Sacc. The first results demonstrated that the horseradish ethanol extracts present only a fungistatic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and F. culmorum (Wm.G. Sm) Sacc. while garlic extracts at the same concentration provided a good fungicidal activity above all against Botrytis cinerea Pers. and S. rolfsii. A. rusticana and A. sativum preparations showed also an interesting and significant insecticidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, even if horseradish presented a higher efficacy (LC₅₀ value of 2.34 g/L), approximately two times higher than garlic one (LC₅₀ value of 4.48 g/L).

  9. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  10. White-black and white-Hispanic differences on fluid and crystallized abilities by age across the 11- to 94-year range.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, J C; McLean, J E; Kaufman, A S; Kaufman, N L

    1994-12-01

    Standardization data for the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) were used to examine white-black and white-Hispanic differences on the Horn-Cattell crystallized and fluid constructs at several age groups across the broad 11- to 94-year span. Samples included 1,547 white, 241 black, and 140 Hispanic persons. Multivariate analyses with educational attainment covaried yielded only one significant finding: the white-black difference on the Crystallized Famous Faces subtest became smaller with increasing age.

  11. Performance evaluation of two black nickel and two black chrome solar collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losey, R.

    1977-01-01

    The test program was based on the evaluation of four unique solar collectors described below: (1) black nickel collector surface with a desiccant drying bed, (2) black nickel collector surface without a desiccant drying bed, (3) black chrome collector surface with a dessicant drying bed, and (4) black chrome collector surface without a desiccant drying bed. The test program included three distinct phases: Initial performance evaluation, natural environmental aging, and post-aging performance evaluation. Results of Phase III testing conclusively indicated a higher normalized efficiency for Black Chrome surfaces when compared to Black Nickel.

  12. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  13. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq)

    PubMed Central

    Egea, Leticia A.; Mérida-García, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i) assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions); (ii) create a core collection; (iii) relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv) describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming. PMID:28775737

  14. Effect of volatile metabolites of dill, radish and garlic on growth of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Borodina, E. V.; Ushakova, S. A.; Rygalov, V. Ye; Gitelson, J. I.

    2001-07-01

    In a model experiment plants were grown in sealed chambers on expanded clay aggregate under the luminance of 150 W/m 2 PAR and the temperature of 24°C. Seven bacterial strains under investigation, replicated on nutrient medium surface in Petri dishes, were grown in the atmosphere of cultivated plants. Microbial response was evaluated by the difference between colony size in experiment and in control. In control, bacteria grew in the atmosphere of clean air. To study the effect of volatile metabolites of various plant on microbial growth, the experimental data were compared with the background values defined for each individual experiment. Expanded clay aggregate, luminance, temperature and sealed chamber (without plants) for the background were the same. Volatile metabolites from 28-days old radish plants have been reliably established to have no effect on the growth of microbes under investigation. Metabolites of 30-days old dill and 50-days old garlic have been established to have reliable bacteriostatic effect on the growth of three bacterial strains. Dill and garlic have been found to have different range of effects of volatile substances on bacterial growth. Volatile metabolites of dill and garlic differed in their effect on the sensitivity spectrum of bacteria. An attempt has been made to describe the obtained data mathematically.

  15. THE EFFICACY OF THREE MEDICINAL PLANTS; GARLIC, GINGER AND MIRAZID AND A CHEMICAL DRUG METRONIDAZOLE AGAINST CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM: II-HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES.

    PubMed

    Abouel-Nour, Mohamed F; El-Shewehy, Dina Magdy M; Hamada, Shadia F; Morsy, Tosson A

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite infects intestinal epithelial cells of man and animals causing a major health problem. This study was oriented to evaluate the protective and curative capacity of garlic, ginger and mirazid in comparison with metronidazole drug (commercially known) against Cryptosporidium in experimental mice. Male Swiss Albino mice experimentally infected with C. parvum were treated with medicinal plants extracts (Ginger, Mirazid, and Garlic) as compared to chemical drug Metronidazole. Importantly, C. parvum-infected mice treated with ginger, Mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed a complete elimination in shedding oocysts by 9th day PI. The reduction and elimination of shedding oocysts in response to the treatments might be attributable to a direct effect on parasite growth in intestines, sexual phases production and/or the formation of oocysts. The results were evaluated histopathological examination of ideum section of control mice (uninfected, untreated) displayed normal architecture of the villi. Examiination of infected mice ileum section (infected, untreated) displayed histopathological alterations from uninfected groups. Examination of ileum section prepared from mice treated with garlic, ginger, mirazid, and metronidazole displayed histopathological alterations from that of the control groups, and showed marked histologic correction in the pattern with the four regimes used in comparison to control mice. Garlic successfully eradicated oocysts of infected mice from stool and intestine. Supplementation of ginger to infected mice markedly corrected elevation in the inflammatory risk factors and implied its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities. Infected mice treated with ginger, mirazid, garlic and metronidazole showed significant symptomatic improvements during treatment.

  16. Age-Specific Incidence Rates for Self-Reported Uterine Leiomyomata in the Black Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Palmer, Julie R.; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Uterine leiomyomata represent a major public health problem for black women in the United States, but limited data are available on age–incidence curves in this high-risk population. We estimated overall and age-specific incidence rates for self-reported uterine leiomyomata in a large cohort of African-American women in the United States. METHODS Data were derived from the Black Women’s Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 59,000 black women from across the United States who were aged 21–69 years at baseline (ie, 1995). From March 1997 through March 2001, we followed up 22,895 premenopausal women with no prior diagnosis of uterine leiomyoma. Poisson regression was used to estimate overall and age-specific incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self-reported uterine leiomyoma. In a subset of 248 patients who were selected randomly from the total case group, the self-reported diagnosis was verified in 96% of cases who released their medical records. RESULTS During 76,711 woman-years of follow-up, 2,637 incident cases of uterine leiomyomata reported as confirmed by pelvic examination (n = 358), ultrasonography (n = 2,006), or hysterectomy (n = 273) were observed. Incidence rates per 1,000 woman-years were 34.4 (95% CI 33.1–35.7) for all cases combined, 29.7 (95% CI 28.5–30.9) for cases confirmed by ultrasonography or hysterectomy, and 3.6 (95% CI 3.2–4.0) for cases confirmed by hysterectomy. The incidence rate peaked at ages 40–44 years for all cases combined (incidence rate 45.6, 95% CI 42.0–49.5) and for cases confirmed by ultrasonography or hysterectomy (incidence rate 39.8, 95% CI 36.5–43.4), and peaked at ages 45–49 years for cases confirmed by hysterectomy (incidence rate 8.3, 95% CI 6.4–10.7). CONCLUSION Overall incidence rates for self-reported uterine leiomyomata were consistent with other U.S studies in black women and confirmed a high burden of disease in this population. Age-specific incidence

  17. [The protective effects of green tea drinking and garlic intake on lung cancer, in a low cancer risk area of Jiangsu province, China].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zi-yi; Han, Ren-qiang; Zhang, Xiao-feng; Wang, Xu-shan; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Zuo-feng; Zhao, Jin-kou

    2013-02-01

    To understand the relationship between green tea drinking and/or garlic consumption and lung cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Ganyu county, Jiangsu province. Epidemiological data including demography, lifestyle, environmental exposures and dietary habits were collected by face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Both green tea drinking and garlic consumption were inversely associated with lung cancer and the adjusted ORs were: 0.78 (95%CI: 0.65 - 0.95) for green tea, 0.79 (95%CI: 0.66 - 0.95) for garlic intake, and 0.69 (95%CI: 0.53 - 0.89) for both, respectively. They also modified the associations of smoking, fried food intake and cooking oil under high-temperature with lung cancer as risk factors. Potential interactions were found between garlic or green tea and the risk factors of lung cancer. Both green tea drinking and garlic consumption might serve as protective factors on lung cancer.

  18. Identification of aster yellows phytoplasma in garlic and green onion by PCR-based methods.

    PubMed

    Khadhair, A H; Evans, I R; Choban, B

    2002-01-01

    In the summer of 1999, typical yellows-type symptoms were observed on garlic and green onion plants in a number of gardens and plots around Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. DNA was extracted from leaf tissues of evidently healthy and infected plants. DNA amplifications were conducted on these samples, using two primer pairs, R16F2n/R2 and R16(1)F1/R1, derived from phytoplasma rDNA sequences. DNA samples of aster yellows (AY), lime witches'-broom (LWB) and potato witches'-broom (PWB) phytoplasmas served as controls and were used to determine group relatedness. In a direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, DNA amplification with universal primer pair R16F2n/R2 gave the expected amplified products of 1.2 kb. Dilution (1/40) of each of the latter products were used as template and nested with specific primer pair R16(1)F1/R1. An expected PCR product of 1.1 kb was obtained from each phytoplasma-infected garlic and green onion samples, LWB and AY phytoplasmas but not from PWB phytoplasma. An aliquot from each amplification product (1.2 kb) with universal primers was subjected to PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to identify phytoplasma isolates, using four restriction endonucleases (AluI, KpnI, MseI and RsaI). DNA amplification with specific primer pair R16(1)F1/R1 and RFLP analysis indicated the presence of AY phytoplasma in the infected garlic and green onion samples. These results suggest that AY phytoplasma in garlic and green onion samples belong to the subgroup 16Sr1-A.

  19. GARLIC: a bioinformatic toolkit for aetiologically connecting diseases and cell type-specific regulatory maps

    PubMed Central

    Nikolić, Miloš; Papantonis, Argyris

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have emerged as a powerful tool to uncover the genetic basis of human common diseases, which often show a complex, polygenic and multi-factorial aetiology. These studies have revealed that 70–90% of all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with common complex diseases do not occur within genes (i.e. they are non-coding), making the discovery of disease-causative genetic variants and the elucidation of the underlying pathological mechanisms far from straightforward. Based on emerging evidences suggesting that disease-associated SNPs are frequently found within cell type-specific regulatory sequences, here we present GARLIC (GWAS-based Prediction Toolkit for Connecting Diseases and Cell Types), a user-friendly, multi-purpose software with an associated database and online viewer that, using global maps of cis-regulatory elements, can aetiologically connect human diseases with relevant cell types. Additionally, GARLIC can be used to retrieve potential disease-causative genetic variants overlapping regulatory sequences of interest. Overall, GARLIC can satisfy several important needs within the field of medical genetics, thus potentially assisting in the ultimate goal of uncovering the elusive and complex genetic basis of common human disorders. PMID:28007912

  20. Stimulation of IFN-γ production by garlic lectin in mouse spleen cells: involvement of IL-12 via activation of p38 MAPK and ERK in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qing; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Toyohira, Yumiko; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Karasaki, Yuji

    2011-02-15

    Several lectins, present in beans and edible plant products, have immuno-potentiating and anti-tumor activities. We here report the effects of garlic lectin purified from garlic bulbs on the production of cytokines such as interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the mouse. Garlic lectin induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in a bell-shaped time (24-60 h)- and concentration (0.25-2.0 mg/ml)-dependent manner. The maximal enhancement was observed at 36 h with 0.5 mg/ml of garlic lectin. The stimulatory effect of garlic lectin on IFN-γ production was completely inhibited by both actinomycin D and cycloheximide, an inhibitor of ribosomal protein synthesis and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively, and was associated with an increase in IFN-γ mRNA level. Garlic lectin also induced IL-12 production in mouse peritoneal macrophages in a concentration (0.25-1.0 mg/ml)- and bell-shaped time (3-24 h)-dependent manner. The lectin increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in macrophages. Furthermore, specific pharmacological inhibitors of ERK kinase (U0126) and p38 MAPK (SB203580) also suppressed the production of IL-12 induced by garlic lectin. The present findings suggest that garlic lectin induces IL-12 production via activation of p38 MAPK and ERK in mouse macrophages, which, in turn, stimulates IFN-γ production through an increase in IFN-γ mRNA in the spleen cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of structure and activity of garlic peroxidase (POX(1B)).

    PubMed

    El Ichi, Sarra; Miodek, Anna; Sauriat-Dorizon, Hélène; Mahy, Jean-Pierre; Henry, Céline; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa

    2011-01-01

    Structural characterization and study of the activity of new POX(1B) protein from garlic which has a high peroxidase activity and can be used as a biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and phenolic compounds were performed and compared with the findings for other heme peroxidases. The structure-function relationship was investigated by analysis of the spectroscopic properties and correlated to the structure determined by a new generation of high-performance hybrid mass spectrometers. The reactivity of the enzyme was analyzed by studies of the redox activity toward various ligands and the reactivity with various substrates. We demonstrated that, in the case of garlic peroxidase, the heme group is pentacoordinated, and has an histidine as a proximal ligand. POX(1B) exhibited a high affinity for hydrogen peroxide as well as various reducing cosubstrates. In addition, high enzyme specificity was demonstrated. The k(cat) and K(M) values were 411 and 400 mM(-1) s(-1) for 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and 2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), respectively. Furthermore, the reduction of nitro compounds in the presence of POX(1B) was demonstrated by iron(II) nitrosoalkane complex assay. In addition, POX(1B) showed a great potential for application for drug metabolism since its ability to react with 1-nitrohexane in the presence of sodium dithionite was demonstrated by the appearance of a characteristic Soret band at 411 nm. The high catalytic efficiency obtained in the case of the new garlic peroxidase (POX(1B)) is suitable for the monitoring of different analytes and biocatalysis.

  2. Effects of Adaptation of In vitro Rumen Culture to Garlic Oil, Nitrate, and Saponin and Their Combinations on Methanogenesis, Fermentation, and Abundances and Diversity of Microbial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Amlan K.; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of garlic oil (0.25 g/L), nitrate (5 mM), and quillaja saponin (0.6 g/L), alone and in binary or ternary combinations, on methanogenesis, rumen fermentation, and abundances of select microbial populations using in vitro rumen cultures. Potential adaptation to these compounds was also examined by repeated transfers of the cultures on alternate days until day 18. All treatments except saponin alone significantly decreased methanogenesis. Ternary combinations of garlic oil, nitrate, and saponin additively/synergistically suppressed methane production by 65% at day 2 and by 40% at day 18. Feed digestion was not adversely affected by any of the treatments at day 2, but was decreased by the combinations (binary and ternary) of garlic oil with the other inhibitors at days 10 and 18. Saponin, alone or in combinations, and garlic oil alone lowered ammonia concentration at day 2, while nitrate increased ammonia concentration at days 10 and 18. Total volatile fatty acid concentration was decreased by garlic oil alone or garlic oil-saponin combination. Molar proportions of acetate and propionate were affected to different extents by the different treatments. The abundances of methanogens were similar among treatments at day 2; however, garlic oil and its combination with saponin and/or nitrate at day 10 and all treatments except saponin at day 18 significantly decreased the abundances of methanogens. All the inhibitors, either alone or in combinations, did not adversely affect the abundances of total bacteria or Ruminococcus flavefaciens. However, at day 18 the abundances of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus were lowered in the presence of garlic oil and saponin, respectively. The results suggest that garlic oil-nitrate-saponin combination (at the doses used in this study) can effectively decreases methanogenesis in the rumen, but its efficacy may decrease while inhibition to feed digestion can increase over time. PMID:26733975

  3. Heart Disease Death Rates Among Blacks and Whites Aged ≥35 Years - United States, 1968-2015.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Miriam; Greer, Sophia; Odom, Erika; Schieb, Linda; Vaughan, Adam; Kramer, Michael; Casper, Michele

    2018-03-30

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. In 2015, heart disease accounted for approximately 630,000 deaths, representing one in four deaths in the United States. Although heart disease death rates decreased 68% for the total population from 1968 to 2015, marked disparities in decreases exist by race and state. 1968-2015. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data on deaths in the United States were abstracted for heart disease using diagnosis codes from the eighth, ninth, and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8, ICD-9, and ICD-10) for 1968-2015. Population estimates were obtained from NVSS files. National and state-specific heart disease death rates for the total population and by race for adults aged ≥35 years were calculated for 1968-2015. National and state-specific black-white heart disease mortality ratios also were calculated. Death rates were age standardized to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Joinpoint regression was used to perform time trend analyses. From 1968 to 2015, heart disease death rates decreased for the total U.S. population among adults aged ≥35 years, from 1,034.5 to 327.2 per 100,000 population, respectively, with variations in the magnitude of decreases by race and state. Rates decreased for the total population an average of 2.4% per year, with greater average decreases among whites (2.4% per year) than blacks (2.2% per year). At the national level, heart disease death rates for blacks and whites were similar at the start of the study period (1968) but began to diverge in the late 1970s, when rates for blacks plateaued while rates for whites continued to decrease. Heart disease death rates among blacks remained higher than among whites for the remainder of the study period. Nationwide, the black-white ratio of heart disease death rates increased from 1.04 in 1968 to 1.21 in 2015, with large increases occurring during the 1970s and 1980s followed by small but steady

  4. Garlic-derived S-allylmercaptocysteine is a novel in vivo antimetastatic agent for androgen-independent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Howard, Edward W; Ling, Ming-Tat; Chua, Chee Wai; Cheung, Hiu Wing; Wang, Xianghong; Wong, Yong Chuan

    2007-03-15

    There is epidemiologic evidence that high garlic consumption decreases the incidence of prostate cancer, and compounds isolated from garlic have been shown to have cancer-preventive and tumor-suppressive effects. Recent in vitro studies in our laboratory have shown that garlic-derived organosulfur compound S-allylmercaptocysteine suppresses invasion and cell motility of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells via the up-regulation of cell-adhesion molecule E-cadherin. S-allylmercaptocysteine is therefore a potential antimetastatic drug with broad clinical applications that we tested in vivo for the first time in this study. We used a newly established fluorescent orthotopic androgen-independent prostate cancer mouse model to assess the ability of S-allylmercaptocysteine to inhibit tumor growth and dissemination. We showed that oral S-allylmercaptocysteine not only inhibited the growth of primary tumors by up to 71% (P < 0.001) but also reduced the number of lung and adrenal metastases by as much as 85.5% (P = 0.001) without causing notable toxicity. This metastatic suppression was accompanied by a 91% reduction of viable circulating tumor cells (P = 0.041), suggesting that S-allylmercaptocysteine prevents dissemination by decreasing tumor cell intravasation. Our results provide in vivo evidence supporting the potential use of S-allylmercaptocysteine as an E-cadherin up-regulating antimetastatic agent for the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer. This is the first report of the in vivo antimetastatic properties of garlic, which may also apply to other cancer types.

  5. Effect of cobalt-60 gamma rays on the storage behaviour of garlic bulbs at room temperature and in cold storage

    SciTech Connect

    Habibunnisa; Mathur, P.B.; Bano, Z.

    1971-11-01

    Effect of cobalt-60 gamma rays at a dose-rate of 6 krad on the storage behavior of garlic bulbs packaged individually and in lots of eight in perforated polyethylene bags of 200 gauge was investigated at room temperature (75 to 90 deg F) and cold temperature (32 to 35 deg F) under relative humidity 85 to 90%. Irradiation was immediately followed by an increase in the rate of respiration in the garlic bulbs followed by a decrease in the rate of respiration towards the later part of the storage period. At room temperature, sprouting was inhibited to a considerable extent, whilemore » in cold storage after a storage period of 9 months sprouting was completely prevented. The percentage sprouting was more in large size garlic bulbs than in small sized ones. For extension of storage life, packaging singly in polyethylene bags, selection of small sized garlic bulbs, storage at 32 to 35 deg F and irradiation with 6 krad of cobalt 60 gamma rays are recommended. (INIS)« less

  6. Social Roles in the Lives of Middle-Aged and Older Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lerita M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored participation in and impact of social roles on psychological and physical health of middle-aged and older Black women. Found that few such women participated in the three roles of parent, spouse, and employee simultaneously. Of these three roles, only employment showed a significant relationship to well-being, having a positive impact on…

  7. Pharmacological and antioxidant actions of garlic and.or onion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Din, Sayed H Seif; Sabra, Abdel-Nasser A; Hammam, Olfat A; Ebeid, Fatma A; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M

    2014-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a broad spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from mild steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure. This study investigates the hepatoprotective properties of garlic and onion in NAFLD rat model. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups; normal (I), NAFLD induced with high fat diet (HFD; II), NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or NAFLD-RD treated with garlic (IV, V), onion (VI, VII) or the combined garlic+onion (VIII, IX) respectively. A NAFLD rat model was established by feeding the animals with a high-fat diet for 12 wk. These animals were then treated with garlic or/and onion or vehicle for 8 wk (weeks 13-20) and then killed to obtain serum samples and liver tissues. Liver histology, lipids, parameters of oxidative stress, TNF-α and TGF-β were measured. The liver in NAFLD-HFD showed typical steatosis, accompanied with mild to moderate lobular inflammatory cell infiltration. Serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, leptin, cholesterol, triglycerides, TNF-α, TGF-β and hepatic MDA' were significantly increased (P < 0.05) compared with normal group. This was accompanied with reduction of hepatic GSH, GR, GPx, GST, SOD and serum adiponectin. These changes were to a less degree in NAFLD-RD group. Combined administration of garlic+onion produced a better and significant decrease in liver steatosis, serum liver enzymes, oxidative markers and lipid peroxidation versus each one alone. In the same time, NAFLD-induced inflammation was also mitigated via reduction of TNF-α and TGF-β. In addition, these results were better in the group IX versus group VIII.

  8. The effect of garlic consumption on Th1/Th2 cytokines in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activated rat spleen lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Alireza; Vahidinia, Aliasghar; Ghannad, Masoud Sabouri

    2009-04-01

    The balance and regulation of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2-type cytokines are important in the effective immune response to different diseases. To clarify the effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) consumption on the Th1/Th2 balance, the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), as two prototypes of Th1/Th2 cytokines, were compared in serum and supernatant of in vitro phytohemagglutinin activated rat spleen lymphocytes. Thirty male rats were divided equally into two groups. The treatment group received garlic solution in water (600 mg/kg/4 mL) and controls received distilled water by gavage. After 1 month, serum and supernatant of PHA activated spleen lymphocytes were analysed for IFN-gamma and IL-4 by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test and thymus and spleen weights were measured. The garlic treatment group showed significantly decreased production of IFN-gamma from 101.73 +/- 4.62 to 74.64 +/- 4.64 pg/mL and significantly increased IL-4 production from 26.75 +/- 3.35 to 83.92 +/- 6.56 pg/mL (p < 0.001) in the supernatant of PHA induced spleen lymphocytes. The serum level of these cytokines was undetectable. The mean weight of thymuses in the garlic fed animals was significantly reduced from 0.456 +/- 0.016 to 0.368 +/- 0.023 g compared with the control group (p < 0.005). There were no significant differences between the spleen weights in the two groups. In conclusion, oral garlic treatment may favor a Th2 or humoral immune response. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Modulatory effects of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Owoloye, Tosin R; Agbebi, Oluwaseun J

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the ameliorative effect of dietary inclusion of garlic (Allium sativum) on gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Adult male rats were randomly divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Groups 1 and 2 were fed basal diet while Groups 3 and 4 were fed diets containing 2% and 4% garlic respectively for 27 d prior to gentamycin administration. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of gentamycin (100 mg/kg body weight) for 3 d. The liver and plasma were studied for hepatotoxicity and antioxidant indices. Gentamycin induces hepatic damage as revealed by significant (P<0.05) elevation of liver damage marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase) and reduction in plasma albumin level. Gentamycin also caused a significant (P<0.05) alteration in plasma and liver enzymatic (catalase, glutathione and super oxygen dehydrogenises) and non-enzymatic (glutathione and vitamin C) antioxidant indices with concomitant increase in the malondialdehyde content; however, there was a significant (P<0.05) restoration of the antioxidant status coupled with significant (P<0.05) decrease in the tissues' malondialdehyde content, following consumption of diets containing garlic. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of garlic powder could protect against gentamycin-induced hepatotoxicity, improve antioxidant status and modulate oxidative stress; a function attributed to their phenolic constituents.

  10. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  11. UPLC/ESI-MS/MS analysis of compositional changes for organosulfur compounds in garlic (Allium sativum L.) during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunyoung; Park, So-Lim; Lee, Sanghee; Lee, So-Young; Ko, Sungho; Yoo, Miyoung

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we used liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) for the quantification of 11 organosulfur compounds and analysis of their compositional changes in garlic during fermentation using 3 different microbe strains. The calibration curves of all 11 analytes exhibited good linearity (R⩾0.995), and the mean recoveries measured at three concentrations were greater than 81.63% with relative standard deviations of less than 12.79%. Investigation of the compositional changes revealed that the γ-glutamyl peptides content in fermented blanched garlic reduced, whereas the content of the compounds in biosynthesis of S-allyl-l-cysteines from γ-glutamyl peptides increased significantly. Our results also indicated that starter cultures can be used selectively in the production of fermented garlic to increase the amounts of the desired organosulfur compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of single clove garlic against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Al-Shaibani, Elham Shukri; Alhadi, Fatima A; Al-Soudi, Safa'a Abdulrzaq; D'souza, Myrene R

    2017-08-17

    The increase in demand and consumption of single clove garlic or 'Solo garlic' (Allium sativum) has resulted in an increase in research on its therapeutic properties. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activities, oxidant-scavenging efficiency and preventive effects of SCG (single clove garlic) and MCG (multi clove garlic) on CCl 4 -induced acute hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. For this purpose, rabbits were orally administered with 3 ml of CCl 4 /kg of body weight, followed by 0.8 g of MCG or SCG/kg twice a week for three successive weeks. Oxidative hepatotoxicity was then assessed. SCG extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than the MCG extract. Scavenging ability of SCG showed significant (p < 0.05) elevation against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals in comparison to MCG. In addition, total phenolic content of SCG was significantly elevated (p < 0.001), thereby suggesting that the composition of garlic storage constituents varies with the number of cloves present. CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity demonstrated histological changes including severe damage in the structure of liver tissues which correlated well to oxidative stress levels. Simultaneously, administration of SCG resulted in a significant reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (TB) levels in addition to improvement in some histological parameters. Low levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) (p < 0.001), along with a huge reduction in peroxidase (POx) (p < 0.001) revealed protection against oxidative toxicity in the liver homogenate. Higher levels of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05) when compared to the MCG test (TM) group indicates that removal of H 2 O 2 is based on CAT activity in SCG test (TS) group rather than the POx activity demonstrated in the former group. The present study indicates that SCG

  13. Accidental poisoning with Veratrum album mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum).

    PubMed

    Gilotta, Irene; Brvar, Miran

    2010-11-01

    Veratrum album (white or false hellebore) is a poisonous plant containing steroidal alkaloids that cause nausea, vomiting, headache, visual disturbances, paresthesia, dizziness, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension, and syncope. It is regularly mistaken for Gentiana lutea (yellow gentian). We report accidental poisoning with V. album mistaken for Allium ursinum (wild garlic), a wild plant used in soups and salads in Central Europe. Four adults (24-45 years) accidentally ingested V. album mistaken for A. ursinum in self-prepared salads and soups. Within 15-30 min of ingestion they developed nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. At the same time dizziness, tingling, dimmed and jumping vision, transient blindness, and confusion appeared. On arrival at the ED, all patients had sinus bradycardia and hypotension. Following treatment the patients were discharged well 24-48 h after ingestion. In patients presenting with gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiovascular symptoms a history of wild plant ingestion suggests possible poisoning with V. album mistaken for wild garlic.

  14. A Diabetes-Friendly Meal Everyone Can Enjoy

    MedlinePlus

    ... center) ½ tsp garlic powder ½ tsp black pepper Fat-free cooking spray as needed Instructions: Preheat ... on prepared sheet. Sprinkle with garlic powder and pepper, then spread with the sauce. Bake salmon until ...

  15. [Influence of Four Kinds of PPCPs on Micronucleus Rate of the Root-Tip Cells of Vicia-faba and Garlic].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-jun; Wang, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lu-sheng; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the degree of biological genetic injury induced by PPCPs, the genotoxic effects of the doxycycline (DOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), triclocarban (TCC) and carbamazepine (CBZ) in the concentration range of 12.5-100 mg · L⁻¹ were studied using micronucleus rate and micronucleus index of Vicia-fabe and garlic. The results showed that: (1) When the Vicia-faba root- tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ, micronucleus rates were higher than 1.67 ‰ (CK₁), it was significantly different from that of the control group (P < 0.05), and the micronucleus index was even greater than 3.5; With the increasing concentrations of the PPCPs, the micronucleus rates first increased and then decreased. (2) When the garlic root tip cells were exposed to DOX, CIP, TCC and CBZ respectively, the micronucleus rates were less than those of the Vicia-faba, while in most treatments significantly higher than that of the control group (0.67‰). The micronucleus index was higher than 3.5 in the groups exposed to CIP with concentrations of 25, 50, 100 mg · L⁻¹ and TCC and CBZ with concentrations of 25 mg · L⁻¹; With the increase of exposure concentrations, the micronucleus rate showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing as well. (3) Under the same experimental conditions, the cells micronucleus rates of the garlic cells caused by the four tested compounds were significantly lower than those of Vicia-faba. (4) The micronucleus index of the root tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic treated with the four kinds of compounds followed the order of CIP > CBZ > TCC > DOX. These results demonstrated that the four compounds caused biological genetic injury to root-tip cells of Vicia-faba and garlic, and the genetic damage caused to garlic was significantly lower than that to Vicia-faba. The damages caused by the four kinds of different compounds were also different.

  16. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  17. Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:22314537

  18. Involvement of adenosine and standardization of aqueous extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on cardioprotective and cardiodepressant properties in ischemic preconditioning and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Munajjam, Arshee; Vaishnav, Bhawna; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Ashok; Kishore, Kunal; Sharma, Akash; Sharma, Divya; Kumari, Rita; Tiwari, Ashish; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Gaur, Samir; Jatav, Vijay Singh; Srinivasan, Barthu Parthi; Agarwal, Shyam Sunder

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) aqueous extracts on ischemic preconditioning and ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury, as well as adenosine involvement in ischemic preconditioning and garlic extract induced cardioprotection. A model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established using Langendorff apparatus. Aqueous extract of garlic dose was standardized (0.5%, 0.4%, 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, 0.07%, 0.05%, 0.03%, 0.01%), and the 0.05% dose was found to be the most effective. Higher doses (more than 0.05%) were highly toxic, causing arrhythmia and cardiodepression, whereas the lower doses were ineffective. Garlic exaggerated the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning and garlic cardioprotection was significantly attenuated by theophylline (1,000 µmol/L) and 8-SPT (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and expressed by increased myocardial infarct size, increased LDH level, and reduced nitrite and adenosine levels. These findings suggest that adenosine is involved in the pharmacological and molecular mechanism of garlic induced cardioprotection and mediated by the modulation of nitric oxide. PMID:23554727

  19. Genetic variability of garlic accessions as revealed by agro-morphological traits evaluated under different environments.

    PubMed

    Hoogerheide, E S S; Azevedo Filho, J A; Vencovsky, R; Zucchi, M I; Zago, B W; Pinheiro, J B

    2017-05-31

    The cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.) displays a wide phenotypic diversity, which is derived from natural mutations and phenotypic plasticity, due to dependence on soil type, moisture, latitude, altitude and cultural practices, leading to a large number of cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability shown by 63 garlic accessions belonging to Instituto Agronômico de Campinas and the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" germplasm collections. We evaluated ten quantitative characters in experimental trials conducted under two localities of the State of São Paulo: Monte Alegre do Sul and Piracicaba, during the agricultural year of 2007, in a randomized blocks design with five replications. The Mahalanobis distance was used to measure genetic dissimilarities. The UPGMA method and Tocher's method were used as clustering procedures. Results indicated significant variation among accessions (P < 0.01) for all evaluated characters, except for the percentage of secondary bulb growth in MAS, indicating the existence of genetic variation for bulb production, and germplasm evaluation considering different environments is more reliable for the characterization of the genotypic variability among garlic accessions, since it diminishes the environmental effects in the clustering of genotypes.

  20. Oxidative stress induced by 1.8 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation and effects of garlic extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Avci, Bahattin; Akar, Ayşegül; Bilgici, Birşen; Tunçel, Özgür Korhan

    2012-11-01

    We aimed to study the oxidative damage induced by radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted by mobile telephones and the protective effect of garlic extract used as an anti-oxidant against this damage. A total of 66 albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups. The first group of rats was given 1.8 GHz, 0.4 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) for 1 h a day for three weeks. The second group was given 500 mg/kg garlic extract in addition to RF-EMR. The third group of rats was used as the control group. At the end of the study, blood and brain tissue samples were collected from the rats. After the RF-EMR exposed, the advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels of brain tissue increased compared with the control group (p < 0.001). Garlic administration accompanying the RF-EMR, on the other hand, significantly reduced AOPP levels in brain tissue (p < 0.001). The serum nitric oxide (NO) levels significantly increased both in the first and second group (p < 0.001). However, in the group for which garlic administration accompanied that of RF-EMR, there was no difference in serum NO levels compared with the RF-EMR exposed group (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference among the groups with respect to malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in brain tissue and blood samples (p > 0.05). Similarly, no difference was detected among the groups regarding serum paroxonase (PON) levels (p > 0.05). We did not detect any PON levels in the brain tissue. The exposure of RF-EMR similar to 1.8 GHz Global system for mobile communication (GSM) leads to protein oxidation in brain tissue and an increase in serum NO. We observed that garlic administration reduced protein oxidation in brain tissue and that it did not have any effects on serum NO levels.

  1. Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of garlic extract in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Dinesh; Kumar, Vaibhav

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Allium sativum L. (Family: Lilliaceae), commonly known as garlic, on depression in mice. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of garlic (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was administered orally for 14 successive days to young Swiss albino mice of either sex and antidepressant-like activity was evaluated employing tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). The efficacy of the extract was compared with standard antidepressant drugs like fluoxetine and imipramine. The mechanism of action of the extract was investigated by co-administration of prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist), baclofen (GABAB agonist) and p-CPA (serotonin antagonist) separately with the extract and by studying the effect of the extract on brain MAO-A and MAO-B levels. Results: Garlic extract (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly decreased immobility time in a dose-dependent manner in both TST and FST, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. The efficacy of the extract was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (20 mg/kg p.o.) and imipramine (15 mg/kg p.o.) in both TST and FST. The extract did not show any significant effect on the locomotor activity of the mice. Prazosin, sulpiride, baclofen and p-CPA significantly attenuated the extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in TST. Garlic extract (100 mg/kg) administered orally for 14 successive days significantly decreased brain MAO-A and MAO-B levels, as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Garlic extract showed significant antidepressant-like activity probably by inhibiting MAO-A and MAO-B levels and through interaction with adrenergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic systems. PMID:20040952

  2. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a potential antidote for cadmium and lead intoxication: cadmium and lead distribution and analysis in different mice organs.

    PubMed

    Massadeh, A M; Al-Safi, S A; Momani, I F; Alomary, A A; Jaradat, Q M; AlKofahi, A S

    2007-01-01

    Analysis and distribution of Pb and Cd in different mice organs including liver, kidney, spleen, heart and blood were evaluated after treatment with different aqueous concentrations of garlic (12.5-100 mg/l). Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used for analysis of Pb and Cd in these organs. Treatment of Cd-Pb exposed mice with garlic (12.5-100 mg/l) reduced Pb concentrations by 44.65, 42.61, 38.4, 47.56, and 66.62% in liver, kidney, heart, spleen and blood respectively. Moreover, garlic reduced Cd levels by 72.5, 87.7, 92.6, 95.6, and 71.7% in liver, kidney, heart, spleen and blood respectively. The suppressed immune responses in mice pretreated with Cd-Pb mixture were reversed by 48.85, 55.82, 81.4 and 90.7 in the presence of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/ml of garlic extract.

  3. Partial purification and kinetic characterization of acid phosphatase from garlic seedling.

    PubMed

    Yenigün, Begüm; Güvenilir, Yüksel

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain purer acid phosphatases than produced by prior art by operating under conditions that improve the final product. The study features are the use of a mild nonionic detergent, 40-80% saturation with (NH4)2SOm4, maintained at low temperature to remove impurity, and the use of chromatografic columns to concentrate the acid phosphatase and remove non-acid phosphatase proteins with lower or higher molecular weights. Acid phosphatase was isolated and purified from garlic seedlings by a streamline method without the use of proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes, butanol, or other organic solvents. Grown garlic seedlings of 10- 15 cm height were homogenized with 0.1 M acetate buffer containing 0.1 M NaCl and 0.1% Triton X-100. After homogenization, the supernatant was filtered with paper filters. Filtrated supernatant was cooled to 4 degrees C, followed by a threestep fractionation of the proteins with ammonium sulfate. The crude enzyme was isolated as a green precipitate that was dissolved in a small amount of 0.1 M acetate buffer containing 0.1 M NaCl and 0.1% Triton X-100. Garlic seedling acid phosphatase was purified with ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE cellulose). The column was equilibrated with 0.1 M acetate buffer. Acid phosphatase was purified 40-fold from the starting material. The specific activity of the pure enzyme was 168 U/mg. A variety of stability and activity profiles were determined for the purified garlic seedling acid phosphatase: optimum pH, optimum temperature, pH stability, temperature stability, thermal inactivation, substrate specificity, effect of enzyme concentration, effect of substrate concentration, activation energy, and effect of inhibitor and activator. The molecular mass of acid phosphatase was estimated to be 58 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH was 5.7 and the optimum temperature was 50 degrees C. The enzyme was stable at pH 4.0-10.0 and 40-60 degrees C

  4. Anti-inflammatory activities of garlic sprouts, a source of α-linolenic acid and 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan, in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Paśko, Paweł; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Kała, Katarzyna; Muszyńska, Bożena

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the indolic, phenolic, and fatty acid content and antioxidant activity of garlic sprouts growing in the dark and in the daylight. The pro- or anti-inflammatory properties of the garlic sprout extract were investigated by evaluating the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (cPGES), glutathione S transferase (GSTM1), nuclear factor NF-κB, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) protein levels in the RAW 264.7 cells activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The highest amount of total indolic (73.56 mg/100 g f.w.) and phenolic compounds (36.23 mg/100 g f.w.) was detected in garlic sprouts grown in the daylight. Studies on antioxidant activity (the FRAP and DPPH method) of garlic sprouts showed that this activity is significantly higher for sprouts grown in full access to light when compared to those grown in the dark. In garlic sprout extracts, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was found to be in greater amount. COX-2 and cPGES level was lower when compared to LPS alone activated cells. After garlic extract treatment, higher level of GSTM1, PPARΥ, cytosolic p50 and p65 protein, as well as a lower NF-ĸB p50/p65 activity was noted in the RAW 264.7 cells which suggested PPARs and AhR transrepression mechanism of NF-ĸB signalling. The obtained results indicate Allium sativum sprouts are a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, indolic and phenolic compounds characterized by anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity, which may support their high therapeutic and dietary potential.

  5. Assessment of antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of nigerian cultivars of onions (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L).

    PubMed

    Onyeoziri, Ukoha Pius; Romanus, Ekere Nwachukwu; Onyekachukwu, Uzodinma Irene

    2016-07-01

    This report assessed and compared the antioxidant potentials, quantities of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in methanolic extract of varieties of onions and garlic cultivars in Nigeria. The pH and total acidity of the extracts were equally determined. Antioxidancy of the cultivars were analysed using the in vitro assay techniques with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing capacity. Ascorbic acid phenolic content were determined by volumetric and Folin-Ciocalteu's method respectively. The pH and total acidity were respectively 5.65 and 0.150mmol/L (red onion), 5.69 and 0.123mmol/L (white onion) and 6.94 and 0.105mmol/L (garlic). Red onion had the highest value of total phenols, ascorbic acid and free radical scavenging activity of 14.25±0.35mg GAE/ml, 229.098mg/100g, 66.44% respectively. In DPPH assay, red and white onion showed higher tendency to inhibit auto-oxidation when compared to garlic. The ferric reducing ability was greatest in garlic and least in white onions. These data indicate that with respect to antioxidant activity, red onion variety has highest health promoting potential among others.

  6. [Effects of community health promotion project for garlic cultivating farmers based on self-efficacy theory and community capacity building framework].

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyang-Sook; Gu, Mee Ock

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to test the effects of a community health promotion project for farmers cultivating garlic. Bandura's self-efficacy theory (1986) and Chaskin's community capacity framework (2001) were used as the theoretical framework. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. Study participants were 72 garlic farmers (intervention: 36, control: 36). The community health promotion project consisted of health promotion program and community capacity building strategies and was provided for 12 weeks (8 during farming off-season and 4 during farming season). Data were collected between February 23 and May 31, 2009 and were analyzed using chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS/WIN 12.0. For the experimental group, significant improvement was found for self-efficacy, farming related health behavior, physical fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, upper body flexibility, lower body flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, balance, agility), farmer's syndrome, and health related quality of life as compared to the control group. The findings of the study indicate that the community health promotion project for garlic farmers is effective and can be recommended as a nursing intervention for health promotion of garlic cultivating farmers.

  7. [Effect of cadmium stress on physiological characteristics of garlic seedlings and the alleviation effects of exogenous calcium].

    PubMed

    Li, He; Lian, Hai-feng; Liu, Shi-qi; Yu, Xin-hui; Sun, Ya-li; Guo, Hui-ping

    2015-04-01

    In the experiment, the effects of exogenous cadmium (Cd2+) and calcium (Ca2+) in nutrient solution on growth, photosynthetic characteristics, enzymes activities, main mineral elements absorption of garlic seedlings were studied. The results showed that cadmium could obviously inhibit the growth of garlic seedlings, decrease the pigment contents and photosynthetic parameters (P(n), E, g(s)) of leaves, reduced the enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT) activities and increase the MDA content of leaves, and also could reduce the N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and increase the Cd content of roots. The growth was promoted after adding exogenous calcium to garlic seedlings under cadmium stress, which reflected that the morphological indexes were increased at first and then decreased with the increase of exogenous calcium concentrations, and were maximized when the exogenous calcium was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1). At the same time, the pigment contents and photosynthetic parameters (P(n), E, g(s)) of leaves showed a similar tendency with the morphological indexes, and they were the highest when the exogenous calcium was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1). In addition, adding exogenous calcium to garlic seedlings under cadmium stress enhanced the enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT) activities and decreased the MDA content of leaves, also added the N, P, K, Ca, Mg contents and reduced the Cd content of roots, and the effect was best when the exogenous calcium concentration was 2 or 3 mmol x L(-1).

  8. Onion and garlic extracts as potential antidotes for cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in prostate glands of rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, F K; Suru, S M

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been implicated in increased prostate gland malignancy risk in both wildlife and humans. This study examines the chemoprotective roles of onion and garlic extracts on Cd-induced biochemical alterations in the prostate glands of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups: control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd alone (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day); extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bwt per day) for 1 week and then co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day) for additional 3 weeks. Oxidant/antioxidant status and acid phosphatase (ACPtotal and ACPprostatic ) activity were examined in prostate glands. Cd intoxication caused a marked (P < 0.001) increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels, whereas glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were markedly (P < 0.001) decreased. We also observed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in ACPtotal and ACPprostatic activities in prostate glands and a concomitant significant (P < 0.001) increase in the plasma. However, treatment of Cd-intoxicated rats with onion and/or garlic extract significantly minimised these alterations. The onion extract offered a dose-dependent protection. Our findings suggest a chemoprotective capability for onion and garlic extracts against Cd-induced biochemical alteration in the prostate glands. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Comparison of distillation and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods for the isolation of sensitive aroma compounds from garlic (Allium sativum).

    PubMed

    Kimbaris, Athanasios C; Siatis, Nikolaos G; Daferera, Dimitra J; Tarantilis, Petros A; Pappas, Christos S; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of traditional simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), microwave assisted hydrodistillation extraction (MWHD) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) is presented, for the extraction of essential oils from fresh garlic (Allium sativum) cloves. Each method is evaluated in terms of qualitative and quantitative composition of the isolated essential oil. The highly reactive sulfur molecules of the garlic volatile fraction show variable response to the different isolation methods. The application of ultrasound for the extraction of the essential oil is considered to cause a lesser damage of thermal-sensitive molecules, thus, providing a better approach of the compounds primarily responsible for the characteristic odor and taste of freshly chopped garlic. All heat-involving isolation procedures have been shown to differentiate the volatile-fraction profile as analyzed by GC-MS. Especially when grouping the compounds into cyclic and acyclic, the percentage concentrations drop from 77.4% to 8.7% for the acyclic while that of the cyclic compounds increase from 4.7% to 70.8%. The observed fact may be attributed to the effect of the heat applied, which changes from harsh thermal treatment (SDE) to short time thermal (MWHD) and room-temperature isolation (USE). The use of USE proves to be crucial in order to provide reliable insight into garlic's chemistry.

  10. Who Works Among Older Black and White, Well-Functioning Adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study?

    PubMed Central

    Rooks, Ronica N.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Schulz, Richard; Rubin, Susan; Harris, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine social, economic, and health factors related to paid work in well-functioning older adults and if and how these factors vary by race. Method: We used sex-stratified logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine cross-sectional data in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition cohort study. The sample included 3,075 community-dwelling Black (42%) and White adults aged 70 to 79 at baseline. Results: Multinomial logistic regression analyses show Black men were more likely to work full-time, and Black women were more likely to work part-time. Men with ≥US$50,000 family income were more likely to work full-time. Men with better physical functioning were more likely to work full- and part-time. Women with ≥US$50,000 family income and fewer chronic diseases were more likely to work full-time. Women who were overweight and had fewer chronic diseases were more likely to work part-time. Discussion: Results suggest that well-functioning, older Black adults were more likely to work than their White counterparts, and working relates to better health and higher income, providing support for a productive or successful aging perspective. PMID:28894767

  11. Seasonal population of Acarus siro mites and effects of their faeces on allergenic immunological disorder modulated by garlic in albino rat.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Bahaa K A

    2012-01-01

    Mites are the main factor involved in respiratory disorder. Acarus siro is the most allergenic species of mite detected in the samples collected from flour mills. This work aimed to ameliorate the A. siro faeces allergenic disorder by garlic extract. Albino experimental rats were classified into three groups (native, inhaled and treated). Mites extract, ELISA and leukocytes differential counts techniques were used. The data obtained showed that the highest densities of A. siro in the samples collected from flour mills in El-Minia governorate during the period of February 2009 to January 2010 were recorded during the spring and autumn seasons. In addition, significantly higher serum levels of INF-γ and IgE were found in rats treated with faeces than the other groups, especially the garlic-treated group. In contrast, IL-4 was lower in faeces-treated rats than the others; however, the native group had the highest level of IL-4. The leukocytes differential count showed that eosinophil and basophil percentages in faeces-inhaled group are higher than both the native group and the garlic-treated group. Statistical analysis of data showed significant difference between garlic-treated group and either control or faeces-treated group (P<0.05). The population of A. siro mites peaked in spring and autumn. The immunological disorder caused by repeated exposure to A. siro faeces might be modulated by garlic. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    PubMed

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Formulation and characterization of garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil nanoemulsion and its acaricidal activity on eriophyid olive mites (Acari: Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Mossa, Abdel-Tawab H; Afia, Sahar I; Mohafrash, Samia M M; Abou-Awad, Badawi A

    2018-04-01

    Green and nanoacaricides including essential oil (EO) nanoemulsions are important compounds to provide new, active, safe acaricides and lead to improvement of avoiding the risk of synthetic acaricides. This study was carried out for the first time on eriophyid mites to develop nanoemulsion of garlic essential oil by ultrasonic emulsification and evaluate its acaricidal activity against the two eriophyid olive mites Aceria oleae Nalepa and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer). Acute toxicity of nanoemulsion was also studied on male rats. Garlic EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the major compounds were diallyl sulfide (8.6%), diallyl disulfide (28.36%), dimethyl tetrasulfide (15.26%), trisulfide,di-2-propenyl (10.41%), and tetrasulfide,di-2-propenyl (9.67%). Garlic oil nanoemulsion with droplet size 93.4 nm was formulated by ultrasonic emulsification for 35 min. Emulsification time and oil and surfactant ratio correlated to the emulsion droplet size and stability. The formulated nanoemulsion showed high acaricidal activity against injurious eriophyid mites with LC 50 298.225 and 309.634 μg/ml, respectively. No signs of nanoemulsion toxicity were noted in treating rats; thus, it may be considered non-toxic to mammals. Stability of garlic oil nanoemulsion, high acaricidal activity, and the absence of organic toxic solvents make the formulation that may be a possible acaricidal product. Results suggest the possibility of developing suitable natural nanoacaricide from garlic oil.

  14. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy during physical aging of carbon-black filled rubber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobando, Vincent; Wang, Jingyi; Quarles, C. A.

    2004-10-01

    We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to investigate the relaxation behavior of vulcanized and un-vulcanized rubber-carbon black composites. The samples were studied at temperatures above their glassy transitions. Changes in o-Ps intensity and S-parameter are indicative of the structural relaxation process. We have found that at room temperature, both vulcanized and un-vulcanized rubber showed no changes after ageing for about two months. While within the same period, un-vulcanized samples heated at 60^oC and allowed to age at room -temperature showed a decrease in o-Ps intensity and S-parameter. The o-Ps lifetime also decreased after this heat treatment for the un-vulcanized samples while the vulcanized ones remained unchanged. The changes seen were reversible however when we stopped heating the samples. We proposed that heat disordered the system and on cooling, rubber molecules formed more ordered regions, which we interpreted as crystallization. Vulcanized samples remained unchanged. We also found out that free volume decreases during physical deformation of pure rubber, but rubber with carbon black showed a significant rise in free volume. The lifetimes however remained unchanged.

  15. Health in post-Black Death London (1350-1538): age patterns of periosteal new bone formation in a post-epidemic population.

    PubMed

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has shown that the Black Death targeted older adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. This project investigates whether this selectivity of the Black Death, combined with post-epidemic rising standards of living, led to significant improvements in patterns of skeletal stress markers, and by inference in health, among survivors and their descendants. Patterns of periosteal lesions (which have been previously shown, using hazard analysis, to be associated with elevated risks of mortality in medieval London) are compared between samples from pre-Black Death (c. 1,000-1,300, n = 464) and post-Black Death (c. 1,350-1,538, n = 133) London cemeteries. To avoid the assumptions that stress markers alone provide a direct measure of health and that a change in frequencies of the stress marker by itself indicates changes in health, this study assesses age-patterns of the stress marker to obtain a more nuanced understanding of the population-level effects of an epidemic disease. Age-at-death in these samples is estimated using transition analysis, which provides point estimates of age even for the oldest adults in these samples and thus allows for an examination of physiological stress across the lifespan. The frequency of lesions is significantly higher in the post-Black Death sample, which, at face value, might indicate a general decline in health. However, a significant positive association between age and periosteal lesions, as well as a significantly higher number of older adults in the post-Black Death sample more likely suggests improvements in health following the epidemic. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Low temperature conditioning of garlic (Allium sativum L.) "seed" cloves induces alterations in sprouts proteome.

    PubMed

    Dufoo-Hurtado, Miguel D; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Mercado-Silva, Edmundo M

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves substitutes the initial climatic requirements of the crop and accelerates the cycle. We have reported that "seed" bulbs from "Coreano" variety conditioned at 5°C for 5 weeks reduces growth and plant weight as well as the crop yields and increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Therefore, this treatment suggests a cold stress. Plant acclimation to stress is associated with deep changes in proteome composition. Since proteins are directly involved in plant stress response, proteomics studies can significantly contribute to unravel the possible relationships between protein abundance and plant stress acclimation. The aim of this work was to study the changes in the protein profiles of garlic "seed" cloves subjected to conditioning at low-temperature using proteomics approach. Two sets of garlic bulbs were used, one set was stored at room temperature (23°C), and the other was conditioned at low temperature (5°C) for 5 weeks. Total soluble proteins were extracted from sprouts of cloves and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein spots showing statistically significant changes in abundance were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS and identified by database search analysis using the Mascot search engine. The results revealed that low-temperature conditioning of garlic "seed" cloves causes alterations in the accumulation of proteins involved in different physiological processes such as cellular growth, antioxidative/oxidative state, macromolecules transport, protein folding and transcription regulation process. The metabolic pathways affected include protein biosynthesis and quality control system, photosynthesis, photorespiration, energy production, and carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism. These processes can work cooperatively to establish a new cellular homeostasis that might be related with the physiological and biochemical changes observed in previous studies.

  17. Decomposing Black-White Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality in the United States, 1973–2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Michael R.; Valderrama, Amy L.; Casper, Michele L.

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of late 20th century declines in heart disease mortality in the United States, race-specific rates diverged because of slower declines among blacks compared with whites. To characterize the temporal dynamics of emerging black-white racial disparities in heart disease mortality, we decomposed race-sex–specific trends in an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of US mortality data for all diseases of the heart among adults aged ≥35 years f