Science.gov

Sample records for aged crude oil

  1. Combined heating and chemical treatment for oil recovery from aging crude oil.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chunjuan; Jiang, Qingzhe; Song, Zhaozheng; Tan, Guorong; Shi, Zhan

    2016-07-01

    With increasing use of chemical oil displacement agents in tertiary recovery and the application of various demulsifiers for crude oil dehydration, a large amount of aging crude oil containing a high ratio of water is produced, and it is very difficult for processing and utilisation. In this article, we chose aging crude oil samples from a union station in an oilfield in China. Sample composition was analysed to demonstrate that the key of aging crude oil dehydration is the removal of solid impurities. Thus, an efficient method of combining heating and chemical treatments was developed to treat aging crude oil. It includes two steps: The first step is washing of aging crude oil with hot water with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; the second step is chemical demulsification of the above mixture with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution. The result showed that 2.9% of solid impurities and 29.2% of water were removed in the first step; 27.2% of oil, 24.3% of water, and 3.47% of solid impurities in the aging crude oil were recycled in the second step. A total 87.07% of aging crude oil could be solved with this method. The present two-step treatment method can ensure that the dehydration process runs normally and efficiently in the union station, making it a promising method in the recycling of aging crude oil.

  2. Quality of Crude Oil Extracted from Aging Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality of crude oil extracted from pollock byproducts aged at 6 and 15 'C for up to 4 and 10 days was examined. Longer storage of byproducts resulted in higher free fatty acid (FFA) and an increase in retinol levels in the extracted crude oils. Primary and secondary oxidative assays consisting of p...

  3. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  4. Crude oil desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  5. Biodegradation of crude oils.

    PubMed

    Bosecker, K; Teschner, M; Wehner, H

    1989-01-01

    Petroleum from well sites in the Gifhorn Trough (Lower Saxony, NW-Germany) and the Maracaibo Basin (Venezuela) contained various types of microorganisms capable of degrading crude oils. Genetically related oils were inoculated with the isolated microorganisms and the degradation of the oils was followed by chromatographic techniques. Parameters important for the reactions (pH, supply of oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus, reaction medium) were monitored and optimized. The degradation of n-alkanes was followed closely. Microorganisms active in degradation (yeast, bacteria) easily survived a period of inactivity due to missing nutrients and were reactivated within hours to degrade newly added crude oil. Under substrate-limiting conditions selectivity of degradation was found, destroying medium-chain n-alkanes (C20, C21) at a faster rate than long-chain n-alkanes (C30, C31). During degradation the physical parameters of the crude oils (e.g. density, viscosity, average molecular weight) were altered and shifted into the direction of heavy oil. In vitro degraded oil is very similar to oil degraded in nature. Aromatic hydrocarbons and biomarker molecules (steranes and triterpanes) were not degraded under the conditions used. Pyrolysis-GC analysis of asphaltenes revealed no significant changes in the composition of pyrolyzates during biodegradation. There is sufficient evidence that heavy oils - besides some other effects - are generated by the in situ-biodegradation of conventional oils.

  6. Crude Oil Characterization Data Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A computer program has been written which allows rapid retrieval and selection of CONUS and OCONUS crude oil characterization data. The computer... crude oil characterization data, including geographic location, production rate, reserves quantity and physical properties.

  7. Future global crude oil supply

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanhoe, L.F.

    1988-03-01

    Inexpensive crude oil fuels the world's economies and armies. In 1986, for the first time, the global production of crude oil and natural liquids exceeded new reserves added. Proved oil reserves at the end of 1985 stood 707.6 billion bbl (BBO), but declined to 703.1 BBO by the end of 1986. The 1986 reserve decrease, 4.5 BBO, was 20.4% of total global production of 22.0 BBO. This handwriting on the wall is very bad news. The world's recoverable crude oil and natural gas liquids discovered through 1985 totaled 1258 BBO, including cumulative production of 551 BBO and 707 BBO of reserves. At current production rates, half of all discovered oil will have been burned up by 1989. Timing of the end of our oil age can be extrapolated from a modified Hubbert curve, with future production resembling a mirror image of past production. The watershed beginning of the inevitable decline in global crude oil supplies can be expected in the late 1990s, although the date may be over 30 years later in some super-oily Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Clearly the day of reckoning will be postponed by any new oil discoveries. These will probably be distributed much as are the present global reserves (e.g., 68% OPEC; 11% USSR and China; 21% rest of world). Of this 56% will be in the Persian Gulf area. Giant fields (more than 0.5 BBO reserves) contain 75% of the world's reserves. Discoveries of oil in the globe's 320 known giant fields peaked at 125 BBO during the period 1961-1965, after which giant field discoveries plunged to only 10 BBO during 1981-1985. Henceforth, they should expect to find few giant whales (but many minnows) in the non-OPEC world's fished-out basins. Every new field will help as global crude oil supplies dwindle. Therefore, it is essential that all large prospects outside the Persian Gulf be tested promptly, so the oil-importing nations will known what size of non-OPEC reserves are available.

  8. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  9. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  10. Maps of crude oil futures

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.

    1986-05-01

    The Crude Oil Futures presentation shows their concept of the quantity of oil possibly present (the combination of conventional demonstrated reserves plus undiscovered recoverable resources) within the areas outlined. The Crude Oil Futures is not as an exploration map but as a perspective on the distribution of world oil. The occurrence of oil is, after all, a function of particular geologic factors that are not everywhere present. Furthermore, large amounts of oil can occur only where the several necessary independent variables (geologic factors) combine optimally. In the Western Hemisphere, similar minimal crude oil futures are shown for North America and South America. This similarity is a reflection not of similar geology but rather of the fact that most of the oil has already been produced from North America, whereas South America as a whole (except for Venezuela) possesses a geology less likely to produce oil. In Europe, Africa, and Asia, four regions are dominant: the Middle East, Libya, North Sea, and west Siberia. Paleogeography and source rock distribution were keys to this distribution - the Middle East and Libya reflecting the Tethyan association, and the North Sea and west Siberia benefitting from the Late Jurassic marine transgression into geographic environments where ocean circulation was restricted by tectonic events.

  11. Microbial Factors Rather Than Bioavailability Limit the Rate and Extent of PAH Biodegradation in Aged Crude Oil Contaminated Model Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2002-08-01

    The rate and extent of PAH biodegradation in a set of aged, crude oil contaminated model soils were measured in 90-week slurry bioremediation experiments. Soil properties such as organic matter content, mineral type, particle diameter, surface area, and porosity did not significantly influence the PAH biodegradation kinetics among the ten different model soils. A comparison of aged and freshly spiked soils indicates that aging affects the biodegradation rates and extents only for higher molecular weight PAHs while the effects of aging are insignificant for 3-ring PAHs and total PAHs. In all model soils with the exception of kaolinite clay, the rate of abiotic desorption was faster than the rate of biodegradation during the initial phase of bioremediation treatment indicating that PAH biodegradation was limited by microbial factors. Similarly, any of the higher molecular weight PAHs that were still present after 90 weeks of treatment were released rapidly during abiotic desorption tests which demonstrates that bioavailability limitations were not responsible for the recalcitrance of these hydrocarbons. Indeed, an analysis of microbial counts indicates that a severe reduction in hydrocarbon degrader populations may be responsible for the observed incomplete PAH biodegradation. It can therefore be concluded that the recalcitrance of PAHs during bioremediation is not necessarily due to bioavailability limitations and that these residual contaminants might, therefore, pose a greater risk to environmental receptors than previously thought.

  12. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. 157.130 Section 157.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  13. Physicochemical properties and biodegradability of crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiura, Keiji; Ishihara, Masami; Shimauchi, Toshitsugu; Harayama, Shigeaki

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of four different crude oil samples, namely, Arabian light, Dubai, Maya, and Shengli, by acinetobacter sp. T4 and by a microbial consortium called SM8 was examined. SM8 exhibited higher activity than Acinetobacter for the biodegradation of all four crude oil samples. The degree of biodegradation of crude oil components differed according to the crude oil, the saturated fraction being more susceptible to biodegradation than the aromatic fraction in all the crude oil samples. The extent of biodegradation by acinetobacter and SM8 was found to be in the order of Arabian light > Dubai > Maya = Shengli; the crude oil samples with higher APl gravity being more susceptible to biodegradation. Saturated compounds of smaller molecular weight were preferentially degraded by both cultures. Acinetobacter could not degrade polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples such as (alkyl)naphthalenes, (alky)phenanthrenes, (alkyl)fluorenes, and (alkyl)dibenzothiophenes. However, this strain was capable of degrading more than 10% of the molecules in the aromatic fraction of Arabian light crude oil. An NMR analysis demonstrated that the alkyl side chain of some aromatic molecules was degraded by this organism. In contrast, SM8 degraded the polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples, the extent of degradation being in the order of Maya > Shengli > Arabian light > Dubai. 17 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Suriname installing first crude-oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, E.W. )

    1992-04-27

    This paper reports that the first cross country crude-oil pipeline in the south American country of Suriname is currently under construction. The State Oil Co. of Suriname (Staatsolie) is building the 34.4-mile, 14-in. pipeline to deliver crude oil from the Catharina Sophia field (Tambaredjo) to the Tout Lui Faut terminal near the capital, Paramaribo. Crude oil from the Jossi Kreek field will be injected at mile point (MP) 3.4. Oil from these two fields is now being moved to tout Lui Faut by Staatsolie-owned motorized ocean barges. Increased production to meet requirements of a planned refinery near Tout Lui Faut prompted the pipeline.

  15. Increasing crude tall oil yield

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, J.

    1983-10-01

    In the kraft pulping process for softwoods and hardwood, tall oil recovery is an important part of making profit. During the past 10 years, crude tall oil (CTO) production in the U.S. and Canada has dropped. Estimated CTO yield from fresh Canadian pine is 36-40 lb/a.d. ton and from Southern U.S. 70-80 lb/a.d. ton, while the average yield of CTO is approximately 40% of available tall oil in pine wood. Besides low yield, many pulp mills fail to achieve a CTO quality that lives up to market expectations. The moisture content of CTO is reported to vary widely (1.5-3.5%), whereas it should not exceed 1.5% for marketable quality. The acid number of CTO varies in the range of 135 to 150, whereas industry standards are 145-150. At present the average sale price of CTO is approximately $150/ton. By upgrading existing plants, the yield can be increased, resulting in additional revenues. Thus, if a batch acidulation plant is replaced by a continuous acidulation plant, the yield will increase by approximately 15-50%. The capital required for installing a continuous system is approximately $1.1-1.5 million for a 500-a.d. ton/day pulp mill, requiring a payback period of approximatley 5-7 years. 7 references.

  16. Pacific Crude Oil Demands: An International Concern.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Pacific Area as a whole has a great deficit in crude oil resources and, like much of the world, is heavily dependent upon the Middle East. In...spite of the great growth of industrial bases and refining capabilities, with their commensurate increase in requirements, crude oil production has not

  17. Spectral signature of Egyptian crude oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatass, Z. F.; Nashed, A. W.; Saleh, I. H.; Mohmed, M. M.

    2014-11-01

    Crude petroleum oils are complex mixtures of diverse hydrocarbons, in widely varying compositions, that originate from a variety of geological sources. Fluorescence emission spectra have been measured for two types of Egyptian crude petroleum oil, its light and heavy products over a broad range of excitation and emission wavelengths. Both types of crude oil products are characterized by spectral signatures with a differing topography: the number of fluorescent peaks, their coordinates (λex, λem) on the plane of the three dimensions spectrum, and the shape of the bands formed by the contour line density, changeable in either direction. The refined light oil shows emission spectra at λmax between 350 and 500 nm according to the excitation wavelength. The refined heavy oil shows very broad unstructured emission spectra with λmax > 400 nm. As a group, they could certainly be distinguished from the light oil samples and most of the crude oil.

  18. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. crude oil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Noori, Azam; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Alaie, Ebrahim; Newman, Lee A

    2015-06-29

    Sites with crude oil pollution have been successfully treated using phytoremediation, but expanding the range of plants that can be used and understanding how exposure impacts the plants are two areas of study that are important to continue. Leucanthemum vulgare has been shown to grow well under a variety of stressful conditions. To examine L. vulgare's ability to both survive crude oil exposure and to reduce crude oil concentrations in soil, plants were placed in soil containing 0, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% or 10% w/w crude oil. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration, peroxidase and catalase activity, proline and phenol content in roots and leaves were determined at the start of planting and every 2 months for six months. L. vulgare roots were successfully colonized with mycorrhizae under all conditions. Results showed positive correlation between antioxidant compound concentration and crude oil contamination. Also, a significant reduction occurred in TPH content of soil over time in planted pots as compared to controls. The lowest TPH content was recorded after 6 months under all treatments. Results showed L. vulgare could survive crude oil exposure and enhance reducing of crude oil from soil.

  19. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section; and (vii) Exports of foreign origin crude oil where, based on written documentation satisfactory to BIS, the exporter can demonstrate that the oil is not of U.S. origin and has not been commingled with oil of U.S. origin. See paragraph (h) of this section for the provisions of License Exception...

  20. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section; and (vii) Exports of foreign origin crude oil where, based on written documentation satisfactory to BIS, the exporter can demonstrate that the oil is not of U.S. origin and has not been commingled with oil of U.S. origin. See paragraph (h) of this section for the provisions of License Exception...

  1. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section; and (vii) Exports of foreign origin crude oil where, based on written documentation satisfactory to BIS, the exporter can demonstrate that the oil is not of U.S. origin and has not been commingled with oil of U.S. origin. See paragraph (h) of this section for the provisions of License Exception...

  2. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... section; and (vii) Exports of foreign origin crude oil where, based on written documentation satisfactory to BIS, the exporter can demonstrate that the oil is not of U.S. origin and has not been commingled with oil of U.S. origin. See paragraph (h) of this section for the provisions of License Exception...

  3. Sequential growth of bacteria on crude oil.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, A; Gutnick, D; Rosenberg, E

    1975-07-01

    By modification of the enrichment culture procedure three bacterial strains capable of degrading crude oil in sea water were isolated in pure culture, UP-2, UP-3, and UP-4. Strain UP-2 appears to be highly specialized for growth on crude oil in sea water since it showed strong preference for oil or oil degradation products as substrates for growth, converted 66% of the oil into a form no longer extractable by organic solvents, quantitatively degraded the paraffinic fraction (gas chromatographic analysis), emulsified the oil during exponential growth, and produced 1.6 x 10-8 cells per mg of oil. After exhaustive growth of UP-2 on crude oil the residual oil supported the growth of UP-3 and UP-4, but not a previously isolated oil-degrading bacterium, RAG-1. Strains UP-2, UP-3, and UP-4 grew on RAG-1-degraded oil (specifically depleted of n-alkanes). The growth of UP-3 and UP-4 on UP-2 and RAG-1-degraded oil resulted in the production of new paraffinic compounds as revealed by gas chromatography. When the four strains were grown either together in a mixed culture or sequentially, there was over 75% oil conversion. By plating on selective media, growth of the individual strains was measured kinetically in the reconstituted mixed culture, revealing competition for common growth substances (UP-2 and RAG-1), emhanced die-off (UP-2), and stabilization (UP-4) during the stationary phase.

  4. Dispersibility of crude oil in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, B A; Virkus, A; Mukherjee, B; Venosa, A D

    2009-06-01

    The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever considered for use in fresh water environments. Previous studies on the chemical dispersion of crude oil in fresh water neither identified the dispersants that were investigated nor described the chemistry of the surfactants used. This information is necessary for developing a more fundamental understanding of chemical dispersion of crude oil at low salinity. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between surfactant chemistry and dispersion effectiveness. We found that dispersants can be designed to drive an oil slick into the freshwater column with the same efficiency as in salt water as long as the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance is optimum.

  5. Static mixer improves crude-oil measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, H.

    1987-03-09

    Water contamination in crude oil frequently hampers the accuracy of conventional sampling techniques for inline measurement. Installation of a static crude-oil mixer upstream of a sampling point has been shown to improve the accuracy of such measurement. Crude oil is sampled in pipelines to ensure that an agreed quality standard is obtained. Deviations from the standard, if undetected, can cost or save large sums of money. It is, therefore, necessary to achieve accurate and representative sampling. Discussion here is limited to representative sampling of oil flowing in a pipeline. In general, the oil industry is concerned with the measurement of crude-oil quality in two situations: Pipelines in which oil flows continuously with only small variations in flow and composition. Batch transfer operations, as in the unloading of tankers. In this case the following can be expected: 1. Start-up-low flow and high water content. 2. Normal conditions-high flow and medium or low water content. 3. Final phases of unloading and shutdown-decreasing flow and increasing water content. These two situations present different problems. In the case of the pipeline, it is usual for the pipe run prior to sampling to be very long, resulting in stratification of phases. Water will, in general, flow at the base of the pipe, although slugging can occur under certain conditions. In the case of batch transfer, the pipework is often tortuous, but flow rates can be low and at the same time water concentration varies.

  6. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety and Health Administration Best Practices for Migratory Bird Care During Oil Spill Response (PDF, 3.6 ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Best Practices for Migratory Bird Care During Oil Spill Response (PDF, 3.6 ...

  7. Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  8. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design... vessel having a COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) carries more than one grade of crude oil, the COW system must be capable of washing the cargo tanks with the grades of...

  9. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design... vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or § 157.10c(b)(2) carries more than one grade of crude oil, the COW system must be capable of washing the cargo tanks with the grades of...

  10. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design... vessel having a COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) carries more than one grade of crude oil, the COW system must be capable of washing the cargo tanks with the grades of...

  11. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design... vessel having a COW system under §§ 157.10(e), 157.10a(a)(2), or 157.10c(b)(2) carries more than one grade of crude oil, the COW system must be capable of washing the cargo tanks with the grades of...

  12. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  13. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  14. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  15. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  16. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  17. Effects of a chemical dispersant and crude oil on breeding ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Gay, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of chemically dispersed crude oil on mallard reproduction. Incubating female mallards were exposed to a water source treated with either Prudhoe Bay crude oil, Corexit 9527, or a combination of oil and dispersant during the first 10 da of development. Used thermocouple probes to monitor incubation temperature. Measured hatching success, incubation temperature, and survival of ducklings to 1 wk of age.

  18. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Jones, D. Martin; Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5–nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12–nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 μmol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12–nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 μmol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers. PMID:24765087

  19. U.S. Crude Oil Production to 2025: Updated Projection of Crude Types

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report updates and extends a May 2014 EIA report, U.S. crude oil production forecast – analysis of crude types. It provides a projection of domestic crude oil production by crude type through 2025, supplementing the overall production projection provided in the AEO2015. Projections of production by crude type matter for several reasons. First, U.S. crude streams vary widely in quality. Second, the economics surrounding various options for the domestic use of additional domestic oil production are directly dependent on crude quality characteristics. Third, actual or potential export values also vary significantly with quality characteristics.

  20. DISPERSIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL IN FRESH WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever consider...

  1. A MODEL FOR DIFFUSION CONTROLLED BIOAVAILABILITY OF CRUDE OIL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of several different structural classes of compounds including alkanes, aromatics, heterocyclic polar compounds, and asphaltenes. The rate and extent of microbial degradation of crude oil depends on the interaction between the physical and biochemi...

  2. Dispersion Of Crude Oil And Petroleum Products In Freshwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between dispersion effectiveness in freshwater and the surfactant composition for fresh and weathered crude oil. Although limited research on the chemical dispersion of crude oil and petroleum products in freshwat...

  3. Death following crude oil aspiration.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M A; Martinez, M C; Martinez-Ruiz, D; Paz Giménez, M; Menéndez, M; Repetto, M

    1991-07-01

    This is a report on three deaths following oil aspiration by workers in petrol tankers. Lung aspiration was demonstrated by the presence of a yellowish-brown material in the alveolar spaces, which was difficult to identify by optic microscopy. Volatile hydrocarbons from petroleum were identified in lung samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  4. The Fate and Behavior of Crude Oil on Marine Life.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The physiological effects of crude oil on marine organisms has been investigated. Crude oil has not been found to be acutely toxic to organisms used...in this study. Crude oil has been found to cause serious metabolic disorders in both plants and animals which can lead to a reduction in the net amount of carbon available for growth and reproduction. (Author)

  5. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  6. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  7. Pipelining heavy crude oil requires special pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    This paper reviews the use of rotary screw pumps installed at Guatemala`s Xan oil field to help pipeline heavy crudes to their processing facilities. It reviews the special design characteristics and specifications for each of the three pumps. It provides information on the capacities and the materials used in making the pumps. It provides information on cooling systems and on the engines used to power the pumps.

  8. Rheological behavior on treated Malaysian crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Krittika; Sinnathambi, Chandra Mohan

    2016-11-01

    Crude oil is always produced with water. This association causes many problems during oil production, arising from the formation of emulsion. Emulsion is an undesirable substance that increases operational and capital cost in the pipeline and processing equipment. To overcome this issue, demulsifiers are formulated to break the emulsion, where they are able to separate the water-oil emulsions to their respective phases. The emulsifier's main function is to reduce the interfacial tension properties of the emulsion. For this research, both the EOR and natural water-in-oil emulsions were treated with low a concentration demulsifier. The main objective of this paper is to determine the dynamic viscosity and rheological properties of the treated EOR and natural emulsion. The dynamic viscosity was obtained using the Brook-field Digital Viscometer. The components that influence the emulsion's rheological properties are the temperature, shear rate and shear stress. The results obtained demonstrate that the viscosity of the treated crude decreases and portrays the Non-Newtonian shear thinning "pseudo-plastic" behavior. Besides that, to determine the interfacial film of the treated crude, the spinning drop tensiometer was used. With the addition of demulsifier, the thinning rate of the oil film accelerates whereby there is a linear decrease in the interfacial tension with an increase in time. Therefore, from the results, it can be observed that the rheology study plays a significant role in the demulsification test. Furthermore, both the rheology approaches showed that time, temperature, shear rate and shear stress have a great impact on the viscosity behavior as well as the IFT.

  9. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea.

  10. Crude oil degradation as an explanation of the depth rule

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies of crude oil degradation by water washing and bacterial attack have documented the operation of these processes in many different petroleum basins of the world. Crude oil degradation substantially alters the chemical and physical makeup of a crude oil, changing a light paraffinic low-S "mature" crude to a heavy naphthenic or asphalt base, "immature appearing" high-S crude. Rough calculations carried out in the present study using experimentally determined solubility data of petroleum in water give insight into the possible magnitude of water washing and suggest that the process may be able to remove large amounts of petroleum in small divisions of geologic time. Plots of crude oil gravity vs. depth fail to show the expected correlation of increasing API gravity (decreasing specific gravity) with depth below 2.44 km (8000 ft.). Previous studies which have been carried out to document in-reservoir maturation have used crude oil gravity data shallower than 2.44 km (8000 ft.). The changes in crude oil composition as a function of depth which have been attributed to in-reservoir maturation over these shallower depths, are better explained by crude oil degradation. This study concludes that changes in crude oil composition that result from in-reservoir maturation are not evident from existing crude oil gravity data over the depth and temperature range previously supposed, and that the significant changes in crude oil gravity which are present over the shallow depth range are due to crude oil degradation. Thus the existence of significant quantities of petroleum should not necessarily be ruled out below an arbitrarily determined depth or temperature limit when the primary evidence for this is the change in crude oil gravity at shallow depths. ?? 1980.

  11. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.

    1997-02-01

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry`s practice of maintaining crude stocks at ``Just in time`` inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers` information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996.

  12. Pump packages for Colombian crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The Caterpillar Large Engine Center recently packaged ten engine-driven centrifugal pump packages for British Petroleum Exploration`s crude oil pipeline in South America. The ten sets, which use Ingersoll-Dresser centrifugal pumps, are designed to increase significantly the output of BP`s Central LLanos pipeline located in a remote region near Bogota, Colombia. BP anticipates that the addition of the new pump packages will increase daily volume from the current 100000 barrels to approximately 210000 barrels when the upgrade of the pipeline is completed in September. The ten sets are installed at three separate pumping stations. The stations are designed to operate continuously while unmanned, with only periodic maintenance required. The pump packages are powered by Caterpillar 3612 engines rated 3040 kW at 1000 r/min. The 12-cylinder engines are turbocharged and charge-air cooled and use the pipeline oil as both fuel and a cooling medium for the fuel injectors.

  13. Characterization of crude oils by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mutelet, F; Ekulu, G; Rogalski, M

    2002-09-06

    It was shown that the flocculation onset of asphaltenes in crude oils could be predicted on the basis of the inverse gas chromatography characterization of the crude oil properties. Hildebrand's solubility parameters of four crude oils were calculated from inverse chromatography data and compared with values obtained from the onset of asphaltene flocculation measurements. A good agreement was observed with three crude oils of different origin. A relation between Hildebrand's solubility parameter and linear solvation energy relationship descriptors was established and it was demonstrated that the solubility parameter of a crude oil is determined mainly with dispersion interactions and the hydrogen bond basicity. A large basicity lowers the oil solubility parameter, and increases its stability in respect to flocculation.

  14. Developmental Toxicity of Louisiana Crude Oiled Sediment to Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum products cause a characteristic suite of developmental defects in a variety of fish species. We exposed zebrafish embryos to sediment mixed with laboratory weathered South Louisiana crude oil. Oiled sedi...

  15. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  16. MERCURY IN CRUDE OIL PROCESSED IN THE UNITED STATES (2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mean and range of concentrations of mercury in crude oil processed in the U.S. were investigated using two analytical methods. The sample ensemble consisted of 329 samples from 170 separate crude oil streams that are processed by U.S. refineries. Samples were retrieved imme...

  17. Natural seepage of crude oil into the marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Cooper, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    Recent global estimates of crude-oil seepage rates suggest that about 47% of crude oil currently entering the marine environment is from natural seeps, whereas 53% results from leaks and spills during the extraction, transportation, refining, storage, and utilization of petroleum. The amount of natural crude-oil seepage is currently estimated to be 600,000 metric tons per year, with a range of uncertainty of 200,000 to 2,000,000 metric tons per year. Thus, natural oil seeps may be the single most important source of oil that enters the ocean, exceeding each of the various sources of crude oil that enters the ocean through its exploitation by humankind.

  18. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  19. High-frequency EPR study of crude oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, M. A.; Mamin, G. V.; Izotov, V. V.; Orlinskii, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    Four different samples of crude oil were studied by means of high-frequency W-band (94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with the aim to develop new methods of crude oil quality control. High spectral resolution of W-band allowed to avoid an overlap of spectra contributors. The ratio K between the integral intensity of the low-field EPR component of the vanadyl complexes to that of free radical line was chosen as an attribute of each sample. Using the K-parameters and EPR spectra simulations the crude oil leaking between adjacent horizons is shown. Pulsed EPR experiments allowed detecting free radicals signals only. It is demonstrated that the extracted transverse relaxation time could be used as an additional parameter which characterizes the origin of the crude oil and nature of the oil paramagnetic centers.

  20. Crude oil impairs cardiac excitation-contraction coupling in fish.

    PubMed

    Brette, Fabien; Machado, Ben; Cros, Caroline; Incardona, John P; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Block, Barbara A

    2014-02-14

    Crude oil is known to disrupt cardiac function in fish embryos. Large oil spills, such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster that occurred in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico, could severely affect fish at impacted spawning sites. The physiological mechanisms underlying such potential cardiotoxic effects remain unclear. Here, we show that crude oil samples collected from the DWH spill prolonged the action potential of isolated cardiomyocytes from juvenile bluefin and yellowfin tunas, through the blocking of the delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kr)). Crude oil exposure also decreased calcium current (I(Ca)) and calcium cycling, which disrupted excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. Our findings demonstrate a cardiotoxic mechanism by which crude oil affects the regulation of cellular excitability, with implications for life-threatening arrhythmias in vertebrates.

  1. Upgrading of crude algal bio-oil in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Duan, Peigao; Savage, Phillip E

    2011-01-01

    We determined the influence of a Pt/C catalyst, high-pressure H2, and pH on the upgrading of a crude algal bio-oil in supercritical water (SCW). The SCW treatment led to a product oil with a higher heating value (∼42 MJ/kg) and lower acid number than the crude bio-oil. The product oil was also lower in O and N and essentially free of sulfur. Including the Pt/C catalyst in the reactor led to a freely flowing liquid product oil with a high abundance of hydrocarbons. Overall, many of the properties of the upgraded oil obtained from catalytic treatment in SCW are similar to those of hydrocarbon fuels derived from fossil fuel resources. Thus, this work shows that the crude bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction of a microalga can be effectively upgraded in supercritical water in the presence of a Pt/C catalyst.

  2. Asphaltene nanoparticle aggregation in mixtures of incompatible crude oils.

    PubMed

    Mason, T G; Lin, M Y

    2003-05-01

    We study the structure and phase behavior of asphaltenes comprised of large polyaromatic molecules in blends of naturally occurring crude oils using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). When two compatible oils are blended together, the asphaltenes remain dispersed as colloidal nanoparticles; however, when two incompatible oils are blended together, these asphaltene nanoparticles can aggregate to form microscale structures. We show that SANS directly probes asphaltene aggregation in unmodified (i.e., nondeuterated) crude oil mixtures due to a significant neutron scattering length density difference between the hydrogen-poor asphaltenes and the surrounding oil. Moreover, the small length scales probed by SANS are ideally suited for studying asphaltene aggregation: SANS simultaneously provides the average size and concentration of nanoscale asphaltene particles and also the volume fraction of microscale asphaltene aggregates. These discoveries yield a practical means for directly assessing the compatibility of crude oils and for diagnosing refinery fouling problems resulting from blending incompatible oils.

  3. Efficient carbon rejection upgrades Mexico's Maya crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Suchanek, A.J.; Moore, A.S.

    1986-08-01

    Poor-quality crude oils and resids can be effectively upgraded by a chemically efficient carbon-rejection process followed by hydrotreating. The effectiveness is demonstrated by utilizing the asphalt residual treating (ART) process to upgrade whole Maya crude oil from Mexico, in a 100,000-b/d refinery. Maya was chosen because it represents most of the world's poor-quality crude oils and resids, and because the results of processing Maya will be similar for other poor-quality feed stocks. Here is a review of the upgrade process, along with investment and operating economics of the Maya upgrade.

  4. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  5. Effects of crude oil and dispersed crude oil on the critical swimming speed of puffer fish, Takifugu rubripes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoming; Xu, Chuancai; Liu, Haiying; Xing, Binbin; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    In order to examine the effects of crude oil and dispersed crude oil (DCO) on the swimming ability of puffer fish, Takifugu rubripes, the critical swimming speeds (U crit) of fish exposed to different concentrations of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil and DCO solution were determined in a swimming flume. WSF and DCO significantly affected the U crit of puffer fish (p < 0.05). The U crit of puffer fish exposed to 136 mg L(-1) WSF and 56.4 mg L(-1) DCO decreased 48.7 % and 43.4 %, respectively. DCO was more toxic to puffer fish than WSF. These results suggested that crude oil and chemically dispersed oil could weaken the swimming ability of puffer fish.

  6. Biodiesel production in crude oil contaminated environment using Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Mohammadi Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad; Movafeghi, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Biodiesel is a valuable alternative to fossil fuels and many countries choose biodiesel as an unconventional energy source. A large number of investigations have been done on microalgae as a source of oil production. In recent years, wastewater pollutions have caused many ecological problems, and therefore, wastewater phycoremediation has attracted the international attention. This paper studied the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a crude oil polluted environment for biodiesel production. Intended concentrations were 10 and 20gperliter (crude oil/water) at two times. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was improved in wastewater and the maximum amount of dry mass and oil was produced at the highest concentration of crude oil (0.41g and 0.15g/l, respectively). In addition, dry mass and oil yield of the microalga were significantly enhanced by increasing the experiment duration.

  7. Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a short-term monthly forecasting model of West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot price using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) petroleum inventory levels.

  8. Method for preventing the formation of sludge in crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Lane, J.L. Jr.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a method of increasing the permeability of a subterranean calcatreous formation containing a sludging crude oil while preventing the precipittion in the formation of slude, ferric compounds and calcium compounds.

  9. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF MERCURY IN CRUDE OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling and analytical procedures used to determine total mercury content in crude oils were examined. Three analytical methods were compared with respect to accuracy, precision and detection limit. The combustion method and a commercial extraction method were found adequate to...

  10. Microbial degradation of crude oil and some model hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Fu-Hsian; Noben, N.N.; Brand, Danny; Hult, Marc F.

    1988-01-01

    Research on microbial degradation of crude oil in the shallow subsurface at a spill site near Bemidji, Minn. (fig. C-l), began in 1983 (Hull, 1984; Chang and Ehrlich, 1984). The rate and extent of crude oil and model hydrocarbon biodegradation by the indigenous microbial community was measured in the laboratory at several concentrations of inorganic nutrients, conditions of oxygen availability, incubation temperatures, and incubation time.

  11. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work.

  12. Hydrogen isotope type-curves of very hot crude oils.

    PubMed

    Fekete, József; Sajgó, Csanád; Demény, Attila

    2011-01-15

    Several crude oil accumulations in the Pannonian Basin are trapped in uncommonly hot (>170°C) reservoirs. Their maturities range from mature to very mature on the basis of cracking parameters of their biological marker homologous series (ratio of products to reactants). A stable carbon isotopic study of these oils, poor in biological markers commonly used for correlation purposes, did not provide a reliable oil-to-oil correlation. As an alternative tool, the hydrogen isotope compositions of oil fractions separated on the basis of different polarities were measured, and hydrogen isotope type-curves were generated for a set of mature to very mature crude oil samples. This method of presenting hydrogen isotope composition of fractions as type-curves is novel. Nineteen samples (17 crude oils from SE-Hungary, 1 oil condensate and 1 artificial oil) were chosen for the present study. The aim was to examine the applicability of hydrogen isotope type-curves in oil-to-oil correlation and to test the simultaneous application of carbon and hydrogen isotope type-curves in the field of petroleum geochemistry. We have shown that, although the conventionally used co-variation plots proved to be inadequate for the correlation of these hot and mature oils, the simultaneous use of carbon and the newly introduced hydrogen isotope type-curves allows us to group and distinguish oils of different origins.

  13. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    On 24 March 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In the months following the spill, over 1,000 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from oil spill-affected areas are known to have died. The purpose of the study is to identify and describe histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters and to discuss possible pathogeneses of the lesions. Materials available included tissues from oil-contaminated and uncontaminated otters that died in rehabilitation centers following the oil spill and tissues from otters that were found dead in the oil spill-affected area with external oil present. Tissues from apparently normal sea otters from an area not contaminated by crude oil, were also examined.

  14. Transfer of crude oil from contaminated water to bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    Paris of breeding mallard ducks were exposed to oiled water for 2 days during the first week of incubation. Hatching success of ducks exposed to 100 ml of Prudhoe Bay crude oil per square meter of water surface was significantly less than that of controls. Hatching success of ducks exposed to 5 ml of crude oil per square meter of water surface was less than that of controls but the difference was not significant. The presence of oil on the eggs of ducks exposed to oiled water was confirmed by chemical analysis. Thermocouple probes were used to monitor the egg and nest temperatures of some of the ducks in each of the three groups. Incubation temperatures of oiled females were not significantly different from those of the controls. The incubation behavior of females exposed to oiled water and the first-week survival of their ducklings was not affected by the oil.

  15. Effects of Removing Restrictions on U.S. Crude Oil Exports

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report examines the implications of removing current restrictions on U.S. crude oil exports for the price of domestic and global marker crude oil streams, gasoline prices, domestic crude oil production, domestic refining activity, and trade in crude oil and petroleum products.

  16. AN EXAMINATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL FLOW OF CRUDE OIL, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE MIDDLE EAST,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    crude oil transportation, its technology, worldwide pattern, and future. It gives special emphasis to the movement of crude oil between the Middle East and Western Europe because of the critical supply-and-demand relationships existing between the two regions; further, it underscores the growth of both the crude oil tanker and crude oil pipelines, and the effect that this growth will have on the future patterns of crude oil flow. And it notes that the interest of the Soviet Union in

  17. Enhanced crude oil biodegradation in soil via biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-02

    Research on feasible methods for the enhancement of bioremediation in soil contaminated by crude oil is vital in oil-exporting countries such as Kuwait, where crude oil is a major pollutant and the environment is hostile to biodegradation. This study investigated the possibility of enhancing crude oil bioremediation by supplementing soil with cost-effective organic materials derived from two widespread locally grown trees, Conocarpus and Tamarix. Amendments in soils increased the counts of soil microbiota by up to 98% and enhanced their activity by up to 95.5%. The increase in the biodegradation of crude oil (75%) and high levels of alkB expression substantiated the efficiency of the proposed amendment technology for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. The identification of crude-oil-degrading bacteria revealed the dominance of the genus Microbacterium (39.6%), Sphingopyxis soli (19.3%), and Bordetella petrii (19.6%) in unamended, Conocarpus-amended, and Tamarix-amended contaminated soils, respectively. Although soil amendments favored the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and reduced bacterial diversity, the structures of bacterial communities were not significantly altered.

  18. Variability in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide Expression during Crude Oil Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Norman, R. Sean; Frontera-Suau, Roberto; Morris, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial utilization of crude oil components, such as the n-alkanes, requires complex cell surface adaptation to allow adherence to oil. To better understand microbial cell surface adaptation to growth on crude oil, the cell surface characteristics of two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, U1 and U3, both isolated from the same crude oil-degrading microbial community enriched on Bonny Light crude oil (BLC), were compared. Analysis of growth rates demonstrated an increased lag time for U1 cells compared to U3 cells. Amendment with EDTA inhibited U1 and U3 growth and degradation of the n-alkane component of BLC, suggesting a link between cell surface structure and crude oil degradation. U1 cells demonstrated a smooth-to-rough colony morphology transition when grown on BLC, while U3 cells exhibited rough colony morphology at the outset. Combining high-resolution atomic force microscopy of the cell surface and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracted lipopolysaccharides (LPS), we demonstrate that isolates grown on BLC have reduced O-antigen expression compared with that of glucose-grown cells. The loss of O-antigen resulted in shorter LPS molecules, increased cell surface hydrophobicity, and increased n-alkane degradation. PMID:12324360

  19. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN SOURCE ON CRUDE OIL BIODEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of NH4Cl and KNO3 on biodegradation of light Arabian crude oil by an oil-degrading enrichment culture were studied in respirometers. In poorly buffered sea salts medium, the pH decreased dramatically in cultures that contained NH4Cl, b...

  20. BIODEGRADABILITY OF DISPERSED CRUDE OIL AT TWO DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were initiated to study the biodegradability of crude oil after dispersants were applied. Two experiments were conducted, one at 20oC and the other at 5oC. In both experiments, only the dispersed oil fraction was investigated compared ...

  1. Wetting behavior of selected crude oil/brine/rock systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Of the many methods of characterizing wettability of a porous medium, the most commonly used are the Amott test and the USBM test. The Amott test does not discriminate adequately between systems that give high values of wettability index to water and are collectively described as very strongly water-wet. The USBM test does not recognize systems that achieve residual oil saturation by spontaneous imbibition. For such systems, and for any systems that exhibit significant spontaneous imbibition, measurements of imbibition rate provide a useful characterization of wettability. Methods of interpreting spontaneous imbibition data are reviewed and a new method of quantifying wettability from rate of imbibition is proposed. Capillary pressure is the driving force in spontaneous imbibition. The area under an imbibition curve is closely related to the work of displacement that results from decrease in surface free energy. Imbibition rate data can be correlated to allow for differences in interracial tension, viscosities, pore structure, and sample size. Wettability, the remaining key factor in determining the capillary driving force and the related imbibition rate, then largely determines the differences in saturation vs. scaled time curves. These curves are used to obtain pseudo imbibition capillary pressure curves; a wettability index based on relative areas under these curves is defined as the relative pseudo work of imbibition. The method is applied for two crude oil/brine/rock systems. Comparison of the method with the Amott wettability index is made for different wettability states given by differences in aging of cores with crude oil. Correlations of wettability indices with waterflood recoveries are presented.

  2. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  3. Viscosity behavior of carbon dioxide treated Cut Bank crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, G.V.; Mosawi, H.

    1995-12-31

    Carbon dioxide injection, either by huff and puff or displacement operations, results in a crude oil viscosity reduction at pressures below the miscibility conditions. Carbon dioxide miscibility occurs in reservoirs at miscible temperature and pressure, but these conditions are not possible in shallow reservoirs. Improved oil recovery in a shallow reservoir depends on the degree of viscosity reduction at the reservoir temperature and pressure. A recovery project`s success depends on the interaction between the carbon dioxide and the reservoir system. A research project carried out at Montana Tech to study the viscosity reduction and carbon dioxide solubility in Cut Bank crude oil at the reservoir`s prevailing temperature and near fracture pressure shows a viscosity reduction ratio (crude-carbon dioxide mixture to original dead oil viscosity) of 0.22 at a pressure of 1,000 psig and 90 F. An original mobility of 20 Md/cp improves to 91 Md/cp under a carbon dioxide recovery process at or near the reservoir`s fracture pressure. Based on the authors` research, improved oil recovery operations in the Cut Bank Field, Montana, is viable when using a commercial on site carbon dioxide recovery or generating system to minimize the cost of CO{sub 2} transportation. The major benefits are oil viscosity reduction, mobility ratio improvement, gas drive, and crude oil swelling.

  4. Assessment of crude oil biodegradation in arctic seashore sediments: effects of temperature, salinity, and crude oil concentration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Schiewer, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The expected increase in offshore oil exploration and production in the Arctic may lead to crude oil spills along arctic shorelines. To evaluate the potential effectiveness of bioremediation to treat such spills, oil spill bioremediation in arctic sediments was simulated in laboratory microcosms containing beach sediments from Barrow (Alaska), spiked with North Slope Crude, and incubated at varying temperatures and salinities. Biodegradation was measured via respiration rates (CO2 production); volatilization was quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) analysis of hydrocarbons sorbed to activated carbon, and hydrocarbons remaining in the sediment were quantified by GC/flame ionization detector (FID). Higher temperature leads to increased biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, while the release of volatile organic compounds was similar at both temperatures. Increased salinity had a small positive impact on crude oil removal. At higher crude oil dosages, volatilization increased, however CO2 production did not. While only a small percentage of crude oil was completely biodegraded, a larger percentage was volatilized within 6-9 weeks.

  5. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude...

  6. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude...

  7. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude...

  8. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude...

  9. Rheological properties of crude oils in Yaregskoye and Yaraktinskoye oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhai, V. N.; Le Grand Monkam Monkam, Clovis; Terre, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Rotary viscometer tests of crude oil with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (Yaregskoye oil field) and crude oil with high paraffin content (Yaraktinskoye oil field) have been conducted. The typical flow curves for these oil types have been plotted. It has been detected that these oils are non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity of which is dependent on shear rate. Based on Arrhenius-Eyring equation, calculations of viscous flow activation energy and complex structural unit (CSU) sizes have been performed. It has been stated that there is a tenfold reduction in CSU size in asphaltic crude oil with the increase in shear rate in a rotary viscometer, while particle size in paraffinic crude oil does not essentially change under the same hydrodynamic conditions.

  10. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  11. Leakage diffusion of underwater crude oil in wind fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liqiong; Liu, Qi; Li, Yunyun; Lu, Rui; Wu, Shijuan; Li, Xin; Hou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Leakage of underwater crude oil pipes causes severe pollution to soil and water, and results in great economic loss. To predict the diffusion area of spilled oil before it reaches the water's surface and to reduce the time required for emergency response, numerical simulations were conducted on underwater spilled oil diffusion of bare crude oil pipes using FLUENT software. The influences of water-surface wind speed, leakage hole diameter, water velocity, and initial leakage velocity on oil diffusion were analyzed. The results revealed the following: (1) with wind blowing on the surface of the water, the vertical displacement of spilled oil jet-flow was affected by the combined action of water flow and wind, making it difficult for a high-speed jet-flow to form. A horizontal oil flow mostly moved in the direction of the bottom water, and frontier oil droplets dispersed quickly; (2) during the diffusion of spilled oil in water, the maximum horizontal displacement mostly increased linearly, while the maximum vertical displacement initially increased quickly and then slowed; (3) the greater the initial velocity and leakage hole diameter, the higher the oil jet-flow and the wider the diffusion area; the higher the water flow rate and water-surface wind speed, the smaller the vertical displacement of spilled oil. The existence of water-surface wind had no obvious influence on the horizontal displacement of underwater spilled oil.

  12. Mercury in crude oil processed in the United States (2004).

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, S Mark; Liang, Lian; Cussen, Deborah; Kirchgessner, David A

    2007-07-01

    The mean and range of concentrations of mercury in crude oil processed by U.S. refineries in 2004 were determined using two analytical methods. One hundred seventy separate crude oil streams were sampled repetitively to obtain 328 individual samples. Samples were retrieved immediately upstream of refinery tank farms. Losses of mercury during production, separation, and transportation were not examined. The arithmetic mean and median of 170 oil streams were 7.3 and 1.5 microg/kg in total mercury, respectively. The total mercury concentration of oil processed in the United States in year 2004, including all species and both dissolved and suspended forms, expressed as a volume-weighted mean was calculated to be 3.5 +/- 0.6 microg/kg. The range of measured concentrations extended from below the analytical detection limit (0.5 microg/kg) to approximately 600 microg/kg. Good agreement was found with other recent and independent studies of mercury in crude oil refined in North America. The total amount of mercury in crude oil processed in the U.S annually is less than five percent of the amount contained in U.S. coal produced annually.

  13. Technique for the determination of asphaltenes in crude oil residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.D.; Huff, G.S.; Gharfeh, S.G.

    1986-12-01

    Recently, the authors reported a method for the determination of saturates, aromatics, and resins in deasphaltened crude oil residues by high-performance liquid chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The present work describes a filtration technique for the determination of asphaltenes in crude oil residues using disposable Millex filters. This technique reduces the filtration, washing, and equilibration time needed for asphaltene determination. Six crude oil residues that varied widely in asphaltene content were used to evaluate the precision of this technique. The values obtained by Millex filters were compared to the values obtained by a conventional method using filter papers. Agreement between the two methods was very good. Several methods have been reported for the separation and determination of asphaltenes. Speight et al. made a survey of the different asphaltene procedures and conducted the experimental work to determine the optimum conditions for asphaltene separation and determination. The operating parameters recommended by Speight were used in this work.

  14. Adsorption of crude oil on anhydrous and hydrophobized vermiculite.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Umberto G; de F Melo, Marcus A; da Silva, Adaílton F; de Farias, Robson F

    2003-04-15

    This publication reports the adsorption of crude oil on vermiculite samples, expanded and hydrophobized with carnauba (Copernícia Cerífera) wax. The adsorption studies were performed by using columns filled with the vermiculite matrices and by dispersion of the vermiculite samples in an oil-water (50 ppm of oil) emulsion. The hydrate vermiculite exhibits a very low adsorption capacity against crude oil. On the other hand, anhydrous (expanded) and hydrophobized matrices show a high adsorption capacity. The 10% hydrophobized matrix show a 50% increased adsorption capacity, in comparison with the expanded one. For adsorption performed in the water-oil emulsion, saturation of the solid hydrophobized matrix is achieved after 60 min. The hydrophobized samples exhibit adsorption factors in the 0.7-1.0 range.

  15. Comparison of Michigan Basin crude oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogler, E. A.; Meyers, P. A.; Moore, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Michigan Basin oils from the Ordovician Trenton, Silurian Niagaran, and Devonian Dundee formations have been geochemically compared by GC, GC-MS, and carbon isotope mass spectrometry. One oil from each formation was selected for detailed analysis which included measurement of individual n-alkane delta 13 C values. The Ordovician and Devonian oils are strikingly similar to one another, yet clearly different from the Silurian oil. This pattern is unexpected because Ordovician and Devonian reservoirs are physically separated by the Silurian strata. From time-temperature considerations, the Devonian oil probably was formed in older strata and has migrated to its present location. Our analyses suggest a common source for the Devonian and Ordovician oils.

  16. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    SciTech Connect

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I.

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  17. Refining and separation of crude tall-oil components

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-10-01

    Methods for crude tall-oil refining and fractionation evolving research studies of long-chain fatty and resinic acids separation are reviewed. Although several techniques have been applied since the 1940s with industrial aims, only distillation under high vacuum is economically practicable for crude tall-oil fractionation. Techniques such as adsorption and dissociation extraction seem to be the most industrially promising for implementation in the future for the separation of long-chain fatty and resinic acids fractions with a high purity level at low cost.

  18. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  19. Morphological and biochemical characteristics of bacterial isolates degrading crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Janiyani, K.L.; Wate, S.R.; Joshi, S.R. )

    1993-01-01

    A mixed bacterial culture developed by soil enrichment procedure using crude oil as a substrate was screened for individual bacterial species. Studies on morphological and biochemical characterization of eleven dominant bacterial isolates revealed that most of the cultures were gram-negative motile rods, and were catalase and oxidase positive. It was observed that four bacterial isolates were efficient in degrading pure hydrocarbons, model petroleum and crude oil. Identification of dominant bacterial cultures confirmed the isolates as Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginoss, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens. 28 refs., 8 tabs.

  20. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  1. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  2. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  3. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  4. 33 CFR 158.210 - Ports and terminals loading crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.210 Ports and terminals loading crude oil. The reception facility for a crude oil loading port or terminal must have the capacity for receiving— (a) Oil... the oceangoing tankers loading crude oil at the port or terminal that do not have clean ballast...

  5. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  6. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  7. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  8. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  9. 33 CFR 157.150 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording information after inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.150 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording...

  10. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  11. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  12. Discriminating crude oil grades using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussein, A.; Marzouk, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of crude oil using laser-based analytical techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become of great interest to various specialists in different fields such as geology, petro-chemistry and environmental science. In this work, a detailed study is presented wherein the implementation of an efficient and simple LIBS technique to identify the elemental constituents of crude oil and to distinguish between different grades of petroleum crude oil is discussed. Laser-induced plasma (LIP) technique has been used in this work for direct measurements of atomic, ionic and molecular species in dry crude oil samples with API gravities ranging between 18 and 36. The technique was implemented using the first harmonic of a pulsed Nd-YAG laser source. Atomic and molecular emission bands were observed, consisting of characteristic spectral lines of atoms and diatomic molecular bands, namely from C, H, Si, Na, Ca, Mg, AL, Fe, Ti, Mo, C2 and CN. The intensities of high-resolution spectral lines for some atoms and molecules of elements such as Ca, Na, Fe, Mo, C2 and CN were evaluated at different wavelengths along the obtained spectra. The molecular bands and the elemental spectral lines were used to assess the possibility of adopting the LIBS technique in differentiating between crude oil samples with different American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity values. The results indicate the presence of a distinct correlation between the API gravity values of the various oil samples and the spectral line intensities of the elements and some molecular radical constituents. In addition, the possibility of identifying the API gravity values of unknown oil samples is also indicated.

  13. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  14. alpha-Terpineol from hydration of crude sulfate turpentine oil.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, H; Sarron, S; Roy, C

    2001-09-01

    Hydration of alpha-pinene under various conditions was studied and compared with the literature. Optimal reaction conditions have been established for the hydration of alpha-pinene and crude turpentine oil in the absence of catalyst and using a low volume of acetone. A detailed reaction product analysis is reported. The main hydration product, alpha-terpineol, was obtained at a yield of 67 wt % of the initial alpha-pinene by reacting with 15% aqueous sulfuric acid and an excess of acetone in an oil bath heated to 80-85 degrees C over the course of 4 h. A progressive transformation of alpha-terpineol to 4-(2-hydroxypropyl)-1-methylcyclohexanol (1,8-terpine) takes place as the hydration time exceeds 4 h. A crude turpentine oil sample was also hydrated under conditions similar to those of alpha-pinene. The alpha-terpineol yield was 77 wt % of the initial alpha-pinene in the crude turpentine oil. The chemical analysis of the crude turpentine oil before and after hydration was carried out, and the distribution of the products was discussed.

  15. Water-in-Oil Microstructures Formed by Marine Oil Dispersants in a Model Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Riehm, David A; Rokke, David J; McCormick, Alon V

    2016-04-26

    DOSS (dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate), Tween 80, and Span 80, surfactants commonly used in marine crude oil spill dispersants, have been mixed into a model oil at a total surfactant concentration of 2 wt %, typical for dispersant-treated oil slicks. These surfactant-oil blends also contained 0.5-1.5 wt % synthetic seawater to enable formation of water-in-oil (W/O) microstructures. Trends in dynamic oil-seawater interfacial tension (IFT) as a function of surfactant blend composition are similar to those observed in prior work for crude oil treated with similar blends of these surfactants. In particular, Span 80-rich surfactant blends exhibit much slower initial dynamic IFT decline than DOSS-rich surfactant blends in both model oil and crude oil, and surfactant blends containing 50 wt % Tween 80 and a DOSS:Span 80 ratio near 1:1 produce ultralow IFT in the model oil (<10(-4) mN/m) just as similar surfactant blends do in crude oil. At all DOSS:Span 80 ratios, surfactant blends containing 50 wt % Tween 80 form clear solutions with seawater in the model oil. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that these solutions contain spherical W/O microstructures, the size and dispersity of which vary with surfactant blend composition and surfactant:seawater molar ratio. Span 80-rich microstructures exhibit high polydispersity index (PDI > 0.2) and large diameters (≥100 nm), whereas DOSS-rich microstructures exhibit smaller diameters (20-40 nm) and low polydispersity index (PDI < 0.1), indicating a narrow microstructure size distribution. The smaller diameters of DOSS-rich microstructures, as well as the fact that DOSS molecules, being oil-soluble, can diffuse to a bulk oil-water interface as monomers much faster than any of these microstructures, may explain why DOSS-rich blends adsorb to the oil-water interface more quickly than Span 80-rich blends, a phenomenon which has been linked in prior work to the higher effectiveness

  16. Numerical simualtions of fouling in crude-oil processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junfeng; Matar, Omar

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study are to achieve fundamental understanding of the transfer processes underlying the development of a fouling layer on the inside of heat exchangers used in crude-oil processing. The numerical models developed are based on the solution of the mass and momentum conservation equations, coupled to the energy transport equation. These are complemented by relations that capture the dependence of the layer density, viscosity, and surface tension on temperature. In order to capture ageing effects, the thermal conductivity of the layer is allowed to depend on temperature, and a functional form is chosen for its viscosity that accounts for dynamic structure-building and destruction. Importantly, a chemical equilibria model is used to model the phase behaviour of the oil, and this is also coupled to the governing equations. The turbulence in the fluid phase is modelled using large eddy simulations. Numerical solutions of the model equations are obtained in a channel geometry using a volume-of-fluid approach. Our results capture the complex fouling dynamics that include phase separation, wall-layer deposition, and removal. Skolkovo Foundation, UNIHEAT project.

  17. Inflationary effect of crude oil prices in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berument, Hakan; Taşçı, Hakan

    2002-12-01

    It is generally acknowledged that changes in oil prices affect economic welfare in ways that are not entirely reflected in transactions in the oil market. In this article, by using the 1990 input-output table, the inflationary effects of crude oil prices are investigated for Turkey. Under fixed nominal wages, profits, interest and rent earnings, the effect of increasing prices of oil on inflation is limited. However, when wages and the other three factors of income (profit, interest and rent) are adjusted to the general price level that includes the oil price increases, the inflationary effect of oil prices becomes significant. Hence, indexation could have very severe effects on an economy when oil prices increase and, in some cases, could even lead to hyperinflation.

  18. Corresponding morphological and molecular indicators of crude oil toxicity to the developing hearts of mahi mahi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmunds, Richard C.; Gill, J. A.; Baldwin, David H.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; French, Barbara L.; Brown, Tanya L.; Esbaugh, Andrew J.; Mager, Edward M.; Stieglitz, John; Hoenig, Ron; Benetti, Daniel; Grosell, Martin; Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Incardona, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Crude oils from distinct geological sources worldwide are toxic to developing fish hearts. When oil spills occur in fish spawning habitats, natural resource injury assessments often rely on conventional morphometric analyses of heart form and function. The extent to which visible indicators correspond to molecular markers for cardiovascular stress is unknown for pelagic predators from the Gulf of Mexico. Here we exposed mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos to field-collected crude oil samples from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster. We compared visible heart defects (edema, abnormal looping, reduced contractility) to changes in expression of cardiac-specific genes that are diagnostic of heart failure in humans or associated with loss-of-function zebrafish cardiac mutants. Mahi exposed to crude oil during embryogenesis displayed typical symptoms of cardiogenic syndrome as larvae. Contractility, looping, and circulatory defects were evident, but larval mahi did not exhibit downstream craniofacial and body axis abnormalities. A gradation of oil exposures yielded concentration-responsive changes in morphometric and molecular responses, with relative sensitivity being influenced by age. Our findings suggest that 1) morphometric analyses of cardiac function are more sensitive to proximal effects of crude oil-derived chemicals on the developing heart, and 2) molecular indicators reveal a longer-term adverse shift in cardiogenesis trajectory.

  19. Corresponding morphological and molecular indicators of crude oil toxicity to the developing hearts of mahi mahi

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Richard C.; Gill, J. A.; Baldwin, David H.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; French, Barbara L.; Brown, Tanya L.; Esbaugh, Andrew J.; Mager, Edward M.; Stieglitz, John; Hoenig, Ron; Benetti, Daniel; Grosell, Martin; Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Incardona, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Crude oils from distinct geological sources worldwide are toxic to developing fish hearts. When oil spills occur in fish spawning habitats, natural resource injury assessments often rely on conventional morphometric analyses of heart form and function. The extent to which visible indicators correspond to molecular markers for cardiovascular stress is unknown for pelagic predators from the Gulf of Mexico. Here we exposed mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos to field-collected crude oil samples from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster. We compared visible heart defects (edema, abnormal looping, reduced contractility) to changes in expression of cardiac-specific genes that are diagnostic of heart failure in humans or associated with loss-of-function zebrafish cardiac mutants. Mahi exposed to crude oil during embryogenesis displayed typical symptoms of cardiogenic syndrome as larvae. Contractility, looping, and circulatory defects were evident, but larval mahi did not exhibit downstream craniofacial and body axis abnormalities. A gradation of oil exposures yielded concentration-responsive changes in morphometric and molecular responses, with relative sensitivity being influenced by age. Our findings suggest that 1) morphometric analyses of cardiac function are more sensitive to proximal effects of crude oil-derived chemicals on the developing heart, and 2) molecular indicators reveal a longer-term adverse shift in cardiogenesis trajectory. PMID:26658479

  20. Corresponding morphological and molecular indicators of crude oil toxicity to the developing hearts of mahi mahi.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Richard C; Gill, J A; Baldwin, David H; Linbo, Tiffany L; French, Barbara L; Brown, Tanya L; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Mager, Edward M; Stieglitz, John; Hoenig, Ron; Benetti, Daniel; Grosell, Martin; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Incardona, John P

    2015-12-10

    Crude oils from distinct geological sources worldwide are toxic to developing fish hearts. When oil spills occur in fish spawning habitats, natural resource injury assessments often rely on conventional morphometric analyses of heart form and function. The extent to which visible indicators correspond to molecular markers for cardiovascular stress is unknown for pelagic predators from the Gulf of Mexico. Here we exposed mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos to field-collected crude oil samples from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster. We compared visible heart defects (edema, abnormal looping, reduced contractility) to changes in expression of cardiac-specific genes that are diagnostic of heart failure in humans or associated with loss-of-function zebrafish cardiac mutants. Mahi exposed to crude oil during embryogenesis displayed typical symptoms of cardiogenic syndrome as larvae. Contractility, looping, and circulatory defects were evident, but larval mahi did not exhibit downstream craniofacial and body axis abnormalities. A gradation of oil exposures yielded concentration-responsive changes in morphometric and molecular responses, with relative sensitivity being influenced by age. Our findings suggest that 1) morphometric analyses of cardiac function are more sensitive to proximal effects of crude oil-derived chemicals on the developing heart, and 2) molecular indicators reveal a longer-term adverse shift in cardiogenesis trajectory.

  1. Crude oil metabolites in groundwater at two spill sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Steenson, Ross; Thorn, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Two groundwater plumes in north central Minnesota with residual crude oil sources have 20 to 50 mg/L of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC). These values are over 10 times higher than benzene and two to three times higher than Diesel Range Organics in the same wells. On the basis of previous work, most of the NVDOC consists of partial transformation products from the crude oil. Monitoring data from 1988 to 2015 at one of the sites located near Bemidji, MN show that the plume of metabolites is expanding toward a lakeshore located 335 m from the source zone. Other mass balance studies of the site have demonstrated that the plume expansion is driven by the combined effect of continued presence of the residual crude oil source and depletion of the electron accepting capacity of solid phase iron oxide and hydroxides on the aquifer sediments. These plumes of metabolites are not covered by regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements in Minnesota and other states. Yet, a review of toxicology studies indicates that polar metabolites of crude oil may pose a risk to aquatic and mammalian species. Together the results suggest that at sites where residual sources are present, monitoring of NVDOC may be warranted to evaluate the fates of plumes of hydrocarbon transformation products.

  2. Tolerance of nitrobacter to toxicity of some Nigerian crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Okpokwasili, G.C.; Odokuma, L.O. )

    1994-03-01

    Crude oil spillage in aquatic systems affects thousands of aquatic species including bacteria. Some of the crude oil components are rapidly evaporated or biologically degraded. Other components continue to remain for several months and perhaps several years. Some of these components may be toxic to microorganisms, while some may stimulate microbial activity especially at low concentrations. The use of bacteria as bioassay organisms is now gaining wide acceptance. It offers a number of advantages such as ease of handling, economy of space, short life cycles and low cost. Their uses in bioassays are based on cell lysis, mutagenic properties and the inhibition of physiological processes such as respiration. Recently, a number of workers have proposed the use of Nitrobacter as a test organism. The organism has a number of advantages in toxicity testing: obligate autotrophy, its sensitivity to various toxicants and its predominance in wastewater environments are some of them . Of recent, the inhibition of bacterial enzyme biosynthesis have been suggested in bacterial assays. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of six Nigerian crude oils on the cell reproduction rate (LC, lethal concentration), cellular respiration (EC, effective concentration) and biosynthesis of enzyme responsible for nitrite oxidation (IC, inhibition concentration) in Nitrobacter. In addition, the goal was to identify which of these was the most sensitive to crude oil and which may thus be used for detecting the toxicity of these chemicals. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Legislative history of the crude oil windfall profit tax

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, T.

    1980-08-01

    This paper looks at the history of the crude oil windfall profits tax program from the completion of the administration proposal to the passage of the final conference bill. The administration's proposal, House action, Senate action, and the final bill are described.

  4. Crude Oil Metabolites in Groundwater at Two Spill Sites.

    PubMed

    Bekins, Barbara A; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Erickson, Melinda L; Steenson, Ross A; Thorn, Kevin A

    2016-09-01

    Two groundwater plumes in north central Minnesota with residual crude oil sources have 20 to 50 mg/L of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC). These values are over 10 times higher than benzene and two to three times higher than Diesel Range Organics in the same wells. On the basis of previous work, most of the NVDOC consists of partial transformation products from the crude oil. Monitoring data from 1988 to 2015 at one of the sites located near Bemidji, MN show that the plume of metabolites is expanding toward a lakeshore located 335 m from the source zone. Other mass balance studies of the site have demonstrated that the plume expansion is driven by the combined effect of continued presence of the residual crude oil source and depletion of the electron accepting capacity of solid phase iron oxide and hydroxides on the aquifer sediments. These plumes of metabolites are not covered by regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements in Minnesota and other states. Yet, a review of toxicology studies indicates that polar metabolites of crude oil may pose a risk to aquatic and mammalian species. Together the results suggest that at sites where residual sources are present, monitoring of NVDOC may be warranted to evaluate the fates of plumes of hydrocarbon transformation products.

  5. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  6. Libya, Algeria and Egypt: crude oil potential from known deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Ross, T.A.

    1982-04-01

    An analysis is presented of the discovered crude oil resources, reserves, and estimated annual production from known fields of the Republics of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Proved reserves are defined as the remaining producible oil as of a specified date under operating practice in effect at that time and include estimated recoverable oil in undrilled portions of a given structure or structures. Also included in the proved reserve category are the estimated indicated additional volumes of recoverable oil from the entire oil reservoir where fluid injection programs have been started in a portion, or portions, of the reservoir. The indicated additional reserves (probable reserves) reported herein are the volumes of crude oil that might be obtained with the installation of secondary recovery or pressure maintenance operations in reservoirs where none have been previously installed. The sum of cumulative production, proved reserves, and probable reserves is defined as the ultimate oil recovery from known deposits; and resources are defined as the original oil in place (OOIP). An assessment was made of the availability of crude oil under three assumed sustained production rates for each country; an assessment was also made of each country's capability of sustaining production at, or near, the 1980 rates assuming different limiting reserve to production ratios. Also included is an estimate of the potential maximum producing capability from known deposits that might be obtained from known accumulations under certain assumptions, using a simple time series approach. The theoretical maximum oil production capability from known fields at any time is the maximum deliverability rate assuming there are no equipment, investment, market, or political constraints.

  7. Induced biochemical interactions in crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1996-08-01

    In the evolution of oil from sedimentary to reservoir conditions, the hydrogen to carbon ratios decrease while the oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur to carbon ratios increase. During this process, the oils become heavier and richer in asphaltenes. In terms of chemical composition, the oils become enriched in resins, asphaltenes, and polar compounds containing the heteroatoms and metals. Over the geological periods of time, the chemical and physical changes have been brought about by chemical, biological (biochemical) and physical (temperature and pressure) means as well as by the catalytic effects of the sedimentary matrices, migration, flooding, and other physical processes. Therefore, different types of oils are the end products of a given set of such interactions which were brought about by multiple and simultaneous physicochemical processes involving electron transfer, free radical, and chemical reactions. A biocatalyst introduced into a reaction mixture of the type produced by such reactions will seek available chemical reaction sites and react at the most favorable ones. The rates and the chemical pathways by which the biocatalytic reactions will proceed will depend on the oil type and the biocatalyst(s). Some of the possible reaction pathways that may occur in such complex mixtures are discussed.

  8. 75 FR 11841 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Short Supply Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... petroleum (crude oil) and is used by licensing officers to determine the exporter's compliance with the...

  9. Direct Utilization of Crude Oils as Fuels in U.S. Army Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    availability of crude oil properties throughout the world were investigated, and these properties were divided into two groups (1) Those properties which...of crude oil use on engine subsystem hardware such as fuel filters and fuel injection pumps were investigated, with particular attention being paid...CLR diesel engine operating on various crude oils. Performance data, wear, and deposition effects of crude oil use were obtained using the TACOM

  10. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  11. Rheological behavior and structural interpretation of waxy crude oil gels.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Ruben F G; Lapasin, Romano; Vignati, Emanuele; D'Antona, Paolo; Lockhart, Thomas P

    2005-07-05

    A waxy crude oil which gels below a threshold temperature has been investigated under static and dynamic conditions, using a combination of rheological methods, optical microscopy, and DSC. Particular attention is given in this work to the influence of the mechanical history on gel strength and to describing the time-dependent rheological behavior. The gels display a strong dependence of the yield stress and moduli on the shear history, cooling rate, and stress loading rate. Of particular interest is the partial recovery of the gel structure after application of small stress or strain (much smaller than the critical values needed for flow onset) during cooling, which can be used to reduce the ultimate strength of the crude oil gel formed below the pour point. A second focus of this study is to further develop the physical interpretation of the mechanism by which wax crystallization produces gelation. Gelation of the waxy crude oil studied is suggested to be the result of the association between wax crystals, which produces an extended network structure, and it is shown that the system displays features common to attractive colloidal gels, for one of which, fumed silica (Aerosil 200) in paraffin oil, rheological data are reported. The colloidal gel model provides a simple and economical basis for explaining the response of the gelled oil to various mechanical perturbations and constitutes a fruitful basis from which to develop technologies for controlling the gelation phenomenon, as suggested by the rheological results reported.

  12. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. oil and natural gas proved reserves declined in 2015 due to lower prices. U.S. crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves declined 4.7 billion barrels (11.8%) from their year-end 2014 level to 35.2 billion barrels at year-end 2015, according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2015, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. U.S natural gas proved reserves decreased 64.5 trillion cubic feet, a 16.6% decline, reducing the U.S. total to 324.3 Tcf at year-end 2015.

  13. Microbial ecology of a crude oil contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, B.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed microbial analyses of a glacial outwash aquifer contaminated by crude oil provide insights into the pattern of microbial succession from iron reducing to methanogenic in the anaerobic portion of the contaminant plume. We analysed sediments from this area for populations of aerobes, iron reducers, fermenters and methanogens, using the most probable number method. On the basis of the microbial data the anaerobic area can be divided into distinct physiological zones dominated by either iron-reducers or a consortium of fermenters and methanogens. Chemistry and permeability data show that methanogenic conditions develop first in areas of high hydrocarbon flux. Thus, we find methanogens both in high permeability horizons and also where separate-phase crude oil is present in either the saturated or unsaturated zone. Microbial numbers peak at the top of the separate-phase oil suggesting that growth is most rapid in locations with access to both hydrocarbons and nutrients infiltrating from the surface.

  14. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil.

  15. United States Producing and Nonproducing Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reserves From 1985 Through 2004

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the regional and temporal trends in producing and nonproducing crude oil and natural gas reserves using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) categorization of reserves. The report first focuses on EIA's collection and reporting of crude oil and natural gas reserves data, followed by a discussion of the natural gas reserve trends, and then the crude oil reserve trends.

  16. Surface weathering and dispersibility of MC252 crude oil.

    PubMed

    Daling, Per S; Leirvik, Frode; Almås, Inger Kjersti; Brandvik, Per Johan; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Lewis, Alun; Reed, Mark

    2014-10-15

    Results from a comprehensive oil weathering and dispersant effectiveness study of the MC252 crude oil have been used to predict changes in oil properties due to weathering on the sea surface and to estimate the effective "time window" for dispersant application under various sea conditions. MC252 oil is a light paraffinic crude oil, for which approximately 55 wt.% will evaporate within 3-5 days when drifting on the sea. An unstable and low-viscosity water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion are formed during the first few days at the sea surface. This allows a high degree of natural dispersion when exposed to breaking wave conditions. Under calm sea conditions, a more stable and light-brown/orange colored water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion may start to form after several days, and viscosities of 10,000-15,000 mPa s can be achieved after 1-2 weeks. The "time window" for effective use of dispersants was estimated to be more than 1 week weathering at sea.

  17. Induced biochemical interactions in immature and biodegraded heavy crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Shelenkova, L.; Zhou, W.M.

    1998-11-01

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.

  18. INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN IMMATURE AND BIODEGRADED HEAVY CRUDE OILS

    SciTech Connect

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; SHELENKOVA,L.; ZHOU,W.M.

    1998-10-27

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.

  19. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-11-01

    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period.

  20. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  1. Biodegradability of dispersed crude oil at two different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Venosa, A D; Holder, E L

    2007-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were initiated to study the biodegradability of oil after dispersants were applied. Two experiments were conducted, one at 20 degrees C and the other at 5 degrees C. In both experiments, only the dispersed oil fraction was investigated. Each experiment required treatment flasks containing 3.5% artificial seawater and crude oil previously dispersed by either Corexit 9500 or JD2000 at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:25. Two different concentrations of dispersed oil were prepared, the dispersed oil then transferred to shake flasks, which were inoculated with a bacterial culture and shaken on a rotary shaker at 200 rpm for several weeks. Periodically, triplicate flasks were removed and sacrificed to determine the residual oil concentration remaining at that time. Oil compositional analysis was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to quantify the biodegradability. Dispersed oil biodegraded rapidly at 20 degrees C and less rapidly at 5 degrees C, in line with the hypothesis that the ultimate fate of dispersed oil in the sea is rapid loss by biodegradation.

  2. Hydrous pyrolysis of crude oil in gold-plated reactors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curiale, J.A.; Lundegard, P.D.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Crude oils from Iraq and California have been pyrolyzed under hydrous conditions at 200 and 300??C for time periods up to 210 days, in gold-plated reactors. Elemental (vanadium, nickel), stable isotopic (carbon), and molecular (n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steranes, terpanes and aromatic steroid hydrocarbons) analyses were made on the original and pyrolyzed oils. Various conventional crude oil maturity parameters, including 20S/(20S + 20R)-24-ethylcholestane ratios and the side-chain-length distribution of aliphatic and aromatic steroidal hydrocarbons, were measured in an effort to assess the modification of molecular maturity parameters in clay-free settings, similar to those encountered in "clean" reservoirs. Concentrations of vanadium and nickel in the Iraq oil decrease significantly and the V/(V + Ni) ratio decreases slightly, with increasing pyrolysis time/temperature. Whole oil carbon isotope ratios remain fairly constant during pyrolysis, as do hopane/sterane ratios and carbon number distribution of 5??(H),14??(H),17??(H),20R steranes. These latter three parameters are considered maturity-invariant. The ratios of short side-chain components to long side-chain components of the regular steranes [C21/(C21 + C29R)] and the triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons [C21/(C21 + C28)] vary systematically with increasing pyrolysis time, indicating that these parameters may be useful as molecular maturity parameters for crude oils in clay-free reservoir rocks. In addition, decreases in bisnorhopane/hopane ratio with increasing pyrolysis time, in a clay-free and kerogen-free environment, suggest that the distribution of these compounds is controlled by either differential thermal stabilities or preferential release from a higher-molecular weight portion of the oil. ?? 1992.

  3. Crude-oil biodegradation via methanogenesis in subsurface petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Jones, D M; Head, I M; Gray, N D; Adams, J J; Rowan, A K; Aitken, C M; Bennett, B; Huang, H; Brown, A; Bowler, B F J; Oldenburg, T; Erdmann, M; Larter, S R

    2008-01-10

    Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs has adversely affected the majority of the world's oil, making recovery and refining of that oil more costly. The prevalent occurrence of biodegradation in shallow subsurface petroleum reservoirs has been attributed to aerobic bacterial hydrocarbon degradation stimulated by surface recharge of oxygen-bearing meteoric waters. This hypothesis is empirically supported by the likelihood of encountering biodegraded oils at higher levels of degradation in reservoirs near the surface. More recent findings, however, suggest that anaerobic degradation processes dominate subsurface sedimentary environments, despite slow reaction kinetics and uncertainty as to the actual degradation pathways occurring in oil reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments in microcosms monitoring the hydrocarbon composition of degraded oils and generated gases, together with the carbon isotopic compositions of gas and oil samples taken at wellheads and a Rayleigh isotope fractionation box model, to elucidate the probable mechanisms of hydrocarbon degradation in reservoirs. We find that crude-oil hydrocarbon degradation under methanogenic conditions in the laboratory mimics the characteristic sequential removal of compound classes seen in reservoir-degraded petroleum. The initial preferential removal of n-alkanes generates close to stoichiometric amounts of methane, principally by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Our data imply a common methanogenic biodegradation mechanism in subsurface degraded oil reservoirs, resulting in consistent patterns of hydrocarbon alteration, and the common association of dry gas with severely degraded oils observed worldwide. Energy recovery from oilfields in the form of methane, based on accelerating natural methanogenic biodegradation, may offer a route to economic production of difficult-to-recover energy from oilfields.

  4. Progression of methanogenic degradation of crude oil in the subsurface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, B.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Delin, G.N.; Warren, E.; Essaid, H.I.

    2005-01-01

    Our results show that subsurface crude-oil degradation rates at a long-term research site were strongly influenced by small-scale variations in hydrologic conditions. The site is a shallow glacial outwash aquifer located near Bemidji in northern Minnesota that became contaminated when oil spilled from a broken pipeline in August 1979. In the study area, separate-phase oil forms a subsurface oil body extending from land surface to about 1 m (3.3 ft) below the 6-8-m (20-26 ft)-deep water table. Oil saturation in the sediments ranges from 10-20% in the vadose zone to 30-70% near the water table. At depths below 2 m (6.6 ft), degradation of the separate-phase crude oil occurs under methanogenic conditions. The sequence of methanogenic alkane degradation depletes the longer chain n-alkanes before the shorter chain n-alkanes, which is opposite to the better known aerobic sequence. The rates of degradation vary significantly with location in the subsurface. Oil-coated soils within 1.5 m (5 ft) of land surface have experienced little degradation where soil water saturation is less than 20%. Oil located 2-8 m (6.6-26 ft) below land surface in areas of higher recharge has been substantially degraded. The best explanation for the association between recharge and enhanced degradation seems to be increased downward transport of microbial growth nutrients to the oil body. This is supported by observations of greater microbial numbers at higher elevations in the oil body and significant decreases with depth in nutrient concentrations, especially phosphorus. Our results suggest that environmental effects may cause widely diverging degradation rates in the same spill, calling into question dating methods based on degradation state. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbiological profile of crude oil in storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Atagana, H I

    1996-07-01

    Microbiological quality of crude oil storage tanks was determined. The samples were taken from crude oil storage tanks in three stations, at Ughelli, Escravos and Forcados tank farms in the Delta State of Nigeria. Two tanks were sampled at each station with samples collected from three levels of the tank, namely the oil layer, oil water interface, and effluent layer. Samples from the inner walls and bottom sediment of the only empty tank in Ughelli during the study were also taken. The total heterotrophic count of bacteria and total fungal count were obtained by plating samples on nutrient agar and sabouraud's glucose agar respectively and incubated for 14 days at 28 °C±2 °C. Oilutilizing bacteria and fungi were isolated on oil agar using fungizone and antibiotics to inhibit fungal and bacterial growth respectively. Pure cultures of bacteria and fungi were prepared on nutrient agar and sabouraud's glucose agar respectively at 28 °C±2 °C for 4 days. Isolates were identified using approved standard methods. Three bacterial genera, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Bacillus, and one actinomycete, Actinomyces and two fungal genera, Penicillium and Cunninghamella, were isolated. Pseudomonas was dominant among the bacteria (41.62%) and Penicillium dominant among the fungi (94%). It was also found that the total microbial load of the effluent layer was higher than that of the oil layer.

  6. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  7. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.; Ballachey, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body - heavily contaminated; oil covering 30–60% of the body - moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur - lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters (three males, two females) found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters (four males, two females) collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with

  8. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    SciTech Connect

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  9. Hidden Markov Model and Forward-Backward Algorithm in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talib Bon, Abdul; Isah, Nuhu

    2016-11-01

    In light of the importance of crude oil to the world's economy, it is not surprising that economists have devoted great efforts towards developing methods to forecast price and volatility levels. Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile such as economic, political and social. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid unforeseen circumstances towards economic activity. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2nd January to 29th May 2015. We used Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Forward-Backward Algorithm to forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using Maple software. Based on the study, we concluded that model (0 3 0) is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  10. The Biodiversity Changes in the Microbial Population of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    Crude oil spills resulting from excavation, transportation and downstream processes can cause intensive damage to living organisms and result in changes in the microbial population of that environment. In this study, we used a pyrosequencing analysis to investigate changes in the microbial population of soils contaminated with crude oil. Crude oil contamination in soil resulted in the creation of a more homogenous population of microorganisms dominated by members of the Actinomycetales, Clostridiales and Bacillales (all belonging to Gram-positive bacteria) as well as Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadales (all belonging to Gram-negative bacteria). These changes in the biodiversity decreased the ratios of chemoheterotrophic bacteria at higher concentrations of crude oil contamination, with these being replaced by photoheterotrophic bacteria, mainly Rhodospirillales. Several of the dominant microbial orders in the crude oil contaminated soils are able to degrade crude oil hydrocarbons and therefore are potentially useful for remediation of crude oil in contaminated sites.

  11. The primary biodegradation of dispersed crude oil in the sea.

    PubMed

    Prince, Roger C; McFarlin, Kelly M; Butler, Josh D; Febbo, Eric J; Wang, Frank C Y; Nedwed, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    Dispersants are important tools for stimulating the biodegradation of large oil spills. They are essentially a bioremediation tool - aiming to stimulate the natural process of aerobic oil biodegradation by dispersing oil into micron-sized droplets that become so dilute in the water column that the natural levels of biologically available nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen are sufficient for microbial growth. Many studies demonstrate the efficacy of dispersants in getting oil off the water surface. Here we show that biodegradation of dispersed oil is prompt and extensive when oil is present at the ppm levels expected from a successful application of dispersants - more than 80% of the hydrocarbons of lightly weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil were degraded in 60 d at 8 °C in unamended New Jersey (USA) seawater when the oil was present at 2.5 ppm by volume. The apparent halftime of the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons was 13.8 d in the absence of dispersant, and 11 d in the presence of Corexit 9500 - similar to rates extrapolated from the field in the Deepwater Horizon response.

  12. Impact of Small Raindrops on Crude Oil Slicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morra, David; Almashan, Nourah; Murphy, David; Katz, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    The impact of millimeter size water droplets falling near terminal velocity (e.g. rainfall) on a pool is known to produce air bubbles at the bottom of the splash cavity. These bubbles produce noise and contribute to marine aerosol production. Layers of crude oil resulting from oil spills alter air-sea interfacial properties. Our high speed observations examine the effect of oil layer thickness on the entrainment of air and oil as small raindrops impact the surface. They reveal that layers in the 10-400 μm range suppress bubble entrainment, likely due to the reduction of air-liquid surface tension (from 72 to 28 mN/m). For ``low energy'' impacts (droplets <2 mm and speed <2.5 m/s) and <200 μm layers, rupture of the film in less than 1 ms causes rapid retraction of the oil layer across the subsurface cavity and formation of oil droplets on the cavity side. Subsequently, as the cavity collapses, a vortex ring develops at the bottom of this cavity and forces these droplets downward. Impact on thicker oil layers results initially in accumulation of the drop fluid at the cavity base. When the drop subsequently penetrates the layer, it creates multiphase vesicles, i.e. drops of freshwater coated by a thin oil film, which migrate down into the bulk seawater. Sponsored by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  13. The utilization of crude fish oil (CFO) to increase mudcrab (Scylla serrata) feed quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamid, Mirni; Agustono

    2017-02-01

    Crude fish oil is one of essential fatty acid sources, which is found in Sardinella lemuru. This research aims to study the quality improvement of mudcrab(Scylla serrata) feed. Four feed formulations were designed by using completely randomized design, including P0 = trash fish + 1% tapioca starch; P1=trash fish + 2.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch;, P2= trash fish +4.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P3=trash fish + 6.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P4=trash fish +8.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch, respectively, which were carried out in quadruplicate. This study showed that feed formulation significantly affected crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash, organic matter and nitrogen free extract and energy of mudcrab. The P2 feed was the best formulation but had a slight different from P3 formulation.

  14. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  15. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David L.; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  16. Effects of Louisiana crude oil on the sheepshead minnow ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Determining the long-term effects of crude oil exposure is critical for ascertaining population-level ecological risks of spill events. A 19-week complete life-cycle experiment was conducted with the estuarine sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) exposed to reference (uncontaminated) sediment spiked with laboratory weathered South Louisiana crude (SLC) oil at five concentrations as well as one unspiked sediment control and one seawater (no sediment) control. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to the oiled sediments at measured concentrations of < 1 (sediment control), 50, 103, 193, 347, and 711 mg total polyaromatic hydrocarbons (tPAH)/kg dry sediment. Juveniles were exposed through the reproductively active adult phase at measured concentrations of <1 (sediment control), 52, 109, 199, 358, and 751 mg tPAH/kg sediment. Throughout the exposure, fish were assessed for growth, survival, and reproduction. Resulting F1 embryos were then collected, incubated, and hatched in clean water to determine if parental full life-cycle exposure to oiled sediment produced trans-generational effects. Larvae experienced significantly reduced standard length (5–13% reduction) and wet weight (13–35% reduction) at concentrations at and above 50 and 103 mg tPAH/kg sediment, respectively. At 92 and 132 days post hatch (dph), standard length was reduced (7–13% reduction) at 199 and 109 mg tPAH/kg dry sediment, respectively, and wet weight for both time periods was reduced

  17. Relative phytoplankton growth responses to physically and chemically dispersed South Louisiana sweet crude oil.

    PubMed

    Özhan, Koray; Miles, Scott M; Gao, Heng; Bargu, Sibel

    2014-06-01

    We conducted controlled laboratory exposure experiments to assess the toxic effects of water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of South Louisiana sweet crude oil on five phytoplankton species isolated from the Gulf of Mexico. Experiments were conducted with individual and combinations of the five phytoplankton species to determine growth inhibitions to eight total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) equivalent concentrations ranging from 461 to 7,205 ppb. The composition and concentration of crude oil were altered by physical and chemical processes and used to help evaluate crude oil toxicity. The impact of crude oil exposure on phytoplankton growth varied with the concentration of crude oil, species of microalgae, and their community composition. At a concentration of TPH < 1,200 ppb, dinoflagellate species showed significantly better tolerance, while diatom species showed a higher tolerance to crude oil at higher concentrations of TPH. For both groups, the larger species were more tolerant to crude oil than smaller ones. The toxicity potential of crude oil seems to be strongly influenced by the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The addition of the dispersant, Corexit® EC9500A, increased the amount of crude oil up to 50-fold in the water column, while the physical enhancement (vigorous mixing of water column) did not significantly increase the amount of TPH concentration in the water column. The species response to crude oil was also examined in the five-species community. Each phytoplankton species showed considerably less tolerance to crude oil in the five-species community compared to their individual responses. This study provides baseline information about individual phytoplankton responses to crude oil and dispersed crude oil for subsequent research efforts seeking to understand the impacts of oil on the phytoplankton in the bigger picture.

  18. Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Galimberti, Roberto; Nali, Micaela; Yang, Gang; Zimmerman, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    presence of two oil families. Streppenosa oil, a heavily biodegraded oil generated at an early stage of thermal maturation from a shaly source rock, is clearly distinct from the Noto and Sciacca oils, both generated at peak maturation from a carbonate source rock with no subsequent biodegradation. Two Re-Os ages were obtained. Crude oil and ASPH from Noto and Sciacca oil yield a Model 1 isochron age of 27.5 ± 4.6 Ma with an initial 187Os/188Os of 3.89 ± 0.43 (MSWD = 1.6, n = 19). We interpret this Oligocene age as the time of initial oil generation, that was probably related to the onset of regional collisional tectonics in southern Sicily. ASPH and crude oil from the Streppenosa oil yield scattered data, perhaps related to effects of biodegradation. Streppenosa MALT yield a Model 1 age of 200.0 ± 5.2 Ma and initial 187Os/188Os of 1.39 ± 0.11 (MSWD = 0.52; n = 4). This age and initial Os-isotopic composition are consistent with rapid oil generation shortly after Late Triassic source-rock formation, perhaps driven by magmatic-related heating. Here we document a potentially powerful geochronological tool that can be applied to single samples of crude oil. Within each oil, the 187Os/188Os and most of the 187Re/188Os ratios in the MALT fractions are lower than in the corresponding ASPH fractions. Crude oils, being physical mixtures of ASPH and MALT, have intermediate Re-Os isotopic ratios. Hence, the needed spread in data points for a Re-Os isochron is obtained by analyzing components of a single crude oil. This approach eliminates pitfalls in interpretation of Re-Os data from multiple oils with possibly different generation, migration, or reservoir modification history.

  19. The determination of water in crude oil and transformer oil reference materials.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Sam A; Hagwood, Charles

    2003-05-01

    The measurement of the amount of water in oils is of significant economic importance to the industrial community, particularly to the electric power and crude oil industries. The amount of water in transformer oils is critical to their normal function and the amount of water in crude oils affects the cost of the crude oil at the well head, the pipeline, and the refinery. Water in oil Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are essential for the accurate calibration of instruments that are used by these industries. Three NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been prepared for this purpose. The water in these oils has been measured by both coulometric and volumetric Karl Fischer methods. The compounds (such as sulfur compounds) that interfere with the Karl Fischer reaction (interfering substances) and inflate the values for water by also reacting with iodine have been measured coulometrically. The measured water content of Reference Material (RM) 8506a Transformer Oil is 12.1+/-1.9 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 6.2+/-0.9 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2722 Sweet Crude Oil, is 99+/-6 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 5+/-2 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2721 Sour Crude Oil, is 134+/-18 mg kg(-1) plus an additional 807+/-43 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances. Interlaboratory studies conducted with these oil samples (using SRM 2890, water saturated 1-octanol, as a calibrant) are reported. Some of the possible sources of bias in these measurements were identified, These include: improperly calibrated instruments, inability to measure the calibrant accurately, Karl Fischer reagent selection, and volatilization of the interfering substances in SRM 2721.

  20. Ingestion and sublethal effects of physically and chemically dispersed crude oil on marine planktonic copepods.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Baca, Sarah; Hyatt, Cammie; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Planktonic copepods play a key function in marine ecosystems, however, little is known about the effects of dispersants and chemically dispersed crude oil on these important planktonic organisms. We examined the potential for the copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Parvocalanus crassirostris to ingest crude oil droplets and determined the acute toxicity of the dispersant Corexit(®) 9500A, and physically and chemically dispersed crude oil to these copepods. We detected ingestion of crude oil droplets by adults and nauplii of the three copepod species. Exposure to crude oil alone (1 µL L(-1), 48 h) caused a reduction of egg production rates (EPRs) by 26-39 %, fecal pellet production rates (PPRs) by 11-27 %, and egg hatching (EH) by 1-38 % compared to the controls, depending on the species. Dispersant alone (0.05 µL L(-1), 48 h) produced a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 20-35, 12-23 and 2-11 %, respectively. Dispersant-treated crude oil was the most toxic treatment, ~1.6 times more toxic than crude oil alone, causing a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 45-54, 28-41 and 11-31 %, respectively. Our results indicate that low concentrations of dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil are toxic to marine zooplankton, and that the ingestion of crude oil droplets by copepods may be an important route by which crude oil pollution can enter marine food webs.

  1. Isolation and characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from the Persian Gulf (Khorramshahr provenance).

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Zeynalipour, Mohammad Saleh; Musa, Farzaneh Hosseinzadeh

    2014-05-15

    Fifteen crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from oil contaminated sites in the Persian Gulf at Khorramshahr provenance. These bacteria were screened with two important factors such as growth rate on crude oil and hydrocarbon biodegradation, and then three strains were selected from 15 isolated strains for further study. One strain (PG-Z) that show the best crude oil biodegradation was selected between all isolates. Nucleotides sequencing of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that strain PG-Z belong to Corynebacterium variabile genus. This strain was efficient in degrading of crude oil. This strain was capable to degraded 82% of crude-oil after one week incubation in ONR7a medium. The PG-Z strain had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production between all isolates. GC-MS analysis shows that C. variabile strain PG-Z can degrade different alkanes in crude oil.

  2. Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John W.; D'Aria, Dana M.; Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Unambiguous detection of oil slicks by remote sensing techniques has proven an elusive goal. This article presents new thermal infrared spectra of oil slicks made from five different crude oil samples with a wide range of API gravities and compositions. After a brief outgassing phase, all oil slick spectra are quite similar and little affected by thickness, extended exposure to air or sunlight, and even by emulsification with seawater (mousse formation). Thus, oil slicks provide a remarkably unvarying spectral signature as remote sensing targets in the thermal infrared compared to other regions of the spectrum. This spectral signature in the 8-14 micron atmospheric window is flat, with an average reflectance of 4 percent. Seawater, on the other hand, has a spectrum that varies in reflectance with wavelength in the 8-14 micron window from 0.90 to 3.65 percent. In addition, we show that sea foam displays a reflectance spectrum quite similar to that of seawater in the 8-14 micron region. This results in a relatively uniform spectral background, against which oil slicks can be detected, based on their different spectral signature.

  3. Cross-correlations between crude oil and agricultural commodity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate cross-correlations between crude oil and agricultural commodity markets. Based on a popular statistical test proposed by Podobnik et al. (2009), we find that the linear return cross-correlations are significant at larger lag lengths and the volatility cross-correlations are highly significant at all of the lag lengths under consideration. Using a detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), we find that the return cross-correlations are persistent for corn and soybean and anti-persistent for oat and soybean. The volatility cross-correlations are strongly persistent. Using a nonlinear cross-correlation measure, our results show that cross-correlations are relatively weak but they are significant for smaller time scales. For larger time scales, the cross-correlations are not significant. The reason may be that information transmission from crude oil market to agriculture markets can complete within a certain period of time. Finally, based on multifractal extension of DCCA, we find that the cross-correlations are multifractal and high oil prices partly contribute to food crisis during the period of 2006-mid-2008.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter sp. Strain ODB01, a Bacterium That Degrades Crude Oil

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Hui; Yang, Hui; Li, Peiwang; Wang, Chong; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhou, Hui; Pan, Hu; Yu, Ye

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterobacter sp. strain ODB01, which was isolated from the Changqing oil field, can degrade crude oil efficiently and use crude oil as its sole source of carbon and energy. We report the complete genome sequence of ODB01. The results promote its application in the remediation of petroleum contaminants. PMID:28280034

  5. 33 CFR 157.138 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... washing each tank. (iv) The number of COW machines that operate simultaneously in each tank. (v) The... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment,...

  6. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing during a voyage. The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2),...

  7. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2)...

  8. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2)...

  9. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2)...

  10. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing during a voyage. The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2),...

  11. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing during a voyage. The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2),...

  12. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing during a voyage. The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2),...

  13. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2)...

  14. Efficient Atomization and Combustion of Emulsified Crude Oil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    medium, moderate sulfur content crude oil from Ecuador, sampled in 2010. It has an API of 23.4, a specific gravity of 0.9135, and contains 1.48... sulfur . It has a 25.3% vacuum residual with 30% asphaltenes (7.6% of total mass). The assay, provided by Chevron, is listed in the appendix. The...aforementioned equipment were located on a concrete testing platform used for outdoor fire and burn testing. Initial burn tests were unsuccessful due to

  15. Synergistic effect of crude oil plus dispersant on bacterial community in a louisiana salt marsh sediment.

    PubMed

    Al-Jawasim, Mohammed; Yu, Kewei; Park, Joong-Wook

    2015-09-01

    A combined effect of crude oil plus dispersant (Corexit 9500A) significantly altered indigenous bacterial communities in a Louisiana salt marsh sediment after 30 days of incubation; the crude oil and/or Corexit 9500A treatments triggered shifts in bacterial communities and the shifted bacterial structure by crude oil plus Corexit 9500A was considerably different from those by either crude oil or Corexit 9500A. However, the synergistic effect of crude oil plus Corexit 9500A was not observed after 7 days of incubation; the bacterial community was slightly shifted by Corexit 9500A and the crude oil did not trigger any bacterial community shift after 7 days of incubation. DNA sequencing data indicated that Chromobacterium species was enriched in the Corexit 9500A microcosms after 7 days of incubation, while Pseudomonas, Advenella, Acidocella and Dyella spp. were enriched after 30 days of incubation. Parvibaculum was a dominant species in the crude oil microcosms after 30 days of incubation. Rhodanobacter, Dyella and Frateuria spp. were dominant in crude oil plus Corexit 9500A microcosms after 30 days of incubation. Our data show that the effect of crude oil plus Corexit 9500A on bacterial community is synergistic, and thus the dispersant effect should be considered with the spilled oil to correctly evaluate the environmental impact.

  16. Effects of chronic ingestion of South Louisiana crude oil on mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szaro, R.C.; Dieter, M.P.; Heinz, G.H.; Ferrell, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    South Louisiana crude oil was fed to duckling mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in concentrations of 0.025, 0.25, 2.5, and 5.0% of the diet from hatching to 8 weeks of age to assess the effects of chronic oil ingestion during early development. Growth was depressed in birds receiving a diet containing 5% oil but there was no oil-related mortality. Diets containing 0.25, 2.5, and 5.0% oil impaired avoidance behavior of 6-day-old mallard ducklings when compared with controls or ducklings fed 0.025% oil, but had no effect on open-field behavior of 7-day-old ducklings. Liver hypertrophy and splenic atrophy were gross evidence of the pathological effects of oil in birds on the 2.5 and 5.0% oil diets. Biochemical lesions that occurred included elevation of plasma alanine aminotransferase and ornithine carbamyl transferase activity. Hepatocyte hypertrophy and bile duct proliferation in the liver were noted in birds fed the 2.5 and 5.0% oil diets and tubular inflammation and degeneration in the kidney were noted in birds fed the 5.0% oil diet.

  17. Macondo crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disrupts specific developmental processes during zebrafish embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Deepwater Horizon disaster was the largest marine oil spill in history, and total vertical exposure of oil to the water column suggests it could impact an enormous diversity of ecosystems. The most vulnerable organisms are those encountering these pollutants during their early life stages. Water-soluble components of crude oil and specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been shown to cause defects in cardiovascular and craniofacial development in a variety of teleost species, but the developmental origins of these defects have yet to be determined. We have adopted zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model to test whether water accumulated fractions (WAF) of the Deepwater Horizon oil could impact specific embryonic developmental processes. While not a native species to the Gulf waters, the developmental biology of zebrafish has been well characterized and makes it a powerful model system to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind Macondo crude toxicity. Results WAF of Macondo crude oil sampled during the oil spill was used to treat zebrafish throughout embryonic and larval development. Our results indicate that the Macondo crude oil causes a variety of significant defects in zebrafish embryogenesis, but these defects have specific developmental origins. WAF treatments caused defects in craniofacial development and circulatory function similar to previous reports, but we extend these results to show they are likely derived from an earlier defect in neural crest cell development. Moreover, we demonstrate that exposure to WAFs causes a variety of novel deformations in specific developmental processes, including programmed cell death, locomotor behavior, sensory and motor axon pathfinding, somitogenesis and muscle patterning. Interestingly, the severity of cell death and muscle phenotypes decreased over several months of repeated analysis, which was correlated with a rapid drop-off in the aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon components of the oil

  18. Prediction of source rock characteristics based on terpane biomarkers in crude oils: a multivariate statistical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zumberge, J.E.

    1987-06-01

    The distributions of eight tricyclic and eight pentacyclic terpanes were determined for 216 crude oils located worldwide with subsequent simultaneous RQ-mode factor analysis and stepwise discriminate analysis for the purpose of predicting source rock features or depositional environments. Five categories of source rock beds are evident: nearshore marine; deeper-water marine; lacustrine; phosphatic-rich source beds; and Ordovician age source rocks. The first two factors of the RQ-mode factor analysis describe 45 percent of the variation in the data set; the tricyclic terpanes appear to be twice as significant as pentacyclic terpanes in determining the variation among samples. Lacustrine oils are characterized by greater relative abundances of C/sub 21/ diterpane and gammacerane; nearshore marine sources by C/sub 19/ and C/sub 20/ diterpanes and oleanane; deeper-water marine facies by C/sub 24/ and C/sub 25/ tricyclic and C/sub 31/ plus C/sub 32/ extended hopanes; and Ordovician age oils by C/sub 27/ and C/sub 29/ pentacyclic terpanes. Although thermal maturity trends can be observed in factor space, the trends to do necessarily obscure the source rock interpretations. Also, since bacterial degradation of crude oils rarely affects tricyclic terpanes, biodegraded oils can be used in predicting source rock features. The precision to which source rock depositional environments are determined might be increased with the addition of other biomarker and stable isotope data using multivariate statistical techniques.

  19. Genome Sequence of Arthrobacter sp. MWB30, Isolated from a Crude Oil-Contaminated Seashore

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Seon Hee; Moon, Yoon-Jung; Park, Sung-Joon; Kim, Seung Il; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. MWB30 strain, isolated from a crude oil-contaminated seashore in Tae-an, South Korea, which is able to degrade the crude oil and its derivatives. The draft genome sequence of 4,647,008 bp provides a resource for the identification of crude oil-degrading mechanisms in strain MWB30. PMID:25700396

  20. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  1. Short and long term toxicity of crude oil and oil dispersants to two representative coral species.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Shai; Van Rijn, Jaap; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2007-08-01

    Oil dispersants, the tool of choice for treating oil spills in tropical marine environments, is potentially harmful to marine life, including reef corals. In a previous study, we found that dispersed oil and oil dispersants are harmful to soft and hard coral species at early life stages. In this broader study, we employed a "nubbin assay" on more than 10 000 coral fragments to evaluate the short- and long-term impacts of dispersed oil fractions (DOFs) from six commercial dispersants, the dispersants and water-soluble-fractions (WSFs) of Egyptian crude oil, on two Indo Pacific branching coral species, Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora damicornis. Survivorship and growth of nubbins were recorded for up to 50 days following a single, short (24 h) exposure to toxicants in various concentrations. Manufacturer-recommended dispersant concentrations proved to be highly toxic and resulted in mortality for all nubbins. The dispersed oil and the dispersants were significantly more toxic than crude oil WSFs. As corals are particularly susceptible to oil detergents and dispersed oil, the results of these assays rules out the use of any oil dispersant in coral reefs and in their vicinity. The ecotoxicological impacts of the various dispersants on the corals could be rated on a scale from the least to the most harmful agent, as follows: Slickgone > Petrotech > Inipol = Biorieco > Emulgal > Dispolen.

  2. 78 FR 78353 - NuStar Crude Oil Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Petiton for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission NuStar Crude Oil Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Petiton for Declaratory... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2013), NuStar Crude Oil Pipeline L.P. (NuStar) filed a...Star's South Texas Crude Oil Pipeline system to transport additional Eagle Ford shale crude....

  3. Geospatial Hydrochemical and Microbiological Implications on the Occurrence of Crude Oil Biodegradation and Methanogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, J.; McIntosh, J. C.; Warwick, P.; McCray, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Technologies that serve as a bridge between renewable energy and fossil fuels are needed to meet growing energy demands and to mitigate climate change. Many reservoirs contain difficult to produce residual and/or heavily biodegraded (i.e., geochemically altered) crude oil, which remains a relatively untapped resource. Production of this residual crude oil via unconventional methods, such as enhanced oil recovery (EOR), has offset some of the decline in conventional oil production. EOR is not efficient enough to recover all of the original oil in place, and some methods are not effective for very heavy crude oils. Stimulation of in-situ microorganisms to convert the residual crude oil to natural gas (i.e., microbial methane) is one promising strategy to "extract" residual and /or heavy crude oil. Although the hydrogeochemical conditions necessary for the occurrence of both crude oil biodegradation and microbial methanogenesis in various reservoirs have been studied, there are still gaps in research. Many hydrogeochemical factors have been researched individually (not as part of a multifactor or lithologically similar system) and little work has assessed the microbiological limitations of both processes. Our goal is to determine the hydrogeochemical and microbiological conditions required for maximum crude oil biodegradation and microbial methanogenesis across a lithologically similar unit. Produced water, oil, gas, and microbial biomass samples were collected from wells completed in the Paleocene—Eocene Wilcox Group in central Louisiana. Initial results indicate potential relationships between the amount of crude oil biodegradation, indicators of microbial methanogenesis, and aqueous geochemistry. For example, produced waters with the lowest salinity had the highest crude oil biodegradation, and wells exhibiting the most microbial methane generation produce waters with hydrogeochemical conditions most fit for methanogenesis to occur. In sampled wells displaying

  4. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Method of forming carbon dioxide mixtures miscible with formation crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Froning, H. R.; Yellig Jr., W. F.

    1985-07-16

    A method is disclosed for forming a carbon dioxide-containing mixture which is miscible with crude oil. The method comprises maintaining a mixture of crude oil and carbon dioxide in an extraction zone at a temperature and pressure such that multiple phase equilibrium is achieved therebetween. A carbon dioxide-rich phase that includes a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons is withdrawn and is miscible with the reservoir crude oil when injected into the reservoir from which the crude oil was produced.

  6. Embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Finch, Bryson E; Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2011-08-01

    Weathered crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico can result from oil spills such as the Deepwater Horizon incident that occurred on April 20, 2010 or from natural seeps. Adult waterbirds of the Gulf Coast region may become exposed to weathered crude oil while foraging, wading, or resting, and residues can then be transferred to nests, eggs, and hatchlings. Although the toxicity of many types of crude oil to avian embryos has been thoroughly studied, the effects of weathered crude oil on developing avian embryos are not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to examine embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil collected from the Gulf of Mexico in June 2010 using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) as a model species. Weathered crude oil was applied to fertilized mallard duck eggs by paintbrush in masses ranging from 0.1 to 99.9 mg on day 3 of incubation. Mortality occurred as early as day 7 and the conservatively derived median lethal application of weathered crude oil was 30.8 mg/egg (0.5 mg/g egg) or 30.7 µl/egg (0.5 µl/g egg). Body mass, liver and spleen mass, crown-rump and bill lengths, and frequency of deformities were not significantly different among hatchlings from oiled and control eggs. In comparison to published reports of fresh crude oil embryotoxicity, weathered crude oil was considerably less toxic. We conclude that avian toxicity varies according to the degree of crude oil weathering and the stage of embryonic development at the time of exposure. Results indicate bird eggs exposed to weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico during summer 2010 may have had reduced hatching success.

  7. Removal of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via organoclay-microbe-oil interactions.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Fialips, Claire I

    2017-05-01

    Clay minerals are quite vital in biogeochemical processes but the effect of organo-clays in the microbial degradation of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is not well understood. The role of organo-saponite and organo-montmorillonite in comparison with the unmodified clays in crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal via adsorption and biodegradation was studied by carrying out microcosm experiments in aqueous clay/oil systems with a hydrocarbon degrading microbial community that is predominantly alcanivorax spp. Montmorillonite and saponite samples were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organo-montmorillonite and organo-saponite used in this study. Obtained results indicate that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as montmorillonite produced organo-clay (organomontmorillonite) that was not stimulatory to biodegradation of crude oil polycyclic aromatic compounds, especially the low molecular weight (LMW) ones, such as dimethylnaphthalenes. It is suggested that interaction between the organic phase of the organo-clay and the crude oil PAHs which is hydrophobic in nature must have reduced the availability of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for biodegradation. Organo-saponite did not enhance the microbial degradation of dimethylnaphthalenes but enhanced the biodegradation of some other PAHs such as phenanthrene. The unmodified montmorillonite enhanced the microbial degradation of the PAHs and is most likely to have done so as a result of its high surface area that allows the accumulation of microbes and nutrients enhancing their contact.

  8. Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters

    PubMed Central

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls), corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase encoding gene (assA/masA) in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up to 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic vs. sessile) within a subsurface crude oil reservoir. PMID:24829563

  9. Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters.

    PubMed

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Gieg, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls), corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase encoding gene (assA/masA) in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up to 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic vs. sessile) within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

  10. Dispersant and salinity effects on weathering and acute toxicity of South Louisiana crude oil.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Adam J; Nyman, J Andrew; Kaller, Michael D; Green, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Chemical dispersants are an important technology in the remediation of oil spills in the aquatic environment, facilitating degradation of crude oil and salinity is an important factor in dispersant effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of salinity on the degradation chemistry of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the dispersant COREXIT 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil on a common estuarine fish. Laboratory microcosms were designed at salinities of 4 parts per thousand (ppt), 12 ppt, or 18 ppt and spiked with crude oil, COREXIT 9500A, or a combined exposure to crude oil and COREXIT and allowed to biodegrade for 1 wk, 4 wk, and 16 wk. The WAF was harvested for analytical PAH analysis and acute toxicity testing in juvenile Fundulus grandis. Compared with undispersed oil, COREXIT exponentially increased the PAH concentrations in the WAF for up to 16 wk; hopane-normalized concentrations indicated that biodegradation was slowed for the first 4 wk. Dispersed crude oil and COREXIT were acutely toxic following 1 wk of biodegradation with no correlation between PAH concentrations and crude oil WAF mortality. Both dispersant and dispersant oil mixtures remained toxic for at least 4 wk at the lowest salinity tested, suggesting increased sensitivity or reduced biodegradation of toxic components in low-saline environments. At the lowest salinity, oil dispersed with COREXIT was more toxic than either the COREXIT alone or oil alone, even after 16 wk of biodegradation.

  11. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment.

  12. Bacterial motility near crude oil and water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Jomayra E. Sánchez; Molaei, Mehdi; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Study of biodegradation of crude oil by microbes requires profound understanding of their movement near oil-water interface as well as in/out of phase movement. Bacterial motilities are known to be modified by the presence of an interface through hydrodynamic interactions in addition to the chemotactic behavior towards the oil phase. Using digital holographic microscopy and phase contrast microscopy, we study locomotion of Pseudomonas sp (P62), a well-known hydrocarbon degrader under various chemo- and mechano-environmental conditions. Baseline experiments have been performed at different nutrient levels and Ion levels to identify effects of chemical environment on cell motility. Utilizing novel microfluidics and surface functionalization, we have established a stable vertical oil-water interface between top and bottom surfaces of the microfluidics, which allow clear optical access to observe bacterial movement near the interface. Three-dimensional trajectories of bacteria, obtained by analyzing recorded by digital holography microscopy, enable us to characterize bacterial swimming and orientation near interfaces. Chemotaxis velocity and swimming induced dispersion are measured directly as well as cell concentration distributions with respect to the distance to the interface. NIH, NSF, GoMRI.

  13. Geochemical analysis of potash mine seep oils, collapsed breccia pipe oil shows and selected crude oils, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Snyder, R.P.; Baysinger, J.P.; Threlkeld, C.N.

    1982-01-01

    Oil shows, in the form of oil stains and bleeding oil, in core samples from two breccia pipes, Hills A and C, Eddy County, New Mexico, and seepage oils in a potash mine near Hill C breccia pipe are geochemically similar. The geochemical similarities strongly suggest that they belong to the same family of oils and were derived from similar sources. The oils are relatively high in sulfur (0.89 to 1.23 percent), rich in hydrocarbons (average 82 percent), relatively high in saturated hydrocarbon/aromatic hydrocarbon ratios (average 2.9), and based on analysis of seep oils alone, have a low API gravity (average 19.4?). The oils are for the most part severely biodegraded as attested by the loss of n-paraffin molecules. Geochemical comparison of seven crude oils collected in the vicinity of the breccia pipes indicates that the Yates oils are the likely source of the above family of oils. Six barrels of crude oil that were dumped into a potash exploration borehole near Hill C breccia pipe, to release stuck casing, are considered an unlikely source of the breccia pipe and mine seep oils. Volumetric and hydrodynamic constraints make it highly improbable that such a small volume of 'dumped' oil could migrate over distances ranging from about 600 feet to 2.5 miles to the sites of the oil shows.

  14. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  15. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  16. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  17. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  18. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude...

  19. Induction of reactive oxygen species in marine phytoplankton under crude oil exposure.

    PubMed

    Ozhan, Koray; Zahraeifard, Sara; Smith, Aaron P; Bargu, Sibel

    2015-12-01

    Exposure of phytoplankton to the water-accommodated fraction of crude oil can elicit a number of stress responses, but the mechanisms that drive these responses are unclear. South Louisiana crude oil was selected to investigate its effects on population growth, chlorophyll a (Chl a) content, antioxidative defense, and lipid peroxidation, for the marine diatom, Ditylum brightwellii, and the dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa triquetra, in laboratory-based microcosm experiments. The transcript levels of several possible stress-responsive genes in D. brightwellii were also measured. The microalgae were exposed to crude oil for up to 96 h, and Chl a content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), the glutathione pool (GSH and GSSG), and lipid peroxidation content were analyzed. The cell growth of both phytoplankton species was inhibited with increasing crude oil concentrations. Crude oil exposure did not affect Chl a content significantly in cells. SOD activities showed similar responses in both species, being enhanced at 4- and 8-mg/L crude oil exposure. Only H. triquetra demonstrated enhanced activity in GSSG pool and lipid peroxidation at 8-mg/L crude oil exposure, suggesting that phytoplankton species have distinct physiological responses and tolerance levels to crude oil exposure. This study indicated the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phytoplankton under crude oil exposure; however, the progressive damage in cells is still unknown. Thus, ROS-related damage in nucleic acid, lipids, proteins, and DNA, due to crude oil exposure could be a worthwhile subject of study to better understand crude oil toxicity at the base of the food web.

  20. Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

    2013-10-01

    Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

  1. Toxicity of dispersant Corexit 9500A and crude oil to marine microzooplankton.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Hyatt, Cammie; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, nearly 7 million liters of chemical dispersants, mainly Corexit 9500A, were released in the Gulf of Mexico to treat the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. However, little is still known about the effects of Corexit 9500A and dispersed crude oil on microzooplankton despite the important roles of these planktonic organisms in marine ecosystems. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the acute toxicity of Corexit 9500A, and physically and chemically dispersed Louisiana light sweet crude oil to marine microzooplankton (oligotrich ciliates, tintinnids and heterotrophic dinoflagellates). Our results indicate that Corexit 9500A is highly toxic to microzooplankton, particularly to small ciliates, and that the combination of dispersant with crude oil significantly increases the toxicity of crude oil to microzooplankton. The negative impact of crude oil and dispersant on microzooplankton may disrupt the transfer of energy from lower to higher trophic levels and change the structure and dynamics of marine planktonic communities.

  2. Exploring the WTI crude oil price bubble process using the Markov regime switching model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wang, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The sharp volatility of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price in the past decade triggers us to investigate the price bubbles and their evolving process. Empirical results indicate that the fundamental price of WTI crude oil appears relatively more stable than that of the market-trading price, which verifies the existence of oil price bubbles during the sample period. Besides, by allowing the WTI crude oil price bubble process to switch between two states (regimes) according to a first-order Markov chain, we are able to statistically discriminate upheaval from stable states in the crude oil price bubble process; and in most of time, the stable state dominates the WTI crude oil price bubbles while the upheaval state usually proves short-lived and accompanies unexpected market events.

  3. BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM CRUDE OIL IN SANDY-BEACH MICROCOSMS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...

  4. 33 CFR 157.108 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.108 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank...

  5. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.110 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank...

  6. Biodegradation of Diesel, Crude Oil and Spent Lubricating Oil by Soil Isolates of Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Raju, Maddela Naga; Leo, Rodriguez; Herminia, Sanaguano Salguero; Morán, Ricardo Ernesto Burgos; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Laura, Scalvenzi

    2017-02-16

    Two species of Bacillus, B. thuringiensis B3 and B. cereus B6, isolated from crude oil-contaminated sites in Ecuador, were tested for their capability in degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel (shake-flask), and to remove total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from crude oil- or spent lubricating oil-polluted soils (plot-scale). TPHs and PAHs were analyzed by Gas chromatography-Flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Degradation percentages of PAHs by strain B6 were in the range of 11-83 after 30 days. A mixed culture of both the strains removed 84% and 28% of TPHs from crude oil- and spent lubricating oil-polluted soils, respectively. Reduction in the abundance of total n-alkane fractions (C8-C40) of spent lubricating oil was 94%, which was 18% higher than the control. Our results clearly indicate that the selected strains have great potential in degrading petroleum hydrocarbons at both laboratory- and field-scales.

  7. Comparative Toxicity of Eight Oil Dispersants, Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Aquatic Test Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach utilized consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispers...

  8. Cross-correlations between crude oil and exchange markets for selected oil rich economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), this paper studies the cross-correlation behavior between crude oil market and five selected exchange rate markets. The dataset covers the period of January 1,1996-December 31,2014, and contains 4,633 observations for each of the series, including daily closing prices of crude oil, Australian Dollars, Canadian Dollars, Mexican Pesos, Russian Rubles, and South African Rand. Our empirical results obtained from cross-correlation statistic and cross-correlation coefficient have confirmed the existence of cross-correlations, and the MF-DCCA results have demonstrated a strong multifractality between cross-correlated crude oil market and exchange rate markets in both short term and long term. Using rolling window analysis, we have also found the persistent cross-correlations between the exchange rates and crude oil returns, and the cross-correlation scaling exponents exhibit volatility during some time periods due to its sensitivity to sudden events.

  9. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1) in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1)) and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1)) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  10. Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L−1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L−1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L−1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  11. Neural networks for the optimization of crude oil blending.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wen; Morales, América

    2005-10-01

    Crude oil blending is an important unit in petroleum refining industry. Many blend automation systems use real-time optimizer (RTO), which apply current process information to update the model and predict the optimal operating policy. The key unites of the conventional RTO are on-line analyzers. Sometimes oil fields cannot apply these analyzers. In this paper, we propose an off-line optimization technique to overcome the main drawback of RTO. We use the history data to approximate the output of the on-line analyzers, then the desired optimal inlet flow rates are calculated by the optimization technique. After this off-line optimization, the inlet flow rates are used for on-line control, for example PID control, which forces the flow rate to follow the desired inlet flow rates. Neural networks are applied to model the blending process from the history data. The new optimization is carried out via the neural model. The contributions of this paper are: (1) Stable learning for the discrete-time multilayer neural network is proposed. (2) Sensitivity analysis of the neural optimization is given. (3) Real data of a oil field is used to show effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  13. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments. PMID:26525361

  14. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials.

    PubMed

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-03

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it's of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a "seed bank" of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  15. Allegations of diversion and substitution of crude oil. Bayou Choctaw Storage Site, Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-30

    Investigation did not substantiate allegations that crude oil destined for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage site at Bayou Choctaw was diverted to private use and some other material substituted in its place. However, recommendations are made for handling intermediate transport and storage systems for crude oil to tighten security aspects. (PSB)

  16. 78 FR 21929 - TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 26, 2013, TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP (TexStar) submitted to the Federal Energy...

  17. 33 CFR 158.210 - Ports and terminals loading crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Ballast water containing oily mixtures in the amount of 30% of the deadweight tonnage of the largest of... Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.210 Ports and terminals loading crude oil. The reception facility for a crude oil loading port or terminal must have the capacity for receiving— (a)...

  18. 33 CFR 158.210 - Ports and terminals loading crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Ballast water containing oily mixtures in the amount of 30% of the deadweight tonnage of the largest of... Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.210 Ports and terminals loading crude oil. The reception facility for a crude oil loading port or terminal must have the capacity for receiving— (a)...

  19. Extreme-volatility dynamics in crude oil markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zheng, Bo; Qiu, Tian; Ren, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Based on concepts and methods from statistical physics, we investigate extreme-volatility dynamics in the crude oil markets, using the high-frequency data from 2006 to 2010 and the daily data from 1986 to 2016. The dynamic relaxation of extreme volatilities is described by a power law, whose exponents usually depend on the magnitude of extreme volatilities. In particular, the relaxation before and after extreme volatilities is time-reversal symmetric at the high-frequency time scale, but time-reversal asymmetric at the daily time scale. This time-reversal asymmetry is mainly induced by exogenous events. However, the dynamic relaxation after exogenous events exhibits the same characteristics as that after endogenous events. An interacting herding model both with and without exogenous driving forces could qualitatively describe the extreme-volatility dynamics.

  20. Effects of crude oil ingestion on avian intestinal function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; Murray, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal function in mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) on a freshwater regime was studied after a 7-day dietary ingestion of 0.25% and 2.5% Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) or a 2.5% paraffin mixture with an in vivo luminal perfusion technique. Dietary ingestion of 2.5% PBCO may have an effect on the integrity of the duckling intestine. There were no significant effects of PBCO on the absorption of Na, Cl, K, or H2O compared with control animals. The ducklings fed 2.5% paraffin had a significant depression in Na and H2O absorption compared with controls. However, this depression dose not seem to be related to an effect on intestinal mucosa Na-K-ATPase activity.

  1. Fresh water supply to oil producing countries by means of crude oil tankers

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Y.

    1980-12-01

    Oil producing area and oil consuming area in the world sometimes coincide with water deficient area and water surplus area, like as Arabian Gulf area and Japan. Ocean transportation of oil over these areas is being made by oil tankers, but return voyage of tankers has so far not been put to productive use. By boost of international regulation to prevent marine pollution caused by discharging sea water ballast, such half used bridge will provide with practical measures of fresh water transportation to oil producing arid area. This is to report the proposed scheme to transport and supply fresh water to Arabian Gulf area by means of return voyages of crude oil tankers voyaging between Arabian Gulf area and Japan with it technical and economical aspects as well as its effect and additional advantages to be expected by the scheme.

  2. Ignitability of crude oil and its oil-in-water products at arctic temperature.

    PubMed

    Ranellone, Raymond T; Tukaew, Panyawat; Shi, Xiaochuan; Rangwala, Ali S

    2017-02-15

    A novel platform and procedure were developed to characterize the ignitability of Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil and its water-in-oil products with water content up to 60% at low temperatures (-20-0°C). Time to ignition, critical heat flux, in-depth temperature profiles were investigated. It was observed that a cold boundary and consequent low oil temperature increased the thermal inertia of the oil/mixture and consequently the time to sustained ignition also increased. As the water content in the ANS water-in-oil mixture increased, the critical heat flux for ignition was found to increase. This is mainly because of an increase in the thermal conductivity of the mixture with the addition of saltwater. The results of the study can be used towards design of ignition strategies and technologies for in situ burning of oil spills in cold climates such as the Arctic.

  3. Application of carbon nanocatalysts in upgrading heavy crude oil assisted with microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Li, Kewen; Hou, Binchi; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yi

    2014-06-11

    Heavy crude oil can be upgraded to lighter oil using several techniques. However, current methods usually require high temperatures, long reaction duration, and cause serious environmental pollution. This study shows that by using carbon nanocatalysts, heavy crude oil can be efficiently upgraded to lighter oil at a relatively low temperature of about 150 °C. The temperature of crude oil was increased by microwave heating. The technique proposed in this study has the following advantages: (1) great viscosity reduction ratio over 96%, (2) short reaction time (less than 1 h), (3) low required temperature, and (4) long viscosity regression time. Because of these advantages, upgrading heavy crude oil to light oil can be cheaper and more environment-friendly.

  4. Stable distribution and long-range correlation of Brent crude oil market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Jin, Xiu; Huang, Wei-qiang

    2014-11-01

    An empirical study of stable distribution and long-range correlation in Brent crude oil market was presented. First, it is found that the empirical distribution of Brent crude oil returns can be fitted well by a stable distribution, which is significantly different from a normal distribution. Second, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that there are long-range correlation in returns. It implies that there are patterns or trends in returns that persist over time. Third, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that after the financial crisis 2008, the Brent crude oil market becomes more persistence. It implies that the financial crisis 2008 could increase the frequency and strength of the interdependence and correlations between the financial time series. All of these findings may be used to improve the current fractal theories.

  5. Multifractal detrended cross-correlations between crude oil market and Chinese ten sector stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liansheng; Zhu, Yingming; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Yiqi

    2016-11-01

    Based on the daily price data of spot prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and ten CSI300 sector indices in China, we apply multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlations between crude oil and Chinese sector stock markets. We find that the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and energy sector stock market is the highest, followed by the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and financial sector market, which reflects a close connection between energy and financial market. Then we do vector autoregression (VAR) analysis to capture the interdependencies among the multiple time series. By comparing the strength of multifractality for original data and residual errors of VAR model, we get a conclusion that vector auto-regression (VAR) model could not be used to describe the dynamics of the cross-correlations between WTI crude oil and the ten sector stock markets.

  6. Analysis of the temporal properties of price shock sequences in crude oil markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying; Huang, Wei-qiang

    2014-01-01

    As one of the fundamental energy sources and important chemical raw materials, crude oil is crucially important to every country. Especially, the price shock of crude oil will bring about hidden dangers in energy security and economic security. Therefore, investigating the dynamics of frequent price shocks of crude oil markets seems to be crucial and necessary. In order to make the conclusions more reliable and valid, we use two different representations of the price shocks (inter-event times and series of counts) to study the temporal properties of price shock sequences in crude oil markets, such as coefficient of variation, Allan Factor, Fano Factors, Rescaled Range analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We find evidence that the time dynamics of the price shock sequences can be considered as a fractal process with a high degree of time-clusterization of the events. It could give us some useful information to better understand the nature and dynamics of crude oil markets.

  7. Mixed Multifractal Analysis of Crude Oil, Gold and Exchange Rate Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Shao, Shuxiang; Gao, Jianyu; Sun, Yu; Su, Weiyi

    2016-11-01

    The multifractal analysis of one time series, e.g. crude oil, gold and exchange rate series, is often referred. In this paper, we apply the classical multifractal and mixed multifractal spectrum to study multifractal properties of crude oil, gold and exchange rate series and their inner relationships. The obtained results show that in general, the fractal dimension of gold and crude oil is larger than that of exchange rate (RMB against the US dollar), reflecting a fact that the price series in gold and crude oil are more heterogeneous. Their mixed multifractal spectra have a drift and the plot is not symmetric, so there is a low level of mixed multifractal between each pair of crude oil, gold and exchange rate series.

  8. New diagnostic ratios based on phenanthrenes and anthracenes for effective distinguishing heavy fuel oils from crude oils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijiang; Wang, Chuanyuan; Zhao, Ruxiang; Yin, Xiaonan; Zhou, Hongyang; Tan, Liju; Wang, Jiangtao

    2016-05-15

    The heavy fuel oils (HFOs) and crude oils are the main oil types in the marine oil spill accidents in China. It is usually a challenge to distinguish the HFOs from crude oils due to the highly similar physicochemical characteristics. In this paper, the distributions of phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), methyl-phenanthrene (MP) and methyl-anthracene (MA) in hundreds of HFOs and crude oils samples which were collected from all over the world were characterized. Nine new diagnostic indexes, such as Ant/(Ant+Phe) and other eight diagnostic ratios based on the MP isomers and MA, were developed for effective distinguishing HFOs from crude oils. The histogram with normal fit plots, the double ratio plots and Bayes discriminant analysis (BDA) method were employed to illustrate the effectiveness of the new diagnostic indexes. BDA model based on nine new diagnostic indexes demonstrated high precision with discriminant ratio which lay between 93.92% and 99.32%.

  9. Geologically distinct crude oils cause a common cardiotoxicity syndrome in developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Hicken, Corinne E; Boyd, Daryle; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Carls, Mark G; Shim, Won Joon; Incardona, John P

    2013-05-01

    Crude oils from different geological formations vary in composition, yet most crude oils contain a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction that would be expected to produce cardiotoxic effects in developing fish. To determine whether different crude oils or PAH compositions produce common or distinct effects, we used zebrafish embryos to directly compare two crude oils at different states of weathering. Iranian heavy crude oil (IHCO) spilled in the Yellow Sea following the 2007 Hebei Spirit accident was compared to the intensively studied Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) using two different exposure methods, water-accommodated fractions containing dispersed oil microdroplets and oiled gravel effluent. Overall, both crude oils produced a largely overlapping suite of defects, marked by the well-known effects of PAH exposure on cardiac function. Specific cardiotoxicity phenotypes were nearly identical between the two oils, including impacts on ventricular contractility and looping of the cardiac chambers. However, with increased weathering, tissue-specific patterns of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation in the heart changed, with myocardial AHR activation evident when alkyl-PAHs dominated the mixture. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of cardiotoxicity may shift from a predominantly AHR-independent mode during early weathering to a multiple pathway or synergistic mode with prolonged weathering and increased proportions of dissolved alkyl-PAHs. Despite continued need for comparisons of crude oils from different sources, the results here indicate that the body of knowledge already acquired from studies of ANSCO is directly relevant to understanding the impacts of other crude oil spills on the early life history stages of fish.

  10. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation on the rheological properties of heavy crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sibo; Xu, Junbo; Wen, Hao

    2015-11-01

    The rheological properties of heavy crude oil have a significant impact on the production, refining and transportation. In this paper, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were performed to study the effects of the addition of light crude oil and emulsification on the rheological properties of heavy crude oil. The simulation results reflected that the addition of light crude oil reduced the viscosity effectively. The shear thinning behaviour of crude oil mixtures were becoming less distinct as the increase of the mass fraction of light crude oil. According to the statistics, the shear had an influence on the aggregation and spatial orientation of asphaltene molecules. In addition, the relationship between the viscosity and the oil mass fraction was investigated in the simulations of emulsion systems. The viscosity increased with the oil mass fraction slowly in oil-in-water emulsions. When the oil mass fraction was higher than 50%, the increase became much faster since systems had been converted into water-in-oil emulsions. The equilibrated morphologies of emulsion systems were shown to illustrate the phase inversion. The surfactant-like feature of asphaltenes was also studied in the simulations.

  11. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention was paid to heavy crude oils from Venezuela, California, Alabama, Arkansas, Wyoming, Alaska, and other oil producing areas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between {open_quotes}biodegraded{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biotreated{close_quotes} oils. Preliminary results indicate the introduced microorganisms may become the dominant species in the bioconversion of oils. These studies also indicate the biochemical interactions between crude oils and microorganisms follow distinct trends, characterized by a group of chemical markers. Core-flooding experiments have shown significant additional crude oil recoveries are achievable with thermophilic microorganisms at elevated temperatures similar to those found in oil reservoirs. In addition, the biochemical treatment of crude oils has technological applications in downstream processing of crude oils such as in upgrading of low grade oils and the production of hydrocarbon based detergents.

  12. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-01-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg(-1) and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg(-1). It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  13. A Scientific Study to Develop a Practical Method for Assessing the Cleanup of ’Sour’ (High Sulfur) Crude Oil Spills in Littoral Sands using Benthic Microorganisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Stabilized crude oil in littoral sands and gravels by using microorganisms as indicators. Crude oil was spilled on beaches at three localities along the...sediments, the crude oil was not detected approximately three months after it was spilled. (Author)

  14. Effects of weathering on the dispersion of crude oil through oil-mineral aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gustitus, Sarah A; John, Gerald F; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2017-06-01

    Crude oil that is inadvertently spilled in the marine environment can interact with suspended sediment to form oil-mineral aggregates (OMA). Researchers have identified OMA formation as a natural method of oil dispersion, and have sought ways to enhance this process for oil spill remediation. Currently there is a lack of understanding of how the weathering of oil will affect the formation of OMA due to a lack of published data on this relationship. Based on literature, we identified two conflicting hypotheses: OMA formation 1) increases with weathering as a result of increased asphaltene and polar compound content; or 2) decreases with weathering as a result of increased viscosity. While it is indeed true that the viscosity and the relative amount of polar compounds will increase with weathering, their net effects on OMA formation is unclear. Controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to systematically test these two conflicting hypotheses. Experimental results using light, intermediate, and heavy crude oils, each at five weathering stages, show a decrease in OMA formation as oil weathers.

  15. Nonmonotonic Elasticity of the Crude Oil-Brine Interface in Relation to Improved Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Miyauchi, Tomás E; Firoozabadi, Abbas; Fuller, Gerald G

    2016-03-08

    Injection of optimized chemistry water in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has gained much interest in the past few years. Crude oil-water interfaces can have a viscoelastic character affected by the adsorption of amphiphilic molecules. The brine concentration as well as surfactants may strongly affect the fluid-fluid interfacial viscoelasticity. In this work we investigate interfacial viscoelasticity of two different oils in terms of brine concentration and a nonionic surfactant. We correlate these measurements with oil recovery in a glass-etched flow microchannel. Interfacial viscoelasticity develops relatively fast in both oils, stabilizing at about 48 h. The interfaces are found to be more elastic than viscous. The interfacial elastic (G') and viscous (G″) moduli increase as the salt concentration decreases until a maximum in viscoelasticity is observed around 0.01 wt % of salt. Monovalent (Na(+)) and divalent (Mg(2+)) cations are used to investigate the effect of ion type; no difference is observed at low salinity. The introduction of a small amount of a surfactant (100 ppm) increases the elasticity of the crude oil-water interface at high salt concentration. Aqueous solutions that give the maximum interface viscoelasticity and high salinity brines are used to displace oil in a glass-etched "porous media" micromodel. Pressure fluctuations after breakthrough are observed in systems with high salt concentration while at low salt concentration there are no appreciable pressure fluctuations. Oil recovery increases by 5-10% in low salinity brines. By using a small amount of a nonionic surfactant with high salinity brine, oil recovery is enhanced 10% with no pressure fluctuations. Interface elasticity reduces the snap-off of the oil phase, leading to reduced pressure fluctuations. This study sheds light on significance of interface viscoelasticity in oil recovery by change in salt concentration and by addition of a small amount of a nonionic surfactant.

  16. Optimization of squalene produced from crude palm oil waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandira, Irda; Legowo, Evita H.; Widiputri, Diah I.

    2017-01-01

    Squalene is a hydrocarbon originally and still mostly extracted from shark liver oil. Due to environmental issues over shark hunting, there have been efforts to extract squalene from alternative sources, such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), one of crude palm oil (CPO) wastes. Previous researches have shown that squalene can be extracted from PFAD using saponification process followed with liquid-liquid extraction process although the method had yet to be optimized in order to optimize the amount of squalene extracted from PFAD. The optimization was done by optimizing both processes of squalene extraction method: saponification and liquid-liquid extraction. The factors utilized in the saponification process optimization were KOH concentration and saponification duration while during the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) process optimization, the factors used were the volumes of distilled water and dichloromethane. The optimum percentage of squalene content in the extract (24.08%) was achieved by saponifying the PFAD with 50%w/v KOH for 60 minutes and subjecting the saponified PFAD to LLE, utilizing 100 ml of distilled water along with 3 times addition of fresh dichloromethane, 75 ml each; those factors would be utilized in the optimum squalene extraction method.

  17. Toxicological evaluation of a lake ecosystem contaminated with crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Twigg, D.; Ramey, B.; Bishop, V.

    1995-12-31

    Winona Lake on the Daniel Boone National Forest in Powell County, Kentucky, was used from the mid 1950`s to 1987 as a water source for water-injection oil drilling and as a brine disposal site. The lake was contaminated with excessive amounts of crude oil. A multi phase investigation was conducted, including chemical analysis of water and sediment, water toxicity tests using a cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia, sediment toxicity tests using an amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and a faunal survey of the communities of the lake and stream both above and below the lake. The sediment was laden with petroleum hydrocarbons (4.1 parts per thousand), while the water showed no contamination. The C dubia test results showed no significant water toxicity. The contaminated sediment adjacent to the dam produced 75% mortality in H. azteca. The faunal survey indicated little or no impact on the upstream and downstream communities but the lake community was highly impacted, especially the benthos. Pollution tolerant Chaoborus sp. were the only organisms collected from sediment samples dredged from the lake. Contamination was limited to the sediment within the lake but the impact on the entire lake community was severe.

  18. Microbial interactions in crude oils: Possible impact on biochemical versatility on the choice of microbial candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.

    1995-10-01

    Experimental data gathered over the past several years show that the interactions of microorganisms with crude oils are variable and depend on the microbial species and the chemical composition of crude oils. The variations can be observed in terms of the extent of emulsification, changes in the hydrocarbon composition of crude oils, and duration of biotreatment. All of these factors indicate that the interaction of microbes with crude oils involves multiple chemical reactions resulting from the biochemical interactions between microbes and oils. Different interactions may influence the efficiency of processes in which single or mixed microbial species are used for the oil treatment and may also suggest possible combinations of biological and chemical technologies. Some of these concepts will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Progress report, September 15, 1979-March 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; King, C.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Four crude oils (H Coal-Fuel Oil Mode, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, and SRC II) which were distilled into four fractions (naphtha, mid-distillate, gas oil and residue) for analysis and biological screening testing during the last report period were tested for mutagenicity by the Ames test and for tumor initiating activity by an initiation/promotion (skin painting) test. Substantial agreement exists between Ames and skin painting results. Low boiling naphtha fractions of the 4 crude oils showed little or no mutagenicity or tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil fractions.

  20. Effects of crude oil residuals on soil chemical properties in oil sites, Momoge Wetland, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Feng, Jiang; Zhao, Jimin

    2010-02-01

    Crude oil exploration and production has been the largest anthropogenic factor contributing to the degradation of Momoge Wetland, China. To study the effects of crude oil on wetland soils, we examined the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP), as well as pH and electricity conductivity (EC) from oil sites and uncontaminated areas in the Momoge Wetland. All contaminated areas had significantly higher (p < 0.05) contents of TPH and TOC, but significantly lower (p < 0.05) TN contents than those of the uncontaminated areas. Contaminated sites also exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) pH values, C/N and C/P ratios. For TP contents and EC, no significant changes were detected. The level of soil contamination and impact of oil residuals on soil quality greatly depended on the length of time the oil well was in production. Oil residuals had caused some major changes in the soils' chemical properties in the Momoge Wetland.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain N002, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from Geleky, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Abhjit Sarma; Baruah, Reshita; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Borah, Maina

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of crude oil-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain N002, isolated from a crude oil-polluted soil sample from Geleky, Assam, India. Multiple genes potentially involved in crude oil degradation were identified. PMID:23405324

  2. Chemical dispersant potentiates crude oil impacts on growth, reproduction, and gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Chen, Dongliang; Ennis, Adrien C; Polli, Joseph R; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Baohong; Stellwag, Edmund J; Overton, Anthony; Pan, Xiaoping

    2013-02-01

    The economic, environmental, and human health impacts of the deepwater horizon (DWH) oil spill have been of significant concern in the general public and among scientists. This study employs parallel experiments to test the effects of crude oil from the DWH oil well, chemical dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-oil mixture on growth and reproduction in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Both the crude oil and the dispersant significantly inhibited the reproduction of C. elegans. Dose-dependent inhibitions of hatched larvae production were observed in worms exposed to both crude oil and dispersant. Importantly, the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500A potentiated crude oil effects; dispersant-oil mixture induced more significant effects than oil or dispersant-alone exposures. While oil-alone exposure and dispersant-alone exposure have none to moderate inhibitory effects on hatched larvae production, respectively, the mixture of dispersant and oil induced much more significant inhibition of offspring production. The production of hatched larvae was almost completely inhibited by several high concentrations of the dispersant-oil mixture. This suggests a sensitive bioassay for future investigation of oil/dispersant impacts on organisms. We also investigated the effects of crude oil/dispersant exposure at the molecular level by measuring the expressions of 31 functional genes. Results showed that the dispersant and the dispersant-oil mixture induced aberrant expressions of 12 protein-coding genes (cat-4, trxr-2, sdhb-1, lev-8, lin-39, unc-115, prdx-3, sod-1, acr-16, ric-3, unc-68, and acr-8). These 12 genes are associated with a variety of biological processes, including egg-laying, oxidative stress, muscle contraction, and neurological functions. In summary, the toxicity potentiating effect of chemical dispersant must be taken into consideration in future crude oil cleanup applications.

  3. Inhibition of Acetoclastic Methanogenesis in Crude Oil- and Creosote-Contaminated Groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater was studied. The crude oil and water-soluble components of creosote contributed to the inhibition of acetoclastic methanogens. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was much more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At a crude oil-contaminated site, numbers of acetoclastic methanogens found close to crude oil were 100 times fewer than those of hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens. In laboratory toxicity assays, crude oil collected from the site inhibited methane production from acetate but not from formate or hydrogen. Toxicity assays with aqueous creosote extract completely inhibited acetate utilization over the range of tested dilutions but only mildly affected formate and hydrogen utilization. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity would result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  4. A simple extraction procedure for determination of total mercury in crude oil.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Razi; Al-Fahad, Mossaed A; Al-Rashwan, Ayman K; Al-Qarni, Mohammad A

    2013-05-01

    The determination of mercury in crude oil and petroleum products is particularly difficult due to the volatile nature of both mercury and the matrix, which may lead to significant loss of the analyte. A simple extraction method for total mercury has been developed to determine total mercury in crude oil using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The homogenized crude oil sample was diluted to 5, 10, and 20 % (w/w) in toluene. The diluted crude oil samples were spiked with 10 and 40 μg/kg (w/w). The samples were extracted using an oxidant/acid solution, BrCl/HCl. The mercury was extracted into the aqueous phase; the ionic mercury was then reduced to volatile elemental mercury (Hg(0)) by stannous chloride (SnCl2). The mercury vapor was detected by Merlin cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry at a 253.7-nm wavelength. The average recoveries for mercury in spiked diluted crude oil (10 and 40 μg/kg, w/w) were between 96 and 103 %, respectively, in 5 and 10 % spiked diluted crude oil. Whereas, low recoveries (<50 %) were recorded in 20 % diluted spiked crude oil. The method detection limit was calculated as t (0.01)(n - 1) × SD where t is the student's value for 99 % confidence level and standard deviation estimate with n - 1 degrees of freedom. The method detection limit was found to be 0.38 μg/kg based on 5 g of diluted crude oil sample. The method is sensitive enough to determine low levels of mercury in crude oil.

  5. Low level exposure to weathered crude oil causes genetic damage and malformations in larval herring

    SciTech Connect

    Carls, M.; Rice, S.D.; Hose, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    An initial concentration of 0.7 ppb polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil caused genetic damage in newly hatched Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) exposed for 16 days during incubation. The endpoint for genetic damage was a significant increase in the percentage of anaphase aberrations in pectoral fin cells, a response that has been previously shown to be a highly sensitive indicator of crude oil exposure in larval herring. At this exposure level, there were also significant decreases in the percentages of larval survival, normal development and competent swimming, and increased percentages of yolk sac edema. Composition of the PAH, which ranged from naphthalenes through chrysenes, was weighted toward the larger ring compounds, particularly phenanthrenes. Genetic response was not as sensitive an indicator of oil exposure as yolk sac edema, jaw size, and formation of pectoral fin rays. The consequences of chromosomal aberrations in larval herring are not clear. Other experiments have shown that although the frequency of genetic damage decreases with age, malformations persist and are coupled with growth reductions. It is likely that malformed larvae die; evidence for this comes from simultaneous measurements of mortality, malformations and genetic damage in the field.

  6. Effects of crude oil, oil components, and bioremediation on plant growth.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Hee-Sik; Oh, Hee-Mock; Yoon, Byung-Dae; Kim, Jaisoo; Lee, In-Sook

    2004-01-01

    The phytotoxic effects of crude oil and oil components on the growth of red beans (Phaseolus nipponesis OWH1) and corn (Zea mays) was investigated. In addition, the beneficial effects of bioremediation with the oil-degrading microorganism, Nocardia sp. H17-1, on corn and red bean growth in oil-contaminated soil was also determined. It was found that crude oil-contaminated soil (10,000mg/kg) was phytotoxic to corn and red beans. In contrast, obvious phytotoxicity was not observed in soils contaminated with 0-1000 mg/kg of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as decane (C10) and eicosane (C20). Phytotoxicity was observed in soils contaminated with 10-1000mg/kg of the poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. It was observed that phytotoxicity increased with the number of aromatic rings, and that corn was more sensitive than red beans to PAH-contaminated soil. Bioremediation with Nocardia sp. H17-1 reduced phytotoxicity more in corn than in red bean, suggesting that this microbial species might degrade PAHs to some degree.

  7. Magneto-optical activity of crude oil and its heavy fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A. E.; Edelman, I. S.; Zabluda, V. N.; Petrakovskaya, E. A.; Aleksandrovskii, A. S.; Shubin, A. A.; Trukhan, S. N.; Mart'yanov, O. N.

    2012-05-01

    We have experimentally studied optical and magneto-optical spectra of solutions of crude oils of different origin and their heavy fractions in the visible spectral range. Magnetic circular dichroism of oil in the wavelength range ˜550 nm has been revealed. We show that the shape of the spectra of this dichroism depends on the origin of crude oil, with the magnetic dichroism magnitude being proportional to the concentration of the oil in the solution. A comparison of the data of magneto-optical spectroscopy with electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and chemical composition of samples has allowed us to conclude that the observed magneto-optical activity is determined by the occurrence of VO2+ complexes in the oil samples. The revealed magneto-optical activity of crude oil can form the basis of a unique method of analysis of the composition and properties of oils of different origin and heavy fractions thereof.

  8. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this program is to determine the chemical and physical effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted organisms on crude oils and cores at elevated temperatures and pressures. Ultimately a data base will be generated which will be used in technical and economic feasibility studies leading to field applications. Progress to date are described for: construction of core-flooding systems; studies of trends in biochemical interactions between different microorganisms and crude oils; and comparative studies of interaction between different crude oils and microorganisms.

  9. Biofilm-Mediated Enhanced Crude Oil Degradation by Newly Isolated Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Debdeep; Ghosh, Ritabrata; Sengupta, Tapas K.

    2013-01-01

    The bioavailability of organic contaminants to the degrading bacteria is a major limitation to efficient bioremediation of sites contaminated with hydrophobic pollutants. Such limitation of bioavailability can be overcome by steady-state biofilm-based reactor. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of such multicellular aggregation by naturally existing oil-degrading bacteria on crude oil degradation. Microorganisms, capable of utilizing crude oil as sole carbon source, were isolated from river, estuary and sea-water samples. Biochemical and 16S rDNA analysis of the best degraders of the three sources was found to belong to the Pseudomonas species. Interestingly, one of the isolates was found to be close to Pseudomonas otitidis family which is not reported yet as a degrader of crude oil. Biodegradation of crude oil was estimated by gas chromatography, and biofilm formation near oil-water interface was quantified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Biofilm supported batches of the isolated Pseudomonas species were able to degrade crude oil much readily and extensively than the planktonic counterparts. Volumetric and topographic analysis revealed that biofilms formed in presence of crude oil accumulate higher biomass with greater thickness compared to the biofilms produced in presence of glucose as sole carbon source. PMID:25937972

  10. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David; Luketa, Anay; Wocken, Chad; Schlasner, Steve; Aulich, Ted; Allen, Ray; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  11. Biofilm-mediated enhanced crude oil degradation by newly isolated pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Debdeep; Ghosh, Ritabrata; Sengupta, Tapas K

    2013-01-01

    The bioavailability of organic contaminants to the degrading bacteria is a major limitation to efficient bioremediation of sites contaminated with hydrophobic pollutants. Such limitation of bioavailability can be overcome by steady-state biofilm-based reactor. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of such multicellular aggregation by naturally existing oil-degrading bacteria on crude oil degradation. Microorganisms, capable of utilizing crude oil as sole carbon source, were isolated from river, estuary and sea-water samples. Biochemical and 16S rDNA analysis of the best degraders of the three sources was found to belong to the Pseudomonas species. Interestingly, one of the isolates was found to be close to Pseudomonas otitidis family which is not reported yet as a degrader of crude oil. Biodegradation of crude oil was estimated by gas chromatography, and biofilm formation near oil-water interface was quantified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Biofilm supported batches of the isolated Pseudomonas species were able to degrade crude oil much readily and extensively than the planktonic counterparts. Volumetric and topographic analysis revealed that biofilms formed in presence of crude oil accumulate higher biomass with greater thickness compared to the biofilms produced in presence of glucose as sole carbon source.

  12. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500.

    PubMed

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2011-01-30

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  13. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses.

  14. Sugar based amphiphiles: easily accessible and efficient crude oil spill thickening agents.

    PubMed

    Samateh, Malick; Vidyasagar, Adiyala; Jadhav, Swapnil R; John, George

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of biomass for the catalytic production of phase-selective gelators (PSGs) as a cost-effective, environmentally benign and ideal method for crude oil spill remediation, as well as execute the study exclusively in crude oil. The use of PSGs has recently provided great promise relative to that of their traditional counterparts. However, the use of PSGs with crude oil is much more complicated due to its complex composition. All of the current PSG methods are demonstrated with refined oils or do not employ eco-friendly methods like enzymatic synthesis. Our current project entails studying sugar alcohol-derived amphiphiles for their phase-selective gelation in crude oil; the PSGs are derived from renewable, benign materials and synthesized via a simple, single-step, enzymatic catalysis that required no purification. The results showed that, after a rigorous and systematic testing, the mannitol-derived amphiphile using 8-carbon alkyl chain length (M-8) turned out to be the best crude oil PSG among the studied amphiphiles. M-8 demonstrated a versatility towards thickening of different crude oil types, an efficient ability towards selective gelation of the oil (forming crude oil gel that is over sixty-one-times its mass and stable up to 109.7 °C) in a crude oil/water mixture, and an ability to form gel under practical situations such as seawater conditions. These qualities, in addition to the use of a simple and environmentally benign method to synthesize the structuring agents, make this amphiphile very practical in real life application.

  15. Assessing bioremediation of crude oil in soils and sludges

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, S.J.; Kerr, J.M.; Gray, N.R.; Requejo, A.G.; McDonald, T.J.; Douglas, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Standard bulk property analytical methods currently being employed to evaluate crude oil bioremediation efficacy in soils provide no information concerning the mechanisms by which hydrocarbon losses are occurring (e.g., biodegradation versus leaching). Site/sample heterogeneity in field bioremediation projects may make it difficult to accurately quantify hydrocarbon losses due to biodegradation. To better understand the mechanisms by which losses are occurring and to accurately evaluate biodegradation rates, the hydrocarbon analytical methods must provide both quantitative and compositional information. In this study laboratory bioremediation experiments were used to compare the results of bulk property analytical methods with those methods used by petroleum geochemists that provide both quantitative and compositional data. A tecator extraction was used to isolate the total extractable matter (TEM) from the samples. Compositional changes were monitored by (1) column chromatography to determine class distributions, (2) high resolution gas chromatography with a flame-ionization detector (GC/FID) and (3) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Illustrations of the compositional changes detected by each method and their application to validating bioremediation are provided.

  16. Biodegradation of crude oil saturated fraction supported on clays.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Jones, Martin D; Head, Ian M; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-02-01

    The role of clay minerals in crude oil saturated hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/saturated hydrocarbon microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clay minerals used for this study were montmorillonite, palygorskite, saponite and kaolinite. The clay mineral samples were treated with hydrochloric acid and didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce acid activated- and organoclays respectively which were used in this study. The production of organoclay was restricted to only montmorillonite and saponite because of their relative high CEC. The study indicated that acid activated clays, organoclays and unmodified kaolinite, were inhibitory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. Unmodified saponite was neutral to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. However, unmodified palygorskite and montmorillonite were stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturated fraction and appears to do so as a result of the clays' ability to provide high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients such that the nutrients were within the 'vicinity' of the microbes. Adsorption of the saturated hydrocarbons was not significant during biodegradation.

  17. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Characterisation of crude oils by carbon and sulphur isotope ratio measurements as a tool for pollution control.

    PubMed

    Becker, S; Hirner, A V

    1998-01-01

    The potential of carbon and sulphur isotope ratios to group crude oils with respect to their origin was investigated. Sample selection was based on the actual crude oil imports to Germany. Analysed crude oils from Algeria, the Community of Independent States (CIS), Middle East, Nigeria, the North Sea and Venezuela make up over 86% of the German crude oil imports. The oil as received was deasphalted and the maltene fraction was separated by MPLC into saturated, aromatic and polar fractions. Due to overlapping areas, it is not possible to group the crude oils by their delta 13C values alone. A complete grouping of the crude oils with respect to their origin can only be achieved by the combined use of delta 13C and delta 34S of crude oils, and isotope type-curves. In some cases isotope type-curves enable differentiation between different oil fields of the same geographical origin. In order to determine the post-spill changes of delta 13C values, an experimental spill of crude oil was studied over a period of seven weeks in an outdoor aquarium containing pond water. The delta 13C measurements of crude oil fractions showed changes up to 1.1/1000 during the oil spill simulation. The delta 13C values of the polar fraction exhibited the smallest change, with a variation of 0.3/1000, and are therefore especially useful for the characterisation of crude oil spills.

  19. Crude oil degradation efficiency of a recombinant Acinetobacter baumannii strain and its survival in crude oil-contaminated soil microcosm.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sanjeet; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Lal, Banwari

    2004-06-15

    A hydrocarbon degrading Acinetobacter baumannii S30 strain, isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil, was inserted with the lux gene from the luciferase gene cassette luxCDABE. Soil microcosms were designed to study the degradation efficacy for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of crude oil by lux-tagged A. baumannii S30 pJES. Bioaugmentation of a TPH-contaminated microcosm with A baumannii S30 pJES showed that TPH levels were reduced from 89.3 to 53.9 g/kg soil in 90 days. Biodegradation of TPH by A baumannii S30 pJES was also monitored in shake flask conditions, which showed a reduction of initial TPH levels by over 50% at the end of 120 h. A lux-PCR-based approach along with the standard dilution plating with selective antibiotics was successfully utilized to monitor the survivability of the lux-tagged strain A. baumannii S30 pJES in soil microcosms and stability of the lux insert in the host strain A. baumannii S30. The selective plating technique indicated the population of A. baumannii S30 pJES to be 6.5+/-0.13 x 10(8) CFU/g at day zero (just after bioaugmentation) and 2.09+/-0.08 x 10(8) CFU/g of soil after 90 days of incubation. lux-PCR confirmed the stability of the insert in all the randomly selected colonies of A. baumannii strains from the antibiotic plates. The lux insert was stable after 50 generations in Luria Bertini broth and storage at -70 degrees C as glycerol stocks for over a year. These results revealed that the lux insert was stable and lux-tagged A. baumannii S30 strain could survive in a TPH-contaminated soil microcosm and could degrade TPH in the soil microcosm conditions. It can be used as an effective marker to monitor the survival of augmented strains at a bioremediation site.

  20. A comprehensive constitutive law for waxy crude oil: a thixotropic yield stress fluid.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Christopher J; McKinley, Gareth H

    2014-09-21

    Guided by a series of discriminating rheometric tests, we develop a new constitutive model that can quantitatively predict the key rheological features of waxy crude oils. We first develop a series of model crude oils, which are characterized by a complex thixotropic and yielding behavior that strongly depends on the shear history of the sample. We then outline the development of an appropriate preparation protocol for carrying out rheological measurements, to ensure consistent and reproducible initial conditions. We use RheoPIV measurements of the local kinematics within the fluid under imposed deformations in order to validate the selection of a particular protocol. Velocimetric measurements are also used to document the presence of material instabilities within the model crude oil under conditions of imposed steady shearing. These instabilities are a result of the underlying non-monotonic steady flow curve of the material. Three distinct deformation histories are then used to probe the material's constitutive response. These deformations are steady shear, transient response to startup of steady shear with different aging times, and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS). The material response to these three different flows is used to motivate the development of an appropriate constitutive model. This model (termed the IKH model) is based on a framework adopted from plasticity theory and implements an additive strain decomposition into characteristic reversible (elastic) and irreversible (plastic) contributions, coupled with the physical processes of isotropic and kinematic hardening. Comparisons of experimental to simulated response for all three flows show good quantitative agreement, validating the chosen approach for developing constitutive models for this class of materials.

  1. Solids precipitation in crude oils, gas-to-liquids and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Karthik

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) liquids are obtained from syngas by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The blending of GTL liquids produced from natural gas/coal reserves and crude oils is a possibility in the near future for multiple reasons. Solids precipitation is a major problem in pipelines and refineries leading to significant additional operating costs. The effect of the addition of a paraffinic GTL liquid to crude oils on solids precipitation was investigated in this study. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for the various samples. The SLE of multiple systems of model oils composed of n-alkanes was investigated preliminarily. Blends of a model oil simulating a GTL liquid composition and a crude oil showed that the wax precipitation temperature (WPT) decreased upon blending. Three crude oils from different geographic regions (Alaskan North Slope, Colorado and Venezuela) and a laboratory-produced GTL liquid were used in the preparation of blends with five different concentrations of the GTL liquid. The wax precipitation temperatures of the blends were found to decrease with the increasing addition of the GTL liquid for all the oils. This effect was attributed to the solvent effect of the low molecular weight-paraffinic GTL liquid on the crude oils. The weight percent solid precipitated that was estimated as a function of temperature did not show a uniform trend for the set of crude oils. The asphaltene onset studies done on the blends with near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the addition of GTL liquid could have a stabilizing effect on the asphaltenes in some oils. Analytical techniques such as distillation, solvent separation, HPLC, GC, and GPC were used to obtain detailed composition data on the samples. Two sets of compositional data with 49 and 86 pseudo-components were used to describe the three crude oils used in the blending work. The wax precipitation was calculated using a

  2. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the deadweight tonnage of the largest of the oceangoing tankers loading oil other than crude oil or... the amount of 0.2% of the total cargo capacity of the largest of the oceangoing tankers loading oil... oil. The reception facility for an oil loading port or terminal that loads a daily average of...

  3. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the deadweight tonnage of the largest of the oceangoing tankers loading oil other than crude oil or... the amount of 0.2% of the total cargo capacity of the largest of the oceangoing tankers loading oil... oil. The reception facility for an oil loading port or terminal that loads a daily average of...

  4. Origin of crude oil in eastern Gulf Coast: Upper Jurassic, Upper Cretaceous, and lower Tertiary source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R.

    1988-02-01

    Analysis of rock and crude oil samples suggests that three source rocks have given rise to most crude oil in reservoirs of the eastern Gulf Coast. Carbonate source rocks of the Jurassic Smackover Formation are characterized by algal-derived kerogen preserved in an anoxic and hypersaline environment, resulting in crude oils with distinct compositions. Migration commenced during the Cretaceous, explaining the emplacement of Smackover-derived crude oil in Jurassic and in some Cretaceous reservoirs. Upper Cretaceous clastic and carbonate source rocks are also present. Much crude oil in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs has been derived from organic-rich marine shales of the Tuscaloosa Formation. These shales are characterized by algal and higher plant kerogen, resulting in distinct crude oil compositions. Migration commenced during the Tertiary, but was mostly focused to Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. Lower Tertiary shales, including those of the Wilcox Formation, are quite organic-rich and include downdip marine facies characterized by both algal and higher plant kerogen. Crude oils in lower Tertiary reservoirs are dissimilar to crude oils from deeper and older source rocks. Migration from lower Tertiary shales commenced during the late Tertiary and charged Tertiary reservoirs. Although most crude oil in the eastern Gulf Coast has been emplaced by short-range migration, often with a strong vertical component, some long-range lateral migration (> 100 km) has occurred along lower Tertiary sands. The framework of crude oil generation and migration onshore has important implications with respect to origin of crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Unexpected Interaction with Dispersed Crude Oil Droplets Drives Severe Toxicity in Atlantic Haddock Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sørhus, Elin; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Harman, Christopher; Jentoft, Sissel; Meier, Sonnich

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of cyp1a, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea. PMID:25923774

  6. Unexpected interaction with dispersed crude oil droplets drives severe toxicity in Atlantic haddock embryos.

    PubMed

    Sørhus, Elin; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Karlsen, Ørjan; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Harman, Christopher; Jentoft, Sissel; Meier, Sonnich

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of cyp1a, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea.

  7. Fresh and weathered crude oil effects on potential denitrification rates of coastal marsh soil.

    PubMed

    Pietroski, Jason P; White, John R; DeLaune, Ronald D; Wang, Jim J; Dodla, Syam K

    2015-09-01

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil platform experienced an explosion which triggered the largest marine oil spill in US history, resulting in the release of ∼795 million L of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Once oil reached the surface, changes in overall chemical composition occurred due to volatilization of the smaller carbon chain compounds as the oil was transported onshore by winds and currents. In this study, the toxic effects of both fresh and weathered crude oil on denitrification rates of coastal marsh soil were determined using soil samples collected from an unimpacted coastal marsh site proximal to areas that were oiled in Barataria Bay, LA. The 1:10 ratio of crude oil:field moist soil fully coated the soil surface mimicking a heavy oiling scenario. Potential denitrification rates at the 1:10 ratio, for weathered crude oil, were 46 ± 18.4% of the control immediately after exposure and 62 ± 8.0% of the control following a two week incubation period, suggesting some adaptation of the denitrifying microbial consortium over time. Denitrification rates of soil exposed to fresh crude oil were 51.5 ± 5.3% of the control after immediate exposure and significantly lower at 10.9 ± 1.1% after a 2 week exposure period. Results suggest that fresh crude oil has the potential to more severely impact the important marsh soil process of denitrification following longer term exposure. Future studies should focus on longer-term denitrification as well as changes in the microbial consortia in response to oil exposure.

  8. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. In this laboratory systematic studies are being conducted which deal with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention is being paid to heavy crude oils such as Boscan and Cerro Negro (Venezuela), Monterey (California) and those from Alabama and Arkansas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent solubilization of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative chemical and physical changes appear to be microbial species dependent. Effects on heavy crude oils are also compared to those on lighter oils such as oils from the Wyoming petroleum reserve. Microbial oil interactions are monitored routinely by a consortium of analytical techniques which are continuously upgraded and are capable of multiparameter analysis. The results generated in fiscal year 1991, describing (1) through (6), are presented and discussed in this report.

  9. Impact of formation water geochemistry and crude oil biodegradation on microbial methanogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Warwick, Peter D.; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow wells (393–442 m depth) contained highly biodegraded oils associated with low extent of methanogenesis, while the deepest (> 1208 m) wells contained minimally degraded oils and produced fluids suggesting a low extent of methanogenesis. Mid-depth wells (666–857 m) in the central field had the highest indicators of methanogenesis and contained moderately biodegraded oils. Little correlation existed between extents of crude oil biodegradation and methanogenesis across the whole transect (avg.R2 = 0.13). However, when wells with the greatest extent of crude oil biodegradation were eliminated (3 of 6 oilfields), better correlation between extent of methanogenesis and biodegradation (avg. R2 = 0.53) was observed. The results suggest that oil quality and salinity impact methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. Reservoirs indicating moderate extent of crude oil biodegradation and high extent of methanogenesis, such as the central field, would be good candidates for attempting to enhance methanogenic crude oil biodegradation as a result of the observations from the study.

  10. Crude oil as a stranding cause among loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands, Spain (1998-2011).

    PubMed

    Camacho, María; Calabuig, Pascual; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge

    2013-07-01

    We report the number of strandings caused by crude oil among loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands between 1998 and 2011 and analyze the impact of the designation of the Canary Islands as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) in 2005. Among 1,679 stranded loggerhead turtles, 52 turtles stranded due to crude oil (3.1%). The survival rate of the turtles stranded by crude oil was 88%. All turtles that died because of crude oil stranding had signs of ingestion of crude oil and lesions, included esophageal impaction, necrotizing gastroenteritis, necrotizing hepatitis, and tubulonephrosis. The number of strandings caused by crude oil after 2005 was significantly lower than it was before 2006. We show that the designation of the Canary Islands as a PSSA in 2005 by the International Maritime Organization was associated with a reduction of sea turtle strandings caused by crude oil.

  11. Effect of ultrasonic frequency on separation of water from heavy crude oil emulsion using ultrasonic baths.

    PubMed

    Antes, Fabiane G; Diehl, Liange O; Pereira, Juliana S F; Guimarães, Regina C L; Guarnieri, Ricardo A; Ferreira, Bianca M S; Flores, Erico M M

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a comprehensive study was performed for the evaluation of ultrasound (US) frequency for demulsification of crude oil emulsions. Experiments were performed using ultrasonic baths operating at the following frequencies: 25, 35, 45, 130, 582, 862 and 1146kHz. Synthetic water-in-oil emulsions with 12%, 35% and 50% of water and medians of droplet size distribution (DSD, D(0.5)) of 5, 10 and 25μm were prepared using a heavy crude oil (API density of 19). Crude oil demulsification was achieved at frequencies in the range of 25-45kHz for all tested emulsions. When frequencies higher than 45kHz were applied, no changes in the characteristics of the crude oil emulsions were observed. Demulsification efficiencies of about 65% were achieved at a frequency of 45kHz after 15min of US application (emulsions with original water content of 50% and D(0.5)=10μm). An important aspect is that no addition of chemical demulsifiers was performed, and the demulsification efficiency was considered high, taking into account that the results were obtained using a non-conventional crude oil. Contrary to the normal application of low-frequency US that has been used for emulsification, the proposed approach seems to be a promising technology for water removal from crude oil emulsions.

  12. Superoleophillic electrospun polystrene/exofoliated graphite fibre for selective removal of crude oil from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Dare, Enock O.; Olorundare, F. O. Grace; Nkosi, D.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, B. B.

    2016-04-01

    During oil spills, the aquatic environment is greatly endangered because oil floats on water making the penetration of sunlight difficult therefore primary productivity is compromised, birds and aquatic organisms are totally eliminated within a short period. It is therefore essential to remove the oil from the water bodies after the spillage. This work reports on the fabrication of oil loving electrospun polystyrene-exofoliated graphite fibre with hydrophobic and oleophillic surface properties. The fibre was applied for the selective adsorption of crude oil from simulated crude oil spillage on water. The maximum oil adsorption capacity of the EPS/EG was 1.15 kg/g in 20 min while the lowest oil adsorption capacity was 0.81 kg/g in 10 min. Cheap oil adsorbent was developed with superoleophillic and superhydrophobic properties.

  13. Effects of crude oil, dispersant, and oil-dispersant mixtures on human fecal microbiota in an in vitro culture system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Nam; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Seong-Jae; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2012-10-23

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 raised concerns that dispersant and dispersed oil, as well as crude oil itself, could contaminate shellfish and seafood habitats with hazardous residues that had potential implications for human health and the ecosystem. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the human fecal microbiota. The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil, Corexit 9500 dispersant, and their combination on human fecal microbial communities, using an in vitro culture test system. Fecal specimens from healthy adult volunteers were made into suspensions, which were then treated with oil, dispersant, or oil-dispersant mixtures under anaerobic conditions in an in vitro culture test system. Perturbations of the microbial community, compared to untreated control cultures, were assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, and pyrosequencing methods. DGGE and pyrosequencing analysis showed that oil-dispersant mixtures reduced the diversity of fecal microbiota from all individuals. Real-time PCR results indicated that the copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes in cultures treated with dispersed oil or oil alone were significantly lower than those in control incubations. The abundance of the Bacteroidetes decreased in crude oil-treated and dispersed-oil-treated cultures, while the Proteobacteria increased in cultures treated with dispersed oil. In conclusion, the human fecal microbiota was affected differently by oil and dispersed oil, and the influence of dispersed oil was significantly greater than that of either oil or dispersant alone compared to control cultures. IMPORTANCE There have been concerns whether human health is adversely affected by exposure to spilled crude oil, which contains regulated carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, we determined the effect of BP Deepwater Horizon crude oil and oil dispersant on the

  14. Developmental toxicity of Louisiana crude oil-spiked sediment to zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Sandy; Jackson, Crystal R; Krzykwa, Julie; Hemmer, Becky L; Awkerman, Jill A; Barron, Mace G

    2014-10-01

    Embryonic exposures to the components of petroleum, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cause a characteristic suite of developmental defects and cardiotoxicity in a variety of fish species. We exposed zebrafish embryos to reference sediment mixed with laboratory weathered South Louisiana crude oil and to sediment collected from an oiled site in Barataria Bay, Louisiana in December 2010. Laboratory oiled sediment exposures caused a reproducible set of developmental malformations in zebrafish embryos including yolk sac and pericardial edema, craniofacial and spinal defects, and tissue degeneration. Dose-response studies with spiked sediment showed that total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (tPAH) concentrations of 27mg tPAH/kg (dry weight normalized to 1 percent organic carbon [1 percent OC]) caused a significant increase in defects, and concentrations above 78mg tPAH/kg 1 percent OC caused nearly complete embryo mortality. No toxicity was observed in Barataria sediment with 2mg tPAH/kg 1 percent OC. Laboratory aging of spiked sediment at 4°C resulted in a nearly 10-fold decrease in sensitivity over a 40-day period. This study demonstrates oiled sediment as an exposure pathway to fish with dose-dependent effects on embryogenesis that are consistent with PAH mechanisms of developmental toxicity. The results have implications for effects on estuarine fish from oiled coastal areas during the Deepwater Horizon spill.

  15. Comparative assessment of the trace-element composition of coals, crude oils, and oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    M.Y. Shpirt; S.A. Punanova

    2007-10-15

    A comparative analysis of the amounts of 42 trace elements in coals, crude oils, and oil and black shales was performed. The degree of concentration of trace elements by caustobioliths and their ashes relative to their abundance in argillaceous rocks and the Earth's crust was calculated. Typomorphic trace elements were distinguished, of which many turned out to be common for the different kinds of caustobioliths in question. The trace elements were classified according to their concentration factors in different caustobioliths. The ash of crude oils is enriched in trace elements (Cs, V, Mo, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Hg, Se, Cr, Co, Ni, U) to the greatest extent (concentration factor above 3.5) and that of oil shales is enriched to the least extent (Re, Cs, Hg, Se). The ratios between typomorphic trace elements in general strongly differ from those in the Earth's crust and argillaceous rocks and are not identical in different caustobioliths. Quantitative parameters that make it possible to calculate a change in these ratios on passing from one caustobiolith type to another were proposed and the relative trace-element affinity of different caustobioliths was estimated.

  16. An FTIR method for the analysis of crude and heavy fuel oil asphaltenes to assist in oil fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Riley, Brenden J; Lennard, Chris; Fuller, Stephen; Spikmans, Val

    2016-09-01

    A proof-of-concept spectroscopic method for crude and heavy fuel oil asphaltenes was developed to complement existing methods for source determination of oil spills. Current methods rely on the analysis of the volatile fraction of oils by Gas Chromatography (GC), whilst the non-volatile fraction, including asphaltenes, is discarded. By discarding the non-volatile fraction, important oil fingerprinting information is potentially lost. Ten oil samples representing various geographical regions were used in this study. The asphaltene fraction was precipitated from the oils using excess n-pentane, and analysed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Based on visual interpretation of FTIR spectra along with peak height ratio comparisons, all ten oil samples could be differentiated from one another. Furthermore, ATR-FTIR was not able to differentiate a weathered crude oil sample from its source sample, demonstrating significant potential for the application of asphaltenes in oil fingerprinting.

  17. A reexamination of the crude oil price-unemployment relationship in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.D.; Boyd, R.

    1996-04-01

    This study begins by asking whether fluctuations in the price of crude oil have affected employment and the rate of unemployment in the US. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between the rate of unemployment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impact of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in unemployment is exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in unemployment and the volatility of the price of crude oil and the percentage change in gross national product is examined.

  18. Nonlinear joint dynamics between prices of crude oil and refined products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Guofeng; Liu, Guangsheng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices. We find that nonlinear correlations are stronger in the long-term than in the short-term. Crude oil and product prices are cointegrated and financial crisis in 2007-2008 caused a structural break of the cointegrating relationship. Moreover, different from the findings in most studies, we reveal that the relationships are almost symmetric based on a threshold error correction model. The so-called 'asymmetric relationships' are caused by some outliers and financial crisis. Most of the time, crude oil prices play the major role in the adjustment process of the long-term equilibrium. However, refined product prices dominated crude oil prices during the period of financial crisis. Important policy and risk management implications can be learned from the empirical findings.

  19. The impact of crude-oil price volatility on agricultural employment in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-12-31

    This study focuses on the impact of fluctuations in the price of crude oil on agricultural employment in the United States. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between agricultural employment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impacts of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in agricultural employment are exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in agricultural employment and the volatility of the price of crude oil, the percentage changes in expected net farm income, realized technological innovation, and the wage rate is examined.

  20. PETROLEUM REFINERY OPERATIONS SCHEDULING. CHAPTER III. A CRUDE OIL ALLOCATION PROBLEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    mathematical technique used takes notice of the net realization estimates that are available in large integrated companies and also handles the question of crude oil availabilities and of primary distillation capacities.

  1. Influence of UVB radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to planktonic copepod nauplii.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Harvey, Tracy E; Connelly, Tara L; Baca, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to naupliar stages of the planktonic copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Low concentrations of dispersed crude oil (1 μL L(-1)) caused a significant reduction in survival, growth and swimming activity of copepod nauplii after 48 h of exposure. UVB radiation increased toxicity of dispersed crude oil by 1.3-3.8 times, depending on the experiment and measured variables. Ingestion of crude oil droplets may increase photoenhanced toxicity of crude oil to copepod nauplii by enhancing photosensitization. Photoenhanced sublethal toxicity was significantly higher when T. turbinata nauplii were exposed to dispersant-treated oil than crude oil alone, suggesting that chemical dispersion of crude oil may promote photoenhanced toxicity to marine zooplankton. Our results demonstrate that acute exposure to concentrations of dispersed crude oil and dispersant (Corexit 9500) commonly found in the sea after oil spills are highly toxic to copepod nauplii and that natural levels of UVB radiation substantially increase the toxicity of crude oil to these planktonic organisms. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering sunlight in petroleum toxicological studies and models to better estimate the impact of crude oil spills on marine zooplankton.

  2. Wetting behavior of selected crude oil/brine/rock systems. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Morrow, N.R.; Ma, S.

    1996-12-31

    Previous studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) and related ensembles showed that wettability and its effect on oil recovery depend on numerous complex interactions. In the present work, the wettability of COBR ensembles prepared using Prudhoe Bay crude oil, a synthetic formation brine, and Berea Sandstone was varied by systematic change in initial water saturation and length of aging time at reservoir temperature (88 C). All displacement tests were run at ambient temperature. Various degrees of water wetness were achieved and quantified by a modified Amott wettability index to water, the relative pseudo work of imbibition, and a newly defined apparent advancing dynamic contact angle. Pairs of spontaneous imbibition (oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition of water) and waterflood (oil recovery vs. pore volumes of water injected) curves were measured for each of the induced wetting states. Several trends were observed. Imbibition rate, and hence water wetness, decreased with increase in aging time and with decrease in initial water saturation. Breakthrough recoveries and final oil recovery by waterflooding increased with decrease in water wetness. Correlations between water wetness and oil recovery by waterflooding and spontaneous imbibition are presented.

  3. Gel chromatographic isolation of resins and asphaltene material in crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, A.

    1982-01-01

    A new method is described for fast, simple, and quantitative isolation of high molecular resinous and asphaltene material in crude oils without any alteration of the petroleum constituents. The method is based on gel permeation on Sephadex LH-20 using chloroform as the mobile phase which isolates the high molecular weight resins and asphaltene material from the remainder of the crude oil, and a subsequent gel filtration on Sephadex LH-60 separates resins from asphaltenes if required.

  4. A study on chaos in crude oil markets before and after 2008 international financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate existence of chaos in crude oil markets (Brent and WTI) before and after recent 2008 international financial crisis. Largest Lyapunov exponent is estimated for prices, returns, and volatilities. The empirical results show strong evidence that chaos does not exist in prices and returns in both crude oil markets before and after international crisis. However, we find strong evidence of chaotic dynamics in both Brent and WTI volatilities after international financial crisis.

  5. Hydrobiogeochemical controls on a low-carbon emitting energy extraction mechanism: exploring methanogenic crude oil biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Jenna; McIntosh, Jennifer; Akob, Denise; Spear, John; Warwick, Peter; McCray, John

    2016-04-01

    Exploiting naturally-occurring microbial communities in the deep subsurface could help mitigate the effects of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. These microbial communities, a combination of methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, can perform methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, namely the conversion of crude oil to natural gas, and have also been detected in biodegraded, methanogenic reservoirs. These microbes could target residual crude oil, a high-carbon, hard-to-obtain fossil fuel source, and convert it to natural gas, effectively "producing" a lower CO2 per BTU fuel source. Yet, little is known about what geochemical parameters are driving microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs, and how the presence of specific microbial communities may impact methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. To investigate methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, 22 wells along a subsurface hydrogeochemical gradient in the southeastern USA were sampled for DNA analysis of the microbial community, and geochemical analysis of produced water and crude oil. A statistical comparison of microbial community structure to formation fluid geochemical parameters, amount of crude oil biodegradation, and relative extent of methanogenesis revealed that relative degree of biodegradation (high, medium, or low), chloride concentration (550 mM to 2100 mM), well depth (393 m to 1588 m), and spatial location within the reservoir (i.e., oil field location) are the major drivers of microbial diversity. There was no statistical evidence for correlation between extent of methanogenesis and the subsurface community composition. Despite the dominance of methanogens in these sampled wells, methanogenic activity was not predicted solely based on the microbial community composition. Crude oil biodegradation, however, correlates with both community composition and produced water geochemistry, suggesting a co-linear system and implying that microbial communities associated with degree

  6. Wettability Behavior of Crude Oil-Silica Nanofluids-Sandstone Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lingyun; Li, Chunyan; Pales, Ashley; Huibers, Britta; Ladner, David; Daigle, Hugh; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Mobilizing and recovering crude oils from geological formations is critical for the management and exploitation of petroleum reservoirs. Nanoparticles, with their unique physico-chemical properties can increase the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by decreasing interfacial tension (IFT) between the oil and aqueous phase systems, and altering rock wettability. Our research examines the potential use of nanoparticles as a means of EOR by studying the influence of silicon oxide (SIO2) nanoparticles on the wettability and interfacial tension of different crude oil-silica nanofluids-sandstone systems. We designed nanofluid treatments to manipulate changes in wettability of Berea and Boise sandstones simulating petroleum reservoir. Experiments were performed to measure the IFT and wettability involving different concentrations of nanoparticles with and without the addition of surfactant to determine which nanofluids produced the most favorable wettability changes for optimal EOR with light crude oil (e.g., West Texas, API: 40), medium crude oil (Prudhoe Bay, API: 28), and heavy crude oil (e.g., Lloydminster, API: 20). We investigated the addition of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant to the nanoparticle dispersions - made from SiO2 nanoparticles - that allows the optimum mobility in porous media through optimization of interfacial tension (IFT) and contact angle, and conducted tests. Batch studies were conducted to measure the IFT and wettability of the nanofluids of different range of nanoparticle concentrations (0-0.1 wt. %) in different reservoir conditions, i.e. brine and brine-surfactant systems made with 5% brine and 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactants. The dynamic behavior of IFT was monitored using a pendant drop method. Five percent brine-nanoparticle systems containing 0.001 and 0.01 wt.% of nanoparticles resulted in a significant decrease of IFT for light and medium crude oils, while the highest decrease of IFT for heavy crude oil was observed with 0.1 wt

  7. Optimization of crude oil degradation by Dietzia cinnamea KA1, capable of biosurfactant production.

    PubMed

    Kavynifard, Amirarsalan; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of a crude oil degrader and biosurfactant-producing bacterium, along with optimization of conditions for crude oil degradation. Among 11 isolates, 5 were able to emulsify crude oil in Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) among which one isolate, named KA1, showed the highest potency for growth rate and biodegradation. The isolate was identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal conditions were 510 mM NaCl, pH 9.0, 35 °C, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4 Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2 PO4 . Gravimetric test and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy technique (GC-MS) showed that Dietzia cinnamea KA1 was able to utilize and degrade 95.7% of the crude oil after 5 days, under the optimal conditions. The isolate was able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil, glycerol or whey as the sole carbon sources, but bacterial growth was occurred using molasses with no biosurfactant production. This is the first report of biosurfactant production by D. cinnamea using crude oil, glycerol and whey and the first study to report a species of Dietzia degrading a wide range of hydrocarbons in a short time.

  8. Characteristics of Newly Isolated Geobacillus sp. ZY-10 Degrading Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yumei; Ning, Zhanguo; Yang, Fan; Li, Xianzhen

    2015-01-01

    An obligately thermophilic strain ZY-10 was isolated from the crude oil in a high-temperature oilfield, which was capable of degrading heavy crude oil. Phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the isolate should be grouped in the genus Geobacillus, which shared thd highest similarity (99%) of the 16S rDNA sequence to Geobacillus stearothermophilus. However, the major cellular fatty acid iso-15:0 (28.55%), iso-16:0 (24.93%), iso-17:0 (23.53%) and the characteristics including indole production, tolerance to NaN3 and carbohydrate fermentation showed some difference from the recognized species in the genus Geobacillus. The isolate could use tridecane, hexadecane, octacosane and hexatridecane as sole carbon source for cell growth, and the digesting rate of long-chain alkane was lower than that of short-chain alkane. When the isolate was cultured in the heavy crude oil supplement with inorganic salts and trace yeast extract, the concentration of short-chain alkane was significantly increased and the content of long-chain alkane was decreased, suggesting that the larger hydrocarbon components in crude oil were degraded into shorter-chain alkane. Strain ZY-10 would be useful for improving the mobility of crude oil and upgrading heavy crude oil in situ.

  9. Genotoxic and morphological damage in Hippocampus reidi exposed to crude oil.

    PubMed

    Cariello Delunardo, Frederico Augusto; Ferreira da Silva, Bruno; Paulino, Marcelo Gustavo; Narciso Fernandes, Marisa; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana Regina

    2013-01-01

    The present article investigates the responses of Hippocampus reidi exposed to crude oil (10mL/L) for time periods that are characteristic of acute (12, 24, 48 and 96h) and subchronic (168 and 336h) and its recovery at 168h, such as to assess H. reidi as a good sentinel species. These responses were examined by genotoxic and morphologic analyses. There was a control group (n=8) for each group exposed to crude oil (n=8). The results revealed the occurrence of genotoxic damage in erythrocytes of all specimens exposed to crude oil. The damage index (DI) observed for all exposure times were significantly higher compared to those of the respective control groups; the highest DI was observed in specimens exposed to crude oil for 168h. The group exposed to crude oil for 96h had the highest values of micronuclei than all other exposure times. Microscopic inspection of the H. reidi gills revealed the presence of several histopathological changes, all of which were minor severity (structural normal gills). The recovery experiment revealed a significant reduction in genotoxic damages, however the period of 168h was not sufficient to recuperate the histopathology damages. The Seahorse has presented significant genotoxic responses after exposure to crude oil. Furthermore, it is a sedentary fish and is widely distributed; in conclusion this specie can be considered an excellent sentinel organism.

  10. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  11. Adsorption of crude and engine oils from water using raw rice husk.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Zahra; Mirghaffari, Nourollah; Rezaei, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    The raw rice husk (RRH) was used as a low cost adsorbent to remove three oil compounds with different viscosities (crude oil, engine oil and spent engine oil) from an aqueous environment. Some of the sorbent specifications were characterized using a CHNSO analyzer, Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. With decreasing RRH particles size, the oil adsorption percentage was reduced for crude, spent and engine oils from 50 to 30%, 65 to 20% and 70 to 0.01%, respectively. This was probably due to damage of the microcavities. The removal percentage by sorbent at optimized conditions was 88, 80 and 55% for engine, spent and crude oils, respectively, corresponding to their descending viscosity. The adsorption of crude and spent oils on rice husk followed the Freundlich isotherm model, while the adsorption of engine oil was fitted by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), calculated from the Langmuir model for the adsorption of engine oil on RRH, was 1,250 mg/g.

  12. Finding the multipath propagation of multivariable crude oil prices using a wavelet-based network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaoliang; An, Haizhong; Sun, Xiaoqi; Huang, Xuan; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-04-01

    The globalization and regionalization of crude oil trade inevitably give rise to the difference of crude oil prices. The understanding of the pattern of the crude oil prices' mutual propagation is essential for analyzing the development of global oil trade. Previous research has focused mainly on the fuzzy long- or short-term one-to-one propagation of bivariate oil prices, generally ignoring various patterns of periodical multivariate propagation. This study presents a wavelet-based network approach to help uncover the multipath propagation of multivariable crude oil prices in a joint time-frequency period. The weekly oil spot prices of the OPEC member states from June 1999 to March 2011 are adopted as the sample data. First, we used wavelet analysis to find different subseries based on an optimal decomposing scale to describe the periodical feature of the original oil price time series. Second, a complex network model was constructed based on an optimal threshold selection to describe the structural feature of multivariable oil prices. Third, Bayesian network analysis (BNA) was conducted to find the probability causal relationship based on periodical structural features to describe the various patterns of periodical multivariable propagation. Finally, the significance of the leading and intermediary oil prices is discussed. These findings are beneficial for the implementation of periodical target-oriented pricing policies and investment strategies.

  13. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Final report, October 16, 1978-August 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; King, C.F.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Eight crude oils (Southern Louisiana Petroleum, H Coal Syncrude, H Coal Fuel Oil, SRC II, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Paraho Shale Oil and Geokinetics in situ Shale Oil) were distilled into, or have been received, as four fractions for analysis and screening for biological (mutagenicity and tumor initiating) activity. Results of selected analytical tests have been obtained on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Salmonella typhimurium mutation assay and an accelerated tumor initiation-promotion test have been run on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Low boiling (naphtha) fractions of all eight materials showed little or no mutagenicity or skin tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil samples, the latter were similar to the petroleum controls. Few differences were apparent in biological activity between coal derived samples of equivalent boiling range among the various coal liquefaction processes, except that the SRC II naphtha sample showed a degree of acute toxicity through skin absorption not exhibited by the other samples. Generally the results agreed closely for the various samples between the salmonella mutation assay with activation and the skin tumor initiation test.

  14. Effects of Crude Oil, Dispersant, and Oil-Dispersant Mixtures on Human Fecal Microbiota in an In Vitro Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Nam; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Seong-Jae; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 raised concerns that dispersant and dispersed oil, as well as crude oil itself, could contaminate shellfish and seafood habitats with hazardous residues that had potential implications for human health and the ecosystem. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the human fecal microbiota. The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil, Corexit 9500 dispersant, and their combination on human fecal microbial communities, using an in vitro culture test system. Fecal specimens from healthy adult volunteers were made into suspensions, which were then treated with oil, dispersant, or oil-dispersant mixtures under anaerobic conditions in an in vitro culture test system. Perturbations of the microbial community, compared to untreated control cultures, were assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, and pyrosequencing methods. DGGE and pyrosequencing analysis showed that oil-dispersant mixtures reduced the diversity of fecal microbiota from all individuals. Real-time PCR results indicated that the copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes in cultures treated with dispersed oil or oil alone were significantly lower than those in control incubations. The abundance of the Bacteroidetes decreased in crude oil-treated and dispersed-oil-treated cultures, while the Proteobacteria increased in cultures treated with dispersed oil. In conclusion, the human fecal microbiota was affected differently by oil and dispersed oil, and the influence of dispersed oil was significantly greater than that of either oil or dispersant alone compared to control cultures. PMID:23093387

  15. Three essays in corporate finance: Examining the influence of government ownership and evaluating crude oil arbitrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Kateryna

    The aim of this dissertation is twofold: first, to evaluate how governments influence firms in which they invest (chapters one and two), and second, to examine arbitrage in the crude oil market by investigating the relationship between crude oil inventories, physical prices, and financial prices (chapter three). In the first chapter (The Wealth Effects of Government Investment in Publicly Traded Firms), I study how government share ownership affects shareholder wealth. I find that government investments with higher likelihood of political interference have a negative influence on shareholder wealth, while the opposite is true for government investments with economic objectives. In the second chapter (Government Ownership and the Cost of Debt: Evidence form Government Investment in Publicly Traded Firms), I investigate how government share ownership affects the cost of debt of publicly traded firms. I find that government ownership generally leads to a higher cost of debt, except for times of economic and firm distress, when the value of the implicit government guarantee is associated with a reduction in the cost of debt. In the third chapter (Financial Trading, Spot Oil Prices, and Inventory: Evidence from the U.S. Crude Oil Market), I confirm the existence of an active cash and carry market in crude oil in Cushing, OK, the main U.S. crude oil futures settlement location. In other words, crude oil inventories in Cushing, but not in any other U.S. crude oil storage locations, are explained by the spread between the financial and the physical price of oil in addition to operational factors.

  16. Utilization of alkylbenzenes during anaerobic growth of pure cultures of denitrifying bacteria on crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rabus, R.; Widdel, F.

    1996-04-01

    Leakage from oil pipelines and underground fuel tanks may result in contamination of soils and deeper horizons. Even though the equilibrium partitioning of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) between oil and water is largely on the side of the hydrophobic phase, BTEX exhibit a certain water solubility higher than other oil hydrocarbons. This study evaluates the growth of four strains of denitrifying bacteria on crude oil and the resulting, strain-specific depletion of alkylbenzenes.

  17. Geophysical and geochemical characterization and delineation of a crude oil spill in a highly saline environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Cameron Stuart

    Geophysical and geochemical methods were used at Grand Terre 1 (GT1) Island off the coast of Louisiana, an island that had been heavily contaminated with crude oil associated with the April 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Electrical methods and aqueous geochemistry have proven sensitive in the detection of contaminates, as well as the biological and chemical processes associated with the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. However, to the author's knowledge, all of these studies have dealt with mature (or aged) spills within a freshwater environment. The BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill therefor provided a unique opportunity to not only use traditional geophysical and geochemical methods to characterize and delineate fresh crude oil in a highly saline environment and to capture the early time biogeophysical signals resulting from the physical, chemical, and microbial transformation of crude oil in a highly saline environment. Electrical resistivity and electromagnetic methods were used. Barometric pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity, and water level values for the shallow groundwater were continuously logged. Geochemical analysis was performed on water samples collected from piezometers networks installed in the impacted, transitional, and background areas. Sediment cores were retrieved throughout the site and used for grain size analysis, magnetic susceptibility, total organic and inorganic carbon, and x-ray fluorescence. Soil samples were collected for microbial analyses from the impacted and background areas. Microcosms were set up to determine the microbial diversity analysis was used to determine microbial community composition, and biodegradation potential of indigenous populations. Based on the geochemical, microbial, and soil analysis, the relatively higher apparent resistivity anomaly observed between the depths of 0.20 m to 1.20 m bgs could be explained by two scenarios(1): elevated resistivity was caused by gas in the

  18. Crude oil specific gravity sensor design using polymer optical fiber with structural imperfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistianto, Junivan; Hatta, Agus M.; Sekartedjo, Ir.

    2016-11-01

    Crude oil is a products of oil and gas industries. One of the parameters which has in crude oil is specific gravity. In the oil and gas industries, specific gravity is used to classify crude oil which to be produced. specific gravity can be measured using ASTM D-1298 method. Disadvantage of this method is there are need of special environments and still using manual transcription. This research has been conducted a crude oil specific gravity sensor design by implementing structural imperfect to improve the performance of specific gravity sensors. In this research, polymer optical fiber is used as a sensor to measure specific gravity of crude oil. There are three variation of the amount of defect that were used in this research. Sample which used in this research has span of specific gravity value from 0,842218 to 0,9097. Based on the result, sensor with 3 imperfect structure have the best performance with linearity coefficient value 0,9438 and the span of measurement is 1,75792 dBm.

  19. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development

    PubMed Central

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7–7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish. PMID:27506155

  20. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development.

    PubMed

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-08-10

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7-7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish.

  1. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7–7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish.

  2. Developmental toxicity in flounder embryos exposed to crude oils derived from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Kwang-Min; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Moonkoo

    2017-03-06

    Crude oils from distinct geographical regions have distinct chemical compositions, and, as a result, their toxicity may be different. However, developmental toxicity of crude oils derived from different geographical regions has not been extensively characterized. In this study, flounder embryos were separately exposed to effluents contaminated by three crude oils including: Basrah Light (BLO), Pyrenees (PCO), and Sakhalin Vityaz (SVO), in addition to a processed fuel oil (MFO-380), to measure developmental toxicity and for gene expressions. Each oil possessed a distinct chemical composition. Edema defect was highest in embryos exposed to PCO and MFO-380 that both have a greater fraction of three-ring PAHs (33% and 22%, respectively) compared to BLO and SVO. Observed caudal fin defects were higher in embryos exposed to SVO and MFO-380, which are both dominated by naphthalenes (81% and 52%, respectively). CYP1A gene expressions were also highest in embryos exposed to SVO and MFO-380. Higher incidence of cardiotoxicity and lower nkx 2.5 expression were detected in embryos exposed to PCO. Unique gene expression profiles were observed in embryos exposed to crude oils with distinct compositions. This study demonstrates that crude oils of different geographical origins with different compositional characteristics induce developmental toxicity to different degrees.

  3. Laboratory studies on secondary organic aerosol formation from crude oil vapors.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Palm, B B; Borbon, A; Graus, M; Warneke, C; Ortega, A M; Day, D A; Brune, W H; Jimenez, J L; de Gouw, J A

    2013-01-01

    Airborne measurements of aerosol composition and gas phase compounds over the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in June 2010 indicated the presence of high concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from organic compounds of intermediate volatility. In this work, we investigated SOA formation from South Louisiana crude oil vapors reacting with OH in a Potential Aerosol Mass flow reactor. We use the dependence of evaporation time on the saturation concentration (C*) of the SOA precursors to separate the contribution of species of different C* to total SOA formation. This study shows consistent results with those at the DWH oil spill: (1) organic compounds of intermediate volatility with C* = 10(5)-10(6) μg m(-3) contribute the large majority of SOA mass formed, and have much larger SOA yields (0.37 for C* = 10(5) and 0.21 for C* = 10(6) μg m(-3)) than more volatile compounds with C*≥10(7) μg m(-3), (2) the mass spectral signature of SOA formed from oxidation of the less volatile compounds in the reactor shows good agreement with that of SOA formed at DWH oil spill. These results also support the use of flow reactors simulating atmospheric SOA formation and aging.

  4. Partition behaviour of alkylphenols in crude oil/brine systems under subsurface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, B.; Larter, S. R.

    1997-10-01

    Partition of organic solutes between oils and water in the subsurface is an important geochemical process occurring during petroleum migration and reservoiring, during water washing, and during petroleum production. Currently no data exists on the quantitative aspects of the partition process at subsurface conditions for solutes such as phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons which are major components of both oils and waters. We have constructed an equilibration device for oils and waters based on flow injection analysis principles to measure partition coefficients of alkylphenols in crude oil/brine systems under reservoir conditions. Concentrations of C 0C 2 alkylphenols in waters and solid phase extracts of crude oils produced in the device were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (RP-HPLC-ED), partition coefficients being measured as a function of pressure (25-340 bar), temperature (25-150°C), and water salinity (0-100,000 mg/L sodium chloride) for a variety of oils. Partition coefficients for all compounds decreased with increasing temperature, increased with water salinity and crude oil bulk NSO content, and showed little change with varying pressure. These laboratory measurements, determined under conditions close to those typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, suggest temperature, water salinity, and crude oil bulk NSO content will have important influence on oil-water partition processes in the subsurface during migration and water washing.

  5. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  6. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    PubMed

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m(-1), with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L(-1). FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  7. Evaluation of the toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to surrogate wildlife species

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Prince, H.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) to avian and mammalian wildlife species were evaluated using the surrogate species, mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferret, Mustela putorius. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential for toxic (rather than physical) injury to wildlife species that may have been exposed to WEVC, either through external contact or through dietary uptake. Previous studies have assessed the toxicity of unweathered crude oils, including Alaska North Slope Crude, but little information exists regarding the toxicity of a naturally weathered crude oil, typical of that encountered following a spill. A battery of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted, in compliance with standard and published test procedures, to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity of WEVC. These included tests of food avoidance, reproductive effects, and direct eggshell application toxicity. Naturally weathered EVC, recovered postspill from Prince William Sound, was used as the test material. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Screening of crude oils for asphalt precipitation: Theory, practice, and the selection of inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, R.B. de; Leerlooyer, K.; Bergen, A.R.D. van ); Eigner, M.R.P.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes a simple method to screen crude oils for their tendency to precipitate asphalt, which may cause problems during production. The method is based on a thermodynamic model of asphalt solubility, derived earlier by Flory and Huggins. The most important parameters in this model are the Hildebrand solubility parameters for oil and asphaltene, and their molar volumes. The oil parameters can all be correlated with the in-situ density of the crude. It is shown that heavy crudes usually will give fewer problems with asphalt precipitation, despite their higher asphaltene content, certainly if the reservoir pressure is close to bubblepoint pressure. Consequently, the tendency for asphalt precipitation is mainly determined by three parameters: the extent to which the crude is undersaturated with gas, the density of the crude at reservoir conditions, and its saturation with asphalt at downhole conditions. Apart from the simple screening method, more elaborate methods are described to assess the potential for asphalt precipitation more accurately; asphaltene analysis on produced reservoir fluid and tank oil; n-heptane titration of the tank oil; visual inspection of a bottom-hole sample in a high-pressure cell during pressure reduction; and dynamic flow tests on tank oil after n-heptane addition.

  9. Multifractal analysis on international crude oil markets based on the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Rongbao; Chen, Hongtao; Wang, Yudong

    2010-07-01

    The multifractal nature of WTI and Brent crude oil markets is studied employing the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. We find that two crude oil markets become more and more efficient for long-term and two Gulf Wars cannot change time scale behavior of crude oil return series. Considering long-term influence caused by Gulf Wars, we find such “turning windows” in generalized Hurst exponents obtained from three periods divided by two Gulf Wars so that WTI and Brent crude oil returns possess different properties above and below the windows respectively. Comparing with the results obtained from three periods we conclude that, before the First Gulf War, international crude oil markets possessed the highest multifractality degree, small-scope fluctuations presented the strongest persistence and large-scope fluctuations presented the strongest anti-persistence. We find that, for two Gulf Wars, the first one made a greater impact on international oil markets; for two markets, Brent was more influenced by Gulf Wars. In addition, we also verified that the multifractal structures of two markets’ indices are not only mainly attributed to the broad fat-tail distributions and persistence, but also affected by some other factors.

  10. Partition coefficients as a measure of bioconcentration potential of crude oil compounds in fish and shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, M.; Fujisawa, K.; Ogino, Y.; Mano, E.

    1984-11-01

    This paper deals with the correlation between the partition coefficient and the concentration factor of alkyl benzenes in crude oil for gold fish and also the correlation between the partition coefficients and concentration factor of alkyl dibenzothiophene for shellfish reared in oil suspension and that caught in the sea.

  11. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water to be carried in cargo tanks: (i) With a total capacity to meet the draft and trim... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160...

  12. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ballast water to be carried in cargo tanks: (i) With a total capacity to meet the draft and trim... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160...

  13. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ballast water to be carried in cargo tanks: (i) With a total capacity to meet the draft and trim... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160...

  14. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ballast water to be carried in cargo tanks: (i) With a total capacity to meet the draft and trim... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160...

  15. Influence of crude oil on changes of bacterial communities in Arctic sea-ice.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Birte; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Dieckmann, Gerhard; Helmke, Elisabeth

    2005-06-01

    The danger of a petroleum hydrocarbon spillage in the polar, ice-covered regions is increasing due to oil exploration in Arctic offshore areas and a growing interest in using the Northern Sea Route (NSR) as an alternative transportation route for Arctic oil and gas. However, little is known about the potential impact of accidental oil spills on this environment. We investigated the impact of crude oil on microbial community composition in six different Arctic sea-ice samples incubated with crude oil at 1 degrees C in microcosms for one year. Alterations in the composition of bacterial communities were analyzed with the culture-independent molecular methods DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). DGGE, FISH and cultivation methods revealed a strong shift in community composition toward the gamma-proteobacteria in sea-ice and melt pool samples incubated with crude oil. Marinobacter spp., Shewanella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the predominant phylotypes in the oil-treated microcosms. The ability of indigenous sea-ice bacteria to degrade hydrocarbons at low temperature (1 degrees C) was tested using four representative strains cultivated from sea-ice enriched with crude oil. [14C]Hexadecane was degraded by the sea-ice isolates at 20-50% capacity of the mesophilic type strain Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, a known hydrocarbon degrader, incubated at 22 degrees C.

  16. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 157.10c(b)(2) does not have segregated ballast tanks or dedicated clean ballast tanks that meet § 157... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations §...

  17. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks... vessel having a COW system under § 157.10a(a)(2) or § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that— (1) Ballast...

  18. Identification of crude-oil components and microorganisms that cause souring under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, R; Toyama, K; Miyanaga, K; Tanji, Y

    2014-02-01

    Oil souring has important implications with respect to energy resources. Understanding the physiology of the microorganisms that play a role and the biological mechanisms are both important for the maintenance of infrastructure and mitigation of corrosion processes. The objective of this study was to identify crude-oil components and microorganisms in oil-field water that contribute to crude-oil souring. To identify the crude-oil components and microorganisms that are responsible for anaerobic souring in oil reservoirs, biological conversion of crude-oil components under anaerobic conditions was investigated. Microorganisms in oil field water in Akita, Japan degraded alkanes and aromatics to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under anaerobic conditions, and fermenting bacteria such as Fusibacter sp. were involved in VFA production. Aromatics such as toluene and ethylbenzene were degraded by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfotignum sp.) via the fumarate-addition pathway and not only degradation of VFA but also degradation of aromatics by sulfate-reducing bacteria was the cause of souring. Naphthenic acid and 2,4-xylenol were not converted.

  19. Dynamic Response of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Jae; Kweon, Ohgew; Sutherland, John B.; Kim, Hyun-Lee; Jones, Richard C.; Burback, Brian L.; Graves, Steven W.; Psurny, Edward

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the response of the hydrocarbon-degrading Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to crude oil from the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill, using substrate depletion, genomic, and proteome analyses. M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 cultures were incubated with BP DWH crude oil, and proteomes and degradation of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at four time points over 30 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a chain length-dependent pattern of alkane degradation, with C12 and C13 being degraded at the highest rate, although alkanes up to C28 were degraded. Whereas phenanthrene and pyrene were completely degraded, a significantly smaller amount of fluoranthene was degraded. Proteome analysis identified 3,948 proteins, with 876 and 1,859 proteins up- and downregulated, respectively. We observed dynamic changes in protein expression during BP crude oil incubation, including transcriptional factors and transporters potentially involved in adaptation to crude oil. The proteome also provided a molecular basis for the metabolism of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon components in the BP DWH crude oil, which included upregulation of AlkB alkane hydroxylase and an expression pattern of PAH-metabolizing enzymes different from those in previous proteome expression studies of strain PYR-1 incubated with pure or mixed PAHs, particularly the ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO) responsible for the initial oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on these results, a comprehensive cellular response of M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP crude oil was proposed. This study increases our fundamental understanding of the impact of crude oil on the cellular response of bacteria and provides data needed for development of practical bioremediation applications. PMID:25888169

  20. An in-situ electropolymerization based sensor for measuring salt content in crude oil.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, Rashed M; Akmal, Naim

    2015-01-01

    Determining salt content is a vital procedure in the petroleum industry during the process of crude oil transportation, refining and production. Monitoring the salinity value using a fast and direct technique can substantially lower the cost of crude oil in its processing and its production stages. In the present work, a novel analytical method was developed to detect the amount of salt present in crude oil in a quick and reliable manner. The measurement is based on the rate of in-situ electropolymerization of a monomer such as aniline in association with the salt content in the crude oil. The salt dispersed in the hydrocarbon matrix is used as an electrolyte in the electrolytic system to induce an electropolymerization reaction upon the induction of voltages, in which the salt content is measured corresponding to the polymeric film formation on the working electrode surface. Acetonitrile and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) were used in the electrochemical cell as solvents, and cyclic voltammetry tests were performed for Arabian crude oil solutions in the presence of aniline. The method has shown an excellent detection response for very low concentrations of salt. Four Arabian crude oils with salt concentrations of 34.2, 28.5, 14.3 and 5.71 mg L(-1) have produced current intensity of 180.1, 172.6, 148.1 and 134.2 µA at an applied current potential of 1.75 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively. A Calibration curve was obtained in the range of 5-35 mg L(-1), giving limits of detection and quantitation at 1.98 and 5.95 mg L(-1), respectively. The in-situ electropolymerization based sensor has significant advantages over the existing techniques of salt monitoring in crude oil such as fast response, temperature independency, electrode stability, and minimum sample preparation.

  1. Dynamic Response of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Jae; Kweon, Ohgew; Sutherland, John B; Kim, Hyun-Lee; Jones, Richard C; Burback, Brian L; Graves, Steven W; Psurny, Edward; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the response of the hydrocarbon-degrading Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to crude oil from the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill, using substrate depletion, genomic, and proteome analyses. M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 cultures were incubated with BP DWH crude oil, and proteomes and degradation of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at four time points over 30 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a chain length-dependent pattern of alkane degradation, with C12 and C13 being degraded at the highest rate, although alkanes up to C28 were degraded. Whereas phenanthrene and pyrene were completely degraded, a significantly smaller amount of fluoranthene was degraded. Proteome analysis identified 3,948 proteins, with 876 and 1,859 proteins up- and downregulated, respectively. We observed dynamic changes in protein expression during BP crude oil incubation, including transcriptional factors and transporters potentially involved in adaptation to crude oil. The proteome also provided a molecular basis for the metabolism of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon components in the BP DWH crude oil, which included upregulation of AlkB alkane hydroxylase and an expression pattern of PAH-metabolizing enzymes different from those in previous proteome expression studies of strain PYR-1 incubated with pure or mixed PAHs, particularly the ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO) responsible for the initial oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on these results, a comprehensive cellular response of M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP crude oil was proposed. This study increases our fundamental understanding of the impact of crude oil on the cellular response of bacteria and provides data needed for development of practical bioremediation applications.

  2. Influence of Sweet Crude Oil on Nucleation and Corrosion Resistance of Calcareous Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseinieh, S. M.; Shahrabi, T.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Farrokhi Rad, M.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of sweet crude oil on calcareous scale deposition under cathodic protection of carbon steel in artificial seawater was investigated using chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In the presence of crude oil, calcareous deposit formation is influenced in terms of both kinetic and nucleation mostly in high volume concentrations. It is indicated that the CaCO3 deposition is hindered by absorption of active surface compounds present in oil on to the surface mainly due to strong covalent bonding of aromatic compounds.

  3. Phytoremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil employing Crotalaria pallida Aiton.

    PubMed

    Baruah, P; Deka, S; Baruah, P P

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potentiality of a herb named Crotalaria pallida which are abundantly grown on crude oil-contaminated soil of oil field situated at upper Assam, India, so that this plant could be used to remediate hydrocarbon from contaminated soil. To evaluate the potentiality of the plant, a pot culture experiment was conducted taking 3 kg of rice field soil mixed with crude oil at a concentration of 10,000 (10 g/kg), 20,000 (20 g/kg), 30,000 (30 g/kg), 40,000 (40 g/kg), 50,000 (50 g/kg), 60,000 (60 g/kg), 70,000 (70 g/kg), 80,000 (80 g/kg), 90,000 (90 g/kg), and 100,000 (100 g/kg) ppm. Ten numbers of healthy seeds of C. pallida were sown in three pots of each concentration for germination, and after 15 days of germination, single healthy seedling in each pot was kept for the study. A control setup was also maintained without adding crude oil. The duration of the experiment was fixed for 6 months. The results showed that uptake of hydrocarbon by the plants was increased with increasing the concentration of crude oil in the soil up to 60,000 ppm. After that, uptake of hydrocarbon by the plants was found to be lower with increasing doses of crude oil concentration. Uptake of hydrocarbon by the shoot was found to be maximum, i.e., 35,018 ppm in 60,000 ppm concentration. Dissipation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from the soil was also gradually increased with increasing concentration of crude oil in the soil up to 60,000 ppm. Maximum dissipation, i.e., 78.66 %, occurred in 60,000 ppm concentration of crude oil-mixed soil. The plant could not survive in 100,000 ppm concentration of crude oil-mixed soil. The results also demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with an increase of crude oil concentration. Furthermore, results revealed that the shoot biomass was higher than root biomass in all the treatments.

  4. Measurement of asphaltene particle size distributions in crude oils diluted with n-heptane

    SciTech Connect

    Ferworn, K.A.; Svrcek, W.Y.; Mehrotra, A.K. )

    1993-05-01

    The formation and growth of asphaltene particles from heavy crude oils diluted with n-heptane at 22 C and atmospheric pressure was studied using a laser particle analyzer. The results obtained with six crude oil samples indicate that the asphaltene precipitation is an instantaneous process leading to a unimodal, log-normal distribution. At typical laboratory conditions, the particles remained essentially unaltered in size and population density. A vast majority of the particles were noted to be far from round in shape, with the mean particle size ranging from 4.5 to 291 [mu]m. It was found that the oil-to-diluent ratio is an important parameter in determining the size of the generated asphaltene particles; higher dilution ratios yielded larger particles. The mean asphaltene particle size was also found to increase with the average molar mass and the asphaltene content of crude oils.

  5. Inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    Results from a series of studies of methanogenic processes in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated aquifers indicated that acetoctastic methanogenesis is inhibited near non-aqueous sources. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At that site, acetoclastic methanogens were < 2/g within or near the oil where hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens were 10-100/g. The geochemical effect of this toxic inhibition was the buildup of low molecular weight volatile acids, particularly acetate. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity will result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  6. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  8. Toxicity of crude oil to the mayfly, Hexagenia bilineata (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ort, Mark P.; Finger, Susan E.; Jones, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of crude oil on survival and behavior of the mayfly Hexagenia bilineata were evaluated in laboratory studies. Mayfly nymphs were exposed to the water soluble and oil residue fractions of crude oil. Mayfly survival was not reduced by a 96-h exposure to either the water soluble fraction or the oil residue mixed with sediment. However, significant mortality did result from a 21-day exposure to oil residue mixed with sediment at concentrations as low as 500 μg g−1. Survival was also reduced after a 21-day exposure to oil-contaminated sediments (1905 μg g−1) collected 6 weeks after a crude oil spill in the Chariton River, Missouri. In a behavioral test measuring habitat exclusion, organisms did not avoid contact with sediment containing oil residue (50–800 μg g−1). Collectively, results from these studies indicate that exposure to oil residue in sediment will reduce survival of H. bilineata in the laboratory and may reduce survival in the environment for 6 weeks or more after an oil spill,

  9. Geochemical study of crude oils from the Xifeng oilfield of the Ordos basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Y.; Wang, C. Y.; Zheng, C. Y.; Wu, B. X.; Zheng, G. D.

    2008-01-01

    The Xifeng oilfield is the largest newly-discovered oilfield in the Ordos basin. In order to determine the possible source, crude oils collected systematically from the oilfield and an adjacent oilfield have been examined isotopically and molecularly. The predominance of long-chain n-alkanes, high abundance of C 29 sterane, lower ratios of C 25/C 26 tricyclic terpane and C 25 tricyclic terpane/C 24 tetracyclic terpane and high C 24 tetracyclic terpane/(C 24 tetracyclic terpane + C 26 tricyclic terpanes ratio in the studied oils suggest generation from a source with mixed terrigenous and algal-bacterial organic matter. The presence of diterpenoid hydrocarbon with abietane skeletons is characteristic of the main contribution of higher land plants to the oils. The biomarker distributions in the oils show that they were formed under a weakly reducing freshwater environment. Molecular maturity parameters indicate that the crude oils are mature. The oil-source rock correlation and oil migration investigation suggest that the oils in the Xifeng oilfield originated from the source rocks of the Yanchang formation deposited in a shallow to deep freshwater lacustrine environment, especially Chang-7 source rocks. The data from the distribution of pyrrolic nitrogen compounds indicate that the charging direction of the Chang-8 crude oils is mainly from the Zhuang 12 well northeast of the oilfield toward the southwest. This direction of oil migration is consistent with that indicated by regional geological data.

  10. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan

    2016-04-01

    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  11. BPO crude oil analysis data base user`s guide: Methods, publications, computer access correlations, uses, availability

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, C.; Fox, B.; Paulz, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has one of the largest and most complete collections of information on crude oil composition that is available to the public. The computer program that manages this database of crude oil analyses has recently been rewritten to allow easier access to this information. This report describes how the new system can be accessed and how the information contained in the Crude Oil Analysis Data Bank can be obtained.

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Key drivers for EIA's short-term U.S. crude oil production outlook

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil production increased by 790,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) between 2011 and 2012, the largest increase in annual output since the beginning of U.S. commercial crude oil production in 1859. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects U.S. crude oil production to continue rising over the next two years represented in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  13. Partition coefficients for acetic, propionic, and butyric acids in a crude oil/water system

    SciTech Connect

    Reinsel, M.A.; Borkowski, J.J.; Sears, J.T. . National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Biofilm Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic acid concentration on the partition coefficients for short-chain organic acids were measured in a crude oil/water system. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, as probable substrates for microbial souring of oil reservoirs, were used in conjunction with two types of crude oil. Temperatures of 35--75 C, pH values of 4.0--7.0, and acid concentrations of 10--1,000 mg/L were studied. Initial naturally occurring levels of organic acids in the crude oils were also determined. pH had by far the largest effect on the partition coefficient for all three organic acids for both types oil. At conditions normally seen in an oil reservoir (pH 5--7), the great percentage (85+%) of these acids were dissolved in the aqueous phase. The log of the partition coefficient K increased approximately linearly with the number of carbon atoms in the acid. It was seen that organic acids are readily available carbon sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at normal reservoir conditions, and that crude oil may provide a source of organic acids in a low-pH, water-flooded reservoir.

  14. Washing of field weathered crude oil contaminated soil with an environmentally compatible surfactant, alkyl polyglucoside.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Ji, Guodong; Ni, Jinren

    2009-07-01

    Weathered crude oil contaminated soils (COCSs), which are much more difficult to remediate than those freshly contaminated, are widespread especially at the sites of oil fields and industries. Surfactant enhanced ex situ soil washing could be used to remediate COCSs, but surfactant toxicity becomes one of the major concerns. In this study, a class of green surfactants, alkyl polyglucosides (APGs), were tested in washing the field weathered COCS with relatively high oil concentration (123 mgg(-1) dry soil) from Jilin Oilfield, Northeastern China. APG1214, characterized with longer alkyl chain, was more effective than APG0810 in crude oil removal. Adding inorganic sodium salts into APG1214 solution further improved the crude oil removal efficiency (CORE). Washing parameters (temperature, washing time, agitation speed and solution/soil ratio) were investigated and further optimized integratedly with an orthogonal design. At the optimum conditions, the CORE reached 97%. GC/MS analysis showed that the proportion of small n-alkanes (C(16)-C(23)) in residual crude oil gradually increased, which was helpful to interpret the oil removal mechanism. Moreover, eminent effect on removal of large n-alkanes was achieved from the synergy between APG1214 and inorganic salts, which was opposite to the effect when they were added separately. This study demonstrated a promising way to remediate COCS with ecologically compatible surfactant and provided guidelines for its practical application.

  15. Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Chao; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wang, Jia-Ning; Li, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zeng, De-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil is essential to maintain the sustainable development of soil ecosystem. Bioremediation using microorganisms and plants is a promising method for the degradation of crude oil contaminants. The effects of different remediation treatments, including nitrogen addition, Suaeda salsa planting, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi inoculation individually or combined, on crude oil contaminated saline soil were assessed using a microcosm experiment. The results showed that different remediation treatments significantly affected the physicochemical properties, oil contaminant degradation and bacterial community structure of the oil contaminated saline soil. Nitrogen addition stimulated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon significantly at the initial 30d of remediation. Coupling of different remediation techniques was more effective in degrading crude oil contaminants. Applications of nitrogen, AM fungi and their combination enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency of S. salsa significantly. The main bacterial community composition in the crude oil contaminated saline soil shifted with the remediation processes. γ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the pioneer oil-degraders at the initial stage, and Firmicutes were considered to be able to degrade the recalcitrant components at the later stage.

  16. Number of oil-killed birds and fate of bird carcasses at crude oil pits in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Bunck, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    A survey was taken of bird losses in crude oil pits near the central Texas Gulf Coast and in northwestern Texas. At one pit near the Texas Coast, 297 bird carcasses (largely ducks) were counted. Duck losses from oil pollution in northwestern Texas occurred largely in playa basins of the Permian Basin south of the Panhandle. To determine the fate of birds that die in oil pits, 40 carcasses of nine bird species were placed in two crude oil pits near the central Texas Coast in October (19) 1981 and December (15) 1981 and April (6) 1982 and studied for 5 months. Rate of sinking and disappearance of carcasses were positively related to carcass size. In a comparison of three seasons, the time required for a carcass to disappear was longer in winter when oil temperatures were lowest and shorter in spring and fall when oil temperatures were highest.

  17. Geochemical studies of crude oil generation, migration, and destruction in Mississippi salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R.; Moore, C.H.; Nunn, J.A.; Meendsen, F.C.; Heydari, E.

    1987-09-01

    The main source for crude oil in the Mississippi salt basin is the laminated lime mudstone facies of the lower Smackover. Crude oil generation and migration commenced at a level of thermal maturity equivalent to about 0.55% vitrinite reflectance. Short-range lateral migration of crude oil was focused on upper Smackover and Norphlet reservoirs, but vertical migration also charged some overlying Cotton Valley, Rodessa, lower Tuscaloosa, and Eutaw reservoirs. Following migration from the lower Smackover, thermal maturity history of reservoir rocks controls the preservation of crude oil, gas condensate, and methane. Slow thermal cracking of crude oil occurred in deep upper Smackover reservoirs, resulting in formation of gas condensate and precipitation of solid bitumen. The maximum thermal maturity for preservation of condensate is equivalent to about 1.3% vitrinite reflectance. Only methane, pyrobitumen, and nonhydrocarbon gases, including hydrogen sulfide, persist at higher levels of thermal maturity. Early destruction of methane in deep upper Smackover reservoirs near the Wiggins arch is driven by thermochemical sulfate reduction. Lesser availability of sulfate in Norphlet reservoirs could account for methane preservation at higher levels of thermal maturity. One basic geochemical strategy for further exploration of the Mississippi salt basin is to focus exploration effort on traps with reservoirs in the thermal maturity window for hydrocarbon preservation. Another strategy is to avoid drilling traps with overmature reservoir rocks.

  18. Feasibility of low frequency ultrasound for water removal from crude oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Antes, Fabiane G; Diehl, Liange O; Pereira, Juliana S F; Guimarães, Regina C L; Guarnieri, Ricardo A; Ferreira, Bianca M S; Dressler, Valderi L; Flores, Erico M M

    2015-07-01

    The feasibility of indirect application of low frequency ultrasound for demulsification of crude oil was investigated without using chemical demulsifiers. Experiments were performed in an ultrasonic bath with frequency of 35 kHz. Synthetic emulsions with water content of 12%, 35% and 50% and median of droplet size distribution (DSD), median D(0.5), of 5, 10 and 25 μm were prepared from crude oil with API density of 19 (heavy crude oil) and submitted to the proposed ultrasound-assisted demulsification procedure. Experimental conditions as temperature, time of exposition to ultrasound and ultrasonic power were evaluated. Separation of water from crude oil emulsion was observed for all emulsions investigated. Demulsification efficiency up to 65% was obtained for emulsion with 50% of water content and DSD of 10 μm. Higher efficiency of demulsification was achieved using US temperature of 45 °C and ultrasound power of 160 W by 15 min. Results obtained in this study showed that ultrasound could be considered a promising technology for industrial crude oil treatment and respective water removal.

  19. The Effects of Biodiesel and Crude Oil on the Foraging Behavior of Rusty Crayfish, Orconectes rusticus.

    PubMed

    Jurcak, Ana M; Gauthier, Steven J; Moore, Paul A

    2015-11-01

    Environmental pollutants, such as crude oil and other petroleum-based fuels, inhibit and limit an organism's ability to perceive a chemical stimulus. Despite the increased use of alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, there have been few studies investigating the impact of these chemicals on the behavior of aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the sublethal effects of biodiesel and crude oil exposure on chemically mediated behaviors in a freshwater keystone species. Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) were tested on their ability to respond appropriately to a positive chemical stimulus within a Y-maze choice paradigm. Behavior was quantified by measuring time spent finding an odor source, duration of time spent at the odor source, percentage of crayfish that found the odor source, and percentage of crayfish that chose the correct arm of the arena. Results indicated negative impacts of both biodiesel and crude oil on the ability of crayfish to locate the food source. However, there were no significant differences between behavioral performances when crayfish were exposed to crude oil compared with biodiesel. Thus, biodiesel and crude oil have equally negative effects on the chemosensory behavior of crayfish. These findings indicate that biodiesel has the potential to have similar negative ecological impacts as other fuel source toxins.

  20. Multiwall carbon nanotubes increase the microbial community in crude oil contaminated fresh water sediments.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Since crude oil contamination is one of the biggest environmental concerns, its removal from contaminated sites is of interest for both researchers and industries. In situ bioremediation is a promising technique for decreasing or even eliminating crude oil and hydrocarbon contamination. However, since these compounds are potentially toxic for many microorganisms, high loads of contamination can inhibit the microbial community and therefore reduce the removal rate. Therefore, any strategy with the ability to increase the microbial population in such circumstances can be of promise in improving the remediation process. In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes were employed to support microbial growth in sediments contaminated with crude oil. Following spiking of fresh water sediments with different concentrations of crude oil alone and in a mixture with carbon nanotubes for 30days, the microbial profiles in these sediments were obtained using FLX-pyrosequencing. Next, the ratios of each member of the microbial population in these sediments were compared with those values in the untreated control sediment. This study showed that combination of crude oil and carbon nanotubes can increase the diversity of the total microbial population. Furthermore, these treatments could increase the ratios of several microorganisms that are known to be effective in the degradation of hydrocarbons.

  1. Lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous source rocks in Louisiana and Mississippi: Implications to Gulf of Mexico crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R. )

    1990-06-01

    The Lower Tertiary Sparta Formation, Wilcox Group, and the Midway Group in southern Louisiana include organic-rich source facies that generate crude oil at relatively high thermal maturities. The Wilcox Group is an important source of Wilcox crude oil, and regional kerogen variations explain two crude oil subfamilies. Wilcox crude oils in downdip areas of southern Louisiana migrated short distances, but long-range lateral migration (about 150 km) best explains Wilcox crude oils far updip from mature source rocks. Crude oils in Oligocene and younger reservoirs in southern Louisiana migrated vertically from deep lower Tertiary source rocks. Some crude oils in Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa reservoirs were emplaced by long-range lateral migration from Tuscaloosa source rocks. Given little evidence of upper Tertiary source rocks and the overmaturity problems of Mesozoic source rocks, most crude oils in upper Tertiary and Pleistocene reservoirs of the Gulf continental shelf are best explained by vertical migration from deep lower Tertiary source rocks. Even so, it is simplistic to assume an exclusive lower Tertiary origin. Many Tertiary and Pleistocene crude oils of this study probably include an overprint of high-maturity hydrocarbons from Mesozoic sources. 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Families of miocene monterey crude oil, seep, and tarball samples, coastal California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, K.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs to better assess their origins and distributions in coastal California. These samples were used to construct a chemometric (multivariate statistical) decision tree to classify 288 additional samples. The results identify three tribes of 13C-rich oil samples inferred to originate from thermally mature equivalents of the clayey-siliceous, carbonaceous marl and lower calcareous-siliceous members of the Monterey Formation at Naples Beach near Santa Barbara. An attempt to correlate these families to rock extracts from these members in the nearby COST (continental offshore stratigraphic test) (OCS-Cal 78-164) well failed, at least in part because the rocks are thermally immature. Geochemical similarities among the oil tribes and their widespread distribution support the prograding margin model or the banktop-slope-basin model instead of the ridge-and-basin model for the deposition of the Monterey Formation. Tribe 1 contains four oil families having geochemical traits of clay-rich marine shale source rock deposited under suboxic conditions with substantial higher plant input. Tribe 2 contains four oil families with traits intermediate between tribes 1 and 3, except for abundant 28,30-bisnorhopane, indicating suboxic to anoxic marine marl source rock with hemipelagic input. Tribe 3 contains five oil families with traits of distal marine carbonate source rock deposited under anoxic conditions with pelagic but little or no higher plant input. Tribes 1 and 2 occur mainly south of Point Conception in paleogeographic settings where deep burial of the Monterey source rock favored petroleum generation from all three members or their equivalents. In this area, oil from the clayey-siliceous and carbonaceous marl members (tribes 1 and 2) may overwhelm that from the lower

  3. Geochemical changes in crude oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez supertanker into Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, Frances D.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.

    1994-01-01

    North Slope crude oil spilled from the T/V Exxon Valdez in March 1989 and contaminated about 500 km of Prince William Sound shoreline. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in oil samples collected in August 1990 and June 1992 from beaches on six islands impacted by the spill have been compared with the hydrocarbons from North Slope crude oil taken from the stricken tanker. Degradation processes have changed the physical appearance of this residual spilled oil; the beached oil as collected ranged from a light brown color, to a heavy black viscous oil, to a black, powder-like residue. In these physically different samples, terpane, sterane, and aromatic sterane distributions, as well as carbon isotope values, are similar and correlate with the original Exxon Valdez oil. On the other hand, n-alkanes, isoprenoids, and many of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are present in the original crude oil are dramatically altered in the oil samples collected from the beaches.

  4. Effects of a dual-pump crude-oil recovery system, Bemidji, Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.

    2014-01-01

    A crude-oil spill occurred in 1979 when a pipeline burst near Bemidji, MN. In 1998, the pipeline company installed a dual-pump recovery system designed to remove crude oil remaining in the subsurface at the site. The remediation from 1999 to 2003 resulted in removal of about 115,000 L of crude oil, representing between 36% and 41% of the volume of oil (280,000 to 316,000 L) estimated to be present in 1998. Effects of the 1999 to 2003 remediation on the dissolved plume were evaluated using measurements of oil thicknesses in wells plus measurements of dissolved oxygen in groundwater. Although the recovery system decreased oil thicknesses in the immediate vicinity of the remediation wells, average oil thicknesses measured in wells were largely unaffected. Dissolved-oxygen measurements indicate that a secondary plume was caused by disposal of the pumped water in an upgradient infiltration gallery; this plume expanded rapidly immediately following the start of the remediation in 1999. The result was expansion of the anoxic zone of groundwater upgradient and beneath the existing natural attenuation plume. Oil-phase recovery at this site was shown to be challenging, and considerable volumes of mobile and entrapped oil remain in the subsurface despite remediation efforts.

  5. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  6. Crude Oil Treatment Leads to Shift of Bacterial Communities in Soils from the Deep Active Layer and Upper Permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline Route

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils. PMID:24794099

  7. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Using Bacterium from the Coastal Sediments of Kish Island, Iran

    PubMed Central

    SADEGHI HADDAD ZAVAREH, Maryam; EBRAHIMIPOUR, Gholamhossein; SHAHRIARI MOGHADAM, Mohsen; FAKHARI, Javad; ABDOLI, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Much of the environment is affected by petroleum contamination. It imposes serious health problems for humans as well as serious environmental impact. Bioremediation is an important consideration for removing environmental pollutants because, compared with other technologies, it incurrs lower costs and is environmentally compatible. Methods: Crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated using serial dilutions of a bacterial consortium. The Taguchi experimental design L16 (45) was used to optimize the biodegradation process of crude oil by the isolated strain. This investigation applied the parameters of temperature, salinity, pH, NH4Cl and FeSO4.7H2O. Modeling the kinetics of crude oil biodegradation included five batch cultivation experiments (2.5 ml/L to 40 ml/L) using crude oil as a single limiting substrate. Results: Halomonas sp. MS1 was identified using identification tests. Maximum biodegradation efficiency was predicted to occur at pH=9, temperature=30 °C, salinity=2%, NH4Cl concentration=0.4 g/L and FeSO4.7H2O=0.04 g/L. After optimization, biodagradation was significantly (P<0.05) higher (i.e. 90.65%) than it results under the original conditions. Furthermore, growth kinetics modelling of bacteria in various concentrations of crude oil showed a positive correlation between increased concentration, up to 10 ml/L and bacterial growth, but this was not evident at higher concentrations (20–40 mL/L) Conclusion: Overall, bacteria in surface sediment samples from Kish Island have been determined as having good potential for application in oil biodegradation. Optimum amounts of the studied factors were determined successfully by applying the Taguchi experimental design and the models of Teissier and Haldane are suggested as kinetic models to describe the batch crude oil degradation behavior of MS1. PMID:27398340

  8. Biocatalytic desulfurization of thiophenic compounds and crude oil by newly isolated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Al-Yacoub, Zakariya H; Vedakumar, John V

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms possess enormous highly specific metabolic activities, which enable them to utilize and transform nearly every known chemical class present in crude oil. In this context, one of the most studied biocatalytic processes is the biodesulfurization (BDS) of thiophenic sulfur-containing compounds such as benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) in crude oils and refinery streams. Three newly isolated bacterial strains, which were affiliated as Rhodococcus sp. strain SA11, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SA21, and Rhodococcus sp. strain SA31, were enriched from oil contaminated soil in the presence of DBT as the sole S source. GC-FID analysis of DBT-grown cultures showed consumption of DBT, transient formation of DBT sulfone (DBTO2) and accumulation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). Molecular detection of the plasmid-borne dsz operon, which codes for the DBT desulfurization activity, revealed the presence of dszA, dszB, and dszC genes. These results point to the operation of the known 4S pathway in the BDS of DBT. The maximum consumption rate of DBT was 11 μmol/g dry cell weight (DCW)/h and the maximum formation rate of 2-HBP formation was 4 μmol/g DCW/h. Inhibition of both cell growth and DBT consumption by 2-HBP was observed for all isolates but SA11 isolate was the least affected. The isolated biocatalysts desulfurized other model DBT alkylated homologs. SA11 isolate was capable of desulfurizing BT as well. Resting cells of SA11 exhibited 10% reduction in total sulfur present in heavy crude oil and 18% reduction in total sulfur present in the hexane-soluble fraction of the heavy crude oil. The capabilities of the isolated bacteria to survive and desulfurize a wide range of S compounds present in crude oil are desirable traits for the development of a robust BDS biocatalyst to upgrade crude oils and refinery streams.

  9. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  10. Thermal infrared emissivity spectrum and its characteristics of crude oil slick covered seawater.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Pan; Gu, Xing-Fai; Yu, Taol; Meng, Qing-Yan; Li, Jia-Guoi; Shi, Ji-xiang; Cheng, Yang; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wen-Song; Liu, Qi-Yuei; Zhao, Li-Min

    2014-11-01

    Detecting oil slick covered seawater surface using the thermal infrared remote sensing technology exists the advantages such as: oil spill detection with thermal infrared spectrum can be performed in the nighttime which is superior to visible spectrum, the thermal infrared spectrum is superior to detect the radiation characteristics of both the oil slick and the seawater compared to the mid-wavelength infrared spectrum and which have great potential to detect the oil slick thickness. And the emissivity is the ratio of the radiation of an object at a given temperature in normal range of the temperature (260-320 K) and the blackbody radiation under the same temperature , the emissivity of an object is unrelated to the temperature, but only is dependent with the wavelength and material properties. Using the seawater taken from Bohai Bay and crude oil taken from Gudao oil production plant of Shengli Oilfield in Dongying city of Shandong Province, an experiment was designed to study the characteristics and mechanism of thermal infrared emissivity spectrum of artificial crude oil slick covered seawater surface with its thickness. During the experiment, crude oil was continuously dropped into the seawater to generate artificial oil slick with different thicknesses. By adding each drop of crude oil, we measured the reflectivity of the oil slick in the thermal infrared spectrum with the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (102F) and then calculated its thermal infrared emissivity. The results show that the thermal infrared emissivity of oil slick changes significantly with its thickness when oil slick is relatively thin (20-120 μm), which provides an effective means for detecting the existence of offshore thin oil slick In the spectrum ranges from 8 to 10 μm and from 13. 2 to 14 μm, there is a steady emissivity difference between the seawater and thin oil slick with thickness of 20 μm. The emissivity of oil slick changes marginally with oil slick thickness and

  11. Sublethal Toxicity of Crude Oil Exposure in The Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, at Two Life History Stages.

    PubMed

    Giltz, Sarah M; Taylor, Caz M

    2017-02-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred during peak spawning season for many Gulf of Mexico fish and invertebrates. Early life stages of important fishery species were at risk to encounter crude oil. In this study, we investigated the effect of crude oil exposure on two life stages of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). We tested the effects of oil exposure on the survival and growth of larval (pelagic) and juvenile (estuarine) blue crabs as well as the effects of oil on the molt frequency of juveniles. Larval crabs exposed to crude oil showed no discernable growth or mortality differences when compared to non-exposed controls. Juvenile crabs exposed to oil also showed no differences in size but exhibited increased intermolt duration (time between molts). Our study suggests that different life-stages may respond differently when exposed to crude oil and that oil exposure negatively affects growth rate of juvenile blue crabs.

  12. Influence of physical and chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery in formation microflora and properties of crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, A. G.; Altunina, L. K.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Ovsyannikova, V. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Chuikina, D. I.

    2015-10-01

    The results of the analyzes of crude oil and produced water from wells in the areas of pilot testing of new flow deflection and oil-displacing Compounds developed in the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry SB RAS. It was found that changes in the properties and Compound of the oil and water mainly occur in the redistribution of filtration flows and integration in the development of the previously unwashed areas, as well as in washing off the residual heavy oil from the reservoir rock, and in some wells - due to formation biocenosis, contributing to desorption of oil from the rock.

  13. Submersible optical sensors exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil: wave tank simulations for improved oil spill monitoring.

    PubMed

    Conmy, Robyn N; Coble, Paula G; Farr, James; Wood, A Michelle; Lee, Kenneth; Pegau, W Scott; Walsh, Ian D; Koch, Corey R; Abercrombie, Mary I; Miles, M Scott; Lewis, Marlon R; Ryan, Scott A; Robinson, Brian J; King, Thomas L; Kelble, Christopher R; Lacoste, Jordanna

    2014-01-01

    In situ fluorometers were deployed during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Gulf of Mexico oil spill to track the subsea oil plume. Uncertainties regarding instrument specifications and capabilities necessitated performance testing of sensors exposed to simulated, dispersed oil plumes. Dynamic ranges of the Chelsea Technologies Group AQUAtracka, Turner Designs Cyclops, Satlantic SUNA and WET Labs, Inc. ECO, exposed to fresh and artificially weathered crude oil, were determined. Sensors were standardized against known oil volumes and total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylene measurements-both collected during spills, providing oil estimates during wave tank dilution experiments. All sensors estimated oil concentrations down to 300 ppb oil, refuting previous reports. Sensor performance results assist interpretation of DWH oil spill data and formulating future protocols.

  14. Exposure to Deepwater Horizon weathered crude oil increases routine metabolic demand in chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Dane H; Dale, Jonathan J; Machado, Benjamin E; Incardona, John P; Farwell, Charles J; Block, Barbara A

    2015-09-15

    During the 2010 Deepwater Horizon incident, the continuous release of crude oil from the damaged Macondo 252 wellhead on the ocean floor contaminated surface water habitats for pelagic fish for more than 12weeks. The spill occurred across pelagic, neritic and benthic waters, impacting a variety of ecosystems. Chemical components of crude oil are known to disrupt cardiac function in juvenile fish, and here we investigate the effects of oil on the routine metabolic rate of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus. Mackerel were exposed to artificially weathered Macondo 252 crude oil, prepared as a Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF), for 72 or 96h. Routine metabolic rates were determined pre- and post-exposure using an intermittent-flow, swim tunnel respirometer. Routine energetic demand increased in all mackerels in response to crude oil and reached statistical significance relative to unexposed controls at 96h. Chemical analyses of bile from exposed fish revealed elevated levels of fluorescent metabolites, confirming the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the exposure WAF. The observed increase in metabolic demand is likely attributable to the bioenergetic costs of contaminant detoxification. These results indicate that short-term exposure (i.e. days) to oil has sub-lethal toxicity to mackerel and results in physiological stress during the active spill phase of the incident.

  15. Study on the biodegradation of crude oil by free and immobilized bacterial consortium in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingguo; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Mei; Sun, Huiling; Bao, Mutai

    2017-01-01

    Five strains of bacteria, namely, Exiguobacterium sp. ASW-1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ASW-2, Alcaligenes sp. ASW-3, Alcaligenes sp. ASS-1, and Bacillus sp. ASS-2, were isolated from the Zhejiang coast in China. The mixed flora of the five strains performed well with degrading 75.1% crude oil (1%, w/v) in 7 days. The calcium alginate-activated carbon embedding carrier was used to immobilize bacterial consortium. Immobilized cells performed better than free ones in variations of environmental factors containing incubated temperature, initial pH, salinity of the medium and crude oil concentration. The degradation process of crude oil by immobilized bacteria was accelerated compared with that of the free ones. Bacterial consortium showed better performance on biodegradation of normal alkanes than that of PAHs. Improvement of immobilization on the biodegradation efficiency of normal alkanes (31.9%) was apparently high than that of PAHs (1.9%).

  16. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS and V-SANS) study of asphaltene aggregates in crude oil.

    PubMed

    Headen, Thomas F; Boek, Edo S; Stellbrink, Jörg; Scheven, Ulrich M

    2009-01-06

    We report small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on two crude oils. Analysis of the high-Q SANS region has probed the asphaltene aggregates in the nanometer length scale. We find that the radius of gyration decreases with increasing temperature. We show that SANS measurements on crude oils give similar aggregate sizes to those found from SANS measurements of asphaltenes redispersed in deuterated toluene. The combined use of SANS and V-SANS on crude oil samples has allowed the determination of the radius of gyration of large scale asphaltene aggregates of approximately 0.45 microm. This has been achieved by the fitting of Beaucage functions over two size regimes. Analysis of the fitted Beaucage functions at very low-Q has shown that the large scale aggregates are not simply made by aggregation of all the smaller nanoaggregates. Instead, they are two different aggregates coexisting.

  17. The Impact of United States Monetary Policy in the Crude Oil futures market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Padilla, Fernando M.

    This research examines the empirical impact the United States monetary policy, through the federal fund interest rate, has on the volatility in the crude oil price in the futures market. Prior research has shown how macroeconomic events and variables have impacted different financial markets within short and long--term movements. After testing and decomposing the variables, the two stationary time series were analyzed using a Vector Autoregressive Model (VAR). The empirical evidence shows, with statistical significance, a direct relationship when explaining crude oil prices as function of fed fund rates (t-1) and an indirect relationship when explained as a function of fed fund rates (t-2). These results partially address the literature review lacunas within the topic of the existing implication monetary policy has within the crude oil futures market.

  18. Cross-correlations between Baltic Dry Index and crude oil prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Qingsong; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xinsheng; Qin, Jing

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the cross-correlation properties of Baltic Dry Index (BDI) and crude oil prices using cross-correlation statistics test and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA). The empirical results show that the cross-correlations between BDI and crude oil prices are significantly multifractal. By introducing the concept of a "crossover", we find that the cross-correlations are strongly persistent in the short term and weakly anti-persistent in the long term. Moreover, cross-correlations of all kinds of fluctuations are persistent in the short time while cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent and those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent in the long term. We have also verified that the multifractality of the cross-correlations of BDI and crude oil prices is both attributable to the persistence of fluctuations of time series and fat-tailed distributions.

  19. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    PubMed

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants.

  20. Tolerance of adult mallards to subacute ingestion of crude petroleum oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Adult male mallards were fed untreated mash or mash containing 1.5% Prudhoe Bay crude oil for 7 days ad lib. During the initial 24 h of exposure to crude petroleum oil, ducks consumed less mash (P less than 0.05) and lost approx. 3.5% of their initial body weight (P less than 0.05), however, neither intake nor body weight differ between groups on days 2-7. Plasma samples collected between 09.00 and 10.00 h on days 0, 1, 3, or 7 indicated that corticosterone, glucose, thyroxine, total protein, and uric acid concentrations, and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) were not affected by treatment. These findings suggest that adult mallards may be able to tolerate large quantities of crude petroleum oil mixed in their diet (approx. 25 ml over a 7-day period) without overt or biochemical indications of distress.

  1. Study on the biodegradation of crude oil by free and immobilized bacterial consortium in marine environment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Mei; Sun, Huiling; Bao, Mutai

    2017-01-01

    Five strains of bacteria, namely, Exiguobacterium sp. ASW-1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ASW-2, Alcaligenes sp. ASW-3, Alcaligenes sp. ASS-1, and Bacillus sp. ASS-2, were isolated from the Zhejiang coast in China. The mixed flora of the five strains performed well with degrading 75.1% crude oil (1%, w/v) in 7 days. The calcium alginate—activated carbon embedding carrier was used to immobilize bacterial consortium. Immobilized cells performed better than free ones in variations of environmental factors containing incubated temperature, initial pH, salinity of the medium and crude oil concentration. The degradation process of crude oil by immobilized bacteria was accelerated compared with that of the free ones. Bacterial consortium showed better performance on biodegradation of normal alkanes than that of PAHs. Improvement of immobilization on the biodegradation efficiency of normal alkanes (31.9%) was apparently high than that of PAHs (1.9%). PMID:28346510

  2. Joule-heated graphene-wrapped sponge enables fast clean-up of viscous crude-oil spill.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin; Shi, Lu-An; Wang, Yong-Chao; Zhao, Hao-Yu; Yao, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Yin-Bo; Zhang, Ye; Zhu, Hong-Wu; Wu, Heng-An; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2017-04-03

    The clean-up of viscous crude-oil spills is a global challenge. Hydrophobic and oleophilic oil sorbents have been demonstrated as promising candidates for oil-spill remediation. However, the sorption speeds of these oil sorbents for viscous crude oil are rather limited. Herein we report a Joule-heated graphene-wrapped sponge (GWS) to clean-up viscous crude oil at a high sorption speed. The Joule heat of the GWS reduced in situ the viscosity of the crude oil, which prominently increased the oil-diffusion coefficient in the pores of the GWS and thus speeded up the oil-sorption rate. The oil-sorption time was reduced by 94.6% compared with that of non-heated GWS. Besides, the oil-recovery speed was increased because of the viscosity decrease of crude oil. This in situ Joule self-heated sorbent design will promote the practical application of hydrophobic and oleophilic oil sorbents in the clean-up of viscous crude-oil spills.

  3. Assessing the maturity of crude petroleum oils using total synchronous fluorescence scan spectra.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Alan G

    2004-01-01

    There have been many applications of fluorescence methods for the analysis of crude petroleum oils down through the years. However, none of these studies has yielded a robust qualitative or quantitative method for quantifying the chemical composition, or assessing the maturity of crude oils. Simple fluorescence parameters such as lifetime, intensity, and intensity ratios do not correlate well with chemical composition particularly for medium weight crude oils [A. G. Ryder, T. J. Glynn, and M. Feely (2003). Proc. SPIE-Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 4876, 1188-1195.]. A better approach may be to use the Total Synchronous Fluorescence Scan (TSFS) method to fully interrogate the complex chemical composition of the oils [D. Patra and A. K. Mishra (2002). Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 373, 304-309.]. We present TSFS spectra from 18 crude petroleum oils of varying composition, sourced from around the world. The TSFS plots of these oils are very complex, with the contours being spread over the full 250-700 nm wavelength range (lambda(ex)) and 40-200 nm wavelength interval (delta lambda) sampled. The 3-D contour maps tend to two contour concentrations one at lambda(em) < 300 nm, delta lambda = 120-200 nm, and a second near lambda(ex) approximately 380-400 nm, delta lambda = 40-60 nm. The first feature represents fluorescence emission originating mainly from energy transfer processes with the second, longer wavelength feature originating from fluorescence emission generated by a higher proportion of direct excitation as opposed to emission resulting from energy transfer. The topography of the 3D contour plots is therefore influenced by the balance between energy transfer and direct fluorescence emission, which is governed by the chemical composition of the crude oils. We discuss how the gross chemical composition affects TSFS spectra and how TSFS can be used to assess oil maturity with a view to developing quantitative methods.

  4. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic study of crude petroleum oils: influence of chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Alan G

    2004-05-01

    The fluorescence of crude petroleum oils is sensitive to changes in chemical composition and many different fluorescence methods have been used to characterize crude oils. The use of fluorescence lifetimes to quantitatively characterize oil composition has practical advantages over steady-state measurements, but there have been comparatively few studies in which the lifetime behavior is correlated with gross chemical compositional data. In this study, the fluorescence lifetimes for a series of 23 crude petroleum oils with American Petroleum Institute (API) gravities of between 10 and 50 were measured at several emission wavelengths (450-785 nm) using a 380 nm light emitting diode (LED) excitation source. It was found that the intensity average fluorescence lifetime (tau) at any emission wave-length does not correlate well with either API gravity or aromatic concentration. However, it was found that tau is strongly negatively correlated with both the polar and sulfur concentrations and positively correlated with the corrected alkane concentration. This indicates that the fluorescence behavior of crude petroleum oils is governed primarily by the concentration of quenching species. All the strong lifetime-concentration correlations are nonlinear and show a high degree of scatter, especially for medium to light oils with API gravities of between 25 and 40. The degree of scatter is greatest for oils where the concentrations (wt %) of the polar fraction is approximately 10 +/- 4%, the asphaltene component is approximately 1 +/- 0.5%, and sulfur is 0.5 +/- 0.4%. This large degree of scatter precludes the use of average fluorescence lifetime data obtained with 380 nm excitation for the accurate prediction of the common chemical compositional parameters of crude petroleum oils.

  5. Partitioning of Organic Compounds between Crude Oil and Water under Supercritical CO2 Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rod, K. A.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years depleted oil reservoirs have received special interest as carbon storage reservoirs because of their potential to offset costs through collaboration with enhanced oil recovery projects. Leakage of the injected CO2 may occur either as supercritical CO2 or CO2-saturated (brine) water. The injected supercritical CO2 is a nonpolar solvent that can potentially mobilize the residual oil compounds into supercritical CO2 and brine water through phase partitioning. For detailed risk assessment of CO2 leakage, various models can be used to quantify the mass of organic contaminants transported from carbon storage sites to potential receptors such as potable aquifers, in which the partition coefficients of crude oil hydrocarbons between CO2/crude oil/brines for subsurface CO2 sequestration scenarios are the key parameters controlling the fate and transport of organic contaminants along the CO2 leakage pathways. However, the solubilities of many of the oil organic compounds in brines under supercritical CO2 condition have not been yet fully determined. In this study, we developed a novel method to accurately measure the partitioning of crude oil organic compounds (BTEX, PAHs, etc.) between supercritical CO2 and brines and to study the effects of temperature, pressure, salinity, and compound's cosolvency (solubility enhancement) on the partitioning behavior of oil organic compounds along the various CO2 leakage paths in the subsurface.

  6. Biodegradation of crude oil dispersions by marine bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Gabriel; Fernandez, Vicente; Stocker, Roman

    2016-11-01

    Dispersants are used to break up marine oil slicks and increase the available surface area for bacteria to degrade oil hydrocarbons. However, this common view neglects key elements of the microscale interactions between bacteria and oil droplets, namely encounters and growth. Utilizing experimental observations of bacteria colonizing oil droplets, we model the interactions affecting hydrocarbon consumption between a collection of oil droplets with varying sizes and a single bacterial pool. The results show that degradation time is minimized for intermediate droplet sizes and that reducing droplet size too much can lead to years in increased degradation time. This mechanical model provides a baseline for understanding oil biodegradation and mitigation strategies in open marine systems.

  7. Crude oil prices: Why the experts are baffled

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, J.W.

    1993-02-01

    This paper reviews the history of oil well prices since the early 1980's and describes the causes for these dramatic rise and falls in prices over the years. It discusses the effects that supply and demand have had on the prices of oil. It then goes on to make predictions of the future oil prices resulting from production available from the new Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union) and the Saudi's projection production goals. Finally it discusses market predictions showing the lack of available excess production capacity should another oil crisis arise (such as the Kuwait/Iraq war) and the effects this would have on prices.

  8. Geochemical characteristics of crude oil from a tight oil reservoir in the Lucaogou Formation, Jimusar Sag, Junggar Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Jimusar Sag, which lies in the Junggar Basin,is one of the most typical tight oil study areas in China. However, the properties and origin of the crude oil and the geochemical characteristics of the tight oil from the Lucaogou Formation have not yet been studied. In the present study, 23 crude oilsfrom the Lucaogou Formation were collected for analysis, such as physical properties, bulk composition, saturated hydrocarbon gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the calculation of various biomarker parameters. In addition,source rock evaluation and porosity permeability analysis were applied to the mudstones and siltstones. Biomarkers of suitable source rocks (TOC>1, S1+S2>6mg/g, 0.7%oil-source correlation. To analyze the hydrocarbon generation history of the Lucaogou source rock, 1D basin modeling was performed. The oil-filling history was also defined by means of basin modeling and microthermometry. The results indicated the presence of low maturity to mature crude oils originating from the burial of terrigenous organic matter beneath a saline lake in the source rocks of mainly type II1kerogen. In addition, a higher proportion of bacteria and algae was shown to contribute to the formation of crude oil in the lower section when compared with the upper section of the Lucaogou Formation. Oil-source correlations demonstrated that not all mudstones within the Lucaogou Formation contributed to oil accumulation.Crude oil from the upper and lower sections originated from thin-bedded mudstones interbedded within sweet spot sand bodies. A good coincidence of filling history and hydrocarbon generation history indicated that the Lucaogou reservoir is a typical in situ reservoir. The mudstones over or beneath the sweet spot bodies consisted of natural caprocks and prevented the vertical movement of oil by capillary forces. Despite being thicker, the thick-bedded mudstone between the upper and lower sweet spots had no obvious contribution to

  9. Accurate bs and w testing important for crude-oil custody transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J. )

    1990-11-12

    This paper discusses how monitoring crude-oil sediment and water content at the field production site is essential in accurate crude-oil custody transfer operations. This is accomplished by manual methods, or on-line devices like capacitance, density, or energy-absorption analyzers. For custody-transfer purposes, sediment and water is determined by a test which follows one of the API manuals of petroleum measurement standards (MPMS). Typically, this test is conducted in the field by the field centrifuge method which, if performed properly, yields very accurate results. Laboratory tests can be performed, but sample handling becomes even more critical.

  10. A pulsed photoacoustic instrument for the detection of crude oil concentrations in produced water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeborn, S. S.; Hannigan, J.; Greig, F.; Suttie, R. A.; MacKenzie, H. A.

    1998-11-01

    The development of a pulsed photoacoustic instrument for the detection of crude oil concentrations in produced water is reported. The instrument utilizes fiber-optic delivery of pulsed diode laser sources to an in-line sensor head, incorporating a gradient-index lens for optical delivery into the flow line and a piezoelectric transducer for acoustic detection. A crude oil concentration detection range of 5-8000 parts per million in water is demonstrated. The sensitivity of response was confirmed during preliminary field testing and is independent of various interfering analytes, flow rate, and droplet size.

  11. Embryotoxicity and biotransformation responses in zebrafish exposed to water-soluble fraction of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Pauka, Luciana M; Maceno, Marcell; Rossi, Stefani C; Silva de Assis, Helena C

    2011-04-01

    The toxic effects of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil (API27, Petrobras Campos Basin, Brazil) were evaluated during the early life stages of zebrafish, as well as its biotransformation in juvenile fish. Embryonic development was studied during 96 h. Reduced heartbeat rate, weak pigmentation, tail defects, and embryo mortality were observed for all of the tested concentrations of the WSF. Activities of the biotransformation enzymes were induced at the highest concentrations, showing that these enzymes played a role in its elimination. As shown in this study the crude oil WSF altered the normal embryonic development of fish.

  12. A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis

    2011-09-01

    A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural.

  13. Linking hematological, biochemical, genotoxic, and behavioral responses to crude oil in the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1816).

    PubMed

    Kochhann, Daiani; de Azevedo Brust, Sandra Maristher; Domingos, Fabíola Xochilt Valdez; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2013-08-01

    Despite safety protocols, crude oil extraction and transportation in the Amazon basin has a potential for inadvertent oil spills, which can impact aquatic organisms in local rivers. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of crude oil on juvenile Amazonian fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, at various biological levels. Furthermore, the effect of crude oil on response to alarm substance, an important communication system in fish, was reported for the first time. Fish exposed to crude oil showed a 90 % decrease in their response to alarm substance and a 60 % decrease in swimming activity relative to control fish. Basic hematology was not affected, although an increase of 200 % of DNA damage and an increase of GST activity were observed in animals exposed to crude oil. Inverse correlations were found between genotoxicity end points and behavioral parameters, suggesting that genotoxic end points can also reflect behavioral changes.

  14. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank...: Submission. If the owner or operator of a foreign tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), §...

  15. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank...: Submission. If the owner or operator of a foreign tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), §...

  16. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank...: Submission. If the owner or operator of a foreign tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), §...

  17. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank...: Submission. If the owner or operator of a foreign tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), §...

  18. BIODEGRADABILITY OF DISPERSED CRUDE OIL AT TWO DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were initiated to study the biodegradability of oil after dispersants were applied. Two experiments were conducted, one at 20 oC and the other at 5 oC. In both experiments, only the dispersed oil fraction was investigated. Each exper...

  19. The solubility of noble gases in crude oil at 25-100°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Specht, Daniel J.

    1988-01-01

    The solubility of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe was measured in two typical crude oils at temperatures of 25–100°C. The oil samples were obtained from the Elk Hills oil field located in southern San Joaquin Valley, California. The experimental procedure consisted of placing a known amount of gas with a known volume of crude oil in a stainless steel hydrothermal pressure vessel. The vessel was housed inside an oven and the entire unit rotates providing continuous mixing. The amount of gas dissolved in oil at a measured temperature and partial pressure of gas was used to calculate the solubility constants for these gases. Results show that the solubility of He and Ne in both oils is approximately the same; solubility then increases with atomic mass, with the solubility of Xe at 25°C being two orders of magnitude higher than that of He. The gas solubilities are somewhat higher in the lower density (higher API gravity) oil. The solubility of Ar is approximately constant in the range of temperatures of this study. The solubilities of He and Ne increase, but those of Kr and Xe decrease with increasing temperatures. Solubilities of noble gases in crude oil are significantly higher than their solubilities in water. For example, the solubilities of He and Xe at 25°C in the light oil of this study are, respectively, 3 and 24 times higher than their solubilities in pure water, and they are 15 and 300 times higher than in a brine with a salinity of 350,000 mg/l dissolved solids. These large and variable differences in the solubilities of noble gases in oil and water indicate that, in sedimentary basins with oil, these gases must be partitioned between oil, water and natural gas before they are used to deduce the origin and residence time of these fluids.

  20. Hydrologic Controls on Losses of Individual Components of Crude Oil in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekins, B. A.; Baedecker, M. J.; Eganhouse, R. P.; Drennan, D. M.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Warren, E.; Cozzarelli, I.

    2013-12-01

    The time frame for natural attenuation of crude oil contamination in the subsurface has been studied for the last 30 years at a spill site located near Bemidji, Minnesota, USA. Data from the groundwater contaminant plume show that dissolved benzene concentrations adjacent to the oil decreased by 50% between 1993 and 2007. Concentrations of volatile components in the crude oil source were examined to determine if the benzene decrease was consistent with depletion of the oil source. The changes in volatile content of the oil were studied by analyzing a time series of oil samples collected from five wells. The results show that in 2008 benzene values in the oil ranged from 7% to 61% of the original amount indicating that benzene concentrations are slowly decreasing in the oil. Data from a suite of volatile compounds including alkylbenzenes, naphthalenes, cyclohexanes and C6-C12 n-alkanes show that loss rates of individual compounds are controlled by relative solubility and susceptibility to methanogenic biodegradation. Benzene and ethylbenzene appear to persist under methanogenic conditions at this site, suggesting that dissolution is the primary loss mechanism from the crude oil source. Losses are linearly correlated with pore space oil saturations and consistent with the relative solubilities of these compounds. A microcosm study lasting more than 13 months confirmed persistence of benzene under methanogenic conditions. Compounds for which loss is controlled by methanogenic degradation include the n-alkanes, toluene, and o-xylene. Losses of these compounds correlate better with location in the oil body than with pore space oil saturation, consistent with greater degradation below a topographic depression with focused recharge.

  1. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Ultrasonic studies of relaxation phenomena in crude oils and their solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucek, M.; Marczak, W.

    2005-10-01

    Asphaltenes are operationally defined as non-volatile and polar components of crude oils soluble in toluene and insoluble in n-heptane. They gradually plug production wells and pipes because of flocculation and precipitation causing technical problems and financial losses. The flocculation is reversible. Absorption of ultrasound have been measured in three crude oils and their mixtures with toluene at frequencies from 2.4 to 80 MHz at T = 298.15 K. Processes with relaxation times in the interval from 10 to 100 ns were found in the crude oils. The relaxation may be due to aggregation of asphaltenes, that in favourable conditions may lead to flocculation. Relaxation processes in the solutions are faster, with relaxation times partly outside the measurement range. Most probably, the molecules of asphaltenes easier translate and rotate in the solutions than in viscous crude oils. If the proposed model is correct, one may expect relaxation times shorter in deasphaltenated oils. On the other hand, the relaxation may be ascribed to bending long hydrocarbon chains. That process is also rather slow.

  4. Monitoring crude oil mineralization in salt marshes: Use of stable carbon isotope ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, A.W.; Pardue, J.H.; Araujo, R.

    1996-04-01

    In laboratory microcosms using salt marsh soils and in field trials, it was possible to monitor and quantify crude oil mineralization by measuring changes in CO{sub 2} {delta}{sup 13}C signatures and the rate of CO{sub 2} production. These values are easy to obtain and can be combined with simple isotope mass balance equations to determine the rate of mineralization from both the crude oil and indigenous carbon pool. Hydrocarbon degradation was confirmed by simultaneous decreases in alkane-, isoprenoid-, and PAH-hopane ratios. Additionally, the pseudo-first-order rate constants of alkane degradation (0.087 day{sup -1}) and CO{sub 2} production (0.082 day{sup -1}) from oil predicted by the {delta}{sup 13}C signatures were statistically indistinguishable. The addition of inorganic nitrogen and phosphate increased the rate of mineralization of crude oil in aerated microcosms but had no clear effect on in situ studies. This procedure appears to offer a means of definitively quantifying crude oil mineralization in a sensitive, inexpensive, and simple manner in environments with appropriate background {delta}{sup 13}C signatures. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  6. Phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil using nut grass, Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Basumatary, Budhadev; Saikia, Rubul; Bordoloi, Sabitry

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Cyperus rotundus (nut grass), that could be effective in phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil. A net house experiment was conducted with different concentrations (2.05, 4.08, 6.1, 8.15 and 10.2%) of crude oil-contaminated soil for 180 days. Plant growth, biomass, total oil and grease (TOG) degradation and microbial numbers were analyzed at different intervals i.e. 60,120 and 180 days in different percentages of crude oil contaminated soil. In presence of crude oil, plant biomass and heights reduced up to 26 and 21.9% respectively. Concerning TOG content in soil, C. rotundus could decrease up to 50.01, 46.1, 42.6, 38.8 and 32.6% in treatment I, II, III, IV and V respectively in vegetated pots during 180 days. In case of unvegetated pots, the reductions of TOG were 4.4, 5.6, 6.6, 7.6 and 9.6% in treatment A, B, C, D and E respectively. However, there was significant degradation (P = 0.05) of TOG in vegetated pots in comparison to unvegetated pots thereby proving the efficacy of this plant species for use in phytoremediation.

  7. Microbial degradation of four crude oil by biosurfactant producing strain Rhodococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Pi, Yongrui; Chen, Bing; Bao, Mutai; Fan, Fuqiang; Cai, Qinhong; Ze, Lv; Zhang, Baiyu

    2017-02-07

    Rhodococcus erythropolis M-25, one of the representative biosurfactant producers, performed effectively during the biodegradation of four crude oil. The microbial degradation efficiency is positively relevant to the API of the crude oil. The chemical dispersant Corexit 9500A did not enhance the biodegradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons during the experimental period. 70.7% of the N-4 oil was degraded after 30days, while in the Corexit 9500A plus sample the biodegradation removal was 42.8%. The Corexit-derived compounds were metabolized by M-25 at the same time of the petroleum hydrocarbons biodegrading. Neither biodegradation nor chemical dispersion process has almost no effect on the biomarker (m/z=231). The saturated methyl-branched fatty acids increased from 37.3%, to 49.4%, when M-25 was exposed with the N-4 crude oil. Similarly, the saturated methyl-branched fatty acids in the membrane of N3-2P increased from 20.25% to 44.1%, when exposed it with the N-4 crude oil.

  8. Effect of crude oil contamination on the chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Plabita; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Baruah, Partha Pratim; Deka, Suresh

    2014-11-01

    Chlorophyll plays a pivotal role in the plant physiology and its productivity. Cultivation of plants in crude oil contaminated soil has a great impact on the synthesis of chlorophyll pigment. Morpho-anatomy of the experimental plant also shows structural deformation in higher concentrations. Keeping this in mind, a laboratory investigation has been carried out to study the effect of crude oil on chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius plant. Fifteen-day-old seedling of the plant was planted in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, and 50,000 ppm). A control setup was also maintained without adding crude oil. Results were recorded after 6 months of plantation. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on chlorophyll content of the leaves of the experimental plant. It also showed that chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content of leaves grown in different concentrations of crude oil were found to be lower than those of the control plant. Further, results also demonstrated that chlorophyll content was lowest in the treatment that received maximum dose of crude oil. It also showed that chlorophyll content was decreased with increased concentration of crude oil. Results also demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Results also revealed that the shoot biomass is higher than root biomass. Morphology and anatomy of the experimental plant also show structural deformation in higher concentrations. Accumulation of crude oil on the cuticle of the transverse section of the leaves and shoot forms a thick dark layer. Estimation of the level of pollution in an environment due to oil spill is possible by the in-depth study of the harmful effects of oil on the morphology and anatomy and chlorophyll content of the plants grown in that particular environment.

  9. Molecular modeling of interactions between heavy crude oil and the soil organic matter coated quartz surface.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guozhong; Zhu, Xinzhe; Ji, Haoqing; Chen, Daoyi

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was applied to evaluate the mobility, diffusivity and partitioning of SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins, asphaltenes) fractions of heavy crude oil on soil organic matter (SOM) coated quartz surface. Four types of SOM were investigated including Leonardite humic acid, Temple-Northeastern-Birmingham humic acid, Chelsea soil humic acid and Suwannee river fulvic acid. The SOM aggregation at oil-quartz interface decreased the adsorption of SARA on the quartz surface by 13-83%. Although the SOM tended to promote asphaltenes aggregation, the overall mobility of SARA was significantly greater on SOM-quartz complex than on pure quartz. Particularly, the diffusion coefficient of asphaltenes and resins increased by up to one-order of magnitude after SOM addition. The SOM increased the overall oil adsorption capacity but also mobilized SARA by driving them from the viscous oil phase and rigid quartz to the elastic SOM. This highlighted the potential of SOM addition for increasing the bioavailability of heavy crude oil without necessarily increasing the environmental risks. The MD simulation was demonstrated to be helpful for interpreting the role of SOM and the host oil phase for the adsorption and partitioning of SARA molecules, which is the key for developing more realistic remediation appraisal for heavy crude oil in soils.

  10. Highly-efficient enzymatic conversion of crude algal oils into biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Jin; Gerken, Henri; Zhang, Chengwu; Hu, Qiang; Li, Yantao

    2014-11-01

    Energy-intensive chemical conversion of crude algal oils into biodiesel is a major barrier for cost-effective algal biofuel production. To overcome this problem, we developed an enzyme-based platform for conversion of crude algal oils into fatty acid methyl esters. Crude algal oils were extracted from the oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1 and converted by an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica. The effects of different acyl acceptors, t-butanol as a co-solvent, oil to t-butanol ratio, oil to methanol ratio, temperature and reaction time on biodiesel conversion efficiency were studied. The conversion efficiency reached 99.1% when the conversion conditions were optimized, i.e., an oil to t-butanol weight ratio of 1:1, an oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:12, and a reaction time of 4h at 25°C. The enzymatic conversion process developed in this study may hold a promise for low energy consumption, low wastewater-discharge biochemical conversion of algal feedstocks into biofuels.

  11. Ingestion of crude oil: effects on digesta retention times and nutrient uptake in captive river otters.

    PubMed

    Ormseth, O A; Ben-David, M

    2000-09-01

    Studies following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska indicated that river otters (Lontra canadensis) from oiled regions displayed symptoms of degraded health, including reduced body weight. We examined the fate of ingested oil in the digestive tract and its effects on gut function in captive river otters. Fifteen wild-caught males were assigned to three groups, two of which were given weathered crude oil in food (i.e., control, 5 ppm day(-1), and 50 ppm day(-1)) under controlled conditions at the Alaska Sealife Center. Using glass beads as non-specific digesta markers and stable isotope analysis, we determined the effects of ingested oil on retention time and nutrient uptake. Our data indicated that oil ingestion reduced marker retention time when we controlled for activity and meal size. Fecal isotope ratios suggested that absorption of lipids in the oiled otters might have been affected by reduced retention time of food. In addition, a dilution model indicated that as much as 80% of ingested oil was not absorbed in high-dose animals. Thus, while the ingestion of large quantities of weathered crude oil appears to reduce absorption of oil hydrocarbons and may alleviate systemic effects, it may concurrently affect body condition by impacting digestive function.

  12. Dispersed crude oil amplifies germ cell apoptosis in Caenorhabditis elegans, followed a CEP-1-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Polli, Joseph Ryan; Zhang, Yanqiong; Pan, Xiaoping

    2014-03-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is among the most severe environmental disasters in US history. The extent of crude oil released and the subsequent dispersant used for cleanup was unprecedented. The dispersed crude oil represents a unique form of environmental contaminant that warrants investigations of its environmental and human health impacts. Lines of evidence have demonstrated that dispersed oil affects reproduction in various organisms, in a more potent manner than oil- and dispersant-only exposures. However, the action mechanism of dispersed oil remains largely unknown. In this study, we utilized the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate impacts of dispersed oil exposure on sex cell apoptosis and related gene expressions. Worms were exposed to different diluted levels of crude oil-dispersant (oil-dis) mixtures (20:1, v/v; at 500×, 2,000×, and 5,000× dilutions). The dispersed crude oil significantly increases the number of apoptotic germ cells in treated worms when compared with control at all exposure levels (p < 0.05). Genes involved in the apoptosis pathway were dysregulated, which include ced-13, ced-3, ced-4, ced-9, cep-1, dpl-1, efl-1, efl-2, egl-1, egl-38, lin-35, pax-2, and sir-2.1. Many aberrant expressed genes encoding for core components in apoptosis machinery (cep-1/p53, ced-13/BH3, ced-9/Bcl-2, ced-4/Apaf-1, and ced-3/caspase) displayed consistent expression patterns across all exposure levels. Significantly ced-3/caspase was upregulated at all dispersed oil-treated groups, consistent with the observed apoptosis phenotype. Given cep-1/p53 was activated at all dispersed oil treatments and the germ cell apoptosis was suppressed in the CEP-1 loss of function mutant, the increased apoptosis is likely CEP-1 dependent. In addition, the anti-apoptotic ced-9/Bcl-2 was activated in response to the increase in cell death. This study provides a mechanism understanding of dispersed crude oil-induced reproductive toxicity.

  13. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2014-12-01

    Although planktonic protozoans are likely to interact with dispersed crude oil after a spill, protozoan-mediated processes affecting crude oil pollution in the sea are still not well known. Here, we present the first evidence of ingestion and defecation of physically or chemically dispersed crude oil droplets (1-86 μm in diameter) by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, major components of marine planktonic food webs. At a crude oil concentration commonly found after an oil spill (1 μL L-1), the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Gyrodinium spirale grew and ingested ~0.37 μg-oil μg-Cdino-1 d-1, which could represent ~17% to 100% of dispersed oil in surface waters when heterotrophic dinoflagellates are abundant or bloom. Egestion of faecal pellets containing crude oil by heterotrophic dinoflagellates could contribute to the sinking and flux of toxic petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters. Our study indicates that crude oil ingestion by heterotrophic dinoflagellates is a noteworthy route by which petroleum enters marine food webs and a previously overlooked biological process influencing the fate of crude oil in the sea after spills.

  14. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea

    PubMed Central

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Although planktonic protozoans are likely to interact with dispersed crude oil after a spill, protozoan-mediated processes affecting crude oil pollution in the sea are still not well known. Here, we present the first evidence of ingestion and defecation of physically or chemically dispersed crude oil droplets (1–86 μm in diameter) by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, major components of marine planktonic food webs. At a crude oil concentration commonly found after an oil spill (1 μL L−1), the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Gyrodinium spirale grew and ingested ~0.37 μg-oil μg-Cdino−1 d−1, which could represent ~17% to 100% of dispersed oil in surface waters when heterotrophic dinoflagellates are abundant or bloom. Egestion of faecal pellets containing crude oil by heterotrophic dinoflagellates could contribute to the sinking and flux of toxic petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters. Our study indicates that crude oil ingestion by heterotrophic dinoflagellates is a noteworthy route by which petroleum enters marine food webs and a previously overlooked biological process influencing the fate of crude oil in the sea after spills. PMID:25523528

  15. The role of indigenous bacterial and fungal soil populations in the biodegradation of crude oil in a desert soil.

    PubMed

    Embar, Keren; Forgacs, Chaim; Sivan, Alex

    2006-08-01

    The biodegradation capacity of indigenous microbial populations was examined in a desert soil contaminated with crude oil. To evaluate biodegradation, soil samples supplemented with 5, 10 or 20% (w/w) of crude oil were incubated for 90 days at 30 degrees C. The effect of augmentation of the soil with vermiculite (50% v/v) as a bulking agent providing increased surface/volume ratio and improved soil aeration was also tested. Maximal biodegradation (91%) was obtained in soil containing the highest concentration of crude oil (20%) and supplemented with vermiculite; only 74% of the oil was degraded in samples containing the same level of crude oil but lacking vermiculite. Gas chromatograms of distilled fractions of crude oil extracted from the soil before and after incubation demonstrated that most of the light and part of the intermediate weight fractions initially present in the oil extracts could not be detected after incubation. Monitoring of microbial population densities revealed an initial decline in bacterial viable counts after exposure to oil, presumably as a result of the crude oil's toxicity. This decline was followed by a steep recovery in microbial population density, then by a moderate increase that persisted until the end of incubation. By contrast, the inhibitory effect of crude oil on the fungal population was minimal. Furthermore, the overall increased growth response of the fungal population, at all three levels of contamination, was about one order of magnitude higher than that of the bacterial population.

  16. Novel insight into the role of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the fate of crude oil in the sea.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-12-19

    Although planktonic protozoans are likely to interact with dispersed crude oil after a spill, protozoan-mediated processes affecting crude oil pollution in the sea are still not well known. Here, we present the first evidence of ingestion and defecation of physically or chemically dispersed crude oil droplets (1-86 μm in diameter) by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, major components of marine planktonic food webs. At a crude oil concentration commonly found after an oil spill (1 μL L(-1)), the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Noctiluca scintillans and Gyrodinium spirale grew and ingested ~0.37 μg-oil μg-C(dino)(-1) d(-1), which could represent ~17% to 100% of dispersed oil in surface waters when heterotrophic dinoflagellates are abundant or bloom. Egestion of faecal pellets containing crude oil by heterotrophic dinoflagellates could contribute to the sinking and flux of toxic petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters. Our study indicates that crude oil ingestion by heterotrophic dinoflagellates is a noteworthy route by which petroleum enters marine food webs and a previously overlooked biological process influencing the fate of crude oil in the sea after spills.

  17. Kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation in intertidal marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvind K.; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D.; Jones, D. Martin; Bowler, Bernard F. J.; Head, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Availability of inorganic nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorous, is often a primary control on crude oil hydrocarbon degradation in marine systems. Many studies have empirically determined optimum levels of inorganic N and P for stimulation of hydrocarbon degradation. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of information on fundamental kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation that can be used to model the fate of crude oil in bioremediation programmes that use inorganic nutrient addition to stimulate oil biodegradation. Here we report fundamental kinetic parameters (Ks and qmax) for nitrate- and phosphate-stimulated crude oil biodegradation under nutrient limited conditions and with respect to crude oil, under conditions where N and P are not limiting. In the marine sediments studied, crude oil degradation was limited by both N and P availability. In sediments treated with 12.5 mg/g of oil but with no addition of N and P, hydrocarbon degradation rates, assessed on the basis of CO2 production, were 1.10 ± 0.03 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day which were comparable to rates of CO2 production in sediments to which no oil was added (1.05 ± 0.27 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day). When inorganic nitrogen was added alone maximum rates of CO2 production measured were 4.25 ± 0.91 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. However, when the same levels of inorganic nitrogen were added in the presence of 0.5% P w/w of oil (1.6 μmol P/g wet sediment) maximum rates of measured CO2 production increased more than four-fold to 18.40 ± 1.04 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. Ks and qmax estimates for inorganic N (in the form of sodium nitrate) when P was not limiting were 1.99 ± 0.86 μmol/g wet sediment and 16.16 ± 1.28 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day respectively. The corresponding values for P were 63 ± 95 nmol/g wet sediment and 12.05 ± 1.31 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. The qmax values with respect to N and P were not significantly different (P < 0.05). When N and P

  18. Kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation in intertidal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arvind K; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D; Jones, D Martin; Bowler, Bernard F J; Head, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Availability of inorganic nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorous, is often a primary control on crude oil hydrocarbon degradation in marine systems. Many studies have empirically determined optimum levels of inorganic N and P for stimulation of hydrocarbon degradation. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of information on fundamental kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation that can be used to model the fate of crude oil in bioremediation programmes that use inorganic nutrient addition to stimulate oil biodegradation. Here we report fundamental kinetic parameters (Ks and qmax) for nitrate- and phosphate-stimulated crude oil biodegradation under nutrient limited conditions and with respect to crude oil, under conditions where N and P are not limiting. In the marine sediments studied, crude oil degradation was limited by both N and P availability. In sediments treated with 12.5 mg/g of oil but with no addition of N and P, hydrocarbon degradation rates, assessed on the basis of CO2 production, were 1.10 ± 0.03 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day which were comparable to rates of CO2 production in sediments to which no oil was added (1.05 ± 0.27 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day). When inorganic nitrogen was added alone maximum rates of CO2 production measured were 4.25 ± 0.91 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. However, when the same levels of inorganic nitrogen were added in the presence of 0.5% P w/w of oil (1.6 μmol P/g wet sediment) maximum rates of measured CO2 production increased more than four-fold to 18.40 ± 1.04 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. Ks and qmax estimates for inorganic N (in the form of sodium nitrate) when P was not limiting were 1.99 ± 0.86 μmol/g wet sediment and 16.16 ± 1.28 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day respectively. The corresponding values for P were 63 ± 95 nmol/g wet sediment and 12.05 ± 1.31 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. The qmax values with respect to N and P were not significantly different (P < 0.05). When N and P

  19. Stability of water/crude oil emulsions based on interfacial dilatational rheology.

    PubMed

    Dicharry, Christophe; Arla, David; Sinquin, Anne; Graciaa, Alain; Bouriat, Patrick

    2006-05-15

    The dilatational viscoelasticity behaviors of water/oil interfaces formed with a crude oil and its distilled fractions diluted in cyclohexane were investigated by means of an oscillating drop tensiometer. The rheological study of the w/o interfaces at different frequencies has shown that the stable w/o emulsions systematically correspond to interfaces which present the rheological characteristics of a 2D gel near its gelation point. The stability of emulsions was found to increase with both the gel strength and the glass transition temperature of the gel. As expected, the indigenous natural surfactants responsible for the formation of the interfacial critical gel have been identified as the heaviest amphiphilic components present in the crude oil; i.e., asphaltenes and resins. Nevertheless, we have shown that such a gel can also form in the absence of asphaltene in the oil phase.

  20. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude... DWT or more. (a) An existing vessel of 40,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and a new vessel...

  1. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude... DWT or more. (a) An existing vessel of 40,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and a new vessel...

  2. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude... DWT or more. (a) An existing vessel of 40,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and a new vessel...

  3. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude... DWT or more. (a) An existing vessel of 40,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and a new vessel...

  4. USE OF HOPANE AS A CONSERVATIVE BIOMARKER FOR MONITORING THE BIOREMEDIATION EFFECTIVENESS OF CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATING A SANDY BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much of the variability inherent in crude oil bioremediation field studies can be eliminated by normalizing analyte concentrations to the concentration of a nonbiodegradable biomarker such as hopane. This was demonstrated with data from a field study in which crude oil was intent...

  5. The use of chlorate, nitrate, and perchlorate to promote crude oil mineralization in salt marsh sediments.

    PubMed

    Brundrett, Maeghan; Horita, Juske; Anderson, Todd; Pardue, John; Reible, Danny; Jackson, W Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Due to the high volume of crude oil released by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the salt marshes along the gulf coast were contaminated with crude oil. Biodegradation of crude oil in salt marshes is primarily limited by oxygen availability due to the high organic carbon content of the soil, high flux rate of S(2-), and saturated conditions. Chlorate, nitrate, and perchlorate were evaluated for use as electron acceptors in comparison to oxygen by comparing oil transformation and mineralization in mesocosms consisting of oiled salt marsh sediment from an area impacted by the BP Horizon oil spill. Mineralization rates were determined by measuring CO2 production and δ (13)C of the produced CO2 and compared to transformation evaluated by measuring the alkane/hopane ratios over a 4-month period. Total alkane/hopane ratios decreased (~55-70 %) for all treatments in the following relative order: aerated ≈ chlorate > nitrate > perchlorate. Total CO2 produced was similar between treatments ranging from 550-700 mg CO2-C. The δ (13)C-CO2 values generally ranged between the indigenous carbon and oil values (-17 and -27‰, respectively). Oil mineralization was greatest for the aerated treatments and least for the perchlorate amended. Our results indicate that chlorate has a similar potential as oxygen to support oil mineralization in contaminated salt marshes, but nitrate and perchlorate were less effective. The use of chlorate as a means to promote oil mineralization in situ may be a promising means to remediate contaminated salt marshes while preventing unwanted secondary impacts related to nutrient management as in the case of nitrate amendments.

  6. [The toxicity of different crude oils on mussel larva].

    PubMed

    Lucas, A; Le Roux, S; Pérès, J M

    1975-05-26

    Five natural oils of varied origins, mixed with sea water by stirring, have been shown to be toxic for mussel larvae, which have been contaminated during one hour. This toxicity, expressed by the mortality percentage and the growth rate after contamination, was dependent on the type and the concentration of oil. The tests were carried out on 20 h old and 5 days old larvae, and were similar and complementary.

  7. Effects of Dual-Pump Recovery on Crude-Oil Contamination of Groundwater, Bemidji, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delin, G. N.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Lounsbury, S.

    2009-12-01

    In 1979 a crude-oil pipeline ruptured near Bemidji, Minnesota spilling about 1.7 million liters of crude oil onto a glacial-outwash deposit. Initial remediation efforts in 1979-80 removed about 75% of this oil. In 1983 the U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions began research to study the fate and transport of the petroleum hydrocarbons in the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In 1998 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) requested that the pipeline company remove as much of the remaining oil as possible. A dual-pump recovery system was installed using five wells to remove the free-phase oil. Each well had an oil skimming pump as well as a deeper pump in the groundwater, which was used to create a cone of depression in the water table near the well. The oil/water mixture from the skimming pump was pumped to a treatment facility where the oil was separated for later removal from the site. Pumped wastewater was injected into an upgradient infiltration gallery. Despite large public and private expenditures on development and implementation of this type of remediation system, few well-documented field-scale case studies have been published. The renewed remediation presented an opportunity to document how the dissolution, biodegradation, vapor transport, and other processes changed as the site transitioned from natural attenuation to a condition of pump-and-treat remediation and back again following termination of the remediation. Impacts of the remediation were evaluated in part using measurements of oil thicknesses in wells, dissolved-oxygen concentrations in groundwater, and concentrations of methane and other gases in the unsaturated zone. The remediation from 1999 - 2004 resulted in removal of about 114,000 liters of crude oil from the site, or about 27% of the total that remained following the initial remediation in 1979-80. Although the renewed remediation decreased oil thicknesses in the immediate vicinity of remediation

  8. Activating additives for intensification of primary crude oil distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Saidakhmedov, I.M.; Syunyaev, Z.I.; Glagoleva, O.F.

    1987-03-01

    The proposed approach was tested by distilling an atmospheric resid from West Siberian crude in LPRN apparatus, following procedures given previously. The No, III lube cut from a commercial atmospheric-vacuum pipestill unit was added to the atmospheric resid. In order to evaluate the influence of the composition of the process additive on the vacuum distillation results, comparative tests were run on another type of additive differing substantially in hydrocarbon composition from the No. III lube cut - namely, the raffinate from the lube cut. The physicochemical characteristics of the atmospheric resid and the additives are listed.

  9. Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Gardner, Luke D; Linbo, Tiffany L; Brown, Tanya L; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Mager, Edward M; Stieglitz, John D; French, Barbara L; Labenia, Jana S; Laetz, Cathy A; Tagal, Mark; Sloan, Catherine A; Elizur, Abigail; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2014-04-15

    The Deepwater Horizon disaster released more than 636 million L of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico. The spill oiled upper surface water spawning habitats for many commercially and ecologically important pelagic fish species. Consequently, the developing spawn (embryos and larvae) of tunas, swordfish, and other large predators were potentially exposed to crude oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fish embryos are generally very sensitive to PAH-induced cardiotoxicity, and adverse changes in heart physiology and morphology can cause both acute and delayed mortality. Cardiac function is particularly important for fast-swimming pelagic predators with high aerobic demand. Offspring for these species develop rapidly at relatively high temperatures, and their vulnerability to crude oil toxicity is unknown. We assessed the impacts of field-collected Deepwater Horizon (MC252) oil samples on embryos of three pelagic fish: bluefin tuna, yellowfin tuna, and an amberjack. We show that environmentally realistic exposures (1-15 µg/L total PAH) cause specific dose-dependent defects in cardiac function in all three species, with circulatory disruption culminating in pericardial edema and other secondary malformations. Each species displayed an irregular atrial arrhythmia following oil exposure, indicating a highly conserved response to oil toxicity. A considerable portion of Gulf water samples collected during the spill had PAH concentrations exceeding toxicity thresholds observed here, indicating the potential for losses of pelagic fish larvae. Vulnerability assessments in other ocean habitats, including the Arctic, should focus on the developing heart of resident fish species as an exceptionally sensitive and consistent indicator of crude oil impacts.

  10. Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish

    PubMed Central

    Incardona, John P.; Gardner, Luke D.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Brown, Tanya L.; Esbaugh, Andrew J.; Mager, Edward M.; Stieglitz, John D.; French, Barbara L.; Labenia, Jana S.; Laetz, Cathy A.; Tagal, Mark; Sloan, Catherine A.; Elizur, Abigail; Benetti, Daniel D.; Grosell, Martin; Block, Barbara A.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon disaster released more than 636 million L of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico. The spill oiled upper surface water spawning habitats for many commercially and ecologically important pelagic fish species. Consequently, the developing spawn (embryos and larvae) of tunas, swordfish, and other large predators were potentially exposed to crude oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fish embryos are generally very sensitive to PAH-induced cardiotoxicity, and adverse changes in heart physiology and morphology can cause both acute and delayed mortality. Cardiac function is particularly important for fast-swimming pelagic predators with high aerobic demand. Offspring for these species develop rapidly at relatively high temperatures, and their vulnerability to crude oil toxicity is unknown. We assessed the impacts of field-collected Deepwater Horizon (MC252) oil samples on embryos of three pelagic fish: bluefin tuna, yellowfin tuna, and an amberjack. We show that environmentally realistic exposures (1–15 µg/L total PAH) cause specific dose-dependent defects in cardiac function in all three species, with circulatory disruption culminating in pericardial edema and other secondary malformations. Each species displayed an irregular atrial arrhythmia following oil exposure, indicating a highly conserved response to oil toxicity. A considerable portion of Gulf water samples collected during the spill had PAH concentrations exceeding toxicity thresholds observed here, indicating the potential for losses of pelagic fish larvae. Vulnerability assessments in other ocean habitats, including the Arctic, should focus on the developing heart of resident fish species as an exceptionally sensitive and consistent indicator of crude oil impacts. PMID:24706825

  11. Crude Oil Remote Sensing, Characterization and Cleaning with CW and Pulsed Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Chirita, Arc; Gallegos, Sonia C.

    2014-01-01

    For detection, identification and characterization of crude oil we combine several optical methods of remote sensing of crude oil films and emulsions (coherent fringe projection illumination (CFP), holographic in-line interferometry (HILI), and laser induced fluorescence). These methods allow the three-dimensional characterization of oil spills, important for practical applications. Combined methods of CFP and HILI are described in the frame of coherent superposition of partial interference patterns. It is shown, that in addition to detection/identification laser illumination in the green-blue region can also degrade oil slicks. Different types of surfaces contaminated by oil spills are tested: oil on the water, oil on the flat solid surfaces and oil on the curved surfaces of pipes. For the detection and monitoring of the laser-induced oil degradation in pipes, coherent fiber bundles were used. Both continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed lasers are tested using pump-probe schemes. This finding suggests that properly structured laser clean-up can be an alternative environmentally-friendly method of decontamination, as compared to the currently used chemical methods that are dangerous to environment.

  12. Modeling filtration of dispersed crude oil droplets by the copepod Calanus finmarchicus.

    PubMed

    Nepstad, Raymond; Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Brönner, Ute; Nordtug, Trond; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-04-01

    Oil droplets may form and disperse in the water column after an accidental spill of crude oil or petroleum products at sea. Micro-sized oil droplets may be available for filter feeding organisms, such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which has been shown to filter oil droplets. In the present paper, a modeling approach was used to estimate potential ingestion amounts by copepod filtration of oil droplets. The new model was implemented in the OSCAR (Oil Spill Contingency and Response) software suite, and tested for a series of oil spill scenarios and key parameters. Among these, the size of the filtered droplets was found to be the most important factor influencing the model results. Given the assumptions and simplifications of the model, filtration of dispersed crude oil by C. finmarchicus was predicted to affect the fate of 1-40% of the total released oil mass, depending on the release scenario and parameter values used, with the lower end of that range being more probable in an actual spill situation.

  13. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  14. Solubility of crude oil in methane as a function of pressure and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.; Wenger, L.M.; Ging, T.; Blount, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of a 44?? API (0.806 sp. gr.) whole crude oil has been measured in methane with water present at temperatures of 50 to 250??C and pressures of 740 to 14,852 psi, as have the solubilities of two high molecular weight petroleum distillation fractions at temperatures of 50 to 250??C and pressures of 4482 to 25,266 psi. Both increases in pressure and temperature increase the solubility of crude oil and petroleum distillation fractions in methane, the effect of pressure being greater than that of temperature. Unexpectedly high solubility levels (0.5-1.5 grams of oil per liter of methane-at laboratory temperature and pressure) were measured at moderate conditions (50-200??C and 5076-14504 psi). Similar results were found for the petroleum distillation fractions, one of which was the highest molecular weight material of petroleum (material boiling above 266??C at 6 microns pressure). Unexpectedly mild conditions (100??C and 15,200 psi; 200??C and 7513 psi) resulted in cosolubility of crude oil and methane. Under these conditions, samples of the gas-rich phase gave solubility values of 4 to 5 g/l, or greater. Qualitative analyses of the crude-oil solute samples showed that at low pressure and temperature equilibration conditions, the solute condensate would be enriched in C5-C15 range hydrocarbons and in saturated hydrocarbons in the C15+ fraction. With increases in temperature and especially pressure, these tendencies were reversed, and the solute condensate became identical to the starting crude oil. The data of this study, compared to that of previous studies, shows that methane, with water present, has a much greater carrying capacity for crude oil than in dry systems. The presence of water also drastically lowers the temperature and pressure conditions required for cosolubility. The data of this and/or previous studies demonstrate that the addition of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane, or butane to methane also has a strong positive effect on crude oil

  15. Large Scale Behavior and Droplet Size Distributions in Crude Oil Jets and Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph; Murphy, David; Morra, David

    2013-11-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout introduced several million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Injected initially as a turbulent jet containing crude oil and gas, the spill caused formation of a subsurface plume stretching for tens of miles. The behavior of such buoyant multiphase plumes depends on several factors, such as the oil droplet and bubble size distributions, current speed, and ambient stratification. While large droplets quickly rise to the surface, fine ones together with entrained seawater form intrusion layers. Many elements of the physics of droplet formation by an immiscible turbulent jet and their resulting size distribution have not been elucidated, but are known to be significantly influenced by the addition of dispersants, which vary the Weber Number by orders of magnitude. We present experimental high speed visualizations of turbulent jets of sweet petroleum crude oil (MC 252) premixed with Corexit 9500A dispersant at various dispersant to oil ratios. Observations were conducted in a 0.9 m × 0.9 m × 2.5 m towing tank, where large-scale behavior of the jet, both stationary and towed at various speeds to simulate cross-flow, have been recorded at high speed. Preliminary data on oil droplet size and spatial distributions were also measured using a videoscope and pulsed light sheet. Sponsored by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  16. Emulsions of crude glycerin from biodiesel processing with fuel oil for industrial heating.

    PubMed

    Mize, Hannah E; Lucio, Anthony J; Fhaner, Cassie J; Pratama, Fredy S; Robbins, Lanny A; Karpovich, David S

    2013-02-13

    There is considerable interest in using crude glycerin from biodiesel production as a heating fuel. In this work crude glycerin was emulsified into fuel oil to address difficulties with ignition and sustained combustion. Emulsions were prepared with several grades of glycerin and two grades of fuel oil using direct and phase inversion emulsification. Our findings reveal unique surfactant requirements for emulsifying glycerin into oil; these depend on the levels of several contaminants, including water, ash, and components in MONG (matter organic non-glycerin). A higher hydrophile-lipophile balance was required for a stable emulsion of crude glycerin in fuel oil compared to water in fuel oil. The high concentration of salts from biodiesel catalysts generally hindered emulsion stability. Geometric close-packing of micelles was carefully balanced to mechanically stabilize emulsions while also enabling low viscosity for pumping and fuel injection. Phase inversion emulsification produced more stable emulsions than direct emulsification. Emulsions were tested successfully as fuel for a waste oil burner.

  17. Utilizing asphaltene pyrolysis to predict pyrolysis kinetics of heavy crude oil and extractable native bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1992-01-07

    Selected heavy crude oils and extracted tar sand bitumens were separated into asphaltene and maltene fractions. The whole feeds and fractions were then examined by micropyrolysis at nominal constant heating rates from 1 to 50{degrees}C/min from temperatures of 250 to 650{degrees}C to establish evolution behavior, pyrolysate yields, and kinetics of evolution.

  18. Bioremediation of crude oil polluted soil by the white rot fungus, Pleurotus tuberregium (Fr.) Sing.

    PubMed

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Anoliefo, Geoffrey O; Oghale, Okelezo I

    2003-01-01

    Bioremediation has become an attractive alternative to physicochemical methods of remediation of polluted sites. White rot fungi (WRF) are increasingly being investigated and used in bioremediation, because of their ability to degrade an extremely diverse range of very persistent or toxic environmental pollutants. The white rot fungus, Pleurotus tuberregium, was examined for its ability to ameliorate crude oil polluted soil. This was inferred from the ability of the polluted soil to support seed germination and seedling growth in Vigna unguiculata, at 0, 7 and 14 days post treatment. Results obtained from the present study showed that bioremediation of soil contaminated with crude oil was possible, especially when the fungus had been allowed to establish and fully colonize the substrate mixed with the soil. There were significant improvements in % germination, plant height and root elongation values of test plants, when seeds were planted 14 days post soil treatment. At 1 to 5% crude oil pollution, % germination values were comparable with the values in control plants in the 14 days treatment, and significantly higher than values obtained in the day 0 treatment. Also, at the highest level of crude oil pollution (15%), there was about 25% improvement in % germination value over the 0 day treatment. This trend of improvement in values was also observed for plant height, root elongation and biomass accumulation as well as decreased total hydrocarbon content.

  19. Accumulation of Hydrocarbons by Maize (Zea mays L.) in Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Liao, Changjun; Xu, Wending; Lu, Guining; Liang, Xujun; Guo, Chuling; Yang, Chen; Dang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    This study has investigated the use of screened maize for remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil. Pots experiment was carried out for 60 days by transplanting maize seedlings into spiked soils. The results showed that certain amount of crude oil in soil (≤2 147 mg·kg(-1)) could enhance the production of shoot biomass of maize. Higher concentration (6 373 mg·kg(-1)) did not significantly inhibit the growth of plant maize (including shoot and root). Analysis of plant shoot by GC-MS showed that low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in maize tissues, but PAHs concentration in the plant did not increase with higher concentration of crude oil in soil. The reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon in planted soil was up to 52.21-72.84%, while that of the corresponding controls was only 25.85-34.22% in two months. In addition, data from physiological and biochemical indexes demonstrated a favorable adaptability of maize to crude oil pollution stress. This study suggested that the use of maize (Zea mays L.) was a good choice for remediation of soil contaminated with petroleum within a certain range of concentrations.

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  5. FY16/Q2 status report on initial dispersion calculations for tight crude oils project

    SciTech Connect

    Luketa, Anay; Rudeen, David Keith

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to assess dispersion distances of a vapor mixture of species released from a railcar containing a tight crude oil. Tight crude oils can have higher levels of light ends as compared to conventional crude oils [1], which if released and dispersed could pose a potential hazard with regards to a flash fire, explosion, and/or asphyxiation. A historical accident involving rail transport in Viareggio, Italy illustrates how the spillage of LPG can lead to severe damage as a result of a propagating vapor cloud [2]. One of 14 railcars was punctured after derailment, releasing about 110 m3 of LPG into a densely populated area (2000 persons/km2 ). The resulting vapor cloud propagated and infiltrated nearby buildings and houses which were an average of 10 m in height. Ignition of the cloud occurred approximately 100 to 300 seconds after the start of the spill. A flash fire and explosions resulted, killing 31 people. Evidence suggests that most deaths occurred due to the asphyxiation and thermal hazards from the flash fire. Thus, the motivation for this work is to assess if significant vapors can develop from a railcar carrying a tight crude oil and if this cloud could disperse potentially to nearby populations.

  6. Effects Of Nutrient Source And Supply On Crude Oil Biodegradation In Continuous-Flow Beach Microcosms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonium and nitrate were used as nitrogen sources to support microbial biodegradation of crude oil in continuous-flow beach microcosms to determine whether either nutrient was more effective in open systems, such as intertidal shorelines. No differences in the rate or the exten...

  7. Hydroconversion of heavy crude oils using soluble metallic compounds in the presence of hydrogen or methane

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, A.; Salazar, A.; Ovalles, C.; Filgueiras, E.

    1996-12-31

    The hydroconversion of heavy crude oil was studied under thermal and catalytic conditions using soluble organo-metallic compounds of Mo, Fe, Cr, V, Ni, and Co as a catalyst precursors. All catalysts are effective for the hydroconversion, however, molybdenum and nickel compounds are preferred.

  8. BIOREMEDIATION AND BIORESTORATION OF A CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED FRESHWATER WETLAND ON THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biostimulation by nutrient enrichment and phytoremediation were studied for the restoration of an acutely stressed freshwater wetland experimentally exposed to crude oil. The research was carried out along the shores of the St. Lawrence River at Ste. Croix, Quebec, Canada. The ...

  9. Isolation, identification, and crude oil degradation characteristics of a high-temperature, hydrocarbon-degrading strain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boqun; Ju, Meiting; Liu, Jinpeng; Wu, Wentao; Li, Xiaojing

    2016-05-15

    In this work, a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Y-1 isolated from petroleum contaminated soil in the Dagang Oilfield was investigated for its potential effect in biodegradation of crude oil. According to the analysis of 16S rRNA sequences, strain Y-1 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. The growth parameters such as pH, temperature, and salinity were optimised and 60.2% degradation of crude oil removal was observed in 5days. The strain Y-1 showed strong tolerance to high salinity, alkalinity, and temperature. Emplastic produced by strain Y-1 at high temperatures could be applied as biosurfactant. Gas chromatography analysis demonstrated that the strain Y-1 efficiently degraded different alkanes from crude oil, and the emplastic produced by strain Y-1 promoted the degradation rates of long-chain alkanes when the temperature increased to 55°C. Therefore, strain Y-1 would play an important role in the area of crude oil contaminant bioremediation even in some extreme conditions.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Chelatococcus sp. CO-6, a crude-oil-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingning; Cui, Di; Li, Ang; Yang, Jixian; Ma, Fang

    2016-02-10

    Chelatococcus sp. CO-6 is a crude-oil-degrading strain, which was isolated from Shengli Oilfield. However, little genetic information is known about this species. We present the complete genome sequence analysis of Chelatococcus sp. CO-6 in this study. It could provide further insight into its genetic basis for membrane transport and immune system against bacteriophage in strain CO-6.

  11. A Diverse Soil Microbiome Degrades More Crude Oil than Specialized Bacterial Assemblages Obtained in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Abram, Katrina; Champagne, Julie; Yergeau, Etienne; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Soil microbiome modification may alter system function, which may enhance processes like bioremediation. In this study, we filled microcosms with gamma-irradiated soil that was reinoculated with the initial soil or cultivated bacterial subsets obtained on regular media (REG-M) or media containing crude oil (CO-M). We allowed 8 weeks for microbiome stabilization, added crude oil and monoammonium phosphate, incubated the microcosms for another 6 weeks, and then measured the biodegradation of crude oil components, bacterial taxonomy, and functional gene composition. We hypothesized that the biodegradation of targeted crude oil components would be enhanced by limiting the microbial taxa competing for resources and by specifically selecting bacteria involved in crude oil biodegradation (i.e., CO-M). Postincubation, large differences in taxonomy and functional gene composition between the three microbiome types remained, indicating that purposeful soil microbiome structuring is feasible. Although phylum-level bacterial taxonomy was constrained, operational taxonomic unit composition varied between microbiome types. Contrary to our hypothesis, the biodegradation of C10 to C50 hydrocarbons was highest when the original microbiome was reinoculated, despite a higher relative abundance of alkane hydroxylase genes in the CO-M microbiomes and of carbon-processing genes in the REG-M microbiomes. Despite increases in the relative abundances of genes potentially linked to hydrocarbon processing in cultivated subsets of the microbiome, reinoculation of the initial microbiome led to maximum biodegradation. IMPORTANCE In this study, we show that it is possible to sustainably modify microbial assemblages in soil. This has implications for biotechnology, as modification of gut microbial assemblages has led to improved treatments for diseases like Clostridium difficile infection. Although the soil environment determined which major phylogenetic groups of bacteria would dominate

  12. Enhanced biodegradation of alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil by mixed strains and bacterial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Li, Chen; Zhou, Zhengxi; Wen, Jianping; You, Xueyi; Mao, Youzhi; Lu, Chunzhe; Huo, Guangxin; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, two strains, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 and Pseudomonas sp. XM-01, were isolated from soil samples polluted by crude oil at Bohai offshore. The former one could degrade alkane hydrocarbons (crude oil and diesel, 1:4 (v/v)) and crude oil efficiently; the latter one failed to grow on alkane hydrocarbons but could produce rhamnolipid (a biosurfactant) with glycerol as sole carbon source. Compared with pure culture, mixed culture of the two strains showed higher capability in degrading alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil of which degradation rate were increased from 89.35 and 74.32 ± 4.09 to 97.41 and 87.29 ± 2.41 %, respectively. In the mixed culture, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 grew fast with sufficient carbon source and produced intermediates which were subsequently utilized for the growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01 and then, rhamnolipid was produced by Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. Till the end of the process, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 was inhibited by the rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. In addition, alkane hydrocarbon degradation rate of the mixed culture increased by 8.06 to 97.41 % compared with 87.29 % of the pure culture. The surface tension of medium dropping from 73.2 × 10(-3) to 28.6 × 10(-3) N/m. Based on newly found cooperation between the degrader and the coworking strain, rational investigations and optimal strategies to alkane hydrocarbons biodegradation were utilized for enhancing crude oil biodegradation.

  13. Radical scavenging activity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils and oil fractions.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Mohamed F; Kroh, Lothar W; Mörsel, Jörg-T

    2003-11-19

    Crude vegetable oils are usually oxidatively more stable than the corresponding refined oils. Tocopherols, phospholipids (PL), phytosterols, and phenols are the most important natural antioxidants in crude oils. Processing of vegetable oils, moreover, could induce the formation of antioxidants. Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils were extracted with n-hexane and the oils were further fractionated into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL), and PL. Crude oils and their fractions were investigated for their radical scavenging activity (RSA) toward the stable galvinoxyl radical by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry and toward 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by spectrophotometric method. Coriander seed oil and its fractions exhibited the strongest RSA compared to black cumin and niger seed oils. The data correlated well with the total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, unsaponifiables, and PL, as well as the initial peroxide values of crude oils. In overall ranking, RSA of oil fractions showed similar patterns wherein the PL exhibited greater activity to scavenge both free radicals followed by GL and NL, respectively. The positive relationship observed between the RSA of crude oils and their color intensity suggests the Maillard reaction products may have contributed to the RSA of seed oils and their polar fractions. The results demonstrate the importance of minor components in crude seed oils on their oxidative stability, which will reflect on their food value and shelf life. As part of the effort to assess the potential of these seed oils, the information is also of importance in processing and utilizing the crude oils and their byproducts.

  14. Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar Coastal Fields, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Bockmeulen, M.; Barker, C.; Dickey, P.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain oil which is mostly heavy with a gravity less than 22/sup 0/ API. Lake Maracaibo is now in an intermontane basin enclosed on three sides by the Andes Mountains. The area has a complex history and tectonic movement continues today. In the Cretaceous, the area was part of the platform of a large geosyncline, but by the Eocene it was near a coast where a series of large sandy deltas was deposited, with terrestrial sediments on the south and thick marine shales on the north. At this time, conditions for oil generation in the shales and migration to the sands were established, but the subsequent Oligocene faulting, uplift, and erosion may have allowed meteoric water to penetrate into reservoirs. During the Miocene and Pliocene, the basin was tilted first west and then south, and filled with continental sediments from the rising Andes. Tilting is still continuing and oil is moving up along the Oligocene unconformity, forming surface seeps.

  15. BIODEGRADATION OF CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATING MARINE SHORELINES AND FRESHWATER WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory


    This paper presents a summary of the various factors influencing weathering of oil after it has been released into the invironment from a spill incident. Special emphasis will be placed on biodegradation processes. The source of most of the information for this article come...

  16. Degradation of crude oil in a contaminated tidal flat area and the resilience of bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaejin; Han, Il; Kang, Bo Ram; Kim, Seong Heon; Sul, Woo Jun; Lee, Tae Kwon

    2017-01-15

    Crude oil spills, Hebei Spirit in South Korea, is considered as one of the worst environmental disasters of the region. Our understanding on activation of oil-degrading bacteria and resilience of microbial community in oil contaminated sites are limited due to scarcity of such event. In the present study, tidal flat sediment contaminated by the oil spill were investigated for duration of 13months to identify temporal change in microbial community and functional genes responsible for PAH-degradation. The results showed predominance of previously known oil-degrading genera, such as Cycloclasticus, Alcanivorax, and Thalassolituus, displaying significant increase within first four months of the accident. The disturbance caused by the oil spill altered the microbial community and its functional structures, but they were almost restored to the original state after 13months. Present study demonstrated high detoxification capacity of indigenous bacterial populations in the tidal flat sediments and its resilience of microbial community.

  17. Studies on crude oil removal from pebbles by the application of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wen-xiang; Xia, Yan; Li, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Dan-feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-02-15

    Oil residues along shorelines are hard to remove after an oil spill. The effect of biodiesel to eliminate crude oil from pebbles alone and in combination with petroleum degrading bacteria was investigated in simulated systems. Adding biodiesel made oil detach from pebbles and formed oil-biodiesel mixtures, most of which remained on top of seawater. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiency increased with biodiesel quantities but the magnitude of augment decreased gradually. When used with petroleum degrading bacteria, the addition of biodiesel (BD), nutrients (NUT) and BD+NUT increased the dehydrogenase activity and decreased the biodegradation half lives. When BD and NUT were replenished at the same time, the TPH removal efficiency was 7.4% higher compared to the total improvement of efficiency when BD and NUT was added separately, indicating an additive effect of biodiesel and nutrients on oil biodegradation.

  18. Determination of naphthenic acids in crude oils using nonaqueous ion exchange solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Jones, D M; Watson, J S; Meredith, W; Chen, M; Bennett, B

    2001-02-01

    A method is presented for the routine, rapid, and quantitative analysis of aliphatic and naphthenic acids in crude oils, based on their isolation using nonaqueous ion exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges. The isolated acid fractions are methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method is effective on both light and heavy oils and is capable of providing mechanistic information of geochemical significance on the origin of the acids in the oils. Analysis of oils that were solvent extracted from laboratory and field mesocosm marine sediment oil degradation studies indicate that this new method of analyzing the products of hydrocarbon biodegradation may be a useful tool for monitoring the progress of bioremediation of oil spills in the environment.

  19. Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudeen, David Keith; Lord, David L.

    2005-08-01

    Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be

  20. Detection by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in microcosms of crude oil-contaminated mangrove sediments.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, A C F; Marques, E L S; Gross, E; Souza, S S; Dias, J C T; Brendel, M; Rezende, R P

    2012-01-27

    Currently, the effect of crude oil on ammonia-oxidizing bacterium communities from mangrove sediments is little understood. We studied the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in mangrove microcosm experiments using mangrove sediments contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% crude oil as well as non-contaminated control and landfarm soil from near an oil refinery in Camamu Bay in Bahia, Brazil. The evolution of CO(2) production in all crude oil-contaminated microcosms showed potential for mineralization. Cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis-derived samples generated with primers for gene amoA, which encodes the functional enzyme ammonia monooxygenase, showed differences in the sample contaminated with 5% compared to the other samples. Principal component analysis showed divergence of the non-contaminated samples from the 5% crude oil-contaminated sediment. A Venn diagram generated from the banding pattern of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to look for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in common. Eight OTUs were found in non-contaminated sediments and in samples contaminated with 0.5, 1, or 2% crude oil. A Jaccard similarity index of 50% was found for samples contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2% crude oil. This is the first study that focuses on the impact of crude oil on the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium community in mangrove sediments from Camamu Bay.

  1. Application of electrical submersible pumps in heavy crude oil in Boscan Field

    SciTech Connect

    Bortolin, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    During recent years optimization of artificial lift methods has been applied in the oil industry, in order to evaluate the effect on oil well production and to establish a company`s optimal investment policies. Higher costs on new artificial lifting equipment and facilities for new fields have created the necessity to review the latest available technology of different lifting methods and specially that related to electrical submersible pumps (ESP). Few studies in the area of heavy crude oil production optimization using ESP as a lifting method have been published. This paper discusses the results of an ESP pilot project performed in 24 wells in Boscan field, and analyzes the performance of the equipment and its application range. The ESP equipment was installed in completions at depths ranging from 7000 to 9000 feet, with a 10{degrees}API gravity crude and bottomhole temperature of 180{degrees}F. It was concluded that despite a reduction of the pump`s efficiency, the ESP equipment does qualify as a good alternative lifting method for heavy oil production. It is also possible to obtain higher production rates. The results obtained in this pilot project, confirm that submersible pumps are an alternative method for lifting heavy crude oil from relatively deep reservoirs.

  2. Very low embryonic crude oil exposures cause lasting cardiac defects in salmon and herring

    PubMed Central

    Incardona, John P.; Carls, Mark G.; Holland, Larry; Linbo, Tiffany L.; Baldwin, David H.; Myers, Mark S.; Peck, Karen A.; Tagal, Mark; Rice, Stanley D.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster exposed embryos of pink salmon and Pacific herring to crude oil in shoreline spawning habitats throughout Prince William Sound, Alaska. The herring fishery collapsed four years later. The role of the spill, if any, in this decline remains one of the most controversial unanswered questions in modern natural resource injury assessment. Crude oil disrupts excitation-contraction coupling in fish heart muscle cells, and we show here that salmon and herring exposed as embryos to trace levels of crude oil grow into juveniles with abnormal hearts and reduced cardiorespiratory function, the latter a key determinant of individual survival and population recruitment. Oil exposure during cardiogenesis led to specific defects in the outflow tract and compact myocardium, and a hypertrophic response in spongy myocardium, evident in juveniles 7 to 9 months after exposure. The thresholds for developmental cardiotoxicity were remarkably low, suggesting the scale of the Exxon Valdez impact in shoreline spawning habitats was much greater than previously appreciated. Moreover, an irreversible loss of cardiac fitness and consequent increases in delayed mortality in oil-exposed cohorts may have been important contributors to the delayed decline of pink salmon and herring stocks in Prince William Sound. PMID:26345607

  3. Very low embryonic crude oil exposures cause lasting cardiac defects in salmon and herring.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Carls, Mark G; Holland, Larry; Linbo, Tiffany L; Baldwin, David H; Myers, Mark S; Peck, Karen A; Tagal, Mark; Rice, Stanley D; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2015-09-08

    The 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster exposed embryos of pink salmon and Pacific herring to crude oil in shoreline spawning habitats throughout Prince William Sound, Alaska. The herring fishery collapsed four years later. The role of the spill, if any, in this decline remains one of the most controversial unanswered questions in modern natural resource injury assessment. Crude oil disrupts excitation-contraction coupling in fish heart muscle cells, and we show here that salmon and herring exposed as embryos to trace levels of crude oil grow into juveniles with abnormal hearts and reduced cardiorespiratory function, the latter a key determinant of individual survival and population recruitment. Oil exposure during cardiogenesis led to specific defects in the outflow tract and compact myocardium, and a hypertrophic response in spongy myocardium, evident in juveniles 7 to 9 months after exposure. The thresholds for developmental cardiotoxicity were remarkably low, suggesting the scale of the Exxon Valdez impact in shoreline spawning habitats was much greater than previously appreciated. Moreover, an irreversible loss of cardiac fitness and consequent increases in delayed mortality in oil-exposed cohorts may have been important contributors to the delayed decline of pink salmon and herring stocks in Prince William Sound.

  4. Biodegradation of crude oil by individual bacterial strains and a mixed bacterial consortium

    PubMed Central

    Santisi, Santina; Cappello, Simone; Catalfamo, Maurizio; Mancini, Giuseppe; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Yakimov, Michail M.

    2015-01-01

    Three bacterial isolates identified as Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2, Rhodococcus erythropolis HS4 and Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, were isolated from crude oil enrichments of natural seawater. Single strains and four bacterial consortia designed by mixing the single bacterial cultures respectively in the following ratios: (Alcanivorax: Pseudomonas, 1:1), (Alcanivorax: Rhodococcus, 1:1), (Pseudomonas: Rhodococcus, 1:1), and (Alcanivorax: Pseudomonas: Rhodococcus, 1:1:1), were analyzed in order to evaluate their oil degrading capability. All experiments were carried out in microcosms systems containing seawater (with and without addition of inorganic nutrients) and crude oil (unique carbon source). Measures of total and live bacterial abundance, Card-FISH and quali-, quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons (GC-FID) were carried out in order to elucidate the co-operative action of mixed microbial populations in the process of biodegradation of crude oil. All data obtained confirmed the fundamental role of bacteria belonging to Alcanivorax genus in the degradation of linear hydrocarbons in oil polluted environments. PMID:26273252

  5. Wall sticking of high water-cut crude oil transported at temperatures below the gel point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Haimin; Huang, Qiyu; Wang, Changhui

    2015-12-01

    Some high water-cut crude oils can flow in the temperature below the oil gel point, while oil particles may adhere to the pipe wall as paste; this process is known as ‘wall sticking’. This can cause partial or even total blocking of the transportation pipe. Several experiments using a laboratory flow loop were conducted to study the wall sticking characteristics of high water-cut crude oils. The experimental results indicated that the predominant influencing factors of wall sticking included shear stress, water-cut and differences between gel point and wall temperature. The wall sticking rate and occurrence temperature decrease with the increase of water-cut and shear stress. The criterion for the wall sticking occurrence temperature (WSOT), and the regression formula of the wall sticking thickness for high water-cut crude oil were then established. Typical case studies indicated that the prediction results obtained from the WSOT criterion and the wall sticking thickness regression formula were in accordance with the measured values. The wall sticking rate and WSOT vary widely under different conditions and it is necessary to consider its non-uniformity in production.

  6. Diversity and similarity of microbial communities in petroleum crude oils produced in Asia.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Kunio; Maki, Hideaki; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2008-11-01

    To understand microbial communities in petroleum crude oils, we precipitated DNA using high concentrations of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) and purified. Samples of DNA from five crude oils, (Middle East, 3; China, 1; and Japan, 1) were characterized based upon their 16S rRNA gene sequences after PCR amplification and the construction of clone libraries. We detected 48 eubacterial species, one cyanobacterium, and one archaeon in total. The microbial constituents were diverse in the DNA samples. Most of the bacteria affiliated with the sequences of the three oils from the Middle East comprised similar mesophilic species. Acinetobacter, Propionibacterium, Sphingobium and a Bacillales were common. In contrast, the bacterial communities in Japanese and Chinese samples were unique. Thermophilic Petrotoga-like bacteria (11%) and several anaerobic-thermophilic Clostridia- and Synergistetes-like bacteria (20%) were detected in the Chinese sample. Different thermophiles (12%) and Clostridia (2%) were detected in the Japanese sample.

  7. Heinz-body hemolytic anemia from the ingestion of crude oil: a primary toxic effect in marine birds.

    PubMed

    Leighton, F A; Peakall, D B; Butler, R G

    1983-05-20

    Hemolytic anemia developed in young herring gulls and Atlantic puffins given daily oral doses of a Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Anemia developed 4 to 5 days after the initiation of oil ingestion and was accompanied by Heinz-body formation and a strong regenerative response. The data evince a toxic effect on circulating red blood cells involving an oxidative biochemical mechanism and the first clear evidence of a primary mechanism of toxicity from the ingestion of crude oil by birds.

  8. Heinz-body hemolytic anemia from the ingestion of crude oil: a primary toxic effect in marine birds

    SciTech Connect

    Leighton, F.A.; Peakall, D.B.; Butler, R.G.

    1983-05-20

    Hemolytic anemia developed in young herring gulls and Atlantic puffins given daily oral doses of a Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Anemia developed 4 to 5 days after the initiation of oil ingestion and was accompainied by Heinz-body formation and a strong regenerative response. The data evince a toxic effect on circulating red blood cells involving an oxidative biochemical mechanism and the first clear evidence of a primary mechanism of toxicity from the ingestion of crude oil by birds.

  9. Characterization of microbial communities in heavy crude oil from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Albokari, Majed; Mashhour, Ibrahim; Alshehri, Mohammed; Boothman, Chris; Al-Enezi, Mousa

    The complete mineralization of crude oil into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds and cellular constituents can be carried out as part of a bioremediation strategy. This involves the transformation of complex organic contaminants into simpler organic compounds by microbial communities, mainly bacteria. A crude oil sample and an oil sludge sample were obtained from Saudi ARAMCO Oil Company and investigated to identify the microbial communities present using PCR-based culture-independent techniques. In total, analysis of 177 clones yielded 30 distinct bacterial sequences. Clone library analysis of the oil sample was found to contain Bacillus, Clostridia and Gammaproteobacteria species while the sludge sample revealed the presence of members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridia, Spingobacteria and Flavobacteria. The dominant bacterial class identified in oil and sludge samples was found to be Bacilli and Flavobacteria, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant bacterium in the oil sample has the closest sequence identity to Enterococcus aquimarinus and the dominant bacterium in the sludge sample is most closely related to the uncultured Bacteroidetes bacterium designated AH.KK.

  10. Saturated hydrocarbon content in olive fruits and crude olive pomace oils.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2016-01-01

    Olive fruits contain an n-alkane series of saturated hydrocarbons mainly in the pulp. Lower amounts of a complex mixture of paraffins, unresolved by gas chromatography (UCM--unresolved complex mixture), have been found in cuticle, stone (woody shell and seed), olive leaves, and talc used as an aid to olive oil extraction. The amounts of both kinds of hydrocarbons are related to the olive cultivar and are transferred to oils in a proportion depending on the oil-obtaining process (centrifugation or solvent extraction). In olive oil obtained by centrifugation, only n-alkanes were detected. However, in olive oil extracted by second centrifugation, small amounts of UCM paraffins were detected together with the n-alkanes. Olive pomace oils showed a very variable content of both types of hydrocarbons according to the different obtaining process, such as double centrifugation, solvent extraction or centrifugation followed by solvent extraction. 'White mineral oil' used in oil extraction machinery is the source of the high concentrations of UCM paraffins found in some olive and olive pomace oils. In the case of second centrifugation olive oil, a maximum limit of 50 mg kg(-1) of UCM is suggested, whereas in the case of crude olive pomace oil, it amounts to 250 mg kg(-1) plus an additional minimum of 1.0 for the n-alkanes/UCM ratio.

  11. Determination of chloride in brazilian crude oils by ion chromatography after extraction induced by emulsion breaking.

    PubMed

    Robaina, Nicolle F; Feiteira, Fernanda N; Cassella, Alessandra R; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-08-05

    The present paper reports on the development of a novel extraction induced by emulsion breaking (EIEB) method for the determination of chloride in crude oils. The proposed method was based on the formation and breaking of oil-in-water emulsions with the samples and the consequential transference of the highly water-soluble chloride to the aqueous phase during emulsion breaking, which was achieved by centrifugation. The determination of chloride in the extracts was performed by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity detection. Several parameters (oil phase:aqueous phase ratio, crude oil:mineral oil ratio, shaking time and type and concentration of surfactant) that could affect the performance of the method were evaluated. Total extraction of chloride from samples could be achieved when 1.0g of oil phase (0.5g of sample+0.5g of mineral oil) was emulsified in 5mL of a 2.5% (m/v) solution of Triton X-114. The obtained emulsion was shaken for 60min and broken by centrifugation for 5min at 5000rpm. The separated aqueous phase was collected, filtered and diluted before analysis by IC. Under these conditions, the limit of detection was 0.5μgg(-1) NaCl and the limit of quantification was 1.6μgg(-1) NaCl. We applied the method to the determination of chloride in six Brazilian crude oils and the results did not differ statistically from those obtained by the ASTM D6470 method when the paired Student-t-test, at 95% confidence level, was applied.

  12. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  13. The potential of indigenous Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1 for recovering heavy crude oil by biotransformation to light fractions

    PubMed Central

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Joshi, Sanket J.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a potential technology for residual heavy oil recovery. Many heavy oil fields in Oman and elsewhere have difficulty in crude oil recovery because it is expensive due to its high viscosity. Indigenous microbes are capable of improving the fluidity of heavy oil, by changing its high viscosity and producing lighter oil fractions. Many spore-forming bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from oil fields in Oman. Among the isolates, an autochthonous spore-forming bacterium was found to enhance heavy oil recovery, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1. The isolate showed maximum growth at high heavy oil concentrations within four days of incubation. Biotransformation of heavy crude oil to light aliphatic and aromatic compounds and its potential in EOR was analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic reservoir conditions. The isolates were grown aerobically in Bushnell-Haas medium with 1% (w/v) heavy crude oil. The crude oil analyzed by GC-MS showed a significant biotransformation from the ninth day of incubation under aerobic conditions. The total biotransformation of heavy crude oil was 67.1% with 45.9% in aliphatic and 85.3% in aromatic fractions. Core flooding experiments were carried out by injecting the isolates in brine supplemented with Bushnell-Haas medium into Berea sandstone cores and were incubated for twelve days under oil reservoir conditions (50°C). The extra recovered oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The residual oil recovered from core flood experiments ranged between 10–13% compared to the control experiment. The GC-MS analyses of the extra recovered oil showed 38.99% biotransformation of heavy to light oil. The results also indicated the presence of 22.9% extra aliphatic compounds in the residual crude oil recovered compared to that of a control. The most abundant compound in the extra recovered crude oil was identified as 1-bromoeicosane. The investigations showed the

  14. The potential of indigenous Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1 for recovering heavy crude oil by biotransformation to light fractions.

    PubMed

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J

    2017-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a potential technology for residual heavy oil recovery. Many heavy oil fields in Oman and elsewhere have difficulty in crude oil recovery because it is expensive due to its high viscosity. Indigenous microbes are capable of improving the fluidity of heavy oil, by changing its high viscosity and producing lighter oil fractions. Many spore-forming bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from oil fields in Oman. Among the isolates, an autochthonous spore-forming bacterium was found to enhance heavy oil recovery, which was identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Paenibacillus ehimensis BS1. The isolate showed maximum growth at high heavy oil concentrations within four days of incubation. Biotransformation of heavy crude oil to light aliphatic and aromatic compounds and its potential in EOR was analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic reservoir conditions. The isolates were grown aerobically in Bushnell-Haas medium with 1% (w/v) heavy crude oil. The crude oil analyzed by GC-MS showed a significant biotransformation from the ninth day of incubation under aerobic conditions. The total biotransformation of heavy crude oil was 67.1% with 45.9% in aliphatic and 85.3% in aromatic fractions. Core flooding experiments were carried out by injecting the isolates in brine supplemented with Bushnell-Haas medium into Berea sandstone cores and were incubated for twelve days under oil reservoir conditions (50°C). The extra recovered oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The residual oil recovered from core flood experiments ranged between 10-13% compared to the control experiment. The GC-MS analyses of the extra recovered oil showed 38.99% biotransformation of heavy to light oil. The results also indicated the presence of 22.9% extra aliphatic compounds in the residual crude oil recovered compared to that of a control. The most abundant compound in the extra recovered crude oil was identified as 1-bromoeicosane. The investigations showed the

  15. About the Relation Between Geodynamics of the Sedimentary Basin and the Properties of Crude Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, R.; Plotnikova, I.

    2012-04-01

    Earlier, we wrote and reported about the modern geodynamic activity of the territory of South-Tatar arch, where the Romashkino oil field. We identified a periodic change in flow rates of oil and oil density at Romashkino and other oil fields of the South Tatar arch. Now we have studied the composition of oils and bitumoids from uneven (in terms of age) deposites of the sedimentary cover and basement rocks in the zones of possible hydrocarbon seepage in the central squares of Romashkinskoye field. The results of the comparative studies allowed us to come to the conclusion that the formation of oil-bearing deposits of Romashkinskoye field owes to the income and mixing of hydrocarbons (HC) fluids from different sources. The analysis of geological and production data (GPD) that was held during the many years of exploitation of the development wells of Romashkinskoye field by TatNIPIneft under the direction of I.F. Glumov suggests contemporary inflow of hydrocarbons in the industrial oil reservoir of the Pashi horizon of Romashkinskoye field and the existence of localized areas of inflow of new portions of HC. A number of criteria was worked out in the analysis of the GPD; that allowed us to identify among the total number of wells those, in which the process of hydrocarbon seepage was recorded with the greatest probability. Such wells were called anomalous. One of the directions of this research was to study the geochemical characteristics of oil from anomalous wells and to determine the degree of similarity and difference between this oil and the oil from both normal wells (in which the signs of deep seepage is not recorded), and bituminoid from the crystalline basement and sedimentary cover. If the hypothesis of a recurrent (also in modern times) influx of deep hydrocarbon is correct, then the oil from the anomalous wells should have specific features in comparison with the wells located outside the areas of the expected inflow. The results of geochemical studies of

  16. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) response to crude oil exposure in the polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huan; Li, Wanjuan; Zhao, Xinda; Li, Xu; Yang, Dazuo; Ren, Hongwei; Zhou, Yibing

    2017-01-01

    Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) cDNAs from the polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis were cloned and characterized in order to investigate the relationship between crude oil exposure and stress response in this worm. The full length of PaSOD was 870 bp and PaCAT was 1967 bp encoding 150 and 506 amino acids, respectively. Gene expression and enzyme activity of Cu/Zn SOD and CAT in response to crude oil contaminated soil (500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg) were measured. The results showed that expression of the CAT gene and enzyme activity in P. aibuhitensis was positively correlated to the concentration of crude oil and reached a maximum at 15 days of exposure to 3000 mg/kg crude oil. The expression of the SOD gene and enzyme activity of SOD in P. aibuhitensis also increased during exposure to crude oil and reached a maximum at 10 days of exposure to 3000 mg/kg crude oil. These results indicated that SOD and CAT are important for maintaining the balance of cellular metabolism and protecting P. aibuhitensis from crude oil toxicity.

  17. Ecological effects of crude oil residues on the functional diversity of soil microorganisms in three weed rhizospheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-ru; Zhou, Qi-xing; Ren, Li-ping; Zhu, Yong-guan; Sun, Shu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Ecological effects of crude oil residues on weed rhizospheres are still vague. The quantitative and diversity changes and metabolic responses of soil-bacterial communities in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), jerusalem artichoke (Silphium perfoliatum L.) and evening primrose (Acalypha australis L.) rhizospheric soils were thus examined using the method of carbon source utilization. The results indicated that there were various toxic effects of crude oil residues on the growth and reproduction of soil bacteria, but the weed rhizospheres could mitigate the toxic effects. Total heterotrophic counting colony-forming units (CFUs) in the rhizospheric soils were significantly higher than those in the non-rhizospheric soils. The culturable soil-bacterial CFUs in the jerusalem artichoke (S. perfoliatum) rhizosphere polluted with 0.50 kg/pot of crude oil residues were almost twice as much as those with 0.25 kg/pot and without the addition of crude oil residues. The addition of crude oil residues increased the difference in substrate evenness, substrate richness, and substrate diversity between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of T. officinale and A. australis, but there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the Shannon's diversity index between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of S. perfoliatum. The rhizospheric response of weed species to crude oil residues suggested that S. perfoliatum may be a potential weed species for the effective plant-microorganism bioremediation of contaminated soils by crude oil residues.

  18. Determination of volatile organic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil with efficient gas-chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijing; Geppert, Helmut; Fischer, Thomas; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Möller, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in crude oil, such as super volatile organic compounds (super VOCs) and simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is vital for targeting crude oil spill spots. In this study, a static headspace gas chromatography flame ionization detection method was established for determination of super VOCs in crude oil with both external and internal standard determination, which can be used in the field when using portable gas chromatography. Identification was done by comparing the retention time with the corresponding standards and quantitation was done with a new one-drop method. Another simplified and efficient method was performed to analyze volatile PAHs in crude oil, which can also be used in field analysis. Toluene was used as the extraction solvent for PAHs in crude oil. Method validation for both analyses was satisfactory. The result showed that n-butane and n-pentane were maximum super VOCs and naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene were the main PAHs in the crude oil studied. The super VOCs quantity ranged from 3 to 6% and the main PAHs consisted of 0.02-0.06% of studied crude oil.

  19. Can crude oil toxicity on phytoplankton be predicted based on toxicity data on benzo(a)pyrene and naphthalene?

    PubMed

    Ozhan, Koray; Bargu, Sibel

    2014-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are major components of crude oil, are responsible in large part for the toxicity of crude oil to phytoplankton. This study addressed the following question. Can reliable predictions of the aquatic toxicity of crude oil, a multi-component mixture, be described from toxicity data on individual PAH compounds? Naphthalene, the most abundant PAH compound, and benzo(a)pyrene, a highly toxic PAH compound, were selected as model compounds to quantify toxicity of crude oil on two phytoplankton species, Ditylum brightwellii and Heterocapsa triquetra, by analyzing the effects of different concentrations of these PAHs on growth rate. EC50 values suggested that the diatom D. brightwellii was more vulnerable to both toxicants than the dinoflagellate H. triquetra. However, a previous study, which investigated the impact of crude oil on the same two species, had opposite results. The differences in response from these phytoplankton species to naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene toxicity compared to their response to crude oil suggest that they may not be solely used as surrogates to assess crude oil toxicity on phytoplankton.

  20. Response of adult mallard ducks to ingested South Louisiana crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, N.C.; Dieter, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed South Louisiana crude oil as 0.25 and 2.5% of the total diet for 26 weeks to assess the chronic effects of oil ingestion. Additional birds were fed diets containing either 1.0% of a paraffin mixture or clean feed. No birds died during the study, nor were their body weights significantly depressed. Oviduct weight at necropsy was greatly reduced in hens on the 2.5% oil diet and also was significantly reduced in hens on the 0.25% oil diet when compared with controls. Male reproductive organs were not atrophied by treatment. Hens on oil-treated diets laid fewer eggs than those on the control diet; however, eggs from treated hens hatched as well as those from controls when artificially incubated. Pathological or biochemical alterations were no greater in the treated birds than in controls.

  1. Impacts of Deepwater Horizon crude oil exposure on adult mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) swim performance.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, John D; Mager, Edward M; Hoenig, Ronald H; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The temporal and geographic attributes of the Deepwater Horizon incident in 2010 likely exposed pelagic game fish species, such as mahi-mahi, to crude oil. Although much of the research assessing the effects of the spill has focused on early life stages of fish, studies examining whole-animal physiological responses of adult marine fish species are lacking. Using swim chamber respirometry, the present study demonstrates that acute exposure to a sublethal concentration of the water accommodated fraction of Deepwater Horizon crude oil results in significant swim performance impacts on young adult mahi-mahi, representing the first report of acute sublethal toxicity on adult pelagic fish in the Gulf of Mexico following the spill. At an exposure concentration of 8.4 ± 0.6 µg L(-1) sum of 50 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; mean of geometric means ± standard error of the mean), significant decreases in the critical and optimal swimming speeds of 14% and 10%, respectively (p < 0.05), were observed. In addition, a 20% reduction in the maximum metabolic rate and a 29% reduction in aerobic scope resulted from exposure to this level of ΣPAHs. Using environmentally relevant crude oil exposure concentrations and a commercially and ecologically valuable Gulf of Mexico fish species, the present results provide insight into the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on adult pelagic fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2613-2622. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Demulsification of crude oil-in-water emulsions by means of fungal spores

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Cardona, Alba Adriana; Martínez-Palou, Rafael; Chávez-Gómez, Benjamín; García-Caloca, Graciela; Guerra-Camacho, Jairo; Cerón-Camacho, Ricardo; Reyes-Ávila, Jesús; Karamath, James Robert

    2017-01-01

    The present feature describes for the first time the application of spores from Aspergillus sp. IMPMS7 to break out crude oil-in-water emulsions (O/W). The fungal spores were isolated from marine sediments polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. The spores exhibited the ability to destabilize different O/W emulsions prepared with medium, heavy or extra-heavy Mexican crude oils with specific gravities between 10.1 and 21.2°API. The isolated fungal spores showed a high hydrophobic power of 89.3 ± 1.9% and with 2 g of spores per liter of emulsion, the half-life for emulsion destabilization was roughly 3.5 and 0.7 h for extra-heavy and medium crude oil, respectively. Then, the kinetics of water separation and the breaking of the O/W emulsion prepared with heavy oil through a spectrofluorometric technique were studied. A decrease in the fluorescence ratio at 339 and 326 nm (I339/I326) was observed in emulsions treated with spores, which is similar to previously reported results using chemical demulsifiers. PMID:28234917

  3. Demulsification of crude oil-in-water emulsions by means of fungal spores.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Cardona, Alba Adriana; Martínez-Palou, Rafael; Chávez-Gómez, Benjamín; García-Caloca, Graciela; Guerra-Camacho, Jairo; Cerón-Camacho, Ricardo; Reyes-Ávila, Jesús; Karamath, James Robert; Aburto, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The present feature describes for the first time the application of spores from Aspergillus sp. IMPMS7 to break out crude oil-in-water emulsions (O/W). The fungal spores were isolated from marine sediments polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. The spores exhibited the ability to destabilize different O/W emulsions prepared with medium, heavy or extra-heavy Mexican crude oils with specific gravities between 10.1 and 21.2°API. The isolated fungal spores showed a high hydrophobic power of 89.3 ± 1.9% and with 2 g of spores per liter of emulsion, the half-life for emulsion destabilization was roughly 3.5 and 0.7 h for extra-heavy and medium crude oil, respectively. Then, the kinetics of water separation and the breaking of the O/W emulsion prepared with heavy oil through a spectrofluorometric technique were studied. A decrease in the fluorescence ratio at 339 and 326 nm (I339/I326) was observed in emulsions treated with spores, which is similar to previously reported results using chemical demulsifiers.

  4. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor–Independent Toxicity of Weathered Crude Oil during Fish Development

    PubMed Central

    Incardona, John P.; Carls, Mark G.; Teraoka, Hiroki; Sloan, Catherine A.; Collier, Tracy K.; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), derived largely from fossil fuels and their combustion, are pervasive contaminants in rivers, lakes, and nearshore marine habitats. Studies after the Exxon Valdez oil spill demonstrated that fish embryos exposed to low levels of PAHs in weathered crude oil develop a syndrome of edema and craniofacial and body axis defects. Although mechanisms leading to these defects are poorly understood, it is widely held that PAH toxicity is linked to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction. Using zebrafish embryos, we show that the weathered crude oil syndrome is distinct from the well-characterized AhR-dependent effects of dioxin toxicity. Blockade of AhR pathway components with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides demonstrated that the key developmental defects induced by weathered crude oil exposure are mediated by low-molecular-weight tricyclic PAHs through AhR-independent disruption of cardiovascular function and morphogenesis. These findings have multiple implications for the assessment of PAH impacts on coastal habitats. PMID:16330359

  5. Microbial activity in Alaskan taiga soils contaminated by crude oil in 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, E.M.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.; Raddock, J.F. |

    1995-12-31

    Biodegradation, often measured via microbial activity, includes destruction of environmental pollutants by living microorganisms and is dependent upon many physical and chemical factors. Effects of mineral nutrients and organic matter on biodegradation of Prudhoe Bay crude oil were investigated at a nineteen-year-old oil spill site in Alaskan taiga. Microcosms of two different soil types from the spill site; one undeveloped soil with forest litter and detritus (O horizon) and one more developed with lower organic content (A horizon), were treated with various nitrogen and phosphorus amendments, and incubated for up to six weeks. Each microcosm was sampled periodically and assayed for hydrocarbon mineralization potential using radiorespirometry, for total carbon dioxide respired using gas chromatography, and for numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria using most probable number counting techniques. Organic matter in the O horizon soil along with combinations of mineral nutrients were found to stimulate microbial activity. No combination of mineral nutrient additions to the A horizon soil stimulated any of the parameters above those measured in control microcosms. The results of this study indicate that adding mineral nutrients and tilling the O horizon into the A horizon of subarctic soils contaminated with crude oil, would stimulate microbial activity, and therefore the biodegradation potential, ultimately increasing the rate of destruction of crude oil in these soils.

  6. Biodegradation of a crude oil by three microbial consortia of different origins and metabolic capabilities.

    PubMed

    Viñas, M; Grifoll, M; Sabaté, J; Solanas, A M

    2002-05-01

    Microbial consortia were obtained three by sequential enrichment using different oil products. Consortium F1AA was obtained on a heavily saturated fraction of a degraded crude oil; consortium TD, by enrichment on diesel and consortium AM, on a mixture of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]. The three consortia were incubated with a crude oil in order to elucidate their metabolic capabilities and to investigate possible differences in the biodegradation of these complex hydrocarbon mixtures in relation to their origin. The efficiency of the three consortia in removing the saturated fraction was 60% (F1AA), 48% (TD) and 34% (AM), depending on the carbon sources used in the enrichment procedures. Consortia F1AA and TD removed 100% of n-alkanes and branched alkanes, whereas with consortium AM, 91% of branched alkanes remained. Efficiency on the polyaromatic fraction was 19% (AM), 11% (TD) and 7% (F1AA). The increase in aromaticity of the polyaromatic fraction during degradation of the crude oil by consortium F1AA suggested that this consortium metabolized the aromatic compounds primarily by oxidation of the alkylic chains. The 500-fold amplification of the inocula from the consortia by subculturing in rich media, necessary for use of the consortia in bioremediation experiments, showed no significant decrease in their degradation capability.

  7. Environmental Drivers of Differences in Microbial Community Structure in Crude Oil Reservoirs across a Methanogenic Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Jenna L.; Akob, Denise M.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Fierer, Noah; Spear, John R.; Warwick, Peter D.; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry. Twenty-two oil production wells from north central Louisiana, USA, were sampled for analysis of microbial community structure and fluid geochemistry. Archaea were the dominant microbial community in the majority of the wells sampled. Methanogens, including hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic organisms, were numerically dominant in every well, accounting for, on average, over 98% of the total Archaea present. The dominant Bacteria groups were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridiales, which have also been identified in other microbially-altered oil reservoirs. Comparing microbial community structure to fluid (gas, water, and oil) geochemistry revealed that the relative extent of biodegradation, salinity, and spatial location were the major drivers of microbial diversity. Archaeal relative abundance was independent of the extent of methanogenesis, but closely correlated to the extent of crude oil biodegradation; therefore, microbial community structure is likely not a good sole predictor of methanogenic activity, but may predict the extent of crude oil biodegradation. However, when the shallow, highly biodegraded, low salinity wells were excluded from the statistical analysis, no environmental parameters could explain the differences in microbial community structure. This suggests that the microbial community structure of the 5 shallow, up-dip wells was different than the 17 deeper, down-dip wells. Also, the 17 down-dip wells

  8. Environmental drivers of differences in microbial community structure in crude oil reservoirs across a methanogenic gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jenna L.; Akob, Denise M.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Fierer, Noah; Spear, John R.; Warwick, Peter D.; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry. Twenty-two oil production wells from north central Louisiana, USA, were sampled for analysis of microbial community structure and fluid geochemistry. Archaea were the dominant microbial community in the majority of the wells sampled. Methanogens, including hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic organisms, were numerically dominant in every well, accounting for, on average, over 98% of the total Archaea present. The dominant Bacteria groups were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridiales, which have also been identified in other microbially-altered oil reservoirs. Comparing microbial community structure to fluid (gas, water, and oil) geochemistry revealed that the relative extent of biodegradation, salinity, and spatial location were the major drivers of microbial diversity. Archaeal relative abundance was independent of the extent of methanogenesis, but closely correlated to the extent of crude oil biodegradation; therefore, microbial community structure is likely not a good sole predictor of methanogenic activity, but may predict the extent of crude oil biodegradation. However, when the shallow, highly biodegraded, low salinity wells were excluded from the statistical analysis, no environmental parameters could explain the differences in microbial community structure. This suggests that the microbial community structure of the 5 shallow, up-dip wells was different than the 17 deeper, down-dip wells. Also, the 17 down-dip wells

  9. Environmental Drivers of Differences in Microbial Community Structure in Crude Oil Reservoirs across a Methanogenic Gradient.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Jenna L; Akob, Denise M; McIntosh, Jennifer C; Fierer, Noah; Spear, John R; Warwick, Peter D; McCray, John E

    2016-01-01

    Stimulating in situ microbial communities in oil reservoirs to produce natural gas is a potentially viable strategy for recovering additional fossil fuel resources following traditional recovery operations. Little is known about what geochemical parameters drive microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs. We investigated if microbial community structure was significantly impacted by the extent of crude oil biodegradation, extent of biogenic methane production, and formation water chemistry. Twenty-two oil production wells from north central Louisiana, USA, were sampled for analysis of microbial community structure and fluid geochemistry. Archaea were the dominant microbial community in the majority of the wells sampled. Methanogens, including hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic organisms, were numerically dominant in every well, accounting for, on average, over 98% of the total Archaea present. The dominant Bacteria groups were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridiales, which have also been identified in other microbially-altered oil reservoirs. Comparing microbial community structure to fluid (gas, water, and oil) geochemistry revealed that the relative extent of biodegradation, salinity, and spatial location were the major drivers of microbial diversity. Archaeal relative abundance was independent of the extent of methanogenesis, but closely correlated to the extent of crude oil biodegradation; therefore, microbial community structure is likely not a good sole predictor of methanogenic activity, but may predict the extent of crude oil biodegradation. However, when the shallow, highly biodegraded, low salinity wells were excluded from the statistical analysis, no environmental parameters could explain the differences in microbial community structure. This suggests that the microbial community structure of the 5 shallow, up-dip wells was different than the 17 deeper, down-dip wells. Also, the 17 down-dip wells

  10. Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 facilitates crude oil distillation.

    PubMed

    Asshifa Md Noh, Nur; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul; Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad; Ramli Mohd Yahya, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products.

  11. Comprehensive Chemical Characterization of Hydrocarbons in NIST Standard Reference Material 2779 Gulf of Mexico Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Worton, David R; Zhang, Haofei; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Chan, Arthur W H; Wilson, Kevin R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2015-11-17

    Comprehensive chemical information is needed to understand the environmental fate and impact of hydrocarbons released during oil spills. However, chemical information remains incomplete because of the limitations of current analytical techniques and the inherent chemical complexity of crude oils. In this work, gas chromatography (GC)-amenable C9-C33 hydrocarbons were comprehensively characterized from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST SRM) 2779 Gulf of Mexico crude oil by GC coupled to vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry (GC/VUV-MS), with a mass balance of 68 ± 22%. This technique overcomes one important limitation faced by traditional GC and even comprehensive 2D gas chromatography (GC×GC): the necessity for individual compounds to be chromatographically resolved from one another in order to be characterized. VUV photoionization minimizes fragmentation of the molecular ions, facilitating the characterization of the observed hydrocarbons as a function of molecular weight (carbon number, NC), structure (number of double bond equivalents, NDBE), and mass fraction (mg kg(-1)), which represent important metrics for understanding their fate and environmental impacts. Linear alkanes (8 ± 1%), branched alkanes (11 ± 2%), and cycloalkanes (37 ± 12%) dominated the mass with the largest contribution from cycloalkanes containing one or two rings and one or more alkyl side chains (27 ± 9%). Linearity and good agreement with previous work for a subset of >100 components and for the sum of compound classes provided confidence in our measurements and represents the first independent assessment of our analytical approach and calibration methodology. Another crude oil collected from the Marlin platform (35 km northeast of the Macondo well) was shown to be chemically identical within experimental errors to NIST SRM 2779, demonstrating that Marlin crude is an appropriate surrogate oil for researchers conducting

  12. Preparation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Hydroxyl-Terminated Silicone Oil Fiber and Its Application to Analysis of Crude Oils

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ting; Zhang, Wanfeng; Dai, Wei; He, Sheng; Chang, Zhenyang; Gao, Xuanbo

    2014-01-01

    A simple and efficient method to analyze the volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in crude oils has been developed based on direct immersion solid-phase microextraction coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DI-SPME-GC × GC/TOFMS). A novel fiber, multiwalled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyl-terminated silicone oil (MWNTs-TSO-OH), was prepared by sol-gel technology. Using standard solutions, the extraction conditions were optimized such as extraction mode, extraction temperature, extraction time, and salts effect. With the optimized conditions, a real crude oil sample was extracted and then analyzed in detail. It shows that the proposed method is very effective in simultaneously analyzing the normal and branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and biomarkers of crude oil such as steranes and terpanes. Furthermore, the method showed good linearity (r > 0.999), precision (RSD < 8%), and detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 1.6 ng/L. PMID:24578659

  13. Isolation and characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca strain degrading crude oil from a Tunisian off-shore oil field.

    PubMed

    Chamkha, Mohamed; Trabelsi, Yosra; Mnif, Sami; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-12-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative, mesophilic, moderately halotolerant, non-motile, and non-sporulated bacterium, designated strain BSC5 was isolated from an off-shore "Sercina" oil field, located near the Kerkennah island, Tunisia. Yeast extract was not required for growth. Phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain BSC5 revealed that it was related to members of the genus Klebsiella, being most closely related to the type strain of K. oxytoca (99% sequence similarity). Strain BSC5 was capable of using aerobically the crude oil as substrate growth. The growth of strain BSC5 on crude oil was followed by measuring the OD(600 nm) and by enumeration of viable cells at different culture's time. GC-MS analysis showed that strain BSC5 was capable of degrading a wide range of aliphatic hydrocarbons from C(13) to C(30) . The biodegradation rate for n -alkanes reached 44% and 75%, after 20 and 45 days of incubation, respectively. Addition of the synthetic surfactant, Tween 80, accelerated the crude oil degradation. The biodegradation rate for n -alkanes reached 61% and 98%, after 20 and 45 days of incubation, respectively. Moreover, three aromatic compounds, p -hydroxybenzoate, protocatechuate and gentisate, were metabolized completely by strain BSC5 after 24 h, under aerobic conditions.

  14. The enhanced stability and biodegradation of dispersed crude oil droplets by Xanthan Gum as an additive of chemical dispersant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiqin; Li, Yiming; Yang, Xiaolong; Bao, Mutai; Cheng, Hua

    2017-03-07

    It is necessary for chemical dispersant to disperse oil effectively and maintain the stability of oil droplets. In this work, Xanthan Gum (XG) was used as an environmentally friendly additive in oil dispersant formulation to enhance the stability and biodegradation of dispersed crude oil droplets. When XG was used together with chemical dispersant 9500A, the dispersion effectiveness of crude oil in artificial sea water (ASW) and the oil droplet stability were both greatly enhanced. In the presence of XG, lower concentration of 9500A was needed to achieve the effective dispersion and stabilization. In addition to the enhancement of dispersion and stabilization, it was found that the biodegradation rate of crude oil by bacteria was dramatically enhanced when a mixture of 9500A and XG was used as a dispersant. Because of the low environmental impact of XG, this would be a potential way to formulate the dispersant with lower toxicity.

  15. An expected consequence approach to route choice in the maritime transportation of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Atiq; Verma, Manish

    2013-11-01

    Maritime transportation is the major conduit of international trade, and the primary link for global crude oil movement. Given the volume of oil transported on international maritime links, it is not surprising that oil spills of both minor and major types result, although most of the risk-related work has been confined to the local settings. We propose an expected consequence approach for assessing oil-spill risk from intercontinental transportation of crude oil that not only adheres to the safety guidelines specified by the International Maritime Organization but also outlines a novel technique that makes use of coarse global data to estimate accident probabilities. The proposed estimation technique, together with four of the most popular cost-of-spill models from the literature, were applied to study and analyze a realistic size problem instance. Numerical analyses showed that: a shorter route may not necessarily be less risky; an understanding of the inherent oil-spill risk of different routes could potentially facilitate tanker routing decisions; and the associated negotiations over insurance premium between the transport company and the not-for-profit prevention and indemnity clubs. Finally, we note that only the linear model should be used with one of the three nonlinear cost-of-spill models for evaluating tanker routes.

  16. Molecular dynamics and composition of crude oil by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zijian; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Zhizhan; Liao, Guangzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Can

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used to identify pure substances and probe protein dynamics. Oil is a complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons, which have a wide range of molecular size distribution. Previous work show that empirical correlations of relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were found for simple alkane mixtures, and also the shape of the relaxation and diffusion distribution functions are related to the composition of the fluids. The 2D NMR is a promising qualitative evaluation method for oil composition. But uncertainty in the interpretation of crude oil indicated further study was required. In this research, the effect of each composition on relaxation distribution functions is analyzed in detail. We also suggest a new method for prediction of the rotational correlation time distribution of crude oil molecules using low field NMR (LF-NMR) relaxation time distributions. A set of down-hole NMR fluid analysis system is independently designed and developed for fluid measurement. We illustrate this with relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments and rotational correlation time distributions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures that employ our laboratory-designed downhole NMR fluid analyzer. The LF-NMR is a useful tool for detecting oil composition and monitoring oil property changes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions.

  18. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Enpeng

    data that contains information on the properties of a sample. We can analyze the data acquisition from the detectors and get the information on size, shape, etc. This is why we choose SANS as our research tool. The world's top energy problems are security concerns, climate concerns and environmental concerns. So far, oil (37%) is still the No.1 fuel in world energy consumption (Oil 37%, Coal 25%, Bio-fuels 0.2%, Gas 23%, Nuclear 6%, Biomass 4%, Hydro 3%, Solar heat 0.5%, Wind 0.3%, Geothermal 0.2% and Solar photovoltaic 0.04%). Even more and more alternative energy: bio-fuels, nuclear and solar energy will be used in the future, but nuclear energy has a major safety issue after the Japanese Fukushima I nuclear accidents, and other energies contribute only a small percent. Thus, it is very important to improve the efficiency and reduce the population of petroleum products. There is probably one thing that we can all agree on: the world's energy reserves are not unlimited. Even though it is limited, only 30% of the oil reserves is conventional oil, so in order to produce, transport, and refine of heavy crude oil without wasting huge amounts of energy, we need to reduce the viscosity without using high temperature stream heating or diluent; As more and more off-shore oil is exploited at that we need reduce the viscosity without increasing temperature. The whole petroleum consumed in U.S. in 2009 was 18.7 million barrels per day and 35% of all the energy we consumed. Diesel is one of the very important fossil fuel which is about 20% of petroleum consumed. Most of the world's oils are non-conventional, 15 % of heavy oil, 25 % of extra heavy oil, 30 % of the oil sands and bitumen, and the conventional oil reserves is only 30%. The oil sand is closely related to the heavy crude oil, the main difference being that oil sands generally do not flow at all. For efficient energy production and conservation, how to lower the liquated fuel and crude oil viscosity is a very important

  19. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  20. A Novel Algorithm Combining Finite State Method and Genetic Algorithm for Solving Crude Oil Scheduling Problem

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qian-Qian; Yang, Gen-Ke; Pan, Chang-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid optimization algorithm combining finite state method (FSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to solve the crude oil scheduling problem. The FSM and GA are combined to take the advantage of each method and compensate deficiencies of individual methods. In the proposed algorithm, the finite state method makes up for the weakness of GA which is poor at local searching ability. The heuristic returned by the FSM can guide the GA algorithm towards good solutions. The idea behind this is that we can generate promising substructure or partial solution by using FSM. Furthermore, the FSM can guarantee that the entire solution space is uniformly covered. Therefore, the combination of the two algorithms has better global performance than the existing GA or FSM which is operated individually. Finally, a real-life crude oil scheduling problem from the literature is used for conducting simulation. The experimental results validate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-art GA method. PMID:24772031

  1. A novel algorithm combining finite state method and genetic algorithm for solving crude oil scheduling problem.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qian-Qian; Yang, Gen-Ke; Pan, Chang-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid optimization algorithm combining finite state method (FSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to solve the crude oil scheduling problem. The FSM and GA are combined to take the advantage of each method and compensate deficiencies of individual methods. In the proposed algorithm, the finite state method makes up for the weakness of GA which is poor at local searching ability. The heuristic returned by the FSM can guide the GA algorithm towards good solutions. The idea behind this is that we can generate promising substructure or partial solution by using FSM. Furthermore, the FSM can guarantee that the entire solution space is uniformly covered. Therefore, the combination of the two algorithms has better global performance than the existing GA or FSM which is operated individually. Finally, a real-life crude oil scheduling problem from the literature is used for conducting simulation. The experimental results validate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-art GA method.

  2. Hydrogen Production From Crude Bio-oil and Biomass Char by Electrochemical Catalytic Reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xing-long; Ning, Shen; Yuan, Li-xia; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-08-01

    We reports an efficient approach for production of hydrogen from crude bio-oil and biomass char in the dual fixed-bed system by using the electrochemical catalytic reforming method. The maximal absolute hydrogen yield reached 110.9 g H2/kg dry biomass. The product gas was a mixed gas containing 72%H2, 26%CO2, 1.9%CO, and a trace amount of CH4. It was observed that adding biomass char (a by-product of pyrolysis of biomass) could remarkably increase the absolute H2 yield (about 20%-50%). The higher reforming temperature could enhance the steam reforming reaction of organic compounds in crude bio-oil and the reaction of CO and H2O. In addition, the CuZn-Al2O3 catalyst in the water-gas shift bed could also increase the absolute H2 yield via shifting CO to CO2.

  3. Cross-correlations between the US monetary policy, US dollar index and crude oil market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xinxin; Lu, Xinsheng; Yue, Gongzheng; Li, Jianfeng

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the cross-correlations between the US monetary policy, US dollar index and WTI crude oil market, using a dataset covering a period from February 4, 1994 to February 29, 2016. Our study contributes to the literature by examining the effect of the US monetary policy on US dollar index and WTI crude oil through the MF-DCCA approach. The empirical results show that the cross-correlations between the three sets of time series exhibit strong multifractal features with the strength of multifractality increasing over the sample period. Employing a rolling window analysis, our empirical results show that the US monetary policy operations have clear influences on the cross-correlated behavior of the three time series covered by this study.

  4. Acid esterification-alkaline transesterification process for methyl ester production from crude rubber seed oil.

    PubMed

    Thaiyasuit, Prachasanti; Pianthong, Kulachate; Worapun, Ittipon

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine methods and the most suitable conditions for producing methyl ester from crude rubber seed oil. An acid esterification-alkaline transesterification process is proposed. In the experiment, the 20% FFA of crude rubber seed oil could be reduced to 3% FFA by acid esterification. The product after esterified was then tranesterified by alkaline transesterification process. By this method, the maximum yield of methyl ester was 90% by mass. The overall consumption of methanol was 10.5:1 by molar ratio. The yielded methyl ester was tested for its fuel properties and met required standards. The major fatty acid methyl ester compositions were analyzed and constituted of methyl linoleate 41.57%, methyl oleate 24.87%, and methyl lonolenate 15.16%. Therefore, the cetane number of methyl ester could be estimated as 47.85, while the tested result of motor cetane number was 51.20.

  5. Isolation of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria from soils contaminated with crude oil spills.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Anupama; Singh, Padma

    2009-09-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the capability of bacterial strains to degrade crude oil under in vitro conditions. Pseudomonas strain PS-I could degrade alkanes (70.69%) and aromatics (45.37%). Alkanes and aromatic fractions separated by column chromatography were analyzed by gas chromatography. In case of Pseudomonas strain PS-I, nC17/Pr, nC18/Ph ratios decreased from 2.5100 to 0.1232 and from 7.2886 to 0.3853, respectively. It was concluded that out of the isolated strains, Pseudomonas strain PS-I, PS-II and PS-III were comparatively better and potent hydrocarbon degraders. Pseudomonas strain PS-I was almost comparable with standard strain of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in crude oil biodegradation potency.

  6. Determination of subsurface fluid contents at a crude-oil spill site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, K.M.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Essaid, H.I.

    1992-01-01

    Measurement of the fluid-content distribution at sites contaminated by immiscible fluids, including crude oil, is needed to better understand the movement of these fluids in the subsurface and to provide data to calibrate and verify numerical models and geophysical methods. A laboratory method was used to quantify the fluid contents of 146 core sections retrieved from boreholes aligned along a 120-m longitudinal transect at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, U.S.A. The 47-mm-diameter, minimally disturbed cores spanned a 4-m vertical interval contaminated by oil. Cores were frozen on site in a dry ice-alcohol bath to prevent redistribution and loss of fluids while sectioning the cores. We gravimetrically determined oil and water contents using a two-step method: (1) samples were slurried and the oil was removed by absorption onto strips of hydrophobic porous polyethylene (PPE); and (2) the samples were oven-dried to remove the water. The resulting data show sharp vertical gradients in the water and oil contents and a clearly defined oil body. The subsurface distribution is complex and appears to be influenced by sediment heterogeneities and water-table fluctuations. The center of the oil body has depressed the water-saturated zone boundary, and the oil is migrating laterally within the capillary fringe. The oil contents are as high as 0.3 cm3 cm-3, which indicates that oil is probably still mobile 10 years after the spill occurred. The thickness of oil measured in wells suggests that accumulated thickness in wells is a poor indicator of the actual distribution of oil in the subsurface. Several possible sources of error are identified with the field and laboratory methods. An error analysis indicates that adsorption of water and sediment into the PPE adds as much as 4% to the measured oil masses and that uncertainties in the calculated sample volume and the assumed oil density introduce an additional ??3% error when the masses are converted to fluid

  7. An evaluation of the endocrine disruptive potential of crude oil water accommodated fractions and crude oil contaminated surface water to freshwater organisms using in vitro and in vivo approaches.

    PubMed

    Truter, J Christoff; van Wyk, Johannes H; Oberholster, Paul J; Botha, Anna-Maria; Mokwena, Lucky M

    2016-10-27

    Knowledge regarding the potential impacts of crude oil on endocrine signaling in freshwater aquatic vertebrates is limited. The expression of selected genes as biomarkers for altered endocrine signaling was studied in African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, tadpoles and juvenile Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, exposed to weathered bunker and unweathered refinery crude oil water accommodated fractions (WAFs). In addition, the expression of the aforementioned genes was quantified in X. laevis tadpoles exposed to surface water collected from the proximity of an underground oil bunker. The (anti)estrogenicity and (anti)androgenicity of crude oil, crude oil WAFs, and surface water were furthermore evaluated using recombinant yeast. Thyroid hormone receptor beta expression was significantly down-regulated in X. laevis in response to both oil WAF types, whereas a further thyroid linked gene, type 2 deiodinase, was up-regulated in O. mossambicus exposed to a high concentration of bunker oil WAF. In addition, both WAFs altered the expression of the adipogenesis-linked peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in X. laevis. The crude oil and WAFs exhibited antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity in vitro. However, O. mossambicus androgen receptor 2 was the only gene, representing the reproductive system, significantly affected by WAF exposure. Estrogenicity, antiestrogenicity, and antiandrogenicity were detected in surface water samples; however, no significant changes were observed in the expression of any of the genes evaluated in X. laevis exposed to surface water. The responses varied among the 2 model organisms used, as well as among the 2 types of crude oil. Nonetheless, the data provide evidence that crude oil pollution may lead to adverse health effects in freshwater fish and amphibians as a result of altered endocrine signaling. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-13. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Reproducibility of LCA models of crude oil production.

    PubMed

    Vafi, Kourosh; Brandt, Adam R

    2014-11-04

    Scientific models are ideally reproducible, with results that converge despite varying methods. In practice, divergence between models often remains due to varied assumptions, incompleteness, or simply because of avoidable flaws. We examine LCA greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions models to test the reproducibility of their estimates for well-to-refinery inlet gate (WTR) GHG emissions. We use the Oil Production Greenhouse gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE), an open source engineering-based life cycle assessment (LCA) model, as the reference model for this analysis. We study seven previous studies based on six models. We examine the reproducibility of prior results by successive experiments that align model assumptions and boundaries. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) between results varies between ∼1 and 8 g CO2 eq/MJ LHV when model inputs are not aligned. After model alignment, RMSE generally decreases only slightly. The proprietary nature of some of the models hinders explanations for divergence between the results. Because verification of the results of LCA GHG emissions is often not possible by direct measurement, we recommend the development of open source models for use in energy policy. Such practice will lead to iterative scientific review, improvement of models, and more reliable understanding of emissions.

  9. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of

  10. The value-at-risk evaluation of Brent's crude oil market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Chin Wen; Isa, Zaidi; Ying, Khor Chia; Lai, Ng Sew

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the market risk of the Brent's crude oil market. First the long memory time-varying volatility is modelled under the Chung's specification. Second, for model adequacy evaluations on the heavy-tailed, long memory and endogenously estimated power transformation models indicated superior performance in out-of-sample forecasts. Lastly, these findings are further applied in the long and short trading positions of market risk evaluations of the Brent's market.

  11. Crude oil produced by church not exempt from windfall profit tax

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    Private Letter Ruling 8515003 does not exempt crude oil produced by an agency of a convention of churches from the windfall profits tax. The Internal Revenue Service concluded that not all of the proceeds were dedicated for the benefit of a qualifying charitable organization since some went to build a home for the elderly, although some went to fund educational scholarships. The Code does not allow partial tax exemptions.

  12. Results of a Workshop on Health Effects of Crude Oil Exposures Related to Operation Desert Storm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    Explosion , Fire, and Smoke Hazards ..................................... 3-9 3.6 Minor Hazards ................................... , ................... 3...concentrations also pose a flammability and explosion hazard. 2.1.3 Hydrogen Sulfide (HaS). This volatile gaseous compound is evolved from sour crudes that...process. Two caveats should be noted, however. 2.2.1.1 Oil and oxygen-enriched atmospheres are potentially explosive . The level of contamination of hands

  13. Free amino acid pattern in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) exposed to crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Soini, J.; Rantamaeki, P.

    1985-12-01

    In this study the authors investigated changes of free amino acid levels in different tissues of Mytilus edulis exposed to low concentrations of crude oil in a short term study. This investigation was accomplished in the northern area of the Baltic Sea, in the Archipelago of Turku. In this area the salinity of the sea water varies between 6-7%. Mytilus edulis lives there in its extreme conditions and it is therefore especially sensitive to disturbances in its environment.

  14. Oil viscosity limitation on dispersibility of crude oil under simulated at-sea conditions in a large wave tank.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Ken; Belore, Randy C; Mullin, Joseph V; Guarino, Alan

    2010-09-01

    This study determined the limiting oil viscosity for chemical dispersion of oil spills under simulated sea conditions in the large outdoor wave tank at the US National Oil Spill Response Test Facility in New Jersey. Dispersant effectiveness tests were completed using crude oils with viscosities ranging from 67 to 40,100 cP at test temperature. Tests produced an effectiveness-viscosity curve with three phases when oil was treated with Corexit 9500 at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:20. The oil viscosity that limited chemical dispersion under simulated at-sea conditions was in the range of 18,690 cP to 33,400 cP. Visual observations and measurements of oil concentrations and droplet size distributions in the water under treated and control slicks correlated well with direct measurements of effectiveness. The dispersant effectiveness versus oil viscosity relationship under simulated at sea conditions at Ohmsett was most similar to those from similar tests made using the Institut Francais du Pétrole and Exxon Dispersant Effectiveness (EXDET) test methods.

  15. Hydrocarbon degraders establish at the costs of microbial richness, abundance and keystone taxa after crude oil contamination in permafrost environments

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Shi, Yulan; Liebner, Susanne; Jin, Huijun; Perfumo, Amedea

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills from pipeline ruptures are a major source of terrestrial petroleum pollution in cold regions. However, our knowledge of the bacterial response to crude oil contamination in cold regions remains to be further expanded, especially in terms of community shifts and potential development of hydrocarbon degraders. In this study we investigated changes of microbial diversity, population size and keystone taxa in permafrost soils at four different sites along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline prior to and after perturbation with crude oil. We found that crude oil caused a decrease of cell numbers together with a reduction of the species richness and shifts in the dominant phylotypes, while bacterial community diversity was highly site-specific after exposure to crude oil, reflecting different environmental conditions. Keystone taxa that strongly co-occurred were found to form networks based on trophic interactions, that is co-metabolism regarding degradation of hydrocarbons (in contaminated samples) or syntrophic carbon cycling (in uncontaminated samples). With this study we demonstrate that after severe crude oil contamination a rapid establishment of endemic hydrocarbon degrading communities takes place under favorable temperature conditions. Therefore, both endemism and trophic correlations of bacterial degraders need to be considered in order to develop effective cleanup strategies. PMID:27886221

  16. Hydrocarbon degraders establish at the costs of microbial richness, abundance and keystone taxa after crude oil contamination in permafrost environments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Shi, Yulan; Liebner, Susanne; Jin, Huijun; Perfumo, Amedea

    2016-11-25

    Oil spills from pipeline ruptures are a major source of terrestrial petroleum pollution in cold regions. However, our knowledge of the bacterial response to crude oil contamination in cold regions remains to be further expanded, especially in terms of community shifts and potential development of hydrocarbon degraders. In this study we investigated changes of microbial diversity, population size and keystone taxa in permafrost soils at four different sites along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline prior to and after perturbation with crude oil. We found that crude oil caused a decrease of cell numbers together with a reduction of the species richness and shifts in the dominant phylotypes, while bacterial community diversity was highly site-specific after exposure to crude oil, reflecting different environmental conditions. Keystone taxa that strongly co-occurred were found to form networks based on trophic interactions, that is co-metabolism regarding degradation of hydrocarbons (in contaminated samples) or syntrophic carbon cycling (in uncontaminated samples). With this study we demonstrate that after severe crude oil contamination a rapid establishment of endemic hydrocarbon degrading communities takes place under favorable temperature conditions. Therefore, both endemism and trophic correlations of bacterial degraders need to be considered in order to develop effective cleanup strategies.

  17. Optics laboratory experiments with laser-heated samples of crude oils and oil-in-water emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Costa, Germán.

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe incorporation of basic industrial research results into current University study programs in Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering. The Laboratory of Optics and Fluids (LOF) of University Simon Bolivar (USB) leads a research program on applications of Photonics technology in the Petroleum Industry. More precisely, the main research subject at the (LOF) is development of optical procedures allowing determination of conditions of stability of oil-in-water emulsions. In several countries (for example, Canada and Venezuela) there exist important reservoirs of heavy crude oils, whose high viscosity impede their transportation through pipelines. Therefore, emulsions of heavy oils in water were developed in order to allow their commercialization. Though those emulsions are stable in current environmental conditions, high temperature or velocity gradients frequently provoke their coalescence. In typical experiments conducted at the (LOF) temperature gradients are induced in oil-water emulsions and in crude oil samples by irradiation with a CW laser beam. In crude oil samples the strong dependence of the liquid surface tension and refractive index on the local liquid temperature gives rise to long-range deformation of the liquid free surface. The latter cited thus behaves as an interferometrically smooth liquid mirror, which gives rise in turn to phase and intensity variations in the reflected light beam. In emulsion samples the inhomogeneous heating gives rise to thermoconvective flow, which is clearly observed as a moving speckle pattern in the reflected light beam. These are typical phenomena of self-interaction of a laser beam incident upon a material medium. In the present paper we discuss these optical phenomena, first studied in a basic research context, from an educational viewpoint.

  18. Hydrologic Controls on Losses of Individual Components of Crude Oil in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekins, B. A.; Baedecker, M. J.; Eganhouse, R. P.; Drennan, D.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Warren, E.; Cozzarelli, I.

    2011-12-01

    The time frame for natural attenuation of crude oil contamination in the subsurface has been studied for the last 27 years at a spill site located near Bemidji, Minnesota, USA. Data from the groundwater contaminant plume show that dissolved benzene concentrations adjacent to the oil decreased by 50% between 1993 and 2007. Previous studies at the site showed that benzene and ethylbenzene undergo minimal degradation in the methanogenic zone of the plume while toluene and o-xylene degrade rapidly in this zone. Other studies have shown that degradation of benzene under methanogenic conditions occurs in some cases but is generally unreliable in the field. In this study concentrations of volatile components in the crude oil source were examined to determine if the observed benzene decrease near the oil source zone was due a change in the ability of the methanogenic microbial community to degrade benzene or long-term depletion of the oil source. Oil samples collected in 2008 had benzene concentrations ranging from 7-61% of values measured in archived oil representative of the spill consistent with depletion of the oil source. Several lines of evidence indicate that dissolution and conservative transport control the losses of benzene and ethylbenzene from the crude oil. Laboratory microcosms constructed using sediments from the methanogenic zone near the source and incubated for over 13 months with an anaerobic mineral salt solution spiked with ~2 mg/L benzene exhibited no benzene losses. Concentrations of benzene and ethylbenzene in oil samples collected from five wells were linearly correlated to interpolated maximum pore space oil saturations adjacent to each well (R2 =0.72 and 0.55 respectively), indicating that losses of these compounds from the oil were controlled by the relative permeability of groundwater through the oil body. Moreover benzene loss from the oil was greater than ethylbenzene, consistent with their relative aqueous solubilities. Losses of other oil

  19. Biosurfactant and Degradative Enzymes Mediated Crude Oil Degradation by Bacterium Bacillus subtilis A1.

    PubMed

    Parthipan, Punniyakotti; Preetham, Elumalai; Machuca, Laura L; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the biodegradation of the crude oil by the potential biosurfactant producing Bacillus subtilis A1 was investigated. The isolate had the ability to synthesize degradative enzymes such as alkane hydroxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase at the time of biodegradation of hydrocarbon. The biosurfactant producing conditions were optimized as pH 7.0, temperature 40°C, 2% sucrose and 3% of yeast extract as best carbon and nitrogen sources for maximum production of biosurfactant (4.85 g l(-1)). Specifically, the low molecular weight compounds, i.e., C10-C14 were completely degraded, while C15-C19 were degraded up to 97% from the total hydrocarbon pools. Overall crude oil degradation efficiency of the strain A1 was about 87% within a short period of time (7 days). The accumulated biosurfactant from the biodegradation medium was characterized to be lipopeptide in nature. The strain A1 was found to be more robust than other reported biosurfactant producing bacteria in degradation efficiency of crude oil due to their enzyme production capability and therefore can be used to remove the hydrocarbon pollutants from contaminated environment.

  20. Day-Ahead Crude Oil Price Forecasting Using a Novel Morphological Component Analysis Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Zou, Yingchao; Lai, Kin Keung

    2014-01-01</