Science.gov

Sample records for aged female beagles

  1. Regional effects of ovariectomy and cadmium on bone mineral in ribs from aged female beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, D.R. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of estrogen depletion and cadmium (Cd) on bone calcium and to determine if these effects were localized in specific regions of ribs. Fourteen female beagles with {sup 45}Ca labeled skeletons were divided into four groups: sham controls (SO{minus}); ovariectomized (OV{minus}); shams exposed to Cd (SO+); ovariecomized exposed to Cd (OV+). Total Cd exposure period was 7 months, including 1 month by capsules and 6 months by drinking H{sub 2}O. Ribs were taken at necropsy from 12 of the 14 dogs, and each rib was quartered. Wet, dry, and ash weights, as well as total Ca and {sup 45}Ca content, were determined for each quarter. Analysis of ribs from control animals demonstrated that a given rib is heterogeneous in composition. One end appears to be less mineralized and more metabolically active than other regions. The OV{minus} and OV+ mid-rib regions had significantly lower dry and ash weights than SO{minus}. Total Ca contents of these same regions were also decreased in the OV{minus} and OV+. The only significant change in Ca/dry and Ca/ash was observed when comparing OV+ to SO{minus}. Analysis of treatment suggests that there are regional effects following ovariectomy increased the loss of bone mineral occurring as a result of ovariectomy. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  3. Impact of the advances in age on the gastrointestinal microflora of beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Benno, Y; Nakao, H; Uchida, K; Mitsuoka, T

    1992-08-01

    The gastrointestinal microflora of male beagle dogs in two different age groups; I) less than month 12 of age, and II) more than year 11 of age, was compared. No detectable difference occurred on the microflora of stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum in both dogs. Large bowel (cecum, colon and rectum) microflora in both dogs yielded the different microbial populations. In all regions of large bowel, the levels of bacteroides, eubacteria, peptostreptococci, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and staphylococci in the elderly dogs were lower than those in the younger animals, whereas the numbers of Clostridium perfringens and streptococci in the elderly animals were higher than those in the youngers. The high incidence of lecithinase-negative clostridia was observed with advances in age, but not that of spiral shaped rods. The result of this study shows that the advances in age of beagle dogs yield some changes in the microbial population of large bowel in the animals.

  4. Ovariectomy-induced changes in aged beagles: Histomorphometry and mineral content of the rib

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Hurst, D.; Miller, S.; Sacco-Gibson, N.

    1997-08-01

    The effects of ovariectomy on the aged beagle skeleton were studied by histomorphometric analysis of the cortical bone in sequential rib biopsies. Biopsies were taken from each ovariectomized (OV) or sham-operated (SO) dog at the time of surgery and at 1, 4, and 8.5 months after surgery. Tetracycline, calcein, and xylenol orange, respectively, were administered by a fluorochrome labeling procedure (2d-10d-2d) just prior to each postoperative biopsy to provide markers of bone formation. Analysis of sequential biopsies provided a means to follow the response to ovariectomy over time and compare each animal against its own baseline. Examination of sequential biopsies indicated that cortical porosity increased by the fourth month after ovariectomy and remained high at 8.5 months. Ovariectomy did not influence histomorphometric indices at one month after surgery, but substantial differences were observed at later times. Ovariectomy stimulated a transient increase in bone formation and was increased six-fold over that of SO dogs at four months. Ribs were also analyzed for mineral content at necropsy. The rib was heterogeneous along its length for calcium content and concentration. In the midrib where biopsies for histomorphometric analysis were taken, ovariectomy induced a decrease in mass and mineral content; total calcium was decreased by approximately 31%. These data demonstrate that the rib cortical bone is a responsive site for the effects of ovariectomy in female dogs.

  5. Cadmium-induced bone loss: Increased susceptibility in female beagles after ovariectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Sacco-Gibson, N.A.; Peterson, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Bone resorption, as measured by release of bone {sup 45}Ca, was significantly increased in elderly female beagles within 96 h of exposure to 15 mg/L Cd in drinking water. The {sup 45}Ca response was greater in ovariecotomized (OV) animals than in sham-operated (SO) controls and was not mediated by changes in calciotropic hormone concentrations. Mean blood Cd concentrations were 3--8 {mu}g/L during the earliest bone resorption response and 13--15 {mu}g/L at the end of the study. During 7 mo of Cd exposure, bone mineral densities decreased most in the OV animals exposed to Cd: {minus}15.4 {plus minus} 4.3% for the tibia distal end and {minus}7.2 {plus minus} 1.2% for the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) (mean {plus minus} SE, n=4). Results indicate that Cd may act directly on bone and that postmenopausal women exposed to Cd in industry or via cigarette smoke may be at increased risk of Cd-induced bone loss. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Renal Function and Morphology in Aged Beagle Dogs Before and after Hydrocortisone Administration

    PubMed Central

    Smets, Pascale M. Y.; Lefebvre, Hervé P.; Aresu, Luca; Croubels, Siska; Haers, Hendrik; Piron, Koen; Meyer, Evelyne; Daminet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal structural changes and proteinuria in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone (HC) administration. Eleven Beagle dogs ≥10 years old were treated with either hydrocortisone (HC group, n = 6) or placebo (control group, n = 5). Urinary markers, GFR and kidney biopsies were evaluated before (T0), during (T16 wks) and after discontinuing HC administration (T24 wks). Results indicate that HC administration causes a significant increase in GFR. At all time points except T16 wks, proteinuria was higher in the control group than in the HC group, and there was no significant difference in urinary markers between groups. At T16 wks, proteinuria, urinary albumin-to-creatinine (c) ratio, immunoglobulin G/c and retinol-binding protein/c were higher compared to baseline in the HC group. At T0, rare to mild renal lesions were detected in all HC dogs and rare to moderate changes in all control dogs. Glomerulosclerosis progressed in both groups until T24 wks. Tubular atrophy was detected in three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, but also in five control dogs throughout the study. At every time point, five HC dogs and all control dogs had rare to moderate interstitial inflammation. Rare to mild interstitial fibrosis was found in up to three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, and severe fibrosis in one HC dog at T24 wks. Up to four control dogs had rare to mild fibrosis at all time points. These findings indicate that clinically healthy, aged Beagle dogs may have considerable renal lesions and proteinuria, which could have implications for experimental or toxicological studies. Additional research is needed to elucidate glucocorticoid effects on renal structure, but functional changes such as hyperfiltration and proteinuria warrant attention to kidney function of canine patients with Cushing's syndrome or receiving exogenous glucocorticoids. PMID:22393368

  7. Consideration of age-dependent radium retention in people on the basis of the beagle model

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, N.J.; Keane, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines in humans the proposition emanating from studies in beagles that long-term retention of radium varies in proportion to the calcium addition rate at the time of intake. Because data on the calcium addition rate in younger humans were fragmentary, human calcium-addition rates were scaled from those in beagles, the relative calcium accretion rates in the two species at equivalent stages of skeletal growth providing the scaling factor. The variation of radium retention with age was determined by fitting a modified power function to data on the retention of radium from about 30 to 15,000 days following a series of therapeutic injections of /sup 226/Ra in humans ranging in age from 18 to 63 yr. The fractional retention R at t days following a single injection of /sup 226/Ra was described by R = (1 + t/d)/sup -0/ /sup 44/. The age-dependent time constant d in the retention function was found to be proportional to the calcium addition rate at the time of injection in subjects receiving < 200 ..mu..g /sup 226/Ra.

  8. Adventures in neural plasticity, aging, and neurodegenerative disorders aboard the CWC beagle.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Mark P

    2003-11-01

    This article recounts some of the scientific endeavors of Carl W. Cotman (CWC) during his journeys through the cellular circuitry of the mammalian brain. I have selected for consideration his findings that have been an important impetus for my own research; in several cases our different experiments have provided complementary data to support an hypothesis. Three examples are (i) Carl's studies of the roles of glutamate in synaptic transmission and plasticity in the adult brain and my studies of how glutamate regulates neurite outgrowth and cell survival in brain development; (ii) his and our studies of the mechanisms whereby amyloid beta-peptide damages and kills neurons; and (iii) Carl's evidence that physical activity regulates neurotrophin levels in the brain and our evidence that dietary restriction has similar effects and is neuroprotective. In case you have not yet realized how I chose a title for this article it is because Carl has a (very distant) connection with Charles Darwin-Darwin sailed on a vessel called the Beagle and Carl has studied beagle dogs, establishing them as a model for understanding the neurobiology of human brain aging.

  9. Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Sims, M. R.; Pullan, D.; Whitehead, S.; Thatcher, J.; Clemmet, J.; Linguard, S.; Underwood, J.; Richter, L.

    2000-07-01

    Beagle 2 is the British-led lander of the ESA Mars Express mission. The prime objectives of Beagle 2 are to (1) search for criteria relating to past life on Mars, (2) seek trace atmospheric species indicative of extant life, (3) measure the detailed atmospheric composition to establish the geological history of the planet and to document the processes involved in seasonal climatic changes or diurnal cycling, (4) investigate the oxidative state of the Martian surface, rock interiors and beneath boulders, (5) examine the geological nature of the rocks, their chemistry, mineralogy, petrology and age, (6) characterise the geomorphology of the landing site, and (7) appraise the environmental conditions including temperature, pressure, wind speed, UV flux, etc. The entry system comprises a front shield/aeroshell, a back cover/bioshield and release mechanisms. The descent system depends on a mortar, pilot chute, main parachute and main parachute release mechanism. The Lander itself has a clam-like structure and lands cocooned within gas-filled airbags. The outer shell provides energy absorption and thermal insulation within a casing that must spread the impact loads and resists tearing. Many of the Beagle 2 science instruments are integrated with a robotic arm that transports them to deploy them in positions where they can study or obtain samples of the rocks and soil. Sub-surface samples are obtained using a Pluto (PLanetary Undersurface TOol) which has the ability to crawl across, and burrow below the planetary surface. The constraints placed on Beagle 2 by mass restrictions of the Mars Express mission has meant that many innovations are necessary to ensure delivery of a sufficient science payload mass capable of the full range of measurements necessary to achieve the mission objectives. In particular a highly integrated approach to lander sytems and science instruments has been essential. This approach and the necessary technology developments have important

  10. Oral administration of adrafinil improves discrimination learning in aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Milgram, N W; Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Atkinson, P; Woehrlé, F; Callahan, H

    2000-06-01

    Aged beagle dogs were trained on either a size or intensity discrimination task 2 h following treatment with either 20 mg/kg of adrafinil or a placebo control. Training continued until the dogs reached a predetermined criterion level of performance, or failed to acquire the task after 40 sessions. The treatments and tasks were then reversed, with both the test order and treatment order counterbalanced. Thus, half of the animals were first tested on the intensity discrimination, and half of these were first tested under adrafinil. Treatment with adrafinil produced significant improvement in learning, as indicated by a decrease in both errors and trials to criterion. An effect of adrafinil on motivation may partially account for these findings; however, adrafinil did not significantly affect response latency. Adrafinil is believed to serve as an alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist. The improved learning may also result from enhancement of vigilance due to facilitation of noradrenergic transmission in the central nervous system. PMID:10880682

  11. Prussian Blue decorporation of {sup 137}Cs in beagles of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, D.R.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    A 6-wk study was conducted using immature (4.7 mo), young adult (2.4 y), and aged (13.5 y) male beagles to determine the modifying effect of age on the effectiveness of Prussian Blue decorporation therapy for the removal of injected {sup 137}Cs. Whole-body clearance rates for injected {sup 137}Cs decreased with increasing age in the dogs. Treatment with Prussian Blue changed the ratio of fecal to urinary {sup 137}Cs excretion from 0.8 in untreated dogs to 2.2 in treated animals. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in tissues of untreated and Prussian Blue-treated dogs at the end of the 6-wk study were similar, with the greatest concentrations in the skeletal muscle tissue, spleen, and kidneys. There was a lower concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the livers of the treated dogs. The reductions in the average total whole-body doses resulting from Prussian Blue treatment during the course of this study were 51% in the immature, 31% in the young adult, and 38% in the aged dogs. Because of the differences in the intake of Prussian Blue by the dogs in the different groups relative to their body weight, it is unclear as to the relative effectiveness of Prussian Blue in dogs of different ages. 33 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Adrafinil disrupts performance on a delayed nonmatching-to-position task in aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Siwak, Christina T; Tapp, P Dwight; Milgram, Norton W

    2003-08-01

    Previous studies in humans and dogs have reported beneficial effects of adrafinil on specific cognitive functions. The effects in dogs are limited to a single study examining discrimination learning. We wanted to further explore the cognitive effects of adrafinil in dogs. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of oral administration of adrafinil on visuospatial function in dogs. Eighteen aged beagle dogs were tested on a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMP) task 2 h following one of three possible treatments; 20 mg/kg of adrafinil, 10 mg/kg of adrafinil or a placebo control. All dogs were tested under each treatment for eight test sessions. A 2-day washout period was given between treatments and the order of treatments was varied. Treatment with 20 mg/kg of adrafinil produced a significant impairment in working memory as indicated by an increase in the number of errors over the 8-day test period. The disturbance of memory functions from adrafinil could be a result of increased noradrenergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:13679229

  13. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  14. Age-related pharmacokinetic changes of acetaminophen, antipyrine, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and ofloxacin in male cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Takashi; Yamaura, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Koji; Kim, Soonih; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen (marker of gastric emptying), antipyrine (marker of hepatic metabolic activity and total body water), diazepam (lipophilic and highly distributed), diphenhydramine (hepatic blood flow-limited and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein bound) and ofloxacin (renally eliminated) were evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys (3-18 years old) and beagle dogs (2-11 years old) as models in elderly persons. 2. Gastric pH fluctuated with aging in monkeys and dogs. The concentration of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein appeared to be increased by aging. There were no age-related differences in the absorption rates of the drugs under the conditions used in the study. Total body fat increased and water decreased in monkeys, but these parameters did not change in dogs. 3. Hepatic blood flow decreased in both species, but a significant decrease of hepatic clearance was only seen in monkeys. Renal clearance decreased significantly with age in monkeys and showed a tendency to decrease in dogs. 4. Age-related alterations of physiological parameters in monkeys are in agreement with clinical observations in humans, except for the lack of a change in the plasma albumin concentration. Therefore, this study suggests that monkey might be a suitable animal model for prediction of age-related changes in pharmacokinetics in humans.

  15. Age-related pharmacokinetic changes of acetaminophen, antipyrine, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and ofloxacin in male cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Takashi; Yamaura, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Koji; Kim, Soonih; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen (marker of gastric emptying), antipyrine (marker of hepatic metabolic activity and total body water), diazepam (lipophilic and highly distributed), diphenhydramine (hepatic blood flow-limited and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein bound) and ofloxacin (renally eliminated) were evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys (3-18 years old) and beagle dogs (2-11 years old) as models in elderly persons. 2. Gastric pH fluctuated with aging in monkeys and dogs. The concentration of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein appeared to be increased by aging. There were no age-related differences in the absorption rates of the drugs under the conditions used in the study. Total body fat increased and water decreased in monkeys, but these parameters did not change in dogs. 3. Hepatic blood flow decreased in both species, but a significant decrease of hepatic clearance was only seen in monkeys. Renal clearance decreased significantly with age in monkeys and showed a tendency to decrease in dogs. 4. Age-related alterations of physiological parameters in monkeys are in agreement with clinical observations in humans, except for the lack of a change in the plasma albumin concentration. Therefore, this study suggests that monkey might be a suitable animal model for prediction of age-related changes in pharmacokinetics in humans. PMID:24650193

  16. Learning ability in aged beagle dogs is preserved by behavioral enrichment and dietary fortification: a two-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Milgram, N W; Head, E; Zicker, S C; Ikeda-Douglas, C J; Murphey, H; Muggenburg, B; Siwak, C; Tapp, D; Cotman, C W

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of two interventions, dietary fortification with antioxidants and a program of behavioral enrichment, was assessed in a longitudinal study of cognitive aging in beagle dogs. A baseline protocol of cognitive testing was used to select four cognitively equivalent groups: control food-control experience (C-C), control food-enriched experience (C-E), antioxidant fortified food-control experience (A-C), and antioxidant fortified food-enriched experience(A-E). We also included two groups of young behaviorally enriched dogs, one receiving the control food and the other the fortified food. Discrimination learning and reversal was assessed after one year of treatment with a size discrimination task, and again after two years with a black/white discrimination task. The four aged groups were comparable at baseline. At one and two years, the aged combined treatment group showed more accurate learning than the other aged groups. Discrimination learning was significantly improved by behavioral enrichment. Reversal learning was improved by both behavioral enrichment and dietary fortification. By contrast, the fortified food had no effect on the young dogs. These results suggest that behavioral enrichment or dietary fortification with antioxidants over a long-duration can slow age-dependent cognitive decline, and that the two treatments together are more effective than either alone in older dogs.

  17. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  18. Relative radiosensitivity of bone tumor induction among beagles as a function of age at injection of {sup 239}Pu or {sup 226}Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Jee, W.S.S.; Miller, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison was made of the response to induction of skeletal malignancy from exposure of beagles to monomeric {sup 239}Pu or to {sup 226}Ra as juveniles (3 mo of age), young adults (1.5 y of age), or mature adults (5 y of age). This indicated that of these age groups, animals injected as young adults are most sensitive per Gy of average skeletal dose evaluated at 1 y before death. Dogs exposed either as juveniles or as mature adults appeared to be less sensitive. Relative radiosensitivities (RRS) of juvenile and mature beagles ranged between about 0.3 and 0.7 that of dogs injected as young adults. Mean values of RRS for both radionuclides were about 0.5, but RRS values derived from dogs given monomeric {sup 239}Pu appeared to be most reliable and were 0.27 {+-} 0.09 for dogs injected as juveniles and 0.41 {+-} 0.13 for animals exposed as mature adults.

  19. Age and distraction are determinants of performance on a novel visual search task in aged Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; Christie, Lori-Ann; De Rivera, Christina; Araujo, Joseph A; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2012-02-01

    Aging has been shown to disrupt performance on tasks that require intact visual search and discrimination abilities in human studies. The goal of the present study was to determine if canines show age-related decline in their ability to perform a novel simultaneous visual search task. Three groups of canines were included: a young group (N = 10; 3 to 4.5 years), an old group (N = 10; 8 to 9.5 years), and a senior group (N = 8; 11 to 15.3 years). Subjects were first tested for their ability to learn a simple two-choice discrimination task, followed by the visual search task. Attentional demands in the task were manipulated by varying the number of distracter items; dogs received an equal number of trials with either zero, one, two, or three distracters. Performance on the two-choice discrimination task varied with age, with senior canines making significantly more errors than the young. Performance accuracy on the visual search task also varied with age; senior animals were significantly impaired compared to both the young and old, and old canines were intermediate in performance between young and senior. Accuracy decreased significantly with added distracters in all age groups. These results suggest that aging impairs the ability of canines to discriminate between task-relevant and -irrelevant stimuli. This is likely to be derived from impairments in cognitive domains such as visual memory and learning and selective attention.

  20. Cognitive and motor aging in female chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Russell, Jamie L; Hopkins, William D; Herndon, James G

    2014-03-01

    We present the first longitudinal data on cognitive and motor aging in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Thirty-eight adult female chimpanzees (10-54 years old) were studied. The apes were tested longitudinally for 3 years in a modified Primate Cognition Test Battery, which comprised 12 tests of physical and social cognition. The chimpanzees were also administered a fine motor task requiring them to remove a steel nut from rods of various complexity. There was little evidence for an age-related decline in tasks of Physical Cognition: for most tasks, performance was either stable or improved with repeated testing across age groups. An exception was Spatial Memory, for which 4 individuals more than 50 years old experienced a significant performance decline across the 3 years of testing. Poorer performance with age was found in 2 tasks of Social Cognition, an attention-getting task and a gaze-following task. A slight motor impairment was also observed, with old chimpanzees improving less than younger animals with repeated testing on the simplest rod. Hormonal status effects were restricted to spatial memory, with non-cycling females outperforming cycling females independently of age. Unexpectedly, older chimpanzees were better than younger individuals in understanding causality relationships based on sound.

  1. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  2. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  3. Occurrence of mitral valve insufficiency in clinically healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Károly; Szilvási, Viktória; Manczur, Ferenc; Máthé, Ákos; Reiczigel, Jenő; Nolte, Ingo; Hungerbühler, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic degenerative valve disease (CDVD) is the most common cardiac disease in dogs, usually resulting in mitral valve insufficiency (MVI). The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MVI in clinically healthy Beagle populations. A total of 79 adult healthy Beagles (41 females and 38 males; age: 5.6 ± 2.7 years, range 1.4 to 11.7 years) were examined. The diagnosis of MVI was based on the detection of a systolic murmur heard above the mitral valve, and was confirmed by colour flow Doppler (CFD) echocardiography. Systolic mitral valve murmurs were detected in 20/79 dogs (25.3%), of them 11 males and 9 females with no statistically significant gender difference (P = 0.6059). The strength of the murmur on the semi-quantitative 0/6 scale yielded intensity grade 1/6 in 10 dogs, grade 2/6 in 4 dogs, and grade 3/6 in 6 dogs. Mild to moderate MVI was detected by CFD in all these 20 dogs with systolic murmurs. Of them, 17 dogs had mild and 3 demonstrated moderate MVI, showing 10-30% and 30-50% regurgitant jets compared to the size of the left atrium, respectively. The age of dogs with MVI was 7.1 ± 2.3 years, which was significantly different from that of dogs without MVI (5.1 ± 2.7 years, P = 0.0029). No significant differences in body weight (P = 0.1724) were found between dogs with MVI (13.8 ± 2.8 kg) and those without MVI (12.8 ± 3.0 kg). Mitral valve disease causing MVI is relatively common in Beagle dogs, just like in other small breed dogs reported in the literature. PMID:26599093

  4. Career Maturity in High School Age Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Joan Daniels

    1982-01-01

    Examined career maturity in high school females by using a set of general career-maturity and gender-specific, career-related measures, and an alternate career-maturity criterion measure, career-planning involvement. Results indicated significant relationships between achievement orientation and occupational information and knowledge of women's…

  5. [Postnatal skeletal and body weight in beagles].

    PubMed

    Salomon, F V; Schulze, A; Böhme, U; Arnold, U; Gericke, A; Gille, U

    1999-08-01

    Growth of beagles is described on the basis of body weight and 14 bone measures. Eighteen male and 19 female dogs were investigated at 14 different ages from birth to the 13th month of life. Characteristics of the growth curves were evaluated using the modified Janoschek growth curve. For the classification into dwarfish, low, normal, big and gigantic growth, the growth curves are presented with percentiles. The arithmetic means and standard deviations for both sexes are presented in tables. Additionally, the degrees of maturity at birth (relative proportion of final weight or bone measure), the point of inflection for the growth curve, the times to grow to 50 and 95% of the final measures, and the asymptotic measures are also presented in tables. Sex differences in growth for the body weight and bone measures are discussed. Growth differences between large and small dog breeds are considered. The conclusion is drawn that the feeding of dogs has to be adapted to the growth course. PMID:10488625

  6. Ontogenetic allometry of the Beagle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammalian juveniles undergo dramatic changes in body conformation during development. As one of the most common companion animals, the time line and trajectory of a dog’s development and its body’s re-proportioning is of particular scientific interest. Several ontogenetic studies have investigated the skeletal development in dogs, but none has paid heed to the scapula as a critical part of the mammalian forelimb. Its functional integration into the forelimb changed the correspondence between fore- and hindlimb segments and previous ontogenetic studies observed more similar growth patterns for functionally than serially homologous elements. In this study, the ontogenetic development of six Beagle siblings was monitored between 9 and 51 weeks of age to investigate their skeletal allometry and compare this with data from other lines, breeds and species. Results Body mass increased exponentially with time; log linear increase was observed up to the age of 15 weeks. Compared with body mass, withers and pelvic height as well as the lengths of the trunk, scapula, brachium and antebrachium, femur and crus exhibited positive allometry. Trunk circumference and pes showed negative allometry in all, pelvis and manus in most dogs. Thus, the typical mammalian intralimb re-proportioning with the proximal limb elements exhibiting positive allometry and the very distal ones showing negative allometry was observed. Relative lengths of the antebrachium, femur and crus increased, while those of the distal elements decreased. Conclusions Beagles are fully-grown regarding body height but not body mass at about one year of age. Particular attention should be paid to feeding and physical exertion during the first 15 weeks when they grow more intensively. Compared with its siblings, a puppy’s size at 9 weeks is a good indicator for its final size. Among siblings, growth duration may vary substantially and appears not to be related to the adult size. Within breeds, a longer

  7. Sex hormones in the aging female.

    PubMed

    Steger, R W; Peluso, J J

    1987-12-01

    Aging of the human ovary results in a gradual diminution in ovarian steroid production, followed by an abrupt and almost complete cessation of both estrogen and progesterone production at the menopause. Although carefully controlled quantitative studies have not been published, it appears that the human reproductive axis still retains its ability to respond to steroid action. However, it still remains to be determined if alterations in cycle length and regularity preceding the menopause are due to changes in ovarian function or to subtle changes in the hypothalamic pituitary axis. More experimental evidence is available to describe the etiology of age-related reproductive dysfunction in laboratory rodents. From these studies, it appears that hypothalamic dysfunction is the principal cause for cessation of reproductive cycles. Recent evidence suggests that aging of the hypothalamus is due to cumulative effects of estrogen exposure over the course of the reproductive life span.

  8. Influence of female age, sperm senescence and multiple mating on sperm viability in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Fedorka, Kenneth M

    2011-06-01

    Sperm viability has been associated with the degree of promiscuity across species, as well as the degree of reproductive success within species. Thus, sperm survival within the female reproductive tract likely plays a key role in how mating systems evolve. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, however, the extent and cause of sperm death has been the subject of recent debate. Here, we assess sperm death within the female reproductive tract of D. melanogaster following single and multiple matings in order to elucidate the extent of death and its potential mechanisms, including an acute female response to mating, female age and/or sperm senescence. We found no evidence that sperm viability was influenced by an acute female response or female age. We also found that rival ejaculates did not influence viability, supporting recent work in the system. Instead, the majority of death appears to be due to the aging of male gametes within the female, and that at least some dead resident sperm remain in the female after multiple mating. In contrast to earlier in vivo work, we found that overall sperm death was minimal (8.7%), indicating viability should have a negligible influence on female remating rates.

  9. Hyperhidrosis in Naïve Purpose-Bred Beagle Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Catherine A; Seeman, Jennifer L; Hoffmann, Guenther

    2011-01-01

    This case study details the unusual clinical findings in a unique paw-pad disorder that recently emerged among 2 male and 1 female naïve purpose-bred beagle dogs (Canis familiaris) newly received into our facility. During acclimation period physical examinations, the affected dogs demonstrated constantly moist, soft paw pads on all 4 feet. No information was available regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this pad condition in beagle dogs. Here, we report the results of physical examination, clinical chemistry analysis, hematology, histopathology, detailed observations, and novel testing techniques performed during the acclimation period. Histopathology of several sections of affected footpads was compared with that of an age-matched dog with clinically normal paw pads. We describe the morphologic features of a distinctive cutaneous canine footpad condition and discuss the possible differential diagnoses. The histologic and clinical features were most consistent with those of hyperhidrosis; to our knowledge, this report is the first description of hyperhidrosis as a distinct condition in purpose-bred beagle dogs. PMID:21640037

  10. Histopathology of Incidental Findings in Beagles Used in Toxicity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junko; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Hamamura, Masao; Kanno, Takeshi; Tsuchitani, Minoru; Narama, Isao

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our publication is to widely communicate the pictures of spontaneous findings occurring in beagles. Spontaneous arteritis occurs commonly in beagles. Frequent sites of arteritis are the heart, spleen, pancreas, epididymis and spinal cord. Morphological similarities between spontaneous and drug-induced arterial lesions may cause confusion when evaluating vascular toxicity of chemicals such as vasodilating agents. Focal and minimal inflammatory lesions are occasionally seen in the lung and may be associated with aspiration of food particles or of unknown causes. A cystic change with copious mucin production occurs occasionally in the mucosal epithelium of the gall bladder. Nesidioblastosis is seen rarely in the pancreas of beagles. C-cell complex and lymphocytic thyroiditis are common thyroid lesions. Spontaneous focal hypospermatogenesis and lobular Sertoli-cell-only seminiferous tubules occurring frequently in beagles must be distinguished from drug-induced damage of the seminiferous tubules in toxicity studies. The morphological differences of the female genital system in each cycle need to be understood; therefore, we present the normal features of the cyclic changes of the female genital organs. Further, we provide more information on spontaneous findings in beagles for exact diagnoses in toxicity studies. PMID:22481862

  11. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  12. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  13. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  14. Two Realistic Beagle Models for Dose Assessment.

    PubMed

    Stabin, Michael G; Kost, Susan D; Segars, William P; Guilmette, Raymond A

    2015-09-01

    Previously, the authors developed a series of eight realistic digital mouse and rat whole body phantoms based on NURBS technology to facilitate internal and external dose calculations in various species of rodents. In this paper, two body phantoms of adult beagles are described based on voxel images converted to NURBS models. Specific absorbed fractions for activity in 24 organs are presented in these models. CT images were acquired of an adult male and female beagle. The images were segmented, and the organs and structures were modeled using NURBS surfaces and polygon meshes. Each model was voxelized at a resolution of 0.75 × 0.75 × 2 mm. The voxel versions were implemented in GEANT4 radiation transport codes to calculate specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) using internal photon and electron sources. Photon and electron SAFs were then calculated for relevant organs in both models. The SAFs for photons and electrons were compatible with results observed by others. Absorbed fractions for electrons for organ self-irradiation were significantly less than 1.0 at energies above 0.5 MeV, as expected for many of these small-sized organs, and measurable cross irradiation was observed for many organ pairs for high-energy electrons (as would be emitted by nuclides like 32P, 90Y, or 188Re). The SAFs were used with standardized decay data to develop dose factors (DFs) for radiation dose calculations using the RADAR Method. These two new realistic models of male and female beagle dogs will be useful in radiation dosimetry calculations for external or internal simulated sources. PMID:26222214

  15. Male age and female mate choice in a synchronizing katydid.

    PubMed

    Hartbauer, M; Siegert, M E; Römer, H

    2015-08-01

    In acoustically communicating species, females often evaluate the frequency content, signal duration and the temporal signal pattern to gain information about the age of the signaller. This is different in the synchronizing bush cricket Mecopoda elongata where females select males on the basis of relative signal timing in duets. In a longitudinal approach, we recorded songs of M. elongata males produced 2 weeks (young male) and 9 weeks (old male) after their ultimate moult. Signal timing of both age categories was studied in acoustic interactions, and female preference was investigated in choice situations. Young male chirps were significantly shorter and contained less energy compared to "old chirps". In mixed-age duets younger males timed their chirps as leader significantly more often. Females preferred the young male chirp when broadcast as leader over the old male chirp, but choice was random when the old male chirp was leader. This choice asymmetry was abolished after reducing the duration of the "old chirp". Results were mirrored in response of a bilateral pair of auditory neurons, where the asymmetry in spike count and first-spike latency correlated with behaviour. We suggest that older males may compensate their disadvantage in a more complex chorus situation.

  16. The role of the brain in female reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jodi L; Wise, Phyllis M

    2009-02-01

    In middle-aged women, follicular depletion is a critical factor mediating the menopausal transition; however, all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis contribute to the age-related decline in reproductive function. To help elucidate the complex interactions between the ovary and brain during middle-age that lead to the onset of the menopause, we utilize animal models which share striking similarities in reproductive physiology. Our results show that during middle-age, prior to any overt irregularities in estrous cyclicity, the ability of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) to modulate the cascade of neurochemical events required for preovulatory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and a luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is diminished. Middle-aged female rats experience a delay in and an attenuation of LH release in response to E(2). Additionally, although we do not observe a decrease in GnRH neuron number until a very advanced age, E(2)-mediated GnRH neuronal activation declines during the earliest stages of age-related reproductive decline. Numerous hypothalamic neuropeptides and neurochemical stimulatory inputs (i.e., glutamate, norepinephrine (NE), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)) that drive the E(2)-mediated GnRH/LH surge appear to dampen with age or lack the precise temporal coordination required for a specific pattern of GnRH secretion, while inhibitory signals such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and opioid peptides remain unchanged or elevated during the afternoon of proestrus. These changes, occurring at the level of the hypothalamus, lead to irregular estrous cycles and, ultimately, the cessation of reproductive function. Taken together, our studies indicate that the hypothalamus is an important contributor to age-related female reproductive decline.

  17. The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Aging Female Inmates.

    PubMed

    Leigey, Margaret E; Johnston, Mary E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of older female inmates (N = 458). Results indicate that 34% of older female inmates were overweight and 36% were obese; similar percentages were noted for the general population. Race and age were found to be significantly associated with the body mass index categories of healthy weight and obese. White inmates were significantly more likely to be of a healthy weight and significantly less likely to be obese than Black inmates. Age was positively associated with healthy weight and negatively associated with obesity. These two variables remained significant even after they were introduced into logistic regression models predicting healthy weight and obesity. Findings indicate the need for programming to improve the health of this population.

  18. Adaptive male effects on female ageing in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Kremer, Natacha; Arnqvist, Göran

    2005-12-01

    Selection can favour the evolution of a high reproductive rate early in life even when this results in a subsequent increase in the rate of mortality, because selection is relatively weak late in life. However, the optimal reproductive schedule of a female may be suboptimal to any one of her mates, and males may thus be selected to modulate female reproductive rate. Owing to such sexual conflict, coevolution between males and females may contribute to the evolution of senescence. By using replicated beetle populations selected for reproduction at an early or late age, we show that males evolve to affect senescence in females in a manner consistent with the genetic interests of males. 'Late' males evolved to decelerate senescence and increase the lifespan of control females, relative to 'early' males. Our findings demonstrate that adaptive evolution in one sex may involve its effects on senescence in the other, showing that the evolution of optimal life histories in one sex may be either facilitated or constrained by genes expressed in the other.

  19. The Aging Female Voice: Acoustic and Respiratory Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend understanding of the effects of aging on the female voice by obtaining measures of both acoustic and respiratory-based performance in groups of 18-30, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79-year-old subjects. Acoustic measures of speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), pitch sigma, jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise…

  20. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age. In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011. Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61–0.96, compared with the non-NPC group. The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  1. Persuasion Tactics Used by College Age Females on College Age Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Erika J.; Pollard, Gloria D.; Williams, Christina M.

    This paper researched persuasive tactics used by college age females on college age males. Previous evidence indicates that nonverbal persuasion is more effective than verbal persuasion. The topics explored in previous research on persuasion consisted of physical attractiveness, indirect knowledge of influence, tactics used by children and college…

  2. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongbin; Hu, Weilie; Zhang, Lichao; Guo, Fei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Bangqi; Zhang, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans. PMID:26977412

  3. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans. PMID:26977412

  4. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: ‘sugar’, ‘essential’, or ‘yeast-sugar’. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging. PMID:26147734

  5. Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Mankinen, C B; Sears, J W

    1976-01-01

    A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and palate; bulbar nose; coloboma iris; polydactyly; unusual dermatoglyphic patterns; large adductor thumbs; enlarged great toes; multiple capillary haemangiomas; club feet; inguinal and umbilical hernias; hyperconvexed fingernails; and seizure disorder. Images PMID:933114

  6. Age and competition level on injuries in female ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Keightley, M; Reed, N; Green, S; Taha, T

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the number, types and locations of known injuries occurring across different age categories and levels of competition in female ice hockey within the Ontario Women's Hockey Association from 2004/05 to 2007/08. We further examined under which aforementioned factors and combination of factors an unusually high or low number of injuries was recorded. Secondary analysis of anonymized injury data was conducted. The most common known injury type was strain/sprain, followed by concussion while the most frequent injury location was head/face/mouth. Analysis of deviance indicated that a significantly higher than expected number of sprain/strain, concussion and laceration injuries were recorded compared to all other injury types. In addition, there were a higher number of injuries recorded at the AA level compared to all other levels of competition. Finally, the age categories of Peewee, Midget and Intermediate within the AA level of competition, as well as Senior/Adult within the Houseleague level of competition also recorded a significantly higher number of injuries compared to other combinations of descriptive factors. Further research with female youth is needed to better understand the high number of injuries, including concussions, reported overall. PMID:23516144

  7. The Legacy of Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, Judith; Bridges, John; Sims, Mark; Clemmet, Jim; Wright, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The Beagle 2 lander spun off from the ESA Mars Express spacecraft on 19 December 2003 and headed off towards Isidis Planitia on Mars. The scheduled landing of the 60 kg lander was 6 days later on Christmas morning, 25 December. It is universally known that no signal was received from the lander and its fate remained unknown. What is not questioned is the impact that the mission, and not least its charismatic leaders headed by the late Professor Colin Pillinger, had on the general public of the UK, Europe and worldwide. More than a decade after Beagle 2 was last seen, we review the legacy of the mission on the public perception of the value of space exploration, economically, commercially and cultural, and look forward to an expanding programme. The spin off from Beagle 2 science and technology into terrestrial applications will be addressed as will the ongoing career destinations of many of the original team; both supporting the significance that the mission had on determining the future pathway of space science and exploration in Europe and beyond. The ongoing search for evidence that Beagle 2 did in fact land as planned on Mars will be addressed and images from Mars orbiting spacecraft assessed.

  8. Along came a spider who sat down beside her: Perceived predation risk, but not female age, affects female mate choosiness.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Ashley; Wagner, William E

    2015-06-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral plasticity in response to changes in factors, such as predation risk, mate density, and age. Particularly, female mate choosiness (the strength of female's attraction to male traits as they deviate from preferred trait values) has repeatedly been shown to be plastic. This is due to the costs associated with searching for preferred males fluctuating with changes in such factors. Because these factors can interact naturally, it is important to understand how female mate choosiness responds to these interactions. We studied the interaction between perceived predation risk and female age on the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. Females were either exposed or not exposed to predation cues from a sympatric, cursorial, wolf spider predator, Hogna sp. We then tested the females at one of three adult ages and measured their choosiness by recording their responsiveness to a low quality male song. We found female choosiness plasticity was affected by neither age nor the interaction between age and perceived predation risk. Perceived predation risk was the only factor to significantly affect the plasticity of female mate choosiness: females were less choosy when they perceived predation risk and were more choosy when they did not. Predation may be such a strong source of selection that, regardless of differences in other factors, most individuals respond similarly. PMID:25857998

  9. Along came a spider who sat down beside her: Perceived predation risk, but not female age, affects female mate choosiness.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Ashley; Wagner, William E

    2015-06-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral plasticity in response to changes in factors, such as predation risk, mate density, and age. Particularly, female mate choosiness (the strength of female's attraction to male traits as they deviate from preferred trait values) has repeatedly been shown to be plastic. This is due to the costs associated with searching for preferred males fluctuating with changes in such factors. Because these factors can interact naturally, it is important to understand how female mate choosiness responds to these interactions. We studied the interaction between perceived predation risk and female age on the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. Females were either exposed or not exposed to predation cues from a sympatric, cursorial, wolf spider predator, Hogna sp. We then tested the females at one of three adult ages and measured their choosiness by recording their responsiveness to a low quality male song. We found female choosiness plasticity was affected by neither age nor the interaction between age and perceived predation risk. Perceived predation risk was the only factor to significantly affect the plasticity of female mate choosiness: females were less choosy when they perceived predation risk and were more choosy when they did not. Predation may be such a strong source of selection that, regardless of differences in other factors, most individuals respond similarly.

  10. Prediction of osteoporosis using dental radiographs and age in females

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Guduba; Chitroda, Parita K.; Katti, Girish; Shahbaz, Syed; Baba, Irfan; Bhuvaneshwari

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the role of dental radiograph as a screening tool for diagnosis of osteoporosis in females. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 50 women between the age group of 40-60 were recruited, and patients with systemic disorder and taking calcium supplements, and women who are not willing for investigation were excluded. Their detailed medical history was obtained and dental radiographs were made, bone mineral density was measured at left radial bone using ultrasound. The radiographs were subjected to image analysis method using manual tracing of gonial angle, antegonial angle, antegonial depth, antegonial index, mental index and mandibular cortical index. Statistical discrimination analysis was applied to predict the presence of osteoporosis. With use of these indices, the sensitivity and specificity of orthopantomograph (OPG) radiograph to assess age-related changes in bone were compared. Radiomorphometric indices (RMI) were also scrutinized to depict the sensitivity and specificity of each index in the prediction of osteoporosis. Results: Study results showed no significant differences between bone mineral density (BMD) and radiomorphometric analysis in the diagnoses of osteoporotic females. Out of 29, diagnosed as osteoporotic by radiograph 23 were confirmed by BMD and six were diagnosed as osteopenic. Among the six indices used, AGA and AGD showed more reproducible results. Conclusion: With our study results, we come to an arrival that OPG radiographs show overall sensitivity of 0.75 or 75% and specificity of 0.81 or 81% in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, and that anti gonial angle (AGA) and anti gonial depth (AGD) are the most reliable indices. Hence, we conclude that panoramic-based RMI can be used as an ancillary method in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. PMID:26167057

  11. Pathologic features of naturally occurring juvenile polyarteritis in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Snyder, P W; Kazacos, E A; Scott-Moncrieff, J C; HogenEsch, H; Carlton, W W; Glickman, L T; Felsburg, P J

    1995-07-01

    Eighteen young Beagle dogs (eight males and 10 females), ages 6-40 months, with canine juvenile polyarteritis syndrome (CJPS), a naturally occurring vasculitis and perivasculitis of unknown etiology, were necropsied, and their tissues were examined by histopathologic and histochemical methods. The condition is characterized by recurring episodes of an acute onset of fever (> 40 C) and neck pain that persist for 3-7 days. The major histopathologic alterations were a systemic vasculitis and perivasculitis. During the febrile, painful period of CJPS, the vascular lesions ranged from a histiocytic-lymphocytic periarterial infiltration to transmural arterial inflammation with concomitant fibrinoid necrosis and vascular thrombosis. Massive periarterial accumulations of inflammatory cells were common and often extended into adjacent tissues. The small- to medium-sized muscular arteries of the heart, cranial mediastinum, and cervical spinal meninges were consistently involved. Vasculitis occasionally occurred in other organ systems. The vascular lesions in dogs examined during clinically normal periods consisted of intimal and medial fibrosis, ruptured elastic laminae, and mild perivasculitis; these lesions were probably related to previous episodes of vasculitis. Eight dogs that had experienced repeated acute episodes also developed splenic, hepatic, and renal amyloidosis. The clinical signs, laboratory abnormalities, and the vascular lesions suggest that the condition may be immune-system mediated. CJPS may serve as a naturally occurring animal model of human immune-system-mediated vasculitides such as polyarteritis nodosa, infantile polyarteritis, and Kawasaki disease.

  12. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  13. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  14. Ageing and the evolution of female resistance to remating in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Kremer, Natacha; Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-03-22

    Female remating behaviour is a key mating system parameter that is predicted to evolve according to the net effect of remating on female fitness. In many taxa, females commonly resist male remating attempts because of the costs of mating. Here, we use replicated populations of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus selected for either early or late life reproduction and show that 'Early' and 'Late' females evolved different age-specific rates of remating. Early females were more likely to remate with control males as they aged, while Late females were more resistant to remating later in life. Thus, female remating rate decreases with age when direct selection on late-life fitness is operating and increases when such selection is relaxed. Our findings not only demonstrate that female resistance to remating can evolve rapidly, but also that such evolution is in accordance with the genetic interests of females.

  15. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis)

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Karen; Dawson, Jeff W.; Jutting, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball) and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals. PMID:23940839

  16. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program.

  17. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program. PMID:25649243

  18. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female

    PubMed Central

    Margarita Frei, Karin; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Louise Nosch, Marie; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility. PMID:25994525

  19. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarita Frei, Karin; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Louise Nosch, Marie; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility.

  20. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female.

    PubMed

    Frei, Karin Margarita; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E; Wilson, Andrew S; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Nosch, Marie Louise; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility. PMID:25994525

  1. Age, height and weight of female Olympic finalists.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T; McBroom, V C

    1985-06-01

    Age, height and weight are intricately related to performance in a specific sporting activity. Optimum standards derived from 32 female Olympic finalists from two jumping events are listed as a sample from a much larger set of 824 finalists from 47 events. An example of variation is that high jumpers are taller by 6.3 cm and younger by 2.9 years than long jumpers. Conversely, considerable variation in body weight is shown for a group of finalists all with a height of 171 cm. The weights of these finalists range from 56 kg for a 400 m runner to 85 kg for a discus thrower. Many other events are listed between these examples and a number of events are found to share the same combination of height and weight (height 171 cm, weight 59-62 kg) swimming freestyle and medley, 200 m run, rowing, canoeing, volleyball and handball. These findings are expected to be of use for potential champions looking for optimum standards in specific events. They are also of use for trainers counselling athletes in the most appropriate selection of the event befitting her physique. Many sporting activities are found to be seriously biased in favour of the taller members of the population. This is a cause for concern as is the need for some remedial action. PMID:4027502

  2. Competition, breeding success and ageing rates in female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2011-08-01

    Competition between females is particularly intense in cooperatively breeding mammals, where one female monopolises reproduction in each group. Chronic competition often affects stress and may therefore have long-term consequences for fitness, but no studies have yet investigated whether intrasexual competition has effects of this kind and, in particular, whether it affects rates of reproductive senescence. Here, we use long-term data from a wild population of meerkats to test whether reproductive success and senescence in dominant females are affected by the degree of intrasexual competition experienced prior to dominance acquisition. Females that experienced greater competition had lower breeding success and higher rates of reproductive senescence. Furthermore, females that were evicted from the group more frequently as subordinates had lower breeding success when dominant. We conclude that the intense intrasexual competition between females in cooperatively breeding groups may carry fitness costs over a longer period than is usually recognised.

  3. Competition, breeding success and ageing rates in female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2011-08-01

    Competition between females is particularly intense in cooperatively breeding mammals, where one female monopolises reproduction in each group. Chronic competition often affects stress and may therefore have long-term consequences for fitness, but no studies have yet investigated whether intrasexual competition has effects of this kind and, in particular, whether it affects rates of reproductive senescence. Here, we use long-term data from a wild population of meerkats to test whether reproductive success and senescence in dominant females are affected by the degree of intrasexual competition experienced prior to dominance acquisition. Females that experienced greater competition had lower breeding success and higher rates of reproductive senescence. Furthermore, females that were evicted from the group more frequently as subordinates had lower breeding success when dominant. We conclude that the intense intrasexual competition between females in cooperatively breeding groups may carry fitness costs over a longer period than is usually recognised. PMID:21599775

  4. 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of UP446, a combination of defined extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu, in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The needs for relatively safe botanical alternatives to relieve symptoms associated to arthritis have continued to grow in parallel with the ageing population. UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used as over the counter joint care dietary supplements and a prescription medical food. Significant safety data have been documented in rodents and human for this composition. Here we evaluated the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446 in beagle dogs following a 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study. UP446 at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered orally to beagle dogs for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery group from the high dose (1000 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups were included. No morbidity or mortality was observed for the duration of the study. No significant differences between groups in body weights, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, electrocardiograms, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, gross pathology and histopathology were documented. Emesis, loose feces and diarrhea were noted in both genders at the 1000 mg/kg treatment groups. These clinical signs were considered to be reversible as they were not evident in the recovery period. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 500 mg/kg/day both in male and female beagle dogs. PMID:27125835

  5. Senescence in breeding success of female Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra): the role of female quality and age.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Federico; Grignolio, Stefano; Filli, Flurin; Apollonio, Marco; Bize, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Although numerous studies have reported reproductive senescence in wild animal populations, we still know very little on inter-individual differences in rates of ageing and on the factors accounting for these differences. To investigate age-related variation in breeding success in a natural population of Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), we used 15 years of data obtained by monitoring individual ear-tagged females. Analyses at the population level confirmed the occurrence of a decline in female breeding success, which is most noticeable from 9 years of age onward. Using an age-reverse approach, we showed that senescence in female breeding success occurs at the same age, since only very old individuals (older than 16 years) showed a decline in breeding success in the years preceding death. Interestingly, we also found evidence that 'success comes from success', as females that gave birth in a given year were more likely to procreate again in the following year. Moreover, results showed that discrepancies between successful and unsuccessful individuals tend to become more relevant in the oldest age classes. There was no evidence of a terminal allocation. These results emphasize the importance of age-dependent effects and individual quality in shaping reproductive senescence in a wild long-lived ungulate.

  6. A pharmacokinetic study of Isatin in Beagles' bodies

    PubMed Central

    REN, AILING; SU, BENHUA; YE, SIYONG; WEI, XIA; FANG, ZHAOGUO; WANG, QIAN; ZHANG, JIAN; XU, WEN; YUE, WANG; YIN, LEI; LIU, ZHANTAO; LI, XIAOLING; DING, BO

    2016-01-01

    Isatin are marine active drugs that exert anti-cancer effects, have a cancer-prevention function, and possess many pharmacological activities. The study aimed to examine the pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous injection and oral medication of Isatin given to Beagles. Nine male and nine female Beagles were injected with 30 mg/kg of 2,3-indole quinones. The animals were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group) and lavaged with a dose of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg, respectively. Blood samples were collected prior to the medicine delivery (0 h) and 0.083, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h post-medicine delivery. The blood plasma samples were analyzed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS method following pretreatment for the protein precipitation. Pharmacokinetics software was applied to calculate relevant pharmacokinetic parameters through the atrioventricular model. The drug concentration in plasma decreased rapidly following the intravenous injection of Isatin. After 8 h, the prototype drugs could not be tested in the plasma and only trace amounts of drugs were tested in one dog, which was considered to be an endogenous drug. Indole quinone was absorbed following lavage into Beagles and peaked in <1 h, and the drug concentration in the plasma decreased rapidly. After 8 h, the prototype drugs could not be tested in the plasma. The elimination of the two drugs in the body had no evident gender differences. In conclusion, Isatin is rapidly absorbed in bodies of Beagles. Within the dose range of 15–60 mg/kg, no linear relationship was observed for the increase in Cmax and AUC0-t values with the increased dose. PMID:27284305

  7. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging. PMID:25610649

  8. The Relative Age Effect among Female Brazilian Youth Volleyball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okazaki, Fabio H. A.; Keller, Birgit; Fontana, Fabio E.; Gallagher, Jere D.

    2011-01-01

    In sports, the relative age effect (RAE) refers to performance disadvantages of children born late in the competition year compared to those with birthdays soon after the cutoff date. This effect is derived from age grouping, a strategy commonly used in youth sport programs. The purpose of age grouping is to decrease possible cognitive, physical,…

  9. Survival of female Lesser Scaup: Effects of body size, age, and reproductive effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Clark, R.G.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    In birds, larger females generally have greater breeding propensity, reproductive investment, and success than do smaller females. However, optimal female body size also depends on how natural selection acts during other parts of the life cycle. Larger female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) produce larger eggs than do smaller females, and ducklings from larger eggs survive better than those hatching from smaller eggs. Accordingly, we examined patterns of apparent annual survival for female scaup and tested whether natural selection on female body size primarily was stabilizing, a frequent assumption in studies of sexually dimorphic species in which males are the larger sex, or was directional, counter-acting reproductive advantages of large size. We estimated survival using mark-recapture methods for individually marked females from two study sites in Canada (Erickson, Manitoba; St. Denis, Saskatchewan). Structurally larger (adults) and heavier (ducklings) females had lower survival than did smaller individuals in Manitoba; no relationship was detected in adults from Saskatchewan. Survival of adult females declined with indices of increasing reproductive effort at both sites; consequently, the cost of reproduction could explain age-related patterns of breeding propensity in scaup. Furthermore, if larger females are more likely to breed than are smaller females, then cost of reproduction also may help explain why survival was lower for larger females. Overall, we found that advantages of large body size of female scaup during breeding or as young ducklings apparently were counteracted by natural selection favoring lightweight juveniles and structurally smaller adult females through higher annual survival.

  10. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men.

  11. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men. PMID:26022534

  12. Age classification using facial feature extraction on female and male images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Toygar, Önsen

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents age classification on facial images using subpattern-based Local Binary Patterns (LBP) method. Classification of age intervals are conducted separately on female and male facial images since the aging process for female and male is different for human beings in real life. The age classification performance of the holistic approaches is compared with the performance of subpattern-based LBP approach in order to demonstrate the performance differences between these two types of approaches. To be consistent with the research of others, our work has been tested on two publicly available databases namely FGNET and MORPH. The experiments are performed on these aging databases to demonstrate the age classification performance on female and male facial images of human beings using subpatternbased LBP method with several parameter settings. The results are then compared with the results of age classification of the holistic PCA and holistic subspace LDA methods.

  13. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  14. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success.

  15. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  16. Contraceptive Practices Among Female Cancer Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Sally A.; McLean, Mamie R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Gorman, Jessica R.; Mersereau, Jennifer E.; Bouknight, Janet M.; Su, H. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of contraception between reproductive-aged cancer survivors and women in the general U.S. population. Among survivors, the study examined factors associated with use of contraception and emergency contraception. Methods This study analyzed enrollment data from an ongoing national prospective cohort study on reproductive health after cancer entitled the Fertility Information Research Study. We compared current contraceptive use in survivors with that of the general population ascertained by the 2006–2010 National Survey for Family Growth. Log-binomial regression models estimated relative risks for characteristics associated with use of contraception, World Health Organization tiers I–II (sterilization and hormonal) contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception in survivors. Results Data from 295 survivors (mean age 31.6 ± 5.7 years, range 20–44 years) enrolled in this prospective study (85% response rate) were examined. Age-adjusted rates of using tiers I–II contraceptive methods were lower in survivors than the general population (34% [28.8–40.0] compared with 53% [51.5–54.5], P<.01). Only 56% of survivors reported receiving family planning services (counseling, prescription or procedure related to birth control) since cancer diagnosis. In adjusted analysis, receipt of family planning services was associated with both increased use of tiers I–II contraceptive methods (relative risk 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–1.5) and accessing emergency contraception (relative risk 5.0, 95% CI 1.6–16.3) in survivors. Conclusion Lower rates of using Tiers I–II contraceptive methods were found in reproductive-aged cancer survivors compared to the general population of U.S. women. Exposure to family planning services across the cancer care continuum may improve contraception utilization among these women. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01843140. PMID:26181090

  17. Age at diagnosis of female breast cancer in Oman: Issues and implications

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Itrat; Monem, Essam Abdul; Al Bahrani, Bassim Jaffar; Al Kharusi, Suad; Nada, Ayman Mohammad; Al Lawati, Jawad; Al Lawati, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Female breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent malignancy diagnosed globally, about 23% of the diagnosed cancers. BC incidence varies geographically, highest in Western Europe and lowest in Africa. BC in females is strongly correlated to age, the highest incidence rate amongst older women reinforcing the importance of hormonal status. BC in young females has an aggressive phenotype. There is a shared observation amongst practicing oncologists that BC in Middle East and the developing world presents at an earlier age. Aim and Objective: The aims of this study are to evaluate the age at presentation of female BC in Oman, and to compare our data with international and regional published data. It discusses the impact of young age Breast Cancer. Materials and Methods: All diagnosed female BC cases registered from 1996-2010 all over the country, were retrieved from the National Cancer Registry, Ministry of Health. BC cases were analyzed with respect to age at presentation. The data were compared with regional and international data. Results: A total of 14,109 cancer cases were recorded during the period of study. BC was the leading malignancy as 1,294 cases (9.1%). Female BC patients were 1,230; denoting 19.2% of all female cancers. 53.5% of female BC presented below 50 years of age. Male BC constituted 5% of total, with 67% of male BC occurring over 50 years of age. Compared with data from Oman, the highest rates in UK and other Western countries are above 50 years of age. These rates are four to 10 times higher than local in different age groups. Interestingly, these rates increase with increasing age in UK from 40-45 to up to 85+, keep on increasing and go up to four times higher with higher age. This phenomenon, of increasing incidence rates with age, is not observed in our local population. Discussion: BC is significantly correlated to age as reported from Western population. BC is reported at a younger age from developing and Arab World, which need to

  18. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Stacey L.

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors.

  19. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stacey L

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors.

  20. Microsurgical varicocelectomy for infertile couples with advanced female age: natural history in the era of ART.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jeanne H; Bowles, Ben; Kamal, Khaled M; Jarvi, Keith; Zini, Armand

    2004-01-01

    Varicocele represents the most common cause of male infertility, and most reports indicate that varicocelectomy has a beneficial effect on male fertility and pregnancy outcome. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are an alternative to varicocelectomy for the management of couples with a varicocele. The age of the female partner is important in the decision-making process; however, the true influence of female age on pregnancy outcome following varicocelectomy or ART in these couples is unknown. We evaluated the outcomes of 2 cohorts of infertile men with a varicocele and a female partner 35 years of age or older; one group selected varicocelectomy and the other a nonsurgical approach. We reviewed a group of consecutive infertile men who underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 110). We also reviewed a consecutive group of men with varicoceles who elected not to have surgery and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 94). The outcome measures included changes in semen parameters, pregnancy rates (assisted and unassisted), and use of ART. The surgical and nonsurgical groups had comparable semen parameters and female ages. Mean sperm concentration and motility increased significantly after varicocelectomy (P < .05). At a mean of 30 months follow-up, 35% of couples in the surgical group achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 6% achieved a pregnancy via ART (20% of this group attempted ART). In the nonsurgical group, 25% achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 16% achieved a pregnancy with ART (40% of this group attempted ART). This study on the natural history of infertile men with varicocele and advanced female age suggests that the surgical and nonsurgical approaches offer comparable pregnancy outcome (combined assisted and unassisted pregnancy rates are about 40%). Overall, these data suggest that varicocelectomy is an acceptable option for couples with advanced female age

  1. Effect of Age on Body Wall Cuticle Morphology of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt females

    PubMed Central

    Cordero C., D. A.; Baldwin, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine structure of the body wall cuticle of Heterodera schachtii is compared with respect to age and body region of the female. The cuticle is more complex than previously reported. In newly molted females only layers A, B, and C are present, but 4 weeks after the final molt a thin D layer is present between the midbody and base of the cone. This D layer is absent in the cone of H. schachtii, regardless of age. As females age, an additional layer E is produced and includes zones E₁ and E₂. Zone El apparently is unique to H. schachtii, whereas E₂ is likely to be homologous with a similar layer in Atalodera. In the cone of old females (ca. 8 weeks after the final molt) of H. schachtii, the two zones become irregular in shape and comprise bullae. The presence of a thin D layer in Heterodera strengthens the previous hypothesis of a single ancestor of cyst nematodes. PMID:19287732

  2. Nedocromil sodium inhibits canine adenovirus bronchiolitis in beagle puppies.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K A; Lemen, R J; Weger, N S; Chen, H; Bowers, M C; Witten, M L; Lantz, R C; Bice, D E; Muggenburg, B A

    2000-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to control asthmatic attacks. Our hypothesis is that nedocromil sodium inhibits virus-induced airway inflammation, a common trigger of asthma. We nebulized nedocromil sodium into beagle dogs (n = 10, mean +/- SEM ages: 149 +/- 13 days) before and after inoculation with canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Control dogs (n = 10) received saline aerosols and were either infected with CAV2 (Sal/CAV2, n = 7, mean +/- SEM ages: 140 +/- 11 days) or were not infected (Sal/Sal, n = 3, ages: 143 +/- 0 days). All dogs were anesthetized with choralose (80 mg/kg i.v.), intubated, and mechanically ventilated. Pulmonary function tests and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed using standard techniques. Pulmonary function tests revealed no significant change between the nedocromil sodium and non-nedocromil-treated groups. The percentage of infected bronchioles was quantitated as the number of inflamed airways of 40 bronchioles examined times 100 for each dog. Nedocromil-treated dogs had significantly (p < 0.05) less mucosal inflammation (mean +/- SEM, 39% +/- 5%), epithelial denudation (36% +/- 5%), and BAL neutrophilia (11 +/- 3) than did Sal/CAV2 dogs (51% +/- 6%, 57% +/- 4%, and 33% +/- 8%, respectively). We concluded that pretreatment with nedocromil sodium aerosols attenuated CAV2-induced airway inflammation in these beagle puppies.

  3. [Values of acido-basic balance in the blood of the beagle breed dog in comparison with the German shepherd dog].

    PubMed

    Komárek, J; Jadrný, L; Sýkora, I

    1975-01-01

    The values of acidobasic balance were examined in 101 dogs of the Beagle breed and in 20 German Sheep-Dogs. The Beagle dogs were divided into five age groups. A difference was found between the values obtained in the group of the youngest dogs and those in older age groups. In comparison with Beagle dogs, the values were higher in German Sheep-Dogs (pH, base excess). A figure is attached representing the deviations of the values of acidobasic balance of blood in the two breeds.

  4. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained.

  5. Beagle 2: Mission to Mars - Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Morgan, G. H.; Yau, D.; Stewart, J. L. C.; Leese, M. R.; Praine, I. J.; Sheridan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 72 kg probe (with a 32 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 was launched on June 2, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 landed on Mars on December 25th, 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 10.7 N and 268.6 W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest impact basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. The team is awaiting signals from the Beagle 2 lander at the time when this abstract was written. Current status of the mission will be reported. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Several fundamental properties can be used to determine the existence of an active or past biology on any planet, Earth or Mars. Beagle 2's targets for investigation included: (a) The presence of water, or the existence of minerals deposited from water to show that water was present, even if only transiently; (b) The detection of carbonaceous debris, the remains of organisms that might have lived in water or were washed to a final resting place by the action of water; (c) The structure of organic matter, to demonstrate that it might have been synthesized for a biological purpose; (d) The recognition of isotopic fractionation between carbonaceous phases (organic vs inorganic carbon phases), a condition which on Earth suggests that life emerged nearly 4 billion years ago.

  6. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  7. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  8. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  9. Ovarian hormone replacement to aged ovariectomized female rats benefits acquisition of the morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Markham, J A; Pych, J C; Juraska, J M

    2002-11-01

    Ovarian steroids have been suggested to aid in preserving cognitive functioning during aging in both humans and other animals. Spatial memory relies heavily on the hippocampus, a structure that is sensitive to the influence of both ovarian hormones and aging. The present study investigated the outcome of ovarian hormone replacement during aging on performance in a spatial version of the Morris water maze. Female rats were ovariectomized at 14 months of age and received one of three types of replacement prior to testing at 16 months: acute estrogen replacement (2 days), chronic estrogen replacement (28 days), or chronic replacement of both estrogen and progesterone (28 days). Control animals, which did not receive replacement hormones, displayed significant overnight forgetting during acquisition of the task. Ovarian hormone replacement, both acute and chronic, prevented forgetting. Previous studies have demonstrated that high levels of ovarian hormones are detrimental to performance of young adult female rats on this task (Warren and Juraska, 1997; Chesler and Juraska, 2000). The current study found an opposite effect during aging: ovarian hormone replacement was beneficial. This suggests that animal models of menopause, aimed at exploring the protective effects of hormone replacement therapy on cognition during human female aging, require the use of aged female animals.

  10. Wolf (Canis lupus) generation time and proportion of current breeding females by age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  11. Suicide mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and females in Japan for the years 1953-96: time series analysis for the effects of unemployment, female labour force, young and aged population, primary industry and population density.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Araki, Shunichi; Sakai, Ryoji; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Voorhees, A Scott

    2008-12-01

    Effects of nine social life indicators on age-adjusted and age-specific annual suicide mortality of male and female Japanese population in the years 1953-96 were investigated by multiple regression analysis on time series data. Unemployment rate was significantly related to the age-adjusted mortality in both males and females. Also, female labour force participation was positively related to the male mortality; persons and 65 and above was inversely related to the male mortality. Results on the age-specific mortality indicated that: during the 44 yr, (1) unemployment significantly related with the mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and young females; (2) female labour force participation significantly related with the mortality of young and elderly males and young females; aged population significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males; (4) young population significantly related with the mortality of young and middle-aged males and females; (5) divorce significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males and young males and females; (6) persons employed in primary industries significantly related with the mortality in middle-aged males and young males and females; and (7) population density significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged males and young females.

  12. Age of thelarche and menarche in contemporary US females: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Susanne M.; Bright, George M.; Frane, James W.; Blethen, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Aim A recent secular trend towards earlier thelarche has been suggested. The aim of this study is to examine normative ages of thelarche and menarche in contemporary US females. Methods Trained physicians documented Tanner breast stage by observation in a cross-sectional cohort. Age of menarche was self-reported. The subjects were healthy female children and adolescents. The mean age of thelarche was determined by probit analysis and the mean age of menarche was determined by using a normal time-to-event model. Results Mean age of thelarche was 9.7 years among 610 females aged 3.0–17.9 years (70% non-Hispanic Caucasian (NHC), 14% African-Americans, 7% Hispanic, 9% “other”). The mean age of menarche was 12.8 years for NHC, with African-Americans having menarche 0.6 years earlier. Conclusions Thelarche occurred earlier than recently reported, while age of menarche remained unchanged, this supported a persistent secular trend towards earlier thelarche but stable age of menarche. This suggests that the observed thelarche is gonadotropin-independent or the tempo of pubertal advancement has slowed. PMID:23959659

  13. Motor structures in female volleyball players aged 14-17 according to technique quality and performance.

    PubMed

    Katić, Ratko; Grgantov, Zoran; Jurko, Damir

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify motor structures in elite female volleyball players aged 14-17, and to assess the effect of these motor structures on their technical and situation efficiency. For this purpose, a battery of 12 motor tests as predictor variables, and a set of six technical elements and evaluation of performance quality as criterion variables were applied in a sample of 147 female volleyballers aged 14-15 and a sample of 50 female volleyballers aged 16-17. Analysis of variance between subgroups within the groups of volleyballers aged 14-15 and those aged 16-17 showed the results on all motor tests to improve with the increase in situation performance, which was especially pronounced in the tests assessing explosive strength and agility. The same held true for the results on all tests assessing volleyball techniques, spike and block in particular. In both samples, factor analysis of motor tests isolated two factors underlain by the generation and regulation of strength, and the mechanism of speed regulation. Canonical correlation analysis between the motor regulatory mechanisms and technical elements revealed determination of the mechanisms of strength and technical efficiency in both samples. Regression correlation analysis showed the mechanisms of strength regulation and speed to be good predictors of game performance in female volleyballers aged 14-15 and 16-17, whereby the mechanism of strength regulation had greater effect on the game performance than the mechanism of speed regulation. Regression correlation analysis also revealed the set of 6 techniques evaluated to be a good predictor of situation efficiency in both groups of female volleyballers aged 14-15 and 16-17. The block and spike techniques were found to be the best predictors of game performance quality in the former, and the techniques of spike and block in the latter. Based on the results obtained, a possible model of selection for supreme score achievement in female volleyball

  14. The Demographic Promise of Expanded Female Education: Trends in the Age at First Birth in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Monica J.

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of female education has been promoted as a way to postpone the age of first birth. In sub-Saharan Africa, the first cohorts to benefit from policies that expanded access to education are now reaching adulthood and beginning childbearing. I investigate whether the expansion of education in Malawi, which implemented a free primary education policy in 1994 and subsequently expanded secondary schooling, has led to a later age at first birth and whether the education gradient in fertility timing has remained stable over time. Despite increases in female grade attainment over the past twenty years, the age at first birth has not changed. Using instrumental variables analysis, I find a significant negative association between grade attainment and age at first birth, suggesting that the deterioration of school quality and shift in the age pattern of enrollment that accompanied educational expansion may have compromised the transformative potential of education. PMID:27158172

  15. Exposure to light at night accelerates aging and spontaneous uterine carcinogenesis in female 129/Sv mice

    PubMed Central

    Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Panchenko, Andrei V.; Piskunova, Tatiana S.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Tyndyk, Maragriata L.; Yurova, Maria N.; Anisimov, Vladimir N.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the constant illumination on the development of spontaneous tumors in female 129/Sv mice was investigated. Forty-six female 129/Sv mice starting from the age of 2 mo were kept under standard light/dark regimen [12 h light (70 lx):12hr dark; LD, control group], and 46 of 129/Sv mice were kept under constant illumination (24 h a day, 2,500 lx, LL) from the age of 5 mo until to natural death. The exposure to the LL regimen significantly accelerated body weight gain, increased body temperature as well as acceleration of age-related disturbances in estrous function, followed by significant acceleration of the development of the spontaneous uterine tumors in female 129/Sv mice. Total tumor incidence as well as a total number of total or malignant tumors was similar in LL and LD group (p > 0.05). The mice from the LL groups survived less than those from the LD group (χ2 = 8.5; p = 0.00351, log-rank test). According to the estimated parameters of the Cox’s regression model, constant light regimen increased the relative risk of death in female mice compared with the control (LD) group (p = 0.0041). The data demonstrate in the first time that the exposure to constant illumination was followed by the acceleration of aging and spontaneous uterine tumorigenesis in female 129/Sv mice. PMID:23656779

  16. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted.

  17. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

  18. Effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract on reproductive system of aging female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Lamoochi, Zohreh; Fathi Moghaddam, Hadi; Mansouri, Seyed Mohamad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aging contains morphological and functional deterioration in biological systems. D-galactose (D-gal) generates free radicals and accelerates aging. Portulaca oleracea (Purslane) may have protective effect against oxidative stress. Objective: Purslane ethanolic extract effects were evaluated on antioxidant indices and sex hormone in D-gal aging female mice. Materials and Methods: 48 female NMRI mice (25-35 gr) were randomly divided into, 6 groups: 1- control (normal saline for 45 days), 2- Purslane (200 mg/kg for last 3 weeks), 3-D-gal (500 mg/kg for 45 days), 4-D-gal+Purslane, 5- Aging, 6-Aging+Purslane. Sex hormones, antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ovary and uterus were measured. Histological assessment was also done. Results: In D-gal treated and aging animals, LH and FSH levels were significantly increased (p<0.001) while estrogen and progesterone levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001) in comparison with control group. MDA contents were significantly increased in ovaries and uterus of D-gal and aging groups (p<0.01). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p<0.001) and catalase (p<0.01) activities were significantly decreased in both aging and D-gal treated animals. Ovarian follicles were degenerated and atrophy on uterine wall and endometrial glands was observed in D-gal and aging groups. Alteration in hormone levels, MDA contents and antioxidant activity were significantly reversed by Purslane (p<0.05). Purslane could also improve histological changes such as atrophy of endometrium. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Purslane can attenuate aging alternations induced by D-gal and aging in female reproductive system. PMID:27294220

  19. Age of menarche in Indian female basketball and volleyball players at different competitive levels.

    PubMed

    Mokha, R; Sidhu, L S

    1989-12-01

    Data for the age of menarche have been collected on 98 female volleyball players and 75 basketball players. The players belonged to four different levels of competition: international, national, intervarsity and district. Menarche is significantly delayed in players as compared with the controls. There is a continuous trend of increase in the age of menarche with the increasing levels of competition; menarche is more delayed in players playing at a higher level than those at the lower levels of competition.

  20. Fundamental frequency perturbation indicates perceived health and age in male and female speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, David R.

    2001-05-01

    There is strong support for the idea that healthy vocal chords are able to produce fundamental frequencies (F0) with minimal perturbation. Measures of F0 perturbation have been shown to discriminate pathological versus healthy populations. In addition to measuring vocal chord health, F0 perturbation is a correlate of real and perceived age. Here, the role of jitter (periodic variation in F0) and shimmer (periodic variation in amplitude of F0) in perceived health and age in a young adult (males aged 18-33, females aged 18-26), nondysphonic population was investigated. Voices were assessed for health and age by peer aged, opposite-sex raters. Jitter and shimmer were measured with Praat software (www.praat.org) using various algorithms (jitter: DDP, local, local absolute, PPQ5, and RAP; shimmer: DDA, local, local absolute, APQ3, APQ5, APQ11) to reduce measurement error, and to ascertain the robustness of the findings. Male and female voices were analyzed separately. In both sexes, ratings of health and age were significantly correlated. Measures of jitter and shimmer correlated negatively with perceived health, and positively with perceived age. Further analysis revealed that these effects were independent in male voices. Implications of this finding are that attributions of vocal health and age may reflect actual underlying condition.

  1. [Epidemiology of arbovirus diseases: use and value of physiologic age determination of female mosquito vectors].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    1996-01-01

    The physiological age of Yellow Fever Aedes females in Africa was studied during four years, from 1988 to 1992. We used a method, according to Polovodova's method, which looks for the "yellow body" under natural light. Those yellow bodies exist in the old females, the "parous" ones, and not in the young females, the "nulliparous" ones. We present some results to illustrate the interest of studying the physiological age of mosquitoes in the epidemiology of the arboviral diseases. The transmission risk, in relation with abundance and parity rate was illustrated, in particular for Aedes africanus and Aedes luteocephalus, which is useful to compare species, or with a given species, to compare periods. The parity rate of Aedes furcifer females was studied on 6 points along a transect between a forest and a village. The rate and the abundance of the females caught on human bates are inversely proportional. The parity rate is minimum in the canopy forest (about 50%) and maximum inside a house (100%). The rains have different consequences on the species, according to the period of fall. At the beginning of the dry season, they bring about hatching, but not at the end of the dry season. Massive hatching, will occur just at the beginning of the rainy season, some weeks later. Studying the physiological age of Ae. africanus females, the number of nulliparous is not related to the rain. That means a possibility of "natural" hatching for part of the eggs. Among the female of the dry season, young females are found, which is important for the transmission capacity. The method, described herein, to determine the physiological age is perfectly applicable to the Yellow Fever vector Haemagogus janthinomys in Southern America. But for the Dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and probably Aedes albopictus, the Detinova's method seems better. Actually, it seems important to study the physiological age of the vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, as well as the evolution of the physiological

  2. Trade-off between age of first reproduction and survival in a female primate.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2009-06-23

    Trade-offs are central to life-history theory but difficult to document. Patterns of phenotypic and genetic correlations in rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta-a long-lived, slow-reproducing primate-are used to test for a trade-off between female age of first reproduction and adult survival. A strong positive genetic correlation indicates that female macaques suffer reduced adult survival when they mature relatively early and implies primate senescence can be explained, in part, by antagonistic pleiotropy. Contrasts with a similar human study implicate the extension of parental effects to later ages as a potential mechanism for circumventing female life-history trade-offs in human evolution.

  3. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  4. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  5. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klosinski, Lauren P.; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Harrington, Michael G.; Christensen, Trace A.; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-01-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  6. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained. PMID:24828752

  7. Bone mineral density and lifestyle among female students aged 16-24 years.

    PubMed

    Elgán, C; Dykes, A K; Samsioe, G

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate bone mineral density and bone turnover among female students aged 16-24 years in relation to lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits and physical activity, as well as physiological factors, such as age, body weight, and menstrual pattern. Female college and university students (n = 218) were given a validated questionnaire with 34 questions concerning diet, recreational physical activity, alcohol, smoking, menstrual pattern, weight gain and loss. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed using a heel bone scanner (DEXA). Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were measured in urine samples. The data were analyzed by linear regression and multiple regression analysis. The mean BMD was 0.568 g/cm2. Multiple regression showed that hormonal age was a better predictor of high BMD and low bone mineral turnover than chronological age. The best model predicting high BMD was composed of physical activity, regular menstruation, hormonal age and body weight. Smoking, alcohol consumption and current calcium intake did not contribute to the model. A negative association between BMD and DPD was found, indicating an enhanced bone remodeling. A correlation was found between DPD and hormonal age, chronological age, sugar intake and time with irregular menses. In multiple regression analysis, hormonal age, high sugar intake and weight loss were the factors best predicting DPD. BMD was positively influenced by a healthy lifestyle, including a physically active life and healthy dietary habits without dieting. Our study shows that hormonal age is a stronger BMD predictor than chronological age. Menstrual disturbances might be an indication of a risk for low BMD and might therefore be a reason for measuring BMD among young females.

  8. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  9. Body Build Stereotypes and Self-Identification in Three Age Groups of Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, David; Hinsdale, Gary

    1978-01-01

    Body build stereotypes of average-weight and heavy females, ages 6, 15, and 19, were studied through adjective checklists and drawings of endomorphs, ectomorphs, and mesomorphs. Mesomorph drawings were favored and the endomorphs least liked. But heavy subjects rejected for themselves behavioral stereotypes previously applied to the endomorph…

  10. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  11. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  12. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals novel mitochondrial targets of estrogen deficiency in the aged female rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, T. S.; Jefferson, S. J.; Hunter, J. Craig; Lopez, Veronica; Van Eyk, J. E.; Lakatta, E. G.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of myocardial infarction rises sharply at menopause, implicating a potential role for estrogen (E2) loss in age-related increases in ischemic injury. We aimed to identify quantitative changes to the cardiac mitochondrial proteome of aging females, based on the hypothesis that E2 deficiency exacerbates age-dependent disruptions in mitochondrial proteins. Mitochondria isolated from left ventricles of adult (6 mo) and aged (24 mo) F344 ovary-intact or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were labeled with 8plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ; n = 5–6/group). Groups studied were adult, adult OVX, aged, and aged OVX. In vivo coronary artery ligation and in vitro mitochondrial respiration studies were also performed in a subset of rats. We identified 965 proteins across groups and significant directional changes in 67 proteins of aged and/or aged OVX; 32 proteins were unique to aged OVX. Notably, only six proteins were similarly altered in adult OVX (voltage-dependent ion channel 1, adenine nucleotide translocator 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunits VIIc and VIc, catalase, and myosin binding protein C). Proteins affected by aging were primarily related to cellular metabolism, oxidative stress, and cell death. The largest change occurred in monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), a source of oxidative stress. While acute MAO-A inhibition induced mild uncoupling in aged mitochondria, reductions in infarct size were not observed. Age-dependent alterations in mitochondrial signaling indicate a highly selective myocardial response to E2 deficiency. The combined proteomic and functional approaches described here offer possibility of new protein targets for experimentation and therapeutic intervention in the aged female population. PMID:22930739

  13. Age-related lesions in the cerebrum in middle-aged female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Rinya; Yang, Xiuying; Saski, Yuji; Iwashige, Shuichiro; Tanigawa, Yohei; Yoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Takaharu; Kamimura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Horishi

    2010-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans is a progressive neurogenic disease that can be linked with such characteristic pathological findings in the cerebrum as senile plaques (SPs), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and neuronal loss. In the present study, the authors investigated the age-related morphological changes in 12 middle-aged and 12 young cynomolgus monkeys. Low numbers of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampal region in cynomolgus monkeys accompanied ageing, and there was a high number of microglial cells; however, no clearly neurotoxic abnormalities due to beta-amyloid were noted before the age of 20 years. The onset of SPs and CAA in the cerebrum in cynomolgus monkeys can occur before the age of 20 years. SPs were almost all categorized as diffuse plaques (DPs); they did not have amyloid cores and were unaccompanied by neuritic degeneration. In cynomolgus monkeys, SPs (DPs) occur before the appearance of CAA. From the above, it was concluded that cynomolgus monkeys showed pathological changes due to ageing similar to those related to Alzheimer's disease in humans, even before they were 20 years old.

  14. Understanding Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Differences Between Females and Males.

    PubMed

    Gheller, Brandon J F; Riddle, Emily S; Lem, Melinda R; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2016-07-17

    Skeletal muscle is the largest metabolic organ system in the human body. As such, metabolic dysfunction occurring in skeletal muscle impacts whole-body nutrient homeostasis. Macronutrient metabolism changes within the skeletal muscle with aging, and these changes are associated in part with age-related skeletal muscle remodeling. Moreover, age-related changes in skeletal muscle metabolism are affected differentially between males and females and are likely driven by changes in sex hormones. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors impact observed age-related changes and sex-related differences in skeletal muscle metabolism. Despite some support for sex-specific differences in skeletal muscle metabolism with aging, more research is necessary to identify underlying differences in mechanisms. Understanding sex-specific aging skeletal muscle will assist with the development of therapies to attenuate adverse metabolic and functional outcomes.

  15. Age of crime onset and psychopathic traits in female juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Pechorro, Pedro; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Marôco, João; Nunes, Cristina; Jesus, Saul Neves

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in the age of crime onset of female juvenile delinquents. Using a sample of 132 young females from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice and from schools in the Lisbon region, a group of early crime onset (n = 44), a group of late crime onset (n = 44), and a nondelinquent school group (n = 44) were formed. Results showed that early crime onset participants score higher on psychopathy measures, self-reported delinquency, and crime seriousness than late crime onset participants and school participants. Psychopathic-traits scores were significantly associated with age of crime onset, age at first trouble with the law, and frequency and seriousness of crime.

  16. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age.

  17. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1-5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6-11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12-17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18-59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1-5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6-11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12-17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  18. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  19. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age. PMID:26880600

  20. Effects of chronic estrogen treatment on modulating age-related bone loss in female mice.

    PubMed

    Syed, Farhan A; Mödder, Ulrike Il; Roforth, Matthew; Hensen, Ira; Fraser, Daniel G; Peterson, James M; Oursler, Merry Jo; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-11-01

    While female mice do not have the equivalent of a menopause, they do undergo reproductive senescence. Thus, to dissociate the effects of aging versus estrogen deficiency on age-related bone loss, we sham-operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and estrogen-replaced female C57/BL6 mice at 6 months of age and followed them to age 18 to 22 months. Lumbar spines and femurs were excised for analysis, and bone marrow hematopoietic lineage negative (lin-) cells (enriched for osteoprogenitor cells) were isolated for gene expression studies. Six-month-old intact control mice were euthanized to define baseline parameters. Compared with young mice, aged/sham-operated mice had a 42% reduction in lumbar spine bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), and maintaining constant estrogen levels over life in ovariectomized/estrogen-treated mice did not prevent age-related trabecular bone loss at this site. By contrast, lifelong estrogen treatment of ovariectomized mice completely prevented the age-related reduction in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and thickness at the tibial diaphysis present in the aged/sham-operated mice. As compared with cells from young mice, lin- cells from aged/sham-operated mice expressed significantly higher mRNA levels for osteoblast differentiation and proliferation marker genes. These data thus demonstrate that, in mice, age-related loss of cortical bone in the appendicular skeleton, but not loss of trabecular bone in the spine, can be prevented by maintaining constant estrogen levels over life. The observed increase in osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation marker gene expression in progenitor bone marrow cells from aged versus young mice may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to ongoing bone loss. PMID:20499336

  1. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  2. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Chad M.; Robinson, Matthew C.; Aylor, David L.; Singh, Nadia D.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype–environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype–age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate. PMID:26994290

  3. ApoE genotypes are associated with age at natural menopause in Chinese females.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan-Tao; Wang, Yan-Li; Liu, Ji; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Rong-Yu; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2012-08-01

    Ages at natural menarche and menopause are influenced by several genetic factors. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and the age at menarche and natural menopause in Chinese females. In the current study, 398 (elderly group, aged 47-80 years) and 825 (young group, aged 15-25 years) Chinese females were enrolled under informed content. Ages at natural menarche and menopause were obtained by questionnaires. ApoE genotypes were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the elderly group, the number of pregnancies and live births and breastfeeding were associated with the age at menopause (P = 0.008, P = 0.002, and P = 0.023, respectively). One-way ANOVA analysis revealed that the ApoE genotype was significantly associated with age at natural menopause (ANM; P = 0.010). Compared with ApoE ε3/3 carriers, ApoE ε3/4 females showed a 1.8-year delay in ANM (P = 0.002). Single ApoE allele-positive/allele-negative analysis also showed that the age at menopause of ApoE ε4 carriers was delayed compared with those who were not carriers (P = 0.023). In the young group, no statistical difference was found in the age of menarche between the carriers of ApoE ε3/3 and ε3/4. Single ApoE allele-positive/allele-negative analysis showed that the age at menarche in ApoE ε4 carriers was slightly earlier than in those who were not carriers (P = 0.048). Meanwhile, univariate association analysis revealed that the ApoE genotypes were not significantly associated with the age at menarche using age as a covariate in the pooled group (young + elderly) (P = 0.143). We demonstrated that the ApoE genotype is significantly linked to the age at natural menopause.

  4. Regional variations in the female age at marriage in India: an analysis by agro-climatic zones.

    PubMed

    Mishra, V; Singh, V

    1992-01-01

    "The effect of agro-climatic factors on female age at marriage [in India] is studied by carrying out areal analysis of the 1981 Census data. The study found a close association between agricultural and climatic conditions in an area and corresponding female age at marriage. In general, women in Himalayan regions and coastal areas have higher age at marriage than most hinterland regions. Rainfall, altitude, forest area, land availability and productivity are observed to be associated with female age at marriage. In addition, female age at marriage in rural areas is found to be more sensitive to the agro-climatic conditions. It is hypothesized that with socio-economic and technological development, the agricultural and climatic factors are losing their grip on female age at marriage in India."

  5. Age as a determinant of reproductive success among captive female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Christine; Liukkonen, John R; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine M; Harrison, Richard M; Kubisch, H Michael

    2007-04-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on fertility outcomes among a colony of captive Indian rhesus monkeys. The analysis covered over 30 years and was based on 1443 females with a total of 11,453 pregnancies. Various determinants of fertility were assessed including birth rates, pregnancy loss, infant survival, interbirth intervals, and interval from last birth to death. Binary variables were analyzed with generalized linear models with random intercepts, while linear mixed models were used for analysis of continuous variables. Age of the dam was a significant factor in determining whether a pregnancy resulted in a birth and whether an infant survived the first 30 days with primiparous or older mothers being less likely to produce an infant surviving to that age. In contrast, sex proved to be the only significant factor in determining whether an infant lived to 1 year, with females being more likely to survive. The interval between births proved to be affected primarily by dam age, while the late death of an infant depressed the likelihood of an extended time interval between her last birth and her death. Overall, these results demonstrate that maternal age contributes significantly to a decline in fertility and older females can live relatively long periods following birth of their last infant. PMID:17504925

  6. Differential effects of Cytomegalovirus carriage on the immune phenotype of middle-aged males and females

    PubMed Central

    van der Heiden, Marieke; van Zelm, Menno C.; Bartol, Sophinus J. W.; de Rond, Lia G. H.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population is more susceptible to infections as a result of an altered immune response, commonly referred to as immunosenescence. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infection associated changes in blood lymphocytes are known to impact this process, but the interaction with gender remains unclear. Therefore, we analysed the effects and interaction of gender and CMV on the absolute numbers of a comprehensive set of naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets in people between 50 and 65 years of age. Enumeration and characterisation of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry was performed on fresh whole blood samples from 255 middle-aged persons. CMV-IgG serostatus was determined by ELISA. Gender was a major factor affecting immune cell numbers. CMV infection was mainly associated with an expansion of late-differentiated T-cell subsets. CMV+ males carried lower numbers of total CD4+, CD4+ central memory (CM) and follicular helper T-cells than females and CMV− males. Moreover, CMV+ males had significantly lower numbers of regulatory T (Treg)-cells and memory B-cells than CMV+ females. We here demonstrate an interaction between the effects of CMV infection and gender on T- and B-cells in middle-aged individuals. These differential effects on adaptive immunity between males and females may have implications for vaccination strategies at middle-age. PMID:27243552

  7. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R

    2014-05-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging because of the difficulty in reliably recording the first breeding event. Here, using a multi-event capture-recapture model that accounts for both imperfect detection and uncertainty in the breeding status on an 18-year dataset involving 6637 individuals, we estimated age and state-specific survival of female elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the declining Macquarie Island population. We detected a clear cost of first reproduction on survival. This cost was higher for both younger first-time breeders and older first-time breeders compared with females recruiting at age four, the overall mean age at first reproduction. Neither earlier primiparity nor delaying primiparity appear to confer any evolutionary advantage, rather the optimal strategy seems to be to start breeding at a single age, 4 years.

  8. Age-at-maturity estimates for Atlantic coast female striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlinsky, David L.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; O'Brien, John F.; Specker, Jennifer L.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the percentage of mature female striped bass Morone saxatilis present in each age-class during annual coastal feeding migration. Migratory striped bass (N = 302) were sampled in coastal Rhode Island waters during spring (May-June) and fall (September-November) from 1985 to 1987. Stocks were identified by analysis of morphometric characters and isoelectric focusing of eye-lens proteins. Histological sections of ovarian tissue were used to categorize maturity state. Fish were considered mature if a class of oocytes measuring at least 150 μm and containing cytoplasmic inclusions was found in the ovarian sections. All females whose age at next potential spawning was 7 and older were mature. Our empirical observations indicated that 12% of fish in age-class 4, 34% of fish in age-class 5, and 77% of fish in age-class 6 were mature. The estimate of the proportion of mature fish in age-class 5 differs significantly from that of Merriman (1941), who also examined coastal migrants. No significant differences were found in maturity estimates of fish from stocks of different origin.

  9. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  10. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals

    PubMed Central

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A.; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging because of the difficulty in reliably recording the first breeding event. Here, using a multi-event capture–recapture model that accounts for both imperfect detection and uncertainty in the breeding status on an 18-year dataset involving 6637 individuals, we estimated age and state-specific survival of female elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the declining Macquarie Island population. We detected a clear cost of first reproduction on survival. This cost was higher for both younger first-time breeders and older first-time breeders compared with females recruiting at age four, the overall mean age at first reproduction. Neither earlier primiparity nor delaying primiparity appear to confer any evolutionary advantage, rather the optimal strategy seems to be to start breeding at a single age, 4 years. PMID:24872464

  11. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R

    2014-05-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging because of the difficulty in reliably recording the first breeding event. Here, using a multi-event capture-recapture model that accounts for both imperfect detection and uncertainty in the breeding status on an 18-year dataset involving 6637 individuals, we estimated age and state-specific survival of female elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the declining Macquarie Island population. We detected a clear cost of first reproduction on survival. This cost was higher for both younger first-time breeders and older first-time breeders compared with females recruiting at age four, the overall mean age at first reproduction. Neither earlier primiparity nor delaying primiparity appear to confer any evolutionary advantage, rather the optimal strategy seems to be to start breeding at a single age, 4 years. PMID:24872464

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Age Specific Variation in the Abundance of Human Female Parotid Salivary Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Lu, Bingwen; Hagen, Fred K; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Human saliva is a protein-rich, easily accessible source of potential local and systemic biomarkers to monitor changes that occur under pathological conditions; however little is known about the changes in abundance associated with normal aging. In this study, we performed a comprehensive proteomic profiling of pooled saliva collected from the parotid glands of healthy female subjects, divided into two age groups 1 and 2 (20–30 and 55–65 years old, respectively). Hydrophobic charge interaction chromatography was used to separate high from low abundant proteins prior to characterization of the parotid saliva using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Collectively, 532 proteins were identified in the two age groups. Of these proteins, 266 were identified exclusively in one age group, while 266 proteins were common to both groups. The majority of the proteins identified in the two age groups belonged to the defense and immune response category. Of note, several defense related proteins (e.g. lysozyme, lactoferrin and histatin-1) were significantly more abundant in group 2 as determined by G-test. Selected representative mass spectrometric findings were validated by western blot analysis. Our study reports the first quantitative analysis of differentially regulated proteins in ductal saliva collected from young and older female subjects. This study supports the use of high-throughput proteomics as a robust discovery tool. Such results provide a foundation for future studies to identify specific salivary proteins which may be linked to age-related diseases specific to women. PMID:19764810

  13. [Estimation of the biological age in taiga tick females (Ixodes persulcatus:Ixodidae) by the fat reserves in organism].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S; Grigor'eva, L A

    2010-01-01

    The method of estimation of the biological age in non-feeding tick females by the level of adipose inclusions in the cells of the midgut and fat body is developed. In order to estimate the fat reserves in non-feeding females, alive ticks were dissected and fragments of their internal were vitally stained with the pregnant solution of sudan III in 70 % ethanol. Three age-specific groups were established: I, young females whose intestines and fat body were filled with fat inclusions; II, mature females whose fat reserves were partially expended; III, old females having isolated fat inclusions in their midgut and fat body.

  14. Sirtuin Functions in Female Fertility: Possible Role in Oxidative Stress and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Tatone, Carla; Vitti, Maurizio; Santini, Silvano; D'Alessandro, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    In search for strategies aimed at preventing oxidative threat to female fertility, a possible role of sirtuins has emerged. Sirtuins (silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins), NAD+ dependent enzymes with deacetylase and/or mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, are emerging as key antiaging molecules and regulators in many diseases. Recently, a crucial role for SIRT1 and SIRT3, the main components of sirtuin family, as sensors and guardians of the redox state in oocytes, granulosa cells, and early embryos has emerged. In this context, the aim of the present review is to summarize current knowledge from research papers on the role of sirtuins in female fertility with particular emphasis on the impairment of SIRT1 signalling with oocyte aging. On this basis, the authors wish to build up a framework to promote research on the possible role of sirtuins as targets for future strategies for female fertility preservation. PMID:26075037

  15. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    PubMed

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  16. Blood coagulation and metabolic profiles in middle-aged male and female ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Naoki; Oishi, Katsutaka; Atsumi, Gen-ichi

    2015-07-01

    Obese and diabetic states in humans are associated with an increased incidence of thrombotic diseases caused by various coagulation abnormalities. Genetically obese ob/ob mice produce metabolic abnormalities similar to those associated with type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about their coagulation features or sex differences. The present study aimed to determine the effects of obese and diabetic complications on blood coagulation and vascular diseases by exploring correlations between blood coagulation and metabolic profiles in middle-aged male and female ob/ob mice. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) were significantly increased, whereas those that of platelet factor-4 (PF-4) was slightly, but significantly increased in male and female ob/ob mice compared with lean counterparts. Prothrombin time (PT) was significantly shortened in female ob/ob mice and activated partial thrombin time (APTT) significantly differed between male and female ob/ob mice. Plasma levels of antithrombin (AT) were significantly increased in male and female ob/ob mice. None of the other coagulation and fibrinolytic factors examined significantly differed between ob/ob mice and lean counterparts. On the contrary, factors such as body weight and cholesterol levels significantly differed between ob/ob and lean mice, whereas glucose, fructosamine and insulin levels significantly differed only in one sex of each strain. These results provided fundamental information about blood coagulation and metabolic features for exploring the function of altered blood coagulation states in ob/ob mice.

  17. Aging of the female reproductive system: a window into brain aging.

    PubMed

    Wise, P M; Kashon, M L; Krajnak, K M; Rosewell, K L; Cai, A; Scarbrough, K; Harney, J P; McShane, T; Lloyd, J M; Weiland, N G

    1997-01-01

    The menopause marks the permanent end of fertility in women. It was once thought that the exhaustion of ovarian follicles was the single, most important explanation for the transition to the menopause. Over the past decade, this perception has gradually changed with the realization that there are multiple pacemakers of reproductive senescence. We will present evidence that lends credence to the hypothesis that the central nervous system is a critical pacemaker of reproductive aging and that changes at this level contribute to the timing of the menopause. Studies demonstrate that an increasing de-synchronization of the temporal order of neuroendocrine signals may contribute to the accelerated rate of follicular loss that occurs during middle age. We suggest that the dampening and destabilization of the precisely orchestrated ultradian, circadian, and infradian neural signals lead to miscommunication between the brain and the pituitary-ovarian axis. This constellation of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian events leads to the inexorable decline of regular cyclicity and heralds menopausal transition.

  18. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  19. Effects of soy phytoestrogens on pituitary-ovarian function in middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Medigović, Ivana M; Živanović, Jasmina B; Ajdžanović, Vladimir Z; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra L; Stanković, Sanja D; Trifunović, Svetlana L; Milošević, Verica Lj; Nestorović, Nataša M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of genistein (G) and daidzein (D) on the histological, hormonal, and functional parameters of the pituitary-ovarian axis in middle-aged female rats, and to compare these effects with the effects of estradiol (E), commonly used in the prevention and treatment of menopausal symptoms. Middle-aged (12 month old) Wistar female rats subcutaneously received 35 mg/kg of G, or 35 mg/kg of D, or 0.625 mg/kg of E every day for 4 weeks. Each of the treated groups had a corresponding control group. An intact control group was also established. G and D did not change the intracellular protein content within gonadotropic and lactotropic cells, but vacuolization was observed in all the cell types. In contrast, E caused an inhibition of gonadotropic and stimulation of lactotropic cells. Also, ovaries of middle-aged female rats exposed to G or D have more healthy primordial and primary follicles and less atretic follicles. E treatment in the ovaries had a mostly negative effect, which is reflected by the increased number of atretic follicles in all tested classes. G and D provoked decrease in CuZnSOD and CAT activity, while E treatment increased MnSOD and decreased CuZnSOD and GSHPx activity. All the treatments increased serum estradiol and decreased testosterone levels, while D and E increased the serum progesterone level. In conclusion, soy phytoestrogens exhibited beneficial effects on pituitary-ovarian function in middle-aged female rats, as compared to estradiol.

  20. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    PubMed

    Mair, Jacqueline L; Nevill, Alan M; De Vito, Giuseppe; Boreham, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  1. Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged 10-19 years - United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Stephanie J; Hamilton, Brady E; Mathews, T J

    2013-11-22

    Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged <20 years have been the subject of long-standing concern among the public, the public health community, and policy makers. Teenagers who give birth are much more likely than older women to deliver a low birthweight or preterm infant, and their babies are at higher risk for dying in infancy. The annual public costs associated with births among teenage girls are an estimated $10.9 billion. According to the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), an estimated 77% of births to teenagers aged 15-19 years were unintended.

  2. IMMMUNOPHENOTYPE OF SPONTANEOUS HEMATOLYMPHOID TUMORS OCCURRING IN YOUNG AND AGING FEMALE CD-1 MICE

    PubMed Central

    Rehg, Jerold E.; Rahija, Richard; Bush, Dorothy; Bradley, Alys; Ward, Jerrold M.

    2015-01-01

    A few reports indicated the incidence of hematolymphoid neoplasms in old CD-1 mice, but the cellular lineage of CD-1 mouse neoplasms has not be published. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to characterize the cellular lineage of spontaneous hematolymphoid neoplasms arising in young female CD-1 mice used as health monitoring sentinels and aging female CD-1 mice used as controls in 80 wk carcinogenesis studies. Lymphoblastic lymphomas of T-cell and B-cell lineage were common in mice 12 mo or less of age, whereas a wide range of non-lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic T-cell lymphomas were common in mice > 12 mo old. Renal hyaline droplets positive for lysozyme were observed in aged mice with a histiocytic-associated large B-cell lymphoma (HA-BCL) and a myeloid leukemia. Endogenous ecotropic MuLV genes have been recovered from CD-1 mice, but MuLV protein expression has not been previously demonstrated. We reported for the first time the expression of MuLV protein by IHC in lymphomas and some normal tissues of both young and aging CD-1 mice. This report should help to differentiate spontaneous lymphomas and leukemias in CD-1 mice from those induced by chemicals and other methods. PMID:26224701

  3. Immunophenotype of Spontaneous Hematolymphoid Tumors Occurring in Young and Aging Female CD-1 Mice. [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Rehg, Jerold E; Rahija, Richard; Bush, Dorothy; Bradley, Alys; Ward, Jerrold M

    2015-10-01

    A few reports indicated the incidence of hematolymphoid neoplasms in old CD-1 mice, but the cellular lineage of CD-1 mouse neoplasms has not been published. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to characterize the cellular lineage of spontaneous hematolymphoid neoplasms arising in 24 young female CD-1 mice used as health-monitoring sentinels and 32 aging female CD-1 mice used as controls in 80-week carcinogenesis studies. Lymphoblastic lymphomas of T-cell and B-cell lineage were common in mice aged 12 months or less, whereas a wide range of non-lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas were common in mice >12-mo-old. Renal hyaline droplets positive for lysozyme were observed in aged mice with a histiocytic-associated large B-cell lymphoma (HA-BCL) and a myeloid leukemia. Endogenous ecotropic mouse leukemia virus (MuLV) genes have been recovered from CD-1 mice, but MuLV protein expression has not been previously demonstrated. We reported for the first time the expression of a MuLV protein p30 by IHC in lymphomas and some normal tissues of both young and aging CD-1 mice. This report should help to differentiate spontaneous lymphomas and leukemias in CD-1 mice from those induced by chemicals and other methods.

  4. Resveratrol attenuates peripheral and brain inflammation and reduces ischemic brain injury in aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sae Im; Shin, Jin A; Cho, Sunghee; Kim, Hye Won; Lee, Ji Yoon; Kang, Jihee Lee; Park, Eun-Mi

    2016-08-01

    Resveratrol is known to improve metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. Visceral obesity is a sign of aging and is considered a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and the brain and its effects on ischemic brain injury in aged female mice. Mice treated with resveratrol (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) for 10 days showed reduced levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as a reduction in the size of adipocytes in visceral adipose tissue. Resveratrol also reduced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α protein levels and immunoglobulin G extravasation in the brain. Mice treated with resveratrol demonstrated smaller infarct size, improved neurological function, and blunted peripheral inflammation at 3 days postischemic stroke. These results showed that resveratrol counteracted inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and in the brain and reduced stroke-induced brain injury and peripheral inflammation in aged female mice. Therefore, resveratrol administration can be a valuable strategy for the prevention of age-associated and disease-provoked inflammation in postmenopausal women.

  5. Electroretinography recordings using a light emitting diode active corneal electrode in healthy beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yoshiki; Maehara, Seiya; Yamashita, Kazuto; Izumisawa, Yasuharu

    2013-01-01

    Electroretinography (ERG) is a well-established diagnostic procedure for objectively evaluating retinal function. In this study, ERG in beagle dogs, which are a popular experimental animal, was performed to determine the normal range of ERG variables and assess differences between the left and right eyes. ERG findings including rod, combined rod-cone, single-flash cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses were recorded with an LED-electrode in 43 sedated beagle dogs. The subjects were divided into young (< 1 year old), adult (1~5 years old), and senile animals (≥ 6 years old). Normal ERG ranges were obtained. Significant differences in b-wave amplitude along with b/a ratio of the combined rod-cone response were found between the young and adult animals as well as young and senile dogs. No significant differences were observed between the left and right eyes. ERG variables in beagle dogs differed by age due to age-related retinal changes. Thus, we propose that normal ERG ranges should be determined according to age in each clinic and laboratory using its own equipment because each institution usually has different systems or protocols for ERG testing. PMID:23388429

  6. An update on female sexual function and dysfunction in old age and its relevance to old age psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wood, Alison; Runciman, Ross; Wylie, Kevan R; McManus, Ross

    2012-10-01

    Numerous studies have now demonstrated that many older women retain an interest in their sexual lives. Yet, how many old age psychiatrists commonly check with older women about whether the depression they are treating, or the SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors) they have prescribed, have adversely affected their patient's sexual lives? We consider the latest evidence regarding cultural, social and medical influences on older women's sexual lives and some specific issues which affect lesbian and transsexual people. We examine how mental illness and psychotropic medication in particular can adversely affect older women's sexual functioning and at how difficult it often proves to be for women to seek help. We also focus on why doctors and in particular psychiatrists may not take a sexual history, look for sexual side effects or refer for appropriate treatment, especially when interviewing older women patients. Most published information about psychiatric training and sexual issues focuses on the younger male patient. We therefore aimed to provide a broad-ranging review of the literature regarding female sexual functioning in old age, the difficulties that can arise and the role that old age psychiatrists have an opportunity to fulfil, in this often neglected aspect of their patients' treatment. From our review it was clear that, in the light of the increasing cultural acceptability of discussions regarding sexuality and older women, the training of student doctors and trainee psychiatrists needs to reflect this change so that old age psychiatrists can enhance the quality of their patient care.

  7. Beagle 2: Seeking the Signatures of Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.; Pullan, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 60 kg probe (with a 30 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency s 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 will deliver to the Martian surface a payload which consists of a high percentage of science instruments to landed spacecraft mass. Beagle 2 will be launched in June 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 will land on Mars in December 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 11.5 deg.N and 275 deg.W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. Beagle 2 is completed and undergoing integration with the Mars Express orbiter prior to launch.

  8. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and "Forest Therapy" has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more "comfortable," "relaxed," and "natural" according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for "tension-anxiety" was significantly lower, while that for "vigor" was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  9. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Widdig, A; Nürnberg, P; Krawczak, M; Streich, W J; Bercovitch, F B

    2001-11-20

    Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.

  10. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and “Forest Therapy” has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for “tension–anxiety” was significantly lower, while that for “vigor” was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females. PMID:26633447

  11. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ikeako, LC; Ekwueme, OC; Ezegwui, HU; Okeke, TOC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female traders of reproductive age in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on female traders aged 15-49 years at Ogbete Main Market, Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info 2000 version 3.3.1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta USA) was used to analyze the data and results were presented in tabular form. Results: A total of 200 female traders of reproductive age participated in the study. The mean (standard deviation) age was 26 (7.4) years. 16% (32/200) were adolescents. Knowledge of specific STIs was highest for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome 90% (130/200). Parents were poor sources of information as only 28.5% (57/200) respondents heard about STIs from their parents compared with 46% (92/200) from friends and peers. Risk factors identified were multiple sexual partners 75.5% (151/200), non-use of condoms 62% (124/200) and early debut 58% (116/200). Majority 67.5% (135/200) were aware that STIs could be treated by a visit to the doctor while 21.5% (43/200) preferred traditional/herbal healers. Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools’ curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before embarking on any vocation out-of-school is advocated. PMID:24669343

  12. Age at first intercourse is inversely related to female cortisol stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart

    2002-11-01

    The relationship between age at first sexual intercourse and salivary cortisol stress reactivity (to the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST; consisting of public speaking and mental arithmetic) was examined in healthy subjects (43 females and 36 males; ages 19-38). Women reporting earlier first intercourse had less intense cortisol increases in response to the stressor (a non-significant trend was observed for males), and faster recovery from the stressor. Results were not confounded by age, oral contraceptive use, depression scores, smoking status, or body mass index. It is concluded that earlier first intercourse is associated with less reactivity to and faster recovery from stress as indexed by this endocrine measure. Results are discussed in terms of genetic and psychological influences on first intercourse and implications for coping with interpersonal stress. PMID:12383454

  13. The SNPs of Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) Associated with Body Weight in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ruixia; Zhang, YiBo; Du, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which is associated with inherited human obesity, is involoved in food intake and body weight of mammals. To study the relationships between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in Beagle dogs, we detected and compared the nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3′- and 5′- flanking regions of the dog MC4R gene (1214 bp). In 120 Beagle dogs, two SNPs (A420C, C895T) were identified and their relation with body weight was analyzed with RFLP-PCR method. The results showed that the SNP at A420C was significantly associated with canine body weight trait when it changed amino acid 101 of the MC4R protein from asparagine to threonine,while canine body weight variations were significant in female dogs when MC4R nonsense mutation at C895T. It suggested that the two SNPs might affect the MC4R gene’s function which was relative to body weight in Beagle dogs. Therefore, MC4R was a candidate gene for selecting different size dogs with the MC4R SNPs (A420C, C895T) being potentially valuable as a genetic marker. PMID:24521865

  14. Increased low back pain prevalence in females than in males after menopause age: evidences based on synthetic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wáng, Jùn-Qīng; Káplár, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Female sex hormones play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Postmenopausal women show accelerated disc degeneration due to relative estrogen deficiency. This literature review aims to validate or falsify this hypothesis, i.e., while overall females have higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) across all age groups, this male vs. female difference in LBP prevalence further increases after female menopause age. The literature search was performed on PubMed on January 2, 2016. The search word combination was (low back pain) AND prevalence AND [(males OR men) AND (females OR women)]. The following criteria were taken to include the papers for synthetic analysis: (I) only English primary literatures on nonspecific pain; (II) only prospective studies on general population, but not population with occupational LBP causes, of both males and female subjects studied using the same LBP criterion, ages-specific information available, and males and female subjects were age-matched; (III) studies without major quality flaws. In total 98 studies with 772,927 subjects were analyzed. According to the information in the literature, participant subjects were divided into four age groups: (I) school age children group: 6–19 years; (II) young and middle aged group: 20–50 years; (III) mixed age group: data from studies did not differentiate age groups; (IV) elderly group: ≥50 years old. When individual studies were not weighted by participant number and each individual study is represented as one entry regardless of their sample size, the median LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.310, 1.140, 1.220, and 1.270 respectively for the four age groups. When individual studies were weighted by participant number, the LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.360, 1.127, 1.185, and 1.280 respectively for the four groups. The higher LBP prevalence in school age girls than in school age boys is likely

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness of males and females of northern Finland birth cohort of 1966 at age 31.

    PubMed

    Tammelin, T; Näyhä, S; Rintamäki, H

    2004-10-01

    This study aimed to measure cardiorespiratory fitness of about 9000 males and females at age 31, to produce the reference values and relate them to the level of physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Study population was the Northern Finland birth cohort of 1966. At age 31, 8786 persons responded to a postal inquiry including questions about physical activity and 5497 of them also performed a step test. A sample of 123 persons performed a maximal exercise test with direct measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)). This was done to develop VO(2peak) prediction models on the basis of heart rate after a step test, BMI and frequency of brisk physical activity. These models were used to calculate VO(2peak) for the whole study population. Mean VO(2peak) +/- standard deviation was 43.0 +/- 4.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4071 males and 34.3 +/- 4.3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4367 females. A graded dose-response relationship was observed in males and females between the frequency of participation in brisk exercise and VO(2peak). Similar dose-response relationship was also observed in overweight and obese persons, although the level of VO(2peak) was lower in persons with increased BMI. At age 31, very low levels of VO(2peak) seemed to be associated with a combination of infrequent participation in brisk exercise and increased BMI. These reference values can be used in the interpretation of fitness test results and in physical activity counselling.

  16. Cluster Headache: Special Considerations for Treatment of Female Patients of Reproductive Age and Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    VanderPluym, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache is a rare disorder that is more common in adult male patients. It has a unique phenotype of unilateral, severe, to very severe headaches lasting 15 to 180 min with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Time to correct diagnosis can be protracted. A number of treatment options exist for the standard cluster headache patient, but special considerations must be made for female patients of reproductive age and pediatric patients. The objective of this article is to explore the current literature pertaining to special considerations in cluster headache management, including treatment of pregnant or breastfeeding patients and pediatric patients. PMID:26711274

  17. Mercury Exposure and Antinuclear Antibodies among Females of Reproductive Age in the United States: NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Ganser, Martha A.; Warren, Jeffrey S.; Basu, Niladri; Wang, Lu; Zick, Suzanna M.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Immune dysregulation associated with mercury has been suggested, although data in the general population are lacking. Chronic exposure to low levels of methylmercury (organic) and inorganic mercury is common, such as through fish consumption and dental amalgams. Objective We examined associations between mercury biomarkers and antinuclear antibody (ANA) positivity and titer strength. Methods Among females 16–49 years of age (n = 1,352) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004, we examined cross-sectional associations between mercury and ANAs (indirect immunofluorescence; cutoff ≥ 1:80). Three biomarkers of mercury exposure were used: hair (available 1999–2000) and total blood (1999–2004) predominantly represented methylmercury, and urine (1999–2002) represented inorganic mercury. Survey statistics were used. Multivariable modeling adjusted for several covariates, including age and omega-3 fatty acids. Results Sixteen percent of females were ANA positive; 96% of ANA positives had a nuclear speckled staining pattern. Geometric mean (geometric SD) mercury concentrations were 0.22 (0.03) ppm in hair, 0.92 (0.05) μg/L blood, and 0.62 (0.04) μg/L urine. Hair and blood, but not urinary, mercury were associated with ANA positivity (sample sizes 452, 1,352, and 804, respectively), after adjusting for confounders: for hair, odds ratio (OR) = 4.10 (95% CI: 1.66, 10.13); for blood, OR = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.07, 5.03) comparing highest versus lowest quantiles. Magnitudes of association were strongest for high-titer (≥ 1:1,280) ANA: hair, OR = 11.41 (95% CI: 1.60, 81.23); blood, OR = 5.93 (95% CI: 1.57, 22.47). Conclusions Methylmercury, at low levels generally considered safe, was associated with subclinical autoimmunity among reproductive-age females. Autoantibodies may predate clinical disease by years; thus, methylmercury exposure may be relevant to future autoimmune disease risk. Citation Somers EC, Ganser MA, Warren

  18. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring.

  19. Senescence and age-specific trade-offs between reproduction and survival in female Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew R; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-03-01

    Although studies on laboratory species and natural populations of vertebrates have shown reproduction to impair later performance, little is known of the age-specific associations between reproduction and survival, and how such findings apply to the ageing of large, long-lived species. Herein we develop a framework to examine population-level patterns of reproduction and survival across lifespan in long-lived organisms, and decompose those changes into individual-level effects, and the effects of age-specific trade-offs between fitness components. We apply this to an extensive longitudinal dataset on female semi-captive Asian timber elephants (Elephas maximus) and report the first evidence of age-specific fitness declines that are driven by age-specific associations between fitness components in a long-lived mammal. Associations between reproduction and survival are positive in early life, but negative in later life with up to 71% of later-life survival declines associated with investing in the production of offspring within this population of this critically endangered species.

  20. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs of different dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs in the beagle dog was investigated at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of programs to evaluate the biological effects of both radionuclides in atomic bomb fallout and internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. In the ITRI study, young adult dogs were exposed once by intravenous injection to a range of {sup 137}Cs concentrations; the results have recently been published. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the ANL study and to compare the results of the two studies. At ANL, 63 dogs in three age groups (15 juveniles, 142-151 days old; 38 young adults, 388-427 days old; and 10 middle-aged dogs, 1387-2060 days old) were given {sup 137}Cs intravenously at levels (61-162f MBq/kg) near those expected to be lethal within 30 days after injection. There were 17 control dogs from the same colony. Twenty-three of the dogs injected with {sup 137}Cs, including all middle-aged dogs, died within 52 days after injection due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia that led to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. The other significant early effect was damage to the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. The design of the ANL study revealed an age- and gender-related differential radiosensitivity for early effects. The middle-aged dogs died significantly earlier due to complications of hematological dyscrasia compared to the juvenile and young adult dogs, and the middle-aged females died significantly earlier than the middle-aged males. The most significant non-neoplastic late effects in the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs from ANL and ITRI were atrophy of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules with azoospermia, and a significant dose-dependent decrease in survival. The survival of the ANL dogs was decreased more than that of the ITRI dogs at similar radiation doses from {sup 137}Cs. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  2. Age at Trauma Exposure and PTSD Risk in a Young Adult Female Sample

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the independent and joint contributions of 8 different types of trauma to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk using data from a young adult female cohort. Associations of traumatic events with PTSD onset were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in risk as a function of age at trauma were tested. Childhood sexual assault, physical abuse, and neglect were stronger predictors of PTSD onset than adolescent/early adult occurrence of these events in individual models. In a model including all traumatic events, differential risk by age remained for sexual assault and physical abuse. Early sexual assault was the strongest predictor of risk but additional traumatic events increased risk even in its presence. PMID:20963847

  3. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at increasing female students' interest in science and science-related careers. This study examined the effectiveness of InSTEP on 123 female students' pre-assessment and post-assessment changes in attitudes toward science and content knowledge of selected science concepts. An attitude survey, a science content test with multiple-choice questions, written assignments, and interviews to collect data were all used to measure students' attitudes and content knowledge. A within-group, repeated measure design was conducted, and the results indicated that at the post-intervention level, InSTEP increased the participants' positive attitudes toward science, science-related careers, and content knowledge of selected science concepts.

  4. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  5. The effect of aging on the hepatic metabolism of sulfo-bromophthalein in BN/Bi female and WAG/Rij male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Kitani, K; Zurcher, C; Van Bezooijen, K

    1981-12-01

    The effect of aging on sulfobromophthalein (BSP) metabolism was studied in three groups of rats-BN/Bi female and WAG/Rij male and female rats-of different ages ranging from 3 to 30 months. Under Nembutal anesthesia, BSP biliary transport maximum (Tm) and relative storage capacity (S) were determined by a single infusion rate method by directly determining Tm from bile samples collected through a common bile duct cannula. Tm values expressed as micrograms of BSP per min per g of liver were highest in the youngest rate (3-month-old) as compared with the older rats (12-, 24-, 30-month-old) for all three rat groups. Tm gradually decreased as age increased and at the age of 24 or 30 months reached a value of 66 - 70% of the highest values for 3-month-old rats. The percentage of conjugated BSP in the bile measured during the Tm period remained essentially unchanged with age in all three rat groups. S values, expressed as mg of BSP stored per mg or BSP per ml of plasma per g of liver, remained unchanged (BN/Bi female) or even increased (WAG/Rij male and female) with age. As a consequence, S values expressed per rat were higher in older age groups than in the youngest one for all three rat groups. In contrast with previous reports by other authors on man and rats, the BSP Tm appears to decrease with age regardless of rat and sex, while S does not show such a decrease. PMID:7329103

  6. Live vs. digital video disk exercise in college--aged females.

    PubMed

    Killen, Lauren G; Barry, Vaughn W; Cooper, Cathy; Coons, John M

    2014-12-01

    Although exercise digital video disk (DVD) sales have substantially increased over the past decade, little is known on the effectiveness of personal training vs. DVD exercises. The purpose of this study was to compare energy expenditures and heart rates of live and DVD vigorously intense exercise sessions. Twenty active and low-to-moderate fit, college-aged females completed 2 identical exercise sessions. Each exercise session consisted of 6 exercises; 1 session was completed with a personal trainer and the other with a DVD. A portable metabolic analyzer was used to measure oxygen consumption and record heart rate. Both energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and heart rate (p = 0.001) were significantly higher during the live exercise session as compared with the DVD exercise session. Rate of perceived exertion was significantly higher for the live exercise session compared with the DVD exercise session (p = 0.045). Finally, the majority (89%) of the participants reported that they preferred the live exercise session over the DVD exercise session. The results suggest that low-to-moderately fit college-aged females not only prefer exercise sessions with a personal trainer but will also demonstrate higher energy expenditures and heart rates. PMID:24918301

  7. Effects of estrogen and progesterone on spatial memory consolidation in aged females.

    PubMed

    Harburger, Lauren L; Bennett, Jennifer C; Frick, Karyn M

    2007-04-01

    Interpretation of data illustrating that estrogen, with or without progestin, is detrimental to memory in post-menopausal women is complicated by the fact that little is known about the effects of progestins on memory. The present study examined if estrogen, alone or with progesterone, affects spatial memory consolidation in ovariectomized aged female mice. Mice received eight training trials in a spatial Morris water maze followed immediately by injection of water-soluble 17beta-estradiol (E(2); 0.2 mg/kg) or vehicle. Mice were re-tested 24 h later. All mice learned to find the platform on Day 1. On Day 2, the performance of control, but not E(2) mice, deteriorated, suggesting that E(2) enhanced memory for the platform location. In a second experiment, mice were injected with E(2) and 10 or 20 mg/kg water-soluble progesterone. The 10 mg/kg dose of progesterone did not affect estrogen's ability to enhance spatial memory consolidation, but 20 mg/kg blocked this effect. These data indicate that estrogen can improve spatial memory consolidation in aged females and that this effect can be attenuated by progesterone.

  8. Lead-induced modifications of immune responses in aging male and female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Genova, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the effects of lead intoxication on the immunological responses of aging male and female Balb/c mice. Both males and females on the lead diet exhibited a loss of weight after one week of treatment. The animals began to gain weight again after eight or fifteen weeks for males and females respectively. Although both groups continued to gain weight at a rate consistent with control animals, they never reached the same weights as their same-sex control counterparts. Immunofluorescent staining indicated the presence of greater renal pathology in lead-fed animals as compared to controls. Lead-fed males demonstrated the greatest pathology of any group. Both T and B cell mitogenic responses declined during the early phases of the experiment. This was followed, at age 25-27 weeks, by an increase in activity to levels greater than those of control animals. The depression and subsequent increase in mitogenic responses was mirrored in the ability of T cells to regulate B cell plaque formation when stimulated with sheep red blood cells. T cell function returned to control levels in coincidence with the increase in T and B cell mitogenicity. The return of T cell functionality to control levels coincides with the increased mitogenesis noted in T and B cell populations and the onset of weight gains by lead-fed animals. This coincidence suggests the occurrence of a physiological or immunological change which is compensating for the continued lead intoxication. One such change may be a lead induced reduction in the number or function of a T cell subset, eg. T suppressors.

  9. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from south-central Alaska: analysis of reproductive tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Lensink, C.

    1993-01-01

    We estimated age at sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from south-central Alaska, Primarily from western Prince William Sound, as a result of the T/V Exxon Valdez oit spill in 1989. We found 65% of our sample to be sexually mature. Sexual maturity was first attained at age 2. The proportion of sexually mature animals increased from 30% at age 2 to 100% at age 5. Annual reproductive rates increased from 22% at age 2 to 78% at age 5 and remained relatively stable (75-88%) through to age 15. the sex ratio (female:male) of 49 fetal sea otters was 18:37 and differed significantly from parity. Females younger than 8 tended to produce more female fetuses, while older mothers did not. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts wre similiar to those reported in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  10. Reduced vasorelaxation to estradiol and G-1 in aged female and adult male rats is associated with GPR30 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Sarah H; da Silva, Ariel S; Silva, Mauro S; Chappell, Mark C

    2013-07-01

    Previously, we reported that chronic activation of the estrogen receptor GPR30 by its selective agonist G-1 decreases blood pressure in ovariectomized hypertensive mRen2.Lewis (mRen2) rats but not intact male littermates. Furthermore, G-1 relaxes female mesenteric resistance arteries via both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Because of the lack of a blood pressure-lowering effect by G-1 in males and the potential influence of aging on estrogen receptor expression, we hypothesized that GPR30-dependent vasodilation and receptor expression are altered in males and aged females. Thus, we assessed the response to 17β-estradiol or G-1 in mesenteric arteries obtained from 15-wk-old normotensive Lewis and hypertensive mRen2 females and males as well as 52-wk-old Lewis females. Vasodilation to 17β-estradiol (E₂) and G-1 was significantly attenuated in 15-wk-old Lewis and mRen2 males compared with age-matched females. Pretreatment of male vessels with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME had no significant effect on the estradiol or G-1 response. In aged females, E₂ and G-1 vasorelaxation was also significantly blunted; however, L-NAME essentially abolished the response. Associated with the reduced vascular responses, GPR30 expression in mesenteric arteries was approximately 50% lower in males and aged females compared with young females. We conclude that alterations in GPR30 expression and signaling may contribute to vascular dysfunction in aging females and a greater blood pressure in hypertensive males.

  11. Age-related differences in the toxicity of ochratoxin A in female rats.

    PubMed

    Dortant, P M; Peters-Volleberg, G W; Van Loveren, H; Marquardt, R R; Speijers, G J

    2001-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin found in food and feedstuffs of plant and animal origin. OTA exposure is related to nephropathy in humans. Age-related differences, especially in nephro- and immunotoxicity of OTA, were investigated in young adult (aged 12 weeks) and old (aged 27-30 months) female SPF Wag rats, treated by gavage with 0, 0.07, 0.34 or 1.68 mg OTA/kg body weight for 4 weeks. In both age groups, survival was significantly decreased in the highest dose group. Clinical condition, body weight, clinical chemistry parameters (ALAT, ASAT, creatinin and urea) and target organs (as identified by weight and pathology - kidney, liver, adrenals, forestomach and brain) were affected by age and dose, but often more severely in old than in young rats. OTA induced primarily nephropathy. Old rats were more sensitive to induction of tubular karyomegaly and vacuolation/necrosis. In young rats, OTA induced a dose-related thickening of the basement membrane and reduction in splenic T-cell fraction. Decreased IgG levels were seen at 0.34 mg/kg OTA (young and old rats) and 1.68 mg/kg OTA (young rats). Vacuolation of the white brain matter (cerebellar medulla and ventral parts of the brain stem) was significantly increased in young rats at 0.34 and 1.68 mg/kg OTA and in old rats at 0.07 and 0.34 mg/kg OTA. It was concluded that: (1) the profiles of OTA toxicity for both age groups are similar, with the kidney and possibly the brain being primary target organs; (2) based on clinical and pathological data old rats are more sensitive to OTA than young rats; and (3) the immune system is probably not the primary target of OTA toxicity.

  12. Maternal placenta-like endometrial hyperplasia in a beagle dog (Canine deciduoma).

    PubMed

    Koguchi, A; Nomura, K; Fujiwara, T; Kawai, Y; Okaniwa, A

    1995-07-01

    Three thumb-sized segmental swellings were found in both uterine horns of a 15 month-old, non-pregnant and non-pseudopregnant female beagle dog. Histopathological examination of the uterus revealed a marked proliferation of the endometrium that was characterized by two distinct parts, an inner tightly-folded banded layer and an outer dilated spongy layer, quite similar to the maternal placenta except for the fetus and chorion in the lumen. Because the plasma level of progesterone was unusually high at autopsy, this hormonal disorder might be related to the pathogenesis of the endometrial hyperplasia in the present case.

  13. Age at Menarche and Factors that Influence It: A Study among Female University Students in Tamale, Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame; Garti, Helene Akpene

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Age at menarche reflects the health status of a population. This marks the beginning of sexual maturation and is affected by nutritional status and prevailing environmental conditions. This study measured the menarcheal age of female undergraduate students in northern Ghana and explored factors that could impact on the onset of menarche. Method GraphPad 5.01 was used to analyze data collected from 293 randomly selected female university students in a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. Association between different variables was tested using appropriate statistical tests. Results The mean recall age at menarche of participants in this study was 13.66 ±1.87 years for a female population of mean age, 23.04±5.07 years. Compared to female students who lived in rural settings, urban and suburban areas dwellers significantly recorded earlier menarche (p = 0.0006). Again, females from high income earning families experienced menarche earlier than those who were born to or lived with lower income earners (p = 0.003). Lower menarcheal age increased risk of experiencing menstrual pain prior to menses rather than during menstrual flow for dysmenorrhic females. (13.52±2.052 vrs 13.63±1.582 year; χ2 = 7.181, df = 2, p = 0.028). Conclusion Mean menarcheal age of female university students in northern Ghana was 13.66 years. Females from urban areas and high income families had earlier menarche. Compared to the very first Ghanaian study reported in 1989, the menarcheal age decline was 0.11 year per decade. PMID:27171234

  14. Sexual dysfunction among female patients of reproductive age in a hospital setting in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fajewonyomi, Benjamin A; Orji, Ernest O; Adeyemo, Adenike O

    2007-03-01

    Although sexual dysfunction is an important public-health problem in Nigeria, little research has been conducted on this topic in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and their correlates among female patients of reproductive age using a questionnaire. Respondents were recruited from the out-patients clinics of a teaching hospital setting in Ile-Ife/ Ijesa administrative health zone, Osun State, Nigeria. Of 384 female patients interviewed, 242 (63%) were sexually dysfunctional. Types of sexual dysfunction included disorder of desire (n=20; 8.3%), disorder of arousal (n=l 3; 5.4%), disorder of orgasm (n=154; 63.6%), and painful coitus (dyspareunia) (n=55; 22.7%). The peak age of sexual dysfunction was observed among the age-group of 26-30 years. Women with higher educational status were mostly affected. The reasons for unsatisfactory sexual life mainly included psychosexual factors and medical illnesses, among which included uncaring partners, present illness, excessive domestic duties, lack of adequate foreplay, present medication, competition among wives in a polygamous family setting, previous sexual abuse, and guilt-feeling of previous pregnancy termination among infertile women. The culture of male dominance in the local environment which makes women afraid of rejection and threats of divorce if they ever complain about sexually-related matters might perpetrate sexual dysfunction among the affected individuals. Sexual dysfunction is a real social and psychological problem in the local environment demanding urgent attention. It is imperative to carry out further research in society at large so that the health and lifestyles of affected women and their partners could be improved.

  15. Relationship of serum TCDD concentrations and age at exposure of female residents of Seveso, Italy.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Mocarelli, Paolo; Warner, Marcella; Needham, Larry; Patterson, Donald G; Samuels, Steven; Turner, Wayman; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Brambilla, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    In 1976, a chemical plant explosion near Seveso, Italy, resulted in the highest known exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in residential populations. In 1996, we initiated the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS), a historical cohort study of females who were 40 years old at the time of explosion and residents of the most heavily contaminated areas, zones A and B. Serum samples collected near the time of the explosion were analyzed for TCDD. We also analyzed pooled serum samples collected in 1976 from females who resided in zone non-ABR, the "unexposed" zone, to assess concurrent background exposures to other dioxins, furans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The median lipid-adjusted TCDD level for residents of zones A and B combined was 56 ppt (range = 2.5-56,000 ppt). Zone A residents had 5-fold higher TCDD levels (n = 67, median = 272 ppt) than did zone B residents (n = 814, median = 47 ppt). The youngest children had the highest TCDD levels, which decreased with age at explosion until approximately 13 years of age and were constant thereafter. Therefore, children living in zones A and B received a disproportionately higher exposure to TCDD as a result of the explosion. Zone of residence and age were the strongest predictors of TCDD level. Chloracne, nearby animal mortality, location (outdoors vs. indoors) at the time of explosion, and consumption of homegrown food were also related to serum TCDD levels. The serum pools from zone non-ABR residents had an average TCDD concentration of 20.2 ppt, and average total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration of 100.4 ppt. Therefore, background exposure to dioxins, furans, and PCBs unrelated to the explosion may have been substantial. As a consequence, previous SWHS studies that considered only TCDD exposure may have underestimated health effects due to total TEQ concentrations.

  16. Estradiol reduces anxiety- and depression-like behavior of aged female mice

    PubMed Central

    Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial effects of the ovarian steroid, 17β-estradiol (E2), for affective behavior have been reported in young individuals, but less is known about the effects of E2 among older individuals, and the capacity of older individuals to respond to E2 following its decline. In the present study, the effects of acute E2 administration to aged mice for anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors were investigated. Intact female C57BL/6 mice (N=18) that were approximately 24 months old were administered vehicle (sesame oil, n=9) or E2 (10 μg, n=9) subcutaneously 1h prior to behavioral testing. Mice were tested for anxiety-like behavior (open field, elevated plus maze, mirror chamber, light–dark transition task, Vogel conflict task) and depression-like behavior (forced swim task). To assess the role of general motor behavior and coordination in these aged mice, performance in an activity monitor and rotarod task, and total entries made in tasks (open field, elevated plus maze, light–dark transition task) were determined. Mice administered E2, compared to vehicle, demonstrated anti-anxiety behavior in the open field, mirror chamber, and light–dark transition task, and anti-depressive-like behavior in the forced swim task. E2 also tended to have anti-anxiety effects in the elevated plus maze and Vogel task compared to vehicle administration, but these effects did not reach statistical significance. E2 did not alter motor behavior and/or coordination in the activity monitor, open field, or rotarod tasks. Thus, an acute E2 regimen produced specific anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects, independent of effects on motor behavior, when administered to aged female C57BL/6 mice. PMID:19804793

  17. Absence of the proapoptotic Bax protein extends fertility and alleviates age-related health complications in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Gloria I.; Jurisicova, Andrea; Wise, Lisa; Lipina, Tatiana; Kanisek, Marijana; Bechard, Allison; Takai, Yasushi; Hunt, Patricia; Roder, John; Grynpas, Marc; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2007-01-01

    The menopausal transition in human females, which is driven by a loss of cyclic ovarian function, occurs around age 50 and is thought to underlie the emergence of an array of health problems in aging women. Although mice do not undergo a true menopause, female mice exhibit ovarian failure long before death because of chronological age and subsequently develop many of the same age-associated health complications observed in postmenopausal women. Here we show in mice that inactivation of the proapoptotic Bax gene, which sustains ovarian lifespan into advanced age, extends fertile potential and minimizes many age-related health problems, including bone and muscle loss, excess fat deposition, alopecia, cataracts, deafness, increased anxiety, and selective attention deficit. Further, ovariectomy studies show that the health benefits gained by aged females from Bax deficiency reflect a complex interplay between ovary-dependent and -independent pathways. Importantly, and contrary to popular belief, prolongation of ovarian function into advanced age by Bax deficiency did not lead to an increase in tumor incidence. Thus, the development of methods for postponing ovarian failure at menopause may represent an attractive option for improving the quality of life in aging females. PMID:17360389

  18. Sex difference in pathology of the ageing gut mediates the greater response of female lifespan to dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jennifer C; Khericha, Mobina; Dobson, Adam J; Bolukbasi, Ekin; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Women live on average longer than men but have greater levels of late-life morbidity. We have uncovered a substantial sex difference in the pathology of the aging gut in Drosophila. The intestinal epithelium of the aging female undergoes major deterioration, driven by intestinal stem cell (ISC) division, while lower ISC activity in males associates with delay or absence of pathology, and better barrier function, even at old ages. Males succumb to intestinal challenges to which females are resistant, associated with fewer proliferating ISCs, suggesting a trade-off between highly active repair mechanisms and late-life pathology in females. Dietary restriction reduces gut pathology in aging females, and extends female lifespan more than male. By genetic sex reversal of a specific gut region, we induced female-like aging pathologies in males, associated with decreased lifespan, but also with a greater increase in longevity in response to dietary restriction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10956.001 PMID:26878754

  19. Aging reduces the efficacy of estrogen substitution to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy in female spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Jazbutyte, Virginija; Hu, Kai; Kruchten, Patricia; Bey, Emmanuel; Maier, Sebastian K G; Fritzemeier, Karl-Heinrich; Prelle, Katja; Hegele-Hartung, Christa; Hartmann, Rolf W; Neyses, Ludwig; Ertl, Georg; Pelzer, Theo

    2006-10-01

    Clinical trials failed to show a beneficial effect of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, whereas experimental studies in young animals reported a protective function of estrogen replacement in cardiovascular disease. Because these diverging results could in part be explained by aging effects, we compared the efficacy of estrogen substitution to modulate cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac gene expression among young (age 3 months) and senescent (age 24 months) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), which were sham operated or ovariectomized and injected with placebo or identical doses of 17beta-estradiol (E2; 2 microg/kg body weight per day) for 6 weeks (n=10/group). Blood pressure was comparable among sham-operated senescent and young SHRs and not altered by ovariectomy or E2 treatment among young or among senescent rats. Estrogen substitution inhibited uterus atrophy and gain of body weight in young and senescent ovariectomized SHRs, but cardiac hypertrophy was attenuated only in young rats. Cardiac estrogen receptor-alpha expression was lower in intact and in ovariectomized senescent compared with young SHRs and increased with estradiol substitution in aged rats. Plasma estradiol and estrone levels were lower not only in sham-operated but surprisingly also in E2-substituted senescent SHRs and associated with a reduction of hepatic 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme activity, which converts weak (ie, estrone) into potent estrogens, such as E2. Aging attenuates the antihypertrophic effect of estradiol in female SHRs and is associated with profound alterations in cardiac estrogen receptor-alpha expression and estradiol metabolism. These observations contribute to explain the lower efficiency of estrogen substitution in senescent SHRs.

  20. The Perimenopausal Aging Transition in the Female Rat Brain: Decline in Bioenergetic Systems and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Yao, Jia; Sancheti, Harsh; Feng, Tao; Melcangi, Roberto C.; Morgan, Todd E.; Finch, Caleb E.; Pike, Christian J.; Mack, Wendy J.; Cadenas, Enrique; Brinton, Roberta D.

    2015-01-01

    The perimenopause is an aging transition unique to the female that leads to reproductive senescence which can be characterized by multiple neurological symptoms. To better understand potential underlying mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause, the current study determined genomic, biochemical, brain metabolic and electrophysiological transformations that occur during this transition using a rat model recapitulating fundamental characteristics of the human perimenopause. Gene expression analyses indicated two distinct aging programs: chronological and endocrine. A critical period emerged during the endocrine transition from regular to irregular cycling characterized by decline in bioenergetic gene expression, confirmed by deficits in FDG-PET brain metabolism, mitochondrial function, and long-term potentiation. Bioinformatic analysis predicted insulin/IGF1 and AMPK/PGC1α signaling pathways as upstream regulators. Onset of acyclicity was accompanied by a rise in genes required for fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Subsequent chronological aging resulted in decline of genes required for mitochondrial function and β-amyloid degradation. Emergence of glucose hypometabolism and impaired synaptic function in brain provide plausible mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause and may be predictive of later life vulnerability to hypometabolic conditions such as Alzheimer’s. PMID:25921624

  1. Morphological, motor and technical determinants of fighting efficiency of Croatian female cadet age karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Josefina; Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the significance of morphological factors, factors of basic motor and specific motor abilities, and the factors of technical efficiency, on the karate fight success in Croatian female cadet karate athletes. With this purpose, the group of 18 anthropometric measures, 10 basic motor tests, 5 situational karate motor tests, the group of 8 evaluations of 6 basic karate techniques, and 2 karate kata performances was applied on the sample of 101 Croatian karateka aged 14 to 16. Inside the morphological area, the factor analysis isolated: Body mass and volume factor, Subcutaneous fat tissue factor, Longitudinal skeleton dimensionality factor, and Transversal fist dimensionality factor; in the basic motor area: General motor efficiency factor; in the situational motor area: General specific motor efficiency factor; in the area of karate technique performance evaluation: General technical efficiency factor. After that, the application of canonical discriminative analysis determined the differences between high and lower quality karate athletes in the overall area of the isolated factors. The discriminative function showed that high quality female karate athletes compared to those of lower quality differ the most in higher technical efficiency, higher basic and specific motor efficiency, while having somewhat less fat tissue and somewhat wider wrist and fist diameter. PMID:24611342

  2. Morphological, motor and technical determinants of fighting efficiency of Croatian female cadet age karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Josefina; Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the significance of morphological factors, factors of basic motor and specific motor abilities, and the factors of technical efficiency, on the karate fight success in Croatian female cadet karate athletes. With this purpose, the group of 18 anthropometric measures, 10 basic motor tests, 5 situational karate motor tests, the group of 8 evaluations of 6 basic karate techniques, and 2 karate kata performances was applied on the sample of 101 Croatian karateka aged 14 to 16. Inside the morphological area, the factor analysis isolated: Body mass and volume factor, Subcutaneous fat tissue factor, Longitudinal skeleton dimensionality factor, and Transversal fist dimensionality factor; in the basic motor area: General motor efficiency factor; in the situational motor area: General specific motor efficiency factor; in the area of karate technique performance evaluation: General technical efficiency factor. After that, the application of canonical discriminative analysis determined the differences between high and lower quality karate athletes in the overall area of the isolated factors. The discriminative function showed that high quality female karate athletes compared to those of lower quality differ the most in higher technical efficiency, higher basic and specific motor efficiency, while having somewhat less fat tissue and somewhat wider wrist and fist diameter.

  3. Sporotrichosis of Maxillary Sinuses in a Middle Aged Female Patient from Rural Area of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saumik; Sinha, Ramanuj; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Chakravorty, Sriparna

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is commonly a chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, a saprophytic fungus and is usually limited to cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Disseminated systemic, osteoarticular or pulmonary sporotrichosis have been reported but nasal sinusitis by this fungus is extremely infrequent. Earlier report from southern India documented a case of maxillary sinusitis by Sporothrix schenckii. Here we report a similar case of bilateral maxillary sinusitis in a middle aged female from a village of Bihar, a state in eastern India. She underwent endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery for nasal symptoms and diagnosed to have sporotrichotic infection of maxillary sinuses. The diagnosis was done by mycological and histopathological examination and patient improved under antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:27134873

  4. Life-long environmental enrichment differentially affects the mnemonic response to estrogen in young, middle-aged, and aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Gresack, Jodi E; Kerr, Kristin M; Frick, Karyn M

    2007-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether life-long exposure to standard or enriched housing affects the ability of estrogen to improve spatial and object memory throughout the lifespan. Three-week-old female mice were maintained in standard or enriched housing up to and through ovariectomy and behavioral testing at 5, 17, or 22 months of age. Spatial memory was tested in the Morris water maze and object memory was tested using an object recognition task. Immediately after training each day, mice were injected intraperitoneally with vehicle or 0.2 mg/kg 17beta-estradiol. Among young females, object recognition was enhanced by estradiol alone, an effect that was reduced by enrichment. In contrast, spatial water maze performance was impaired by estradiol alone, but improved by the combination of both estradiol and enrichment. At middle-age, object recognition was enhanced by estradiol or enrichment alone, and the combination of both treatments. Spatial memory in the water maze was also improved by both treatments at middle-age, but the beneficial effects of estradiol were limited to standard-housed females. Finally, whereas enrichment in aged females significantly enhanced performance in both tasks, estradiol had no effect at this age in either task. In total, the data indicate that life-long enrichment can significantly alter the extent to which estradiol affects memory in mice throughout the lifespan. Importantly, the interaction between these treatments is highly dependent on age and type of memory tested.

  5. Age-specific responses to spring temperature in a migratory songbird: older females attempt more broods in warmer springs

    PubMed Central

    Bulluck, L; Huber, S; Viverette, C; Blem, C

    2013-01-01

    Increasing global temperature has led to an interest in plasticity in the timing of annual events; however, little is known about the demographic consequences of changing phenology. Annual reproductive success varies significantly among individuals within a population, and some of that variation has to do with the number of broods attempted by reproducing adults. In birds, female age and the timing of reproduction are often predictors of multiple breeding. We hypothesize that double brooding rates may be affected by spring temperature and that the response may vary with female age. We used a long-term reproductive data set for a migratory songbird, the prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) to assess which factors influence (a) an individual female's probability of double brooding and (b) the annual variation in population-level double brooding rates. We found that older and earlier nesting birds are more likely to double brood, and that there is no evidence for senescence with regard to this trait such that the oldest females were most likely to double brood. Previous experience with double brooding (i.e., whether the female double brooded in the previous year) significantly increased the probability of doing so again. When assessing annual variation in the double brooding rate, we found an interaction between spring temperature and the proportion of older females in the population. Specifically, older females are more likely to double brood in years with warmer springs, but this relationship was not seen for younger females. Previous studies have shown that warmer temperatures lead to earlier and narrower peaks in resources and we hypothesize that these peaks are more available to older and earlier arriving females, enabling them to successfully raise more than one brood in a season. Understanding how different age classes respond to changing environmental conditions will be imperative to managing declining species. PMID:24223269

  6. Maitake Mushroom Extracts Ameliorate Progressive Hypertension and Other Chronic Metabolic Perturbations in Aging Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Harry G.; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Perricone, Nicholas V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the ability of two commercially-available fractions labeled SX and D derived from the edible maitake mushroom to overcome many age-associated metabolic perturbations such as progressive, age-related elevation of blood pressure, over activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), decreased insulin sensitivity, and inflammation in an in vivo laboratory model. Design and Method: We divided forty mature, female Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) into five groups of eight. SD ingested regular rat chow containing added sucrose (20% w/w). The groups received baseline diet alone (control) or baseline diet containing captopril, niacin-bound chromium, maitake fraction SX, or maitake fraction D. In addition to blood pressure readings, the following procedures were implemented: losartan and insulin challenges, evaluation of serum ACE activity, glucose tolerance testing, blood chemistries, LNAME challenge, and measurement of various circulating cytokines. Results: We found that implementation of all test conditions stopped the gradual elevation of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the SD over the four months of study, even reversing some of the previous elevation that occurred over time. In general, the treatment groups showed decreased activity of the RAS estimated by less lowering of SBP after losartan challenge and decreased serum ACE activity and were more sensitive to exogenous insulin challenge. TNFa levels decreased in all four test groups suggesting a lessening of the inflammatory state. Conclusions: We believe our data suggest that maitake mushroom fractions lessen age-related hypertension, at least in part, via effects on the RAS; enhance insulin sensitivity; and reduce some aspects of inflammation -- actions that should lead to a longer, healthier life span. PMID:20567593

  7. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B in the Reproductive-Age Female Farmworkers of Southeastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Simsek, Zeynep; Keklik, Zehra; Gurses, Gulcan; Zeyrek, Fadile Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on the prevalence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the agricultural population worldwide. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in the reproductive-age female farmworker. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013 in southeastern region (SAR) of Turkey. A community-based representative agricultural sample (n = 705) from the agricultural areas of nine provinces of SAR was randomly determined by clustering method using Epi Info software. Questionnaires including demographic information and risk factors of HBV were administered to participants. The presence of HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HBe antibodies in blood samples were measured by ELISA. Results: The prevalence of the HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, anti-HBe antibodies, and seropositivity were 5.7%, 25.9%, 28.9%, 16.4%, and 36.7%, respectively. There was no association between the HBsAg and the size of the household, age, education level, parity, and place of birth while the prevalence of HBsAg was higher in seasonal migratory farmworkers and people living in urban areas and the prevalence of anti-HBs antibody was significantly higher in women ≥ 35 years of age, those with a high parity, and those who gave birth without the assistance of health professionals (P < 0.05). The risk for HBV infection in the seasonal migratory group was 4.3 times higher in comparison to local workers (P = 0.00; OR = 4.3; 95% CI, 2.2-8.4), with a prevalence rate of 11%. Conclusions: The monitoring of at-risk groups like seasonal migratory farmworkers is necessary to strengthen the healthcare service provided to this population. PMID:25598790

  8. Shoulder disorders in female working-age population: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are among the most common pathologies in the general population. However, research into the prevalence of upper arm MSDs is hampered by a lack of uniformity in case definition, and by the absence of a gold standard for measurement. Furthermore, some sectors of the population have benefited from extensive research whilst others have largely been ignored. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Objectives: to investigate the prevalence of shoulder MSDs in a working age female population not exposed to specific occupational risk factors such as heavy and/or repetitive work, assessing the differences in prevalence recorded by using three different standard measurement tools. Methods 302 working aged women were enrolled in this study (age 20–55 years). Each subject underwent three different assessments: standardized questionnaires for symptoms and disability and the SF36 health survey, a clinical assessment performed by a blinded orthopaedic specialist, and an imaging assessment by means of ultrasound (US) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) if indicated. Results According to the questionnaire 77 subjects (25.5%) complained of shoulder pain whilst 225 (74.5%) were asymptomatic. According to the clinical examination, 31 subjects (10.3%) resulted positive, whereas 271 subjects (89.7%) had normal shoulders. According to the imaging findings, 26 subjects (8.6%) had alterations to the anatomical structures of the shoulder, whilst 276 subjects (91.4%) had no detectable abnormalities in either shoulder. In all assessments, the prevalence increased with age (p = 0.001). Conclusion Depending on the outcome measure used, the prevalence of reported MSDs of the shoulder varies considerably. There is a striking difference between the prevalence of subjective reported symptoms and the standardized clinical/imaging examinations. However, the results of all the assessments did concur in one aspect; there was a significant trend of increased

  9. Beagle Dog Tissue Archive (previously part of National Radiobiology Archives): from the Janus Tissue Archive at Northwestern University

    DOE Data Explorer

    Watson, Charles R.

    Following the advent of the atomic age, many nations have investigated the effects of radioactive exposure in animal models. Some of these investigations involved costly and unique experiments that produced tissue and data archives which are unlikely to be reproduced. In an effort to extract the value from these collections, programs have started in Japan, Europe, and America to preserve and make public the data and tissues from these studies for further investigation. The Beagle Dog Experiments, carried out at Argonne National Laboratory from 1952 to 1991 by Thomas Fritz, William Norris, and Tom Seed and supported by grants from the Atomic Energy Commission, investigated the effects of Cobalt-60 radiation on beagle dogs. Documentation from these studies is availible in pdf form. This web portal seeks to make accessible the animal tissues and study data from the Beagle Dog Experiments using data organized by Charles Watson. Use the search form to the left to look for dog data from particular experimental conditions. Click a dog number to return the full dog record. Use the dog record to find tissues of interest and make a sample tissue request. These tissue samples and the data were known until recently as the the U.S. National Radiobiology Archives (NRA) and were maintained as the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) at Washington State University. Life-span studies using beagle dogs were done at the Argonne National Laboratory, University of California at Davis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and the University of Utah. The results and many microscope slides from these life-span studies, totaling some 6000 dogs, are now available to researchers. A seminal work included in the Archive is The Atlas of Experimentally-Induced Neoplasia in the Beagle Dog (Watson et al, 1997).

  10. Hormonal monitoring of age at sexual maturation in female Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in their family groups.

    PubMed

    Dettling, A; Pryce, C R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not sexual maturation is attained in the family group in captive-born Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) and if so, at what age and body weight. To monitor ovarian activity in 14 female Goeldi's monkeys, urinary content of pregnanediol-3alpha-glucuronide (PdG) was determined using radioimmunoassay. Urinary samples were collected between the ages of 6 and 70 weeks. Subjects became sexually mature while still housed in their family groups, at a median age of 57 weeks (48-< 70 weeks). Median body weight at the age of sexual maturity was 473 g (N=10; 420-543 g). This corresponded to 90% of the median non-pregnant body weight of breeding females in our colony (526 g, N=8). Therefore, Goeldi's monkey is similar to Leontopithecus but different from Cebuella, Callithrix, and Saguinus, in terms of daughters ovulating in the family group and at a relatively young age.

  11. Generalized Joint Laxity and Ligament Injuries in High School–Aged Female Volleyball Players in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sueyoshi, Ted; Emoto, Gen; Yuasa, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generalized joint laxity has been linked to ligamentous injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament tear and ankle sprain. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate generalized joint laxity and incidence of ligament injuries in high school–aged female volleyball players. It was hypothesized that volleyball players with a past history of sprains would have increased generalized joint laxity compared with those without any history and that athletes with multiple sprains would demonstrate with a higher generalized joint laxity score than those who had only 1 sprain. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Forty-seven subjects were tested for generalized joint laxity using the Beighton and Horan Joint Mobility Index (BHJMI). They were categorized into 2 groups based on the presence of past ligament injury: injury group (IG) and noninjury group (NG). The IG group was further divided into 2 groups based on whether they had a single ligamentous injury (IGS) or multiple injuries (IGM) in the past to study whether there was any difference in scores between the subgroups. The collected data were analyzed statistically with 1-way analysis of variance. Results: Subjects in the IG group scored significantly higher on the BHJMI than those in the NG group. The mean score for the IG group was 2.40 ± 1.42, as opposed to 1.24 ± 1.09 for the NG group (P = .006). Eleven subjects in the IG group had suffered multiple injuries or recurrent injuries (IGM) and scored significantly higher than the remaining 19 individuals in the IG group, who had only sustained a single injury (IGS). The mean BHJMI scores were 3.18 ± 1.47 and 1.95 ± 1.22 for IGM and IGS, respectively (P = .02). Conclusion: Female athletes with a high generalized joint laxity score may be more prone to ligament injury and potentially to recurrent ligament injuries. PMID:27761474

  12. Modelling and interpreting spectral energy distributions of galaxies with BEAGLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevallard, Jacopo; Charlot, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    We present a new-generation tool to model and interpret spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies, which incorporates in a consistent way the production of radiation and its transfer through the interstellar and intergalactic media. This flexible tool, named BEAGLE (for BayEsian Analysis of GaLaxy sEds), allows one to build mock galaxy catalogues as well as to interpret any combination of photometric and spectroscopic galaxy observations in terms of physical parameters. The current version of the tool includes versatile modelling of the emission from stars and photoionized gas, attenuation by dust and accounting for different instrumental effects, such as spectroscopic flux calibration and line spread function. We show a first application of the BEAGLE tool to the interpretation of broad-band SEDs of a published sample of ˜ 10^4 galaxies at redshifts 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 8. We find that the constraints derived on photometric redshifts using this multipurpose tool are comparable to those obtained using public, dedicated photometric-redshift codes and quantify this result in a rigorous statistical way. We also show how the post-processing of BEAGLE output data with the PYTHON extension PYP-BEAGLE allows the characterization of systematic deviations between models and observations, in particular through posterior predictive checks. The modular design of the BEAGLE tool allows easy extensions to incorporate, for example, the absorption by neutral galactic and circumgalactic gas, and the emission from an active galactic nucleus, dust and shock-ionized gas. Information about public releases of the BEAGLE tool will be maintained on http://www.jacopochevallard.org/beagle.

  13. Prediction of Female Breast Cancer Incidence among the Aging Society in Kanagawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of elderly “baby boomers” in Japan, the number of cancer patients is also expected to increase. Approximately 2 million baby boomers from nearby local areas are residing in metropolitan areas; hence, the geographical distribution of cancer patients will probably markedly change. We assessed the expected number of breast cancer (BC) patients in different regions (urban, outer city, town, rural) using estimates of the nation’s population and Kanagawa Cancer Registry data. To estimate future BC incidence for each region, we multiplied the 2010 rate by the predicted female population for each region according to age group. The incidence cases of BC in those aged ≥65 years is expected to increase in all areas; in particular, compared to rates in 2010, the BC incidence in urban areas was predicted to increase by 82.6% in 2035 and 102.2% in 2040. Although the incidence in all BC cases in urban areas showed an increasing trend, until peaking in 2040 (increasing 31.2% from 2010), the number of BC patients would continue to decrease in other areas. The number of BC patients per capita BC specialist was 64.3 patients in 2010; this value would increase from 59.3 in 2010 to 77.7 in 2040 in urban areas, but would decrease in other areas. Our findings suggest that the number of elderly BC patients is expected to increase rapidly in urban areas and that the demand for BC treatment would increase in the elderly population in urban areas. PMID:27532126

  14. Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final

  15. Evaluation of nanoparticle delivered cisplatin in beagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldhaeusser, Brittany; Platt, Simon R.; Marrache, Sean; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Pathak, Rakesh K.; Montgomery, David J.; Reno, Lisa R.; Howerth, Elizabeth; Dhar, Shanta

    2015-08-01

    Intracranial neoplasia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both human and veterinary patients, and is difficult to treat with traditional therapeutic methods. Cisplatin is a platinum (Pt)-containing chemotherapeutic agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration; however, substantial limitations exist for its application in canine brain tumor treatment due to the difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), development of resistance, and toxicity. A modified Pt(iv)-prodrug of cisplatin, Platin-M, was recently shown to be deliverable to the brain via a biocompatible mitochondria-targeted lipophilic polymeric nanoparticle (NP) that carries the drug across the BBB and to the mitochondria. NP mediated controlled release of Platin-M and subsequent reduction of this prodrug to cisplatin allowed cross-links to be formed with the mitochondrial DNA, which have no nucleotide excision repair system, forcing the overactive cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Here, we report in vitro effects of targeted Platin-M NPs (T-Platin-M-NPs) in canine glioma and glioblastoma cell lines with results indicating that this targeted NP formulation is more effective than cisplatin. In both the cell lines, T-Platin-M-NP was significantly more efficacious compared to carboplatin, another Pt-based chemotherapy, which is used in the settings of recurrent high-grade glioblastoma. Mitochondrial stress analysis indicated that T-Platin-M-NP is more effective in disrupting the mitochondrial bioenergetics in both the cell types. A 14-day distribution study in healthy adult beagles using a single intravenous injection at 0.5 mg kg-1 (with respect to Platin-M) of T-Platin-M-NPs showed high levels of Pt accumulation in the brain, with negligible amounts in the other analyzed organs. Safety studies in the beagles monitoring physical, hematological, and serum chemistry evaluations were within the normal limits on days 1, 7, and 14 after injection of either 0.5 mg kg-1 or 2 mg kg

  16. Microdosimetry of plutonium in beagle dog lung

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Roesch, W.C.

    1980-08-01

    A better understanding of the microdosimetry of internally-deposited radionuclides should provide new clues to the complex relationships between organ dose distribution and early or late biological effects. Our current interest is the microdosimetry of plutonium and other alpha emitters in the lung. Since the lung is an inhomogeneous tissue, it was necessary to characterize the microscopic distributions of alveolar tissue, air space, and epithelial cell nuclei to define source-target parameters. A statistical representation of the microstructure of beagle dog lung was developed from automated image analysis of specimens from three healthy adult male dogs. The statistical distributions obtained constituted a data base from which it was possible to calculate both the energy dissipation of an alpha particle as it traversed a straight line path through pulmonary tissue, and the probability of intersecting a potentially sensitive biological site in the cell. Computer methods were modified to accomodate tissues with air space regions such as one finds in lung tissue. With the lung model description, these methods were used to determine probability density curves in specific energy for inhaled plutonium aerosols. It was assumed that the activity was randomly distributed on alveolar walls. Calculated examples are given for various activities of inhaled plutonium point sources deposited in lung tissue.

  17. [A study on observation of bone metabolism in middle-aged and senile female Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Liu, Y H; Zhou, Y B

    1996-08-01

    Sixty-nine cases of middle aged and senile female Graves' desease (GD) patients suffered from abnormal bone metabolism have been studied. They were divided randomly into group A and B, treated separately with antithyroid drugs (Tapazol and inderal, etc.) in group A, and added with Chinese herbal medicine for tonifying Kidney and promoting blood circulation in group B. Before treatment, patients of both groups showed obvious higher blood calcium (Ca) 24-hour urinary Ca, phosphorus (P) and serum clcitonin (CT) levels than that in normal subjects. These patients' serum Ca, moreover, had a parallel relationship with serum T3 levels (r = 0.6142, P < 0.01) and the serum Ca also a paralleled with serum CT levels (r = 0.5714, P < 0.05). After six months of treatment, the serum Ca, 24-hour urinary Ca, P and blood CT values were all reduced in various degree. The decrease of these bone metabolic parameters were more significant in group B than that in group A. PMID:9387746

  18. Adolescent female volleyballers' (aged 13-15 years) body build classification and proficiency in competitions.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Raini; Stamm, Meelis; Koskel, Säde

    2006-12-01

    The present paper studies the body build and proficiency in the game of 74 female volleyballers aged 13-15 years from eight teams, who participated in Estonian championships. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were taken from the players, and these data were systematized into a 5 SD height-weight classification (small, medium, large, pyknomorphous and leptomorphous). The players participated in 28 matches, which were recorded in parallel with two computers equipped with the program Game. The girls' proficiency in the game was assessed in the same body build classes. For each class, the total number of serves, receptions, attacks and blocks, their mean values per player and percentage from elements performed during the whole tournament were calculated. In the same way, for each class the total number of points scored and separately the number of points scored in serve, attack and block were calculated. For each class the mean index of proficiency was calculated for serve, reception, attack and block. The results showed, that the most successful were the girls of class 3 with big height and weight. The small girls of class 1 were the least successful. The players belonging to the other classes formed an intermediate group. The authors recommend the use of the body build classification as it enables simultaneous assessment of body build and proficiency in competitions.

  19. Ovarian failure-resistant effects of catalpol in aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Lu, Ye; Liu, Daniel; Ru, Wenwen

    2014-01-01

    Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside obtained from various natural sources, has many biological functions. However, its ovarian failure-resistant effect has scarcely been studied. The present study used senile 14-month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats to examine the in vivo ovarian failure-resistant activity of catalpol. Daily oral graded doses of catalpol (1, 3, or 5 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks significantly increased the levels of serum 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) but reduced follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels. Electron microscopic analysis and flow cytometry showed that catalpol significantly retarded apoptosis of the ovarian granulocytes of the rats. These findings suggest that catalpol works on the sex organs by nourishing ovarian tissues and improving both the quality and quantity of follicles, thus leading to rebalanced E2 and P4 levels in aged rats so that catalpol has a direct in vivo antiaging effect on the rat ovarian system. PMID:25177027

  20. Using Histopathologic Evidence to Differentiate Reproductive Senescence from Xenobiotic Effects in Middle-aged Female Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Norimitsu; Houle, Christopher; Mirsky, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    The female reproductive cycle is orchestrated by cyclical and coordinated hormonal changes under the direction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Any disruption of the HPG axis may lead to functional and structural alterations in the female reproductive system. Test article-related disturbances in the estrous cycle can be recognized in nonclinical toxicity studies by staging the cycle based on microscopic evaluation of female reproductive organs. In chronic rat toxicity studies, an additional complication is the development of reproductive senescence, which is associated with natural alterations in the reproductive cycle leading to changes in the female reproductive system that can potentially be confused with test article effects. The current article describes the features of persistent estrus, one stage of reproductive senescence, in middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats and discusses elements to help differentiate senescence from induced effects.

  1. Fat body of the zoophytophagous predator Brontocoris tabidus (Het.: Pentatomidae) females: impact of the herbivory and age.

    PubMed

    Lemos, W P; Zanuncio, J C; Ramalho, F S; Serrão, J E

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different diets [Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus cloeziana plant; T. molitor and Eucalyptus urophylla plant and T. molitor pupae and guava plant (Psidium guajava)] on the morpho-physiological features of the fat body of Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females was studied in the field. Adult females of B. tabidus have trophocytes about twofold larger (966.32mum(2)) when fed on E. urophylla and T. molitor than those fed on other diets. The trophocytes of B. tabidus showed similar morphological aspects with the different diets and age of this predator. The histochemical tests indicated a reduced quantity of proteins and carbohydrates in the fat body of B. tabidus females with all diets and age of this predator.

  2. Fat body of the zoophytophagous predator Brontocoris tabidus (Het.: Pentatomidae) females: impact of the herbivory and age.

    PubMed

    Lemos, W P; Zanuncio, J C; Ramalho, F S; Serrão, J E

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different diets [Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus cloeziana plant; T. molitor and Eucalyptus urophylla plant and T. molitor pupae and guava plant (Psidium guajava)] on the morpho-physiological features of the fat body of Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) females was studied in the field. Adult females of B. tabidus have trophocytes about twofold larger (966.32mum(2)) when fed on E. urophylla and T. molitor than those fed on other diets. The trophocytes of B. tabidus showed similar morphological aspects with the different diets and age of this predator. The histochemical tests indicated a reduced quantity of proteins and carbohydrates in the fat body of B. tabidus females with all diets and age of this predator. PMID:19278855

  3. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies.

  4. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies. PMID:25936819

  5. Long-term, progressive, aerobic training increases adiponectin in middle-aged, overweight, untrained males and females.

    PubMed

    Mujumdar, Pooja P; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J; Firek, Anthony F; Hessinger, David A

    2011-04-01

    Adipose tissue secretes the adipokine, adiponectin (ADPN), which increases insulin sensitivity. Because some of the metabolic effects of exercise and ADPN are similar, exercise has been proposed to increase ADPN. However, most short-term (≤3 mos) and constant-effort exercise protocols have not produced increases in ADPN. Furthermore, no direct comparisons of male and female subjects on the effect of exercise on ADPN levels have been reported. We hypothesized that long-term (6 mos), progressive training would increase ADPN levels in both males and females. We recruited middle-aged, untrained males and females to participate in an interventional study employing a marathon training regimen progressing from 9.7 to 88.5 km (6 to 55 miles) per week over 6 mos. At baseline, we matched the mean ages of the male and female groups. We collected and stored fasting plasma samples and recorded body measurements at 0 (baseline) and 6 mos. Stored samples were analysed for insulin, glucose, and ADPN. ADPN increased significantly among both males (from 5.89 ± 2.46 (mean ± SD) to 7.65 ± 3.18 μg/ml; p < 0.05) and females (from 8.48 ± 3.22 to 10.56 ± 4.05 μg/ml; p < 0.05). The extent of the increase in ADPN was similar in the male (40.7 ± 50%; median, 12.1%) and female (27.0 ± 31.1%; median, 22.3%) groups. However, there was no significant reduction in insulin resistance as measured by the HOMA-IR scores in either group. We conclude that long-term, progressive aerobic training increases circulating ADPN levels in middle-aged, untrained males and females. PMID:21271804

  6. Dietary Digestible Lysine Requirements of Male and Female Broilers From Forty-Nine to Sixty-Three Days of Age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate digestible (dig) Lys requirements of male and female broiler chickens from 49 to 63 d of age. A dose-response diet consisting of corn, soybean meal, and corn gluten meal was formulated to be adequate in dig amino acid concentrations with the exception of Lys. ...

  7. Reliability of a wellness inventory for use among adolescent females aged 12–14 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The wellness construct has application in a number of fields including education, healthcare and counseling, particularly with regard to female adolescents. The effective measurement of wellness in adolescents can assist researchers and practitioners in determining lifestyle behaviors in which they are lacking. Behavior change interventions can then be designed which directly aid in the promotion of these areas. Methods The 5-Factor Wellness Inventory (designed to measure the Indivisible Self model of wellness) is a popular instrument for measuring the broad aspects of wellness amongst adolescents. The instrument comprises 97 items contributing to 17 subscales, five dimension scores, four context scores, total wellness score, and a life satisfaction index. This investigation evaluated the test-retest (intra-rater) reliability of the 5F-Wel instrument in repeated assessments (seven days apart) among adolescent females aged 12–14 years. Percentages of exact agreement for individual items, and the number of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness and the five summary dimension scores were calculated. Results Overall, 46 (95.8%) participants responded with complete data and were included in the analysis. Item agreement ranged from 47.8% to 100% across the 97 items (median 69.9%, interquartile range 60.9%-73.9%). The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 points for total wellness at the re-assessment was 87.0%, 97.8% and 97.8% respectively. The percentage of respondents who scored within ±5, ±7.5 and ±10 for the domain scores at the reassessment ranged between 54.3-76.1%, 78.3-95.7% and 89.1-95.7% respectively across the five dimensions. Conclusions These findings suggest there was considerable variation in agreement between the two assessments on some individual items. However, the total wellness score and the five dimension summary scores remained comparatively stable between assessments

  8. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  9. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  10. Characterization of recovery, repair, and inflammatory processes following contusion spinal cord injury in old female rats: is age a limitation?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) is steadily rising in the elderly human population, few studies have investigated the effect of age in rodent models. Here, we investigated the effect of age in female rats on spontaneous recovery and repair after SCI. Young (3 months) and aged (18 months) female rats received a moderate contusion SCI at T9. Behavioral recovery was assessed, and immunohistocemical and stereological analyses performed. Results Aged rats demonstrated greater locomotor deficits compared to young, beginning at 7 days post-injury (dpi) and lasting through at least 28 dpi. Unbiased stereological analyses revealed a selective increase in percent lesion area and early (2 dpi) apoptotic cell death caudal to the injury epicenter in aged versus young rats. One potential mechanism for these differences in lesion pathogenesis is the inflammatory response; we therefore assessed humoral and cellular innate immune responses. No differences in either acute or chronic serum complement activity, or acute neutrophil infiltration, were observed between age groups. However, the number of microglia/macrophages present at the injury epicenter was increased by 50% in aged animals versus young. Conclusions These data suggest that age affects recovery of locomotor function, lesion pathology, and microglia/macrophage response following SCI. PMID:25512759

  11. Age related changes in pelvis size among adolescent and adult females with reference to parturition from Naraingarh, Haryana (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Krishan; Gupta, Puneet; Shandilya, Shailza

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the ontogenic patterns of changes in growth during adolescence, pelvis variations and growth during twenties and thirties of age, structural remodeling of pelvis related to childbirth and relationship of pelvis area with physique based on the cross-sectional data on 391 females from the state of Haryana. Peak growth velocity for body height and breadths of skeletal traits occurred between 11 and 12 years, much before mean age of menarche at 13.5 years; while for body weight and body mass index (BMI) occurred between 14 and 15 years, after the mean age of menarche. Untill the age 11 years, 11.87% of growth in stature was remaining, 19.37% for bi-cristal breadth, 25.96% for bi-ischial breadth and 35.82% for pelvic area. The hypothesis of critical value of pelvic width of 240mm at iliocristale for menarche to occur has been only a statistical association. Higher prevalence of malnutrition during pubertal phase than pre- and post-pubertal phases was due to greater nutritional needs during puberty. Among adult females, BMI was very poorly correlated with stature but very strongly correlated with body breadths, body breadth-stature indices and body weight. The body mass and pelvis size continued to change during 20s and first half of 30s. The continued increase of BMI was due to increase in body fat and muscle mass in females 18 years and older. To tease apart age and parturition effects on pelvis variations, the analysis showed that pelvic bones remodeling took place after the first child was born and not after the subsequent births, and it was a sign of childbirth phenotypic plasticity rather than age. Pelvis area was strongly associated with stature, BMI and age. Mean pelvic area of tall females was greater than those of medium and short stature. Females with broad shoulders had significantly greater mean pelvis area than those with narrow shoulders and medium shoulders. Females having thin/lean physique had the smallest mean pelvis area

  12. Impact of aging on heat shock protein expression in the substantia nigra and striatum of the female rat.

    PubMed

    Gleixner, A M; Pulugulla, S H; Pant, D B; Posimo, J M; Crum, T S; Leak, R K

    2014-07-01

    Many heat shock proteins are chaperones that help refold or degrade misfolded proteins and battle apoptosis. Because of their capacity to protect against protein misfolding, they may help keep diseases of aging at bay. A few reports have examined heat shock proteins (eg. Hsp25, Hsp60, Hsp70, and heat shock cognate 70 or Hsc70) as a function of age in the striatum and nigra. In the present study, we examined the impact of aging on Hsp25, heme oxygenase 1 (HO1 or Hsp32), Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsc70, Hsc/Hsp70 interacting protein (Hip), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), Hsp90, and ubiquitinated proteins in the nigra and striatum of the female rat by infrared immunoblotting. Female animals are not typically examined in aging studies, adding further to the novelty of our study. Striatal HO1 and Hsp40 were both higher in middle-aged females than in the oldest group. Hsp60 levels were also highest in middle age in the nigra, but were highest in the oldest animals in the striatum. Striatal levels of Hsc70 and the co-chaperone Hip were lower in the oldest group relative to the youngest animals. In contrast, Hsp25 rose with advancing age in both regions. Hsp25 was also colocalized with tyrosine hydroxylase in nigral neurons. Ubiquitinated proteins exhibited a trend to rise in the oldest animals in both regions, and K48 linkage-specific ubiquitin rose significantly from 4-6 to 16-19 months in the striatum. Our study reveals a complex array of age-related changes in heat shock proteins. Furthermore, the age-related rises in some proteins, such as Hsp25, may reflect endogenous adaptations to cellular stress.

  13. Instruction and Jump-Landing Kinematics in College-Aged Female Athletes Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Etnoyer, Jena; Cortes, Nelson; Ringleb, Stacie I.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Onate, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Instruction can be used to alter the biomechanical movement patterns associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Objective: To determine the effects of instruction through combination (self and expert) feedback or self-feedback on lower extremity kinematics during the box–drop-jump task, running–stop-jump task, and sidestep-cutting maneuver over time in college-aged female athletes. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Forty-three physically active women (age = 21.47 ± 1.55 years, height = 1.65 ± 0.08 m, mass = 63.78 ± 12.00 kg) with no history of ACL or lower extremity injuries or surgery in the 2 months before the study were assigned randomly to 3 groups: self-feedback (SE), combination feedback (CB), or control (CT). Intervention(s): Participants performed a box–drop-jump task for the pretest and then received feedback about their landing mechanics. After the intervention, they performed an immediate posttest of the box–drop-jump task and a running–stop-jump transfer test. Participants returned 1 month later for a retention test of each task and a sidestep-cutting maneuver. Kinematic data were collected with an 8-camera system sampled at 500 Hz. Main Outcome Measure(s): The independent variables were feedback group (3), test time (3), and task (3). The dependent variables were knee- and hip-flexion, knee-valgus, and hip- abduction kinematics at initial contact and at peak knee flexion. Results: For the box–drop-jump task, knee- and hip-flexion angles at initial contact were greater at the posttest than at the retention test (P < .001). At peak knee flexion, hip flexion was greater at the posttest than at the pretest (P = .003) and was greater at the retention test than at the pretest (P = .04); knee valgus was greater at the retention test than at the pretest (P = .03) and posttest (P = .02). Peak knee flexion was greater for the CB than the SE group (P = .03

  14. Bilateral Ovotestes in a 78, XX SRY-Negative Beagle Dog.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gutiérrez, José F; Monteagudo, Luís V; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; García-Pérez, Enrique; Sánchez-Calabuig, María J; García-Botey, Concepción; Whyte, Ana; de la Muela, Mercedes Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a disorder of the sexual development in a beagle dog resulting in an intersex condition. A 6 mo old beagle was presented for evaluation of a protruding structure from the vulva consistent with an enlarged clitoris. Ultrasonographic examination revealed the presence of both gonadal and uterine structures. Retrograde cystourethrovaginogram showed the presence of an os clitoris and severe vaginal stenosis. Histological studies revealed the presence of bilateral ovotestes and uterus. The gonad had interstitial cells within seminiferous-like tubules lined only with Sertoli cells and abundant interstitial cells among primordial, primary, and secondary follicles. Hormone assays completed before and after gonadohysterectomy showed an elevation in the levels of progesterone and dihydrotestosterone that returned to baseline 3 mo after surgery. Testosterone levels that were within the male reference ranges before surgery decreased to basal levels postsurgically. 17-β-Estradiol levels showed little variation and values were always within the reference ranges for a male. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal female karyotype (2n = 78, XX) and polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the absence of the sex-determining region Y gene. In summary, the dog presented bilateral ovotestes and a 2n = 78, XX chromosomal complement lacking the sex determining region Y gene, consistent with a diagnosis of true hermaphroditism.

  15. Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status

    PubMed Central

    Mechaber, W.L.; Capaldo, C.T.; Hildebrand, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor — upwind flight and abdomen curling — in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated) as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant. PMID:15455039

  16. Evaluation of nanoparticle delivered cisplatin in beagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldhaeusser, Brittany; Platt, Simon R.; Marrache, Sean; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Pathak, Rakesh K.; Montgomery, David J.; Reno, Lisa R.; Howerth, Elizabeth; Dhar, Shanta

    2015-08-01

    Intracranial neoplasia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both human and veterinary patients, and is difficult to treat with traditional therapeutic methods. Cisplatin is a platinum (Pt)-containing chemotherapeutic agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration; however, substantial limitations exist for its application in canine brain tumor treatment due to the difficulty in crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), development of resistance, and toxicity. A modified Pt(iv)-prodrug of cisplatin, Platin-M, was recently shown to be deliverable to the brain via a biocompatible mitochondria-targeted lipophilic polymeric nanoparticle (NP) that carries the drug across the BBB and to the mitochondria. NP mediated controlled release of Platin-M and subsequent reduction of this prodrug to cisplatin allowed cross-links to be formed with the mitochondrial DNA, which have no nucleotide excision repair system, forcing the overactive cancer cells to undergo apoptosis. Here, we report in vitro effects of targeted Platin-M NPs (T-Platin-M-NPs) in canine glioma and glioblastoma cell lines with results indicating that this targeted NP formulation is more effective than cisplatin. In both the cell lines, T-Platin-M-NP was significantly more efficacious compared to carboplatin, another Pt-based chemotherapy, which is used in the settings of recurrent high-grade glioblastoma. Mitochondrial stress analysis indicated that T-Platin-M-NP is more effective in disrupting the mitochondrial bioenergetics in both the cell types. A 14-day distribution study in healthy adult beagles using a single intravenous injection at 0.5 mg kg-1 (with respect to Platin-M) of T-Platin-M-NPs showed high levels of Pt accumulation in the brain, with negligible amounts in the other analyzed organs. Safety studies in the beagles monitoring physical, hematological, and serum chemistry evaluations were within the normal limits on days 1, 7, and 14 after injection of either 0.5 mg kg-1 or 2 mg kg

  17. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn.

  18. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn. PMID:27138337

  19. Chronological progression of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in females 12 to 17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lauren E; Buckner, Ellen; Miller, Renée

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary study of cross-sectional data was to examine patterns of scores on the Eating Disorders Inventory in a healthy sample of female adolescents thought to have a high potential for risk. Data were obtained as part of a consultation to identify risk of developing eating disorders. The screening and subsequent group level analysis was carried out with 44 female dancers 12 to 17 years of age enrolled in grades 7 to 12 in a Magnet school. This secondary analysis examined three components of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-3): body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia for the purpose of comparing group findings across ages and grades. Some level of body dissatisfaction was widespread in the population, body dissatisfaction increased beginning notably at age 14 and increased sharply at age 15, with further increases until age 16. The correlation between body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness was shown to be statistically significant (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). Awareness that body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness increase at ages 15 and 16 means disordered eating may begin at this time. If body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness begins early in life and markedly increases at ages 14 and 15, eating disorder prevention must begin in childhood and continue into adolescence. PMID:24757916

  20. Aging Negatively Affects Estrogens-Mediated Effects on Nitric Oxide Bioavailability by Shifting ERα/ERβ Balance in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Novensà, Laura; Novella, Susana; Medina, Pascual; Segarra, Gloria; Castillo, Nadia; Heras, Magda; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Dantas, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Aims Aging is among the major causes for the lack of cardiovascular protection by estrogen (E2) during postmenopause. Our study aims to determine the mechanisms whereby aging changes E2 effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAM). Methods and Results Although we found no differences on NO production in females SAM prone (SAMP, aged) compared to SAM resistant (SAMR, young), by either DAF-2 fluorescence or plasmatic nitrite/nitrate (NO2/NO3), in both cases, E2 treatment increased NO production in SAMR but had no effect in SAMP. Those results are in agreement with changes of eNOS protein and gene expression. E2 up-regulated eNOS expression in SAMR but not in SAMP. E2 is also known to increase NO by decreasing its catabolism by superoxide anion (O2-). Interestingly, E2 treatment decreased O2− production in young females, while increased O2− in aged ones. Furthermore, we observed that aging changed expression ratio of estrogen receptors (ERβ/ERα) and levels of DNA methylation. Increased ratio ERβ/ERα in aged females is associated to a lack of estrogen modulation of NO production and with a reversal in its antioxidant effect to a pro-oxidant profile. Conclusions Together, our data suggest that aging has detrimental effects on E2-mediated benefits on NO bioavailability, partially by affecting the ability of E2 to induce up regulation of eNOS and decrease of O2−. These modifications may be associated to aging-mediated modifications on global DNA methylation status, but not to a specific methylation at 5′flanking region of ERα gene. PMID:21966501

  1. The Role of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 in Age-Related Reproductive Decline in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Anna C.; Muroy, Sandra E.; Kriegsfeld, Lance J.; Bentley, George E.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive senescence, the point in time when females cease to show estrous cyclicity, is associated with endocrine changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. However, the mechanisms triggering this transition are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the top-down control of the transition from reproductive competence to a state of reproductive senescence, we investigated middle-aged female rats exhibiting varying degrees of reproductive decline, including individuals with normal cycles, irregular cycles, and complete cessation of cycles. We identified hormonal changes in the brain that manifest before ovarian cycles exhibit any deterioration. We found that females exhibit an increase in RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus in middle age prior to changes in estrous cycle length. This increase is transient and followed by subsequent decreases in kisspeptin (KiSS1) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression. Expression of RFRP3 and its receptor also increased locally in the ovaries with advancing age. While it is well known that aging is associated with decreased GnRH release and downstream disruption of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis, herein, we provide evidence that reproductive senescence is likely triggered by alterations in a network of regulatory neuropeptides upstream of the GnRH system. PMID:27445974

  2. The Role of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 in Age-Related Reproductive Decline in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Anna C; Muroy, Sandra E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Bentley, George E; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive senescence, the point in time when females cease to show estrous cyclicity, is associated with endocrine changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. However, the mechanisms triggering this transition are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the top-down control of the transition from reproductive competence to a state of reproductive senescence, we investigated middle-aged female rats exhibiting varying degrees of reproductive decline, including individuals with normal cycles, irregular cycles, and complete cessation of cycles. We identified hormonal changes in the brain that manifest before ovarian cycles exhibit any deterioration. We found that females exhibit an increase in RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus in middle age prior to changes in estrous cycle length. This increase is transient and followed by subsequent decreases in kisspeptin (KiSS1) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression. Expression of RFRP3 and its receptor also increased locally in the ovaries with advancing age. While it is well known that aging is associated with decreased GnRH release and downstream disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, herein, we provide evidence that reproductive senescence is likely triggered by alterations in a network of regulatory neuropeptides upstream of the GnRH system.

  3. The Role of RFamide-Related Peptide-3 in Age-Related Reproductive Decline in Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Anna C; Muroy, Sandra E; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Bentley, George E; Kaufer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive senescence, the point in time when females cease to show estrous cyclicity, is associated with endocrine changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. However, the mechanisms triggering this transition are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the top-down control of the transition from reproductive competence to a state of reproductive senescence, we investigated middle-aged female rats exhibiting varying degrees of reproductive decline, including individuals with normal cycles, irregular cycles, and complete cessation of cycles. We identified hormonal changes in the brain that manifest before ovarian cycles exhibit any deterioration. We found that females exhibit an increase in RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP3) mRNA expression in the hypothalamus in middle age prior to changes in estrous cycle length. This increase is transient and followed by subsequent decreases in kisspeptin (KiSS1) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA expression. Expression of RFRP3 and its receptor also increased locally in the ovaries with advancing age. While it is well known that aging is associated with decreased GnRH release and downstream disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, herein, we provide evidence that reproductive senescence is likely triggered by alterations in a network of regulatory neuropeptides upstream of the GnRH system. PMID:27445974

  4. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  5. Chronic Blockade of the Androgen Receptor Abolishes Age-Dependent Increases in Blood Pressure in Female Growth-Restricted Rats.

    PubMed

    Dasinger, John Henry; Intapad, Suttira; Rudsenske, Benjamin R; Davis, Gwendolyn K; Newsome, Ashley D; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction induced via placental insufficiency programs a significant increase in blood pressure at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats that is associated with early cessation of estrous cyclicity, indicative of premature reproductive senescence. In addition, female growth-restricted rats at 12 months of age exhibit a significant increase in circulating testosterone with no change in circulating estradiol. Testosterone is positively associated with blood pressure after menopause in women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that androgen receptor blockade would abolish the significant increase in blood pressure that develops with age in female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure was measured in animals pretreated with and without the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (8 mg/kg/day, SC for 2 weeks). Flutamide abolished the significant increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted rats relative to control at 12 months of age. To examine the mechanism(s) by which androgens contribute to increased blood pressure in growth-restricted rats, blood pressure was assessed in rats untreated or treated with enalapril (250 mg/L for 2 weeks). Enalapril eliminated the increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted relative to vehicle- and flutamide-treated controls. Furthermore, the increase in medullary angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA expression was abolished in flutamide-treated growth-restricted relative to untreated counterparts and controls; cortical angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression was reduced in flutamide-treated growth-restricted versus untreated counterparts. Thus, these data indicate that androgens, via activation of the renin-angiotensin system, are important mediators of increased blood pressure that develops by 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats. PMID:27113045

  6. Reproductive development of male goat kids reared with or without permanent contact with adult females until 10 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lacuesta, L; Orihuela, A; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-01-01

    Adult male ruminants that were reared in contact with females display greater sexual behavior than those reared in single male groups. The aim of the experiment was to compare the reproductive development of prepubertal male kids reared with or without direct permanent contact with adult females until they were 10 months old. Seventeen Saanen male kids were maintained in two groups until 44 weeks of age: kids reared in permanent direct contact with four adult goats (group FEM, N = 8) and kids that remained isolated from females (group ISO, N = 9). All goats in the FEM group became pregnant approximately when bucks attained 28 weeks of age. Scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration were measured, and semen was obtained by electroejaculation to avoid female contact in the ISO group. Scrotal circumference was greater in FEM kids at 12 and 14 weeks of age (P < 0.0001) and testosterone when they were 20 and 22 weeks old (P < 0.0001). Testosterone concentration was greater in ISO kids from 28 to 44 weeks of age. All semen characteristics increased with age (P < 0.0001). Individual motility was greater in FEM kids than that in ISO kids at 15 and 17 weeks (P < 0.005); mass motility was greater in ISO than that in FEM kids at 32 weeks (P < 0.05); total number of spermatozoa/ejaculate was greater in ISO kids at 30, 32, and 40 weeks and in FEM kids at 43 weeks (P < 0.005); total number of motile spermatozoa was greater in ISO kids at 32 and 40 weeks, whereas at 43 weeks, it was greater in FEM kids (P < 0.005). It was concluded that permanent contact with adult goats had transient and short-time positive effects in male kids' reproductive traits during prepubertal development. However, positive effects stopped after goats used as stimulus became pregnant.

  7. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring.

    PubMed

    George, Lindsey A; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M; Uthlaut, Adam B; Smith, Derek T; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-04-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic "thriftiness" of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  8. Effects of age on cerebrospinal fluid oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen J.; Hoffman, Christy L.; Hyde, Shellie A.; Cummings, Carl S.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying oxytocin biology in the context of social functioning in human and non-human primates. Studies of human subjects are typically restricted to peripheral oxytocin assessments because opportunities to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are rare. A few studies have examined CSF oxytocin levels in captive adult primates, but none to our knowledge have been conducted under free-ranging conditions and inclusive of young infants. The main goal of the present study was to establish feasibility of quantifying CSF oxytocin levels in free-ranging adult female and infant rhesus monkeys living on the island of Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. CSF oxytocin levels were examined in relation to individuals’ demographic and reproductive characteristics, as well as in relation to plasma cortisol levels. CSF oxytocin concentrations ranged from 36.02 to 134.41 pg/ml in adult females (ages 7–26 years; N = 31) and 35.94 to 77.3 pg/ml in infants (ages 38–134 days; N = 17). CSF oxytocin levels were positively correlated with adult female age and negatively correlated with infant age. The former correlation was driven by reproductive status. CSF oxytocin levels were unrelated to dominance rank or plasma cortisol levels. In contrast to a previous study of plasma oxytocin concentrations in this population, CSF oxytocin levels did not differ significantly between lactating and non-lactating females. In summary, these findings: 1) provide feasibility data for examining CSF oxytocin biology in free-ranging nonhuman primates and 2) indicate that CSF oxytocin levels may be a biomarker of age-related central nervous system changes across lifespan development. Although our study did not report significant associations between CSF oxytocin levels and socially-relevant demographic variables, the relationships between CSF oxytocin levels and assessments of social functioning warrant future investigation. PMID:20528088

  9. Differential regulation of apoptosis in slow and fast twitch muscles of aged female F344BN rats

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rice, Kevin M.; Manne, Nandini D. P. K.; Gadde, Murali K.; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Blough, Eric

    2015-03-28

    Age-related muscle atrophy is characterized by decreases in muscle mass and is thought be mediated, at least in part, by increases in myocyte apoptosis. Recent data has demonstrated that the degree of muscle loss with aging may differ between males and females while other work has suggested that apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation may be regulated differently in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Herein, we investigate how aging affects the regulation of muscle apoptosis in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of young (6-month), aged (26-month), and very aged (30-month) female Fischer 344/NNiaHSD × Brown Norway/BiNiamore » (F344BN) rats. Tissue sections were stained with hydroethidium for ROS and protein extract was subjected to immunoblotting for assessing apoptotic markers. Our data suggest that decreases in muscle mass were associated with increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positive) and increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by hydroethidium staining in both the EDL and soleus. Similar to our previous work using aged male animals, we observed that the time course and magnitude of changes in Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleavage of α-fodrin protein were regulated differently between muscles. As a result, These data suggest that aging in the female F344BN rat is associated with decreases in muscle mass, elevations in ROS level, increased muscle cell DNA fragmentation, and alterations in cell membrane integrity and that apoptotic mechanisms may differ between fiber types.« less

  10. Differential regulation of apoptosis in slow and fast twitch muscles of aged female F344BN rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Kevin M.; Manne, Nandini D. P. K.; Gadde, Murali K.; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Blough, Eric

    2015-03-28

    Age-related muscle atrophy is characterized by decreases in muscle mass and is thought be mediated, at least in part, by increases in myocyte apoptosis. Recent data has demonstrated that the degree of muscle loss with aging may differ between males and females while other work has suggested that apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation may be regulated differently in fast- and slow-twitch muscles. Herein, we investigate how aging affects the regulation of muscle apoptosis in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles of young (6-month), aged (26-month), and very aged (30-month) female Fischer 344/NNiaHSD × Brown Norway/BiNia (F344BN) rats. Tissue sections were stained with hydroethidium for ROS and protein extract was subjected to immunoblotting for assessing apoptotic markers. Our data suggest that decreases in muscle mass were associated with increased DNA fragmentation (TUNEL positive) and increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) as determined by hydroethidium staining in both the EDL and soleus. Similar to our previous work using aged male animals, we observed that the time course and magnitude of changes in Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-9, and cleavage of α-fodrin protein were regulated differently between muscles. As a result, These data suggest that aging in the female F344BN rat is associated with decreases in muscle mass, elevations in ROS level, increased muscle cell DNA fragmentation, and alterations in cell membrane integrity and that apoptotic mechanisms may differ between fiber types.

  11. The effects of age and previous experience on social rank in female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus spadiceus.

    PubMed

    Kim; Zuk

    2000-08-01

    Social rank can influence lifetime reproductive success and therefore fitness. We examined the effects of morphology, age, previous social experience and aggressiveness on social rank in all-female flocks of red junglefowl. None of the morphological characters measured (mass, tarsus length, comb height or comb length) appeared to play a role in determining rank. Older females were not more likely to be dominant, while previous social experience and aggression levels were both important in dominance determination. Flock-experienced hens were more likely to be dominant as were more aggressive individuals. Red junglefowl females most likely use a combination of characters to establish social order in a newly formed flock. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10973726

  12. Introducing Students to Darwin via the Voyage of HMS "Beagle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swab, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    I use the diary that Darwin wrote during the voyage of HMS Beagle and recent images of a few of the places he visited to illustrate some comparisons between Darwin's world and ours. For today's students, increasingly committed to environmental issues, this may be an especially promising way to introduce Darwin.

  13. Deep depression: mapping, weather forecasting and The Beagle.

    PubMed

    Beasley, A W

    2005-05-01

    This paper traces the voyage of HMS Beagle under the command of Robert FitzRoy, in which Charles Darwin travelled as naturalist. It examines FitzRoy's subsequent career and the coincidence that he, and two other hydrographers connected with the vessel, fell prey to depression.

  14. Symptoms and lung function decline in a middle-aged cohort of males and females in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Michael J; Kaushik, Sonia; Benke, Geza P; Borg, Brigitte M; Smith, Catherine L; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Thompson, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    Background The European Community Respiratory Health Survey is a major international study designed to assess lung health in adults. This Australian follow-up investigated changes in symptoms between sexes and the roles of asthma, smoking, age, sex, height, and change in body mass index (ΔBMI) on lung function decline (LFD), which is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods LFD was measured as the rate of decline over time in FEV1 (mL/year) (ΔFEV1) and FVC (ΔFVC) between 1993 and 2013. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and LFD, separately for males and females. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess sex differences and changes in respiratory symptoms over time. Results In Melbourne, 318 subjects (53.8% females) participated. The prevalence of most respiratory symptoms had either remained relatively stable over 20 years or decreased (significantly so for wheeze). The exception was shortness of breath after activity, which had increased. Among the 262 subjects who completed spirometry, current smoking declined from 20.2% to 7.3%. Overall mean (± standard deviation) FEV1 declined by 23.1 (±17.1) and FVC by 22.9 (±20.2) mL/year. Predictors of ΔFEV1 in males were age, maternal smoking, and baseline FEV1; and in females they were age, ΔBMI, baseline FEV1, and pack-years in current smokers. Decline in FVC was predicted by baseline FVC, age, and ΔBMI in both sexes; however, baseline FVC predicted steeper decline in females than males. Conclusion Most respiratory symptoms remained stable or decreased over time in both sexes. Age, baseline lung function, and change in BMI were associated with the rate of decline in both sexes. However, obesity and personal smoking appear to put females at higher risk of LFD than males. Health promotion campaigns should particularly target females to prevent COPD. PMID:27307725

  15. 17ß-Estradiol Regulates Histone Alterations Associated with Memory Consolidation and Increases "Bdnf" Promoter Acetylation in Middle-Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L.; Gould, Thomas J.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17ß-estradiol…

  16. Self-esteem and social anxiety in an adolescent female eating disorder population: age and diagnostic effects.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence. PMID:23421697

  17. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2015-06-27

    The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010-2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification.

  18. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial.

  19. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2015-06-27

    The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010-2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification. PMID:26240656

  20. Age differences in genetic and environmental variations in stress-coping during adulthood: a study of female twins.

    PubMed

    Hur, Yoon-Mi; MacGregor, Alexander J; Cherkas, Lynn; Williams, Frances M K; Spector, Tim D

    2012-07-01

    The way people cope with stressors of day to day living has an important influence on health. The aim of the present study was to explore whether genetic and environmental variations in stress-coping differ over time during adulthood. The brief COPE was mailed to a large sample of the UK female twins (N = 4,736) having a wide range of age (20-87 years). Factor analyses of the items of the brief COPE yielded three coping scales: 'Problem-Solving', 'Support Seeking', and 'Avoidance'. Monozygotic and dizygotic twin correlations tended to become lower with age for all three scales, suggesting that unique environmental factors may become more important with age during adulthood. Model-fitting results showed that relative influences of unique environmental factors increased from 60 % at age 20 years to 74% at age 87 years for 'Problem-Solving' and 56 % at age 20 years to 76% at age 87 years for 'Avoidance'. During the same age period, genetic factors decreased from 40 to 26 % for 'Problem-Solving' and from 44 to 24 % for 'Avoidance'. For 'Seeking Support', the magnitude of genetic and unique environmental factors was not significantly different across the adulthood. For all three scales, shared environmental effects were negligible. Overall, our findings implicate that the effects of environment that stem from idiosyncratic experience of stressful life events accumulate and become increasingly important in adulthood.

  1. Clinical Efficacy of Sustained-Release Buprenorphine with Meloxicam for Postoperative Analgesia in Beagle Dogs Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Stolarik, DeAnne F; Ma, Junli; Wilsey, Amanda S; Jenkins, Gary J; Medina, Chris L

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, and plasma buprenorphine concentrations of sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) and buprenorphine after subcutaneous administration in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. In a prospective, randomized, blinded design, 20 healthy adult female Beagle dogs underwent routine ovariohysterectomy and received multimodal analgesia consisting of meloxicam and one of two buprenorphine formulations. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either SRB (0.2 mg/kg SC, once) or buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d). Blinded observers assessed all dogs by using sedation scores, pain scores, temperature, HR, RR, and general wellbeing. Dogs were provided rescue analgesia with 0.02 mg/kg buprenorphine SC if the postoperative pain score exceeded a predetermined threshold. Blood samples were collected, and mass spectrometry was used to determine plasma buprenorphine concentrations. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model and Tukey–Kramer multiple comparison. Age, body weight, anesthetic duration, surgical duration, sevoflurane concentration, and cardiorespiratory variables did not differ significantly between groups. Dogs in both formulation groups had comparable postoperative sedation and pain scores. One dog from each formulation group had breakthrough pain requiring rescue analgesia. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations remained above a hypothesized therapeutic concentration of 0.6 ng/mL for 136.0 ± 11.3 and 10.67 ± 0.84 h for SRB and buprenorphine, respectively. Based on the results of this study, multimodal analgesic regimens consisting of meloxicam and either buprenorphine or SRB are equally efficacious in managing pain associated with an ovariohysterectomy and show comparable side effects. PMID:25255072

  2. Impact of Father Absence During Childhood on College Age Females' Psychological Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, E. R.; Parish, T. S.

    This study was carried out with a group of 98 female volunteers. The control group consisted of 27 who had not lost their fathers; the experimental group consisted of 71 who had lost their fathers due to death or divorce. All subjects were administered two checklists to measure personal adjustment and security. Results revealed that fatherless…

  3. Parkinson disease male-to-female ratios increase with age: French nationwide study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Frédéric; Kab, Sofiane; Mohamed, Fatima; Canonico, Marianne; Le Guern, Morgane; Quintin, Cécile; Carcaillon, Laure; Nicolau, Javier; Duport, Nicolas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Boussac-Zarebska, Marjorie; Elbaz, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is 1.5 times more frequent in men than women. Whether age modifies this ratio is unclear. We examined whether male-to-female (M–F) ratios change with age through a French nationwide prevalence/incidence study (2010) and a meta-analysis of incidence studies. Methods We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. We computed M–F prevalence/incidence ratios overall and by age using Poisson regression. Ratios were regressed on age to estimate their annual change. We identified all PD incidence studies with age/sex-specific data, and performed a meta-analysis of M–F ratios. Results On the basis of 149 672 prevalent (50% women) and 25 438 incident (49% women) cases, age-standardised rates were higher in men (prevalence=2.865/1000; incidence=0.490/1000 person-years) than women (prevalence=1.934/1000; incidence=0.328/1000 person-years). The overall M–F ratio was 1.48 for prevalence and 1.49 for incidence. Prevalence and incidence M–F ratios increased by 0.05 and 0.14, respectively, per 10 years of age. Incidence was similar in men and women under 50 years (M–F ratio <1.2, p>0.20), and over 1.6 (p<0.001) times higher in men than women above 80 years (p trend <0.001). A meta-analysis of 22 incidence studies (14 126 cases, 46% women) confirmed that M– F ratios increased with age (0.26 per 10 years, p trend=0.005). Conclusions Age-increasing M–F ratios suggest that PD aetiology changes with age. Sex-related risk/protective factors may play a different role across the continuum of age at onset. This finding may inform aetiological PD research. PMID:26701996

  4. High-titer measles vaccination before 9 months of age and increased female mortality: do we have an explanation?

    PubMed

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Simondon, Francois; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-07-01

    In 1989, high-titer (HT) Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine with a titer more than 10(4.7) plaque-forming-units was recommended by the World Health Organization for use in areas with a high incidence of measles in children younger than 9 months. In 1992, the recommendation was rescinded following reports from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Haiti showing an increased incidence of female mortality occurring after administration of HT Edmonston-Zagreb vaccination. We reviewed 9 studies of HT measles vaccines that reported data on mortality. These reports included 4 randomized trials comparing HT vaccine administered to children younger than 9 months with standard-titer (ST) vaccines (10(3.0) to 10(4.0) plaque-forming-units) given at 9 months of age. Five studies from Zaire, Haiti, Senegal, Rwanda, and Zaire had no control group receiving ST vaccine at 9 months of age, but investigators were able to examine the female-to-male mortality ratio within these HT studies. Investigators have hypothesized that HT vaccine had caused immune suppression similar to that of measles infection. The present review suggests first that the HT vaccine itself is unlikely to be the cause because the effect was not found in all studies. Second, the increased mortality started only after 9 to 10 months of age when controls received ST measles vaccine, and HT groups received the "control vaccine." It was not found in the studies that provided another measles vaccine instead of control vaccine. Third, because the HT studies with excess mortality rates showed increased female mortality rates, we need to find environmental or contextual conditions associated with increased female mortality rates in some studies to explain the problem associated with HT measles vaccination. PMID:12913835

  5. Graded response to short photoperiod during development and early adulthood in Siberian hamsters and the effects on reproduction as females age

    PubMed Central

    Place, Ned J.; Cruickshank, Jenifer

    2009-01-01

    Short day (SD) lengths delay puberty, suppress ovulation, inhibit sexual behavior, and decelerate reproductive aging in female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). To date, the modulation of the age-associated decline in reproductive outcomes has only been demonstrated in female hamsters experiencing different day lengths during development. To determine if developmental delay is necessary for photo-inhibition to decelerate reproductive aging, hamsters raised in LD were transferred to SD as young adults and remained there for 6 months. Females that demonstrated the most immediate and sustained photo-inhibition were found to have greater numbers of ovarian primordial follicles at advanced ages (9 and 12 months) than did females held in LD, nonresponders to SD, and females with a marginal SD-response. Similarly, for females raised in SD from conception to 6 months of age, prolonged developmental delay was associated with greater numbers of primordial follicles at later ages as compared to hamsters that became refractory to SD. A robust response to SD in juvenile and adult hamsters is associated with decelerated reproductive aging, which may result in greater reproductive success in older females as compared to age-matched individuals demonstrating a more modest response to SD. PMID:19470367

  6. Differences in Retinal Structure and Function between Aging Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats are Strongly Influenced by the Estrus Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chaychi, Samaneh; Polosa, Anna; Lachapelle, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Biological sex and age are considered as two important factors that may influence the function and structure of the retina, an effect that might be governed by sexual hormones such as estrogen. The purpose of this study was to delineate the influence that biological sex and age exert on the retinal function and structure of rodents and also clarify the effect that the estrus cycle might exert on the retinal function of female rats. Method The retinal function of 50 normal male and female albino Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated with the electroretinogram (ERG) at postnatal day (P) 30, 60, 100, 200, and 300 (n = 5–6 male and female rats/age). Following the ERG recording sessions, retinal histology was performed in both sexes. In parallel, the retinal function of premenopausal and menopausal female rats aged P540 were also compared. Results Sex and age-related changes in retinal structure and function were observed in our animal model. However, irrespective of age, no significant difference was observed in ERG and retinal histology obtained from male and female rats. Notwithstanding the above we did however notice that between P60 and P200 there was a gradual increase in ERG amplitudes of female rats compared to males. Furthermore, the ERG of premenopausal female rats aged 18 months old (P540) was larger compared to age-matched menopausal female rats as well as that of male rats. Conclusion Our results showed that biological sex and age can influence the retinal function and structure of albino SD rats. Furthermore, we showed that cycled female rats have better retinal function compared to the menopausal female rats suggesting a beneficial effect of the estrus cycle on the retinal function. PMID:26317201

  7. Criminal offending among males and females between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: results from the FinnCrime Study.

    PubMed

    Elonheimo, Henrik; Gyllenberg, David; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, André

    2014-12-01

    We describe the epidemiology of crime between ages 15 and 30 in a population-based sample. We received police register data for 5405 males and females, representing the children born in Finland in 1981. We classified crimes into drug, violent, property, traffic, drunk driving, and sexual crimes, excluding minor traffic offenses. Of males, 60% and of females, 25% were registered for offending. For males, prevalence peaked in late adolescence, while for females, there was no peak age. Offending frequency remained stable for male offenders but was lower among adolescent female offenders. All crime types overlapped each other. Crime accumulated: 1% committed 34% of male and 56% of female offenses. In conclusion, the adolescent peak in offending reflects peaking prevalence among males, not females, nor frequency of offending among offenders. The crime problem is focused on two key groups: late adolescent males and the few males and females in whom crime concentrates. PMID:25285642

  8. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by immunological and genetic methods in female sex workers and the local female population of reproductive age in Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Syada Monira; Hossain, Md Akram; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Mahmud, Md Chand; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Nasir Uddin; Khan, Emily Rahman; Sakib, Md Annaz Mus; Ghosh, Souvik; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the accurate prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Mymensingh, a local area in central-northern Bangladesh, 40 female sex workers (FSW) and 110 sexually active women (SAW, non-FSW) of reproductive age from a local community with clinical symptoms were examined by an immunochromatography test (ICT) and plasmid-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during a 1-year period from July 2011 to June 2012 using the endocervical swab as a specimen. By ICT and/or PCR, the C. trachomatis detection rate was 58% and 27% in FSW and SAW, respectively, showing a significant difference (P < 0.01). Two C. trachomatis strains from FSW were determined to be serovar D by ompA-based PCR and sequencing analysis. The highest prevalence was found among women aged 15 to 35 years. A lower socioeconomic status was considered to be an important risk factor for C. trachomatis infection in FSW but not in SAW. This is the first study to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infections in FSW and SAW in the same local area in Bangladesh.

  9. Reproductive senescence in female Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata): age- and season-related changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian functions and fecundity rates.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, M; Mitsunaga, F; Shimizu, K

    1995-06-01

    Age- and season-related changes in gonadotropin-gonadal functions were studied in captive female Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata), with special reference to reproductive senescence. In experiment 1, a total of 57 nonlactating females at ages 3-32 yr were used. Blood samples were collected for at least one breeding season (September through March), and changes in plasma concentrations of LH, estradiol, and progesterone were examined. In experiment 2, two groups of females (older females, n = 5, over 21 yr old; mature females, n = 5, aged 8-12 yr) received s.c. injections of 50 micrograms/kg of estradiol benzoate during the mid-breeding season. In experiment 1, ovarian functions as well as fecundity rates were maintained in the animals aged 5-20 yr. A decline in ovarian activity became apparent at 21-25 yr of age, when animals exhibited a slight increase in plasma LH during the breeding season. Onset of menopause occurred at around 27 yr of age, near the end of the life span. Menopausal females exhibited a marked seasonal difference in plasma LH concentrations, with high levels during the breeding season. In experiment 2, estradiol treatment elicited an LH surge in both old and mature females. The marked seasonal difference in plasma LH, as well as the maintenance of LH response to estradiol in menopausal females, suggests a possibility that biannual changes in sensitivity of the hypothalamo-hypophysial axis to the negative feedback action of estradiol are maintained even after menopause.

  10. Hypermethylation of FOXP3 Promoter and Premature Aging of the Immune System in Female Patients with Panic Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Prelog, Martina; Hilligardt, Deborah; Schmidt, Christian A.; Przybylski, Grzegorz K.; Leierer, Johannes; Almanzar, Giovanni; El Hajj, Nady; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Arolt, Volker; Zwanzger, Peter; Haaf, Thomas; Domschke, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Immunological abnormalities associated with pathological conditions, such as higher infection rates, inflammatory diseases, cancer or cardiovascular events are common in patients with panic disorder. In the present study, T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), Forkhead-Box-Protein P3 gene (FOXP3) methylation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and relative telomere lengths (RTLs) were investigated in a total and subsamples of 131 patients with panic disorder as compared to 131 age- and sex-matched healthy controls in order to test for a potential dysfunction and premature aging of the immune system in anxiety disorders. Significantly lower TRECs (p = 0.004) as well as significant hypermethylation of the FOXP3 promoter region (p = 0.005) were observed in female (but not in male) patients with panic disorder as compared to healthy controls. No difference in relative telomere length was discerned between patients and controls, but significantly shorter telomeres in females, smokers and older persons within the patient group. The presently observed reduced TRECs in panic disorder patients and FOXP3 hypermethylation in female patients with panic disorder potentially reflect impaired thymus and immunosuppressive Treg function, which might partly account for the known increased morbidity and mortality of anxiety disorders conferred by e.g. cancer and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:27362416

  11. Ultrasound determination of gestational age using placental thickness in female dogs: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, André Luiz Louzada; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Mendonça, Débora Sartori; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To verify if the placental thickness allows determining the gestational age, evaluating the correlation between the referred gestational age with the studied one, and the accuracy of the placental thickness measurement (biometry) with fetal morphologic parameters in bitches. Methods. The placental thickness of 336 bitches of diverse breeds was evaluated. Bitches were divided in three groups by body weight: small, medium, and big large size. The gestations pregnancies were evaluated by ultrasound from the third week of gestation. An analysis was performed between the mean values of the gestational age obtained of placental thickness by adjustment of curves and the reported gestational age. Student's t-test was applied to compare the mean of reported and placental thickness gestational age. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results. A positive and statistically significant correlation exists between the placental thickness and gestational age. The expression that presents the best correlation coefficient and explanation was thickness of placenta = 0.021x gestational age -0.314. Conclusion. It is possible to determine the gestational age in relation to the placental thickness measured by ultrasound in bitches with a satisfactory accuracy in relation to fetal morphologic parameters as gestational vesicle, ribs, or kidneys. PMID:22848867

  12. Ultrasound Determination of Gestational Age Using Placental Thickness in Female Dogs: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, André Luiz Louzada; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Mendonça, Débora Sartori; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To verify if the placental thickness allows determining the gestational age, evaluating the correlation between the referred gestational age with the studied one, and the accuracy of the placental thickness measurement (biometry) with fetal morphologic parameters in bitches. Methods. The placental thickness of 336 bitches of diverse breeds was evaluated. Bitches were divided in three groups by body weight: small, medium, and big large size. The gestations pregnancies were evaluated by ultrasound from the third week of gestation. An analysis was performed between the mean values of the gestational age obtained of placental thickness by adjustment of curves and the reported gestational age. Student's t-test was applied to compare the mean of reported and placental thickness gestational age. Significance was defined as P < 0.05. Results. A positive and statistically significant correlation exists between the placental thickness and gestational age. The expression that presents the best correlation coefficient and explanation was thickness of placenta = 0.021x gestational age −0.314. Conclusion. It is possible to determine the gestational age in relation to the placental thickness measured by ultrasound in bitches with a satisfactory accuracy in relation to fetal morphologic parameters as gestational vesicle, ribs, or kidneys. PMID:22848867

  13. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  14. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  15. Aging Versus Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Bone Composition and Maturation Kinetics at Actively-Forming Trabecular Surfaces of Female Subjects Aged 1 to 84 Years.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Fratzl, Peter; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Hassler, Norbert; Brozek, Wolfgang; Eriksen, Erik F; Rauch, Frank; Glorieux, Francis H; Shane, Elizabeth; Dempster, David; Cohen, Adi; Recker, Robert; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Bone strength depends on the amount of bone, typically expressed as bone mineral density (BMD), determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and on bone quality. Bone quality is a multifactorial entity including bone structural and material compositional properties. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether bone material composition properties at actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces in health are dependent on subject age, and to contrast them with postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. To achieve this, we analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy iliac crest biopsy samples from healthy subjects aged 1.5 to 45.7 years, paired biopsy samples from females before and immediately after menopause aged 46.7 to 53.6 years, and biopsy samples from placebo-treated postmenopausal osteoporotic patients aged 66 to 84 years. The monitored parameters were as follows: the mineral/matrix ratio; the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC); nanoporosity; the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content; the lipid content; and the pyridinoline (Pyd) content. The results indicate that these bone quality parameters in healthy, actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces are dependent on subject age at constant tissue age, suggesting that with advancing age the kinetics of maturation (either accumulation, or posttranslational modifications, or both) change. For most parameters, the extrapolation of models fitted to the individual age dependence of bone in healthy individuals was in rough agreement with their values in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients, except for MMC, lipid, and Pyd content. Among these three, Pyd content showed the greatest deviation between healthy aging and disease, highlighting its potential to be used as a discriminating factor.

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age 1

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. PMID:27305183

  17. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  18. Proliferation, differentiation and self-renewal of osteoprogenitors in vertebral cell populations from aged and young female rats.

    PubMed

    Bellows, C G; Pei, W; Jia, Y; Heersche, J N M

    2003-06-01

    A significant contribution to the bone loss associated with aging is likely to be a decline in bone formation. We have characterized and compared the number, capacity for proliferation and differentiation and the self-renewal ability of osteoprogenitors of aged (17-26-month-old) and young (1.5-month-old) female Wistar rats using limiting dilution analyses and continuous subculture experiments. Cells were obtained from outgrowths of explants of lumbar vertebrae (L1-L6) and grown in alpha-minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM), 10% FBS and 50 microg/ml ascorbic acid with or without dexamethasone (Dex; 0.3-300 nM) or progesterone (Prog; 0.01-10 microM). Growth curves for cell populations of both age groups were similar with population doubling times of 27.1 and 26.7 h for the aged and young animals, respectively. Osteoprogenitors from both age groups formed bone nodules when cultured in the presence of either Dex or Prog. Limiting dilution analysis in the presence of 10 nM Dex showed no difference between the aged and young rats in the number of colony forming units-fibroblast (CFU-F), alkaline phosphatase-positive colony forming units-fibroblast (AP+ CFU-F) or colony forming units-osteoblast (CFU-O). No differences were also found for any progenitor within the aged group. Limiting dilution analysis in the presence of 3 microM Prog showed no differences in the numbers of CFU-F, AP+ CFU-F or CFU-O between the aged and young groups or within the aged group. Continuous subculture of cells in the presence of 10 nM Dex revealed that the number of nodules per 10(4) plated cells increased in second subculture over first subculture cells in the young group but decreased in the aged group. Also, in third to fifth subculture cells, the number of nodules was lower in the aged group than in the young group. A similar pattern was observed in the presence of 3 microM Prog. Results indicate that the cell population doubling times, growth characteristics, and the number of CFU-F and

  19. ERα Variants Affect Age at Onset of Alzheimer's Disease in a Multiethnic Female Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Janicki, S.C.; Park, N.; Cheng, R.; Clark, L.N.; Lee, J. H.; Schupf, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Few studies of gene variants that affect estrogen activity investigate their association with age at onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in women of different ethnicities. We investigated the influence of ESR1 polymorphisms on age at onset of AD in a multiethnic cohort of women. Methods Among 1,436 women participating in the Washington Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), association with age at AD onset was assessed for 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the ESR1 gene using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for presence of an APOE ε4 allele, years of education, and body mass index (BMI). Results Six SNPs in self-identified White women were protectively associated with delayed age of AD onset in this self-identified group, including the two restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) PvuII (rs2234693) and XbaI (rs9340799) (HR range 0.420 – 0.483). Two separate SNPs were found to affect age of AD onset in self-identified Black women. Conclusions ESR1 polymorphisms affect age of onset for AD in women, and risk alleles vary by ethnicity. These effects are possibly due to different linkage disequilibrium patterns or differences in comorbid environmental or cultural risk factors mediating SNP effect on risk for AD. PMID:24732579

  20. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  1. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group.

  2. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Kathryn E; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Harcourt, Robert G; Davis, Lloyd S; Hindell, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four) mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds) than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds). In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid), stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures). We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other phocid seals. PMID

  3. [Effect of kinetin on ovary and uterus in D-galactose-induced female mouse model of aging].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Yu-Mei; Cao, Tong; Ouyang, Wu-Qing

    2013-08-25

    The present study was to investigate the effect of kinetin on ovary and uterus of D-galactose-induced female mouse model of aging. Aging female mice model caused by D-galactose were used as model group, the aging model mice intragastrically administered with kinetin solution (daily 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) were used as kinetin groups, and the mice with solvent as normal group (n = 20). To detect the effects of kinetin, estrous cycle, estradiol content, ovarian and uterine wet weight and organ index, SOD and GSH-Px activities, MDA and total protein contents, as well as the reserve function of ovaries were examined. The results showed that, kinetin-induced changes in two kinetin groups were observed, compared with the model group: (1) the estrous cycle was shortened; (2) serum estradiol content was significantly increased; (3) the wet weights of the ovary and uterus were increased significantly; (4) SOD and GSH-Px activities of ovary and uterus were significantly higher; (5) the MDA contents of the ovary and uterus were reduced significantly; (6) total protein contents of the ovary and uterus were increased significantly; (7) the numbers of mature oocytes in fallopian tubes were increased significantly. The results show that kinetin can protect ovary and uterus against oxidative damage, prevent low estrogen secretion caused by ovarian oxidative damage, shorten the estrous cycle in mice, and eventually maintain ovarian and uterine vitalities.

  4. Age at first oral contraceptive use as a major determinant of vertebral bone mass in female endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hartard, Manfred; Kleinmond, Christine; Kirchbichler, Alexander; Jeschke, Dieter; Wiseman, Michael; Weissenbacher, Ernst Rainer; Felsenberg, Dieter; Erben, Reinhold G

    2004-10-01

    It was the aim of this retrospective analysis to examine the influence of low-dose monophasic oral contraceptives (OCs) on bone mineral density (BMD) of the femoral neck and of the spine in young female endurance athletes. Data on training intensity, dietary intake, menarche, menstrual cycle disorders, years of OC use, and age at first OC use were determined by a self-report questionnaire. Only athletes performing regular endurance exercise for more than 3 years with more than 3 h of exercise per week were included in this study and underwent a clinical assessment including measurement of weight, height, spine, and hip BMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and collection of a blood sample. The data from 75 regularly exercising endurance athletes aged 18-35 years (26.5 +/- 4.8 years) were initially included in this analysis. Six athletes were later excluded due to oligo-/amenorrhea. Subjects were allocated into the OC group when they reported OC use for more than 3 years in women younger than 22 years of age, or when they reported OC use for more than 50% of the time after menarche in women aged 22-35 years. There were no differences in age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), body fat, menarche, training intensity, age at start of training, or any serum parameters between OC users (n = 31) and control subjects (n = 38). However, OC users had 7.9% lower spine BMD and 8.8% lower proximal femur BMD (P < 0.01 for both sites). When the relationship between BMD of the spine and OC use was further analyzed by a stepwise model of multiple regression analysis using OC years, age at OC initiation, BMI, and menarche as independent variables, age at first OC use was found to be the best predictor of vertebral BMD, while the only significant predictor of femoral neck BMD was BMI. We conclude that OC use is associated with decreased BMD of the spine and the femoral neck in female endurance athletes, and that early age at initiation of OC use may be an important risk factor

  5. Circulatory response to single circuit weight and walking training sessions of similar energy cost in middle-aged overweight females.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Jürimäe, J; Pihl, E

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare circulatory responses to circuit weight (CWT) and aerobic walking training sessions of similar energy cost in middle-aged overweight females. Thirty-three middle-aged pre-menopausal females participated in the experiment. They were divided into overweight (n=18, 36.2 +/- 6.3 years, 166.3 +/- 8.0 cm, 83.5 +/- 9.7 kg, BMI 30.2 +/- 3.1 kg m-2) and non-overweight control (n=15, 34.1 +/- 6.3 years, 165.0 +/- 5.6 cm, 61.6 +/- 5.0 kg, BMI 22.7 +/- 1.5 kg m-2) groups. Individual physical working capacity (PWC) was measured using the cycle ergometer test (calculated at the level of predicted HRmax (205 - (1/2) age). A CWT session consisted of leg extension, bench press, sit-ups and leg press exercises. The subjects performed four circuits at the maximal possible speed, using a work-to-rest ratio of 60 s. Blood pressure (BP) was measured during every rest period between the exercises, and the heart rate (HR) was recorded continuously during the whole CWT programme. During the walking training session, the subjects walked as fast as possible on the indoor track. The total energy cost of the walking training session was the same as during the CWT session, approximately 270 kcal, and was controlled by a CALTRAC accelerometer. HR and BP were measured every 5 min during the walking training session. The PWC index was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the overweight group in comparison with the control females (215.4 +/- 76.1 and 187.9 +/- 42.4 W, respectively). The resting BP was normal in both groups (<140/90 mmHg). HR was between 120 and 140 beats min-1 during CWT and walking sessions. There were no differences in BP during both training sessions in overweight and control subjects. It was concluded that both CWT and walking training sessions were acceptable forms of physical activity to increase cardiovascular fitness in middle-aged overweight and normal body weight females.

  6. Acute effects of 17 β-estradiol and genistein on insulin sensitivity and spatial memory in aged ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Ana; González-Pardo, Héctor; Garrido, Pablo; Conejo, Nélida M; Llaneza, Plácido; Díaz, Fernando; Del Rey, Carmen González; González, Celestino

    2010-12-01

    Aging is characterized by decline in metabolic function and insulin resistance, and both seem to be in the basis of neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive dysfunction. Estrogens prevent age-related changes, and phytoestrogens influence learning and memory. Our hypothesis was that estradiol and genistein, using rapid-action mechanisms, are able to modify insulin sensitivity, process of learning, and spatial memory. Young and aged ovariectomized rats received acute treatment with estradiol or genistein. Aged animals were more insulin-resistant than young. In each age, estradiol and genistein-treated animals were less insulin-resistant than the others, except in the case of young animals treated with high doses of genistein. In aged rats, no differences between groups were found in spatial memory test, showing a poor performance in the water maze task. However, young females treated with estradiol or high doses of genistein performed well in spatial memory task like the control group. Only rats treated with high doses of genistein showed an optimal spatial memory similar to the control group. Conversely, acute treatment with high doses of phytoestrogens improved spatial memory consolidation only in young rats, supporting the critical period hypothesis for the beneficial effects of estrogens on memory. Therefore, genistein treatment seems to be suitable treatment in aged rats in order to prevent insulin resistance but not memory decline associated with aging. Acute genistein treatment is not effective to restore insulin resistance associated to the early loss of ovarian function, although it can be useful to improve memory deficits in this condition. PMID:20467821

  7. The effect of age on discrete kinematics of the elite female tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

    2013-10-01

    The importance of the flat serve in tennis is well documented, with an abundance of research evaluating the service technique of adult male players. Comparatively, the female and junior serves have received far less attention. Therefore, the aims of this study were to quantify the flat serve kinematics in elite prepubescent, pubescent, and postpubescent female tennis players. Full body, racket, and ball kinematics were derived using a 22-camera Vicon motion capture system. Racket velocity was significantly lower in the prepubescent group than in the two older groups. In generating racket velocity, the role of the serving arm appears to become more pronounced after the onset of puberty, whereas leg drive and "shoulder-over-shoulder" rotation mature even later in development. These factors are proposed to relate to strength deficits and junior players' intentions to reduce the complexity of the skill. Temporally, coupling perception (cues from the ball) and action (body movements) are less refined in the prepubescent serve, presumably reducing the "rhythm" (and dynamism) of the service action. Practically, there appears scope for equipment scaling to preserve kinematic relevance between the junior and senior serve and promote skill acquisition.

  8. Age at menopause: A fundamental data of interest to acquire in female patients' anamnesis.

    PubMed

    Sciomer, Susanna; De Carlo, Carlotta; Moscucci, Federica; Maffei, Silvia

    2016-07-15

    Although menopause is a universal phenomenon among women, the timing of the onset and the duration of the menopausal transition and the timing of the final menstrual period are not so codified. Compelling evidence supports the idea that the different impact of cardiovascular disease and the differences in vascular biology in men and women may be, at least in part, related to the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of sex steroid hormones. Indeed, androgens and estrogens influence a multitude of vascular biological processes and their cardiovascular effects are multifaceted. Gender pharmacology has proven that men and women have tiny but not paltry different effects to the same drug. Estrogens exert potential beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system in both sexes. It is evident that there is a need for the physician who approaches the female patient, to stress the main anamnestic data concerning her hormonal life starting from menarche, through pregnancy, until menopause. Thus it will be not only a formality becoming a cornerstone of the first doctor-patient relationship, both for in- and outpatient, we will have a clear and complete representation of the etiology and evolution of cardiovascular diseases that increasingly afflict the female gender. PMID:27128561

  9. Atlas of experimentally-induced neoplasia in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Watson, C.R.

    1996-10-01

    Beagle dogs have been utilized extensively in biomedical research. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has sponsored life-span dose-effect radiation studies in beagles at various laboratories. Because results from studies in the various laboratories were to be compared, all the investigators strove to use similar nomenclature and criteria to describe biological effects. For this reason, pathologists from these laboratories met on five occasions between 1976 and 1977 to discuss nomenclature and histologic criteria for diagnoses. At these meeting, criteria were discussed for histopathologic description of lesions in bone, liver, lung, hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, mammary gland, pituitary, testis, and thyroid. To provide further assurance of cooperation among the DOE laboratories involved, DOE organized several Task Groups in 1985, composed of staff members from the laboratories. The Task Group on Biological Effects was asked to standardize nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for pathology; this beagle pathology atlas is the result of that request. The atlas describes target organs of particular interest: lungs for radionuclides delivered by inhalation; bones for bone-seeking radionuclides; and hematopoietic and other soft tissues for external irradiation.

  10. Lack of age-related increase in average glycemia in a non-Westernized sample of rural Yucatec Maya females.

    PubMed

    McLorg, Penelope A

    2005-01-01

    Age-related decline in glucose processing and the associated progressively higher circulating glucose levels are considered well-established biological aging phenomena. However, their occurrence in non-Westernized populations characterized by less mechanization and dietary processing has not been well-studied. This research extends evaluation of lifestyle conditions of diet and physical activity beyond those of Westernized areas and examines aging patterns in blood glucose among rural Yucatec Maya. The purpose is to investigate whether deteriorating glucose processing is intrinsic to human aging, while controlling for body composition in a non-Westernized setting. Data were gathered from 60 nondiabetic Maya women, 40-85 years of age, living in 16 rural villages around Merida, Yucatan. Information regarding personal history, diet, and physical activity was collected through interviews. Body composition was assessed through anthropometric and derived indicators of body size, fat distribution, body mass index, intra-abdominal fat, and total fat and fat-free masses. Glycemia was measured through microvenous samples analyzed for glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and fructosamine, to demonstrate average circulating glucose under customary living conditions. As indicated by glycation, average glycemia is not higher in older Maya females (age group F for HbA(1c) = 0.88, P > 0.05; age group F for fructosamine = 0.38, P > 0.05). Further, correlations between age and HbA(1c) (r = -0.13, P > 0.05) and fructosamine (r = -0.10, P > 0.05) are negative and not significant. The absence of significant, positive age associations with HbA(1c) and fructosamine persists when effects of body composition are taken into account. Thus, decline in glucose regulation does not appear to be a feature of aging in this non-Westernized sample, suggesting that age-related deterioration in glucose processing is not universal among human populations. Results suggest that relationships of age with

  11. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis. PMID:27625459

  12. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis.

  13. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female.

    PubMed

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis. PMID:27625459

  14. Reduced neuronal signaling in the ageing apolipoprotein-E4 targeted replacement female mice.

    PubMed

    Yong, Shan-May; Lim, Mei-Li; Low, Chian-Ming; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2014-10-10

    The effect of ApoE on NMDAR-dependent ERK/CREB signaling is isoform-dependent, and ApoE4 accelerates memory decline in ageing. However, this isoform-dependent function on neuronal signaling during ageing is unclear. In this study, we have examined NMDAR-associated ERK/CREB signal transduction in young and aged huApoE3 and huApoE4 targeted replacement (TR) mice. At 12 weeks huApoE4 mouse brain, increased NR1-S896 phosphorylation was linked to higher protein kinase C (PKC) activation. This up-regulation was accompanied by higher phosphorylation of AMPA GluR1-S831, CaMKII, ERK1/2 and CREB. But at 32 weeks, there was no significant difference between huApoE3 and huApoE4 TR mice on NMDAR-associated ERK/CREB signaling. Interestingly, in 72-week-old huApoE4 TR mice, protein phosphorylation that were increased in younger mice were significantly reduced. Lower NR1-S896 phosphorylation was linked to reduced PKC, GluR1-S831, CaMKII, ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation in huApoE4 TR mice as compared to huApoE3 TR mice. Furthermore, we have consistently detected lower ApoE levels in young and aged huApoE4 TR mouse brain, and this was associated with reduced expression of the ApoE receptor, LRP1 and NR2A-Y1246 phosphorylation. These results suggest age-specific, isoform-dependent effects of ApoE on neuronal signaling.

  15. Site and age class variation of hematologic parameters for female Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) of Northern Nevada.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Kathryn J; Perryman, Barry L; Holcombe, Dale W

    2010-01-01

    Decreases in Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) numbers throughout the western United States have been attributed to declining habitat quantity and quality. Improving our understanding of how interannual ecologic site variability affects nutritional status and fitness of different bird age classes will lead to improved land management and conservation strategies. Greater Sage Grouse were sampled from two Population Management Units located in northern Nevada, United States: Tuscarora (TU) and Lone Willow (LW) during 15 March-11 April 2004 and 14-20 March 2005. Twenty (16 yearlings, four adults) and 17 (7 yearlings, 10 adults) female Sage Grouse were captured and bled during 2004, and 12 (four yearlings, eight adults) and 14 (10 yearlings, four adults) were sampled during 2005 in TU and LW, respectively. Samples were evaluated to examine the effect of site, age, and year on specific hematologic and serum chemistry parameters. Several differences between age classes, sites, and years were detected for a number of fitness indicators; however, actual values fell within normal ranges of variation for Sage Grouse or other avian species. Differences were also detected for several parameters more closely related to reproductive fitness, including total plasma and serum proteins, and serum calcium and phosphorus. Yearlings had lower plasma protein (P<0.0001) and lower serum protein than did adults (P=0.0003). In 2004, TU yearlings had lower serum calcium levels than the adults, and in 2005, LW yearlings had lower levels than adults (P=0.008). Females on the TU site had lower serum phosphorus than the LW females (P<0.0001). Overall, adult females weighed more than yearlings (P=0.0004). Lower values found in yearlings, and on the TU management unit, indicate a lower production potential, particularly in unfavorable years. A lower intrinsic ability of yearlings to reproduce, combined with lower nutrition potentials and associated annual variations on certain types

  16. Metabonomic investigations of age- and batch-related variations in female NMRI mice using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia V; Saric, Jasmina; Yap, Ivan K S; Utzinger, Jürg; Holmes, Elaine

    2013-12-01

    The NMRI outbred mouse model is widely used for studying metabolic disease, toxicity, and infection, yet information regarding baseline metabolism of this murine strain is relatively sparse. Using different batches of female NMRI mice, we assessed the stability of the metabolic phenotype with increasing age and weight, and determined the influence of acclimatization on the metabolic profile of biofluids (urine, plasma, and faecal water). Differences in urinary concentrations of 3-ureidopropionate, 2-oxoisocaproate, trimethylamine, and glycine were detected between three batches of 9-week-old female NMRI mice using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. An acclimatization period of 2 weeks was imposed after the mice entered the laboratory environment. Strong differences in the faecal metabolome pre- and post-acclimatization were found (reduction in amino acid concentrations), whilst the urine metabolome showed increased levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, phenylacetyl glycine, and hippurate with decreased excretion of formate and betaine post-acclimatization. Temporal variation in the metabolite profiles over a 16-week study stabilized around 7-week-old animals. The results from this study strongly argue for inclusion of an acclimatization period prior to starting an investigative procedure, and suggest that the metabolic phenotypes of female NMRI mice are more stable at around 7 weeks of age. We have also identified a set of metabolites that are more susceptible to variation in concentration. This information can serve as a benchmark in order to establish confidence in systematic variation attributable to pathology or therapeutic intervention above the background metabolic variation in the NMRI mouse. PMID:24121299

  17. Oral contraceptive use among female elite athletes and age-matched controls and its relation to low back pain.

    PubMed

    Brynhildsen, J; Lennartsson, H; Klemetz, M; Dahlquist, P; Hedin, B; Hammar, M

    1997-10-01

    Exogenous and endogenous female sex steroids may influence the risk of low back pain. The fact that back pain is a very common symptom during pregnancy supports this theory. Back pain is also more common among female than male athletes. Oral contraceptives have been suggested to increase the risk of low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the prevalence of low back pain is higher among oral contraceptive users than non-users and if it differs between women taking part in different sports. A questionnaire was sent to female elite athletes in volleyball (n = 205), basketball (n = 150), and soccer (n = 361) as well as to age-matched controls (n = 113). The questionnaire comprised questions about age, constitution, occupation, parity, and use of contraceptive method as well as previous and current back pain and possible consequences of the back problems. The response rate was 85%. Between 42% and 52% of the women in the different groups used oral contraceptives. The groups were similar in most background variables, except that the volleyball and basketball players were taller. The prevalence of current low back pain was between 21% and 34% in the different athlete groups, with an average of 30%, whereas only 18% of the controls suffered from low back pain (p 0.01). The prevalence of low back pain within each group--athletes as well as controls--was similar in women who used and did not use oral contraceptives. This study does not support the theory that low back pain is affected by the use of oral contraceptives. Instead, constitutional factors and mechanical stress during intense physical activity are probably more important.

  18. A prospective study of young females' sexual subjectivity: associations with age, sexual behavior, and dating.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Ducat, Wendy H; Boislard-Pepin, Marie-Aude

    2011-10-01

    Sexual self-perceptions are important aspects of sexuality, which can undergo significant change during adolescence and early adulthood. The purpose of this study was to describe these changes among girls (N = 251; ages 16-25) over one year, and to examine associations of sexual self-perceptions (sexual subjectivity) with age, sexual behavior, and romantic status. Sexual body-esteem, perceptions of entitlement to desire and pleasure, sexual efficacy, and sexual self-reflection were investigated as elements of sexual subjectivity. All sexual subjectivity elements were higher among girls who had more sexual experience and/or had steady romantic partners during the study. Perception of entitlement to desire and pleasure increased over time, whereas sexual body-esteem showed the most stability and had minimal associations with sexual or romantic experiences. The greatest increases in sexual subjectivity were found among girls who began the study with the least sociosexual experience and self-reflection also increased for girls who had first coitus after the start of the study. Overall, girls who had sexual intercourse the earliest (before age 16) had the highest sexual subjectivity, but sexual subjectivity increased the most among girls without coital experience or who had more recent first coitus.

  19. Bioinformatics and Microarray Analysis of miRNAs in Aged Female Mice Model Implied New Molecular Mechanisms for Impaired Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    He, Bing; Zhang, Zong-Kang; Liu, Jin; He, Yi-Xin; Tang, Tao; Li, Jie; Guo, Bao-Sheng; Lu, Ai-Ping; Zhang, Bao-Ting; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Impaired fracture healing in aged females is still a challenge in clinics. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in fracture healing. This study aims to identify the miRNAs that potentially contribute to the impaired fracture healing in aged females. Transverse femoral shaft fractures were created in adult and aged female mice. At post-fracture 0-, 2- and 4-week, the fracture sites were scanned by micro computed tomography to confirm that the fracture healing was impaired in aged female mice and the fracture calluses were collected for miRNA microarray analysis. A total of 53 significantly differentially expressed miRNAs and 5438 miRNA-target gene interactions involved in bone fracture healing were identified. A novel scoring system was designed to analyze the miRNA contribution to impaired fracture healing (RCIFH). Using this method, 11 novel miRNAs were identified to impair fracture healing at 2- or 4-week post-fracture. Thereafter, function analysis of target genes was performed for miRNAs with high RCIFH values. The results showed that high RCIFH miRNAs in aged female mice might impair fracture healing not only by down-regulating angiogenesis-, chondrogenesis-, and osteogenesis-related pathways, but also by up-regulating osteoclastogenesis-related pathway, which implied the essential roles of these high RCIFH miRNAs in impaired fracture healing in aged females, and might promote the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27527150

  20. Adjusting to personal and organisational change: views and experiences of female nurses aged 40-60 years.

    PubMed

    Gabrielle, Sarah; Jackson, Debra; Mannix, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The Australian nursing workforce is ageing and there is a well-documented shortage of nurses. This global phenomenon means that retaining nurses in the workforce is gaining in importance as older nurses retire and leave nursing. The existing literature reveals deficiencies in knowledge about older nurses as they adapt to ageing often within stressful work environments. The aim of this narrative-based study, informed by feminist principles, was to explore the views and experiences of female registered nurses aged 40-60 years, in acute hospital and community health care settings. In-depth semi-structured interviews of approximately 1 h duration were gathered during late 2004. The transcribed narratives were subjected to thematic analysis. Two major themes were identified. The first theme: "Feeling uncared for" contained three sub-themes--Unsupportive work relationships: "We should be helping each other"; Workplace bullying: "It hurts me and I feel really bad"; and, Stress and burnout: "It's just like being in a pressure cooker all the time". The second major theme identified was "Adapting to ageing: my nursing career". Findings of this research suggest some unmet support needs for older nurses in the workforce which could discourage them from remaining in nursing. The findings highlight a need for further research into the support needs of older nurses. PMID:18780674

  1. Egocentric Network and Condom Use Among Mid-Age Female Sex Workers in China: A Multilevel Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjie

    2016-04-01

    The epidemics of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have spread among older adults in the world, including China. This study addresses the deficiency of studies about the multiple contextual influences on condom use among mid-age female sex workers (FSWs) over 35 years old. A combination of an egocentric network design and multilevel modeling was used to investigate factors of condom use over mid-age FSWs (egos) particular relationships with sexual partners (alters). Of the 1245 mid-age FSWs interviewed, 73% (907) reported having at least one sexual partner who would provide social support to egos. This generated a total of 1300 ego-alter sex ties in egos' support networks. Condoms were consistently used among one-third of sex ties. At the ego level, condoms were more likely to be used consistently if egos received a middle school education or above, had stronger perceived behavioral control for condom use, or consistently used condoms with other sex clients who were not in their support networks. At the alter level, condoms were not consistently used over spousal ties compared to other ties. Condoms were less likely to be used among alters whom ego trusted and provided emotional support. Cross-level factors (egos' attitudes toward condom use and emotional support from alters) documented a significant positive interaction on consistent condom use. Given the low frequency of condom use, future interventions should focus on mid-age FSWs and their partners within and beyond their support networks. PMID:27028182

  2. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Rapid Method for Predicting the Age of Male and Female Wild-Type and Wolbachia Infected Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Milali, Masabho P.; Henry, Michael; Wirtz, Robert A.; Hugo, Leon E.; Dowell, Floyd E.; Devine, Gregor J.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method. Calibrations were developed using spectra collected from their heads and thoraces using partial least squares (PLS) regression. A highly significant correlation was found between the true and predicted ages of mosquitoes. The coefficients of determination for wild-type females and males across all age groups were R2 = 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the age of wMel and wMelPop infected females were 0.71 and 0.80, respectively (P< 0.001 in both instances). The age of wild-type female Ae. aegypti could be identified as < or ≥ 8 days old with an accuracy of 91% (N = 501), whereas female Ae. aegypti infected with wMel and wMelPop were differentiated into the two age groups with an accuracy of 83% (N = 284) and 78% (N = 229), respectively. Our results also indicate NIRS can distinguish between young and old male wild-type, wMel and wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti with accuracies of 87% (N = 253), 83% (N = 277) and 78% (N = 234), respectively. We have demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a predictor of the age of female and male wild-type and Wolbachia infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. After field validation, the tool has the potential to offer a cheap and rapid alternative for surveillance of dengue and Zika vector control programs. PMID:27768689

  3. Off-ice fitness of elite female ice hockey players by team success, age, and player position.

    PubMed

    Ransdell, Lynda B; Murray, Teena M; Gao, Yong

    2013-04-01

    This study examined off-ice fitness profiles of 204 elite female ice hockey players from 13 countries who attended a high-performance camp organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) in Bratislava, Slovakia, in July of 2011. Athletes were tested using standardized protocols for vertical jump (centimeters), long jump (centimeters), 4-jump average (centimeters), elasticity ratio (4-vertical jump average/vertical jump), pull-up or inverted row (n), aerobic fitness (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), body mass (kilograms), and body composition (% fat). These variables were examined relative to team success in major international hockey competition (group 1: Canada and USA, group 2: Sweden and Finland, group 3: All other participating countries), age group (Under 18 and Senior/Open Levels), and player position (forwards, defenders, and goalies). The athletes from countries with the best international records weighed more, yet had less body fat, had greater lower body muscular power and upper body strength, and higher aerobic capacity compared with their less successful counterparts. Compared with the younger athletes, athletes from the senior-level age group weighed more and had higher scores for lower body power, pull-ups, and aerobic capacity. There were no significant differences in anthropometric or fitness data based on player position. This study is the first to report the physical characteristics of a worldwide sample of elite female ice hockey players relative to team performance, age, and player position. Coaches should use these data to identify talent, test for strengths and weaknesses in conditioning programs, and design off-ice programs that will help athletes match the fitness profiles of the most successful teams in the world.

  4. Effect of age and season on the thyroid hormone activity of Mizoram strain female mithun (Bos frontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Lalsangpuii; Ali, M. Ayub; Devi, L. Inaotombi; Behera, Parthasarathi; Ralte, Lalsanglura

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to generate baseline data on the normal values of the thyroidhormone (TH) activity as well as their correlation with age and season. Materials and Methods: Blood samples (10 ml) were collected from jugular vein of 30 female mithun’s of three different age groups viz. Calves (6 months to 1 year), heifer (1-3 years) and adult (above 3 years) during the three season’s viz. Monsoon, winter and spring of a year. The serum was analyzed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) activity. Result: The result showed a significantly (p<0.05) a higher T3 level in heifers followed by adults and calves and higher T4 level in adults followed by heifers and calves in all the seasons. The TSH level was higher in heifers in all the seasons. The winter season recorded higher level of T3, T4, and TSH as compared to the other seasons of a year. Conclusion: The TSH and T3 level were the highest for aheifer, whereas T4 level was the highest for adults inall the season. Furthermore, the higher level of TH was observed in winter season. The increased level of the TH during the winter season signifies their calorigenic effect. Similarly in heifers, the increased T3 concentrations show its importance in reproductive physiology and its association with ovarian activity. This indicates that age and season have aprofound effect on TH activity of Mizoram strain female mithun. PMID:27047046

  5. Sex-specific parental care strategies via nestling age: females pay more attention to nestling demands than males do in the horned lark, Eremophila alpestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Jing; Du, Bo; Liu, Nai-Fa; Bao, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2014-06-01

    In many species, nestling demands vary continuously during early development and both parents have different parental care strategies at each nestling age. Sexual conflict arises when each parent expects its partner investing more in parental care. It is largely unknown how the two parents respond to the dynamics of nestling demands and resolve the sexual conflict during nestling period, especially on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To address this question, we monitored parental care behaviors of horned larks (Eremophila alpestris) using video-recording systems. We found that male horned larks invested less in parental care, but had a larger body size than females, which is consistent with the parental investment hypothesis. Only the female brooded nestlings, but both parents contributed to feeding efforts. Feeding rates of males and females were negatively correlated, indicating that they used evolutionarily stable strategies. Strategies of parental care via nestling age were sex-specific. Females continuously adjusted care behaviors to follow the dynamics of nestling demands as nestling age increased, such as decreasing brood attentiveness and increasing feeding rate. By contrast, male feeding rate showed no significant correlation with nestling age, but increased with the synchrony feeding rate. We suggest the synchrony feeding behavior may act as a control measure for females to promote and assess the males' contribution. We consider low mating opportunities drive males to act as assistants for females, and correspondingly cause males to pay less attention to nestling demands than females. PMID:24882094

  6. Parental education is related to C-reactive protein among female middle-aged community volunteers.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Marsland, Anna L; Flory, Janine D; Muldoon, Matthew F; Cohen, Sheldon; Manuck, Stephen B

    2009-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that socioeconomic attributes of both childhood and adulthood confer risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study, we examine the association of both parental and individual educational attainment with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory mediator relevant to cardiovascular pathophysiology, in a mid-life community sample. Subjects were 811 men and women (394 men/417 women; 87% European-American/13% African-American), 30-54 years of age. Plasma concentrations of CRP were determined from blood samples obtained at a single session following an overnight fast. Regression analyses adjusting for age and race showed both parental education and individual education to be associated inversely with CRP in women, but not men. The relationship of parental education with CRP in women persisted on multivariable adjustment for both lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, exercise, body mass index) and individual SES. Independent of reported personal educational attainment, mid-life adult women whose parents achieved fewer years of educational attainment exhibit higher levels of circulating CRP than women with higher parental education. This association may help explain the increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity and mortality conferred by low childhood socioeconomic status.

  7. Effect of postural angle on back muscle activities in aging female workers performing computer tasks.

    PubMed

    Kamil, Nabilla Sofia Mohd; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of postural angle on back muscle activity during a computer task in aging women. [Subjects] Seventeen women ≥50 years old participated. [Methods] The participants were instructed to perform computer-related tasks for 20 minutes on a workstation that simulated typical office working conditions. Back posture was measured from the measured trunk and pelvic angles. Electromyography activities were recorded simultaneously from the cervical erector spinae, longissimus, and multifidus muscles. [Results] The lowest mean percentages of maximum voluntary contraction for the cervical erector spinae and longissimus muscles were obtained when the upper trunk and pelvic angles were between 0° to -5° from the sagittal plane. The back muscle activities increased as the upper trunk and pelvic angles exceeded 0°. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations between upper trunk angle and cervical erector spinae and longissimus muscle activities. Similarly, pelvic angle was significantly correlated with cervical erector spinae and multifidus muscle activities. [Conclusion] A neutral back posture minimizes muscle activities in aging women performing computer tasks.

  8. Melatonin alleviates hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in hippocampus of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Geeta; Verma, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Agrawal, Neeraj Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is a well known phenomenon under hyperthyroid condition that induces various physiological and neural problems with a higher prevalence in females. We, therefore investigated the antioxidant potential of melatonin (Mel) on hyperthyroidism-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus region of brain (cognition and memory centre) of aged female golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. Aged female hamsters were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=7); group-I: control, group-II: Melatonin (5mgkg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for one week), group-III: Hyperthyroid (100μg kg(-1)day(-1), i.p., for two weeks) and group-IV- Hyper+Mel. Hormonal profiles (thyroid and melatonin), activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX), lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and the specific apoptotic markers (Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3) expression were evaluated. A significant increase in the profile of total thyroid hormone (tT3 and tT4) in hyperthyroidic group as compared to control while tT3 significantly decreased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. However, Mel level significantly decreased in hyperthyroidic group but increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Further, the number of immune-positive cells for thyroid hormone receptor-alpha (TR-α) decreased in the hippocampus of hyperthyroidic group and increased in melatonin treated hyperthyroidic group. Profiles of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant decrease in hyperthyroidic group with a simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Melatonin treatment to hyperthyroidic group lead to decreased TBARS level with a concomitant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase-3, in hyperthyroidic group had elevated neuronal cell death in hippocampal area and melatonin treatment reduced its expression in hyperthyroidic group. Our findings thus indicate that melatonin reduced the hyperthyroidism

  9. Age-related changes in mRNA levels of hepatic transporters, cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Atsushi; Ito, Ayami; Yamada, Ayano; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    Hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes affect drug pharmacokinetics. Limited information exists on the alteration in mRNA levels of hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes with aging. We examined the effects of aging on the mRNA levels of representative hepatic drug transporters and metabolic enzymes by analyzing their levels in 10-, 30- and 50-week-old male and female rats. Levels of mRNA of drug transporters including multidrug resistance protein (Mdr)1a, multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp)2, breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (Oatp)1a1, and the metabolic enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A1, CYP3A2 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A1 were analyzed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA levels of transporters in male rats did not decrease with age, while the mRNA levels of Bcrp and Oatp1a1 in female rats decreased with age. The mRNA levels of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 in male rats were higher than those in female rats. The mRNA levels of metabolic enzymes decreased with age in female but not male rats. In particular, the mRNA levels of UGT1A1 in 10-week-old female rats were higher than those in male rats. mRNA expression of hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes are more susceptible to aging in female than male rats. The age-related decreases in the mRNA levels of Bcrp, Oatp1a1, CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 in female rats may affect the metabolism and transport of substrates. This study showed that aging affected the mRNA expression of hepatic transporters and metabolic enzymes in rats.

  10. An assessment of anti-Müllerian hormone in predicting mating outcomes in female hamsters that have undergone natural and chemically-accelerated reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Kristen A; Zysling, Devin A; Place, Ned J

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, female fertility declines with age due in part to a progressive loss of ovarian follicles. The rate of follicle decline varies among individuals making it difficult to predict the age of onset of reproductive senescence. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations correlate with the numbers of ovarian follicles, and therefore, AMH could be a useful predictor of female fertility. In women and some production animals, AMH is used to identify which individuals will respond best to ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technologies. However, few studies have evaluated AMH's predictive value in unassisted reproduction, and they have yielded conflicting results. To assess the predictive value of AMH in the context of reproductive aging, we prospectively measured serum AMH in 9-month-old Siberian hamsters shortly before breeding them. Female Siberian hamsters experience substantial declines in fertility and fecundity by 9months of age. We also measured serum AMH in 5-month-old females treated with 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD), which selectively destroys ovarian follicles and functionally accelerates ovarian aging. Vehicle-treated 5-month-old females served as controls. AMH concentrations were significantly reduced in VCD-treated females yet many females with low AMH reproduced successfully. On average, both young and old hamsters that littered had higher AMH concentrations than females that did not. However, some females with relatively high AMH concentrations failed to litter, whereas several with low AMH succeeded. Our results suggest that mean AMH concentration can predict mating outcomes on a population or group level, but on an individual basis, a single AMH determination is less informative.

  11. The effect of health and penal harm on aging female prisoners' views of dying in prison.

    PubMed

    Deaton, Dayron; Aday, Ronald H; Wahidin, Azrini

    With tougher sentencing laws, an increasing number of individuals are finding themselves spending their final years of life in prison. Drawing on a sample of 327 women over the age of 50 incarcerated in five Southern states, the present study investigates the relationship between numerous health variables and the Templer Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS). Qualitatively, the article also provides personal accounts from inmates that serve to reinforce death fears when engaging the prison health care system. Participants reported a mean of 6.40 on the TDAS indicating a substantial degree of death anxiety when compared to community samples. Both mental and physical health measures were important indicators of death anxiety. Qualitative information discovered that respondents' concerns about dying in prison were often influenced by the perceived lack of adequate health care and the indifference of prison staff and other instances of penal harm.

  12. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bautista, René J.; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Escobar-Villanueva, María Del C.; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C.; Merino-Aguilar, Héctor; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; López-Diazguerrero, Norma E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old), the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline. PMID:24979131

  13. Vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age, but not CNDP1 genotype, are associated with reduced muscle carnosine levels in humans.

    PubMed

    Everaert, Inge; Mooyaart, Antien; Baguet, Audrey; Zutinic, Ana; Baelde, Hans; Achten, Eric; Taes, Youri; De Heer, Emile; Derave, Wim

    2011-04-01

    Carnosine is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscles, where it is involved in several physiological functions. The muscle carnosine content measured within a population can vary by a factor 4. The aim of this study was to further characterize suggested determinants of the muscle carnosine content (diet, gender and age) and to identify new determinants (plasma carnosinase activity and testosterone). We investigated a group of 149 healthy subjects, which consisted of 94 men (12 vegetarians) and 55 women. Muscle carnosine was quantified in M. soleus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior using magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy and blood samples were collected to determine CNDP1 genotype, plasma carnosinase activity and testosterone concentrations. Compared to women, men have 36, 28 and 82% higher carnosine concentrations in M. soleus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, whereas circulating testosterone concentrations were unrelated to muscle carnosine levels in healthy men. The carnosine content of the M. soleus is negatively related to the subjects' age. Vegetarians have a lower carnosine content of 26% in gastrocnemius compared to omnivores. In contrast, there is no difference in muscle carnosine content between omnivores with a high or low ingestion of β-alanine. Muscle carnosine levels are not related to the polymorphism of the CNDP1 gene or to the enzymatic activity of the plasma carnosinase. In conclusion, neither CNDP1 genotype nor the normal variation in circulating testosterone levels affects the muscular carnosine content, whereas vegetarianism, female gender and increasing age are the factors associated with reduced muscle carnosine stores.

  14. Distribution of fibre types and fibre sizes in the tibialis cranialis muscle of beagle dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Newsholme, S J; Lexell, J; Downham, D Y

    1988-01-01

    The percentages of Type I muscle fibres were measured systematically in ATPase-stained, transverse cryostat sections of whole tibialis cranialis muscles from 8 young, adult beagles. The distance of the section from the origin of the muscle does not significantly affect the mean percentage. There are no identifiable differences in mean percentages between right and left muscles. Differences in mean percentages between individuals are significant when sexes are combined (P less than 0.01) and within sexes (males: P less than 0.01; females: P less than 0.05). Within sections, the percentage tends to be lowest at the superficial (craniolateral) border and to vary less from site to site deeper within the muscle. Fibre cross sectional areas were measured systematically in the same sections of the right muscle from 3 males and 3 females. Mean areas for each section were greater for Type II than for Type I fibres. Mean areas for each fibre-type varied moderately and non-systematically between the sample sites within sections. A needle biopsy taken from deep within this muscle should provide a more consistent and reliable estimate of fibre-type proportion in the whole muscle than a superficial specimen. Proportions are not affected by the distance of the sample site from the muscle origin, and left or right muscles are suitable for sequential samples. PMID:3253248

  15. The Influence of Diet on the Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Age of Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Kelly; Swamidoss, Isabel; Vizcaino, Lucrecia; Lenhart, Audrey; Dowell, Floyd; Wirtz, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (≥ 7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water ± blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group (< or ≥ 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti.

  16. Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I Modulates Endothelial Blood-Brain Barrier Function in Ischemic Middle-Aged Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Bake, Shameena; Okoreeh, Andre K; Alaniz, Robert C; Sohrabji, Farida

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with young females, middle-aged female rats sustain greater cerebral infarction and worse functional recovery after stroke. These poorer stroke outcomes in middle-aged females are associated with an age-related reduction in IGF-I levels. Poststroke IGF-I treatment decreases infarct volume in older females and lowers the expression of cytokines in the ischemic hemisphere. IGF-I also reduces transfer of Evans blue dye to the brain, suggesting that this peptide may also promote blood-brain barrier function. To test the hypothesis that IGF-I may act at the blood-brain barrier in ischemic stroke, 2 approaches were used. In the first approach, middle-aged female rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with IGF-I after reperfusion. Mononuclear cells from the ischemic hemisphere were stained for CD4 or triple-labeled for CD4/CD25/FoxP3 and subjected to flow analyses. Both cohorts of cells were significantly reduced in IGF-I-treated animals compared with those in vehicle controls. Reduced trafficking of immune cells to the ischemic site suggests that blood-brain barrier integrity is better maintained in IGF-I-treated animals. The second approach directly tested the effect of IGF-I on barrier function of aging endothelial cells. Accordingly, brain microvascular endothelial cells from middle-aged female rats were cultured ex vivo and subjected to ischemic conditions (oxygen-glucose deprivation). IGF-I treatment significantly reduced the transfer of fluorescently labeled BSA across the endothelial monolayer as well as cellular internalization of fluorescein isothiocyanate-BSA compared with those in vehicle-treated cultures, Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that IGF-I improves blood-brain barrier function in middle-aged females.

  17. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N; Freedman, Neal D; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B; Abnet, Christian C; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Arslan, Alan A; Beane-Freeman, Laura E; Berndt, Sonja I; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Bracci, Paige M; Brinton, Louise A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E; Butler, Mary A; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C; Cook, Linda S; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J; Epstein, Caroline G; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Friedenreich, Christine M; Fuchs, Charles S; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M; Haiman, Christopher A; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Harris, Curtis C; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N; Hsiung, Chao A; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H; McWilliams, Robert R; Melin, Beatrice S; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M; Savage, Sharon A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G; Schwartz, Kendra L; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T; Spitz, Margaret R; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R; Teras, Lauren R; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K; Wolpin, Brian M; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G; Perez-Jurado, Luis A; Caporaso, Neil E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases. PMID:27291797

  18. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N; Freedman, Neal D; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B; Abnet, Christian C; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Arslan, Alan A; Beane-Freeman, Laura E; Berndt, Sonja I; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Bracci, Paige M; Brinton, Louise A; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E; Butler, Mary A; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C; Cook, Linda S; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J; Epstein, Caroline G; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Friedenreich, Christine M; Fuchs, Charles S; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M; Gaziano, J Michael; Giles, Graham G; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M; Haiman, Christopher A; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E; Harris, Curtis C; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N; Hsiung, Chao A; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H; McWilliams, Robert R; Melin, Beatrice S; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M; Savage, Sharon A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G; Schwartz, Kendra L; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T; Spitz, Margaret R; Stevens, Victoria L; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R; Teras, Lauren R; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K; Wolpin, Brian M; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G; Perez-Jurado, Luis A; Caporaso, Neil E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases.

  19. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N.; Freedman, Neal D.; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Abnet, Christian C.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Arslan, Alan A.; Beane-Freeman, Laura E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Black, Amanda; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Bracci, Paige M.; Brinton, Louise A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary A.; Canzian, Federico; Carreón, Tania; Chaffee, Kari G.; Chang, I-Shou; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Chung, Charles C.; Cook, Linda S.; Crous Bou, Marta; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Ding, Ti; Doherty, Jennifer; Duell, Eric J.; Epstein, Caroline G.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Harris, Curtis C.; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N.; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Alison P.; Klein, Robert; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Lan, Qing; Landi, Maria Teresa; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Donghui; Liang, Xiaolin; Liao, Linda M.; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Malats, Nuria; Matsuo, Keitaro; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Mirabello, Lisa; Moore, Lee; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark P.; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Santiago, Benjamin; Ruder, Avima M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Seow, Adeline; Wendy Setiawan, Veronica; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R.; Teras, Lauren R.; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Van Den Berg, David; Visvanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S.; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Ziegler, Regina G.; Perez-Jurado, Luis A.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Tucker, Margaret; Dean, Michael C.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X mosaicism frequency increases with age (0.11% in 50-year olds; 0.45% in 75-year olds), as reported for Y and autosomes. Methylation array analyses of 33 women with X mosaicism indicate events preferentially involve the inactive X chromosome. Our results provide further evidence that the sex chromosomes undergo mosaic events more frequently than autosomes, which could have implications for understanding the underlying mechanisms of mosaic events and their possible contribution to risk for chronic diseases. PMID:27291797

  20. A comparison of time-motion and technical-tactical variables between age groups of female judo matches.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Cury, Rubiana; Julianetti, Ricardo; Battazza, Rafael; Julio, Ursula Ferreira; Calmet, Michel; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify differences between age groups of female judo matches in time-motion and technical-tactical analysis. The sample was composed of pre-cadet (13-14 years, n = 148), cadet (15-16 years, n = 228), junior (17-19 years, n = 104) and senior (>20 years, n = 237) groups. The time-motion indicators consisted of total combat time, standing combat time, displacement without contact, gripping time, total time of techniques, groundwork combat time and pause time, per match and by each combat/pause cycle. Technical and tactical variables were also collected. The one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc test were conducted, P ≤ 0.05. Cadets, with a median of 7 (2, 12), had a number of combat/pause cycles different from junior, with 3 (1, 8.5). Regarding time-motion per match and per cycle, senior had longer total combat time, standing combat time and gripping time than other groups. Senior presented lower frequency of leg techniques than pre-cadet, cadet and junior. Time-motion and technical-tactical variables effects in female judo athletes emphasise the difference between seniors and other groups.

  1. Endocrine and fluid metabolism in males and females of different ages after bedrest, acceleration and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Krauhs, J. M.; Sandler, H.

    1985-01-01

    Space shuttle flight simulations were conducted to determine the effects of weightlessness, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), and acceleration of fluid and electrolyte excretion and the hormones that control it. Measurements were made on male and female subjects of different ages before and after bedrest. After admission to a controlled environment, groups of 6 to 14 subjects in the age ranges 25 to 35, 35 to 45, 45 to 55 to 65 years were exposed to +3 G sub z for 15 minutes (G1) and to LBNP (LBNP1) on different days. On 3 days during this prebedrest period, no tests were conducted. Six days of bedrest followed, and the G sub z (G2) and LBNP (LBNP2) tests were run again. Hormones, electrolytes, and other parameters were measured in 24-hour urine pools throughout the experiment. During bedrest, cortisol and aldosterone excretion increased. Urine volume decreased, and specific gravity and osmolality increased. Urinary electrolytes were statistically unchanged from levels during the non-stress control period. During G2, cortisol increased significantly over its control and bedrest levels. Urine volume, sodium, and chloride were significantly lower; specific gravity and osmolality were higher during the control period or bedrest. The retention of fluids and electrolytes after +G sub z may at least partially explain decreased urine volume and increased osmolality observed during bedrest in this study. There were some who indicated that space flight would not affect the fluid and electrolyte metabolism of females or older males any more severely than it has affected that of male astronauts.

  2. ESTROGEN AND AGING AFFECT THE SYNAPTIC DISTRIBUTION OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA-IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE CA1 REGION OF FEMALE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Elizabeth M.; Yildirim, Murat; Janssen, William G.M.; Lou, W.Y. Wendy; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Estradiol (E) mediates increased synaptogenesis in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum (sr) and enhances memory in young and some aged female rats, depending on dose and age. Young females rats express more estrogen receptor α (ERα) immunolabeling in CA1sr spine synapse complexes than aged rats and ERα regulation is E sensitive in young but not aged rats. The current study examined whether estrogen receptor β (ERβ) expression in spine synapse complexes may be altered by age or E treatment. Young (3–4 months) and aged (22–23 months) female rats were ovariectomized 7 days prior to implantation of silastic capsules containing either vehicle (cholesterol) or E (10% in cholesterol) for 2 days. ERβ immunoreactivity (ir) in CA1sr was quantitatively analyzed using post-embedding electron microscopy. ERβ-ir was more prominent postsynaptically than presynaptically and both age and E treatment affected its synaptic distribution. While age decreased the spine synaptic complex localization of ERβ-ir (i.e., within 60 nm of the pre- and post-synaptic membranes), E treatment increased synaptic ERβ in both young and aged rats. In addition, the E treatment, but not age, increased dendritic shaft labeling. This data demonstrates that like ERα the levels of ERβ-ir decrease in CA1 axospinous synapses with age, however, unlike ERα the levels of ERβ-ir increase in these synapses in both young and aged rats in response to E. This suggests that synaptic ERβ may be a more responsive target to E, particularly in aged females. PMID:20875808

  3. Phenotypic plasticity in age at first reproduction of female northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Biela, V.R.; Gill, V.A.; Bodkin, J.L.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that within a species, reproduction and survival rates will differ among populations that differ in resource availability or predation rates through phenotypic plasticity. When populations are near carrying capacity (K) or when they are declining due to reduced prey resources, the average age at 1st reproduction (average AFR) is predicted to be older than in populations below K. Differences between the trajectories of northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) populations in Alaska provides an opportunity to examine phenotypic plasticity. Using premolar teeth or reproductive tracts, we estimated average AFR from demographically distinct populations of sea otters in Alaska. We obtained samples from 2 populations near K, Prince William Sound (PWS) and the Aleutian Archipelago (archived samples), and from 2populations below K, the Kodiak Archipelago and Sitka. The average AFR was lower in populations below K (3.60 years ??0.16 SD)compared to those near K (4.21 ?? 0.13 years, P <0.001), and differed among all populations, with the Aleutian population possessing the oldest average AFR (4.29 ?? 0.09 years) followed by PWS (4.05 ?? 0.24 years), Sitka (3.80 ?? 0.21 years), and Kodiak (3.19 ?? 0.37 years). The difference in average AFR among populations supports life-history theory and provides evidence of phenotypic plasticity in sea otters. Our findings highlight the value of using average AFR as a tool for monitoring mammalian populations. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. Correlating Estrogen Levels and Cognitive Functions in Regularly Menstruating Females of Reproductive Age Group and Post Menopausal Women of North India

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Deepti; Sodhi, Candy; Parmod, John; Dutta, Abhilasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To correlate serum estrogen levels with cognitive functions calculated objectively as per Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the females in reproductive age group and those attaining menopause. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 150 subjects (100 postmenopausal females and 50 regularly menstruating females of the reproductive age group) were included. The cognitive functions of all the females and serum estrogen levels (i.e Estradiol E2) were assessed. Results: The E2 levels in normal menstruating females were found to be higher (mean = 188.062 pg/ml) as compared to the menopausal females and the difference in E2 levels was found to be significant (p < 0.001). However, the difference in serum estrogen levels of subjects in the two menopausal groups was insignificant. MMSE, showed that scores of normal menstruating females were higher (mean score = 29.92) as compared to post menopausal females for 1-5 years (mean score = 26.72) and post menopausal females for last 6-10 years (mean score = 26.30). Conclusion: We observed that the cognition functions declined in post menopausal women, whereas the scores were higher in the women of reproductive age group, meaning thereby, that it is the serum estrogen level that is bringing about this difference. Another finding was that the decline in cognition following menopause was not progressive. Therefore, this correlation would open up the gates for the use of estrogen therapy for various neuropsychological disorders pertaining to cognition in the postmenopausal females. PMID:26177471

  5. Mate selection and its impact on female marriage age, pregnancy wastages, and first child survival in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Sureender, S; Prabakaran, B; Khan, A G

    1998-01-01

    Marriage in Indian society is a religious duty. Consanguineous marriage is common, where individuals prefer to marry within their clan (a unilateral kin group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent). Keeping in mind that this form of marriage has certain disadvantages for social and biological as well as demographic aspects of individuals and families, the present study examines the influence of mate selection (i.e., close relatives, distant relatives, not related) on female age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and survival status of the first child. The study was designed based on the information collected on a sample size of 3,948 married women aged 13-49 in Tamil Nadu, India, by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 1992. Results suggest that 48 per cent of women in Tamil Nadu marry their relatives. This practice of marrying relatives is high in rural areas, among Hindus, Scheduled Castes/tribes, and illiterate women as compared to urban areas, among non-Hindus, non-SC/ST, and educated women, respectively. The bivariate analysis reveals that women marrying their close relatives had low age at marriage and experienced a higher per cent of pregnancy wastage and child loss (first child) as compared to those women marrying their distant relatives or nonrelatives. The result is found to be consistent even after controlling for selected background variables through multivariate techniques (applied separately for age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and the survival status of first child). Hence, this study suggests that steps should be taken to inform people about the problems of marrying close relatives through appropriate IEC programs in Tamil Nadu.

  6. Mate selection and its impact on female marriage age, pregnancy wastages, and first child survival in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Sureender, S; Prabakaran, B; Khan, A G

    1998-01-01

    Marriage in Indian society is a religious duty. Consanguineous marriage is common, where individuals prefer to marry within their clan (a unilateral kin group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent). Keeping in mind that this form of marriage has certain disadvantages for social and biological as well as demographic aspects of individuals and families, the present study examines the influence of mate selection (i.e., close relatives, distant relatives, not related) on female age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and survival status of the first child. The study was designed based on the information collected on a sample size of 3,948 married women aged 13-49 in Tamil Nadu, India, by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 1992. Results suggest that 48 per cent of women in Tamil Nadu marry their relatives. This practice of marrying relatives is high in rural areas, among Hindus, Scheduled Castes/tribes, and illiterate women as compared to urban areas, among non-Hindus, non-SC/ST, and educated women, respectively. The bivariate analysis reveals that women marrying their close relatives had low age at marriage and experienced a higher per cent of pregnancy wastage and child loss (first child) as compared to those women marrying their distant relatives or nonrelatives. The result is found to be consistent even after controlling for selected background variables through multivariate techniques (applied separately for age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and the survival status of first child). Hence, this study suggests that steps should be taken to inform people about the problems of marrying close relatives through appropriate IEC programs in Tamil Nadu. PMID:10085741

  7. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  8. Landing Error Scoring System Differences Between Single-Sport and Multi-Sport Female High School–Aged Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Beese, Mark E.; Joy, Elizabeth; Switzler, Craig L.; Hicks-Little, Charlie A.

    2015-01-01

    Context Single-sport specialization (SSS) is becoming more prevalent in youth athletes. Deficits in functional movement have been shown to predispose athletes to injury. It is unclear whether a link exists between SSS and the development of functional movement deficits that predispose SSS athletes to an increased risk of knee injury. Objective To determine whether functional movement deficits exist in SSS athletes compared with multi-sport (M-S) athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Soccer practice fields. Patients or Other Participants A total of 40 (21 SSS [age = 15.05 ± 1.2 years], 19 M-S [age = 15.32 ± 1.2 years]) female high school athlete volunteers were recruited through local soccer clubs. All SSS athletes played soccer. Intervention(s) Participants were grouped into 2 categories: SSS and M-S. All participants completed 3 trials of the standard Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) jump-landing task. They performed a double-legged jump from a 30-cm platform, landing on a rubber mat at a distance of half their body height. Upon landing, participants immediately performed a maximal vertical jump. Main Outcome Measure(s) Values were assigned to each trial using the LESS scoring criteria. We averaged the 3 scored trials and then used a Mann-Whitney U test to test for differences between groups. Participant scores from the jump-landing assessment for each group were also placed into the 4 defined LESS categories for group comparison using a Pearson χ2 test. The α level was set a priori at .05. Results Mean scores were 6.84 ± 1.81 for the SSS group and 6.07 ± 1.93 for the M-S group. We observed no differences between groups (z = −1.44, P = .15). A Pearson χ2 analysis revealed that the proportions of athletes classified as having excellent, good, moderate, or poor LESS scores were not different between the SSS and M-S groups ( = 1.999, P = .57). Conclusions Participation in soccer alone compared with multiple sports did not affect LESS scores in

  9. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age

    PubMed Central

    Thuesen, Lea Langhoff; Andersen, Claus Yding; Nyboe-Andersen, Anders; Ziebe, Søren; Winther, Ole; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC) and cumulus cell (CC) transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth) and non-competent (no pregnancy) oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments. Design: A case-control study. Setting: University based facilities for clinical services and research. Patients: MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study. Methods MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines) with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set. Results We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level. Conclusion We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on

  10. Reduced quality and accelerated follicle loss with female reproductive aging - does decline in theca dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) underlie the problem?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Infertility, spontaneous abortion and conception of trisomic offspring increase exponentially with age in mammals but in women there is an apparent acceleration in the rate from about age 37. The problems mostly commonly occur when the ovarian pool of follicles is depleted to a critical level with age but are also found in low follicular reserve of other etiologies. Since recent clinical studies have indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation may reverse the problem of oocyte quality, this review of the literature was undertaken in an attempt to find an explanation of why this is effective? In affected ovaries, oxygenation of follicular fluid is low, ultrastructural disturbances especially of mitochondria, occur in granulosa cells and oocytes, and considerable disturbances of meiosis occur. There is, however, no evidence to date that primordial follicles are compromised. In females with normal fertility, pre-antral ovarian theca cells respond to stimulation by inhibin B to provide androgen-based support for the developing follicle. With depletion of follicle numbers, inhibin B is reduced with consequent reduction in theca DHEA. Theca cells are the sole ovarian site of synthesis of DHEA, which is both a precursor of androstenedione and an essential ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the key promoter of genes affecting fatty acid metabolism and fat transport and genes critical to mitochondrial function. As well as inducing a plethora of deleterious changes in follicular cytoplasmic structure and function, the omega 9 palmitate/oleate ratio is increased by lowered activity of PPARα. This provides conditions for increased ceramide synthesis and follicular loss through ceramide-induced apoptosis is accelerated. In humans critical theca DHEA synthesis occurs at about 70 days prior to ovulation thus effective supplementation needs to be undertaken about four months prior to intended conception; timing which is also

  11. Estradiol valerate elicits antidepressant-like effects in middle-aged female rats under chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Romano-Torres, Mónica; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the antidepressant-like actions of estradiol valerate (1 or 2 mg/rat, single injection) or citalopram (5 or 10 mg/kg, chronically administered for 21 days) given independently or combined at low doses, to middle-aged ovariectomized female rats, as a model of human menopause. Animals were exposed to chronic mild stress, a model of depression that mimics anhedonia as revealed by diminished sucrose solution intake. Stressed rats decreased their sucrose preference 1 week after chronic stress and treatment with vehicle did not reverse this reduction. A single injection of estradiol valerate (2 mg/rat) produced an antidepressant-like action, evidenced as an increase in sucrose preference specific to stressed rats. Chronic citalopram (10 mg/kg) produced an antidepressant-like effect after 1 week. A single low-dose of estradiol valerate (1 mg/rat) did not potentiate or shorten the latency of action of chronic citalopram (5 mg/kg). These results reveal the antidepressant-like action of estrogens in middle-aged rats exposed to chronic stress. These data may be of importance for clinical depression in menopausal women. PMID:20168212

  12. Age- and gender-related changes in the distribution of osteocalcin in the extracellular matrix of normal male and female bone. Possible involvement of osteocalcin in bone remodeling.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R T; Park, Y K; Clarke, B L; Fitzpatrick, L A

    1994-01-01

    With increasing age, bone undergoes changes in remodeling that ultimately compromise the structural integrity of the skeleton. The presence of osteocalcin in bone matrix may alter bone remodeling by promoting osteoclast activity. Whether age- and/or gender-related differences exist in the distribution of osteocalcin within individual bone remodeling units is not known. In this study, we determined the immunohistochemical distribution of osteocalcin in the extracellular matrix of iliac crest bone biopsies obtained from normal male and female volunteers, 20-80 yr old. Four different distribution patterns of osteocalcin within individual osteons were arbitrarily defined as types I, II, III, or IV. The frequency of appearance of each osteon type was determined as a percent of the total osteons per histologic section. The proportion of osteons that stained homogeneously throughout the concentric lamellae (type I) decreased in females and males with increasing age. The proportion of osteons that lack osteocalcin in the matrix immediately adjacent to Haversian canals (type III) increased in females and males with age. Osteons staining intensely in the matrix adjacent to Haversian canals (type II) increased in females and was unchanged in aging males. Osteons that contained osteocalcin-positive resting lines (type IV) increased in bone obtained from males with increasing age but were unchanged in females. Sections of bone immunostained for osteopontin (SPP-I), osteonectin, and decorin did not reveal multiple patterns or alterations in staining with gender or increasing age. We suggest that the morphology of individual bone remodeling units is heterogeneous and the particular morphologic pattern of osteocalcin distribution changes with age and gender. These results suggest that differences in the distribution of osteocalcin in bone matrix may be responsible, in part, for the altered remodeling of bone associated with gender and aging. Images PMID:8132785

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species Differentially Regulate Bone Turnover in an Age-Specific Manner in Catalase Transgenic Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Alund, Alexander W; Mercer, Kelly E; Suva, Larry J; Pulliam, Casey F; Chen, Jin-Ran; Badger, Thomas M; Van Remmen, Holly; Ronis, Martin J J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic ethyl alcohol (EtOH) consumption results in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in bone and osteopenia due to increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. In this study, transgenic C57Bl/6J mice overexpressing human catalase (TgCAT) were used to test whether limiting excess hydrogen peroxide would protect against EtOH-mediated bone loss. Micro-computed tomography analysis of the skeletons of 6-week-old female chow-fed TgCAT mice revealed a high bone mass phenotype with increased cortical bone area and thickness as well as significantly increased trabecular bone volume (P < 0.05). Six-week-old wild-type (WT) and TgCAT female mice were chow fed or pair fed (PF) liquid diets with or without EtOH, approximately 30% of calories, for 8 weeks. Pair feeding of WT had no demonstrable effect on the skeleton; however, EtOH feeding of WT mice significantly reduced cortical and trabecular bone parameters along with bone strength compared with PF controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, EtOH feeding of TgCAT mice had no effect on trabecular bone compared with PF controls. At 14 weeks of age, there was significantly less trabecular bone and cortical cross-sectional area in TgCAT mice than WT mice (P < 0.05), suggesting impaired normal bone accrual with age. TgCAT mice expressed less collagen1α and higher sclerostin mRNA (P < 0.05), suggesting decreased bone formation in TgCAT mice. In conclusion, catalase overexpression resulted in greater bone mass than in WT mice at 6 weeks and lower bone mass at 14 weeks. EtOH feeding induced significant reductions in bone architecture and strength in WT mice, but TgCAT mice were partially protected. These data implicate ROS signaling in the regulation of bone turnover in an age-dependent manner, and indicate that excess hydrogen peroxide generation contributes to alcohol-induced osteopenia. PMID:27189961

  14. The Association of Inbreeding With Lung Fibrosis Incidence in Beagle Dogs That Inhaled 238PuO2 or 239PuO2.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brigantic, Andrea M.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-09-12

    Studies of health effects in animals after exposure to internally deposited radionuclides were intended to supplement observational studies in humans. Both nuclear workers and Beagle dogs have exhibited plutonium associated lung fibrosis; however, the dogs smaller gene pool may limit the applicability of findings to humans. Data on Beagles that inhaled either plutonium-238 dioxide (238PuO2) or plutonium-239 dioxide (239PuO2) were analyzed. Wright's Coefficient of Inbreeding was used to measure genetic or familial susceptibility and was assessed as an explanatory variable when modeling the association between lung fibrosis incidence and plutonium exposure. Lung fibrosis was diagnosed in approximately 80% of the exposed dogs compared with 23.7% of the control dogs. The maximum degree of inbreeding was 9.4%. Regardless of isotope, the addition of inbreeding significantly improved the model in female dogs but not in males. In female dogs an increased inbreeding coefficient predicted decreased hazard of a lung fibrosis diagnosis. Lung fibrosis was common in these dogs with inbreeding affecting models of lung fibrosis incidence in females but not in males. The apparent protective effect in females predicted by these models of lung fibrosis incidence is likely to be minimal given the small degree of inbreeding in these groups.

  15. A new Wind Sensor for the Beagle 2 Mars Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. F.; Calcutt, S. B.; Jones, T. V.

    2001-12-01

    A hot-film anemometer has been developed for Beagle2, a British Mars lander to be launched in 2003. The sensor will measure wind speed (up to 30 m/s) and horizontal component of wind direction. The position of the wind sensor position at the end of Beagle2's motorised arm allows several new possibilities for wind measurement on Mars that were unavailable in previous missions. The height of the wind sensor can be adjusted to any height between ~20 cm and ~110 cm above the lander body, or can be moved laterally at a given height to study the effects of lander interference. Alternatively, the wind sensor may be positioned with its axis horizontal, thus allowing measurements of vertical wind speed. The wind sensor was calibrated in a new wind tunnel facility, in which Martian surface wind conditions are simulated. Wind speeds of 0.5 - 60 m/s can be created in a CO2 or air atmosphere at pressures of 5 - 10 mbar and temperatures of 200 - 300 K. The facility can also be used in its current configuration to simulate stratospheric winds on Earth. >http://www.atm.ox.ac.uk/user/wilson/matacf.html

  16. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Beagle 2: The Next Exobiology Mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 60 kg probe (with a 30 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 will deliver to the Martian surface a payload which consists of a high percentage of science instruments to landed spacecraft mass. Beagle 2 will be launched in June, 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 will land on Mars on December 26, 2003 in the Isidis Planitia basin (approximately 10 degrees N and 275 degrees W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. Beagle 2 was developed to search for organic material and other volatiles on and below the surface of Mars in addition to the study of the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy. Beagle 2 will utilize a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks and inside rocks. A pair of stereo cameras will image the landing site along with a microscope for examination of surface and rock samples. Analyses will include both rock and soil samples at various wavelengths, X-ray spectrometer and Mossbauer spectrometer as well as a search for organics and other light element species (e.g. carbonates and water) and measurement of their isotopic compositions. Beagle 2 has as its focus the goal of establishing whether evidence for life existed in the past on Mars at the Isidis Planitia site or at least establishing if the conditions were ever suitable. Carbonates and organic components were first recognized as existing on Mars when they were found in the Martian meteorite Nakhla. Romanek et al showed the carbonates in ALH84001 were formed at low temperatures. McKay et al noted possible evidence of early life on Mars within the

  18. Social relationships of nulliparous young adult females beyond the ordinary age of the first birth in a free-ranging troop of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Katsu, Noriko; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We describe the social relationships of young adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in a free-ranging troop in Arashiyama, Kyoto, Japan, who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth because of contraceptive administration. We observed 12 young nulliparous adult females (6-9 years old) for 270 h and 10 min from 2 February to 5 October 2010. The majority maintained close relationships with their mothers through proximity and grooming, whereas a few had very infrequent social interactions with their mothers. Most had asymmetrical grooming relationships; the grooming they received from unrelated adult females was less than the grooming they gave. Young adult females who had less frequent interactions with their mothers by either proximity or grooming received more grooming from a larger number of unrelated adult females than did those who had more frequent social interactions with their mothers. These results indicate that most young adult females who remained nulliparous beyond the ordinary age of first birth tended to maintain close relationships with their mothers, and their grooming relationships with unrelated adult females were inversely related to the degree of closeness with their mothers.

  19. Differences in gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without bag in females of very advanced age.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] Gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag were compared in females of very advanced age. [Subjects and Methods] Ten female volunteers of very advanced age who could walk independently were recruited for this study. Gait velocity and trunk acceleration were measured using an accelerometer during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag. [Results] Gait velocity during semicircular turning gait was greater with the bag than without the bag. [Conclusions] Trunk stability during semicircular turning gait was higher when the subjects carried a bag. Additional arm load could be considered during gait training in females of very advanced age. PMID:27630425

  20. Differences in gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without bag in females of very advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag were compared in females of very advanced age. [Subjects and Methods] Ten female volunteers of very advanced age who could walk independently were recruited for this study. Gait velocity and trunk acceleration were measured using an accelerometer during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag. [Results] Gait velocity during semicircular turning gait was greater with the bag than without the bag. [Conclusions] Trunk stability during semicircular turning gait was higher when the subjects carried a bag. Additional arm load could be considered during gait training in females of very advanced age. PMID:27630425

  1. Differences in gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without bag in females of very advanced age

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sun-Shil; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Gait velocity and trunk acceleration during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag were compared in females of very advanced age. [Subjects and Methods] Ten female volunteers of very advanced age who could walk independently were recruited for this study. Gait velocity and trunk acceleration were measured using an accelerometer during semicircular turning gait with and without carrying a hand-held bag. [Results] Gait velocity during semicircular turning gait was greater with the bag than without the bag. [Conclusions] Trunk stability during semicircular turning gait was higher when the subjects carried a bag. Additional arm load could be considered during gait training in females of very advanced age.

  2. EFFECTS OF ESTROGEN AND AGING ON THE SYNAPTIC DISTRIBUTION OF PHOSPHORYLATED AKT-IMMUNOREACTIVITY IN THE CA1 REGION OF THE FEMALE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Murat; Janssen, William G.M.; Lou, W.Y. Wendy; Akama, Keith T.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Milner, Teresa A.; Morrison, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The estrogen 17β-estradiol (E) increases the axospinous synaptic density and plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region of young female rats but fails to do so in aged female rats. This E stimulus on synaptic plasticity is associated with the phosphorylation-dependent activation of Akt kinase. Our previous findings demonstrated that increased estrogen levels subsequently increase phosphorylated Akt (pAkt)-immunoreactivity (-IR) within the dendritic shafts and spines of pyramidal neurons in young female rats. Therefore, because Akt can promote cell survival and growth, we tested the hypothesis that the less plastic synapses of aged female rats would contain less E-stimulated pAkt-IR. Here, young (3-4 months) and aged (22-23 months) female rats were ovariectomized seven days prior to a 48-hour administration of either vehicle or E. The pAkt-IR synaptic distribution was then analyzed using post-embedding electron microscopy. In both young and aged rats, pAkt-IR was found in dendritic spines and terminals, and pAkt-IR was particularly abundant at the post-synaptic density. Quantitative analyses revealed that the percentage of pAkt-labeled synapses was significantly greater in young rats compared to aged rats. Nonetheless, E treatment significantly increased pAkt-IR in pre- and post-synaptic profiles of both young and aged rats, although the stimulus in young rats was notably more widespread. These data support the evidence that hormone-activated signaling associated with cell growth and survival is diminished in the aged brain. However, the observation that E can still increase pAkt-IR in aged synapses presents this signaling component as a candidate target for hormone replacement therapies. PMID:20709039

  3. The Beagle 2 Effect - public response to the UK Mars lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, J. M.; Pillinger, C. T.

    As a prerequisite for understanding science, the target audience must first be aware of an issue and then continue to maintain interest. We discuss the impact of the Beagle 2 mission to Mars on raising awareness amongst the general public as the first step to increasing understanding of the scientific and technological challenges and solutions such a mission addresses. The massive amount of public interest created is now being ttributed to the so-called "Beagle 2 Effect". We consider the reasons why the public, particularly, but not exclusively, in the UK took Beagle 2 to heart. Initially our strategy, as part of the PR plan for Beagle 2, was to collate media coverage for various stages and discrete campaigns in particular to use press cuttings to determine the level of recognition of Beagle 2 as a brand. At the start of the project this information was to support sponsorship bids, latterly the intrinsic value of media, and hence public, awareness was recognised by the major partners in the project. Much of the subsequent public awareness resulted from the comprehensive coverage in all branches of the media. A second opportunity to evaluate the response to the mission was presented to us as it became increasingly clear that Beagle 2 was able to engage an audience much wider than that typically interested in space, or science in general. We highlighted how far mention of Beagle 2 has spread. Additionally numerous unsolicited letters have been received from the public and these have been collated to indicate the factors which appear to have contributed to the widespread interest in Beagle 2. It is not clear whether the "Beagle 2 Effect" can, or will, be transferred to subsequent space missions.

  4. The effect of perinatal sup 60 Co gamma radiation on brain weight in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, B.F.; Benjamin, S.A.; Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C. )

    1989-08-01

    Beagle dogs were given single, whole-body {sup 60}Co gamma-radiation exposures at one of three prenatal (8, 28, or 55 days postcoitus) or three postnatal (2, 70, or 365 days postpartum) ages to evaluate the relative radiosensitivity of various stages of brain development. A total of 387 dogs received mean doses ranging from 0.16 to 3.83 Gy, and 120 dogs were sham-irradiated. Groups of dogs were sacrificed at preselected times from 70 days to 11 years of age. Brain weight decreased significantly with increasing dose in dogs irradiated at 28 or 55 days postcoitus or at 2 days postpartum. Irradiations at 28 days postcoitus were dramatically more effective in causing a reduction in brain weight than those at 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum. Among dogs given 1.0 Gy or more and followed for up to 4 years, there was a radiation effect evident at all three sensitive exposure ages. Among dogs given lower doses and followed for up to 11 years, there was a significant decrease in brain weight in dogs given 0.80-0.88 Gy at 28 days postcoitus. All decreases in brain weight were present after normalization for radiation-induced reductions in skeletal (body) size. No specific morphologic changes were noted in the brains which showed the radiation-related reductions in size.

  5. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Setegn, Tesfaye; Lakew, Yihunie; Deribe, Kebede

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representative surveys. Data from two (2000 and 2005) Ethiopian demographic and health surveys (EDHS) were used in this analysis. Briefly, EDHS used a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling design. A total of 15,367 (from EDHS 2000) and 14,070 (from EDHS 2005) women of reproductive age (15–49 years) were included in the analysis. Three outcome variables were used (prevalence of FGM among women, prevalence of FGM among daughters and support for the continuation of FGM). The data were weighted and descriptive statistics (percentage change), bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Multicollinearity of variables was assessed using variance inflation factors (VIF) with a reference value of 10 before interpreting the final output. The geographic variation and clustering of weighted FGM prevalence were analyzed and visualized on maps using ArcGIS. Z-scores were used to assess the statistical difference of geographic clustering of FGM prevalence spots. Result The trend of FGM weighted prevalence has been decreasing. Being wealthy, Muslim and in higher age categories are associated with increased odds of FGM among women. Similarly, daughters from Muslim women have increased odds of experiencing FGM. Women in the higher age categories have increased odds of having daughters who experience FGM. The odds of FGM among daughters decrease with increased maternal education. Mass media exposure, being wealthy and higher paternal and maternal education are associated

  6. Altered levels of mitochondrial DNA are associated with female age, aneuploidy, and provide an independent measure of embryonic implantation potential.

    PubMed

    Fragouli, Elpida; Spath, Katharina; Alfarawati, Samer; Kaper, Fiona; Craig, Andrew; Michel, Claude-Edouard; Kokocinski, Felix; Cohen, Jacques; Munne, Santiago; Wells, Dagan

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria play a vital role in embryo development. They are the principal site of energy production and have various other critical cellular functions. Despite the importance of this organelle, little is known about the extent of variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) between individual human embryos prior to implantation. This study investigated the biological and clinical relevance of the quantity of mtDNA in 379 embryos. These were examined via a combination of microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH), quantitative PCR and next generation sequencing (NGS), providing information on chromosomal status, amount of mtDNA, and presence of mutations in the mitochondrial genome. The quantity of mtDNA was significantly higher in embryos from older women (P=0.003). Additionally, mtDNA levels were elevated in aneuploid embryos, independent of age (P=0.025). Assessment of clinical outcomes after transfer of euploid embryos to the uterus revealed that blastocysts that successfully implanted tended to contain lower mtDNA quantities than those failing to implant (P=0.007). Importantly, an mtDNA quantity threshold was established, above which implantation was never observed. Subsequently, the predictive value of this threshold was confirmed in an independent blinded prospective study, indicating that abnormal mtDNA levels are present in 30% of non-implanting euploid embryos, but are not seen in embryos forming a viable pregnancy. NGS did not reveal any increase in mutation in blastocysts with elevated mtDNA levels. The results of this study suggest that increased mtDNA may be related to elevated metabolism and are associated with reduced viability, a possibility consistent with the 'quiet embryo' hypothesis. Importantly, the findings suggest a potential role for mitochondria in female reproductive aging and the genesis of aneuploidy. Of clinical significance, we propose that mtDNA content represents a novel biomarker with potential value for in vitro fertilisation

  7. Study on toxicity of danshensu in beagle dogs after 3-month continuous intravenous infusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yonglin; Li, Shenjun; Li, Chunmei; Zhu, Xiaoyin; Li, Min; Liu, Zhifeng

    2009-09-01

    Danshensu (3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) lactic acid), a natural phenolic acid, is isolated from root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, and is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, toxicity of danshensu was evaluated in male and female dogs after 3-month continuous intravenous infusion. Beagle dogs were treated with danshensu at doses of 17, 50, and 150 mg/kg/day, and observed for 90 days followed by recovery periods. Measurements included clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, temperature, electro-cardiography (EGC), hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, gross necropsy, organ weight, and histopathology. No significant adverse effects on these parameters were observed. The only treatment-related finding was a hard knot at injection site observed in the 150 mg/kg group after 2-3 weeks continuous administration, and returned to normal after 3-4 days withdrawal. From these results, it might be concluded that danshensu did not produce any significant cumulative toxicity at the doses administered, as reflected by the various parameters investigated. PMID:19778246

  8. Trapping oestrid parasites of reindeer: the relative age, fat body content and gonotrophic conditions of Cephenemyia trompe and Hypoderma tarandi females caught in baited traps.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R; Nilssen, A C

    1996-10-01

    Dissection of flies caught in northern Norway revealed that only mated, gravid females of H.tarandi (L.) and larviparous C.trompe (Modeer) were caught in host-mimicking CO2-baited traps. Trapped females had the same gonotrophic and fat body (FB) conditions as females caught on and around reindeer. Most trapped females of both species were of middle to old age, having only one-half to no FB reserves left and only a few to moderate numbers of eggs or larvae remaining. Most young females trapped also had previously oviposited or larviposited at least once, and some newly eclosed, mated females were present throughout the fly season. Based on the known location of reindeer herds, it was evident that trapped flies that had recently oviposited or larviposited had dispersed into the trapping area from 25-100 km away. Declining FB reserves sustained wild-caught C.trompe females (and in utero larvae) in the laboratory for 14 days and H.tarandi females for 18 days. Reserve FB also was depleted during long flights. Females of both species that flew for the longest times (5.1-11.7 h) on a laboratory flight mill had low FB reserves, but nearly maximum numbers of eggs or larvae. Conversely, most females that flew for less than 5 h on the light mill had little or no FB remaining, and few eggs or larvae. The large FB reserves accumulated as larvae feed in the vertebrate host enable the non-feeding adults to survive and infect their hosts even after prolonged periods of flight-inhibiting climatic conditions. PMID:8994136

  9. [Estimation of the biological age in females of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus by changes in the body shape and surface of cuticle].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S; Grigor'eva, L A; Leonovich, S A

    2009-01-01

    A method of visual estimation of the biological age of living hungry tick females by visible changes in the depth of marginal groove and the structure of the alloscutum cuticle during natural ageing is developed. In recently activated individuals, the body is convex and the marginal groove is exposed, demonstrating distinctly visible cuticular microfolds (Figs 1-4). In attenuated ticks, the body is flattened and marginal fold overlays the marginal groove, concealing cuticular microfolds (Figs 5-8).

  10. Response and adaptation of Beagle dogs to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.

    1975-01-01

    Eight male Beagle dogs, five months old, were centrifuged continuously for three months at progressively increasing loads. Heart rate and deep body temperature were monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry. Initially, centrifuged dogs showed transient decreases in heart rate and body temperature along with changes in their diurnal rhythm patterns. Compared with normal gravity controls, exposed dogs showed a slower growth rate and a reduced amount of body fat. Blood protein, total lipids, cholesterol, calcium, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin were also decreased significantly. Absolute weights of the leg bones of centrifuged dogs were significantly greater than controls. Photon absorptiometry revealed significant density increases in selective regions of the femur and humerus of centrifuged dogs. In spite of the various changes noted, results from this and other studies affirm the view that dogs can tolerate and adapt to sustained loads as high as 2.5 g without serious impairment of their body structure and function.

  11. Education and Cognitive Ability as Direct, Mediating, or Spurious Influences on Female Age at First Birth: Behavior Genetic Models Fit to Danish Twin Data1

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Kohler, Hans-Peter; McGue, Matt; Behrman, Jere R.; Petersen, Inge; Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The authors study education and cognitive ability as predictors of female age at first birth (AFB), using monozygotic and dizygotic female twin pairs from the Middle-Aged Danish Twin survey. Using mediated regression, they replicate findings linking education (and not cognitive ability) to AFB. But in a behavior genetic model, both relationships are absorbed within a latent variable measuring the shared family environment. Two interpretations are relevant. First, variance in AFB emerges from differences between families, not differences between sisters within the same family. Second, even in a natural laboratory sensitive to genetic variance in female fertility—during demographic transition—the variance in AFB was non-genetic, located instead within the shared environment. PMID:19569405

  12. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population.

  13. Barely legal: is attraction and estimated age of young female faces disrupted by alcohol use, make up, and the sex of the observer?

    PubMed

    Egan, Vincent; Cordan, Giray

    2009-05-01

    One 'reasonable ground' for unlawful sex with a minor is mistaken age. Alcohol consumption and make-up are often deemed further influences on impaired perception. Two hundred and forty persons in bars and cafes rated the attractiveness of composite faces of immature and mature females with and without additional makeup, alcohol users having their concurrent blood-alcohol level measured using a breathalyser. A non-sex-specific preference for immature faces over sexually mature faces was found. Alcohol and make-up did not inflate attractiveness ratings in immature faces. While alcohol consumption significantly inflated attractiveness ratings for participants viewing made-up sexually mature faces, greater alcohol consumption itself did not lead to overestimation of age. Although alcohol limited the processing of maturity cues in female observers, it had no effect on the age perceptions of males viewing female faces, suggesting male mate preferences are not easily disrupted. Participants consistently overestimated the age of sexually immature- and sexually mature-faces by an average of 3.5 years. Our study suggests that even heavy alcohol consumption does not interfere with age-perception tasks in men, so is not of itself an excuse for apparent mistaken age in cases of unlawful sex with a minor.

  14. Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, H-Y; Spagopoulou, F; Maklakov, A A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population. PMID:26801472

  15. DO BODY WEIGHT CHANGES IMPACT AGE OF PUBERTY AND REPRODUCTIVE ENDPOINTS IN THE EDSP TIER 1 MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    DO BODY WEIGHT CHANGES IMPACT AGE OF PUBERTY AND REPRODUCTIVE ENDPOINTS IN THE EDSP TIER 1 MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS? T.E. Stoker, K. McElroy, J. Ferrell, K. Bremser, R. Cooper and S.C. Laws. Endocrinology Branch, RTD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC.

    The relations...

  16. Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...

    MedlinePlus

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk Types Among Females Aged 14 – 59 Years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 – 2006 Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  17. Latitudinal and stock-specific variation in size- and age-at-maturity of female winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, as determined with gonad histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Richard S.; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Nitschke, Paul; Thornton, Grace; King, Jeremy R.

    2013-01-01

    Female winter flounder were examined using gonad histology to determine the adequacy of routine macroscopic maturity classification methods and to determine the spatial variation in size and age of maturity in U.S. waters. Sampling occurred in spring and autumn, which was adequate to collect immature, mature, spawning-active, and non-active females. Females were collected in coastal waters from Delaware Bay, USA, to the Scotian Shelf, Canada, including in Long Island Sound and on Georges Bank, which covered all U.S. stock areas. Mature fish spawned in spring, when gonads comprised up to 30% of the total body weight. Direct comparisons of maturity assignment by macroscopic versus microscopic methods demonstrated that both schemes are compatible, but the more cost-effective macroscopic method had trouble distinguishing larger immature from smaller resting females. Spatial comparisons, using gonad histology only, supported the existence of three stocks in U.S. waters, but also revealed significant variation in age at maturity within the two coastal stocks. Age-at-maturity was more variable than size-at-maturity, which is consistent with known stock-specific patterns of growth rates and a postulated life history tradeoff to delay maturity until a size threshold is reached. The within-stock variation in median age at maturity, about one year for coastal stocks, recommends further investigation of using static, stock-specific maturity ogives to calculate reference points for management.

  18. Computed tomographic findings of pulmonary atelectasis in healthy anesthetized Beagles.

    PubMed

    le Roux, Christelle; Cassel, Nicolette; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Zwingenberger, Allison L; Kirberger, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the extent and location of atelectasis in healthy anesthetized dogs positioned in lateral recumbency and to determine whether repositioning dogs in sternal recumbency would resolve atelectasis. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Each dog was anesthetized and underwent a CT examination twice with a 2-week interval between examinations. Once anesthetized, each dog was positioned in sternal recumbency, and a breath-hold helical transverse thoracic CT scan was acquired. The dog was then positioned in lateral recumbency for 30 minutes, and images were obtained at 5 preselected sites at 3, 8, 13, 20, and 30 minutes after repositioning (phase 1). Then, the dog was repositioned in sternal recumbency, and CT images were obtained at the 5 preselected sites at 5, 10, and 20 minutes after repositioning (phase 2). The protocol for the second examination was the same as the first except the dog was positioned in the opposite lateral recumbency during phase 1. The attenuation and cross-sectional area of the lung lobes at the preselected sites were measured and compared over time. RESULTS Lateral recumbency did not cause atelectasis in any of the dogs. Patchy areas of abnormally increased attenuation were infrequently detected in the left cranial lung lobe when dogs were positioned in left lateral recumbency, and those areas failed to resolve when dogs were positioned in sternal recumbency. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the extent of lung attenuation changes was minimal in healthy anesthetized Beagles positioned in lateral recumbency and should not preclude CT examination. PMID:27668579

  19. Prenatal exposure to ethinylestradiol alters the morphologic patterns and increases the predisposition for prostatic lesions in male and female gerbils during ageing.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ana P S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Caires, Cássia R S; Falleiros-Junior, Luiz R; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-02-01

    Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an endocrine disruptor (ED) which acts as an oestrogen agonist; this compound is known as an oral contraceptive. Male and female rodents exposed to EE during critical time points of development, such as in the prenatal period, show alterations in their reproductive tract during adulthood. Few studies have placed an emphasis on the effects of EE during ageing. Thus, this study had as it's objective the analysis of the morphological and immunohistochemical effects of exposure to EE in the prenatal period on ventral male prostate and female prostate of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during ageing. The animals were exposed to EE (15 μg/kg/day) during the 18-22th days of prenatal life (EE/PRE group), and the analyses were performed when the male and female reached 12 months of age. Our results showed an increase in the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), which was observed in the male and female prostate of EE/PRE groups. Immunohistochemistry showed a rise in prostatic epithelial and basal cells immunoreactivity, respectively, and to AR and p63 in the male EE/PRE. There were alterations in the morphological pattern of the prostatic glands and increase in predisposition to emergence of prostatic lesions of both sexes during ageing. Despite male and female having been exposed to the same doses of EE, the "exposure to EE promoted modifications" more accentuated in the male prostate. Thus the male gland is more sensitive to the action of this synthetic oestrogen than the female prostate. PMID:26852889

  20. Age-dependent changes in the ratio of (R)- and (S)-2-butanol released by virgin females of Dasylepida ishigakiensis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Fujiwara-Tsujii, N; Yasui, H; Wakamura, S; Mochizuki, F; Arakaki, N

    2012-12-01

    The females of the white grub beetle, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, release two enantiomers of 2-butanol, (R)-2-butanol and (S)-2-butanol. The ratio describing the relative proportions of these two enantiomers (R/S ratio) has not yet been investigated. (R)-2-Butanol has been shown to attract males in laboratory and field experiments, whereas (S)-2-butanol tends to inhibit them. To determine the R/S ratio of the 2-butanol emitted by virgin females, we collected 2-butanol from young (53 days old), mature (63 days old) and old females (73 days old) using water, extracted with an SPME fibre and subsequently injected into GC-MS. The major component of the 2-butanol emitted by the young females was (R)-2-butanol, but as the females aged, the component ratio favoured (S)-2-butanol. Young females released an 80:20 mixture of (R)- and (S)-2-butanol, whereas old females released a 45:55 mixture. The EAG response of male antennae to a 50:50 ratio (racemic mixture) showed a similar dose-response curve to that of (R)-2-butanol. The male orientation responses to (R)-2-butanol decreased when the relative proportion of (S)-2-butanol increased. An inhibitory and/or masking effect of (S)-2-butanol on male orientation behaviour was also observed in the flight tunnel assay. These results suggest that males are more strongly attracted to young females than to old females. We also discuss the possibility of using 2-butanol isomers as a control or monitoring agent for this insect.

  1. Bone sarcoma characteristics and distribution in beagles injected with radium-226

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.G.; Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.; Rosenblatt, L.S. )

    1994-03-01

    A total of 155 primary bone sarcomas were found in 131 of the 246 beagles injected with [sup 226]Ra and 5 primary bone sarcomas were found in 4 of the 158 unexposed controls. Of these 155 bone sarcomas, 146 (94%) were osteosarcomas and 9 were nonosteosarcomas. An additional 31 primary bone sarcomas (28 osteosarcomas) developed in 44 dogs terminated from the main study because of limb amputation for bone sarcoma. Nonosteosarcomas predominated in both the controls and the second lowest of six logarithmically increasing dose levels (there were no bone sarcomas in the lowest dose group). Osteosarcomas predominated at the higher dose levels, and incidence tended to increase as dose increased. The 146 osteosarcomas were distributed quite evenly between males and females (72:74). Of the 9 nonosteosarcomas, 6 occurred in males and 3 in females. The ratio of bone sarcomas of the appendicular skeleton to those in the axial skeleton was 110:45, with osteosarcomas occurring more often in the appendicular skeleton (108:38). Cases of multiple primary bone sarcomas in dogs injected with [sup 226]Ra were found only in the four highest dose groups. Amputations were performed on 44 of the 96 dogs (94 injected and 2 unexposed) that developed appendicular bone sarcomas. A statistical study of the distribution of bone sarcomas among 16 separate bone groups showed a statistically significant correlation to cancellous skeletal surface, but the variability among bone groups was too large for this relationship to be of real predictive value. it is postulated that the distribution of bone sarcomas reflects primarily the relative cell division rates in the bone groups and secondarily the radiation dose distribution, with the highest occurrence of bone sarcoma in the humeri, pelvis, femora and tibiae/fibular tarsal, and no occurrence in the coccygeal vertebrae, sternum, forepaws or hindpaws. 16 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. [Influence of beta-endorphin on the proliferative and phagocytic activity of peripheral blood cells from males and females in different age groups].

    PubMed

    Geĭn, S V; Gileva, S G

    2013-01-01

    It was revealed that beta-endorphin modulation of lymphocyte proliferative activity in male donors was predominantly observed under younger age groups of 20-29 and 30-39 years, while with age it gradually decreased and disappeared as such in group of donors under 50-60 years. Meanwhile, females demonstrated prolonged modulating effect of peptide on the proliferation. In female group under 50-59 years the peptide was found to render marked promoting effect on the spontaneous proliferation in concentrations of 10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-10) M that was induced by suboptimal PHA concentration of 10(-10) M, whereas women in the range of 30-39 years showed that beta-endorphin suppressed the PHA-induced proliferative response. Male donors in age group of 20-29 years demonstrated beta-endorphin-stimulated and in age group of 50-59 years beta-endorphin-suppressed uptake capacity of neutrophils. In female donors from all age groups the effect of beta-endorphin on neutrophil phagocyte activity was not observed. PMID:23885558

  3. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    PubMed

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  4. Radiation-induced quantitative alterations in prenatal thymic development in the beagle dog

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.K.; Benjamin, S.A.

    1985-02-01

    Quantitative morphology of the canine fetal thymus was studied to evaluate the age-dependent radiosensitivity of the developing immune system. Pregnant beagle dams received abdominal /sup 60/Co gamma exposures (200 R) or were sham irradiated at one of three ages in gestation, 30, 40, or 45 days. The mean calculated dose to each fetus was 1.5 Gray. One-half of the fetuses in each litter were harvested by hysterotomy at 5 days and one-half at 10 days post-irradiation (PI). The volumes of the thymic lobules and lobular cortices were significantly reduced at 5 and 10 days PI when compared with age-matched controls. Thymic cortical volumes in irradiated fetuses were reduced between 13 and 29% from control volumes by 5 days PI and 8 and 13% by 10 day PI. Thymic medullary volumes in irradiated fetuses were reduced 18 to 23% by 5 days PI and 27 to 54% by 10 days PI. The reductions in medullary volumes in fetuses irradiated at 35, 40, and 45 days of gestation and evaluated at 10 days PI were 54, 38, and 27%, respectively. Although injury to both thymic cortices and medullas was greater following exposures earlier in gestation, damage to medullas was relatively more severe than in cortices following exposure at any one age. The degree of reduction of medullary volume reflects thymic epithelial injury and is surprising since thymic epithelium is considered to be radioresistant in the adult. Such injury may have serious consequences postnatally as normal differentiation of T cell subpopulations is dependent upon the integrity of the thymic microenvironment. Damage to the thymic microenvironment could result in defects in immunologic regulation and in immune deficiencies.

  5. Physiological age of field-collected female taiga ticks, Ixodes persulcatus (Acari: Ixodidae), and their infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, Igor; Kovalevskii, Yuri V; Korenberg, Edward I

    2006-01-01

    In some studies the prevalence of tick infection (infection rate) and the intensity of infection are negatively correlated with unfed tick age (in the broad sense of this term). However, no special research has been carried out to consider the phenomenon thoroughly. The infection indices of the female taiga ticks, Ixodes persulcatus, infected with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were related to tick physiological age, an index that more precisely reflects tick physiological state than the time of tick collection in the field or the duration of tick survival under laboratory conditions. A novel quantitative technique of physiological age determination based on the evaluation of the ratios between sizes of the stable (scutum) and the changing (alloscutum) structures of the tick body was used. The age was estimated in accordance with the classical age-grade scale introduced by Balashov and a more fractional scale determined by the new technique. In total, 131 female ticks were examined for their infection and physiological age, 46 of which were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. (mean infection rate 35.1%). The minimal intensity of infection was 0.4 bacterial cells per 100 fields of view whereas the maximal infection was 172 cells. There was no difference between the prevalence of infection in ticks of different physiological age. The intensity of infection obviously differed between ticks of different age groups in the scale introduced by Balashov but did not significantly differ between ticks of different age groups according to the fractional age-grade scale. The data concerning the relationships between Borrelia burgdorferi and unfed Ixodes ticks are considered.

  6. Prolonged ovarian hormone deprivation alters the effects of 17β-estradiol on microRNA expression in the aged female rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yathindar S; Shults, Cody L; Pinceti, Elena; Pak, Toni R

    2015-11-10

    Administration of 17β-estradiol (E2) has beneficial effects on cognitive function in peri- but not post-menopausal women, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related changes in E2 action remain unclear. We propose that there is a biological switch in E2 action that occurs coincident with age and length of time after ovarian hormone depletion, and we hypothesized that age-dependent regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) could be the molecular basis for that switch. Previously we showed that miRNAs are regulated by E2 in young compared to aged female rats. Here we tested whether increasing lengths of ovarian hormone deprivation in aged females altered E2 regulation of these mature miRNAs. In addition, we determined where along the miRNA biogenesis pathway E2 exerted its effects. Our results showed that age and increased lengths of ovarian hormone deprivation abolished the ability of E2 to regulate mature miRNA expression in the brain. Further, we show that E2 acted at specific points along the miRNA biogenesis pathway.

  7. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cognitive functions in aged female rats: the role of oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Okudan, Nilsel

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on cognitive functions as well as oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in aged female rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups according to age (young vs. aged) and treatment (GBE vs. vehicle). GBE or vehicle was given for 30 d, and a series of behavioral tests were performed. Following behavioral testing, blood samples and brain tissues were obtained for analysis of BDNF, malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and glutathione levels, and superoxide dismutase activity. Locomotor activity and anxiety levels were lower in the aged rats. Based on Morris water maze probe trial findings, GBE supplementation increased the number of platform crossings in the aged rats. MDA and 8-OHdG levels were lower in the brain tissue, and BDNF levels were higher in plasma in the rates treated with GBE. Based on these findings, we concluded that GBE supplementation improved cognitive functions by decreasing oxidative damage and increasing the BDNF level in aged female rats.

  8. A statewide survey of age at first intercourse for adolescent females and age of their male partners: relation to other risk behaviors and statutory rape implications.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, H; Saltzman, H

    2000-06-01

    In a statewide survey of a representative sample of adolescent girls in 8th-12th grades (N = 4201), information was obtained on age at first intercourse and age of their male partners. Excluding intercourse experiences where physical force was threatened or used, 31% had intercourse by age 15 and 45% by age 16. Contrary to the impression left by studies of teenage mothers, girls who first had sex between age 13 and age 15 or between age 16 and age 18 did not have a large percentage of much older partners (5 or more years older; 12 and 7%, respectively). The percentage of much older partners was higher, however, for girls who had sex in very early adolescence, ages 11-12 (34%). Much older male partners were associated with greater problem behaviors for girls who first had intercourse in very early adolescence (11-12), but less so for those who first had intercourse between age 13 and age 15 (truancy only) and not at all for those who first had intercourse at between 16 and 18. Regardless of partner's age disparity, earlier age at first intercourse during adolescence was associated with a greater number of other problem behaviors. The implications of these findings for recent calls to enforce statutory rape laws more stringently to reduce teenage pregnancy were discussed. PMID:10992978

  9. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Suicide Rates* for Females and Males, by Method(†) - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    From 2000 to 2014, the age-adjusted suicide rate increased from 4.0 to 5.8 per 100,000 for females and from 17.7 to 20.7 for males. Suicide rates by specific method (firearm, poisoning, suffocation, or other methods) also increased, with the greatest increase seen for suicides by suffocation. During the 15-year period, the rate of suicide by suffocation more than doubled for females from 0.7 to 1.6 and increased from 3.4 to 5.6 for males. In 2014, among females, suicide by poisoning had the highest rate (1.9), and among males, suicide by firearm had the highest rate (11.4). PMID:27197046

  10. Vulnerability to health problems in female informal caregivers of persons with HIV/AIDS and age-related dementias.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Lee, P

    2001-01-01

    The health of informal caregivers is often studied from the perspective of caregivers' and care receivers' personal and interpersonal characteristics. This study offers an alternative explanation based on a vulnerable populations framework and considers the role of resource availability to the health status of informal caregivers (n=76). Caregivers in a convenience sample were females of diverse ethnicity and socioeconomic status, and care recipients were diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) or age-related dementias (ARD). Personal interviews using structured instruments were conducted with caregivers who were attending outpatient clinics at a public hospital and a VA hospital. Instruments included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-Scale (CES-D), the Global Health Assessment (GHA), the Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADL), the Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (MBPC) and items from the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) measuring anger, anxiety and loneliness. Caregivers were experiencing both physical and mental health problems. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationships among resources available to caregivers, conditions that put caregivers at risk for poorer health, and health status itself. Analyses were conducted for each group of caregivers separately (HIV and ARD) and for the total group, using depressive symptoms and perception of physical health as dependent variables. In caregivers of people with HIV/AIDS (PWHIV), caregiver distress over care recipient symptoms, anxiety and education were related to depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms, anger and functional status of the PWHIV were related to caregivers' perception of poorer physical health. In caregivers of people with ARD, there were no significant predictors for depressive symptoms or perception of physical health. In the total group of caregivers, lower income and more anger were related to depressive symptom

  11. Hypertonic Saline Dextran Ameliorates Organ Damage in Beagle Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    You, Guo-xing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Gan; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Xi-gang; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong; He, Yue-zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic saline with 6% Dextran-70 (HSD) resuscitation on organ damage and the resuscitation efficiency of the combination of HSD and lactated ringers (LR) in a model of hemorrhage shock in dogs. Methods Beagles were bled to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 50±5 mmHg for 1 h. After hemorrhage, beagles were divided into three groups (n = 7) to receive pre-hospital resuscitation for 1 h (R1): HSD (4 ml/kg), LR (40 ml/kg), and HSD+LR (a combination of 4 ml/kg HSD and 40 ml/kg LR). Next, LR was transfused into all groups as in-hospital resuscitation (R2). After two hours of observation (R3), autologous blood was transfused. Hemodynamic responses and systemic oxygenation were measured at predetermined phases. Three days after resuscitation, the animals were sacrificed and tissues including kidney, lung, liver and intestinal were obtained for pathological analysis. Results Although the initial resuscitation with HSD was shown to be faster than LR with regard to an ascending MAP, the HSD group showed a similar hemodynamic performance compared to the LR group throughout the experiment. Compared with the LR group, the systemic oxygenation performance in the HSD group was similar but showed a lower venous-to-arterial CO2 gradient (Pv-aCO2) at R3 (p < 0.05). Additionally, the histology score of the kidneys, lungs and liver were significantly lower in the HSD group than in the LR group (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a superior hemodynamic response but higher extravascular lung water (EVLW) and lower arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) than the other groups (p < 0.05). The HSD+LR group showed a marginally improved systemic oxygenation performance and lower histology score than other groups. Conclusions Resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock with a bolus of HSD showed a similar hemodynamic response compared with LR at ten times the volume of HSD, but HSD showed superior efficacy in organ protection

  12. Extending the BEAGLE library to a multi-FPGA platform

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maximum Likelihood (ML)-based phylogenetic inference using Felsenstein’s pruning algorithm is a standard method for estimating the evolutionary relationships amongst a set of species based on DNA sequence data, and is used in popular applications such as RAxML, PHYLIP, GARLI, BEAST, and MrBayes. The Phylogenetic Likelihood Function (PLF) and its associated scaling and normalization steps comprise the computational kernel for these tools. These computations are data intensive but contain fine grain parallelism that can be exploited by coprocessor architectures such as FPGAs and GPUs. A general purpose API called BEAGLE has recently been developed that includes optimized implementations of Felsenstein’s pruning algorithm for various data parallel architectures. In this paper, we extend the BEAGLE API to a multiple Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based platform called the Convey HC-1. Results The core calculation of our implementation, which includes both the phylogenetic likelihood function (PLF) and the tree likelihood calculation, has an arithmetic intensity of 130 floating-point operations per 64 bytes of I/O, or 2.03 ops/byte. Its performance can thus be calculated as a function of the host platform’s peak memory bandwidth and the implementation’s memory efficiency, as 2.03 × peak bandwidth × memory efficiency. Our FPGA-based platform has a peak bandwidth of 76.8 GB/s and our implementation achieves a memory efficiency of approximately 50%, which gives an average throughput of 78 Gflops. This represents a ~40X speedup when compared with BEAGLE’s CPU implementation on a dual Xeon 5520 and 3X speedup versus BEAGLE’s GPU implementation on a Tesla T10 GPU for very large data sizes. The power consumption is 92 W, yielding a power efficiency of 1.7 Gflops per Watt. Conclusions The use of data parallel architectures to achieve high performance for likelihood-based phylogenetic inference requires high memory bandwidth and a design

  13. Hepatic fungal infection in a young beagle with unrecognised hereditary cobalamin deficiency (Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome).

    PubMed

    Kook, P H; Drögemüller, M; Leeb, T; Hinden, S; Ruetten, M; Howard, J

    2015-02-01

    A 12-month-old beagle presented for anorexia, pyrexia and vomiting. The dog had been treated intermittently with antibiotics and corticosteroids for inappetence and lethargy since five months of age. Previous laboratory abnormalities included macrocytosis and neutropenia. At presentation, the dog was lethargic, febrile and thin. Laboratory examination findings included anaemia, a left shift, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Multiple, small, hypoechoic, round hepatic lesions were observed on abdominal ultrasound. Cytological examination of hepatic fine needle aspirates revealed a fungal infection and associated pyogranulomatous inflammation. The dog's general condition deteriorated despite supportive measures and treatment with fluconazole, and owners opted for euthanasia before hypocobalaminaemia was identified. Subsequent genomic analysis revealed a CUBN:c.786delC mutation in a homozygous state, confirming hereditary cobalamin malabsorption (Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome). Similar to human infants, dogs with Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome may rarely be presented for infectious diseases, distracting focus from the underlying primary disorder. PMID:25131805

  14. At what level of heat load are age-related impairments in the ability to dissipate heat evident in females?

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jill M; Poirier, Martin P; Flouris, Andreas D; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Malcolm, Janine; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported that older females have impaired heat loss responses during work in the heat compared to young females. However, it remains unclear at what level of heat stress these differences occur. Therefore, we examined whole-body heat loss [evaporative (HE) and dry heat loss, via direct calorimetry] and changes in body heat storage (∆Hb, via direct and indirect calorimetry) in 10 young (23±4 years) and 10 older (58±5 years) females matched for body surface area and aerobic fitness (VO2peak) during three 30-min exercise bouts performed at incremental rates of metabolic heat production of 250 (Ex1), 325 (Ex2) and 400 (Ex3) W in the heat (40°C, 15% relative humidity). Exercise bouts were separated by 15 min of recovery. Since dry heat gain was similar between young and older females during exercise (p=0.52) and recovery (p=0.42), differences in whole-body heat loss were solely due to HE. Our results show that older females had a significantly lower HE at the end of Ex2 (young: 383±34 W; older: 343±39 W, p=0.04) and Ex3 (young: 437±36 W; older: 389±29 W, p=0.008), however no difference was measured at the end of Ex1 (p=0.24). Also, the magnitude of difference in the maximal level of HE achieved between the young and older females became greater with increasing heat loads (Ex1=10.2%, Ex2=11.6% and Ex3=12.4%). Furthermore, a significantly greater ∆Hb was measured for all heat loads for the older females (Ex1: 178±44 kJ; Ex2: 151±38 kJ; Ex3: 216±25 kJ, p=0.002) relative to the younger females (Ex1: 127±35 kJ; Ex2: 96±45 kJ; Ex3: 146±46 kJ). In contrast, no differences in HE or ∆Hb were observed during recovery (p>0.05). We show that older habitually active females have an impaired capacity to dissipate heat compared to young females during exercise-induced heat loads of ≥325 W when performed in the heat.

  15. Effect of Perceived Stigmatisation on the Quality of Life among Ageing Female Family Carers: A Comparison of Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Carers of Adults with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Y. C.; Pu, C. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Lin, L. C.; Kroger, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little account has been taken of quality of life (QoL) among family carers of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) and family carers of adults with a mental illness (MI), particularly the female ageing carers' perceived stigma. We explore whether there are differences in the significant predictors of female ageing family carers'…

  16. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  17. Evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in healthy females between 9 and 26 years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Mugo, Nelly; Ansah, Nana Akosua; Marino, Deborah; Saah, Alfred; Garner, Elizabeth I O

    2015-01-01

    Due to sporadic and not easily accessible cervical cancer screening, human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in Sub-Saharan African women. This study was designed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine in sub-Saharan African women. This seven month, double-blind study enrolled 250 healthy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected females ages 9-26 residing in Ghana, Kenya, and Senegal. Thirty females ages 13-15 and 120 females ages 16-26 received qHPV vaccine. In addition, 100 females ages 9-12 y were randomized in a 4:1 ratio to receive either qHPV vaccine (n = 80) or placebo (n = 20 ). The primary immunogenicity hypothesis was that an acceptable percentage of subjects who received the qHPV vaccine seroconvert to HPV6/11/16/18 at 4 weeks post-dose 3, defined as the lower bound of the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) exceeding 90%. The primary safety objective was to demonstrate that qHPV vaccine was generally well tolerated when administered in a 3-dose regimen. The pre-specified statistical criterion for the primary immunogenicity hypothesis was met: the lower bound of the 95% exact binomial CI on the seroconversion rate was at least 98% for each vaccine HPV type and all subjects seroconverted by 4 weeks post-dose 3. Across vaccination groups, the most common adverse events (AE) were at the injection site, including pain, swelling, and erythema. No subject discontinued study medication due to an AE and no serious AEs were reported. There were no deaths. This study demonstrated that qHPV vaccination of sub-Saharan African women was highly immunogenic and generally well tolerated. PMID:25912475

  18. Search for promotion factors of ultrasound bone measurement in Japanese males and pre/post-menarcheal females aged 8-14 years.

    PubMed

    Kohri, Toshiyuki; Kaba, Naoko; Murakami, Tetsuo; Narukawa, Teruaki; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Sakai, Takeo; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    There is little evidence regarding the associations between bone growth and environmental factors among growing children, especially in Asians. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to search for the promotion factors of bone growth in Japanese children during growth. The study subjects were male (n=333) and pre/post-menarcheal female (n=179/n=68) school children aged 8-14 y. Bone status at the calcaneus was evaluated by quantitative ultrasound (Benus III), and the bone area ratio (BAR) was used as an evaluation index. Dietary intakes were assessed via brief self-administered diet history questionnaires. The participants were asked to record all of their activities for 3 d (2 weekdays and 1 holiday). They were also required to provide the most recent anthropometric measurement records at their schools and answer questions about the frequency of fractures and, for females, the length of time since menarche. Multiple regression analysis with dummy variables demonstrated that age, magnesium (more than the RDA), vitamin B(1) (more than the RDA), mean physical activity intensity per day (more than 1.7 METs), vitamin C (more than the RDA) and calcium (more than the RDA) were significantly positive influential factors of BAR for males. For premenarcheal females, age, vitamin A (more than the RDA), BMI, and mean physical activity intensity per day (more than 1.7 METs) were significantly positive influential factors of BAR, and for postmenarcheal females, only BMI and age were significantly positive influential factors of BAR. The results suggest that several manageable factors correlate with the bone mass, and the associations differ depending on gender and menarcheal status. PMID:23132310

  19. Artifactual Stratum Corneum Calcification of the Beagle Dog Tongue.

    PubMed

    Glover, Christiana; Ochoa, Ricardo

    2015-07-01

    Examination of H&E-stained tongue samples from a 26-week intravenous infusion study of Beagle dogs, utilizing a compound with no recognized effect on mineral metabolism, exhibited superficial stratum corneum calcification in both treated and control animals. This resulted in the search for possible causes of the finding to help clarify confounding issues. Retrospective examination of 11 studies performed before the signal case indicated that the problem existed in the testing facility but was not recognized. Prior to 2008, this finding was not observed, perhaps indicating the requirement for a change in procedures or suppliers. Based on the hypothesis that the calcium salts were deposited from bone during processing, a series of tests was performed by fixing tongue and femur along with different tissues, processed routinely to slide, and stained with H&E and von Kossa stains. We conclude that the presence of superficial stratum corneum calcification of the tongue in dogs demonstrated in toxicology studies is an artifactual change related to the processing of tissues, specifically the fixation of tongue in the same container as bone and stomach. This change should not be confused with compound-related effects, even when the incidence varies between controls and treated animals.

  20. Osteosarcomas among beagles exposed to /sup 239/Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, A.S.; McMillan, A.

    1982-04-01

    A Weibull distribution was fit to the osteosarcoma death times of beagles given single intravenous injections of /sup 239/Pu. For injected doses in the range 0-1..mu..Ci/kg the osteosarcoma incidence rate h(t) at t days after injection can be fit by a quadratic function of injected dose d: h(t) = 2.61 X 10/sup -18/ d/sup 2/t/sup 4.91/. The best-fitting linear function was rejected by the data (P < 0.001). A different formula for h(t), derived from a multistage theory for osteosarcoma induction, was also fit to these data. For this purpose microdosimetry calculations were used to estimate the dose to the cells at risk in the endosteal layer (endosteal dose). According to the best fit, h(t) is a quadratic function of endosteal dose at low doses. A linear dose-response relationship was again rejected. The absence of a linear component at low doses might be explained by the fact that 108 of the 185 animals injected at the lowest doses (<0.02 ..mu..Ci/kg) were still alive at the time these data were collected.

  1. The Influence of the Age, the Years of Training, and the BMI on the Average Muscle Power in Male and Female Rowers.

    PubMed

    Mogus, Mate; Fric, Vlasta Orsić; Atalić, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the age, the body mass index (BMI), and the years of training on the average muscle power in male and female rowers. The analysis of the testing results of the members of the Rowing club Iktus from Osijek in Croatia was performed. Results were obtained during the regular yearly testing on the rowing ergometer for the rowing season of 2009. Members of the Rowing club Iktus were divided into two subgroups according to their sex. The obtained results were analysed in accordance with the age, the BMI, and the years of training independently for the each of the two subgroups. The results have showed that the average muscle power is independent of all the three parameters in the male rowers, while it is dependent on the age and the years of training in the female rowers. It seems that the BMI does not play any role at all in the average muscle power. As a conclusion, it could be stated that while one can suggest to female rowers to improve their performance with prolonged training, there is a need for a further research in order to formulate a suitable advice for male rowers. PMID:26987157

  2. Blood selenium concentrations in female Pacific black brant molting in Arctic Alaska: Relationships with age and habitat salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Blood samples collected from 81 female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The concentration of selenium in blood of after second year (hatched two or more years ago) females (0.84 μg/g wet weight) was significantly greater than the concentration in second year (hatched the previous year) females (0.61 μg/g wet weight). The concentrations of selenium we found in blood of black brant were 1.5 to 2 times greater than baseline values typical of freshwater birds, but considerably lower than reported in other marine waterfowl sampled in Alaska. This finding may be attributable in part to the nearly exclusive herbivorous diet of black brant. No relationship was noted between blood selenium concentration and molting habitat salinity. We are unaware of any previous reports of blood selenium concentrations in black brant.

  3. The association between sports participation and athletic identity with eating pathology among college-aged males and females.

    PubMed

    Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females.

  4. Blood selenium concentrations in female Pacific black brant molting in Arctic Alaska: Relationships with age and habitat salinity.

    PubMed

    Franson, J Christian; Flint, Paul L; Schmutz, Joel A

    2016-10-15

    Blood samples collected from 81 female Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska, were analyzed for selenium concentration. The concentration of selenium in blood of after second year (hatched two or more years ago) females (0.84μg/g wet weight) was significantly greater than the concentration in second year (hatched the previous year) females (0.61μg/g wet weight). The concentrations of selenium we found in blood of black brant were 1.5 to 2 times greater than baseline values typical of freshwater birds, but considerably lower than reported in other marine waterfowl sampled in Alaska. This finding may be attributable in part to the nearly exclusive herbivorous diet of black brant. No relationship was noted between blood selenium concentration and molting habitat salinity. We are unaware of any previous reports of blood selenium concentrations in black brant.

  5. Age of peak performance in elite male and female Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, Ironman Hawaii, from 1995 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Background The age of peak performance in elite endurance athletes has been investigated for elite marathoners, but not for elite Ironman triathletes. The aim of this study was to analyze the age of peak performance in swimming (3.8 km), cycling (180 km), running (42 km), and overall race time for elite female and male Ironman triathletes competing in Ironman Switzerland, a qualifier for the Ironman world championship, known as the Ironman Hawaii. Methods The age of the annual top ten overall swimmers, cyclists, runners, and annual overall finishers for both male and female elite triathletes and their corresponding split and overall race times at the Ironman Switzerland were analyzed between 1995 and 2011. Results The mean age of the elite Ironman triathletes was 33 ± 3 years for men and 34 ± 4 years for women. For women, the age of peak performance was not significantly different between the three disciplines (P > 0.05), while for men, the best swimmers (29 ± 3 years) were significantly (P < 0.05) younger than the best runners (35 ± 5 years). During the study period, the age of peak performance remained unchanged for men at 31 ± 3 years (P > 0.05), but increased for women from 30 ± 4 years in 1995 to 36 ± 5 years in 2011 (P < 0.01). Conclusion Although both women and men improved their overall race times during the 1995–2011 period, the age of peak performance was similar between women and men in the three disciplines and in overall race time. Future studies need to examine the change in age of peak performance across years in the Ironman Hawaii world championship event. PMID:24198600

  6. Beagle 2 and NASA's Mars 2003 Orbiter: A Unique Exobiology Opportunity with an Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Thatcher, John; Westall, Frances

    2000-01-01

    With the exploration strategy for Mars undergoing reexamination, the opportunity exists for the incorporation of the 60 kg Beagle 2 lander, developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission, with NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter derived from the Mars Global Orbiter. The combination of Beagle 2 with a Mars orbiter would result in a unique mission which could obtain information on Mars' life, climate and resources both from orbit as well as on the surface of the planet. Beagle 2 has been developed in the LJK for ESA as a low-cost opportunity to study the exobiology of Mars and the spacecraft is in its final stages of manufacture. Only limited modifications to the Beagle 2 package would be required for inclusion on NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter. With the ESA Mars Express mission launch in 2003 and a potential NASA Mars orbiter in 2003, both Beagle 2 landers on Mars would offer a low-cost, decreased risk and increased science return opportunity for the exploration of Mars at two distinct geologically interesting sites.

  7. Effects of live yeast dietary supplementation on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Stercova, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; Novakova, J

    2016-07-01

    The effects of live yeast (strain CNCM I-4407; Actisaf Sc 47; Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) administration on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora in dogs were investigated. The study included 24 young beagle dogs. They were allocated in control and live yeast (LY) groups (6 males and 6 females in each). During the Adaptation (d 1 to 28) and Trial (d 29 to 70) periods, the dogs received a standard dry pelleted diet. In the Trial period, the LY dogs were given capsuled Actisaf Sc 47 at 1 g/kg live weight with at 2.9 × 10 cfu/g. The control dogs received empty capsules. Live weight and feed consumption were recorded. Blood samples for complete blood count (CBC) and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) and fecal samples for pH, microbiology, DM, lactic acid, and ammonia and digestibility evaluation were collected during the Trial period from each dog. The LY dogs had a higher ( < 0.05) weight gain during the Trial period than the control ones. Feed consumption was not adversely affected by LY. The CBC values and urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase were not adversely affected by LY. Live yeast did not significantly influence pH of fresh feces. Fecal lactic acid and ammonia concentrations were not affected. The LY dogs showed lower ( < 0.05) Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci counts in feces than the control ones. Lactic acid bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, and total coliforms did not show any significant differences between the treatments. The LY dogs showed a higher ( < 0.05) apparent digestibility of NDF. Digestibilities of DM, ash, crude fiber, CP, and fat were not influenced. PMID:27482677

  8. Female reproductive dysfunction during ageing: role of methylglyoxal in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in ovaries of reproductively-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Tatone, C; Carbone, M C; Campanella, G; Festuccia, C; Artini, P G; Talesa, V; Focarelli, R; Amicarelli, F

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction with ageing has been so far extensively characterized in terms of depletion of ovarian follicles and reduced ability to produce gametes competent for fertilization. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still poorly understood. In the present study we addressed the hypothesis that methylglyoxal (MG), a major precursor of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGE), may contribute to molecular damage occurring during ovarian ageing. Our results showed that the biochemical activity of glyoxalase 1, the main component of the MG scavenging system, is significantly decreased in ovaries from reproductively-aged mice in comparison with the young group. This effect was associated with decreased expression at protein and RNA level of this enzyme and increased intraovarian level of MG. MG-arginine adducts argpyrimidine as detected with a specific antibody was found to accumulate with ageing in specific ovarian compartments. Separation of ovarian proteins by 2D gels and Western blotting revealed an approximate 30-fold increase in the extent of protein glycation in aged ovaries along with the appearance of eight argpyrimidine modified proteins exclusive for the aged group. In conclusion, the present results show that impaired MG detoxification causing relevant damage to the ovarian proteome might be one of the mechanisms underlying reproductive ageing and/or ageing-like ovarian diseases.

  9. Improvement of ovarian response and oocyte quality of aged female by administration of bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advancing female age remains a difficult problem in infertility treatment. Ovarian angiogenesis plays an important role in follicular development and the activation of ovarian angiogenesis has been emerged as a new strategy for the improvement of age-related decline of oocyte quality. BMP-6 affect gonadotropin signals in granulosa cells and it promotes normal fertility by enabling appropriate response to LH and normal oocyte quality. BMP-6 has a potential role in regulation of angiogenesis and regulates the expression of inhibitor of DNA-binding proteins (Ids). Ids involved in the control and timing of follicle selection and granulosa cells differentiation. Especially, Id-1 is well-characterized target of BMP-6 signaling. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-administration of BMP-6 during superovulation process improves ovarian response, oocyte quality and expression of Id-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ovary of aged female using a mouse model. Methods Aged C57BL/6 female mice (26–31 weeks old) were superovulated by injection with 0.1 mL of 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) containing recombinant mouse BMP-6 at various doses (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ng), followed by injection with 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) 48 h later. Then, the mice were immediately paired with an individual male. The aged control group was superovulated without BMP-6. Young mice of 6–9 weeks old were superovulated without BMP-6 as a positive control for superovulation and in vitro culture of embryos. Eighteen hours after hCG injection, zygotes were retrieved and cultured for 4 days. Both ovaries of each mouse were provided in the examination of ovarian expression of Id-1 and VEGF by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results Administration of 0.1 ng BMP-6 significantly increased the number and blastocyst formation rate of oocytes ovulated and ovarian expression of Id-1 and

  10. Hormonal status and age differentially affect tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on learning in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Winsauer, Peter J.; Filipeanu, Catalin M.; Weed, Peter F.; Sutton, Jessie L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of hormone status and age on the development of tolerance to Δ9-THC were assessed in sham-operated (intact) or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats that received either intraperitoneal saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ9-THC daily from postnatal day (PD) 75–180 (early adulthood onward) or PD 35–140 (adolescence onward). During this time, the four groups for each age (i.e., intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/THC) were trained in a learning and performance procedure and dose-effect curves were established for Δ9-THC (0.56–56 mg/kg) and the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist rimonabant (0.32–10 mg/kg). Despite the persistence of small rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects in intact and OVX females from both ages during chronic Δ9-THC, all of the Δ9-THC groups developed tolerance. However, the magnitude of tolerance, as well as the effect of hormone status, varied with the age at which chronic Δ9-THC was initiated. There was no evidence of dependence in any of the groups. Hippocampal protein expression of CB1R, AHA1 (a co-chaperone of CB1R) and HSP90β (a molecular chaperone modulated by AHA-1) was affected more by OVX than chronic Δ9-THC; striatal protein expression was not consistently affected by either manipulation. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression varied with age, hormone status, and chronic treatment. Thus, hormonal status differentially affects the development of tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on learning and performance behavior in adolescent, but not adult, female rats. These factors and their interactions also differentially affect cannabinoid signaling proteins in the hippocampus and striatum, and ultimately, neural plasticity. PMID:26191005

  11. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  12. Identity Development of Gifted Female Adolescents: The Influence of Career Development, Age, and Life-Role Salience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Deborah W.

    2001-01-01

    This study identified a set of factors, including vocational exploration and commitment, commitment to the role of work, and participation in the role of studying, which explained 43.3 percent of the variance in the identity development of 95 gifted female adolescents. Of these factors, vocational exploration and commitment contributed the most to…

  13. The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages.

    PubMed

    Warneke, Wiebke; Klaus, Susanne; Fink, Heidrun; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging experimental evidence that hyper-energetic diets not only cause obesity but also impact on behaviour in rodents. A hyper-energetic comfort diet/cafeteria diet (CD) fed during early development programmes anxiety-related behaviour in adult age, but little is known how an obesogenic CD impacts on behaviour when fed at a later age. To this end we fed CD to Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes at either 6 weeks or 12 months old, for a period of 6 weeks. Anxiety-related behaviour was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field (OF). A glucose tolerance test was performed and metabolic indices, body weight and fat were measured. CD-fed young adult females, but not males, had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of carbohydrates and fats. Only in adult CD-fed rats of both sexes did this overconsumption led to increased weight gain. Protein intake was reduced in all CD groups. Fat mass (subcutaneous, perirenal, gonadal) increased in most CD groups, whereas brown fat increased only in adults. Triacylglycerol, free fatty acid and total cholesterol concentrations increased predominantly in adult CD-fed rats. Glucose tolerance was only impaired in adult males. CD-fed adult males showed fewer entries into the aversive open arms and groomed more on the EPM, whereas adult females spent more time on these arms. In the OF, CD-fed females of both ages visited the inner zone more frequently and travelled a longer distance. The behavioural data suggests anxiolysis in CD-fed females and signs of increased anxiety in adult males. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that feeding CD leads to both obesity and behavioural changes in rats. Overall, these effects were more pronounced in older rats, with the behavioural effects being particularly gender dependent.

  14. Epiphyseal union at the innominate and lower limb in a modern Portuguese skeletal sample, and age estimation in adolescent and young adult male and female skeletons.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2008-02-01

    This study documents the timing of epiphyseal union at the innominate, femur, tibia, and fibula in a sample of modern Portuguese skeletons. The sample was taken from the Lisbon documented skeletal collection and it is comprised of 57 females and 49 males between the ages of 9 and 25. Individuals are mostly representative of the middle-to-low socioeconomic segment of the early 20th century Lisbon population. A total of 18 anatomical locations were examined for epiphyseal union using a three-stage scheme: 1) no union; 2) partial union; and 3) completed union, all traces of fusion having disappeared. Results show that females are ahead of males by 1-2 years and provide similar age ranges for the stages of union than previous studies. Some variations between studies can be explained by methodological differences between dry bone and radiographic observations. However, a review of the literature indicates that socioeconomic status of a given population seems to be of decisive importance to the rate of ossification and most of the differences in skeletal maturation across studies and populations can probably be ascribed to different levels of social and economic development of the societies in which the individuals lived. Although the effects of socioeconomic status in skeletal maturation are greater during childhood than in adolescence, as to make the timing of epiphyseal union a reliable estimate of age at death, they are not negligible and age estimates should take into account the likely socioeconomic status of the individual, whose remains are under examination.

  15. Novel phenotype in beagle dogs characterized by skin response to compound 48/80 focusing on skin mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Fumi; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Shoji, Yoko; Kurosawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Beagle dogs have long been employed in toxicology studies and as skin disease models. Compared with other experimental animal species, they are known to be susceptible to skin responses, such as rashes, from exposure to various chemical compounds. Here, a unique dog phenotype was identified that showed no skin response to compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulating agent. Although the skin responses to intradermal injection of polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative (HCO-60, a nonionic detergent), histamine dihydrochloride, concanavalin A (IgE receptor-mediated stimuli), or calcium ionophore A23187 were comparable in wild-type (WT) dogs and these nonresponder (NR) dogs, only the response to compound 48/80 was entirely absent from NR dogs. The skin mast cell density and histamine content per mast cell were histologically comparable between WT and NR dogs. By checking for skin responses to compound 48/80, NR dogs were found to exist at the proportion of 17-20% among four animal breeders. From retrospective analysis of in-house breeding histories, the NR phenotype appears to conform to the Mendelian pattern of recessive inheritance. The standard skin response in WT dogs developed at 2-4 months of age. In conclusion, this unique phenotype, typified by insensitivity in the compound 48/80-induced degranulation pathway in mast cells, has been widely retained by recessive inheritance in beagle dogs among general experimental animal breeders. The knowledge concerning this phenotype could lead to better utilization of dogs in studies and aid in model development. PMID:26062768

  16. Monoterpenes and epicuticular waxes help female autumn gum moth differentiate between waxy and glossy Eucalyptus and leaves of different ages.

    PubMed

    Steinbauer, Martin J; Schiestl, Florian P; Davies, Noel W

    2004-06-01

    The autumn gum moth, Mnesampela privata, is a native Australian species whose preferred host, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), is an aromatic evergreen tree that has long-lived waxy leaves during the juvenile phase of growth. We compared the behavioral and antennal responses of female moths to whole leaves (new and old) and samples of foliar chemicals (from new and old leaves) from a typical E. globulus subsp. pseudoglobulus with responses to a glossy, half-sibling E. g. subsp. pseudoglobulus putative hybrid (the result of natural cross-pollination). We also studied larval survival and development on leaves from the same trees. In laboratory binary-choice assays, female M. privata laid more eggs on waxy leaves than on glossy leaves thereby confirming the nonpreference for the glossy tree that was observed in the field. Analyses of the monoterpenes and waxes of both trees revealed that they had comparable suites of monoterpenes and total oil contents but different suites of epicuticular waxes. Headspace extracts differed in the intensity of component monoterpenes. Gas chromatographic analyses with electroantennographic detection showed different patterns of monoterpene detection. Leaves of the glossy tree had a less diverse array of epicuticular waxes than those of the waxy tree. Electroantennographic screening of responses to wax extracts from leaves (new and old) from either tree revealed positive dose-dependent responses of female antennae to waxes from new leaves only. Binary-choice assays also revealed a strong preference by ovipositing females for new, compared to old, leaves whether they were from the waxy or the glossy tree. However, new leaves from either tree could be manipulated (by physical abrasion of epicuticular waxes) so that females would lay almost no eggs on them. Larval survival did not differ between groups reared on leaves from both trees (new and old). Over 70% of all larvae survived to pupation. However, larvae reared on leaves from the

  17. Evidence that glucose metabolism is decreased in the cerebrum of aged female senescence-accelerated mouse; possible involvement of a low hexokinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, T; Sato, E; Inoue, A; Ishibashi, S

    1996-08-16

    d-Glucose metabolism in cerebral cells prepared from aged senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM), was investigated in consideration of a sex difference. The production of 14CO2 from 6-[14C]D-glucose was reduced in female senescence-accelerated-prone mouse (SAMP) 8, a prone substrain, in comparison with that in female senescence-accelerated-resistant mouse (SAMR) 2, a control substrain, whereas there was no difference in males. The 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake into cerebral cells from female SAMP8 was also lower than that of control mice. But, the 3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake in SAMP8 was higher than that of SAMR2, suggesting that the low hexokinase activity was involved in the decreased glucose metabolism in cerebrum of SAMP8 females irrespective of glucose transporter. This possibility was supported by the finding that the contents of glucose 6-phosphate produced from glucose added to cerebral cells from SAMP8 was lower than that in ICR mice. PMID:8873128

  18. Sex-dependent nutritional programming: fish oil intake during early pregnancy in rats reduces age-dependent insulin resistance in male, but not female, offspring.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Fatima L C; Fernandes, Flavia S; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G; Herrera, Emilio

    2013-02-15

    Prenatal and early postnatal nutritional status may predispose offspring to impaired glucose tolerance and changes in insulin sensitivity in adult life. The long-term consequences of changes in maternal dietary fatty acid composition were determined in rats. From day 1 until day 12 of pregnancy, rats were given isocaloric diets containing 9% nonvitamin fat based on soybean, olive, fish (FO), linseed, or palm oil. Thereafter, they were maintained on the standard diet; offspring were studied at different ages. Body weight at 4, 8, and 12 mo and lumbar adipose tissue and liver weights at 12 mo did not differ between females on the different diets, whereas in males the corresponding values were all lower in the offspring from the FO group compared with the other dietary groups. Plasma glucose concentrations (both basal and after an oral glucose load) did not change with sex or dietary group, but plasma insulin concentrations were lower in females than in males and, in males, were lowest in the FO group. Similar relations were found with both the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity index. In conclusion, the intake of more n-3 fatty acids (FO diet) during early pregnancy reduced both fat accretion and age-related decline in insulin sensitivity in male offspring but not in females. It is proposed that the lower adiposity caused by the increased n-3 fatty acids during the intrauterine life was responsible of the lower insulin resistance in male offspring.

  19. Effects of aging on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and reactivity in virgin male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    Life history theory posits that organisms face a trade-off between current and future reproductive attempts. The physiological mechanisms mediating such trade-offs are still largely unknown, but glucocorticoid hormones are likely candidates as elevated, post-stress glucocorticoid levels have been shown to suppress both reproductive physiology and reproductive behavior. Aged individuals have a decreasing window in which to reproduce, and are thus predicted to invest more heavily in current as opposed to future reproduction. Therefore, if glucocorticoids are important in mediating the trade-off between current and future reproduction, aged animals are expected to show decreased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stressors and to stimulation by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and enhanced responses to glucocorticoid negative feedback, as compared to younger animals. We tested this hypothesis in the monogamous, biparental California mouse by comparing baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels, as well as corticosterone responses to dexamethasone (DEX) and CRH injections, between old (∼18-20months) and young (∼4months) virgin adults of both sexes. We also measured gonadal and uterine masses as a proxy for investment in potential current reproductive effort. Adrenal glands were weighed to determine if older animal had decreased adrenal mass. Old male mice had lower plasma corticosterone levels 8h after DEX injection than did young male mice, suggesting that the anterior pituitary of older males is more sensitive to DEX-induced negative feedback. Old female mice had higher body-mass-corrected uterine mass than did young females. No other differences in corticosterone levels or organ masses were found between age groups within either sex. In conclusion, we did not find strong evidence for age-related change in HPA activity or reactivity in virgin adult male or female California mice; however, future studies investigating HPA activity and

  20. Effects of aging on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and reactivity in virgin male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus)

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Breanna N.; Saltzman, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Life history theory posits that organisms face a trade-off between current and future reproductive attempts. The physiological mechanisms mediating such trade-offs are still largely unknown, but glucocorticoid hormones are likely candidates as elevated, post-stress glucocorticoid levels have been shown to suppress both reproductive physiology and reproductive behavior. Aged individuals have a decreasing window in which to reproduce, and are thus predicted to invest more heavily in current as opposed to future reproduction. Therefore, if glucocorticoids are important in mediating the trade-off between current and future reproduction, aged animals are expected to show decreased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stressors and to stimulation by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and enhanced responses to glucocorticoid negative feedback, as compared to younger animals. We tested this hypothesis in the monogamous, biparental California mouse by comparing baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels, as well as corticosterone responses to dexamethasone (DEX) and CRH injections, between old (~18–20 months) and young (~4 months) virgin adults of both sexes. We also measured gonadal and uterine masses as a proxy for investment in potential current reproductive effort. Adrenal glands were weighed to determine if older animal had decreased adrenal mass. Old male mice had lower plasma corticosterone levels 8 h after DEX injection than did young male mice, suggesting that the anterior pituitary of older males is more sensitive to DEX-induced negative feedback. Old female mice had higher body-mass-corrected uterine mass than did young females. No other differences in corticosterone levels or organ masses were found between age groups within either sex. In conclusion, we did not find strong evidence for age-related change in HPA activity or reactivity in virgin adult male or female California mice; however, future studies investigating HPA activity

  1. Association between fish and shellfish, and omega-3 PUFAs intake and CVD risk factors in middle-aged female patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Park, Seokyung; Yang, Hyesu; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the association between the dietary intake of fish and shellfish, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the middle-aged Korean female patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed with 356 female patients (means age: 55.5 years), who were recruited from the Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul, Korea between 2005 and 2011. The dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and analyzed using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis program (CAN-Pro) version 4.0 software. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis after the adjustment for confounding factors such as age, BMI, duration of diagnosed T2D, alcohol consumption, fiber intake, sodium intake, and total energy intake, fish and shellfish intake of the subjects was negatively associated with triglyceride and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Omega-3 PUFAs intake was negatively associated with triglyceride, systolic blood pressures, diastolic blood pressures, and PWV. The multiple logistic regression analysis with the covariates showed a significant inverse relationship between the omega-3 PUFAs consumption and prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [OR (95% CI) for greater than the median compared to less than the median: 0.395 (0.207-0.753)]. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the consumption of fish and shellfish, good sources of omega-3 PUFAs, may reduce the risk factors for CVD in the middle-aged female patients with T2D. PMID:26425279

  2. Effects of advancing age on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of the female white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).

    PubMed

    Steger, R W; Peluso, J J; Huang, H H; Hodson, C A; Leung, F C; Meites, J; Sacher, G

    1980-08-01

    Peromyscus leucopus, with an average lifespan of 48 months, showed unchanged levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone, and pituitary LH and prolactin, between the ages of 12 and 48 months. Hypothalamic LH-releasing hormone (LHRH), norepinephrine and dopamine also remained unchanged with advancing age. Ovarian and uterine weight decreased with age, although the changes in uterine weight were not statistically significant. These data indicate that the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis remains intact with increasing age, accounting for the maintenance of fertility in these animals. The lack of significant changes in these parameters is in very marked contrast to those in the aging laboratory mouse and rat, which show derangements in their reproductive systems midway through their lifespans.

  3. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Females Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death(†) - United States, 1999 and 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The age-adjusted death rate for females aged 15-44 years was 5% lower in 2014 (82.1 per 100,000 population) than in 1999 (86.5). Among the five leading causes of death, the age-adjusted rates of three were lower in 2014 than in 1999: cancer (from 19.6 to 15.3, a 22% decline), heart disease (8.9 to 8.2, an 8% decline), and homicide (4.2 to 2.8, a 33% decline). The age-adjusted death rates for two of the five causes were higher in 2014 than in 1999: unintentional injuries (from 17.0 to 20.1, an 18% increase) and suicide (4.8 to 6.5, a 35% increase). Unintentional injuries replaced cancer as the leading cause of death in this demographic group. PMID:27362608

  4. The changes in age of peak swim speed for elite male and female Swiss freestyle swimmers between 1994 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the age and its changes across years of peak swimming performance from 50 to 1,500 m freestyle. Data of 70,059 Swiss freestyle swimmers (33,725 women and 36,334 men) aged 10-40 years and competing from 50 to 1,500 m were analysed. The association between age and swimming speed of the annual ten fastest swimmers was investigated using single and multi-level hierarchical regression analyses. For women, age of peak swimming speed increased in 50 m from 18.9 (s = 2.3) to 20.4 (s = 4.2) years but decreased in 1,500 m from 25.0 (s = 13.1) (1996) to 18.1 (s = 3.7) years. For 100-800 m, age remained at 19.1 (s = 1.1), 19.3 (s = 1.1), 18.7 (s = 1.5) and 18.5 (s = 1.3) years, respectively. For men, age of peak swimming speed decreased in 50 m from 23.0 (s = 4.0) to 23.0 (s = 3.5) but remained for 100-1,500 m at 22.5 (s = 1.4), 21.4 (s = 0.9), 20.3 (s = 0.9), 20.3 (s = 0.9) and 20.3 (s = 1.1) years, respectively. Age was positively associated with swimming speed for 50-800 m, but negatively for 1,500 m. In conclusion, the age of peak swimming speed was younger in women compared to men for 50-800 m freestyle. For women, age of peak swimming speed increased in 50 m but decreased in 1,500 m freestyle across years. For men, age of peak swimming speed decreased in 50 m freestyle.

  5. Toxicity of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, M.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} over the life spans of 144 beagle dogs. The dogs inhaled one of two sizes of monodisperse aerosols of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} to achieve graded levels of initial lung burden (ILB). The aerosols also contained {sup 169}Yb to provide a {gamma}-ray-emitting label for the {sup 238}Pu inhaled by each dog. Excreta were collected periodically over each dog`s life span to estimate plutonium excretion; at death, the tissues were analyzed radiochemically for plutonium activity. The tissue content and the amount of plutonium excreted were used to estimate the ILB. These data for each dog were used in a dosimetry model to estimate the ILB. These data for each dog were used in a dosimetry model to estimate tissue doses. The lung, skeleton and liver received the highest {alpha}-particle doses, ranging from 0.16-68 Gy for the liver. At death, all dogs were necropsied, and all organs and lesions were sampled and examined by histopathology. Findings of non-neoplastic changes included neutropenia and lymphopenia that developed in a dose-related fashion soon after inhalation exposure. These effects persisted for up to 5 years in some animals, but no other health effects could be related to the blood changes observed. Radiation pneumonitis was observed among the dogs with the highest ILBs. Deaths from radiation pneumonitis occurred from 1.5 to 5.4 years after exposure. Tumors of the lung, skeleton and liver occurred beginning at about 3 years after exposure. These findings in dogs suggest that similar dose-related biological effects could be expected in humans accidentally exposed to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. 89 refs., 10 figs., 11 tab.

  6. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum dilation and degeneration in Purkinje neuron dendrites of aging ethanol-fed female rats.

    PubMed

    Dlugos, Cynthia A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the extensive Purkinje neuron (PN) dendritic arbor of male rats include dilation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and dendritic regression. The purpose of the present study was to examine the molecular layer of female rats for the presence of ethanol-related SER dilation and evidence of degeneration within the PN dendritic arbor. Twenty-one 12-month-old Fischer 344 female rats (n = 7/treatment group) received a liquid ethanol, liquid control, or rat chow diet for a period of 40 weeks. Ethanol-fed rats received 35% of their dietary calories as ethanol. Pair-fed rats received a liquid control diet that was isocaloric to the ethanol diet. Chow-fed rats received standard laboratory rat chow ad libitum. At the end of treatment, tissues from the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellar vermis were viewed and photographed with the electron microscope. The diameters of SER profiles were measured and the density of degenerating bodies within the PN dendritic arbor was quantitated. In the posterior lobe, ethanol-related SER dilation was apparent. In the anterior lobe, the density of degenerating bodies within PN dendritic shafts was significantly increased but SER dilation in PN dendritic shafts was absent. These results confirm that SER dilation and dendritic degeneration in PN dendrites may precede and contribute to ethanol-related regression in female rats. In addition, comparison of these results with data obtained in male rats from a previous study suggests that PN dendrites in females may be more sensitive to the effects of ethanol.

  7. Heavy metal concentrations in litteral sediments from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Amin, O; Ferrer, L; Marcovecchio, J

    1996-07-01

    For the first time the concentration of trace metals (Fe, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and total Hg) of sediments from the coastal zone of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, in Southern Argentina) were measured. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was utilized in order to determine the metal contents. The level of metals as observed in the sediments was recognized as the natural background, even though the use of normalization of lead, copper, and zinc to iron allowed the identification of the main sources of metal pollution for this environment. In order to develop future environmental monitoring programmes for the area of Ushuaia city and the Beagle Channel, the present results need to be considered.

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes UCP2 and UCP3 affect mitochondrial metabolism and healthy aging in female nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangkyu; Myers, Leann; Ravussin, Eric; Cherry, Katie E; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-08-01

    Energy expenditure decreases with age, but in the oldest-old, energy demand for maintenance of body functions increases with declining health. Uncoupling proteins have profound impact on mitochondrial metabolic processes; therefore, we focused attention on mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes. Alongside resting metabolic rate (RMR), two SNPs in the promoter region of UCP2 were associated with healthy aging. These SNPs mark potential binding sites for several transcription factors; thus, they may affect expression of the gene. A third SNP in the 3'-UTR of UCP3 interacted with RMR. This UCP3 SNP is known to impact UCP3 expression in tissue culture cells, and it has been associated with body weight and mitochondrial energy metabolism. The significant main effects of the UCP2 SNPs and the interaction effect of the UCP3 SNP were also observed after controlling for fat-free mass (FFM) and physical-activity related energy consumption. The association of UCP2/3 with healthy aging was not found in males. Thus, our study provides evidence that the genetic risk factors for healthy aging differ in males and females, as expected from the differences in the phenotypes associated with healthy aging between the two sexes. It also has implications for how mitochondrial function changes during aging. PMID:26965008

  9. Effects of glycine-arginine-α-ketoisocaproic acid supplementation in college-age trained females during multi-bouts of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Wax, Benjamin; Hilton, Laura; Vickers, Brad; Gilliland, Katherine; Conrad, Mandy

    2013-03-01

    Glycine-arginine-α-ketoisocaproic acid (GAKIC) has been proposed to increase anaerobic high-intensity exercise performance in male subjects. However, the effects of GAKIC ingestion in female subjects have not been studied. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of GAKIC supplementation on total load volume (i.e., mass lifted) and metabolic parameters during repeated bouts of submaximal leg extensions in college-age females. Nine resistance-trained females participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, double blind study. Subjects were randomly assigned to placebo or GAKIC (10.2 g) and performed six sets of 50% of one repetition maximum leg extensions (two legs simultaneously) to failure. One week later, subjects ingested the other supplement and performed the same exercise protocol. Furthermore, blood lactic acid, blood glucose, and heart rate were also measured preexercise and 5 s after the completion of the exercise protocol (postexercise). GAKIC supplementation significantly increased leg extension total load volume (GAKIC = 1721.7 ± 479.9 kg; placebo = 1479.1 ± 396.8 kg, p < .01). Heart rate and blood lactic acid were significantly increased (p < .01 for both measures) postexercise compared to preexercise, but were not significantly different between GAKIC and placebo (p = .40 for heart rate; p = .88 for lactic acid). Blood glucose was significantly decreased (p = .03) postexercise compared to preexercise, but was not significantly different (p = .78) between GAKIC and placebo. Collectively, these findings suggest that GAKIC increased lower body resistance performance in trained college-age females; however, these findings are not necessarily generalizable.

  10. Prenatal exposure to sodium valproate alters androgen receptor expression in the developing cerebellum in a region and age specific manner in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pouchoulen, Miguel; Miquel, Marta; Saft, Paul; Brug, Brenda; Toledo, Rebeca; Hernandez, Maria Elena; Manzo, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-epileptic drug with teratogenicity activity that has been related to autism. In rodents, exposure to VPA in utero leads to brain abnormalities similar than those reported in the autistic brain. Particularly, VPA reduces the number of Purkinje neurons in the rat cerebellum parallel to cerebellar abnormalities found in autism. Thus, we injected pregnant females on embryonic day 12 either with VPA (600mg/kg, i.p.) or 0.9% saline solution and obtained the cerebellum from their offspring at different postnatal time points. Testosterone has been linked to autism and plays an important role during brain development. Therefore, we identified and analyzed the androgen receptor (AR) by immunohistochemistry and densitometry, respectively. We found VPA decreases AR density in the superficial Purkinje layer only in cerebellar lobule 8 at PN7, but increased it at PN14 compared to control in males. In females, VPA decreased AR density in the superficial Purkinje layer in cerebellar lobule 6 at PN14, but increased it in lobule 9 at the same time point. No differences were found in the deep Purkinje layer of any cerebellar lobule in terms of AR density neither in males nor females. We additionally found a particular AR density decreasing in both superficial and deep regions across development in the majority of cerebellar lobules in males, but in all cerebellar lobules in females. Thus, our results indicate that VPA disrupts the AR ontogeny in the developing cerebellum in an age and region specific manner in male and female rats. Future epigenetic studies including the evaluation of histone deacetylases (HDAC's) might shed light these results as HDAC's are expressed by Purkinje neurons, interact with the AR and are VPA targets. This work contributes to the understanding of the cerebellar development and it might help to understand the role of the cerebellum in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  11. Stochastic epigenetic mutations (DNA methylation) increase exponentially in human aging and correlate with X chromosome inactivation skewing in females.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, Davide; Garagnani, Paolo; Pisoni, Serena; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Calzari, Luciano; Mari, Daniela; Vitale, Giovanni; Franceschi, Claudio; Di Blasio, Anna Maria

    2015-08-01

    In this study we applied a new analytical strategy to investigate the relations between stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEMs) and aging. We analysed methylation levels through the Infinium HumanMethylation27 and HumanMethylation450 BeadChips in a population of 178 subjects ranging from 3 to 106 years. For each CpG probe, epimutated subjects were identified as the extreme outliers with methylation level exceeding three times interquartile ranges the first quartile (Q1-(3 x IQR)) or the third quartile (Q3+(3 x IQR)). We demonstrated that the number of SEMs was low in childhood and increased exponentially during aging. Using the HUMARA method, skewing of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) was evaluated in heterozygotes women. Multivariate analysis indicated a significant correlation between log(SEMs) and degree of XCI skewing after adjustment for age (β = 0.41; confidence interval: 0.14, 0.68; p-value = 0.0053). The PATH analysis tested the complete model containing the variables: skewing of XCI, age, log(SEMs) and overall CpG methylation. After adjusting for the number of epimutations we failed to confirm the well reported correlation between skewing of XCI and aging. This evidence might suggest that the known correlation between XCI skewing and aging could not be a direct association but mediated by the number of SEMs.

  12. Age-dependent changes in cocaine sensitivity across early ontogeny in male and female rats: Possible role of dorsal striatal D2High receptors

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Sanders A.; Eaton, Shannon E.; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Crawford, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Responsiveness to acute psychostimulant administration varies across ontogeny. Objective The purpose of the present study was to determine if age-dependent changes in D2High receptors may be responsible for the ontogeny of cocaine sensitivity in preweanling, adolescent, and adult rats. Methods [3H]-Domperidone/dopamine competition assays were used to determine ontogenetic changes in the proportion of D2High receptors in male and female preweanling [postnatal day (PD) 5, 10, 15, and 20], adolescent (PD 40), and adult rats (PD 80). In the behavioral experiment, responsiveness to cocaine (2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) was assessed on PD 20, PD 40, and PD 80 for 60 min. Male and female rats were habituated to the apparatus on the two days prior to testing. Distance traveled data were presented both untransformed and as percent of saline controls. Results Male and female preweanling rats (PD 5–PD 20) had a significantly greater percentage of dorsal striatal D2High receptors than adolescent or adult rats. Likewise, preweanling rats (PD 20) were more sensitive to the behavioral effects of cocaine than the two older age groups. Adolescent and adult rats responded in a generally similar manner, however analysis of the untransformed locomotor activity data suggested that adolescent rats were hyporesponsive to 2.5 and 20 mg/kg cocaine when compared to adults. Conclusions Data from the present study are consistent with the hypothesis that ontogenetic changes in D2High receptors are responsible for age-dependent differences in psychostimulant sensitivity. PMID:25589144

  13. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  14. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  15. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  16. Synergistic effect of estradiol and fluoxetine in young adult and middle-aged female rats in two models of experimental depression.

    PubMed

    Récamier-Carballo, Soledad; Estrada-Camarena, Erika; Reyes, Rebeca; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2012-08-01

    The antidepressant effect of estrogens combined with antidepressants is controversial: some preclinical data showed that estrogens facilitate the effect of antidepressants in the forced swimming test (FST) in young adult rats, while others failed to find such effect in middle-aged rats in the chronic mild stress (CMS) model. In clinics similar differences were reported and may be due to the compounds, the depression model or type of depression, the experimental design, and the age of the subjects or the women's menopause stage. The objective of this study was to analyze the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of 17β-estradiol (E(2)) and fluoxetine (FLX) in young adults (2-4 months) and middle-aged (12-14 months) ovariectomized (OVX) rats in two experimental models: FST and CMS. E(2) (5 and 10 μg/rat) and FLX (2.5 and 10 mg/kg) per se dose-dependently reduced immobility in both age groups and, in young adults both compounds increased swimming, whereas in middle-aged rats they increased swimming and climbing. Analysis of the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of suboptimal doses of FLX (1.25 mg/kg) and E(2) (2.5 μg/rat) showed a decrease in immobility and an increase in swimming in both age groups. In the CMS, chronic E(2) (2.5 μg/rat) with FLX (1.25 mg/kg) augmented relative sucrose intake, but middle-aged rats responded 2 weeks earlier than young adults. These results show that the antidepressant-like effect of the combination of E(2) and FLX in young adult and middle-aged female rats is evidenced in the two animal models of depression: FST and CMS.

  17. Effects of air humidity during incubation and age after hatch on heat tolerance of neonatal male and female chicks.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, A M; Van der Hel, W; Henken, A M; Galal, A G; Abd-Elmoty, A K

    1991-07-01

    Effects of incubation 45 versus 55% relative humidity (RH) and early versus late hatching time on heat tolerance of neonatal male and female chicks were studied. Chicks were exposed for 48 h to temperatures of 35 (Experiment 1), 37 (Experiment 2), or 39 C (Experiment 3). Chicks that hatched from eggs incubated at 45% RH were lighter at hatch than chicks that hatched from eggs incubated at 55% RH. Chicks that hatched from eggs incubated at 55% RH lost more body weight and water during heat exposure than those that hatched from eggs incubated at 45% RH. Body weight and water loss during heat exposure of chicks that hatched early and late was similar. However, chicks that hatched late maintained their initial heat production and respiratory quotient better during heat exposure than chicks that hatched early. Body weight and water loss of male and female chicks was similar. At 37 and 39 C, heat production of chicks fell to lower values during the 2nd day of exposure compared with the 1st day. It was concluded that chicks that hatched late, i.e., with a short holding period in the hatcher, and coming from eggs incubated at 45% RH had increased heat tolerance in comparison with the other chicks.

  18. Differential Effects of E2 on MAPK Activity in the Brain and Heart of Aged Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shults, Cody L.; Rao, Yathindar S.; Pak, Toni R.

    2016-01-01

    Aging and the coincident loss of circulating estrogens at menopause lead to increased risks for neurological and cardiovascular pathologies. Clinical studies show that estrogen therapy (ET) can be beneficial in mitigating these negative effects, in both the brain and heart, when it is initiated shortly after the perimenopausal transition. However, this same therapy is detrimental when initiated >10 years postmenopause. Importantly, the molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related switch in ET efficacy are unknown. Estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate the neuroprotective and cardioprotective functions of estrogens by modulating gene transcription or, non-genomically, by activating second messenger signaling pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK). These kinases are critical regulators of cell signaling pathways and have widespread downstream effects. Our hypothesis is that age and estrogen deprivation following menopause alters the expression and activation of the MAPK family members p38 and ERK in the brain and heart. To test this hypothesis, we used a surgically induced model of menopause in 18 month old rats through bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) followed by an acute dose of 17β-estradiol (E2) administered at varying time points post-OVX (1 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, or 12 weeks). Age and E2 treatment differentially regulated kinase activity in both the brain and heart, and the effects were also brain region specific. MAPK signaling plays an integral role in aging, and the aberrant regulation of those signaling pathways might be involved in age-related disorders. Clinical studies show benefits of ET during early menopause but detrimental effects later, which might be reflective of changes in kinase expression and activation status. PMID:27487271

  19. Differential Effects of E2 on MAPK Activity in the Brain and Heart of Aged Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Pinceti, Elena; Shults, Cody L; Rao, Yathindar S; Pak, Toni R

    2016-01-01

    Aging and the coincident loss of circulating estrogens at menopause lead to increased risks for neurological and cardiovascular pathologies. Clinical studies show that estrogen therapy (ET) can be beneficial in mitigating these negative effects, in both the brain and heart, when it is initiated shortly after the perimenopausal transition. However, this same therapy is detrimental when initiated >10 years postmenopause. Importantly, the molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related switch in ET efficacy are unknown. Estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate the neuroprotective and cardioprotective functions of estrogens by modulating gene transcription or, non-genomically, by activating second messenger signaling pathways, such as mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK). These kinases are critical regulators of cell signaling pathways and have widespread downstream effects. Our hypothesis is that age and estrogen deprivation following menopause alters the expression and activation of the MAPK family members p38 and ERK in the brain and heart. To test this hypothesis, we used a surgically induced model of menopause in 18 month old rats through bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) followed by an acute dose of 17β-estradiol (E2) administered at varying time points post-OVX (1 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, or 12 weeks). Age and E2 treatment differentially regulated kinase activity in both the brain and heart, and the effects were also brain region specific. MAPK signaling plays an integral role in aging, and the aberrant regulation of those signaling pathways might be involved in age-related disorders. Clinical studies show benefits of ET during early menopause but detrimental effects later, which might be reflective of changes in kinase expression and activation status. PMID:27487271

  20. The Voyage of the Beagle: Field Work Lessons from Charles Darwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Louis M.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes Charles Darwin's letters to his family during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. Relates the information to the development of Darwin's professional identity and the degree to which the concepts, field methods, and research methods revealed in Darwin's personal correspondence are useful to students of educational administration. (MD)

  1. Elimination Half-Lives of Acute Phase Proteins in Rats and Beagle Dogs During Acute Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Takashi; Seita, Tetsuro; Momotani, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Hagimori, Kohei; Yamamoto, Shizuo

    2015-08-01

    The half-lives of typical acute phase proteins in rats and beagle dogs during acute inflammation were investigated. Acute inflammation was induced by injection of turpentine oil in rats and administration of indomethacin in beagle dogs. Serum concentrations of α2-macroglobulin (α2M) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) was measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Half-life was calculated as 0.693/elimination rate constant (K). The mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of α2M and AAG were 68.1 and 164.8 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of α2M. Mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of CRP and AAG were 161.9 and 304.4 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of CRP in beagle dogs. No significant differences in the half-life of AAG were observed between rats and beagle dogs. Furthermore, serum concentrations in the terminal elimination phase could be simulated with the K data acquired in this study.

  2. Enantioselective HPLC determination of oxiracetam enantiomers and application to a pharmacokinetic study in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuyang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Yue; Li, Junxiu; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Yi; He, Jiake; Zhao, Di; Chen, Xijing

    2015-07-01

    An enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the determination of oxiracetam enantiomers, a cognition and memory enhancer, in beagle dog plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by methanol extraction from 200μL plasma, and then the baseline resolution was achieved on a Chiralpak ID column (250mm×4.6mm, 5μm) with mobile phase of hexane-ethanol-trifluoroacetic acid (78:22:0.1, v/v/v) at flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The column elute was monitored using ultraviolet detection at 214nm. The method was linear over concentration range 0.50-100μg/mL for both enantiomers. The relative standard deviation values for intra- and inter-day precision were 0.78-13.61 and 0.74-8.92% for (R)- and (S)-oxiracetam, respectively. The relative error values of accuracy ranged from -4.74 to 10.48% for (R)-oxiracetam and from -0.19 to 11.48% for (S)-oxiracetam. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of individual enantiomer and racemic oxiracetam in beagle dogs after oral administration. The disposition of the two enantiomers was not stereoselective and chiral inversion was not observed in beagle dogs. The pharmacokinetic profiles of (S)-oxiracetam were similar with racemic oxiracetam in beagle dogs.

  3. Web-Beagle: a web server for the alignment of RNA secondary structures

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Eugenio; Pietrosanto, Marco; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Web-Beagle (http://beagle.bio.uniroma2.it) is a web server for the pairwise global or local alignment of RNA secondary structures. The server exploits a new encoding for RNA secondary structure and a substitution matrix of RNA structural elements to perform RNA structural alignments. The web server allows the user to compute up to 10 000 alignments in a single run, taking as input sets of RNA sequences and structures or primary sequences alone. In the latter case, the server computes the secondary structure prediction for the RNAs on-the-fly using RNAfold (free energy minimization). The user can also compare a set of input RNAs to one of five pre-compiled RNA datasets including lncRNAs and 3′ UTRs. All types of comparison produce in output the pairwise alignments along with structural similarity and statistical significance measures for each resulting alignment. A graphical color-coded representation of the alignments allows the user to easily identify structural similarities between RNAs. Web-Beagle can be used for finding structurally related regions in two or more RNAs, for the identification of homologous regions or for functional annotation. Benchmark tests show that Web-Beagle has lower computational complexity, running time and better performances than other available methods. PMID:25977293

  4. Thyroid metabolism in the recessive sex-linked dwarf female chicken. 1. Age related changes in thyroid hormone synthesis and circulating thyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, R R; Brown, R G

    1975-03-01

    Age related changes in the levels of circulating thyroid hormones as well as the type of hormones synthesized in the thyroid glands from normal and sex-linked recessive dwarf, female chickens were studied. The impact of the presence of the dwarf gene on the parameters measured was minimal but significant alterations in the types of hormones produced in the thyroid gland with increasing age were observed. As the birds approached sexual maturity, the synthesis of triiodothyronine increased sharply such that the ratio of triiodothyronine (T3): tetraiodothyronine (T4) was approximately 15:1. This was in contrast to the T3:T4 ratio of younger birds which was approximately 0.7:1.0. This shift in hormone synthesis was reflected in relatively more circulating T3 in laying hens when compared with younger birds. It was also noted that four week old dwarf birds had higher circulating T3 values than those found for the normals.

  5. The relevance of age in female human reproduction--current situation in Switzerland and pathophysiological background from a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geraedts, Kirsten; Imthurn, Bruno; Stiller, Ruth

    2013-07-01

    During recent years women tend to postpone childbirth to ages when fertility declines. Consequently, an increasing number of women experiences reproductive difficulties and seeks help by assisted reproductive techniques (ART). To investigate the dynamics of age-related fertility in Switzerland we evaluated data from the nationwide FIVNAT-CH statistics on ART as well as from a subsample receiving ART at the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, University Hospital Zurich. Since 2000 the average age of women receiving ART increased from 34.9 to 36.3 years in Switzerland and since 2006 numbers of annual ART cycles augmented steadily. The percentage of women ≥40 increased from 17.2% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2011. In the Zurich cohort AMH, the number of oocytes retrieved, the number of fertilized oocytes with two pronuclei, the number of embryos with an adequate cell number, clinical pregnancy rates as well as life birth/ongoing pregnancy rates were lower in the age group ≥40 years, especially when compared to 33 year-old women. In the nationwide sample pregnancy rates decreased from about 45% at the age of 30 to less than 3% at the age of 45; delivery rates declined from about 38% to nearly 0%. In the Zurich cohort percentages of clinical pregnancies declined from 46% in women ≤34 years to 21% in women ≥40 years. In the national sample as well as in the Zurich cohort the percentage of miscarriages increased dramatically from 15.4% and 22% in women ≤34 years to 38.6% and 33% in women ≥40 years, respectively. Even in a country with high health standards such as Switzerland fertility is declining with age and ART does not succeed to improve reduced fertility. Rodent and primate models enrich our knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying reproductive senescence. As non-infertility specialist physicians as well as the general public are not sufficiently aware of the dramatic reduction of chances for life births in women ≥40 years, medical

  6. Energy-restricted diet benefits body composition but degrades bone integrity in middle-aged obese female rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Zhu, Wenbin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Chen, Lixia; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of a restricted diet (RD) on body composition and musculoskeletal health along with endocrines and molecular mechanism in established mature obese rats. Twenty female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 4 months and then assigned to either HFD or RD group for another 4 months. Another 10 rats were on a low-fat diet for 8 months. Outcome measures included body composition, bone mineral density, microarchitecrure, and strength; serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor I, and liver glutathione peroxidase activity; and protein expression and spleen tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression. We hypothesized that mature obese rats on a 35% energy restriction diet for 4 months would improve body composition but degrade microstructural and mechanical properties of long bones, and such changes in musculoskeletal integrity are related to the modulation of obesity-related endocrines and proinflammation. Relative to HFD, RD benefited body composition (decreased body weight and %fat mass and increased %fat-free mass); decreased insulin-like growth factor I and leptin; elevated adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase activity and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression; and suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption, resulting in decreased trabecular and cortical bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Relative to low-fat diet, RD had a similar effect on body composition and serum markers but increased bone turnover rate and decreased bone mineral density and strength. Our data suggest that long-term RD has a negative impact on bone remodeling in obese female rats, probably through modification of endocrines and elevation of proinflammation. PMID:23890357

  7. Germ-line transmission of trisomy 21: Data from 80 families suggest an implication of grandmaternal age and a high frequency of female-specific trisomy rescue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21; Down syndrome, DS) is the most common aneuploidy in live births. Though its etiology has been intensively studied for a half of century, there are surprisingly many problems awaiting their elucidation. Some of the open questions are related directly to germ line mosaicism for T21, other problems include the prevalence of males with non-mosaic trisomy over females (skewed sex ratio, SR), the genetic predisposition to non-disjunction, etc. Studies in families of gonadal mosaicism (GM) carriers might help resolving some of these problems. Results 80 families of carriers of GM, in which the sex of the offspring had been specified, were identified in the literature and in logbooks of two local genetic units. Mothers in these families were relatively young: only 8% of mothers were 35 years old and older at the time of delivery of their first affected offspring while the proportion of grandmothers on the GM carrier's side aged 35 years old and older was significantly higher (39%). Postzygotic rescue of T21 due to error in the meiosis I had been proposed as a mechanism of parental GM formation in 78% of the families with known origin of the T21. For the other 22%, rescue of errors in the meiosis II or postzygotic mitotic non-disjunction was assumed. Mosaicism for T21 in successive generations was reported in at least 12 families. The proportion of mosaics among affected female offspring (14%) is significantly higher compared to that among affected male offspring (0%). Male preponderance (SR = 1.5) is found in non mosaic liveborn offspring with either maternally- or paternally transmitted T21. Among unaffected offspring of male carriers of GM there is a notable excess of females (SR = 0.27). Conclusion Both direct (results of cytogenetic and molecular study of the origin of trisomic line) and indirect (advanced grandmaternal age on the side of GM carrier) evidences allow to assume that significant proportion of the mosaic parents

  8. Impact of aging on cardiac function in a female rat model of menopause: role of autonomic control, inflammation, and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Machi, Jacqueline Freire; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Freitas, Sarah Cristina; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; da Silva, Maikon Barbosa; Cruz, Paula Lázara; Mostarda, Cristiano; Salemi, Vera M C; Morris, Mariana; De Angelis, Kátia; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on metabolic, cardiovascular, autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters after ovarian hormone deprivation (OVX). Methods Female Wistar rats (3 or 22 months old) were divided into: young controls, young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized (bilateral ovaries removal). After a 9-week follow-up, physical capacity, metabolic parameters, and morphometric and cardiac functions were assessed. Subsequently, arterial pressure was recorded and cardiac autonomic control was evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured on the cardiac tissue, while inflammatory profile was assessed in the plasma. Results Aging or OVX caused an increase in body and fat weight and triglyceride concentration and a decrease in both insulin sensitivity and aerobic exercise capacity. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and increased cardiac overload (myocardial performance index) were reported in old groups when compared with young groups. Aging and OVX led to an increased sympathetic tonus, and vagal tonus was lower only for the old groups. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were increased in old groups when compared with young groups. Glutathione redox balance (GSH/GSSG) was reduced in young ovariectomized, old controls, and old ovariectomized groups when compared with young controls, indicating an increased oxidative stress. A negative correlation was found between GSH/GSSG and tumor necrosis factor-α (r=−0.6, P<0.003). Correlations were found between interleukin-6 with adipose tissue (r=0.5, P<0.009) and vagal tonus (r=−0.7, P<0.0002); and among myocardial performance index with interleukin-6 (r=0.65, P<0.0002), sympathetic tonus (r=0.55, P<0.006), and physical capacity (r=−0.55, P<0.003). The findings in this trial showed that ovariectomy aggravated the impairment of cardiac and functional effects of aging in female rats, probably associated with exacerbated autonomic dysfunction

  9. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) from southcentral Alaska: Analysis of reproductive tracts. Marine mammal study 6-4. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Lensink, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    We estimated age of sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from southcentral Alaska, primarily western Prince William Sound, following the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similar to those in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  10. Serum Ceramide Kinase as a Biomarker of Cognitive Functions, and the Effect of Using Two Slimming Dietary Therapies in Obese Middle Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Moaty, Maha I. A.; Fouad, Suzanne; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Kazem, Yusr M. I.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Mohamed, Magda S.; Hussein, Ahmed M. S.; Arafa, Atiat M.; Hanna, Laila M.; Tapozada, Salwa T.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Highlighting the impact of obesity on mental and cognitive functions using serum ceramide kinase enzyme concentration as a biomarker for cognitive evaluation in the middle aged females, and also targeting to control the obesity and simultaneously postponing the deterioration of the cognitive functions, by implementing two slimming dietary therapies each incorporating different functional ingredients known to boost cognition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety six obese middle aged females, divided into two groups volunteered to follow a low caloric balanced diet combined with two bread supplements composed essentially of barley flour and wheat germ mixed with either 5% turmeric, group (A); or with 5% ginger, group (B) for 4 weeks, phase (1); to be followed by the hypocaloric diet alone for another 4 weeks, phase (2). RESULTS: By the end of phase (1), the biochemical analysis showed a positive response of the levels of C-peptide and modified homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; also increased levels of the serum ceramide kinase enzyme, coupled with improved cognitive functions tests. Improvement of the relevant metabolic profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and the anthropometric measurements was detected. CONCLUSION: Using dietary therapy supported by special formulas which contain active ingredients succeeded in reducing weight and improving both the metabolic profile and the cognitive functions. PMID:27275191

  11. Lung, liver and bone cancer mortality after plutonium exposure in beagle dogs and nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dulaney A; Mohr, Lawrence C; Frey, G Donald; Lackland, Daniel; Hoel, David G

    2010-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) worker registry has shown evidence of plutonium-induced health effects. Workers were potentially exposed to plutonium nitrate [(239)Pu(NO(3))(4)] and plutonium dioxide ((239)PuO(2)). Studies of plutonium-induced health effects in animal models can complement human studies by providing more specific data than is possible in human observational studies. Lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort were compared to those seen in beagle dogs, and models of the excess relative risk of lung, liver, and bone cancer mortality from the MPA worker cohort were applied to data from life-span studies of beagle dogs. The lung cancer mortality rate ratios in beagle dogs are similar to those seen in the MPA worker cohort. At cumulative doses less than 3 Gy, the liver cancer mortality rate ratios in the MPA worker cohort are statistically similar to those in beagle dogs. Bone cancer mortality only occurred in MPA workers with doses over 10 Gy. In dogs given (239)Pu, the adjusted excess relative risk of lung cancer mortality per Gy was 1.32 (95% CI 0.56-3.22). The liver cancer mortality adjusted excess relative risk per Gy was 55.3 (95% CI 23.0-133.1). The adjusted excess relative risk of bone cancer mortality per Gy(2) was 1,482 (95% CI 566.0-5686). Models of lung cancer mortality based on MPA worker data with additional covariates adequately described the beagle dog data, while the liver and bone cancer models were less successful.

  12. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Aerobic Exercises on Sleep Quality of Middle-Aged Non-Athlete Females

    PubMed Central

    Kashefi, Zahra; Mirzaei, Bahman; Shabani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep is considered as one of the most important factors, directly influencing mental and physical health components. In the last decade, low sleep quality - i.e. poor sleep - has become one of the major problems of the individuals, especially in middle-aged women. Low quality sleep also directly influences memory, functional components, nutrition, and mood. Objectives: This study aims to detect the effect of selected aerobic exercises on sleep quality in non-athlete middle-aged women. Materials and Methods: Fifteen non-athlete middle-aged women participated in this study, all of them suffered from insomnia. Pittsburgh questionnaire was used for determining sleep quality in this sample. Four indices including sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency have been investigated through this. The period of exercises included eight weeks, three one-hour sessions each week. The sample group was trained during eight weeks through performance of selected aerobic exercises including three groups: sequential movements equip mental movement and movements on the pad. The selected protocol included performance of exercises: 10 minutes for warm up, 10 minutes for sequential movements, 20 minutes for movements by using equipment, 15 minutes for movements performed on the pad, and 5 minutes for cooling down. The exercises during the first four weeks have been presented with 60% increase of the heart rate, and 75% increase during the second four weeks. The sample group was provided with Pittsburgh questionnaire at the beginning of the exercises and the end of each week. The information of each person was registered. Results: The results showed that the mean of sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices significantly reduced 32%, 22%, 30%, 14% and 36%, respectively. The results also showed that the trend of changes in sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices had

  13. Evaluation of the effects of hypergravity exposure and caging restraint on bone mineralization in the Beagle by in vivo photon absorptiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, G. L.; Berding, K. L.; Goldman, M.

    1975-01-01

    Photon absorptiometry was used to evaluate bone mineral kinetics associated with normal development and the possible perturbations to bone development resulting from hypergravity exposure over a period of six months in developing Beagles. A series of seven measurements were performed at specific times with the first measurement prior to treatment and subsequent measurements at 2, 5, 9, 14, 20 and 26 weeks from the onset of the experiment. Four groups of six male Beagle pups, ranging in age from 85 to 92 days were studied. Two groups were chronically exposed to hypergravity treatments by centrifugation of 2.0 G (18.0 RPM, 11.7 ft radius) and 2.6 G (18.0 RPM, 19.8 ft radius) for the 26 week period. A third group of six dogs served as a caged control to evaluate possible changes due to confinement in small plexiglass cages similar to those of the centrifuge. Thus this control group was subjected to limited exercise due to caging restraint. The fourth group of animals was housed in open runs to allow exercise without the spatial confinement of the smaller plexiglass cages. Results show highly significant differences in body weight, bone length, increase in bone density of control group relative to other groups, and a decrease in bone mineral content in the two gravity treated groups.

  14. A cross-sectional study of docosahexaenoic acid status and cognitive outcomes in females of reproductive age with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sarah H L; Kable, Julie A; Evatt, Marian L; Singh, Rani H

    2011-04-01

    Diet therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU) requires restricted phenylalanine (Phe) intake, with the majority of protein and other nutrients coming from synthetic medical food. The fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important in brain development and function; however, there are reports of low blood DHA concentrations in people treated for PKU. Although the implications of this low blood DHA are unclear, subtle cognitive deficits have been reported in those treated early and continuously for PKU. For this study, we investigated the relationship between DHA status and cognitive performance in 41 females 12 years and older with PKU. Participants were attending the baseline visit of a research-based camp or a supplementation trial. We assessed the domains of verbal ability, processing speed, and executive function using standardized tests, and the proportions of DHA in plasma and red blood cell (RBC) total lipids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Percent plasma and RBC total lipid DHA were significantly lower in the participants compared with laboratory controls (P < .001), and participants consumed no appreciable DHA according to diet records. Plasma and RBC DHA both negatively correlated with plasma Phe (P < .02), and performance on the verbal ability task positively correlated with RBC DHA controlling for plasma Phe (R = .32, P = .03). The relationship between DHA and domains related to verbal ability, such as learning and memory, should be confirmed in a controlled trial. Domains of processing speed and executive function may require a larger sample size to clarify any association with DHA. PMID:21305356

  15. Shortened estrous cycle length, increased FSH levels, FSH variance, oocyte spindle aberrations, and early declining fertility in aging senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice: concomitant characteristics of human midlife female reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Lori R; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Kraemer, Duane C; Morley, John E; Farr, Susan; Chaffin, Charles L; Merchenthaler, István

    2014-06-01

    Women experience a series of specific transitions in their reproductive function with age. Shortening of the menstrual cycle begins in the mid to late 30s and is regarded as the first sign of reproductive aging. Other early changes include elevation and increased variance of serum FSH levels, increased incidences of oocyte spindle aberrations and aneuploidy, and declining fertility. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the mouse strain senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) is a suitable model for the study of these midlife reproductive aging characteristics. Midlife SAMP8 mice aged 6.5-7.85 months (midlife SAMP8) exhibited shortened estrous cycles compared with SAMP8 mice aged 2-3 months (young SAMP8, P = .0040). Midlife SAMP8 mice had high FSH levels compared with young SAMP8 mice, and mice with a single day of high FSH exhibited statistically elevated FSH throughout the cycle, ranging from 1.8- to 3.6-fold elevation on the days of proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus (P < .05). Midlife SAMP8 mice displayed more variance in FSH than young SAMP8 mice (P = .01). Midlife SAMP8 ovulated fewer oocytes (P = .0155). SAMP8 oocytes stained with fluorescently labeled antitubulin antibodies and scored in fluorescence microscopy exhibited increased incidence of meiotic spindle aberrations with age, from 2/126 (1.59%) in young SAMP8 to 38/139 (27.3%) in midlife SAMP8 (17.2-fold increase, P < .0001). Finally, SAMP8 exhibited declining fertility from 8.9 pups/litter in young SAMP8 to 3.5 pups/litter in midlife SAMP8 mice (P < .0001). The age at which these changes occur is younger than for most mouse strains, and their simultaneous occurrence within a single strain has not been described previously. We propose that SAMP8 mice are a model of midlife human female reproductive aging.

  16. The impact of weight loss on circulating cytokines in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Berenice C; Patil, Avinash; Satyaraj, Ebenezer

    2015-02-15

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity is characterized by an increased production of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines that are contributing to insulin resistance and related co-morbidities. Cytokines act in networks and exhibit pleiotropic effects so we investigated the circulating levels of a wide array of cytokines (pro and anti-inflammatory, chemotactic and growth factors) in a canine model of weight loss. The dogs served as their own control in order to study the impact of weight loss independent of potential confounding factors, such as history of excess weight or gender. While low-grade inflammation had been previously investigated in obese dogs by measuring changes in adipokines, acute phase proteins and key pro-inflammatory cytokines, to the best of our knowledge this is the first study to evaluate how weight loss impacts a wide array of circulating cytokines. Eighteen overweight Beagle dogs were recruited (six spayed females and 12 neutered males), and none of them were grossly obese according to the body condition score (BCS). All the dogs reached an ideal weight by the end of the program. Parameters were assessed before (baseline), at mid-point (month 3) and at end-point (month 6). Plasma GM-CSF, IL-2, Il-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, IFNγ, IP-10, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), keratinocyte chemokine (KC) were measured with canine multiplex immunoassays. Fat mass was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorption (DEXA). Several cytokines decreased throughout the weight loss program (p<0.01) and were correlated with the percentage of fat measured by DEXA (p<0.05): chemotactic (MCP-1), growth factors (GM-CSF, IL-7 and IL-2), and pro-inflammatory (KC and IL-18). We could not show trends for several cytokines, possibly because their level may be lower than the assay sensitivity: anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10), and pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and TNFα). In conclusion, while our findings for several pro-inflammatory and

  17. Cystacanths of Acanthocephala in notothenioid fish from the Beagle Channel (sub-Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Zdzisław; Jezewski, Witold; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof

    2008-06-01

    The morphology of relaxed cystacanths of polymorphid acanthocephalans collected from notothenioid fishes in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic subregion of sub-Antarctica) is described. A parasite of birds, Andracantha baylisi (Zdzitowiecki, 1986), was found in Patagonotothen longipes and Champsocephalus esox. It has: a proboscis 0.82-0.89 mm long; a proboscis hook formula of 16 rows of 9/10-10/11, including 4-5 basal hooks; distal hooks with the longest blades; a fore-trunk not separated from the hind-trunk by a constriction; large somatic spines arranged in two zones separated by a zone of small, loosely dispersed spines; and only the anterior 36-40% of ventral side of the trunk is covered with spines. One male specimen of Corynosoma sp. was found in Patagonotothen tessellata. It differs from A. baylisi in that the distal proboscis hooks are similar in length to the prebasal hooks, it has a smaller proboscis (0.77 mm) and in the distribution of the somatic spines, which are contiguous with the genital spines on the ventral side of the trunk and lack a zone of small spines between zones of larger spines. A parasite of seals and fur seals, Corynosoma evae Zdzitowiecki, 1984, was found in P. longipes and Champsocephalus esox. It has: a proboscis 0.61-0.78 mm long; a proboscis hook formula of 20-22 rows of 12-13, including 3/4-4 basal hooks; prebasal hooks with the longest blades; a trunk divided into fore-trunk and hind-trunk; somatic spines covering the anterior 64-74% of the ventral side of the trunk; genital spines present only in males; and a terminal genital opening in both sexes. Corynosoma beaglense n. sp. was found in Champsocephalus esox. It has: an almost cylindrical proboscis (length 0.52-0.56 mm); a proboscis hook formula of 16 rows of 9/10-10/11, including 4-4/5 basal hooks; distal hooks shorter than the prebasal hooks; a fore-trunk not separated from the hind-trunk by a constriction; somatic spines contiguous with the genital spines on the ventral side of

  18. Both long and brief maternal separation produces persistent changes in tissue levels of brain monoamines in middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Arborelius, L; Eklund, M B

    2007-03-16

    Adverse experiences early in life are associated with an increased incidence of later psychopathology including depression. Based on evidence that dysfunction of central monoaminergic systems is involved in the pathophysiology of depression, we hypothesize that early adversity could negatively affect these systems. To test this we have investigated the effects of maternal separation, which has been suggested to model early-life stress and the development of a depression-like syndrome in the rat, on brain monoaminergic systems. Since depression is more common in women and the risk of developing this disorder appears to increase with age, we have studied such effects in middle-aged female rats. Rat pups were separated for 180 min (long maternal separation; LMS) or 15 min (brief maternal separation; BMS, often referred to as neonatal handling) twice daily for 2 weeks postpartum. An animal facility-reared (AFR) group was also included. At 15 months of age tissue levels of monoamines and their metabolites in several different brain regions were analyzed. In the LMS females tissue levels of both 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) were significantly increased in the dorsal raphe nucleus, and 5-HIAA and homovanillic acid levels were also elevated in the nucleus accumbens as compared with AFR and BMS rats. In the cingulate cortex both LMS and BMS decreased noradrenaline (NA) levels, although this effect was more pronounced in the LMS rats. On the other hand, BMS decreased 5-HT, 5-HIAA, dopamine (DA) as well as NA levels in the amygdala and produced an increase in DA levels in response to acute stress in the hypothalamus, an effect not seen in AFR rats. Our results demonstrate that LMS produced persistent alterations in both serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems in brain regions that have been suggested to be implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. In addition, BMS affected brain monoaminergic levels mainly in the amygdala.

  19. Effect of dietary calcium on bone metabolism in young and aged female rats using a short-term in vivo model

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, R.; Smith, J.C. Jr.; Soares, J.H. Jr.

    1988-10-01

    The use of high dietary calcium supplementation in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis is controversial. The present study examined the mechanisms underlying the effects of calcium supplementation by investigating the influence of dietary calcium on bone dynamics in young and aged rats. A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was utilized with 0.2% (low) or 1.0% (high) calcium, 2- or 24-m-old female Long-Evans rats that were implanted subcutaneously with demineralized (DB) and mineralized (MB) bone powder. The four groups of rats were fed each of the respective diets for 11 wk and then implanted with one number5 gelatin capsule containing 30 mg of DB and another containing 100 mg of MB powder. The animals were injected intraperitoneally with 0.1 microCi/g body weight with 45Ca 14 h before the end of experiment. The ectopic bone as well as the right femurs were harvested 14 d after the rats were implanted. Marker enzyme activities (alkaline-formation and acid-resorption phosphatase), 45Ca uptake and calcium content were measured in the implants and the distal epiphyses of the right femurs. Bone turnover was higher in the young rats than in the old animals, and high dietary calcium in the young animals increased bone formation, as indicated by alkaline phosphatase activity. Dietary calcium level did not affect ectopic bone formation or resorption in the aged rats. The results indicate that high dietary intake of calcium does not affect bone dynamics in aged female rats but does increase bone formation in young rats.

  20. Effects of magnesium deficiency on joint cartilage in immature beagle dogs: immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and mineral concentrations.

    PubMed

    Stahlmann, R; Kühner, S; Shakibaei, M; Flores, J; Vormann, J; van Sickle, D C

    2000-01-01

    Quinolone-induced chondrotoxicity is possibly associated with the magnesium-chelating properties of quinolones. This toxic effect seems to be restricted to a rather short time period during postnatal development as shown in rats and dogs. We studied developmental changes of the integrin pattern on canine chondrocytes (e.g. the alpha(v)beta(3)- or alpha(5)beta(1)-integrin), because integrin function depends on divalent cations, as well as the matrix composition (e.g., collagen type II, fibronectin), in 11-, 18-, and 55-week-old Beagles (n=8) by immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the magnesium and calcium content by atomic absorption spectroscopy in cartilage and bone and studied the effects of a magnesium-deficient diet on joint cartilage in four immature Beagles (18 weeks old at necropsy). The dogs were fed the magnesium-deficient diet for 40 to 46 days. All dogs exhibited gait alterations ('limping') after 4 weeks on the magnesium-deficient diet. Male, magnesium-deficient dogs exhibited pronounced weakness in their front legs; in one of these dogs the front legs were hyperextended to a 90 degrees angle. We observed no significant differences in the integrin pattern in samples from dogs at different developmental stages or in magnesium-deficient dogs in comparison to age-matched controls. Localization of fibronectin in the joint cartilage was found to vary with the age of the dogs as well as with the site of collection. In the middle zone of immature joint cartilage, corresponding to the predilective site of quinolone-induced cartilage lesions, we observed a slight increase in staining with the fibronectin antibody in some samples from magnesium-deficient dogs. Electron microscopy revealed alterations in chondrocytes from the magnesium-deficient dogs (e.g., swollen mitochondria and enlarged endoplasmic reticulum) which are also seen after treatment with quinolones. In summary, we found no significant differences of the integrin pattern on chondrocytes from

  1. An empirical investigation of female labor-force participation, fertility, age at marriage, and wages in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, B S; Mcelwain, A M

    1985-07-01

    The Korean experience raises questions about the assumption that successful economic development and equitable income distribution are preconditions for rapid fertility declines. During the 1960-70 decade, the total fertility rate in Korea declined by 36% and the crude birth rate fell by 33%, in the absence of significant economic development. This paper uses data from the 1974 Korean Fertility Survey to explore the relationships between the factors responsible for this rapid fertility decline. A simultaneous equation model of fertility, age at marriage, extent of labor force participation during marriage, quality of children, and wages is developed and tested. Rather than to provide definitive measures of these interrelationships, the aim was to investigate the utility of treating several variables as being jointly determined. The results suggest that parental education affects fertility by influencing age at marriage, implying that adult education programs will have little effect on marital fertility. There was some evidence that working women whose jobs are compatible with child care have more children than nonworking women, a finding that should be considered in planning increased job opportunities for women. Urbanized women and those who work before marriage tend to marry later than their less urbanized counterparts or women who do not work prior to marriage. Finally, women who used modern methods of birth control had significantly lower fertility than nonusers of modern methods. There is concern that the Government has reduced budgetary appropriations to family planning since the goal of reducing the annual population growth rate from 3% in 1960 to 2% in 1970 was achieved. It is suggested that family planning expenditures should be deployed to areas such as urban slums that have not yet been reached by family planning programs.

  2. Polymorphisms of estrogen-biosynthesis genes CYP17 and CYP19 may influence age at menarche: a genetic association study in Caucasian females.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Yang, Tie-Lin; Guo, Yan-Fang; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2006-08-15

    Variation in age at menarche (AAM) is known to be substantially influenced by genetic factors, but the true causal genes remain largely unidentified. Because the increased amplitude of estrogen exposure of tissues initiates the onset of menarche, the genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis are natural candidate genes underlying AAM. Our study aimed to identify whether the CYP17 and CYP19, the two key genes involved in the biosynthesis of estrogen, are associated with AAM variation in 1048 females from 354 Caucasian nuclear families. We genotyped 38 SNPs and established the linkage disequilibrium blocks and haplotype structures that covered the full transcript length of those two genes. Family-based and population-based statistical analyses were used to test for associations with all of the single SNPs and haplotypes. Both methods consistently detected significant associations for five SNPs of CYP19 with AAM. Haplotype analyses corroborated our single-SNP results by showing that the haplotypes in block 1 were highly significant to AAM in population-based analyses. However, we could not find any association of CYP17 with AAM. Our study is the first to suggest the important effect of CYP19 on AAM variation in Caucasian females. It will be valuable to replicate and confirm these findings in other independent studies, aiming at eventually finding the hidden genetic mechanisms underlying the variation in AAM.

  3. Effect of arm position and foot placement on the five times sit-to-stand test completion times of female adults older than 50 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shamay S.M.; Kwong, Patrick W.H.; Chau, Michael S.P.; Luk, Isaac C.Y.; Wan, Sam S.; Fong, Shirley S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The five times-sit-to stand test (FTSTS) is a clinical test which is commonly used to assessed the functional muscle strength of the lower limbs of older adults. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different arm positions and foot placements on the FTSTS completion times of older female adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine healthy female subjects, aged 63.1±5.3 years participated in this cross-sectional study. The times required to complete the FTSTS with 3 different arm positions (hands on thighs, arms crossed over chest, and an augmented arm position with the arms extended forward) and 2 foot placements (neutral and posterior) were recorded. The interaction effect and main effect of arm positions and foot placements were examined using a 3 (arm position) × 2 (foot placement) two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). [Results] There was no interaction effect among the 3 arm positions in the 2 foot placements. A significant main effect was identified for foot placement, but not arm position. Posterior foot placement led to a shorter FTSTS time compared to that of normal foot placement. [Conclusion] With the same arm position, FTSTS completion times with posterior foot placement tended to be shorter. Therefore, the standard foot placement should be used for FTSTS administration. PMID:26180314

  4. Insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy increases hippocampal neurogenesis, astrocyte branching and improves spatial memory in female aging rats.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Joaquín; Uriarte, Maia; Cónsole, Gloria M; Reggiani, Paula C; Outeiro, Tiago F; Morel, Gustavo R; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2016-08-01

    In rats, learning and memory performance decline during aging, which makes this rodent species a suitable model to evaluate therapeutic strategies of potential value for correcting age-related cognitive deficits. Some of these strategies involve neurotrophic factors like insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a powerful neuroprotective molecule in the brain. Here, we implemented 18-day long intracerebroventricular (ICV) IGF-I gene therapy in 28 months old Sprague-Dawley female rats, and assessed spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze. We also studied hippocampal morphology using an unbiased stereological approach. Adenovectors expressing the gene for rat IGF-I or the reporter DsRed were used. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were taken and IGF-I levels determined by radioimmunoassay. At the end of the study, IGF-I levels in the CSF were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the DsRed controls. After treatment, the IGF-I group showed a significant improvement in spatial memory accuracy as compared with DsRed counterparts. In the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, the IGF-I group showed a higher number of immature neurons than the DsRed controls. The treatment increased hippocampal astrocyte branching and reduced their number in the hippocampal stratum radiatum. We conclude that the ependymal route is an effective approach to increase CSF levels of IGF-I and that this strategy improves the accuracy of spatial memory in aging rats. The favorable effect of the treatment on DG neurogenesis and astrocyte branching in the stratum radiatum may contribute to improving memory performance in aging rats. PMID:27188415

  5. [Relationship between MC4R gene polymorphyism and body weight trait in beagle dogs].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Bo; Ba, Cai-Feng; Su, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Rui-Xia

    2006-10-01

    The relationship between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in beagle dogs was analyzed. Using gene-specific primers based on canine MC4R exonic sequences a gene fragment was PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced to identify potential polymorphisms. The relationship between a MC4R gene polymorphism detected by PCR-RFLP and canine body weight was analyzed. Three variants were found in beagle dog MC4R DNA sequence, of which two were deletions and one was a transversion which created a PshA I site that could be detected by PCR-RFLP. A statistically significant relationship between this polymorphism and body weight was found. MC4R gene could be a candidate modifier gene for canine body weight. PMID:17035178

  6. How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

  7. Effects of Acupuncture on Heart Rate Variability in Beagles; Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Shi, Xian; Jiang, Yue Bo; Wang, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based animal experimental research concerning the effects of acupuncture on autonomic function was performed by two research teams from China and Austria. This study describes measurements in beagles. Heart rate variability (HRV) recordings were performed under stable conditions in Beijing, China, and the data analysis and interpretation were completed in Graz, Austria. The electrocardiograms were recorded during bilateral body acupuncture (PC6, Neiguan). Power of the low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and the ratio (LF/HF) changed significantly during acupuncture stimulation in beagles after injection of atropine and β-blocker. However, there was no significant change in HF power after needling the Neiguan acupoint when a cervical vagotomy has been performed. Our findings show that acupuncture can mediate the HRV even after pharmaceutical blocking of autonomic function. Acupuncture effects on HRV should rely not only on autonomic nervous system but on complete central nervous system. PMID:23606880

  8. Quantitation of uveoscleral outflow in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles by /sup 3/H-labeled dextran

    SciTech Connect

    Barrie, K.P.; Gum, G.G.; Samuelson, D.A.; Gelatt, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    In uveoscleral outflow, aqueous humor leaves the anterior chamber and passes caudally through the trabecular meshwork and the sclerociliary cleft to enter the supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. The fluid is then absorbed by choroidal and scleral circulations. Using /sup 3/H-labeled dextran, uveoscleral outflow was quantitated in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles under general anesthesia. The intrascleral plexus was isolated and /sup 3/H-labeled dextran was injected into the anterior chamber. Intrascleral plexus contents were sampled every 5 minutes over a 30- to 60-minute period. The eyes were enucleated, sectioned, and prepared for scintillation counting. Uveoscleral outflow accounted for 15% and 3% of the total aqueous humor outflow in the normotensive dogs and in the advanced glaucomatous dogs, respectively. In the advanced glaucomatous Beagle, conventional and uveoscleral outflow pathways were reduced and contributed to the etiopathogenesis of glaucoma.

  9. Bone density in limb-immobilized beagles: An animal model for bone loss in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolinsky, Ira

    1987-01-01

    Prolonged weightlessness is man in space flight results in a slow progressive demineralization of bone accompanied by an increased calcium output in the urine resulting in negative calcium balances. This possibly irreversible bone loss may constitute a serious limiting factor to long duration manned space flight. In order to seek and test preventative measures an appropriate ground based animal model simulating weightlessness is necessary. Use of the mature Beagle in limb immobilization has been documented as an excellent model for orthopedic research since this animal most closely simulates the phenomenom of bone loss with regards to growth, remodeling, structure, chemistry and mineralization. The purpose of this project is to develop a research protocol for the study of bone loss in Beagles during and after cast immobilization of a hindleg; research will then be initiated.

  10. Analysis of Removal Torque of Injection Molded Zirconia Implants; An Experimental Study on Beagles.

    PubMed

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Ban, Jae-Sam; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lee, Kwang-Min; Vang, Mong-Sook; Yang, Hong-So; Kang, Seong-Soo; Shin, Jin-Ho; Kim, Ga-Hyun; Ji, Min-Kyung; Park, Sang-Won; Fisher, John G

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the removal torque between injection molded zirconia implants and titanium implants with resorbable blast media (RBM) surfaces in beagle humeri. Fifteen screw-shaped implants were classified into 3 groups; titanium implant with RBM surface (Group RT), injection molded zirconia implant (Group Zr) and injection molded zirconia implant with sand-blasted surface (Group ZrS). Implants were inserted into beagle humeri. After 12 weeks, removal torque values were measured. The Zr group has a slightly higher removal torque value than the RT and ZrS groups but there were no significant differences among groups. Zirconia implants shows a similar removal torque to RBM titanium implants. This in vivo study showed injection molded zirconia implants could be an alternative to RBM titanium implants in terms of removal torque.

  11. Spontaneous and bilateral necrosis of the femoral head in a young experimental beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kurotaki, Tetsuro; Yamada, Naoaki; Kumabe, Shino; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog. PMID:26028821

  12. Spontaneous and bilateral necrosis of the femoral head in a young experimental beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kurotaki, Tetsuro; Yamada, Naoaki; Kumabe, Shino; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog. PMID:26028821

  13. Effects of lifetime ingestion of /sup 90/Sr in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Book, S.A.; Spangler, W.L.; Swartz, L.A.

    1982-05-01

    To investigate the effects of lifetime /sup 90/Sr ingestion, fifteen beagle dogs were fed the equivalent of 1.3, 4.0, and 12.0 ..mu..Ci /sup 90/Sr. Exposures prior to weaning were made by maternal administration of one of the same /sup 90/Sr levels, begining at 21 days of gestation. Median survival was 12.5 years for the 1.3 ..mu..Ci/day group, 6.5 years for the 4 ..mu..Ci/day group, and 5.2 years of the 12 ..mu..Ci/day group, compared to unirradiated control values of 14.5 to 15 years. The normal life span of more than half of the 1.3 ..mu..Ci/day group is remarkable, considering they ingested 5900 to 7500 ..mu..Ci /sup 90/Sr during their lifetimes. One of seven 1.3 ..mu..Ci/day dogs died of mycloproliferative syndrome (MPS), while one of four 4 ..mu..Ci/day and one of four 12 ..mu..Ci/day dogs died from MPS. In addition, another 12 ..mu..Ci/day dog died of osteosarcoma and two others in the same group showed skeletal changes related to /sup 90/Sr exposure. Other deaths were as could be expected in normal canine populations. Lifetime skeletal doses, determined by periodic whole-body counting, were 1990-3750, 1880-9230, and 6360-14,680 rad for the 1.3, 4, and 12 ..mu..Ci/day groups, respectively. Comparison of these values with those from the large /sup 90/Sr toxicity study at Davis in which /sup 90/Sr feeding ended at 18 months of age indicates similar average skeletal doses from the two types of feeding regimens. The similarity of the skeletal doses may relate to the inability of /sup 90/Sr to be incorporated to any great extent into a mature skeleton that no longer has the high calcium turnover associated with early life. As a result, deaths from lifetime /sup 90/Sr ingestion appeared no earlier than when /sup 90/Sr ingestion ended in early adulthood.

  14. The Beagle Rupes area - evidence for a basal decollement of regional extent in Mercury's lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, David; Massironi, Matteo

    2010-05-01

    The Beagle Rupes lobate scarp was particularly clearly imaged during the outbound leg of MESSENGER's first flyby, thanks to its location at low latitude and proximity to the terminator. Previous interpretations of mercurian lobate scarps regard them as surface expressions of thrusts whose fault planes dip uniformly and die out at depth, and that lack lateral ramps or any extensive detachment horizon. However, we interpret Beagle Rupes as a component of a linked fault system, consisting of a frontal scarp terminated by transpressive lateral ramps. The terrain bounded by these features is the hanging-wall block of a thrust sheet and must be underlain by a basal decollement (a detachment horizon) constituting the fault zone at depth. Displacement at the Beagle Rupes frontal scarp is no more than about 3 km. However, the decollement must extend a minimum of 150 km eastwards from the frontal scarp, and at least 400 km if displacement is transferred to features interpreted as out-of sequence thrusts and offset lateral ramps that appear to continue the linked fault system to the east. The depth of the basal decollement could be controlled by crustal stratigraphy or by rheological change within, or at the base of, the lithosphere. One such candidate horizon could be the brittle-ductile transition in quartz-bearing lower crust as predicted by some models of Mercury's early differentiation history (Brown and Elkins-Tanton, 2009). Further analysis of the terrain north and south of Beagle Rupes reveals ridges (10s of km wide and 100s of km long) that we interpret as pop-up structures probably associated with blind thrusts and very likely providing additional evidence of a decollement of regional extent. Brown, S. M., Elkins-Tanton, L. T., 2009, Compositions of Mercury's earliest crust from magma ocean models. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 286, 446-455.

  15. Multilocus genotypes from Charles Darwin's finches: biodiversity lost since the voyage of the Beagle.

    PubMed

    Petren, Kenneth; Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Clack, Andrew A; Lescano, Ninnia V

    2010-04-12

    Genetic analysis of museum specimens offers a direct window into a past that can predate the loss of extinct forms. We genotyped 18 Galápagos finches collected by Charles Darwin and companions during the voyage of the Beagle in 1835, and 22 specimens collected in 1901. Our goals were to determine if significant genetic diversity has been lost since the Beagle voyage and to determine the genetic source of specimens for which the collection locale was not recorded. Using 'ancient' DNA techniques, we quantified variation at 14 autosomal microsatellite loci. Assignment tests showed several museum specimens genetically matched recently field-sampled birds from their island of origin. Some were misclassified or were difficult to classify. Darwin's exceptionally large ground finches (Geospiza magnirostris) from Floreana and San Cristóbal were genetically distinct from several other currently existing populations. Sharp-beaked ground finches (Geospiza difficilis) from Floreana and Isabela were also genetically distinct. These four populations are currently extinct, yet they were more genetically distinct from congeners than many other species of Darwin's finches are from each other. We conclude that a significant amount of the finch biodiversity observed and collected by Darwin has been lost since the voyage of the Beagle. PMID:20194164

  16. Charles Darwin's beagle voyage, fossil vertebrate succession, and "the gradual birth & death of species".

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view among historians of science holds that Charles Darwin became a convinced transmutationist only in the early spring of 1837, after his Beagle collections had been examined by expert British naturalists. With respect to the fossil vertebrate evidence, some historians believe that Darwin was incapable of seeing or understanding the transmutationist implications of his specimens without the help of Richard Owen. There is ample evidence, however, that he clearly recognized the similarities between several of the fossil vertebrates he collected and some of the extant fauna of South America before he returned to Britain. These comparisons, recorded in his correspondence, his diary and his notebooks during the voyage, were instances of a phenomenon that he later called the "law of the succession of types." Moreover, on the Beagle, he was following a geological research agenda outlined in the second volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, which implies that paleontological data alone could provide an insight into the laws which govern the appearance of new species. Since Darwin claims in On the Origin of Species that fossil vertebrate succession was one of the key lines of evidence that led him to question the fixity of species, it seems certain that he was seriously contemplating transmutation during the Beagle voyage. If so, historians of science need to reconsider both the role of Britain's expert naturalists and the importance of the fossil vertebrate evidence in the development of Darwin's ideas on transmutation. PMID:20665232

  17. Charles Darwin's beagle voyage, fossil vertebrate succession, and "the gradual birth & death of species".

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view among historians of science holds that Charles Darwin became a convinced transmutationist only in the early spring of 1837, after his Beagle collections had been examined by expert British naturalists. With respect to the fossil vertebrate evidence, some historians believe that Darwin was incapable of seeing or understanding the transmutationist implications of his specimens without the help of Richard Owen. There is ample evidence, however, that he clearly recognized the similarities between several of the fossil vertebrates he collected and some of the extant fauna of South America before he returned to Britain. These comparisons, recorded in his correspondence, his diary and his notebooks during the voyage, were instances of a phenomenon that he later called the "law of the succession of types." Moreover, on the Beagle, he was following a geological research agenda outlined in the second volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, which implies that paleontological data alone could provide an insight into the laws which govern the appearance of new species. Since Darwin claims in On the Origin of Species that fossil vertebrate succession was one of the key lines of evidence that led him to question the fixity of species, it seems certain that he was seriously contemplating transmutation during the Beagle voyage. If so, historians of science need to reconsider both the role of Britain's expert naturalists and the importance of the fossil vertebrate evidence in the development of Darwin's ideas on transmutation.

  18. Multilocus genotypes from Charles Darwin's finches: biodiversity lost since the voyage of the Beagle.

    PubMed

    Petren, Kenneth; Grant, Peter R; Grant, B Rosemary; Clack, Andrew A; Lescano, Ninnia V

    2010-04-12

    Genetic analysis of museum specimens offers a direct window into a past that can predate the loss of extinct forms. We genotyped 18 Galápagos finches collected by Charles Darwin and companions during the voyage of the Beagle in 1835, and 22 specimens collected in 1901. Our goals were to determine if significant genetic diversity has been lost since the Beagle voyage and to determine the genetic source of specimens for which the collection locale was not recorded. Using 'ancient' DNA techniques, we quantified variation at 14 autosomal microsatellite loci. Assignment tests showed several museum specimens genetically matched recently field-sampled birds from their island of origin. Some were misclassified or were difficult to classify. Darwin's exceptionally large ground finches (Geospiza magnirostris) from Floreana and San Cristóbal were genetically distinct from several other currently existing populations. Sharp-beaked ground finches (Geospiza difficilis) from Floreana and Isabela were also genetically distinct. These four populations are currently extinct, yet they were more genetically distinct from congeners than many other species of Darwin's finches are from each other. We conclude that a significant amount of the finch biodiversity observed and collected by Darwin has been lost since the voyage of the Beagle.

  19. Baseline trace metals in gastropod mollusks from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Stripeikis, Jorge; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Tudino, Mabel Beatriz

    2012-05-01

    With the aim to evaluate the mollusk Nacella (P)magellanica as biomonitor of elemental pollution in seawater of the Beagle Channel, more than one hundred individuals of the gastropod were sampled, separated in viscera and muscle, and then examined with respect to the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Collection was performed in seven strategic locations along 170 km of the coastal area of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) in two campaigns during 2005 and 2007. Samples of surrounding seawater in the different sites were obtained and tested for the same metals as well. The accumulation capacity of Nacella (P)magellanica and thus its aptitude as biomonitor, was evaluated through the calculus of the preconcentration factors of the metals assayed. A discussion involving the comparison with other mollusks previously tested will be given. Several statistical approaches able to analyze data with environmental purposes were applied. Non parametric univariate tests such as Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were carried out to assess the changes of the metal concentrations with time (2005 and 2007) in each location. Multivariate methods (linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors) were also applied to obtain a more reliable site classification. Johnson's probabilistic method was carried out for comparison between different geographical areas. The possibility of employing these results as heavy metals' background levels of seawater from the Beagle Channel will be debated.

  20. Bioequivalence and population pharmacokinetic modeling of two forms of antibiotic, cefuroxime lysine and cefuroxime sodium, after intravenous infusion in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Li, Xingang; Yin, Ran; Chen, Xiaohui; Geng, Lulu; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the bioequivalence and the population pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime lysine and cefuroxime sodium in healthy beagle dogs. A randomized 2-period crossover design in 18 healthy beagle dogs after receiving 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of cefuroxime lysine or cefuroxime sodium was conducted. A 3-compartment open model was used as the basic model for the population pharmacokinetic study. Both of the antibiotics exhibited dose-proportional pharmacokinetics over the dose range of 20-80 mg/kg. The mean relative bioavailability of cefuroxime lysine versus cefuroxime sodium was 1.05 (range, 0.71 to 1.42), with a significant difference between males and females. The estimates of population pharmacokinetic of CL, V(1), Q(2), V(2), Q(3), V(3) were 3.74 mL/h, 1.70 mL, 29.5 mL/min, 3.58 mL, 0.31 mL/min, and 158 mL for cefuroxime lysine and 4.10 mL/h, 1.00 mL, 38.5 mL/min, 4.19 mL, 0.06 mL/min, and 13.6 mL for cefuroxime sodium, respectively. The inter-individual variability was determined to be less than 29.1%. A linear pharmacokinetic was revealed for cefuroxime lysine and cefuroxime sodium in dogs after intravenous infusion, and the bioequivalence of these forms of the antibiotic was observed with the significant gender-related differences in mean relative bioavailability of cefuroxime lysine versus cefuroxime sodium.

  1. Age and Diet Affect Gene Expression Profile in Canine Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Middelbos, Ingmar S.; Vester, Brittany M.; Karr-Lilienthal, Lisa K.; Schook, Lawrence B.; Swanson, Kelly S.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated gene transcription in canine skeletal muscle (biceps femoris) using microarray analysis to identify effects of age and diet on gene expression. Twelve female beagles were used (six 1-year olds and six 12-year olds) and they were fed one of two experimental diets for 12 months. One diet contained primarily plant-based protein sources (PPB), whereas the second diet contained primarily animal-based protein sources (APB). Affymetrix GeneChip Canine Genome Arrays were used to hybridize extracted RNA. Age had the greatest effect on gene transcription (262 differentially expressed genes), whereas the effect of diet was relatively small (22 differentially expressed genes). Effects of age (regardless of diet) were most notable on genes related to metabolism, cell cycle and cell development, and transcription function. All these genes were predominantly down-regulated in geriatric dogs. Age-affected genes that were differentially expressed on only one of two diets were primarily noted in the PPB diet group (144/165 genes). Again, genes related to cell cycle (22/35) and metabolism (15/19) had predominantly decreased transcription in geriatric dogs, but 6/8 genes related to muscle development had increased expression. Effects of diet on muscle gene expression were mostly noted in geriatric dogs, but no consistent patterns in transcription were observed. The insight these data provide into gene expression profiles of canine skeletal muscle as affected by age, could serve as a foundation for future research pertaining to age-related muscle diseases. PMID:19221602

  2. The chemokine (C-C-motif) receptor 3 (CCR3) gene is linked and associated with age at menarche in Caucasian females.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Xiong, Dong-hai; Guo, Yan; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Feng; Jiang, Hui; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-wen

    2007-03-01

    Chemokine (C-C-motif) receptor 3 (CCR3), playing an important role in endometrium related metabolic pathways, may influence the onset of menarche. To test linkage and/or association between CCR3 polymorphisms with the variation of age at menarche (AAM) in Caucasian females, we recruited a sample of 1,048 females from 354 Caucasian nuclear families and genotyped 16 SNPs spanning the entire CCR3 gene. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype blocks were inferred by Haploview. Both single-SNP markers and haplotypes were tested for linkage and/or association with AAM using QTDT (quantitative transmission disequilibrium test). We also tested associations between CCR3 polymorphisms and AAM in a selected random sample of daughters using ANOVA (analysis of variance). We identified two haplotype blocks. Only block two showed significant results. After correction for multiple testing, significant total associations of SNP7, SNP9 with AAM were detected (P = 0.009 and 0.006, respectively). We also detected significant within-family association of SNP9 (P = 0.01). SNP14 was linked to AAM (P = 0.02) at the nominal level. In addition, there was evidence of significant total association and nominal significant linkage (P = 0.008 and 0.03, respectively) with AAM for the haplotype AGA reconstructed by SNP7, SNP9 and SNP13. ANOVA confirmed the results by QTDT. For the first time we reported that CCR3 is linked and associated with AAM variation in Caucasian women. However, further studies are necessary to substantiate our conclusions.

  3. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Report of second year, December 16, 1990--December 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses.

  4. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Progress report of second year, December 16, 1990--December 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    We are completing a 30-year study of the biological effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposure that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5 years, but we are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses. 15 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Comparative toxicity of strontium-90 and radium-226 in beagle dogs. Report of first year, December 16, 1989--December 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Raabe, O.G.; Culbertson, M.R.; White, R.G.; Spangler, W.L.; Cain, G.R.; Parks, N.J.; Samuels, S.J.

    1990-12-31

    The authors are completing a 30-year study of the biologic effects of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra in the beagle in order to predict the possible long-term hazards to people from chronic exposure to low levels of irradiation. Animals received either radionuclide by several means of administration: (a) continual ingestion of {sup 90}Sr, (b) a single intravenous injection of {sup 90}Sr, or (c) a series of eight intravenous injections of {sup 226}Ra. Although administration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 226}Ra ended at 540 days of age, the animals continued to receive chronic, low-level radiation doses from these bone-seeking radionuclides throughout life. This project is the largest single cohort study in beagles of internally deposited radionuclides. It is unique in use of the ingestion route for {sup 90}Sr and in exposures that began before birth and continued throughout development to adulthood with uniform labeling of the skeletons with {sup 90}Sr. The last of the dogs died in 1986 at age 18.5, but the authors are continuing to investigate the significance of these long-term exposures given at low dose rates with regard to cancer production, physiologic well-being, and shortening of life through the detailed records that were kept and by study of preserved materials. All the data have been successfully accumulated and entered into a main-frame computer data base management system. Current work is exclusively directed at preparing research papers summarizing the results and the associated biostatistical and survival analyses.

  6. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the normal ...

  7. Effect of plane of milk replacer intake and age on glucose and insulin kinetics and abomasal emptying in female Holstein Friesian dairy calves fed twice daily.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, J A R; Berends, H; Leal, L N; Cant, J P; Martín-Tereso, J; Steele, M A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how preweaning plane of milk replacer intake and age can affect insulin and glucose kinetics as well as abomasal emptying rate in dairy calves fed twice a day. A total of 12 female Holstein Friesian calves were blocked by cow parity, paired by colostrum origin, and were randomly assigned to a high plane of milk replacer intake (8 L/d, 1.2kg of milk replacer/d; n=6) or a low plane of nutrition (4 L/d, 0.6kg of milk replacer/d; n=6). All calves received 4 L of colostrum over 2 meals (1 and 6h after birth) and were then directly transferred to their assigned feeding plans until they were stepped-down from milk by 50% during wk 7 and weaned on wk 8. Milk replacer (24% crude protein, 18% crude fat) was fed at 150g/L twice daily (0700 and 1700h) and all calves had ad libitum access to pelleted calf starter, chopped wheat straw, and water. Jugular catheters were placed in all calves at 4, 7, and 10wk of age. Then, postprandial response to plasma glucose, insulin, and acetaminophen (supplied with the meal) were determined to measure abomasal emptying. The next day, a glucose tolerance test was conducted by infusing glucose via the jugular catheter. At 4 and 7wk of age, the rate constant (%/h) for abomasal emptying of the meal was lower in high calves (0.21±0.02 in wk 4; 0.27±0.02 in wk 7) compared with low (0.34±0.02 in wk 4; 0.47±0.02 in wk 7). The postprandial plasma insulin area under the curve over 420min was greater in high calves (18,443±7,329; low=5,834±739 µU/mL) compared with low. We found no differences in glucose tolerance test kinetics between the high and low dairy calves at 4, 7, or 10wk of age. The findings from this study suggest that feeding dairy calves an elevated plane of nutrition in 2 meals of milk replacer per day does not decrease insulin sensitivity. PMID:27522426

  8. Relating age and micro-architecture with apparent-level elastic constants: a micro-finite element study of female cortical bone from the anterior femoral midshaft.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, F E; Pankaj, P; Cooper, D M L; Thomas, C D L; Clement, J G; Simpson, A H R W

    2011-06-01

    Homogenized elastic properties are often assumed for macro-finite element (FE) models used in orthopaedic biomechanics. The accuracy of material property assignments may have a strong effect on the ability of these models to make accurate predictions. For cortical bone, most macro-scale FE models assume isotropic elastic material behaviour and do not include variation of material properties due to bone micro-architecture. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the variation of apparent-level (homogenized) orthotropic elastic constants of cortical bone with age and indices of bone micro-architecture. Considerable age-dependent differences in porosity were noted across the cortical thickness in previous research. The second aim of the study was to quantify the resulting differences in elastic constants between the periosteum and endosteum. Specimens were taken from the anterior femoral midshaft of 27 female donors (age 53.4 +/- 23.6 years) and micro-FE (gFE) analysis was used to derive orthotropic elastic constants. The variation of orthotropic elastic constants (Young's moduli, shear moduli, and Poisson's ratios) with various cortical bone micro-architectural indices was investigated. The ratio of canal volume to tissue volume, Ca.V/TV, analogous to porosity, was found to be the strongest predictor (r2(ave) = 0.958) of the elastic constants. Age was less predictive (r2(ave) = 0.385) than Ca.V/TV. Elastic anisotropy increased with increasing Ca.V/TV, leading to lower elastic moduli in the transverse, typically less frequently loaded, directions. Increased Ca.V/TV led to a more substantial reduction in elastic constants at the endosteal aspect than at the periosteal aspect. The results are expected to be most applicable in similar midshaft locations of long bones; specific analysis of other sites would be necessary to evaluate elastic properties elsewhere. It was concluded that Ca.V/TV was the most predictive of cortical bone elastic constants and that

  9. SU-C-303-03: Dosimetric Model of the Beagle Needed for Pre-Clinical Testing of Radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, M; Sands, M; Bolch, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Large animal models, most popularly beagles, have been crucial surrogates to humans in determining radiation safety levels of radiopharmaceuticals. This study aims to develop a detailed beagle phantom to accurately approximate organ absorbed doses for therapy nuclear medicine preclinical studies. Methods: A 3D NURBS model was created subordinate to a whole body CT of an adult beagle. Bones were harvested and CT imaged to offer macroscopic skeletal detail. Samples of trabecular spongiosa were cored and imaged to offer microscopic skeletal detail for bone trabeculae and marrow volume fractions. Results: Organ masses in the model are typical of an adult beagle. Trends in volume fractions for skeletal dosimetry are fundamentally similar to those found in existing models of other canine species. Conclusion: This work warrants its use in further investigations of radiation transport calculation for electron and photon dosimetry. This model accurately represents the anatomy of a beagle, and can be directly translated into a useable geometry for a voxel-based Monte Carlo radiation transport program such as MCNP6. Work supported by a grant from the Hyundai Hope on Wheels Foundation for Pediatric Cancer Research.

  10. Decorporation of systemically distributed americium by a novel orally administered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) formulation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James P; Cobb, Ronald R; Dungan, Nathanael W; Matthews, Laura L; Eppler, Bärbel; Aiello, Kenneth V; Curtis, Shiro; Boger, Teannetta; Guilmette, Raymond A; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Talton, James D

    2015-03-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological accidents and terrorists attacks. Radioactive americium is a significant component of nuclear fallout. Removal of large radioactive materials, such as 241Am, from exposed persons is a subject of significant interest due to the hazards they pose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-related efficacy of daily doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating Am administered intravenously as a soluble citrate complex to male and female beagle dogs. In addition, the efficacy of the NanoDTPA™ Capsules for decorporating 241Am was directly compared to intravenously administered saline and DTPA. Animals received a single IV administration of 241Am(III)-citrate on Day 0. One day after radionuclide administration, one of four different doses of NanoDTPA™ Capsules [1, 2, or 6 capsules d(-1) (30 mg, 60 mg, or 180 mg DTPA) or 2 capsules BID], IV Zn-DTPA (5 mg kg(-1) pentetate zinc trisodium) as a positive control, or IV saline as a placebo were administered. NanoDTPA™ Capsules, IV Zn-DTPA, or IV saline was administered on study days 1-14. Animals were euthanized on day 21. A full necropsy was conducted, and liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs and trachea, tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN), muscle samples (right and left quadriceps), gastrointestinal (GI) tract (stomach plus esophagus, upper and lower intestine), gonads, two femurs, lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4), and all other soft tissue remains were collected. Urinary and fecal excretion profiles were increased approximately 10-fold compared to those for untreated animals. Tissue contents were decreased compared to untreated controls. In particular, liver content was decreased by approximately eightfold compared to untreated animals. The results from this study further demonstrate that oral NanoDTPA™ Capsules are equally efficient compared to IV Zn-DTPA in decorporation of actinides. PMID:25627942

  11. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a new reformulated microemulsion and the long-chain triglyceride emulsion of propofol in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S-H; Ghim, J-L; Song, M-H; Choi, H-G; Choi, B-M; Lee, H-M; Lee, E-K; Roh, Y-J; Noh, G-J

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Microemulsion propofol was developed to eliminate lipid solvent-related adverse events of long-chain triglyceride emulsion (LCT) propofol. We compared dose proportionality, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of both formulations. Experimental approach: The study was a randomized, two-period and crossover design with 7-day wash-out period. Microemulsion and LCT propofol were administered by zero-order infusion (0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 mg·kg−1·min−1) for 20 min in 30 beagle dogs (male/female = 5/5 for each rate). Arterial samples were collected at preset intervals. The electroencephalographic approximate entropy (ApEn) was used as a measure of propofol effect. Dose proportionality, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic bioequivalence were evaluated by non-compartmental analyses. Population analysis was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Key results: Both formulations showed dose proportionality at the applied dose range. The ratios of geometric means of AUClast and AUCinf between both formulations were acceptable for bioequivalence, whereas that of Cmax was not. The pharmacodynamic bioequivalence was indicated by the arithmetic means of AAC (areas above the ApEn time curves) and E0 (baseline ApEn)–Emax (maximally decreased ApEn) between both formulations. The pharmacokinetics of both formulations were best described by three compartment models. Body weight was a significant covariate for V1 of both formulations and sex for k21 of microemulsion propofol. The blood-brain equilibration rate constants (ke0, min−1) were 0.476 and 0.696 for microemulsion and LCT propofol respectively. Conclusions and implications: Microemulsion propofol was pharmacodynamically bioequivalent to LCT propofol although pharmacokinetic bioequivalence was incomplete, and demonstrated linear pharmacokinetics at the applied dose ranges. PMID:19925493

  12. Tissue distribution of (Lipocurc™) liposomal curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin following two- and eight-hour infusions in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Matabudul, Dharmendr; Pucaj, Kresimir; Bolger, Gordon; Vcelar, Brigitta; Majeed, Muhammed; Helson, Lawrence

    2012-10-01

    This study interrogated whether different durations of intravenous infusions of lipocurc™ would alter curcumin metabolism, tissue distribution and whether treating necropsied tissues of Beagle dogs with phosphoric acid prior to measuring curcumin and its metabolite, tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), would stabilize the compounds allowing for accurate analytic measurements. Two cohorts comprising two male and two female dogs were infused each intravenously with 10 mg/kg lipocurc™, either over two hours or over eight hours. Tissue data from each cohort was averaged from four dogs. Curcumin and THC distributed among all 13 tissues were examined at necropsy. The highest curcumin level was observed in the lungs followed by the liver. Tissue levels of curcumin in the lung, spleen and liver increased substantially following the eight-hour infusion compared to the two-hour infusion. The pancreas, kidney and urinary bladder also contained relatively high curcumin levels. Tissue partition coefficients for curcumin and THC were also higher for the eight-hour infusion than the two-hour infusion. The tissue THC/curcumin ratio varied in a tissue-specific manner and was lower for the eight-hour compared to the two-hour infusion. In conclusion, this raised the possibility that prolonged infusion of curcumin may facilitate distribution into tissues via a transporter-dependent mechanism and elevated tissue concentrations of curcumin may inhibit or saturate a putative reductase enzyme converting curcumin to THC. The addition of phosphoric acid stabilized the levels of curcumin and THC in some but not all the examined tissues, raising issues of tissue-specific curcumin and THC stability.

  13. FTO first intron rs1558902 variant and platelets count in white middle-aged women: prague pre- and post-menopausal females (3PMFs) study.

    PubMed

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Dlouha, Dana; Lanska, Vera; Stavek, Petr; Pagacova, Libuse; Kralova-Lesna, Ivana; Pitha, Jan

    2013-02-01

    The polymorphisms within the FTO gene play an important role in the genetic determination of body weight and body mass index and have been associated with cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanism is still a matter of debate. The possible effect on the platelet count as a marker of hemocoagulation status as a possible cardiovascular risk factor was suggested in Japanese population. We have analyzed both rs1558902 FTO polymorphism (T > A) and platelet counts in the Prague Pre and Post Menopausal Females (3PMFs) study, including those of 669 women (mean age, 55.7 ± 2.7 years). The frequencies of the FTO genotypes were similar to other populations (TT, 30.4%; TA, 48.1%; and AA, 21.5%). We have not detected a significant association between the FTO rs1558902 variant and platelet counts in white women (TT, 242 ± 55 × 10; TA, 246 ± 67 × 10; and AA, 247 ± 55 × 10; F[2.642] = 0.30, P = 0.75). At least in white persons, platelet count seems not to be a link between the FTO variation and risk of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Improvement of photoaged facial skin in middle-aged Japanese females by topical retinol (vitamin A alcohol): a vehicle-controlled, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Katsuko; Suetake, Takaki; Kumasaka, Naka; Tagami, Hachiro

    2009-01-01

    Topical tretinoin formulation is still unavailable in Japan. Because topical retinol, which is less potent but may cause less irritation, is available here, we have performed a randomized, blinded, vehicle-controlled study on the face using a once-nightly regimen for the treatment of mild photoaging in middle-aged Japanese females. First, a 26-week study was conducted in 57 subjects with a 0.075% retinol cream and its vehicle on each half side of the face. Three of the 57 subjects withdrew from the study due to irritation, although this rate was much smaller than that noted in our previous study with topical tretinoin. After 26 weeks, the rates of photoaging improvement were significantly higher on the retinol side: 27 out of 54 (50%) versus 13 (24%) for the fine wrinkling and 15 out of 54 (28%) versus 1 (2%) for deep wrinkling. A similar trial with a 0.04% retinol cream for 13 weeks revealed less prominent improvements in fine wrinkling but minimal irritation. From these data, we think that retinol creams, especially 0.04% cream, are suitable