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Sample records for aged female offspring

  1. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  2. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring.

    PubMed

    George, Lindsey A; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M; Uthlaut, Adam B; Smith, Derek T; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

    2012-04-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic "thriftiness" of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  3. Sex-dependent nutritional programming: fish oil intake during early pregnancy in rats reduces age-dependent insulin resistance in male, but not female, offspring.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Fatima L C; Fernandes, Flavia S; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G; Herrera, Emilio

    2013-02-15

    Prenatal and early postnatal nutritional status may predispose offspring to impaired glucose tolerance and changes in insulin sensitivity in adult life. The long-term consequences of changes in maternal dietary fatty acid composition were determined in rats. From day 1 until day 12 of pregnancy, rats were given isocaloric diets containing 9% nonvitamin fat based on soybean, olive, fish (FO), linseed, or palm oil. Thereafter, they were maintained on the standard diet; offspring were studied at different ages. Body weight at 4, 8, and 12 mo and lumbar adipose tissue and liver weights at 12 mo did not differ between females on the different diets, whereas in males the corresponding values were all lower in the offspring from the FO group compared with the other dietary groups. Plasma glucose concentrations (both basal and after an oral glucose load) did not change with sex or dietary group, but plasma insulin concentrations were lower in females than in males and, in males, were lowest in the FO group. Similar relations were found with both the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity index. In conclusion, the intake of more n-3 fatty acids (FO diet) during early pregnancy reduced both fat accretion and age-related decline in insulin sensitivity in male offspring but not in females. It is proposed that the lower adiposity caused by the increased n-3 fatty acids during the intrauterine life was responsible of the lower insulin resistance in male offspring.

  4. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior.

  5. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior. PMID:27656083

  6. Effect of maternal diabetes on female offspring

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Juliana de Oliveira; Panício, Maurício Isaac; Dantas, Marcos Paulo Suehiro; Gomes, Guiomar Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on the blood pressure and kidney function of female offspring, as well as if such changes exacerbate during pregnancy. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in female rats with the administration of streptozotocin in a single dose, one week before mating. During pregnancy, blood pressure was measured through plethysmography. On the 20th day of pregnancy, the animals were placed for 24 hours in metabolic cages to obtain urine samples. After the animals were removed from the cages, blood samples were withdrawn. One month after pregnancy, new blood and urine sample were collected. Kidney function was evaluated through proteinuria, plasma urea, plasma creatinine, creatinine excretion rate, urinary flow, and creatinine clearance. Results The female offspring from diabetic mothers showed an increase in blood pressure, and a decrease in glomerular filtration rate in relation to the control group. Conclusion Hyperglycemia during pregnancy was capable of causing an increase in blood pressure and kidney dysfunction in the female offspring. PMID:25628190

  7. Positive genetic correlation between female preference and offspring fitness.

    PubMed

    Hine, Emma; Lachish, Shelly; Higgie, Megan; Blows, Mark W

    2002-11-01

    In many species, females display preferences for extreme male signal traits, but it has not been determined if such preferences evolve as a consequence of females gaining genetic benefits from exercising choice. If females prefer extreme male traits because they indicate male genetic quality that will enhance the fitness of offspring, a genetic correlation will evolve between female preference genes and genes that confer offspring fitness. We show that females of Drosophila serrata prefer extreme male cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) blends, and that this preference affects offspring fitness. Female preference is positively genetically correlated with offspring fitness, indicating that females have gained genetic benefits from their choice of males. Despite male CHCs experiencing strong sexual selection, the genes underlying attractive CHCs also conferred lower offspring fitness, suggesting a balance between sexual selection and natural selection may have been reached in this population.

  8. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span.

  9. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  10. The effect of female mating status on male offspring traits.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, D; Lubin, Y; Harari, A R

    2014-01-01

    In haplodiploid insects, males develop from unfertilized eggs; consequently, unmated females can reproduce. In a patchy, highly structured population, where brothers compete for mates and the reproductive return through sons is lower, females should minimize the number of male offspring. Consequently, unmated females are likely to have a reduced fitness compared to mated females. Here, we tested the oviposition behaviour of the haplodiploid beetle Coccotrypes dactyliperda. In this species, the unmated female can mate with her son to produce daughters. We predicted that unmated females could increase their fitness by (1) producing only few and small sons sufficient for mother-son mating and (2) dispersing to a patch occupied by conspecific females in order to increase their or their sons' chance of mating. We demonstrate that (1) unmated females are common (23 % of all females), (2) they oviposit more frequently than mated females in occupied patches, (3) unmated females oviposit more eggs than mated females-this is in spite of the trade-offs, evident in this study, between the number of sons and the number of the mother's future offspring after mating, (4) unmated females have a higher proportion of dispersing sons, and (5) sons of unmated females are smaller than sons of mated females. We conclude that the incidence of unmated females in the structured populations of C. dactyliperda is explained by plasticity in their oviposition behaviour. We discuss conditions where a high incidence of unmated females can persist as a successful strategy in structured populations.

  11. Exercise in obese female rats has beneficial effects on maternal and male and female offspring metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Claudia C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Bautista, Claudia J; Larrea, Fernando; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Zambrano, Elena

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Maternal obesity (MO) impairs maternal and offspring health. Mechanisms and interventions to prevent adverse maternal and offspring outcomes need to be determined. Human studies are confounded by socio-economic status providing the rationale for controlled animal data on effects of maternal exercise (MEx) intervention on maternal (F0) and offspring (F1) outcomes in MO. HYPOTHESIS MO produces metabolic and endocrine dysfunction, increases maternal and offspring glucocorticoid exposure, oxidative stress and adverse offspring outcomes by postnatal day (PND) 36. MEx prevents these outcomes. METHODS F0 female rats ate either control or obesogenic diet from weaning through lactation. Half of each group wheel ran (from day ninety of life through pregnancy beginning day 120) providing four groups (n=8/group) – i) controls, ii) obese, iii) exercised controls and iv) exercised obese. After weaning, PND 21, F1 offspring ate a control diet. Metabolic parameters of F0 prepregnancy and end of lactation and F1 offspring at PND 36 were analyzed. RESULTS Exercise did not change maternal weight. Before breeding, MO elevated F0 glucose, insulin, triglycerides, cholesterol, leptin, fat and oxidative stress. Exercise completely prevented the triglyceride rise and partially glucose, insulin, cholesterol and oxidative stress increases. MO decreased fertility, recovered by exercise. At the end of lactation, exercise returned all metabolic variables except leptin to control levels. Exercise partially prevented MO elevated corticosterone. F1 Offspring weights were similar at birth. At PND 36 MO increased F1 male but not female offspring leptin, triglycerides and fat mass. In controls exercise reduced male and female offspring glucose, prevented the offspring leptin increase and partially the triglyceride rise. CONCLUSIONS MEx before and during pregnancy has beneficial effects on maternal and offspring metabolism and endocrine function occurring with no weight change in mothers

  12. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate.

  13. Paternal age and mental health of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature also demonstrates a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to the patients, the family and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369

  14. Maternal protein restriction during gestation impairs female offspring pancreas development in the rat.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Lizbeth; Morales, Angélica; Sosa-Larios, Tonantzin C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Rodríguez-Mata, Verónica; Zambrano, Elena; Morimoto, Sumiko

    2016-08-01

    A maternal low-protein (LP) diet programs fetal pancreatic islet β-cell development and function and predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction later in life. We hypothesized that maternal protein restriction during pregnancy differentially alters β- and α-cell populations in offspring by modifying islet ontogeny and function throughout life. We aimed to investigate the effect of an LP maternal diet on pancreatic islet morphology and cellular composition in female offspring on postnatal days (PNDs) 7, 14, 21, 36, and 110. Mothers were divided into 2 groups: during pregnancy, the control group (C) was fed a diet containing 20% casein, and the LP group was fed an isocaloric diet with 10% casein. Offspring pancreases were obtained at each PND and then processed. β and α cells were detected by immunohistochemistry, and cellular area and islet size were quantified. Islet cytoarchitecture and total area were similar in C and LP offspring at all ages studied. At the early ages (PNDs 7-21), the proportion of β cells was lower in LP than C offspring. The proportion of α cells was lower in LP than C offspring on PND 14 and higher on PND 21. The β/α-cell ratio was lower in LP compared with C offspring on PNDs 7 and 21 and higher on PND 36 (being similar on PNDs 14 and 110). We concluded that maternal protein restriction during pregnancy modifies offspring islet cell ontogeny by altering the proportions of islet sizes and by reducing the number of β cells postnatally, which may impact pancreatic function in adult life. PMID:27440540

  15. Offspring's leukocyte telomere length, paternal age, and telomere elongation in sperm.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masayuki; Cherkas, Lynn F; Kato, Bernet S; Demissie, Serkalem; Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Brimacombe, Michael; Cupples, Adrienne; Hunkin, Janice L; Gardner, Jefferey P; Lu, Xiaobin; Cao, Xiaojian; Sastrasinh, Malinee; Province, Michael A; Hunt, Steven C; Christensen, Kaare; Levy, Daniel; Spector, Tim D; Aviv, Abraham

    2008-02-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex genetic trait. It shortens with age and is associated with a host of aging-related disorders. Recent studies have observed that offspring of older fathers have longer LTLs. We explored the relation between paternal age and offspring's LTLs in 4 different cohorts. Moreover, we examined the potential cause of the paternal age on offspring's LTL by delineating telomere parameters in sperm donors. We measured LTL by Southern blots in Caucasian men and women (n=3365), aged 18-94 years, from the Offspring of the Framingham Heart Study (Framingham Offspring), the NHLBI Family Heart Study (NHLBI-Heart), the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (Danish Twins), and the UK Adult Twin Registry (UK Twins). Using Southern blots, Q-FISH, and flow-FISH, we also measured telomere parameters in sperm from 46 young (<30 years) and older (>50 years) donors. Paternal age had an independent effect, expressed by a longer LTL in males of the Framingham Offspring and Danish Twins, males and females of the NHLBI-Heart, and females of UK Twins. For every additional year of paternal age, LTL in offspring increased at a magnitude ranging from half to more than twice of the annual attrition in LTL with age. Moreover, sperm telomere length analyses were compatible with the emergence in older men of a subset of sperm with elongated telomeres. Paternal age exerts a considerable effect on the offspring's LTL, a phenomenon which might relate to telomere elongation in sperm from older men. The implications of this effect deserve detailed study. PMID:18282113

  16. The sperm of aging male bustards retards their offspring's development

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Brian T.; Saint Jalme, Michel; Hingrat, Yves; Lacroix, Frederic; Sorci, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Understanding whether the sperm of older males has a diminished capacity to produce successful offspring is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. We investigate this issue using 10 years of reproductive data on captive long-lived houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), where the use of artificial insemination techniques means parents can only influence offspring quality via their gametes. Here we show that paternal aging reduces both the likelihood that eggs hatch and the rate at which chicks grow, with older males producing the lightest offspring after the first month. Surprisingly, this cost of paternal aging on offspring development is of a similar scale to that associated with maternal aging. Fitting with predictions on germline aging, the sperm of immature males produce the fastest growing offspring. Our findings thus indicate that any good genes benefit that might be offered by older ‘proven' males will be eroded by aging of their germline DNA. PMID:25647605

  17. Ornaments or offspring? Female sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) trade off carotenoids between spines and eggs.

    PubMed

    Nordeide, J T; Rudolfsen, G; Egeland, E S

    2006-03-01

    Hypotheses and models to explain female ornaments often assume that the elaborated traits are condition dependent; nevertheless, few empirical studies have addressed this topic. We studied a population of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in which the females have conspicuous, carotenoid-based red coloration to their pelvic spines. The red coloration seems not to be condition dependent, as coloration is negatively associated with age and body length and not associated with condition. Furthermore, redder females did not have a lower density of leucocytes. We found a negative association between the females' red carotenoid-based coloration in the spines and the amount of carotenoids in the female's gonads. Males choosing red-coloured females will fertilize eggs with small amounts of carotenoids and appear not to gain any benefit from their mates' phenotypic quality that could result in offspring of improved quality. These results do not support the 'direct selection hypothesis' to explain the existence of the female ornaments. PMID:16599919

  18. Ornaments or offspring? Female sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) trade off carotenoids between spines and eggs.

    PubMed

    Nordeide, J T; Rudolfsen, G; Egeland, E S

    2006-03-01

    Hypotheses and models to explain female ornaments often assume that the elaborated traits are condition dependent; nevertheless, few empirical studies have addressed this topic. We studied a population of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in which the females have conspicuous, carotenoid-based red coloration to their pelvic spines. The red coloration seems not to be condition dependent, as coloration is negatively associated with age and body length and not associated with condition. Furthermore, redder females did not have a lower density of leucocytes. We found a negative association between the females' red carotenoid-based coloration in the spines and the amount of carotenoids in the female's gonads. Males choosing red-coloured females will fertilize eggs with small amounts of carotenoids and appear not to gain any benefit from their mates' phenotypic quality that could result in offspring of improved quality. These results do not support the 'direct selection hypothesis' to explain the existence of the female ornaments.

  19. Oxidative Stress in Mouse Sperm Impairs Embryo Development, Fetal Growth and Alters Adiposity and Glucose Regulation in Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Michelle; McPherson, Nicole O.; Fullston, Tod; Spillane, Marni; Sandeman, Lauren; Kang, Wan Xian; Zander-Fox, Deirdre L.

    2014-01-01

    Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM) in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity. PMID:25006800

  20. Call to action: continuum of care for females of reproductive age to prevent obesity and ensure better health outcomes of offspring through nutrition.

    PubMed

    Zive, Michelle M; Rhee, Kyung E

    2014-09-01

    The health and nutritional status of women of reproductive age has tremendous impact on the health of future populations; therefore, special attention should be paid to promoting women's health, especially a healthy weight at this critical time period. The purpose of the paper is to provide information on the nutritional needs of women at various stages of the reproductive age spectrum, including preconception/interconception and during pregnancy to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. The Socio-Ecological Model (SEM) is presented to help practitioners understand the importance of intervening where women of reproductive age live, work, and frequent.

  1. Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of adult females for thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masataka; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear whom animals select to huddle with for thermoregulation. In this study, we investigated whom Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers huddled with-their young offspring or other adult group members-when there is need for thermoregulation. We used a focal-animal sampling method, targeting 17 females at Katsuyama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. A majority of huddling among adult females was recorded during winter season (December, January, and February). Females who had young (0- or 1-year-old) offspring huddled less frequently with other adult females compared to females who did not have young offspring in winter. However, including young offspring, the frequency of huddling with any other individuals did not differ by whether females had young offspring. Moreover, the females who did not have young offspring huddled with other adult females more often in cloudy than in sunny weather during winter season. In contrast, females who had young offspring increased huddling with their young offspring in cloudy than in sunny weather, but did not do so with other adult females. This study indicates that Japanese macaque mothers huddle with their young offspring instead of other adult females when there is need for thermoregulation.

  2. A female melanin ornament signals offspring fluctuating asymmetry in the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Balloux, François; Dijkstra, Cor; Riols, Christian

    2003-01-22

    Sexual selection theory predicts that males advertise quality by displaying extravagant ornaments. By contrast, whether phenotypic variation in females has a signalling function remains an open question. Here, to our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that a female plumage trait can signal fluctuating asymmetry in the offspring. We experimentally demonstrate in wild barn owls (Tyto alba) that the extent to which females display black spots on their plumage does not only signal offspring parasite resistance as shown in a previous study but also developmental homeostasis in the offspring. A greater number of spotted females produced offspring that had more symmetrical feathers during the period of growth. Males, that pair non-randomly with respect to female plumage spottiness therefore appear to gain substantial benefits by mating with heavily spotted females. Genetic variation in plumage spottiness is nevertheless maintained as the covariation between offspring body mass and mother plumage spottiness varies annually depending on environmental conditions. PMID:12590755

  3. Maternal Omega-3 Supplementation Increases Fat Mass in Male and Female Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Muhlhausler, Beverly Sara; Miljkovic, Dijana; Fong, Laura; Xian, Cory J.; Duthoit, Emmanuelle; Gibson, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n = 10) or chow designed to provide ∼15 mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n = 11) and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3 and 6 weeks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using quantitative real time reverse transcription-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs. 4.56 ± 0.2%, P < 0.04) and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs. 3.89 ± 0.36%, P < 0.04) offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a% of total fatty acids) was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2% vs. 5.6 ± 0.2%, P < 0.001). There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n−3 LCPUFA

  4. Female offspring desertion and male-only care increase with natural and experimental increase in food abundance

    PubMed Central

    Eldegard, Katrine; Sonerud, Geir A.

    2009-01-01

    In species with biparental care, one parent may escape the costs of parental care by deserting and leaving the partner to care for the offspring alone. A number of theoretical papers have suggested a link between uniparental offspring desertion and ecological factors, but empirical evidence is scarce. We investigated the relationship between uniparental desertion and food abundance in a natural population of Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus, both by means of a 5-year observational study and a 1-year experimental study. Parents and offspring were fitted with radio-transmitters in order to reveal the parental care strategy (i.e. care or desert) of individual parents, and to keep track of the broods post-fledging. We found that 70 per cent of the females from non-experimental nests deserted, while their partner continued to care for their joint offspring alone. Desertion rate was positively related to natural prey population densities and body reserves of the male partner. In response to food supplementation, a larger proportion of the females deserted, and females deserted the offspring at an earlier age. Offspring survival during the post-fledging period tended to be lower in deserted than in non-deserted broods. We argue that the most important benefit of deserting may be remating (sequential polyandry). PMID:19324835

  5. Female offspring desertion and male-only care increase with natural and experimental increase in food abundance.

    PubMed

    Eldegard, Katrine; Sonerud, Geir A

    2009-05-01

    In species with biparental care, one parent may escape the costs of parental care by deserting and leaving the partner to care for the offspring alone. A number of theoretical papers have suggested a link between uniparental offspring desertion and ecological factors, but empirical evidence is scarce. We investigated the relationship between uniparental desertion and food abundance in a natural population of Tengmalm's owl Aegolius funereus, both by means of a 5-year observational study and a 1-year experimental study. Parents and offspring were fitted with radio-transmitters in order to reveal the parental care strategy (i.e. care or desert) of individual parents, and to keep track of the broods post-fledging. We found that 70 per cent of the females from non-experimental nests deserted, while their partner continued to care for their joint offspring alone. Desertion rate was positively related to natural prey population densities and body reserves of the male partner. In response to food supplementation, a larger proportion of the females deserted, and females deserted the offspring at an earlier age. Offspring survival during the post-fledging period tended to be lower in deserted than in non-deserted broods. We argue that the most important benefit of deserting may be remating (sequential polyandry). PMID:19324835

  6. Glucose metabolic adaptations in the intrauterine growth-restricted adult female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Rogers, Lisa; Bassilian, Sara; Lee, W N Paul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2006-06-01

    We studied glucose metabolic adaptations in the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) rat offspring to decipher glucose homeostasis in metabolic programming. Glucose futile cycling (GFC), which is altered when there is imbalance between glucose production and utilization, was studied during a glucose tolerance test (GTT) in 2-day-old (n = 8), 2-mo-old (n = 22), and 15-mo-old (n = 22) female rat offspring. The IUGR rats exposed to either prenatal (CM/SP, n = 5 per age), postnatal (SM/CP, n = 6), or pre- and postnatal (SM/SP, n = 6) nutrient restriction were compared with age-matched controls (CM/CP, n = 5). At 2 days, IUGR pups (SP) were smaller and glucose intolerant and had increased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose disposal (P < 0.01) compared with controls (CP). At 2 mo, the GTT, glucose clearance, and GFC did not change. However, a decline in hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (P < 0.05) and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase (P < 0.05) enzyme activities in the IUGR offspring was detected. At 15 mo, prenatal nutrient restriction (CM/SP) resulted in greater weight gain (P < 0.01) and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001) compared with postnatal nutrient restriction (SM/CP). A decline in GFC in the face of a normal GTT occurred in both the prenatal (CM/SP, P < 0.01) and postnatal calorie (SM/CP, P < 0.03) and growth-restricted offspring. The IUGR offspring with pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (SM/SP) were smaller, hypoinsulinemic (P < 0.03), and hypoleptinemic (P < 0.03), with no change in GTT, hepatic glucose production, GFC, or glucose clearance. We conclude that there is pre- and postnatal programming that affects the postnatal compensatory adaptation of GFC and disposal initiated by changes in circulating insulin concentrations, thereby determining hepatic insulin sensitivity in a phenotype-specific manner. PMID:16449299

  7. Paternal retrievals increase testosterone levels in both male and female California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) offspring.

    PubMed

    Chary, Mamatha C; Cruz, Jayson P; Bardi, Massimo; Becker, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    The importance of maternal care on offspring development has received considerable attention, although more recently, researchers have begun to focus on the significance of paternal contributions. In the monogamous and bi-parental California mouse, fathers provide high levels of care, and therefore serve as a model system for studying paternal effects on behavior and underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. Paternal retrievals in this species influence long term changes in brain (expression of arginine vasopressin-AVP) and behavior (aggression and parenting) in adult male offspring. Further, paternal retrievals induce a transient increase in testosterone (T) in male offspring, which is thought to mediate the relationship between paternal retrievals and AVP expression. Although the father-son relationship has been well characterized, few studies have examined father-daughter interactions. In California mice, paternal retrievals increase aggression in female offspring. Although T has been implicated in the regulation of female aggression, it remains unclear whether T may underlie long-term changes in female offspring aggression in response to paternal retrievals. In the current study, we examined the influence of paternal retrievals on T in both male and female offspring. Retrievals were manipulated experimentally by displacement of the pup and trunk blood was collected from retrieved, non-retrieved, and non-manipulated (baseline) pups. We found that fathers expressed similar levels of retrievals towards sons and daughters, and that T levels were elevated in retrieved, as compared to non-retrieved offspring. Similar to what has been previously described in male offspring and replicated here, female offspring that were retrieved had higher T levels than non-retrieved females. Neither females nor males experienced a change in corticosterone levels in response to retrievals suggesting offspring do not mount a stress response to paternal care. Therefore, our data suggest

  8. Paternal retrievals increase testosterone levels in both male and female California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) offspring.

    PubMed

    Chary, Mamatha C; Cruz, Jayson P; Bardi, Massimo; Becker, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    The importance of maternal care on offspring development has received considerable attention, although more recently, researchers have begun to focus on the significance of paternal contributions. In the monogamous and bi-parental California mouse, fathers provide high levels of care, and therefore serve as a model system for studying paternal effects on behavior and underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. Paternal retrievals in this species influence long term changes in brain (expression of arginine vasopressin-AVP) and behavior (aggression and parenting) in adult male offspring. Further, paternal retrievals induce a transient increase in testosterone (T) in male offspring, which is thought to mediate the relationship between paternal retrievals and AVP expression. Although the father-son relationship has been well characterized, few studies have examined father-daughter interactions. In California mice, paternal retrievals increase aggression in female offspring. Although T has been implicated in the regulation of female aggression, it remains unclear whether T may underlie long-term changes in female offspring aggression in response to paternal retrievals. In the current study, we examined the influence of paternal retrievals on T in both male and female offspring. Retrievals were manipulated experimentally by displacement of the pup and trunk blood was collected from retrieved, non-retrieved, and non-manipulated (baseline) pups. We found that fathers expressed similar levels of retrievals towards sons and daughters, and that T levels were elevated in retrieved, as compared to non-retrieved offspring. Similar to what has been previously described in male offspring and replicated here, female offspring that were retrieved had higher T levels than non-retrieved females. Neither females nor males experienced a change in corticosterone levels in response to retrievals suggesting offspring do not mount a stress response to paternal care. Therefore, our data suggest

  9. Prereproductive stress in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticosterone levels in second-generation offspring.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, Hiba; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2015-08-01

    Human and animal studies indicate that vulnerability to stress may be heritable. We have previously shown that chronic, mild prereproductive stress (PRS) in adolescent female rats affects behavior and corticotropin releasing factor 1 (CRF1) expression in the brain of first-generation (F1) offspring. Here, we investigated the effects of PRS on anxiogenic behavior and CRF1 expression in male and female second-generation (F2) offspring. Furthermore, we assessed levels of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), a direct marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, in PRS females and their F1 and F2 progeny. F2 offspring demonstrated decreased CRF1 mRNA expression at birth, and alterations in anxiogenic behavior in adulthood. CORT levels were elevated in PRS females and in their F1 female, but not male, offspring. In F2, CORT levels in PRS offspring also varied in a sex-dependent manner. These findings indicate that PRS in adolescent females leads to behavioral alterations that extend to second-generation offspring, and has transgenerational effects on endocrine function. Together with our previous findings, these data indicate that PRS to adolescent females affects behavior and HPA axis function across three generations, and highlight the importance of examining the transgenerational effects of stress in both male and female offspring.

  10. Acute corticosterone administration during meiotic segregation stimulates females to produce more male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pinson, Sara E; Parr, Christina M; Wilson, Jeanna L; Navara, Kristen J

    2011-01-01

    Birds have demonstrated a remarkable ability to manipulate offspring sex. Previous studies suggest that treatment with hormones can stimulate females to manipulate offspring sex before ovulation. For example, chronic treatments with corticosterone, the primary stress hormone produced by birds, stimulated significant skews toward female offspring. It has been suggested that corticosterone acts by influencing which sex chromosome is donated by the heterogametic female bird into the ovulated ovarian follicle. However, it is difficult to pinpoint when in developmental time corticosterone affects offspring sex, because in previous studies corticosterone treatment was given over a long period of time. We treated laying hens with acute high-dose corticosterone injections 5 h before the predicted time of ovulation and quantified the sexes of the subsequently ovulated eggs to determine whether mechanisms exist by which corticosterone can skew offspring sex ratios just before ovulation. We hypothesized that an injection of corticosterone coincident with segregation of the sex chromosomes would stimulate hens to produce more female than male offspring. Contrary to our predictions, hens injected with corticosterone produced a significant bias toward male offspring, nearly 83%. These results suggest that acute corticosterone treatment during meiosis I can influence primary sex ratios in birds, potentially through nonrandom chromosome segregation. Furthermore, acute corticosterone exposure, compared with chronic exposure, may act through different mechanisms to skew offspring sex.

  11. Perinatal Exposure of Mice to the Pesticide DDT Impairs Energy Expenditure and Metabolism in Adult Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R.; Newman, John W.; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring. PMID:25076055

  12. Perinatal exposure of mice to the pesticide DDT impairs energy expenditure and metabolism in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    La Merrill, Michele; Karey, Emma; Moshier, Erin; Lindtner, Claudia; La Frano, Michael R; Newman, John W; Buettner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Its use in malaria control continues in some countries according to recommendation by the World Health Organization. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have an increased prevalence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Here we hypothesize that perinatal exposure to DDT disrupts metabolic programming leading to impaired metabolism in adult offspring. To test this, we administered DDT to C57BL/6J mice from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5 and studied their metabolic phenotype at several ages up to nine months. Perinatal DDT exposure reduced core body temperature, impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and produced a transient early-life increase in body fat in female offspring. When challenged with a high fat diet for 12 weeks in adulthood, female offspring perinatally exposed to DDT developed glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and altered bile acid metabolism. Perinatal DDT exposure combined with high fat feeding in adulthood further impaired thermogenesis as evidenced by reductions in core temperature and in the expression of numerous RNA that promote thermogenesis and substrate utilization in the brown adipose tissue of adult female mice. These observations suggest that perinatal DDT exposure impairs thermogenesis and the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids which may increase susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome in adult female offspring.

  13. Effects of maternal undernutrition on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in female sheep offspring.

    PubMed

    Kotsampasi, B; Chadio, S; Papadomichelakis, G; Deligeorgis, S; Kalogiannis, D; Menegatos, I; Zervas, G

    2009-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of maternal undernutrition on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in female sheep offspring. Pregnant ewes were fed to 100% throughout pregnancy (Control) or to 50% from 0 to 30 (R1) or from 31 to 100 days of gestation (R2). Female lambs were selected and fed to appetite throughout the study. At 2, 5.5 and 10 months of age a GnRH challenge was conducted. At the age of 10 months lambs were synchronized and blood samples were collected at 3 h intervals for 72 h following sponge removal. At slaughter (10 months) ovaries were removed and examined macroscopically. Maternal undernutrition did not affect the time of the onset of puberty, defined as the first increase in plasma progesterone concentrations >or=1 ng/ml. The magnitude of the pre-ovulatory gonadotrophin surge and the time to surge were unaffected by treatment. The LH and FSH response to GnRH challenge did not differ between groups at 2 and 5.5 months but at 10 months of age a higher (p < 0.05) FSH response was found in R1 group. Although the total number of visible follicles and corpora lutea did not differ between groups, a significant higher (p < 0.05) number of small (2-3 mm diameter) follicles in R1 group and a significant lower number (p < 0.05) of corpora lutea with diameter 8-11 mm and not even one with diameter >12 mm were detected in the ovaries of R2 lambs. In conclusion, maternal undernutrition during the first month of pregnancy resulted in increased pituitary sensitivity to GnRH and increased number of small follicles in the ovary, while during mid to late gestation resulted in a reduction of large corpora lutea in female offspring.

  14. In utero and lactational exposure to fluoxetine delays puberty onset in female rats offspring.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alice Hartmann; Vieira, Milene Leivas; de Azevedo Camin, Nathália; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Ceravolo, Graziela Scalianti; Pelosi, Gislaine Garcia; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello; Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Mesquita, Suzana de Fátima Paccola; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto

    2016-07-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent disorders in the world and may occur during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Fluoxetine (FLX) has been widely prescribed for use during depression in pregnancy and lactation. This study aimed to investigate if in utero and lactational exposure to FLX could compromise reproductive parameters in female offspring. Wistar rats received, by daily gavage, FLX 5mg/kg or 0.3ml of water (control group) from the first gestational day until weaning (21 days). Assessments in the female offspring included: body weight, anogenital distance, vaginal opening, first estrus, estrous cycle, reproductive organs weight, uterine morphometric analyses, ovarian follicle and corpora lutea counting, estradiol plasmatic concentration, sexual behavior, maternal behavior and fertility test. Exposure to FLX delayed the puberty onset in female pups. The present study demonstrated that developmental exposure to FLX can deregulate the neuroendocrine hormonal control of female offspring during prepubertal and pubertal periods. PMID:27094375

  15. The stage of offspring of female rats after treatment with cytostatics of various groups.

    PubMed

    Borovskaya, T G; Perova, A V; Pachomova, A V; Poluektova, M E; Gol'dberg, V E

    2008-10-01

    We examined the offspring of female rats that were mated with intact males in the delayed period after administration of cytostatic drugs Farmorubicin, platidiam, carboplatin, etoposide, and paclitaxel (1, 3, and 6 months post-treatment). Toxicity of these drugs in the offspring decreased in the following order: paclitaxel > etoposide > carboplatin > platidiam > Farmorubicin. The toxic effect depended not only on the type of cytostatic treatment, but also on the period of conception.

  16. Male and female mate choice affects offspring quality in a sex-role-reversed pipefish.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, M; Rosenqvist, G; Berglund, A

    2000-11-01

    Where both sexes invest substantially in offspring, both females and males should discriminate between potential partners when choosing mates. The degree of choosiness should relate to the costs of choice and to the potential benefits to be gained. We measured offspring quality from experimentally staged matings with preferred and non-preferred partners in a sex-role-reversed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle L. Here, a substantial male investment in offspring results in a lower potential reproductive rate in males than in females, and access to males limits female reproductive success rather than vice versa. Thus, males are choosier than females and females compete more intensely over mates than do males. Broods from preferred matings were superior at escaping predation, when either males or females were allowed to choose a partner. However, only 'choosing' females benefited in terms of faster-growing offspring. Our results have important implications for mate-choice research: here we show that even the more competitive and less choosy sex may contribute significantly to sexual selection through mate choice. PMID:11413626

  17. Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sabet, Julia A.; Park, Lara K.; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; Tai, Albert K.; Koh, Gar Yee; Pfalzer, Anna C.; Parnell, Laurence D.; Mason, Joel B.; Liu, Zhenhua; Byun, Alexander J.; Crott, Jimmy W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well. Objective In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content. Methods Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation) were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL), mildly deficient (DEF), or supplemental (SUPP) quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden. Results No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring. Conclusions In this animal model, modulation of

  18. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  19. Sucrose feeding in mouse pregnancy leads to hypertension, and sex-linked obesity and insulin resistance in female offspring.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, Anne-Maj; Matthews, Phillippa A; Jansen, Eugene; Taylor, Paul D; Poston, Lucilla

    2013-01-01

    Eating an unbalanced diet during pregnancy may induce long-term health consequences in offspring, in particular obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that a maternal diet rich in simple sugars predispose mouse offspring to obesity, glucose intolerance, and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed either a standard chow or a sucrose-rich diet (26% of total energy) 6 weeks prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring of control dams (OC) and high sucrose fed dams (OSF) were weaned onto standard control chow, and metabolic and cardiovascular parameters determined at 3 months of age. Both male and female OSF were hyperphagic by 4 weeks of age and females were heavier than OC at 6 weeks. At 3 months, female OSF showed a significant increase in inguinal fat pad mass, whereas skeletal muscle mass (tibialis anterior) and locomotor activity were decreased relative to OC. A 10-fold increase in fasting serum insulin in female OSF vs. OC at 3 months (Insulin [pmol/L] mean ± SEM, OSF, 200.3 ± 16.1, vs. OC, 20.3 ± 1.8, n = 6 P < 0.001), was associated with impaired glucose tolerance (AUC [mmol/L min] mean ± SEM, OSF 1437.4 ± 124.2 vs. OC, 1076.8 ± 83.9, n = 6, P < 0.05). Both male and female OSF were hypertensive as assessed by radiotelemetry (night-time systolic arterial pressure (SAP) [mmHg] mean ± SEM, male OSF, 128 ± 1 vs. OC, 109 ± 1, n = 6, P < 0.01; female OSF, 130 ± 1 vs. OC, 118 ± 1, n = 6, P < 0.05). Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) demonstrated an increased low:high frequency ratio in male and female OSF (P < 0.05), indicative of heightened sympathetic efferent tone. Renal tissue noradrenaline (NA) content was markedly raised in the OSF vs. OC (NA [pg/ml/mg tissue] mean ± SEM, male OSF, 2.28 ± 0.19 vs. OC 0.84 ± 0.09, n = 6, P < 0.01). Exposure to a maternal diet rich in sucrose led to obesity and glucose intolerance in female mice offspring, and hypertension in both

  20. Femoral Bone Marrow Insulin Sensitivity Is Increased by Resistance Training in Elderly Female Offspring of Overweight and Obese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Huovinen, Ville; Bucci, Marco; Lipponen, Heta; Kiviranta, Riku; Sandboge, Samuel; Raiko, Juho; Koskinen, Suvi; Koskensalo, Kalle; Eriksson, Johan G.; Parkkola, Riitta; Iozzo, Patricia; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow insulin sensitivity may be an important factor for bone health in addition to bone mineral density especially in insulin resistant conditions. First we aimed to study if prenatal maternal obesity plays a role in determining bone marrow insulin sensitivity in elderly female offspring. Secondly we studied if a four-month individualized resistance training intervention increases bone marrow insulin sensitivity in elderly female offspring and whether this possible positive outcome is regulated by the offspring’s mother’s obesity status. 37 frail elderly females (mean age 71.9 ± 3.1 years) of which 20 were offspring of lean/normal-weight mothers (OLM, maternal BMI ≤ 26.3 kg/m2) and 17 were offspring of obese/overweight mothers (OOM, maternal BMI ≥ 28.1 kg/m2) were studied before and after a four-month individualized resistance training intervention. Nine age- and sex-matched non-frail controls (maternal BMI ≤ 26.3 kg/m2) were studied at baseline. Femoral bone marrow (FBM) and vertebral bone marrow (VBM) insulin sensitivity were measured using [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography with computer tomography under hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. We found that bone marrow insulin sensitivity was not related to maternal obesity status but FBM insulin sensitivity correlated with whole body insulin sensitivity (R = 0.487, p = 0.001). A four-month resistance training intervention increased FBM insulin sensitivity by 47% (p = 0.006) only in OOM, while VBM insulin sensitivity remained unchanged regardless of the maternal obesity status. In conclusion, FBM and VBM glucose metabolism reacts differently to a four-month resistance training intervention in elderly women according to their maternal obesity status. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01931540 PMID:27669153

  1. Late-onset exercise in female rat offspring ameliorates the detrimental metabolic impact of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Bahari, Hasnah; Caruso, Vanni; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-10-01

    Rising rates of maternal obesity/overweight bring the need for effective interventions in offspring. We observed beneficial effects of postweaning exercise, but the question of whether late-onset exercise might benefit offspring exposed to maternal obesity is unanswered. Thus we examined effects of voluntary exercise implemented in adulthood on adiposity, hormone profiles, and genes involved in regulating appetite and metabolism in female offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed either normal chow or high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 5 weeks before mating and throughout gestation/lactation. At weaning, female littermates received either chow or HFD and, after 7 weeks, half were exercised (running wheels) for 5 weeks. Tissues were collected at 15 weeks. Maternal obesity was associated with increased hypothalamic inflammatory markers, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expression in the arcuate nucleus. In the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), Y1 receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor, and TNF-α mRNA were elevated. In the hippocampus, maternal obesity was associated with up-regulated fat mass and obesity-associated gene and TNF-α mRNA. We observed significant hypophagia across all exercise groups. In female offspring of lean dams, the reduction in food intake by exercise could be related to altered signaling at the PVN melanocortin 4 receptor whereas in offspring of obese dams, this may be related to up-regulated TNF-α. Late-onset exercise ameliorated the effects of maternal obesity and postweaning HFD in reducing body weight, adiposity, plasma leptin, insulin, triglycerides, and glucose intolerance, with greater beneficial effects in offspring of obese dams. Overall, hypothalamic inflammation was increased by maternal obesity or current HFD, and the effect of exercise was dependent on maternal diet. In conclusion, even after a significant sedentary period, many of the negative impacts of maternal obesity could be improved by

  2. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO NONYLPHENOL CAUSES PRECOCIOUS MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RAT OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether or not exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) during late gestation affects reproductive and mammary development in the offspring of female rats. Time pregnant Long Evans rats were gavaged with NP (10 or 100 mg/kg), atrazine (ATR, 100 mg/kg), or corn oil on ge...

  3. Maternal protein restriction in the rat during pregnancy and/or lactation alters cognitive and anxiety behaviors of female offspring.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodriguez, J S; Charco, R; Bautista, C J; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-02-01

    Maternal protein deficiencies can developmentally program offspring to lifelong dysfunction of many physiological systems. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during fetal and early postnatal development would negatively affect female offspring anxiety, exploration, associative learning and motivation as measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control mothers (C) received a 20% casein diet and restricted mothers (R) a 10% casein diet to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second lactation diet) to enable evaluation of offspring effects influenced by maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation. Maternal protein restriction decreased open arm time and distance in RR and RC offspring, increased anxiety behavior, in the EPM. In the OFT, the RR and RC offspring displayed decreased exploration (increased stress) as indexed by decreased distance in the center zone. These behaviors in the EPM and OFT was associated with increased corticosterone levels during an immobilization test in the RR offspring with intermediary effects in the RC offspring. Learning impairment was observed in the RR, CR and RC offspring during fixed ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement. Motivational effects were measured in RR offspring responding less, decreased motivation, and CR offspring making more responses, increased motivation, than CC offspring. These findings reveal the negative effects of developmental protein restriction on female offspring behavior. The underlying basis for these negative outcomes remains to be elucidated.

  4. Offspring sex ratio in red-winged blackbirds is dependent on maternal age.

    PubMed

    Blank, J L; Nolan, V

    1983-10-01

    In a marsh-breeding population of red-winged blackbirds, the sex ratio of offspring that survived to leave the nest varied with maternal age. Old mothers produced an excess of male fledglings, middle-aged mothers produced almost equal proportions of males and females, and young mothers produced nearly twice as many females as males. More males than females hatched from the eggs of old mothers, whereas among newly hatched progeny of middle-aged and young mothers the sex ratio did not differ from unity. The hatching rate of eggs of old mothers was unusually low, suggesting that the biased sex ratio of their hatchlings may have been caused by more frequent death of female embryos, although other possibilities can be imagined. Starvation of nestlings after hatching also affected the sex ratio among young that left the nest. When starvation occurred, it fell principally on young produced by the last and next-to-last eggs laid in the clutch. Because old mothers allocated relatively more energy to those eggs than to earlier-laid eggs, whereas young mothers apportioned energy equally to their eggs, few nestlings of old mothers but many nestlings of young mothers starved. Most nestlings that died were male. It followed that the male bias in sex ratio of progeny of old mothers did not change between hatching and nestleaving, but the ratio among progeny of young mothers shifted after hatching to a strong bias favoring females at nest-leaving.

  5. Role of epigenetics in human aging and longevity: genome-wide DNA methylation profile in centenarians and centenarians' offspring.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, Davide; Mari, Daniela; Castaldi, Davide; Remondini, Daniel; Ogliari, Giulia; Ostan, Rita; Bucci, Laura; Sirchia, Silvia M; Tabano, Silvia; Cavagnini, Francesco; Monti, Daniela; Franceschi, Claudio; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Vitale, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    The role of epigenetics in the modulation of longevity has not been studied in humans. To this aim, (1) we evaluated the DNA methylation from peripheral leukocytes of 21 female centenarians, their 21 female offspring, 21 offspring of both non-long-lived parents, and 21 young women through ELISA assay, pyrosequencing analysis of Alu sequences, and quantification of methylation in CpG repeats outside CpG islands; (2) we compared the DNA methylation profiles of these populations through Infinium array for genome-wide CpG methylation analysis. We observed an age-related decrease in global DNA methylation and a delay of this process in centenarians' offspring. Interestingly, literature data suggest a link between the loss of DNA methylation observed during aging and the development of age-associated diseases. Genome-wide methylation analysis evidenced DNA methylation profiles specific for aging and longevity: (1) aging-associated DNA hypermethylation occurs predominantly in genes involved in the development of anatomical structures, organs, and multicellular organisms and in the regulation of transcription; (2) genes involved in nucleotide biosynthesis, metabolism, and control of signal transmission are differently methylated between centenarians' offspring and offspring of both non-long-lived parents, hypothesizing a role for these genes in human longevity. Our results suggest that a better preservation of DNA methylation status, a slower cell growing/metabolism, and a better control in signal transmission through epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the process of human longevity. These data fit well with the observations related to the beneficial effects of mild hypothyroidism and insulin-like growth factor I system impairment on the modulation of human lifespan.

  6. Parental age and lifespan influence offspring recruitment: a long-term study in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations.

  7. Parental age and lifespan influence offspring recruitment: a long-term study in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  8. Parental Age and Lifespan Influence Offspring Recruitment: A Long-Term Study in a Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6–12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  9. The Maternal Legacy: Female Identity Predicts Offspring Sex Ratio in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle.

    PubMed

    Reneker, Jaymie L; Kamel, Stephanie J

    2016-01-01

    In organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination, the incubation environment plays a key role in determining offspring sex ratios. Given that global temperatures have warmed approximately 0.6 °C in the last century, it is necessary to consider how organisms will adjust to climate change. To better understand the degree to which mothers influence the sex ratios of their offspring, we use 24 years of nesting data for individual female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) observed on Bald Head Island, North Carolina. We find that maternal identity is the best predictor of nest sex ratio in univariate and multivariate predictive models. We find significant variability in estimated nest sex ratios among mothers, but a high degree of consistency within mothers, despite substantial spatial and temporal thermal variation. Our results suggest that individual differences in nesting preferences are the main driver behind divergences in nest sex ratios. As such, a female's ability to plastically adjust her nest sex ratios in response to environmental conditions is constrained, potentially limiting how individuals behaviorally mitigate the effects of environmental change. Given that many loggerhead populations already show female-biased offspring sex ratios, understanding maternal behavioral responses is critical for predicting the future of long-lived species vulnerable to extinction. PMID:27363786

  10. The Maternal Legacy: Female Identity Predicts Offspring Sex Ratio in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle.

    PubMed

    Reneker, Jaymie L; Kamel, Stephanie J

    2016-01-01

    In organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination, the incubation environment plays a key role in determining offspring sex ratios. Given that global temperatures have warmed approximately 0.6 °C in the last century, it is necessary to consider how organisms will adjust to climate change. To better understand the degree to which mothers influence the sex ratios of their offspring, we use 24 years of nesting data for individual female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) observed on Bald Head Island, North Carolina. We find that maternal identity is the best predictor of nest sex ratio in univariate and multivariate predictive models. We find significant variability in estimated nest sex ratios among mothers, but a high degree of consistency within mothers, despite substantial spatial and temporal thermal variation. Our results suggest that individual differences in nesting preferences are the main driver behind divergences in nest sex ratios. As such, a female's ability to plastically adjust her nest sex ratios in response to environmental conditions is constrained, potentially limiting how individuals behaviorally mitigate the effects of environmental change. Given that many loggerhead populations already show female-biased offspring sex ratios, understanding maternal behavioral responses is critical for predicting the future of long-lived species vulnerable to extinction.

  11. Mice age - Does the age of the mother predict offspring behaviour?

    PubMed

    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Increasing paternal age is known to be associated with a great variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Hence the factor "age" may be taken as strategic tool to analyse specific scientific hypotheses. Additionally, this finding also needs to be addressed in rather pragmatically performed breeding protocols of model organisms, since otherwise artefacts may challenge the validity of the results. Our study was performed to investigate influences of advanced age of mouse dams (30 vs. 16weeks) on maternal- and offspring behaviour. Adult offspring of both sexes was analysed in a test battery comprising paradigms for exploration, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Final blood sampling was conducted for stressphysiological analysis. Interestingly, advanced age of the mothers was associated with increased nest-building quality while maternal activity was unaffected. Moreover "maternal (mice) age" (MA) affected emotionality in the offspring, which became apparent in the dark-light box and the social recognition paradigm. These findings not only emphasize MA to model a potent risk factor with regard to emotional stability, but also underscore the vast necessity to include information about breeding protocols into the methods section of any animal study. PMID:25914174

  12. Mice age - Does the age of the mother predict offspring behaviour?

    PubMed

    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Increasing paternal age is known to be associated with a great variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Hence the factor "age" may be taken as strategic tool to analyse specific scientific hypotheses. Additionally, this finding also needs to be addressed in rather pragmatically performed breeding protocols of model organisms, since otherwise artefacts may challenge the validity of the results. Our study was performed to investigate influences of advanced age of mouse dams (30 vs. 16weeks) on maternal- and offspring behaviour. Adult offspring of both sexes was analysed in a test battery comprising paradigms for exploration, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Final blood sampling was conducted for stressphysiological analysis. Interestingly, advanced age of the mothers was associated with increased nest-building quality while maternal activity was unaffected. Moreover "maternal (mice) age" (MA) affected emotionality in the offspring, which became apparent in the dark-light box and the social recognition paradigm. These findings not only emphasize MA to model a potent risk factor with regard to emotional stability, but also underscore the vast necessity to include information about breeding protocols into the methods section of any animal study.

  13. Decoupling of female host plant preference and offspring performance in relative specialist and generalist butterflies.

    PubMed

    Friberg, M; Posledovich, D; Wiklund, C

    2015-08-01

    The preference-performance hypothesis posits that the host plant range of plant-feeding insects is ultimately limited by larval costs associated with feeding on multiple resources, and that female egg-laying preferences evolve in response to these costs. The trade-off of either using few host plant species and being a strong competitor on them due to effective utilization or using a wide host plant range but being a poor competitor is further predicted to result in host plant specialization. This follows under the hypothesis that both females and offspring are ultimately favoured by utilizing only the most suitable host(s). We develop an experimental approach to identify such trade-offs, i.e. larval costs associated with being a host generalist, and apply a suite of experiments to two sympatric and syntopic populations of the closely related butterflies Pieris napi and Pieris rapae. These butterflies show variation in their level of host specialization, which allowed comparisons between more and less specialized species and between families within species. Our results show that, first, the link between female host preference and offspring performance was not significantly stronger in the specialist compared to the generalist species. Second, the offspring of the host plant specialist did not outperform the offspring of the generalist on the former's most preferred host plant species. Finally, the more generalized species, or families within species, did not show higher survival or consistently higher growth rates than the specialists on the less preferred plants. Thus, the preference and performance traits appear to evolve as largely separated units.

  14. Effects of perinatal methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in male and female Sprague-Dawley offspring.

    PubMed

    Panos, John J; Law, C Delbert; Ferguson, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    MPH is a common treatment for adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, little information exists regarding its safety during pregnancy and thus, women with ADHD face difficult decisions regarding continued use during pregnancy. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated 3 ×/day with 0 (control), 6 (low), 18 (mid), or 42 (high) mg MPH/kg/day (i.e., 0, 2, 6, or 14 mg/kg at each treatment time) on gestational days 6-21. On postnatal days (PNDs) 1-21, all offspring/litter were orally treated 2 ×/day with the same dose. Righting reflex (PNDs 3-6) and slant board performance (PNDs 8-11) were assessed. T3, T4, E2, testosterone, LH and corticosterone were measured at PND 22. Separate pregnant dams and resulting litters were used for serum MPH measurements. MPH treatment had mild, but significant, effects on gestational body weight and food intake. Birth weight of high MPH offspring was 5% more than controls (p<0.0500). Relative to same-sex controls on PNDs 1-22, low and mid MPH males weighed more (p<0.0094), low MPH females weighed more (p<0.0001), while high MPH females weighed less (p<0.0397). PND 22 serum E2 levels were significantly decreased (20-25%) in high MPH males and females (p<0.0500). Behavioral performance was unaffected by treatment. Serum MPH levels of the low MPH pregnant dams were within the range produced by therapeutic MPH doses in adults; however, offspring levels in all groups were substantially higher. These results indicate that developmental MPH treatment has mild effects on gestational body weight and food intake and offspring preweaning body weight. Potential functional consequences of decreased serum E2 levels are not clear, but may impact later behavior or physiology.

  15. The Maternal Legacy: Female Identity Predicts Offspring Sex Ratio in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle

    PubMed Central

    Reneker, Jaymie L.; Kamel, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    In organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination, the incubation environment plays a key role in determining offspring sex ratios. Given that global temperatures have warmed approximately 0.6 °C in the last century, it is necessary to consider how organisms will adjust to climate change. To better understand the degree to which mothers influence the sex ratios of their offspring, we use 24 years of nesting data for individual female loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) observed on Bald Head Island, North Carolina. We find that maternal identity is the best predictor of nest sex ratio in univariate and multivariate predictive models. We find significant variability in estimated nest sex ratios among mothers, but a high degree of consistency within mothers, despite substantial spatial and temporal thermal variation. Our results suggest that individual differences in nesting preferences are the main driver behind divergences in nest sex ratios. As such, a female’s ability to plastically adjust her nest sex ratios in response to environmental conditions is constrained, potentially limiting how individuals behaviorally mitigate the effects of environmental change. Given that many loggerhead populations already show female-biased offspring sex ratios, understanding maternal behavioral responses is critical for predicting the future of long-lived species vulnerable to extinction. PMID:27363786

  16. Effects of Prior Contest Experience and Contest Outcome on Female Reproductive Decisions and Offspring Fitness.

    PubMed

    Pilakouta, Natalie; Halford, Cerian; Rácz, Rita; Smiseth, Per T

    2016-09-01

    Winning or losing a prior contest can influence the outcome of future contests, but it might also alter subsequent reproductive decisions. For example, losers may increase their investment in the current breeding attempt if losing a contest indicates limited prospects for future breeding. Using the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, we tested whether females adjust their prehatching and posthatching reproductive effort after winning or losing a contest with a same-sex conspecific. Burying beetles breed on carcasses of small vertebrates for which there is fierce intrasexual competition. We found no evidence that winning or losing a contest influenced reproductive investment decisions in this species. Instead, we show that a female's prior contest experience (regardless of its outcome) influenced the amount of posthatching care provided, with downstream consequences for the female's reproductive output; both winners and losers spent more time provisioning food to their offspring and produced larger broods than females with no contest experience. We discuss the wider implications of our findings and present a conceptual model linking contest-mediated adjustments in parental investment to population-level processes. We propose that the frequency of intraspecific contests could both influence and be influenced by population dynamics in species where contest experience influences the size and/or number of offspring produced. PMID:27501089

  17. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:26844865

  18. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure in rats: Evidence for cognitive deficits in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Samantha M; Fountain, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats would impair the cognitive capacity of a subsequent generation. Male and female rats in the parental F0 generation were given twice-daily i.p. injections of either 1.0mg/kg nicotine or an equivalent volume of saline for 35days during adolescence on postnatal days 25-59 (P25-59). After reaching adulthood, male and female nicotine-exposed rats were paired for breeding as were male and female saline control rats. Only female offspring were used in this experiment. Half of the offspring of F0 nicotine-exposed breeders and half of the offspring of F0 saline control rats received twice-daily i.p. injections of 1.0mg/kg nicotine during adolescence on P25-59. The remainder of the rats received twice-daily saline injections for the same period. To evaluate transgenerational effects of nicotine exposure on complex cognitive learning abilities, F1 generation rats were trained to perform a highly structured serial pattern in a serial multiple choice (SMC) task. Beginning on P95, rats in the F1 generation were given either 4days of massed training (20patterns/day) followed by spaced training (10 patterns/day) or only spaced training. Transgenerational effects of adolescent nicotine exposure were observed as greater difficulty in learning a "violation element" of the pattern, which indicated that rats were impaired in the ability to encode and remember multiple sequential elements as compound or configural cues. The results indicated that for rats that received massed training, F1 generation rats with adolescent nicotine exposure whose F0 generation parents also experienced adolescent nicotine exposure showed poorer learning of the violation element than rats that experienced adolescent nicotine exposure only in the F1 generation. Thus, adolescent nicotine exposure in one generation of rats produced a cognitive impairment in the next generation.

  19. Post-copulatory opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice provide no offspring fitness benefits in externally fertilizing salmon.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Alyson J; Diamond, Sian E; Einum, Sigurd; Yeates, Sarah E; Peruffo, Danielle; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that females can somehow improve their offspring fitness by mating with multiple males, but we understand little about the exact stage(s) at which such benefits are gained. Here, we measure whether offspring fitness is influenced by mechanisms operating solely between sperm and egg. Using externally fertilizing and polyandrous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), we employed split-clutch and split-ejaculate in vitro fertilization experiments to generate offspring using designs that either denied or applied opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Following fertilizations, we measured 140 days of offspring fitness after hatch, through growth and survival in hatchery and near-natural conditions. Despite an average composite mortality of 61%, offspring fitness at every life stage was near-identical between groups fertilized under the absence versus presence of opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Of the 21 551 and 21 771 eggs from 24 females fertilized under monandrous versus polyandrous conditions, 68% versus 67.8% survived to the 100-day juvenile stage; sub-samples showed similar hatching success (73.1% versus 74.3%), had similar survival over 40 days in near-natural streams (57.3% versus 56.2%) and grew at similar rates throughout. We therefore found no evidence that gamete-specific interactions allow offspring fitness benefits when polyandrous fertilization conditions provide opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. PMID:27069665

  20. Post-copulatory opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice provide no offspring fitness benefits in externally fertilizing salmon.

    PubMed

    Lumley, Alyson J; Diamond, Sian E; Einum, Sigurd; Yeates, Sarah E; Peruffo, Danielle; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that females can somehow improve their offspring fitness by mating with multiple males, but we understand little about the exact stage(s) at which such benefits are gained. Here, we measure whether offspring fitness is influenced by mechanisms operating solely between sperm and egg. Using externally fertilizing and polyandrous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), we employed split-clutch and split-ejaculate in vitro fertilization experiments to generate offspring using designs that either denied or applied opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Following fertilizations, we measured 140 days of offspring fitness after hatch, through growth and survival in hatchery and near-natural conditions. Despite an average composite mortality of 61%, offspring fitness at every life stage was near-identical between groups fertilized under the absence versus presence of opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Of the 21 551 and 21 771 eggs from 24 females fertilized under monandrous versus polyandrous conditions, 68% versus 67.8% survived to the 100-day juvenile stage; sub-samples showed similar hatching success (73.1% versus 74.3%), had similar survival over 40 days in near-natural streams (57.3% versus 56.2%) and grew at similar rates throughout. We therefore found no evidence that gamete-specific interactions allow offspring fitness benefits when polyandrous fertilization conditions provide opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice.

  1. Post-copulatory opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice provide no offspring fitness benefits in externally fertilizing salmon

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Alyson J.; Diamond, Sian E.; Einum, Sigurd; Yeates, Sarah E.; Peruffo, Danielle; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that females can somehow improve their offspring fitness by mating with multiple males, but we understand little about the exact stage(s) at which such benefits are gained. Here, we measure whether offspring fitness is influenced by mechanisms operating solely between sperm and egg. Using externally fertilizing and polyandrous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), we employed split-clutch and split-ejaculate in vitro fertilization experiments to generate offspring using designs that either denied or applied opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Following fertilizations, we measured 140 days of offspring fitness after hatch, through growth and survival in hatchery and near-natural conditions. Despite an average composite mortality of 61%, offspring fitness at every life stage was near-identical between groups fertilized under the absence versus presence of opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Of the 21 551 and 21 771 eggs from 24 females fertilized under monandrous versus polyandrous conditions, 68% versus 67.8% survived to the 100-day juvenile stage; sub-samples showed similar hatching success (73.1% versus 74.3%), had similar survival over 40 days in near-natural streams (57.3% versus 56.2%) and grew at similar rates throughout. We therefore found no evidence that gamete-specific interactions allow offspring fitness benefits when polyandrous fertilization conditions provide opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. PMID:27069665

  2. Offspring-exposure reduces depressive-like behaviour in the parturient female rat.

    PubMed

    Pawluski, Jodi L; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2009-01-30

    In women, breastfeeding generally results in reductions in anxiety and increased positive mood. However, approximately 10-15% of women experience depressed mood and increased anxiety during the first year postpartum. Recent research has demonstrated that offspring-exposure is important for the reduction in behaviours related to depression and anxiety in the mother. It remains to be determined whether these effects are due to factors related to pregnancy and/or pup-exposure, are associated with the degree of maternal behaviour by the mother towards offspring, or persist after weaning. To address these questions the present study used four groups of female rats; primiparous, nulliparous, primip-no-pups (primiparous females with pups permanently removed), and sensitized females. Depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours were assessed 1 week after weaning/pup-exposure (4 weeks after birth for primip-no-pups animals) using the forced swim test for measures of depressive-like behaviour, and the open field test and elevated plus maze for measure of anxiety-like behaviour. Results demonstrate that primiparous females without pup-exposure have increased depressive-like, but not anxiety-like, behaviour compared to primiparous and sensitized females. In addition, kyphotic nursing by primiparous mothers was negatively related to behavioural measures of depression and anxiety. From this work it is clear that pup-exposure is important for reductions in depressive-like behaviour in parturient females. Further research is needed to determine the extent of these changes and the neural and hormonal correlates of these events.

  3. Deficits in social behavior and reversal learning are more prevalent in male offspring of VIP deficient female mice

    PubMed Central

    Stack, Conor M.; Lim, Maria A.; Cuasay, Katrina; Stone, Madeleine M.; Seibert, Kimberly. M.; Spivak-Pohis, Irit; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Waschek, James A.; Hill, Joanna M.

    2008-01-01

    Blockage of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors during early embryogenesis in the mouse has been shown to result in developmental delays in neonates, and social behavior deficits selectively in adult male offspring. Offspring of VIP deficient mothers (VIP +/−) also exhibited developmental delays, and reductions in maternal affiliation and play behavior. In the current study, comparisons among the offspring of VIP deficient mothers (VIP +/−) mated to VIP +/− males with the offspring of wild type (WT) mothers mated to VIP +/− males allowed assessment of the contributions of both maternal and offspring VIP genotype to general health measures, social behavior, fear conditioning, and spatial learning and memory in the water maze. These comparisons revealed few differences in general health among offspring of WT and VIP deficient mothers, and all offspring exhibited normal responses in fear conditioning and in the acquisition phase of spatial discrimination in the water maze. WT mothers produced offspring that were normal in all tests; the reduced VIP in their VIP +/− offspring apparently did not contribute to any defects in the measures under study. However, regardless of their own VIP genotype, all male offspring of VIP deficient mothers exhibited severe deficits in social approach behavior and reversal learning. The deficits in these behaviors in the female offspring of VIP deficient mothers were less severe than in their male littermates, and the extent of their impairment was related to their own VIP genotype. This study has shown that intrauterine conditions had a greater influence on behavioral outcome than did genetic inheritance. In addition, the greater prevalence of deficits in social behavior and the resistance to change seen in reversal learning in the male offspring of VIP deficient mothers indicate a potential usefulness of the VIP knockout mouse in furthering the understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. PMID

  4. Sex ratio of equine offspring is affected by the ages of the mare and stallion.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marianna Machado; Maia, Leonardo Lara; Nobre, Daniel Magalhães; Oliveira Neto, José Ferraz; Garcia, Tiago Rezende; Lage, Maria Coeli Gomes Reis; de Melo, Maria Isabel Vaz; Viana, Walmir Santos; Palhares, Maristela Silveira; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Santos, Renato Lima; Valle, Guilherme Ribeiro

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of parental age on the sex ratio of offspring in horses. Two trials were performed. In the first trial, the data from a randomly obtained population with a 1:1 sex ratio of 59,950 Mangalarga Marchador horses born in Brazil from 1990 to 2011 were analyzed. The sex ratios of the offspring were compared among groups according to the mare and the stallion ages (from 3 to 25 years). In the first step of the analysis, the mares and stallions were grouped according to age in 5-year intervals. In the second step, the groups were based on the parental age gap at conception. In the third step, the group of the mares and stallions with similar ages from the second step was subdivided, and the different parental age subgroups that were divided into 5-year intervals were compared. In the fourth step, the sex ratio of the offspring was determined according to the ages of the mares and the stallions at conception. The second trial was based on the data from 253 horses of several breeds that were born after natural gestation into a herd from 1989 to 2010, and the offspring of groups that were younger or older than 15 years were compared. The data from both trials were analyzed using a chi-square test (P ≤ 0.01 for the first trial; and P ≤ 0.05 for the second trial) for the comparisons of the sex ratios. In the first trial, the Spearman test (P ≤ 0.01) was used to verify the correlations between the parental age and the offspring sex ratio. In the first trial, the offspring sex ratio decreased as the mare or stallion age increased, and the decrease was more marked for the mares than for the stallions. In the second trial, the mares older than 15 years had more fillies than the younger mares, but the stallion age had no effect on the sex of the offspring. The first trial, with a large number of horses, revealed the pattern of the distribution of the sex ratios of offspring according to the parental age in horses, whereas the

  5. Female mating preferences and offspring survival: testing hypotheses on the genetic basis of mate choice in a wild lekking bird.

    PubMed

    Sardell, Rebecca J; Kempenaers, Bart; Duval, Emily H

    2014-02-01

    Indirect benefits of mate choice result from increased offspring genetic quality and may be important drivers of female behaviour. 'Good-genes-for-viability' models predict that females prefer mates of high additive genetic value, such that offspring survival should correlate with male attractiveness. Mate choice may also vary with genetic diversity (e.g. heterozygosity) or compatibility (e.g. relatedness), where the female's genotype influences choice. The relative importance of these nonexclusive hypotheses remains unclear. Leks offer an excellent opportunity to test their predictions, because lekking males provide no material benefits and choice is relatively unconstrained by social limitations. Using 12 years of data on lekking lance-tailed manakins, Chiroxiphia lanceolata, we tested whether offspring survival correlated with patterns of mate choice. Offspring recruitment weakly increased with father attractiveness (measured as reproductive success, RS), suggesting attractive males provide, if anything, only minor benefits via offspring viability. Both male RS and offspring survival until fledging increased with male heterozygosity. However, despite parent-offspring correlation in heterozygosity, offspring survival was unrelated to its own or maternal heterozygosity or to parental relatedness, suggesting survival was not enhanced by heterozygosity per se. Instead, offspring survival benefits may reflect inheritance of specific alleles or nongenetic effects. Although inbreeding depression in male RS should select for inbreeding avoidance, mates were not less related than expected under random mating. Although mate heterozygosity and relatedness were correlated, selection on mate choice for heterozygosity appeared stronger than that for relatedness and may be the primary mechanism maintaining genetic variation in this system despite directional sexual selection.

  6. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males.

  7. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of Brucellosis in Yellowstone bison: serologic and culture results from adult females and their offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this prospective study was to follow the natural course of Brucella abortus infection in cohorts of seropositive and seronegative female bison and their offspring in Yellowstone National Park over a 5 year period. Specimens were collected from 53 adult, female bison at least once a...

  8. High Folic Acid Intake during Pregnancy Lowers Body Weight and Reduces Femoral Area and Strength in Female Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Pedro S. P.; Dodington, David W.; Mollard, Rebecca C.; Reza-López, Sandra A.; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Cho, Clara E.; Kuk, Justin; Ward, Wendy E.; Anderson, G. Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Rats fed gestational diets high in multivitamin or folate produce offspring of altered phenotypes. We hypothesized that female rat offspring born to dams fed a gestational diet high in folic acid (HFol) have compromised bone health and that feeding the offspring the same HFol diet attenuates these effects. Pregnant rats were fed diets with either recommended folic acid (RFol) or 10-fold higher folic acid (HFol) amounts. Female offspring were weaned to either the RFol or HFol diet for 17 weeks. HFol maternal diet resulted in lower offspring body weights (6%, P = 0.03) and, after adjusting for body weight and femoral length, smaller femoral area (2%, P = 0.03), compared to control diet. After adjustments, HFol pup diet resulted in lower mineral content (7%, P = 0.01) and density (4%, P = 0.002) of lumbar vertebra 4 without differences in strength. An interaction between folate content of the dam and pup diets revealed that a mismatch resulted in lower femoral peak load strength (P = 0.01) and stiffness (P = 0.002). However, the match in folate content failed to prevent lower weight gain. In conclusion, HFol diets fed to rat dams and their offspring affect area and strength of femurs and mineral quantity but not strength of lumbar vertebrae in the offspring. PMID:23781391

  9. Effects of prenatal exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on reproductive, endocrine and immune parameters of male and female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Murphy, L L; Gher, J; Szary, A

    1995-12-01

    The effects of prenatal THC administration, given during the third week of gestation in rats, on the reproductive, endocrine and immune systems of the adult offspring were examined. THC treatment blocked the surge of testosterone which occurs in the male rat fetus on gestation day 18. Moreover, when copulatory parameters were measured in adult male offspring, males that had been exposed to THCin utero exhibited an increased latency to mount (THC: 245±49vs vehicle: 99±12 sec) and none of the males ejaculated. Female rats exposed to THCin utero, exhibited an increased incidence of irregular estrous cycles and the number of females exhibiting lordosis behavior was reduced when compared to vehicle controls. Hormone analyses revealed that prolactin levels were significantly lower in the THC-vs vehicle-exposed male (THC: 5.2±0.4vs vehicle: 8.4±0.6 ng/ml) and female offspring (THC: 5.7±0.3vs vehicle: 12.2±1.8 ng/ml). However, there were no significant differences in basal plasma LH levels or in testicular weights of the male offspring. Thymus weight and total number of thymocytes were significantly higher in THC-exposed male and female rats when compared to vehicle controls. Together, these results indicate that maternal THC exposure has long-lasting effects on reproductive, endocrine and immune parameters of both male and female rat offspring. PMID:21153215

  10. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  11. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  12. The effect of maternal immunization on female oxidative status, yolk antioxidants and offspring survival in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Casasole, G; Costantini, D; Cichoń, M; Rutkowska, J

    2016-04-01

    Immune defense involves inflammatory reactions in which immune cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) to fight pathogens. ROS may however cause damage to the host if they are not balanced by antioxidant defenses. Therefore, one should expect individuals undergoing an immune reaction to use antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress. Antioxidants are vital compounds that provide important protection against oxidative damage of embryos and newly hatched chicks. Thus, during egg laying a female that contracted an infection may face a trade-off between the allocation of antioxidants into self-maintenance and into her offspring via the eggs. In our study we investigated whether immunized females face this trade-off and consequently modify the antioxidant allocation into the eggs and whether this allocation affects offspring performance. We injected female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with lipopolysaccharide prior to egg laying while some females were left unimmunized. We removed the second egg of each clutch, while we allowed the other eggs to hatch. We assessed oxidative stress in females 24h after immunization, yolk antioxidant capacity of the second egg of the clutch and survival success of the offspring until adulthood. Compared to controls, immunized females had higher oxidative damage, but similar plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant levels. The treatment did not affect yolk antioxidants, clutch size, laying date and offspring survival. However, we found a positive correlation between yolk antioxidant capacity and offspring survival, irrespective of the treatment. Our study suggests that our immune challenge may not have changed female strategy of antioxidant allocation between self-maintenance and offspring survival.

  13. Donor conceived offspring conceive of the donor: the relevance of age, awareness, and family form.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2013-06-01

    Rarely have donor conceived offspring been studied. Recently, it has become more common for parents to disclose the nature of conception to their offspring. This new development raises questions about the donor's place in the offspring's life and identity. Using surveys collected by the Donor Sibling Registry, the largest U.S. web-based registry, during a 15 week period from October 2009 to January 2010, we found that donor offspring view the donor as a whole person, rather than as simple genetic material (he can know you; he has looks; he can teach you about yourself); they also believe that the donor should act on his humanity (he should know about you and not remain an anonymous genetic contributor). Other new issues that emerge from this research include the findings that offspring may want to control the decision about contacting their sperm donor in order to facilitate a bond between themselves and the donor that is separate from their relationship with their parents. They also wish to assure their parents that their natal families are primary and will not be disrupted. We discuss how the age at which offspring learned about their donor conception and their current age each make a difference in their responses to what they want from contact with their donor. Family form (heterosexual two-parent families and lesbian two-parent families) also affects donor terminology. The role of the genetic father is reconsidered in both types of families. Donor conceived offspring raised in heterosexual families discover that their natal father no longer carries biological information and he is relegated to being "only" a social father. Offspring raised by lesbian couples experience a dissipation of the family narrative that they have no father. The donor, an imagined father, offers clues to the offspring's personal identity. The natal family is no longer the sole keeper of identity or ancestry.

  14. Multigenerational effects of fetal dexamethasone exposure on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of first and second generation female offspring

    PubMed Central

    Long, Nathan. M.; Ford, Stephen. P.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) administration to women threatening preterm delivery increases neonatal survival. Evidence shows that fetal exposure to glucocorticoid levels higher than appropriate for current maturation programs offspring development. We examined fetal sGC multigenerational effects on F1 and F2 female offspring hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPAA) function. Study Design At 0.7 gestation, pregnant F0 ewes received four dexamethasone injections (2mg, approx. 60 ug.kg-1. day-1 12 h apart) or saline (control, C). F1 female offspring were bred to produce F2 female offspring. Post-pubertal HPAA function was tested in F1 and F2 ewes. Results F1 and F2 ewe lambs showed reduced birth-weight and morphometrics. Dexamethasone increased baseline but reduced stimulated HPAA activity in F1 and F2 female offspring. Conclusions This is the first demonstration that sGC doses in the clinical range have multigenerational effects on HPA activity in a precocial species, indicating the need for study of long-term effects of fetal sGC exposure. PMID:23220271

  15. Decreased ovarian reserve, dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and increased lipid peroxidation in female mouse offspring exposed to an obesogenic maternal diet

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Catherine E.; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Penfold, Naomi C.; Dearden, Laura; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy influences the later life reproductive potential of female offspring. We investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the depletion of ovarian follicular reserve in young adult females following exposure to obesogenic diet in early life. Furthermore, we explore the interaction between adverse maternal diet and postweaning diet in generating reduced ovarian reserve. Female mice were exposed to either maternal obesogenic (high fat/high sugar) or maternal control diet in utero and during lactation, then weaned onto either obesogenic or control diet. At 12 wk of age, the offspring ovarian reserve was depleted following exposure to maternal obesogenic diet (P < 0.05), but not postweaning obesogenic diet. Maternal obesogenic diet was associated with increased mitochondrial DNA biogenesis (copy number P < 0.05; transcription factor A, mitochondrial expression P < 0.05), increased mitochondrial antioxidant defenses [manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) P < 0.05; copper/zinc superoxide dismutase P < 0.05; glutathione peroxidase 4 P < 0.01] and increased lipoxygenase expression (arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase P < 0.05; arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase P < 0.05) in the ovary. There was also significantly increased expression of the transcriptional regulator NF-κB (P < 0.05). There was no effect of postweaning diet on any measured ovarian parameters. Maternal diet thus plays a central role in determining follicular reserve in adult female offspring. Our observations suggest that lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis are the key intracellular pathways involved in programming of ovarian reserve.—Aiken, C. E., Tarry-Adkins, J. L., Penfold, N. C., Dearden, L., Ozanne, S. E. Decreased ovarian reserve, dysregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and increased lipid peroxidation in female mouse offspring exposed to an obesogenic maternal diet. PMID:26700734

  16. Seminal Fluid Signalling in the Female Reproductive Tract: Implications for Reproductive Success and Offspring Health.

    PubMed

    Schjenken, John E; Robertson, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    Carriage of sperm is not the only function of seminal fluid in mammals. Studies in mice show that at conception, seminal fluid interacts with the female reproductive tract to induce responses which influence whether or not pregnancy will occur, and to set in train effects that help shape subsequent fetal development. In particular, seminal fluid initiates female immune adaptation processes required to tolerate male transplantation antigens present in seminal fluid and inherited by the conceptus. A tolerogenic immune environment to facilitate pregnancy depends on regulatory T cells (Treg cells), which recognise male antigens and function to suppress inflammation and immune rejection responses. The female response to seminal fluid stimulates the generation of Treg cells that protect the conceptus from inflammatory damage, to support implantation and placental development. Seminal fluid also elicits molecular and cellular changes in the oviduct and endometrium that directly promote embryo development and implantation competence. The plasma fraction of seminal fluid plays a key role in this process with soluble factors, including TGFB, prostaglandin-E, and TLR4 ligands, demonstrated to contribute to the peri-conception immune environment. Recent studies show that conception in the absence of seminal plasma in mice impairs embryo development and alters fetal development to impact the phenotype of offspring, with adverse effects on adult metabolic function particularly in males. This review summarises our current understanding of the molecular responses to seminal fluid and how this contributes to the establishment of pregnancy, generation of an immune-regulatory environment and programming long-term offspring health. PMID:26178848

  17. Transgenerational inheritance of the insulin-resistant phenotype in embryo-transferred intrauterine growth-restricted adult female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Garg, Meena; Oak, Shilpa; Rogers, Lisa M; Pan, Gerald; Sangiorgi, Frank; Lee, Paul W N; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2007-05-01

    To determine mechanisms underlying the transgenerational presence of metabolic perturbations in the intrauterine growth-restricted second-generation adult females (F2 IUGR) despite normalizing the in utero metabolic environment, we examined in vivo glucose kinetics and in vitro skeletal muscle postinsulin receptor signaling after embryo transfer of first generation (F1 IUGR) to control maternal environment. Female F2 rats, procreated by F1 pre- and postnatally nutrient- and growth-restricted (IUGR) mothers but embryo transferred to gestate in control mothers, were compared with similarly gestating age- and sex-matched control (CON) F2 progeny. Although there were no differences in birth weight or postnatal growth patterns, the F2 IUGR had increased hepatic weight, fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and unsuppressed hepatic glucose production, with no change in glucose futile cycling or clearance, compared with F2 CON. These hormonal and metabolic aberrations were associated with increased skeletal muscle total GLUT4 and pAkt concentrations but decreased plasma membrane-associated GLUT4, total pPKCzeta, and PKCzeta enzyme activity, with no change in total SHP2 and PTP1B concentrations in IUGR F2 compared with F2 CON. We conclude that transgenerational presence of aberrant glucose/insulin metabolism and skeletal muscle insulin signaling of the adult F2 IUGR female offspring is independent of the immediate intrauterine environment, supporting nutritionally induced heritable mechanisms contributing to the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Leukocyte telomere length and prevalence of age-related diseases in semisupercentenarians, centenarians and centenarians' offspring.

    PubMed

    Tedone, Enzo; Arosio, Beatrice; Gussago, Cristina; Casati, Martina; Ferri, Evelyn; Ogliari, Giulia; Ronchetti, Francesco; Porta, Alessandra; Massariello, Francesca; Nicolini, Paola; Mari, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Centenarians and their offspring are increasingly considered a useful model to study and characterize the mechanisms underlying healthy aging and longevity. The aim of this project is to compare the prevalence of age-related diseases and telomere length (TL), a marker of biological age and mortality, across five groups of subjects: semisupercentenarians (SSCENT) (105-109years old), centenarians (CENT) (100-104years old), centenarians' offspring (CO), age- and gender-matched offspring of parents who both died at an age in line with life expectancy (CT) and age- and gender-matched offspring of both non-long-lived parents (NLO). Information was collected on lifestyle, past and current diseases, medical history and medication use. SSCENT displayed a lower prevalence of acute myocardial infarction (p=0.027), angina (p=0.016) and depression (p=0.021) relative to CENT. CO appeared to be healthier compared to CT who, in turn, displayed a lower prevalence of both arrhythmia (p=0.034) and hypertension (p=0.046) than NLO, characterized by the lowest parental longevity. Interestingly, CO and SSCENT exhibited the longest (p<0.001) and the shortest (p<0.001) telomeres respectively while CENT showed no difference in TL compared to the younger CT and NLO. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that the longevity of parents may influence the health status of their offspring. Moreover, our data also suggest that both CENT and their offspring may be characterized by a better TL maintenance which, in turn, may contribute to their longevity and healthy aging. The observation that SSCENT showed considerable shorter telomeres compared to CENT may suggest a progressive impairment of TL maintenance mechanisms over the transition from centenarian to semisupercentenarian age.

  19. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  20. Myocardial macronutrient transporter adaptations in the adult pregestational female intrauterine and postnatal growth-restricted offspring

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Afshan; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Shin, Bo-Chul; Jordan, Maria C.; Roos, Kenneth P.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Associations between exponential childhood growth superimposed on low birth weight and adult onset cardiovascular disease with glucose intolerance/type 2 diabetes mellitus exist in epidemiological investigations. To determine the metabolic adaptations that guard against myocardial failure on subsequent exposure to hypoxia, we compared with controls (CON), the effect of intrauterine (IUGR), postnatal (PNGR), and intrauterine and postnatal (IPGR) calorie and growth restriction (n = 6/group) on myocardial macronutrient transporter (fatty acid and glucose) -mediated uptake in pregestational young female adult rat offspring. A higher myocardial FAT/CD36 protein expression in IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR, with higher FATP1 in IUGR, FATP6 in PNGR, FABP-c in PNGR and IPGR, and no change in GLUT4 of all groups was observed. These adaptive macronutrient transporter protein changes were associated with no change in myocardial [3H]bromopalmitate accumulation but a diminution in 2-deoxy-[14C]glucose uptake. Examination of the sarcolemmal subfraction revealed higher basal concentrations of FAT/CD36 in PNGR and FATP1 and GLUT4 in IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. CON. Exogenous insulin uniformly further enhanced sarcolemmal association of these macronutrient transporter proteins above that of basal, with the exception of insulin resistance of FATP1 and GLUT4 in IUGR and FAT/CD36 in PNGR. The basal sarcolemmal macronutrient transporter adaptations proved protective against subsequent chronic hypoxic exposure (7 days) only in IUGR and PNGR, with notable deterioration in IPGR and CON of the echocardiographic ejection fraction. We conclude that the IUGR and PNGR pregestational adult female offspring displayed a resistance to insulin-induced translocation of FATP1, GLUT4, or FAT/CD36 to the myocardial sarcolemma due to preexistent higher basal concentrations. This basal adaptation of myocardial macronutrient transporters ensured adequate fatty acid uptake, thereby proving protective against chronic

  1. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  2. Is the Performance of a Specialist Herbivore Affected by Female Choices and the Adaptability of the Offspring?

    PubMed Central

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho; Ferreira, Dalton Oliveira; Silva, Geverson Aelton Resende; de Souza, Thadeu Carlos; Silva, Gerson Adriano

    2015-01-01

    The performance of herbivorous insects is related to the locations of defenses and nutrients found in the different plant organs on which they feed. In this context, the females of herbivorous insect species select certain parts of the plant where their offspring can develop well. In addition, their offspring can adapt to plant defenses. A system where these ecological relationships can be studied occurs in the specialist herbivore, Tuta absoluta, on tomato plants. In our experiments we evaluated: (i) the performance of the herbivore T. absoluta in relation to the tomato plant parts on which their offspring had fed, (ii) the spatial distribution of the insect stages on the plant canopy and (iii) the larval resistance to starvation and their walking speed at different instar stages. We found that the T. absoluta females preferred to lay their eggs in the tomato plant parts where their offspring had greater chances of success. We verified that the T. absoluta females laid their eggs on both sides of the leaves to better exploit resources. We also observed that the older larvae (3rd and 4th instars) moved to the most nutritious parts of the plant, thus increasing their performance. The T. absoluta females and offspring (larvae) were capable of identifying plant sites where their chances of better performance were higher. Additionally, their offspring (larvae) spread across the plant to better exploit the available plant nutrients. These behavioral strategies of T. absoluta facilitate improvement in their performance after acquiring better resources, which help reduce their mortality by preventing the stimulation of plant defense compounds and the action of natural enemies. PMID:26600074

  3. Paternal but not maternal age influences early-life performance of offspring in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Rémi; Barbraud, Christophe; Delord, Karine; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Variability in demographic traits between individuals within populations has profound implications for both evolutionary processes and population dynamics. Parental effects as a source of non-genetic inheritance are important processes to consider to understand the causes of individual variation. In iteroparous species, parental age is known to influence strongly reproductive success and offspring quality, but consequences on an offspring fitness component after independence are much less studied. Based on 37 years longitudinal monitoring of a long-lived seabird, the wandering albatross, we investigate delayed effects of parental age on offspring fitness components. We provide evidence that parental age influences offspring performance beyond the age of independence. By distinguishing maternal and paternal age effects, we demonstrate that paternal age, but not maternal age, impacts negatively post-fledging offspring performance. PMID:27053738

  4. Metabolic Effects of Access to Sucrose Drink in Female Rats and Transmission of Some Effects to Their Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Michael D; Ekayanti, Winda; Stewart, Hayden; Boakes, Robert A; Rooney, Kieron

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to examine the metabolic consequences for female rats of having unrestricted access to 10% sucrose solution and, second, to test for effects of this dietary intervention on their offspring. In Stage 1 females were mated following a 4-week period in which one group was given the sucrose in addition to their normal chow and a control group was given chow and water only. Sucrose was removed at parturition and the pups monitored until weaning. Despite the development of glucose intolerance in sucrose-fed mothers, no effects were detected on litter size or pup weights. In Stage 2 voluntary activity of offspring was assessed over postnatal days (PND) 51-60 and their glucose tolerance measured at PND89-94. Again no effect of maternal diet was detected. Only male offspring were used in Stage 3, which began when they were 13 weeks old. Four groups were given 10% sucrose solution for 48 days in a 2 x 2 design, in which one factor was maternal diet and the other was whether they were given 2-h access to an activity wheel on alternate days. Higher fasting glucose levels were found in offspring of sugar-fed mothers. Exercise increased insulin sensitivity in these rats but not in offspring of control mothers. Behavioural measures of memory in Stage 3 did not reveal any effects of maternal diet or exercise. Overall, this study suggested that, while providing 10% sucrose solution ad-libitum was sufficient to impair maternal metabolism, the impact of this dietary manipulation on offspring may be revealed only when the offspring's diet is similarly manipulated.

  5. Age determination of female redhead ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.; Johnson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven fall-collected wings from female redhead ducks (Aythya americana) were assigned to the adult or juvenile group based on 'tertial' and 'tertial covert' shape and wear. To obtain spring age-related characters from these fall-collected groupings, we considered parameters of flight feathers retained until after the first breeding season. Parameters measured included: markings on and width of greater secondary coverts, and length, weight, and diameter of primary feathers. The best age categorization was obtained with discriminant analysis based on a combination of the most accurately measured parameters. This analysis, applied to 81 wings with complete measurements, resulted in only 1 being incorrectly aged and 3 placed in a questionable category. Discriminant functions used with covert markings and the three 5th primary parameters were applied to 30 known-age juvenile, hand-reared redhead females, 28 were correctly aged, none was incorrectly aged, and only 2 were placed in the questionable category.

  6. [Tissue-specific Changes in the Polymorphism of Simple Repeats in DNA of the Offspring of Different Sex Born from Irradiated Male or Female Mice].

    PubMed

    Lomaeva, M G; Fomenko, L A; Vasil'eva, G V; Bezlepkin, V G

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is presented indicating the differences in the polymorphism of microsatellite (MCS) repeats in DNA of somatic tissues in the offspring of BALB/c mice of different sex born from preconceptionally irradiated males or females. Brother-sister groups of the offspring born by non-irradiated parental pairs were compared with the offspring obtained after the irradiation of one parent in the same pairs. The number of MCS repeats in DNA of somatic tissues of the offspring from irradiated males or females was compared by a polymerase chain reaction using an arbitrary primer. It was found that changes in the polymorphism of the number of MCS repeats in the offspring from the males irradiated at a dose of 2 Gy was insignificant as compared with the offspring from control animals. In the offspring born by the females irradiated at a dose of 2 Gy (which does not impair the reproductive capacity), a statistically significant increase in the polymorphism was observed. Changes in the polymorphism were different in the offspring of different sex. A higher level of polymorphism was revealed in the female offspring born from the females of the F0 generation after their irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy. The increase in the polymorphism of the number of MCS repeats in DNA was more pronounced in postmitotic tissues compared with proliferating tissues. PMID:27534065

  7. [Tissue-specific Changes in the Polymorphism of Simple Repeats in DNA of the Offspring of Different Sex Born from Irradiated Male or Female Mice].

    PubMed

    Lomaeva, M G; Fomenko, L A; Vasil'eva, G V; Bezlepkin, V G

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is presented indicating the differences in the polymorphism of microsatellite (MCS) repeats in DNA of somatic tissues in the offspring of BALB/c mice of different sex born from preconceptionally irradiated males or females. Brother-sister groups of the offspring born by non-irradiated parental pairs were compared with the offspring obtained after the irradiation of one parent in the same pairs. The number of MCS repeats in DNA of somatic tissues of the offspring from irradiated males or females was compared by a polymerase chain reaction using an arbitrary primer. It was found that changes in the polymorphism of the number of MCS repeats in the offspring from the males irradiated at a dose of 2 Gy was insignificant as compared with the offspring from control animals. In the offspring born by the females irradiated at a dose of 2 Gy (which does not impair the reproductive capacity), a statistically significant increase in the polymorphism was observed. Changes in the polymorphism were different in the offspring of different sex. A higher level of polymorphism was revealed in the female offspring born from the females of the F0 generation after their irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy. The increase in the polymorphism of the number of MCS repeats in DNA was more pronounced in postmitotic tissues compared with proliferating tissues.

  8. The Relationship between Dimensions of Interparental Conflict and Adjustment in College-Age Offspring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Rochelle F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents research from a recently completed study investigating the relationship between college-age offsprings' perceptions of several dimensions of interparental conflict and indicants of adjustment. Analysis revealed that frequency of interparental conflict was the most important predictor of depression, externalizing behavior problems, and…

  9. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Parental Trait Levels

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents’ intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  10. Opportunistic mothers: female marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii) reduce their investment in offspring when they have to, and when they can

    PubMed Central

    Fite, Jeffrey E.; Patera, Kimberly J.; French, Jeffrey A.; Rukstalis, Michael; Hopkins, Elizabeth C.; Ross, Corinna N.

    2010-01-01

    All female primates incur energetic costs associated with producing and caring for offspring, but females belonging to the New World primate family Callitrichidae, the marmosets and tamarins, appear to face even further demands. In fact, the energetic demands of rearing callitrichid infants are thought to have led to the evolution of cooperative infant care in these species. If this explanation is true, then one might expect that natural selection should also have shaped patterns of maternal behavior to be sensitive to the costs of reproduction and equipped females to reduce their investment in offspring under certain conditions. Therefore, we examined the maternal effort and postpartum endocrine profiles of individual female marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii) across conditions that represented two hallmarks of callitrichid reproduction—conception during the early postpartum period and alloparental assistance. When females conceived during the early postpartum period and faced the upcoming demands of caring for their newly conceived litters (Study 1), they significantly reduced their caregiving effort and had significantly higher postpartum levels of estradiol relative to breeding attempts in which conception occurred later in the postpartum period. Postpartum estradiol was negatively correlated with maternal carrying effort. When experienced alloparents were present (Study 2), females again reduced their caregiving effort relative to breeding attempts in which experienced alloparents were not present. Postpartum cortisol, however, did not vary as a function of experienced alloparental assistance. The results of these studies suggest that female marmosets have been subjected to similar selection pressures as females of other primate taxa—to maximize their reproductive success by reducing their investment in offspring under the worst and best of conditions—and suggest that hormones may mediate within-female variation in maternal care. These studies also provide

  11. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    PubMed

    Svensson, Anna C; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  12. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming".

  13. Maternal Smoke Exposure Impairs the Long-Term Fertility of Female Offspring in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Camlin, Nicole J; Sobinoff, Alexander P; Sutherland, Jessie M; Beckett, Emma L; Jarnicki, Andrew G; Vanders, Rebecca L; Hansbro, Philip M; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Holt, Janet E

    2016-02-01

    The theory of fetal origins of adult disease was first proposed in 1989, and in the decades since, a wide range of other diseases from obesity to asthma have been found to originate in early development. Because mammalian oocyte development begins in fetal life it has been suggested that environmental and lifestyle factors of the mother could directly impact the fertility of subsequent generations. Cigarette smoke is a known ovotoxicant in active smokers, yet disturbingly 13% of Australian and 12% of US women continue to smoke throughout pregnancy. The focus of our investigation was to characterize the adverse effects of smoking on ovary and oocyte quality in female offspring exposed in utero. Pregnant mice were nasally exposed to cigarette smoke for 12 wk throughout pregnancy/lactation, and ovary and oocyte quality of the F1 (maternal smoke exposed) generation was examined. Neonatal ovaries displayed abnormal somatic cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, leading to a reduction in follicle numbers. Further investigation found that altered somatic cell proliferation and reduced follicle number continued into adulthood; however, apoptosis did not. This reduction in follicles resulted in decreased oocyte numbers, with these oocytes found to have elevated levels of oxidative stress, altered metaphase II spindle, and reduced sperm-egg interaction. These ovarian and oocyte changes ultimately lead to subfertility, with maternal smoke-exposed animals having smaller litters and also taking longer to conceive. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that in utero and lactational exposure to cigarette smoke can have long-lasting effects on the fertility of the next generation of females. PMID:26764348

  14. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development. PMID:26434683

  15. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development.

  16. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development. PMID:26434683

  17. Maternal treatment with picrotoxin in late pregnancy improved female sexual behavior but did not alter male sexual behavior of offspring.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Maria M; Scanzerla, Kayne K; Chamlian, Mayra; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Felicio, Luciano F

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory investigated the effects of picrotoxin (PT), a γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist administered during several perinatal periods, on the sexual behavior of male and female rats. We observed that the time of perinatal exposure to PT is critical to determine either facilitation or impairment of sexual behavior. The present study evaluated the effects of prenatal administration of a single dose of PT on gestation day 18 of dams (the first critical period of male brain sexual differentiation) on sexual behavior of male and female offspring. Thus, female Wistar rats were mated with males and, on gestation day 18, received 0.6 mg/kg of PT or 0.9% saline solution subcutaneously. On postnatal day 1, the offspring were weighed and several measures of sexual development were assessed. The sexual behaviors and the general activity in the open field of adult male and ovariectomized, hormone-treated female rats were observed. On comparison with the control group, maternal PT treatment: (i) did not alter the maternal weight, pup weight, anogenital distance, or male and female general activity; (ii) increased female sexual behavior, that is, decreased the latencies to first mount, first lordosis, and tenth lordosis, and the percentage of females presenting lordosis; and (iii) did not alter male sexual behavior. It is suggested that prenatal PT exposure interfered with epigenetic mechanisms related to the development of sex differences in the brain, leading to the observed sexually dimorphic effects on sexual behavior.

  18. High-dose radioiodine treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is not associated with change in female fertility or any genetic risk to the offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Bal, Chandrasekhar . E-mail: csbal@hotmail.com; Kumar, Ajay; Tripathi, Madhavi; Chandrashekar, Narayana; Phom, Hentok; Murali, Nadig R.; Chandra, Prem; Pant, Gauri S.

    2005-10-01

    Background: We tried to evaluate the female fertility and genetic risk to the offspring from the exposure to high-dose {sup 131}I by assessing the pregnancy outcomes and health status of the children of female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who had received therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I. Materials and Methods: From 1967 to 2002, a total of 1,282 women had been treated with {sup 131}I. Of these patients, 692 (54%) were in the reproductive age group (18-45 years). Forty women had a total of 50 pregnancies after high-dose {sup 131}I. Age at presentation ranged from 16 to 36 years (mean, 23 {+-} 4 years). Histopathology was papillary thyroid cancer in 32 cases and follicular thyroid cancer in 8 cases. Results: Single high-dose therapy was given in 30 cases, 2 doses were given in 7 cases, 3 doses were given in 2 cases, and four doses were given in 1 case in which lung metastases had occurred. In 37 patients (92%), disease was successfully ablated before pregnancy. Ovarian absorbed-radiation dose calculated by the MIRD method ranged from 3.5 to 60 cGy (mean, 12 {+-} 11 cGy). The interval between {sup 131}I therapy and pregnancy varied from 7 to 120 months (37.4 {+-} 28.2 months). Three spontaneous abortions occurred in 2 women. Forty-seven babies (20 females and 27 males) were born. Forty-four babies were healthy with normal birth weight and normal developmental milestones. Twenty women delivered their first baby after {sup 131}I therapy. The youngest child in our series is 11 months of age, and the oldest is 8.5 years of age. Conclusions: Female fertility is not affected by high-dose radioiodine treatment, and the therapy does not appear to be associated with any genetic risks to the offspring.

  19. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring.

  20. Cognitive and motor aging in female chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Russell, Jamie L; Hopkins, William D; Herndon, James G

    2014-03-01

    We present the first longitudinal data on cognitive and motor aging in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Thirty-eight adult female chimpanzees (10-54 years old) were studied. The apes were tested longitudinally for 3 years in a modified Primate Cognition Test Battery, which comprised 12 tests of physical and social cognition. The chimpanzees were also administered a fine motor task requiring them to remove a steel nut from rods of various complexity. There was little evidence for an age-related decline in tasks of Physical Cognition: for most tasks, performance was either stable or improved with repeated testing across age groups. An exception was Spatial Memory, for which 4 individuals more than 50 years old experienced a significant performance decline across the 3 years of testing. Poorer performance with age was found in 2 tasks of Social Cognition, an attention-getting task and a gaze-following task. A slight motor impairment was also observed, with old chimpanzees improving less than younger animals with repeated testing on the simplest rod. Hormonal status effects were restricted to spatial memory, with non-cycling females outperforming cycling females independently of age. Unexpectedly, older chimpanzees were better than younger individuals in understanding causality relationships based on sound.

  1. Age-associated sperm DNA methylation alterations: possible implications in offspring disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Timothy G; Aston, Kenneth I; Pflueger, Christian; Cairns, Bradley R; Carrell, Douglas T

    2014-07-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates a role for paternal aging on offspring disease susceptibility. It is well established that various neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, autism, etc.), trinucleotide expansion associated diseases (myotonic dystrophy, Huntington's, etc.) and even some forms of cancer have increased incidence in the offspring of older fathers. Despite strong epidemiological evidence that these alterations are more common in offspring sired by older fathers, in most cases the mechanisms that drive these processes are unclear. However, it is commonly believed that epigenetics, and specifically DNA methylation alterations, likely play a role. In this study we have investigated the impact of aging on DNA methylation in mature human sperm. Using a methylation array approach we evaluated changes to sperm DNA methylation patterns in 17 fertile donors by comparing the sperm methylome of 2 samples collected from each individual 9-19 years apart. With this design we have identified 139 regions that are significantly and consistently hypomethylated with age and 8 regions that are significantly hypermethylated with age. A representative subset of these alterations have been confirmed in an independent cohort. A total of 117 genes are associated with these regions of methylation alterations (promoter or gene body). Intriguingly, a portion of the age-related changes in sperm DNA methylation are located at genes previously associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. While our data does not establish a causative relationship, it does raise the possibility that the age-associated methylation of the candidate genes that we observe in sperm might contribute to the increased incidence of neuropsychiatric and other disorders in the offspring of older males. However, further study is required to determine whether, and to what extent, a causative relationship exists. PMID:25010591

  2. Cytotoxic effect of aspartame (diet sweet) on the histological and genetic structures of female albino rats and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Abd Elfatah, Azza A M; Ghaly, Inas S; Hanafy, Safaa M

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two) and (3) animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg) by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

  3. Tomato juice protects the lungs of the offspring of female rats exposed to nicotine during gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Maritz, G S; Mutemwa, M; Kayigire, A X

    2011-10-01

    Maternal nicotine exposure during gestation and lactation adversely affects lung development in the offspring. It has been suggested that the "program" that control long-term maintenance of the structural integrity of the lung may be compromised. The aim of the study was to study the long-term effect of maternal nicotine exposure on the structural integrity of the lungs of the offspring, and secondly to determine whether supplementing the mother's diet with tomato juice, as a rich source of antioxidants such as lycopene, will prevent the effects of nicotine on the lungs of the offspring. Wistar rats were used in the study. After mating the rats were randomly divided into three groups. One group received nicotine (1 mg/kg body weight/day); a second group received tomato juice; and a third group received nicotine and tomato juice. The controls receive saline. Morphological and morphometric techniques were used to evaluate changes in the lung structure of the offspring at postnatal days 21, 42, 63, and 84. Neither nicotine nor tomato juice had any effect on the growth of the offspring. Although maternal nicotine exposure during gestation and lactation had no effect on the lung parenchyma of the offspring up to weaning, deterioration, and other structural changes started to appear around postnatal day 42, that is, 3 weeks after weaning and thus the onset of nicotine withdrawal. Microscopic emphysema was apparent at postnatal day 42, the increase in male and female lung volume from postnatal day 63 and thickening of the alveolar walls at postnatal day 84. All these nicotine-induced structural changes were prevented by supplementing the mother's diet with tomato juice. PMID:21520435

  4. Maternal PUFA status and offspring allergic diseases up to the age of 18 months.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Calder, Philip C; Hardjojo, Antony; Soh, Shu-E; Lim, Ai Lin; Fisk, Helena L; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Goh, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Pan, An; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; van Bever, Hugo P S

    2015-03-28

    Studies have suggested that maternal PUFA status during pregnancy may influence early childhood allergic diseases, although findings are inconsistent. We examined the relationship between maternal PUFA status and risk of allergic diseases in early childhood in an Asian cohort. Maternal plasma samples from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort were assayed at 26-28 weeks of gestation for relative abundance of PUFA. Offspring (n 960) were followed up from 3 weeks to 18 months of age, and clinical outcomes of potential allergic diseases (rhinitis, eczema and wheezing) were assessed by repeated questionnaires. Skin prick testing (SPT) was also performed at the age of 18 months. Any allergic disease with positive SPT was defined as having any one of the clinical outcomes plus a positive SPT. The prevalence of a positive SPT, rhinitis, eczema, wheezing and any allergic disease with positive SPT was 14·1 % (103/728), 26·5 % (214/808), 17·6 % (147/833), 10·9 % (94/859) and 9·4 % (62/657), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal total n-3, n-6 PUFA status and the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were not significantly associated with offspring rhinitis, eczema, wheezing, a positive SPT and having any allergic disease with positive SPT in the offspring (P>0·01 for all). A weak trend of higher maternal n-3 PUFA being associated with higher risk of allergic diseases with positive SPT in offspring was observed. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of early childhood allergic diseases is modified by variation in maternal n-3 and n-6 PUFA status during pregnancy in an Asian population.

  5. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  6. Enzyme Changes in the Offspring of Female Rats due to Long-Term Administration of Cyclic AMP and Insulin before Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Strumilo, S A; Czyzewska, U; Siemieniuk, M; Strumilo, J; Tylicki, A

    2016-07-01

    We studied the effects of insulin and cAMP on the offspring of female rats after daily treatment with these substances over 4 weeks. In adult offspring from cAMP-treated females, activities of pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased in the liver and brain and activities of NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decreased in the liver. In the offspring of insulin-treated females, we observed only activation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in the liver and only in females. Enzyme activity probably correlates with their content, as no changes in their kinetic properties were observed under these conditions. Long-term hormone treatment before pregnancy can affect the expression of genes for some enzymes in the offspring due to transmission of epigenetic signals by the ovum. However, further studies are required to confirm this mechanism. PMID:27502537

  7. Decreased epigenetic age of PBMCs from Italian semi-supercentenarians and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Steve; Pirazzini, Chiara; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Gentilini, Davide; Di Blasio, Anna Maria; Delledonne, Massimo; Mari, Daniela; Arosio, Beatrice; Monti, Daniela; Passarino, Giuseppe; De Rango, Francesco; D'Aquila, Patrizia; Giuliani, Cristina; Marasco, Elena; Collino, Sebastiano; Descombes, Patrick; Garagnani, Paolo; Franceschi, Claudio

    2015-12-01

    Given the dramatic increase in ageing populations, it is of great importance to understand the genetic and molecular determinants of healthy ageing and longevity. Semi-supercentenarians (subjects who reached an age of 105-109 years) arguably represent the gold standard of successful human ageing because they managed to avoid or postpone the onset of major age-related diseases. Relatively few studies have looked at epigenetic determinants of extreme longevity in humans. Here we test whether families with extreme longevity are epigenetically distinct from controls according to an epigenetic biomarker of ageing which is known as "epigenetic clock". We analyze the DNA methylation levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Italian families constituted of 82 semi-supercentenarians (mean age: 105.6 ± 1.6 years), 63 semi-supercentenarians' offspring (mean age: 71.8 ± 7.8 years), and 47 age-matched controls (mean age: 69.8 ± 7.2 years). We demonstrate that the offspring of semi-supercentenarians have a lower epigenetic age than age-matched controls (age difference=5.1 years, p=0.00043) and that centenarians are younger (8.6 years) than expected based on their chronological age. By contrast, no significant difference could be observed for estimated blood cell counts (such as naïve or exhausted cytotoxic T cells or helper T cells). Future studies will be needed to replicate these findings in different populations and to extend them to other tissues. Overall, our results suggest that epigenetic processes might play a role in extreme longevity and healthy human ageing. PMID:26678252

  8. Prenatal nicotine exposure induces poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and the intrauterine programming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tie, Kai; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) induces skeletal growth retardation and dyslipidemia in offspring displaying intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Cholesterol accumulation resulting from cholesterol efflux dysfunction may reduce the quality of articular cartilage through fetal programming. This study evaluated the quality of articular cartilage of female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet and explored the mechanisms using a rat IUGR model established by the administration of 2.0mg/kg/d of subcutaneous nicotine from gestational days 11-20. The results demonstrated an increased OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score and total cholesterol content, decreased serum corticosterone, and increased IGF1 and dyslipidemia with catch-up growth in PNE adult offspring. Cartilage matrix, IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway expression were reduced in PNE fetuses and adult offspring. Therefore, PNE induced poor articular cartilage quality in female adult offspring fed a high-fat diet via a dual programming mechanism.

  9. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in cognitive deficits in age-increasing offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Hao, L Y; Hao, X Q; Li, S H; Li, X H

    2010-03-31

    Studies have suggested that maternal infection/inflammation maybe a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental brain damage. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of prenatal exposure to a low level of inflammatory stimulation lipopolysaccharide (LPS) repeatedly on spatial learning and memory performances in rat offspring's lifetime. Sixteen pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in the LPS group were treated i.p. with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) at gestation day 8, 10 and 12; meanwhile the rats in the control group were treated with saline. After delivery, the rat offspring at 3- (young), 10- (adult) and 20-mon-old (aged) were allocated. Spatial learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze. The structure of hippocampal CA1 region was observed by light microscopy. The expression of synaptophysin (SYP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in hippocampal CA1 region were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the rat offspring of LPS group needed longer escape latency and path-length in the Morris water maze and presented a significant neuron loss, decreased expression of SYP, increased expression of GFAP in CA1 region in histological studies. All these changes were more significant with the age increasing. These findings support the hypothesis that maternal systemic inflammation may alter the state of astrocytes in rat offspring for a long time, the alteration may affect neurons and synapse development in neural system, increase the neurons' vulnerability to environment especially as the age increasing, at last result in distinct learning and memory impairment. PMID:20074621

  10. Neighbours' Breeding Success and the Sex Ratio of Their Offspring Affect the Mate Preferences of Female Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Drullion, Dominique; Dubois, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses on divorce predict that monogamous pairs should split up more frequently after a breeding failure. Yet, deviations from the expected pattern “success-stay, failure-leave” have been reported in several species. One possible explanation for these deviations would be that individuals do not use only their own breeding performance (i.e., private information) but also that of others (i.e., public information) to decide whether or not to divorce. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relative importance of private and public information for mate choice decisions in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).We manipulated the reproductive performance of breeding pairs and measured females' preferences for their mate and the neighbouring male first following pair formation and then seven weeks later when all females had laid eggs and the young were independent. Although all females reduced their preference for their mate after a breeding failure, the decrease was significant only when the neighbouring pair had reproduced successfully. Furthermore, there was no evidence that females biased the sex ratio of their offspring according to their mate's attractiveness. On the other hand, after reproduction, both successful and unsuccessful females increased their preferences for males who had produced a larger proportion of sons. Despite the fact that other mechanisms may have also contributed to our findings, we suggest that females changed their mate preferences based on the proportion of sons produced by successful males, because offspring sex ratio reflects the male's testosterone level at the moment of fertilization and hence is an indicator of his immune condition. PMID:22216351

  11. Neighbours' breeding success and the sex ratio of their offspring affect the mate preferences of female zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Drullion, Dominique; Dubois, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Several hypotheses on divorce predict that monogamous pairs should split up more frequently after a breeding failure. Yet, deviations from the expected pattern "success-stay, failure-leave" have been reported in several species. One possible explanation for these deviations would be that individuals do not use only their own breeding performance (i.e., private information) but also that of others (i.e., public information) to decide whether or not to divorce. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relative importance of private and public information for mate choice decisions in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).We manipulated the reproductive performance of breeding pairs and measured females' preferences for their mate and the neighbouring male first following pair formation and then seven weeks later when all females had laid eggs and the young were independent. Although all females reduced their preference for their mate after a breeding failure, the decrease was significant only when the neighbouring pair had reproduced successfully. Furthermore, there was no evidence that females biased the sex ratio of their offspring according to their mate's attractiveness. On the other hand, after reproduction, both successful and unsuccessful females increased their preferences for males who had produced a larger proportion of sons. Despite the fact that other mechanisms may have also contributed to our findings, we suggest that females changed their mate preferences based on the proportion of sons produced by successful males, because offspring sex ratio reflects the male's testosterone level at the moment of fertilization and hence is an indicator of his immune condition. PMID:22216351

  12. Metyrapone Blocks Maternal Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Female Rat Offspring Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yishi; Corral, Julia; Saraswat, Aditi; Husain, Sumair; Dhar, Ankita; Sakurai, Reiko; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) during pregnancy affects pulmonary surfactant production in the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) offspring through unknown mechanisms. Since pulmonary surfactant production is regulated by maternal and fetal corticosteroid levels, both known to be increased in IUGR pregnancies, we hypothesized that metyrapone (MTP), a glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor, would block the effects of MFR on surfactant production in the offspring. Three groups of pregnant rat dams were used (1) control dams fed ad libitum; (2) MFR (50% reduction in calories) from days 10 to 22 of gestation; and (3) MFR + MTP in drinking water (0.5 mg/mL), days 11 to 22 of gestation. At 5 months, the MFR offspring weighed significantly more, had reduced alveolar number, increased septal thickness, and decreased surfactant protein and phospholipid synthesis. These MFR-induced effects were normalized by the antiglucocorticoid MTP, suggesting that the stress of MFR causes hypercorticoidism, altering lung structure and function in adulthood. PMID:24023031

  13. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success.

  14. FEMALE AND MALE GENETIC EFFECTS ON OFFSPRING PATERNITY: ADDITIVE GENETIC (CO)VARIANCES IN FEMALE EXTRA-PAIR REPRODUCTION AND MALE PATERNITY SUCCESS IN SONG SPARROWS (MELOSPIZA MELODIA)

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Losdat, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing evolution of polyandry, and consequent extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems, is hypothesized to be facilitated by indirect selection stemming from cross-sex genetic covariances with components of male fitness. Specifically, polyandry is hypothesized to create positive genetic covariance with male paternity success due to inevitable assortative reproduction, driving ongoing coevolution. However, it remains unclear whether such covariances could or do emerge within complex polyandrous systems. First, we illustrate that genetic covariances between female extra-pair reproduction and male within-pair paternity success might be constrained in socially monogamous systems where female and male additive genetic effects can have opposing impacts on the paternity of jointly reared offspring. Second, we demonstrate nonzero additive genetic variance in female liability for extra-pair reproduction and male liability for within-pair paternity success, modeled as direct and associative genetic effects on offspring paternity, respectively, in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). The posterior mean additive genetic covariance between these liabilities was slightly positive, but the credible interval was wide and overlapped zero. Therefore, although substantial total additive genetic variance exists, the hypothesis that ongoing evolution of female extra-pair reproduction is facilitated by genetic covariance with male within-pair paternity success cannot yet be definitively supported or rejected either conceptually or empirically. PMID:24724612

  15. Female and male genetic effects on offspring paternity: additive genetic (co)variances in female extra-pair reproduction and male paternity success in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).

    PubMed

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Losdat, Sylvain

    2014-08-01

    Ongoing evolution of polyandry, and consequent extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems, is hypothesized to be facilitated by indirect selection stemming from cross-sex genetic covariances with components of male fitness. Specifically, polyandry is hypothesized to create positive genetic covariance with male paternity success due to inevitable assortative reproduction, driving ongoing coevolution. However, it remains unclear whether such covariances could or do emerge within complex polyandrous systems. First, we illustrate that genetic covariances between female extra-pair reproduction and male within-pair paternity success might be constrained in socially monogamous systems where female and male additive genetic effects can have opposing impacts on the paternity of jointly reared offspring. Second, we demonstrate nonzero additive genetic variance in female liability for extra-pair reproduction and male liability for within-pair paternity success, modeled as direct and associative genetic effects on offspring paternity, respectively, in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). The posterior mean additive genetic covariance between these liabilities was slightly positive, but the credible interval was wide and overlapped zero. Therefore, although substantial total additive genetic variance exists, the hypothesis that ongoing evolution of female extra-pair reproduction is facilitated by genetic covariance with male within-pair paternity success cannot yet be definitively supported or rejected either conceptually or empirically.

  16. Non-seasonal changes in the intensity of female mate preference and offspring sex ratio in the wild guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Hiromi; Karino, Kenji

    2012-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the exaggeration of male sexual ornaments and the intensity of female mate preferences of a wild guppy population change over a period of several months. However, the factors that determine the short-term changes in male ornaments and female preferences remained unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of season on these short-term changes by measuring these traits in the same seasons of different years for a wild guppy population in Okinawa, Japan. We also compared the characteristics of the offspring in each collection term, as female guppies are known to have the ability to control offspring characteristics, such as brood size and sex ratios, depending on their mates' attractiveness. Results showed that the total lengths of the males changed seasonally; males in the summer were larger than those in the spring. In contrast, the size of orange spots in males and the intensity of female mating preferences differed in the same seasons of different years. Brood size and offspring body size in each term showed seasonal changes. However, offspring sex ratios exhibited different patterns in the same seasons of different years. Females produced female-biased broods when attractive males with large orange spots were rare. These results suggest that short-term changes in some traits of adult male and female guppies as well as offspring sex ratios may be not determined by seasonal factors, and that these traits may be interrelated.

  17. Non-seasonal changes in the intensity of female mate preference and offspring sex ratio in the wild guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Hiromi; Karino, Kenji

    2012-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the exaggeration of male sexual ornaments and the intensity of female mate preferences of a wild guppy population change over a period of several months. However, the factors that determine the short-term changes in male ornaments and female preferences remained unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of season on these short-term changes by measuring these traits in the same seasons of different years for a wild guppy population in Okinawa, Japan. We also compared the characteristics of the offspring in each collection term, as female guppies are known to have the ability to control offspring characteristics, such as brood size and sex ratios, depending on their mates' attractiveness. Results showed that the total lengths of the males changed seasonally; males in the summer were larger than those in the spring. In contrast, the size of orange spots in males and the intensity of female mating preferences differed in the same seasons of different years. Brood size and offspring body size in each term showed seasonal changes. However, offspring sex ratios exhibited different patterns in the same seasons of different years. Females produced female-biased broods when attractive males with large orange spots were rare. These results suggest that short-term changes in some traits of adult male and female guppies as well as offspring sex ratios may be not determined by seasonal factors, and that these traits may be interrelated. PMID:22559966

  18. Maternal age at first birth and offspring criminality: Using the children-of-twins design to test causal hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    Teenage childbirth is a risk factor for poor offspring outcomes, particularly offspring antisocial behaviour. It is not clear if maternal age at first birth (MAFB) is causally associated with offspring antisocial behavior or if this association is due to selection factors that influence both the likelihood that a young woman gives birth early and that her offspring engage in antisocial behavior. The current study addresses the limitations of previous research by using longitudinal data from Swedish national registries and children-of-siblings and children-of-twins comparisons to identify the extent to which the association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions is consistent with a causal influence and confounded by genetic or environmental factors that make cousins similar. We found offspring born to mothers who began childbearing earlier were more likely to be convicted of a crime than offspring born to mothers who delayed childbearing. The results from comparisons of differentially exposed cousins, especially born to discordant MZ twin sisters, provide support for a causal association between MAFB and offspring criminal convictions. The analyses also found little evidence for genetic confounding due to passive gene-environment correlation. Future studies are needed to replicate these findings and to identify environmental risk factors that mediate this causal association. PMID:23398750

  19. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    PubMed

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence. PMID:26728747

  20. A multigenerational effect of parental age on offspring size but not fitness in common duckweed (Lemna minor).

    PubMed

    Barks, P M; Laird, R A

    2016-04-01

    Classic theories on the evolution of senescence make the simplifying assumption that all offspring are of equal quality, so that demographic senescence only manifests through declining rates of survival or fecundity. However, there is now evidence that, in addition to declining rates of survival and fecundity, many organisms are subject to age-related declines in the quality of offspring produced (i.e. parental age effects). Recent modelling approaches allow for the incorporation of parental age effects into classic demographic analyses, assuming that such effects are limited to a single generation. Does this 'single-generation' assumption hold? To find out, we conducted a laboratory study with the aquatic plant Lemna minor, a species for which parental age effects have been demonstrated previously. We compared the size and fitness of 423 laboratory-cultured plants (asexually derived ramets) representing various birth orders, and ancestral 'birth-order genealogies'. We found that offspring size and fitness both declined with increasing 'immediate' birth order (i.e. birth order with respect to the immediate parent), but only offspring size was affected by ancestral birth order. Thus, the assumption that parental age effects on offspring fitness are limited to a single generation does in fact hold for L. minor. This result will guide theorists aiming to refine and generalize modelling approaches that incorporate parental age effects into evolutionary theory on senescence.

  1. Paternal high-fat diet consumption induces common changes in the transcriptomes of retroperitoneal adipose and pancreatic islet tissues in female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sheau-Fang; Lin, Ruby C Y; Maloney, Christopher A; Youngson, Neil A; Owens, Julie A; Morris, Margaret J

    2014-04-01

    We previously showed that paternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption programs β-cell dysfunction in female rat offspring, together with transcriptome alterations in islets. Here we investigated the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RpWAT) transcriptome using gene and pathway enrichment and pathway analysis to determine whether commonly affected network topologies exist between these two metabolically related tissues. In RpWAT, 5108 genes were differentially expressed due to a paternal HFD; the top 5 significantly enriched networks identified by pathway analysis in offspring of HFD fathers compared with those of fathers fed control diet were: mitochondrial and cellular response to stress, telomerase signaling, cell death and survival, cell cycle, cellular growth and proliferation, and cancer. A total of 187 adipose olfactory receptor genes were down-regulated. Interrogation against the islet transcriptome identified specific gene networks and pathways, including olfactory receptor genes that were similarly affected in both tissues (411 common genes, P<0.05). In particular, we highlight a common molecular network, cell cycle and cancer, with the same hub gene, Myc, suggesting early onset developmental changes that persist, shared responses to programmed systemic factors, or crosstalk between tissues. Thus, paternal HFD consumption triggers unique gene signatures, consistent with premature aging and chronic degenerative disorders, in both RpWAT and pancreatic islets of daughters. PMID:24421403

  2. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  3. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  4. Advancing Paternal Age Is Associated with Deficits in Social and Exploratory Behaviors in the Offspring: A Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mill, Jonathan; Fernandes, Cathy; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence from epidemiological research has demonstrated an association between advanced paternal age and risk for several psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and early-onset bipolar disorder. In order to establish causality, this study used an animal model to investigate the effects of advanced paternal age on behavioural deficits in the offspring. Methods C57BL/6J offspring (n = 12 per group) were bred from fathers of two different ages, 2 months (young) and 10 months (old), and mothers aged 2 months (n = 6 breeding pairs per group). Social and exploratory behaviors were examined in the offspring. Principal Findings The offspring of older fathers were found to engage in significantly less social (p = 0.02) and exploratory (p = 0.02) behaviors than the offspring of younger fathers. There were no significant differences in measures of motor activity. Conclusions Given the well-controlled nature of this study, this provides the strongest evidence for deleterious effects of advancing paternal age on social and exploratory behavior. De-novo chromosomal changes and/or inherited epigenetic changes are the most plausible explanatory factors. PMID:20041141

  5. Effects of paternal age and offspring cognitive ability in early adulthood on the risk of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Holger J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Ehrenstein, Vera; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-12-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) are both associated with the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in young adult offspring. We hypothesized that the offspring SSD risk gradient associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. We investigated joint and separate associations of paternal age and offspring IQ with the risk of SSD. We used IQ routinely measured at conscription in Danish males (n=138,966) from cohorts born in 1955-84 and in 1976-1993 and followed them from a year after the conscription through 2010. We used Cox regression to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of SSD. During the follow-up, 528 men developed SSD (incidence rate [IR] 5.2 and 8.6 per 10,000 person-years in the first and second cohorts, respectively). APA was associated with higher risk of SSD (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.10-1.60 per a ten-year increase in paternal age). A higher IQ was associated with lower SSD risk (IRR, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.74 per one SD increase). The IR of SSD was higher among persons who were draft-exempt for health reasons (<20% of the men). Overall, there was little evidence of lower premorbid IQ in APA-related SSD (individuals who developed SSD and were also offspring of older fathers). Our results do not support the notion that risk gradient for offspring SSD associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ.

  6. Perinatal exposure of female rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces central precocious puberty in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Kakeyama, Masaki; Sone, Hideko; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2008-05-01

    Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during the fetal and neonatal periods has been indicated to alter the development of the offspring later in life. In this study, we determined whether perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD affects the onset of puberty in the female offspring of Long-Evans hooded rats. On day 15 of gestation, pregnant female rats were administered TCDD by gavage at a single dose of 0 (vehicle), 200, or 800 ng/kg b.w. In the female offspring born to dams administered with TCDD at either 200 or 800 ng/kg b.w., the vaginal opening and first estrus occurred approximately 4-7 days earlier than in the offspring born to vehicle-treated animals. The ovarian weight gain was also accelerated following exposure to TCDD in a dose-dependent manner. We next examined the ovarian compensatory hypertrophy (OCH) as an indicator of the maturation of the LH/GnRH-generating system in the pituitary and the hypothalamus. Exposure to TCDD accelerated the onset of OCH in the female offspring in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, in the offspring born to the dams exposed to TCDD at 800 ng/kg b.w., hypertrophy, which is characterized by hyperovulation and a marked increase in the weight of the remaining ovary after hemi-ovariectomy, was observed on postnatal days 27-30, which was 10 days earlier than in the offspring born to the vehicle-treated dams. These results indicate that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD induces precocious puberty, including early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the gonads and genitals, in female Long-Evans hooded rats.

  7. Postnatal treadmill exercise attenuates prenatal stress-induced apoptosis through enhancing serotonin expression in aged-offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Wook; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Lee, Sam-Jun

    2015-02-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy affects negative impact on health of offspring. In the present study, we compared the effects of maternal treadmill exercise and offspring treadmill exercise on prenatal stress-induced apoptosis and serotonin expression in offspring. Stress to the pregnant rats was induced by exposure of maternal rats to the hunting dog in an enclosed room. Exposure time was 10 min, three times per day, with a 1-h interval between exposures. This regimen was maintained from the seventh day of gestation until delivery. The pregnant rats in the exercise group were forced to run on a motorized tread-mill for 30 min once a day, started 7 days after pregnancy until delivery. The offspring in the exercise group were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day, started 4 weeks after birth for 4 weeks. In the present results, offspring exposed to prenatal stress exhibited lower Bcl-2 level and higher Bax level in the hippocampus, lower 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) expression in the dorsal raphe, and higher c-Fos expression in the locus coeruleus compared to age-matched control rats. Treadmill exercise of offspring suppressed Bax expression and enhanced Bcl-2 expression in the hippocampus, increased 5-HT and TPH expression in the dorsal raphe, and enhanced c-Fos expression in the locus coeruleus of offspring. Tread-mill exercise of offspring suppressed prenatal stress-induced apoptosis and normalized prenatal stress-induced alterations in serotonin synthesis and neuronal activation. However maternal treadmill exercise during pregnancy exerted no significant effect on offspring. PMID:25830139

  8. Maternal obesity in females born small: Pregnancy complications and offspring disease risk.

    PubMed

    Mahizir, Dayana; Briffa, Jessica F; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wadley, Glenn D; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health crisis, with 1.6 billion adults worldwide being classified as overweight or obese in 2014. Therefore, it is not surprising that the number of women who are overweight or obese at the time of conception is increasing. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that perturbations during critical stages of development can result in adverse fetal changes that leads to an increased risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Of particular concern, children born to obese mothers are at a greater risk of developing cardiometabolic disease. One subset of the population who are predisposed to developing obesity are children born small for gestational age, which occurs in 10% of pregnancies worldwide. Epidemiological studies report that these growth-restricted children have an increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Importantly during pregnancy, growth-restricted females have a higher risk of developing cardiometabolic disease, indicating that they may have an exacerbated phenotype if they are also overweight or obese. Thus, the development of early pregnancy interventions targeted to obese mothers may prevent their children from developing cardiometabolic disease in adulthood. PMID:26173914

  9. Maternal obesity in females born small: Pregnancy complications and offspring disease risk.

    PubMed

    Mahizir, Dayana; Briffa, Jessica F; Hryciw, Deanne H; Wadley, Glenn D; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health crisis, with 1.6 billion adults worldwide being classified as overweight or obese in 2014. Therefore, it is not surprising that the number of women who are overweight or obese at the time of conception is increasing. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis proposes that perturbations during critical stages of development can result in adverse fetal changes that leads to an increased risk of developing diseases in adulthood. Of particular concern, children born to obese mothers are at a greater risk of developing cardiometabolic disease. One subset of the population who are predisposed to developing obesity are children born small for gestational age, which occurs in 10% of pregnancies worldwide. Epidemiological studies report that these growth-restricted children have an increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Importantly during pregnancy, growth-restricted females have a higher risk of developing cardiometabolic disease, indicating that they may have an exacerbated phenotype if they are also overweight or obese. Thus, the development of early pregnancy interventions targeted to obese mothers may prevent their children from developing cardiometabolic disease in adulthood.

  10. Green tea extract increases mRNA expression of enzymes which influence epigenetic marks in newborn female offspring from undernourished pregnant mother.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongkun; Mukai, Yuuka; Tanaka, Masato; Saito, Takeshi; Sato, Shin; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical and toxicological properties of catechin remain unclear, e.g.; how catechin affects female offspring from undernourished pregnant dams. Here, to elucidate effects of low prenatal protein on female offspring health status, changes of enzymes which modify epigenetic marks related with metabolism in kidneys from newborns were investigated after continuously administering catechin extracted from green tea to lactating maternal rats after pregnant undernourishment. We found that green tea extract intake during lactation up-regulated the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in young female offspring from protein-restricted dams and modulated the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in the kidney. This pathway was indicated to be stimulated by SIRT1 gene expression. The feeding of green tea extract to protein-restricted dams during lactation is likely to up-regulate AMP-activated protein kinase activation and may partly lead to alterations of the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in female offspring kidneys. In addition, energy metabolism in fetal and offspring period with green tea extract administration might be related to enzymes which modify epigenetic marks such as DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3a.

  11. Maternal use of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation prevents morphological alterations in pancreas of female offspring from rat dams with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela C; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Aline D; dos Anjos, Juliana S; Lenzi-Almeida, Kátia C; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional recommendations have promoted the increased need to consume n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of n-3 fatty acids among plant sources and is widely used for its edible oil. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal use of flaxseed oil has effects on pancreas morphology in the female offspring of diabetic mothers. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were induced into diabetes by a high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were mated, and once pregnancy was confirmed, they were allocated into three groups (n = 6): high-fat group (HG); flaxseed oil group (FOG); and control group (CG) (non-diabetic rats). At weaning, female offspring (n = 6/group) received standard chow diet. The animals were euthanized at 180 days. Pancreas was collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. HG showed hypertrophy of pancreatic islets (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG offspring had islets with smaller diameters compared to HG (P < 0.0001). HG offspring showed higher percentage of larger (P = 0.0061) and lower percentage of smaller islets (P = 0.0036). HG showed lower islet insulin immunodensity at 180 days (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG was similar to CG (P < 0.0001). Flaxseed oil reduced the damage caused by maternal hyperglycaemia, promoting normal pancreas histomorphometry and β-cell mass in female offspring.

  12. Maternal diet during lactation and allergic sensitization in the offspring at age of 5.

    PubMed

    Nwaru, Bright I; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Ahonen, Suvi; Kaila, Minna; Lumia, Mirka; Prasad, Marianne; Haapala, Anna-Maija; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of maternal dietary intake during lactation on allergic sensitization at the age of 5 in children carrying HLA-DQB1-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. We analyzed data for 652 consecutively born children with complete information on maternal diet and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) measurements who are participating in the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Nutrition and allergy study. Analysis was performed using logistic regression. In models that included the significant uncorrelated dietary variables, maternal intake of butters and saturated fatty acids was associated with increased risk, while margarine was associated with a decreased risk, of sensitization to wheat allergen in the offspring. Maternal intake of potatoes, milks, and margarine and low-fat spreads were associated with decreased risk of sensitization to birch allergen. On the other hand, intake of potatoes decreased the risk, while vitamin C and eggs increased the risk, of cat allergic sensitization. Maternal intake of butters and saturated fatty acids during lactation may increase the risk, while margarines may decrease the risk, of sensitization to wheat allergen in the offspring. Maternal intake of potatoes, milks, and margarines may decrease the risk of sensitization to birch allergen. On the other hand, intake of potatoes may decrease the risk, while vitamin C and eggs may increase the risk, of cat allergic sensitization. These effects may persist regardless of maternal or parental allergic status.

  13. Reduced birthweight and length in the offspring of females exposed to PCDFs, PCP, and lindane.

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, W; Wolf, N

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a broad range of adverse health outcomes and their potential association to wood preservative used in daycare centers. This article focuses on reproductive effects. A sample of 221 exposed teachers was provided by the employer's liability insurers. A comparison group (n = 189) insured by the same two organizations was recruited from nonexposed daycare centers. In a face-to-face interview, job history and reproductive history of 398 female teachers were ascertained. Data on exposure were provided, including measurements on concentration of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and lindane in wood panels, and of PCP, lindane, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in indoor air. An exposure matrix based on individual job history, independent exposure information from each center, and reproductive history was set up with regard to the vulnerable time windows for each pregnancy. Using this approach, 49 exposed and 507 nonexposed pregnancies were identified, including 32 exposed and 386 nonexposed live births. For subgroup analyses the observations were restricted to independent pregnancies, excluding multiple and consecutive births. The data were analyzed with linear regression techniques, taking confounders into account. The crude median difference between exposed and nonexposed was 175 g in birthweight and 2 cm in length. Controlling for confounders, the results show a significantly reduced but weight (p = 0.04) and length (p = 0.02) in exposed pregnancies, even after restricting the data to independent pregnancies and pregnancies for which data could be validated from the mother's health cards. These differences were not explained by differences in gestational age indicating that a toxic effect, which could cause small-for date newborns, might have affected the fetus. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8747018

  14. Relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birthweight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.; Lawrence, C.E.

    1984-09-20

    A study was made of the relation between occupational exposure of women to high homolog polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and birthweight and gestational age among the live offspring of these workers. In 1982 interviews were conducted with 200 women who had held jobs with direct PCB exposure. A comparison was made with 205 women who had never held such a job. When all births occurring to mothers following exposure to PCBs were considered, the unadjusted mean birthweight in the direct exposure group was 96 grams less than the comparison group. No differences in gestational age were seen between groups. The birthweight difference was reduced to 41 grams following adjustment for potential confounding factors. In a parallel analysis using a continuous exposure variable estimate generated from an independently derived serum PCB prediction model, no effect of PCBs was noted on birthweight or gestational age using either crude or adjusted analyses. The authors conclude that no evidence for a biologically meaningful effect of high homolog PCBs on gestational age or birthweight exists.

  15. Help With “Strings Attached”: Offspring Perceptions That Middle-Aged Parents Offer Conflicted Support

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Middle-aged adults often provide beneficial support to grown children. Yet, in some relationships, grown children may feel beholden or intruded upon when they receive parental help. The purpose of this study was to examine such conflicted support in relationships between middle-aged parents and young adults. Methods. Middle-aged parents (aged 40–60, n = 399) and their grown children (n = 592) participated. Parents rated perceptions of providing support and relationship quality with each child. Grown children indicated whether their mothers and fathers provided conflicted support and rated their perceptions of parental support, relationship quality, and other factors. Results. Multilevel models revealed that offspring’s perceptions of conflicted support were associated with (a) parents’ evaluations about providing support (e.g., greater stress and beliefs that grown children should be autonomous), (b) poorer quality relationships, and (c) offspring having more problems. Discussion. Findings suggest that perceptions of conflicted support are embedded in a larger constellation of relationship problems and underlying distress for parents and children. These patterns may reflect lifelong difficulties in the tie or that arise in adulthood. Researchers might seek to understand how dyads experiencing such conflicted support differ from more normative relationships characterized by warmth and well-received support. PMID:23707999

  16. [The characteristic of proliferative activity of thymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes in the offspring of females with experimental chronic liver diseases of various aetiology].

    PubMed

    Briukhin, G V; Fedosov, A A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of the proliferative activity of thymocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes in the offspring of female rats with chronic liver pathology of various genesis. In adult female Wistar rats toxic and autoimmune forms of liver lesions were modeled. The offspring of these experimental animals was studied at different time points of postnatal ontogenesis. Proliferative activity of thymocytes and lymphocytes was estimated by counting the proportion of cells with multiple nucleolar organizing regions (AgNORs) and using the cytofluorometric method with acridine orange. In the offspring of experimental animals, the depression of proliferative activity of thymocytes as well as the increase of the proliferative activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes were found at all the time points studied. This was indicated by a change in a relative number of AgNORs-activated cells and a decrease of nucleic acid content in cortical thymocytes. PMID:17201321

  17. [Evaluation of the phagocytic activity and the killing of peripheral blood monocytes in the offspring of female rats with an experimental drug induced liver pathology].

    PubMed

    Bryukhin, G V; Shopova, A V

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the functional activity of monocytes of peripheral blood in the offspring of female rats with paracetamol liver disease was investigated. Phagocytic property of these cells and their bactericidal activity was investigated. It is established, that the drug induced liver disease leads to reducing of functional activity of peripheral blood monocytes. PMID:25318164

  18. Paternal selenium deficiency but not supplementation during preconception alters mammary gland development and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Guido, Luiza N; Fontelles, Camile C; Rosim, Mariana P; Pires, Vanessa C; Cozzolino, Silvia M F; Castro, Inar A; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Barbisan, Luis F; Ong, Thomas P

    2016-10-15

    Breast cancer is a global public health problem and accumulating evidence indicates early-life exposures as relevant factors in the disease risk determination. Recent studies have shown that paternal nutrition can influence offspring health including breast cancer risk. Selenium is a micronutrient with essential role in central aspects of embryogenesis, male fertility and cancer and that has been extensively studied as a chemopreventive agent in several breast cancer experimental models. Thus, we designed an animal study to evaluate whether paternal selenium deficiency or supplementation during preconception could affect the female offspring mammary gland development and breast cancer susceptibility. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed AIN93-G diet containing 0.15 ppm (control diet), 0.05 ppm (deficient diet) or 1 ppm (supplemented diet) of selenium for 9 weeks and mated with control female rats. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in their female offspring. Paternal selenium deficiency increased the number of terminal end buds, epithelial elongation and cell proliferation in the mammary gland of the female rat offspring and these effects were associated with higher susceptibility to DMBA-induced mammary tumors (increased incidence and higher grade tumors). On the other hand, paternal selenium supplementation did not influence any of these parameters. These results highlight the importance of father's nutrition including selenium status as a relevant factor affecting daughter's breast cancer risk and paternal preconception as a potential developmental stage to start disease preventive strategies. PMID:27270969

  19. Maternal inflammation linearly exacerbates offspring age-related changes of spatial learning and memory, and neurobiology until senectitude.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Wei; Cao, Lei; Wang, Fang; Yang, Qi-Gang; Tong, Jing-Jing; Li, Xue-Yan; Chen, Gui-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Maternal inflammation during pregnancy can elevate the risk of neurodegenerative disorders in offspring. However, how it affects age-related impairments of spatial learning and memory and changes in the neurobiological indictors in the offspring in later adulthood is still elusive. In this study, the CD-1 mice with maternal gestational inflammation due to receiving lipopolysaccharide (LPS, i.p. 50 or 25μg/kg) were divided into 3-, 12-, 18-, and 22-month-old groups. The spatial learning and memory were evaluated using a six-radial arm water maze and the levels of presynaptic proteins (synaptotagmin-1 and syntaxin-1) and histone acetylation (H3K9ac and H4K8ac) in the dorsal hippocampus were detected using the immunohistochemical method. The results indicated that there were significant age-related impairments of spatial learning and memory, decreased levels of H4K8ac, H3K9ac, and syntaxin-1, and increased levels of synaptotagmin-1 in the offspring mice from 12 months old to 22 months old compared to the same-age controls. Maternal LPS treatment significantly exacerbated the offspring impairments of spatial learning and memory, the reduction of H3K9ac, H4K8ac, and syntaxin-1, and the increment of synaptotagmin-1 from 12 months old to 22 months old compared to the same-age control groups. The changes in the neurobiological indicators significantly correlated with the impairments of spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, this correlation, besides the age and LPS-treatment effects, also showed a dose-dependent effect. Our results suggest that maternal inflammation during pregnancy could exacerbate age-related impairments of spatial learning and memory, and neurobiochemical indicators in the offspring CD-1 mice from midlife to senectitude.

  20. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Chronic Mild Stress Differentially Alter Depressive- and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male and Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Verma, Pamela; Yoon, Esther; Yu, Wayne K.; Young, Allan H.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is associated with numerous neuro behavioral alterations, as well as disabilities in a number of domains, including a high incidence of depression and anxiety disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) also alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, resulting in increased responsiveness to stressors and HPA dysregulation in adulthood. Interestingly, data suggest that pre-existing HPA abnormalities may be a major contributory factor to some forms of depression, particularly when an individual is exposed to stressors later in life. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to stressors in adulthood may unmask an increased vulnerability to depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in PAE animals. Methods Male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol (PAE), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitumfed control (C) treatment groups were tested in adulthood. Animals were exposed to 10 consecutive days of chronic mild stress (CMS), and assessed in a battery of well-validated tasks sensitive to differences in depressive- and / or anxiety-like behaviors. Results We report here that the combination of PAE and CMS in adulthood increases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in a sexually dimorphic manner. PAE males showed impaired hedonic responsivity (sucrose contrast test), locomotor hyperactivity (open field), and alterations in affiliative and nonaffiliative social behaviors (social interaction test) compared to control males. By contrast, PAE and, to a lesser extent, PF, females showed greater levels of “behavioral despair” in the forced swim test, and PAE females showed altered behavior in the final 5 minutes of the social interaction test compared to control females. Conclusions These data support the possibility that stress may be a mediating or contributing factor in the psychopathologies reported in FASD populations. PMID:20102562

  1. Males with high genetic similarity to females sire more offspring in sperm competition in Peron's tree frog Litoria peronii

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, C.D.H; Wapstra, E; Uller, T; Olsson, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has confirmed that genetic compatibility among mates can be an important determinant of siring success in sperm competition experiments and in free-ranging populations. Most of this work points towards mate choice of less related mates. However, there may also be the potential for mate choice for intermediate or even genetically similar mates to prevent outbreeding depression or hybridization with closely related taxa. We studied relatedness effects on post-copulatory gametic choice and/or sperm competition in an external fertilizer, Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), since external fertilizers offer exceptional control in order to test gametic interaction effects on probability of paternity and zygote viability. Sperm competition experiments were done blindly with respect to genetic relatedness among males and females. Thereafter, paternity of offspring was assigned using eight microsatellite loci. Three hybridization trials between L. peronii and a closely related sympatric species Litoria tyleri were also carried out. In the sperm competition trials, males that are more genetically similar to the female achieved higher siring success compared with less genetically similar males. The hybridization trials confirmed that the two species can interbreed and we suggest that the risk of hybridization may contribute to selection benefits for genetically more similar males at fertilization. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show evidence for post-copulatory selection of sperm from genetically more similar individuals within a natural population. PMID:18230591

  2. Risk of solid cancer in the offspring of female workers of the Mayak nuclear facility in the Southern Urals, Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Tsareva, Y; Deltour, I; Sokolnikov, M; Okatenko, P; Vostrotin, V V; Schonfeld, S J; Schüz, J

    2016-08-01

    Studies of cancer risk following in utero exposure to ionizing radiation are limited in number, particularly for adult-onset cancers, and the evidence is unclear. In the present study, the risk of solid cancer incidence following in utero radiation exposure is examined among 8466 offspring of female nuclear workers at one of the largest nuclear facilities (Mayak Production Association) in the Russian Federation. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks (ERRs) per Gray (Gy). Mother's uterine gamma dose served as a surrogate for fetal gamma dose. During 277,002 person-years of follow-up (1948-2009), there were 177 first primary solid cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Estimated in utero gamma and plutonium doses exceeded zero for 41 and 23 % of offspring, respectively. Of the 177 solid cancers, 66 occurred among individuals with some in utero exposure to gamma radiation and 53 among those with estimated plutonium exposures. There was no indication of a statistically significantly increased risk of solid cancer incidence from in utero gamma exposure (linear ERR/Gy -1.0; upper 95 % confidence limit 0.5). This result was unchanged after accounting for subsequent occupational exposure. Plutonium doses were estimated but were too low to obtain meaningful risk estimates. Thus, in this cohort in utero radiation exposure was not associated with solid cancer risk. This is consistent with an earlier report of mortality in the cohort, but is based on twice as many cases and less susceptible to biases inherent in mortality analyses. Given the relatively young age of the cohort with respect to cancer, continued follow-up should be done as the number of cancer cases increases.

  3. Risk of solid cancer in the offspring of female workers of the Mayak nuclear facility in the Southern Urals, Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Tsareva, Y; Deltour, I; Sokolnikov, M; Okatenko, P; Vostrotin, V V; Schonfeld, S J; Schüz, J

    2016-08-01

    Studies of cancer risk following in utero exposure to ionizing radiation are limited in number, particularly for adult-onset cancers, and the evidence is unclear. In the present study, the risk of solid cancer incidence following in utero radiation exposure is examined among 8466 offspring of female nuclear workers at one of the largest nuclear facilities (Mayak Production Association) in the Russian Federation. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate excess relative risks (ERRs) per Gray (Gy). Mother's uterine gamma dose served as a surrogate for fetal gamma dose. During 277,002 person-years of follow-up (1948-2009), there were 177 first primary solid cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Estimated in utero gamma and plutonium doses exceeded zero for 41 and 23 % of offspring, respectively. Of the 177 solid cancers, 66 occurred among individuals with some in utero exposure to gamma radiation and 53 among those with estimated plutonium exposures. There was no indication of a statistically significantly increased risk of solid cancer incidence from in utero gamma exposure (linear ERR/Gy -1.0; upper 95 % confidence limit 0.5). This result was unchanged after accounting for subsequent occupational exposure. Plutonium doses were estimated but were too low to obtain meaningful risk estimates. Thus, in this cohort in utero radiation exposure was not associated with solid cancer risk. This is consistent with an earlier report of mortality in the cohort, but is based on twice as many cases and less susceptible to biases inherent in mortality analyses. Given the relatively young age of the cohort with respect to cancer, continued follow-up should be done as the number of cancer cases increases. PMID:27056719

  4. Maternal Postnatal Depression and the Development of Depression in Offspring up to 16 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Goodyer, Ian; Cooper, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the developmental risk pathway to depression by 16 years in offspring of postnatally depressed mothers. Method: This was a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of postnatally depressed and nondepressed mothers; child and family assessments were made from infancy to 16 years. A total of 702…

  5. [SUSTENTOCYTE NUMBERS IN THE NEONATAL PERIOD IN THE OFFSPRING OF FEMALE RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL LIVER DAMAGE].

    PubMed

    Briukhin, G V; Sizonenko, M L

    2016-01-01

    On serial histological sections of the testes, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, using a morphometric device, the total numbers of spermatogenic cells and sustentocytes (Sertoli cells) were measured in the convoluted seminiferous tubules of neonatal rat pups. Experimental groups consisted of rats born from females with experimental liver damage of various origins--autoimmune (n = 33), toxic (n = 32), alcoholic (n = 12), and medicinal (n = 27). The control group included pups born from normal female rats (n = 14). In experimental rats both increase and decrease of the total number of sustentocytes was detected. In the animals of most of the experimental groups, sustentocyte cell index reflecting the ratio of the number of spermatogenic cells and sustentocytes, was decreased. PMID:27487667

  6. Career Maturity in High School Age Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedro, Joan Daniels

    1982-01-01

    Examined career maturity in high school females by using a set of general career-maturity and gender-specific, career-related measures, and an alternate career-maturity criterion measure, career-planning involvement. Results indicated significant relationships between achievement orientation and occupational information and knowledge of women's…

  7. A review and reanalysis of Bruno Schulz's "Erkrankungsalter schizophrener Eltern und Kinder [Age at onset of illness in schizophrenic parents and offspring]:" Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 168, 709-721, 1940.

    PubMed

    Sham, P C; Zerbin-Rüdin, E; Kendler, K S

    1995-01-01

    Nearly all previous evidence of the familial transmission of age at onset of schizophrenia has been in siblings and twins. In his paper, Bruno Schulz examined the age at onset distribution of schizophrenia in affected parent and offspring pairs, using a systematic series of ascertained cases (n = 106), as well as a second series of chronic in-patients (n = 36). The parent-offspring correlation in age at onset, for cases with a definite diagnosis in the systematically ascertained series, was estimated at 0.346 (95% confidence interval 0.134, 0.528). Schulz did not test for differences between the two series and between males and females, but our reanalysis, using correlational methods and a mixed linear model, did not detect any significant differences. These results are consistent with previous findings that age at onset of schizophrenia is influenced by familial factors which may be genetic.

  8. Effects of in utero exposure to cyclophosphamide in mice. II. Assessment of immunocompetence of offspring from 5 to 10 weeks of age

    SciTech Connect

    Liakopoulou, A.; Buttar, H.S.; Nera, E.A.; Fernando, L. )

    1989-01-01

    Offspring of mice treated with cyclophosphamide (Cy; 1, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg) during pregnancy (6-18 days of gestation) and tested for immunocompetence from 5 to 10 weeks of age were found to have defective reticuloendothelial clearance. The main effects were: (a) increased elimination half time (T 1/2) of {sup 51}Cr-labeled SRBC from circulation, (b) decreased liver uptake of {sup 51}Cr and (c) impaired ability of the spleen, mostly affecting the female pups, to compensate for decreased liver uptake. The highest dose group suffered the most pronounced effects. This group was also found to have increased IgG immunoglobulin levels at 7 weeks of age. IgG antibody production in response to specific antigenic stimulation and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to oxazolone did not appear to be affected by Cy treatment.

  9. Maternal use of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation prevents morphological alterations in pancreas of female offspring from rat dams with experimental diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela C; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Aline D; dos Anjos, Juliana S; Lenzi-Almeida, Kátia C; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional recommendations have promoted the increased need to consume n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of n-3 fatty acids among plant sources and is widely used for its edible oil. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal use of flaxseed oil has effects on pancreas morphology in the female offspring of diabetic mothers. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were induced into diabetes by a high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were mated, and once pregnancy was confirmed, they were allocated into three groups (n = 6): high-fat group (HG); flaxseed oil group (FOG); and control group (CG) (non-diabetic rats). At weaning, female offspring (n = 6/group) received standard chow diet. The animals were euthanized at 180 days. Pancreas was collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. HG showed hypertrophy of pancreatic islets (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG offspring had islets with smaller diameters compared to HG (P < 0.0001). HG offspring showed higher percentage of larger (P = 0.0061) and lower percentage of smaller islets (P = 0.0036). HG showed lower islet insulin immunodensity at 180 days (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG was similar to CG (P < 0.0001). Flaxseed oil reduced the damage caused by maternal hyperglycaemia, promoting normal pancreas histomorphometry and β-cell mass in female offspring. PMID:25808815

  10. Size-biased allocation of prey from male to offspring via female: family conflicts, prey selection, and evolution of sexual size dimorphism in raptors.

    PubMed

    Sonerud, Geir A; Steen, Ronny; Løw, Line M; Røed, Line T; Skar, Kristin; Selås, Vidar; Slagsvold, Tore

    2013-05-01

    In birds with bi-parental care, the provisioning link between prey capture and delivery to dependent offspring is regarded as often symmetric between the mates. However, in raptors, the larger female usually broods and feeds the nestlings, while the smaller male provides food for the family, assisted by the female in the latter part of the nestling period, if at all. Prey items are relatively large and often impossible for nestlings to handle without extended maternal assistance. We video-recorded prey delivery and handling in nests of a raptor with a wide diet, the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus, and simultaneously observed prey transfer from male to female outside the nest. The male selectively allocated larger items, in particular birds and larger mammals, to the female for further processing and feeding of nestlings, and smaller items, in particular lizards and smaller mammals, directly to the nestlings for unassisted feeding. Hence, from the video, the female appeared to have captured larger prey than the male, while in reality no difference existed. The female's size-biased interception of the male's prey provisioning line would maximize the male's foraging time, and maximize the female's control of the allocation of food between her own need and that of the offspring. The male would maximize his control of food allocation by capturing smaller prey. This conflict would select for larger dominant females and smaller energy-efficient males, and induce stronger selection the longer the female depends on the male for self-feeding, as a proportion of the offspring dependence period. PMID:23073637

  11. Size-biased allocation of prey from male to offspring via female: family conflicts, prey selection, and evolution of sexual size dimorphism in raptors.

    PubMed

    Sonerud, Geir A; Steen, Ronny; Løw, Line M; Røed, Line T; Skar, Kristin; Selås, Vidar; Slagsvold, Tore

    2013-05-01

    In birds with bi-parental care, the provisioning link between prey capture and delivery to dependent offspring is regarded as often symmetric between the mates. However, in raptors, the larger female usually broods and feeds the nestlings, while the smaller male provides food for the family, assisted by the female in the latter part of the nestling period, if at all. Prey items are relatively large and often impossible for nestlings to handle without extended maternal assistance. We video-recorded prey delivery and handling in nests of a raptor with a wide diet, the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus, and simultaneously observed prey transfer from male to female outside the nest. The male selectively allocated larger items, in particular birds and larger mammals, to the female for further processing and feeding of nestlings, and smaller items, in particular lizards and smaller mammals, directly to the nestlings for unassisted feeding. Hence, from the video, the female appeared to have captured larger prey than the male, while in reality no difference existed. The female's size-biased interception of the male's prey provisioning line would maximize the male's foraging time, and maximize the female's control of the allocation of food between her own need and that of the offspring. The male would maximize his control of food allocation by capturing smaller prey. This conflict would select for larger dominant females and smaller energy-efficient males, and induce stronger selection the longer the female depends on the male for self-feeding, as a proportion of the offspring dependence period.

  12. Ovarian dysfunctions in adult female rat offspring born to mothers perinatally exposed to low doses of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Santamaría, Clarisa; Durando, Milena; Muñoz de Toro, Mónica; Luque, Enrique H; Rodriguez, Horacio A

    2016-04-01

    The study of oral exposure to the environmental estrogen bisphenol A (BPA) during the perinatal period and its effects on ovarian functionality in adulthood has generated special interest. Thus, our objective was to investigate ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in adult female rat offspring born to mothers exposed to low doses of BPA (BPA50: 50μg/kgday; BPA0.5: 0.5μg/kgday) by the oral route during gestation and breastfeeding. Ovaries from both BPA-treated groups showed reduced primordial follicle recruitment and a greater number of corpora lutea, indicating an increased number of ovulated oocytes, coupled with higher levels of mRNA expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and serum progesterone. BPA50-treated animals had lower expression of androgen receptor (AR) at different stages of the growing follicle population. BPA0.5-treated rats evidenced an imbalance of AR expression between primordial/primary follicles, with higher mRNA-follicle-stimulating hormone receptor expression. These results add to the growing evidence that folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis are targets of BPA within the ovary. PMID:26658420

  13. Sex hormones in the aging female.

    PubMed

    Steger, R W; Peluso, J J

    1987-12-01

    Aging of the human ovary results in a gradual diminution in ovarian steroid production, followed by an abrupt and almost complete cessation of both estrogen and progesterone production at the menopause. Although carefully controlled quantitative studies have not been published, it appears that the human reproductive axis still retains its ability to respond to steroid action. However, it still remains to be determined if alterations in cycle length and regularity preceding the menopause are due to changes in ovarian function or to subtle changes in the hypothalamic pituitary axis. More experimental evidence is available to describe the etiology of age-related reproductive dysfunction in laboratory rodents. From these studies, it appears that hypothalamic dysfunction is the principal cause for cessation of reproductive cycles. Recent evidence suggests that aging of the hypothalamus is due to cumulative effects of estrogen exposure over the course of the reproductive life span.

  14. Maternal lipopolysaccharide treatment differentially affects 5-HT(2A) and mGlu2/3 receptor function in the adult male and female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Wischhof, Lena; Irrsack, Ellen; Dietz, Frank; Koch, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop schizophrenia. However, it is still not fully understood which biochemical mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of neuropsychiatric symptoms following prenatal immune activation. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and glutamate system have prominently been associated with the schizophrenia pathophysiology but also with the mechanism of antipsychotic drug actions. Here, we investigated the behavioral and cellular response to 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu)2/3 receptor stimulation in male and female offspring born to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mothers. Additionally, we assessed protein expression levels of prefrontal 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptors. Prenatally LPS-exposed male and female offspring showed locomotor hyperactivity and increased head-twitch behavior in response to the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI. In LPS-exposed male offspring, the mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 failed to reduce DOI-induced prepulse inhibition deficits. In LPS-males, the behavioral changes were further accompanied by enhanced DOI-induced c-Fos protein expression and an up-regulation of prefrontal 5-HT2A receptors. No changes in either 5-HT2A or mGlu2 receptor protein levels were found in female offspring. Our data support the hypothesis of an involvement of maternal infection during pregnancy contributing, at least partially, to the pathology of schizophrenia. Identifying biochemical alterations that parallel the behavioral deficits may help to improve therapeutic strategies in the treatment of this mental illness. Since most studies in rodents almost exclusively include male subjects, our data further contribute to elucidating possible gender differences in the effects of prenatal infection on 5-HT2A and mGlu2/3 receptor function. PMID:26051401

  15. Paternal line multigenerational passage of altered risk assessment behavior in female but not male rat offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodríguez-González, G L; Chavira, R; Ibáñez, C; Lomas-Soria, C; Rodriguez, J S; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2015-03-01

    Maternal low protein (MLP) diets in pregnancy and lactation impair offspring brain development and modify offspring behavior. We hypothesized multigenerational passage of altered behavioral outcomes as has been demonstrated following other developmental programming challenges. We investigated potential multigenerational effects of MLP in rat pregnancy and/or lactation on offspring risk assessment behavior. Founder generation mothers (F0) ate 20% casein (C) or restricted (R) 10% casein diet, providing four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy, second letter lactation diet) to evaluate offspring (F1) effects influenced by MLP in F0. On postnatal day (PND 250), F1 males were mated to non-colony siblings producing F2. On PND 90, F2 females (in diestrous) and F2 males were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field. Corticosterone was measured at PND 110. Female but not male CR and RC F2 made more entries and spent more time in EPM open arms than CC females. Overall activity was unchanged as observed in male F1 fathers. There were no open field differences in F2 of either sex, indicating that multigenerational MLP effects are due to altered risk assessment, not locomotion. MLP in pregnancy reduced F1 male and F2 female corticosterone. We conclude that MLP in pregnancy and/or lactation increases the innate tendency to explore novel environments in F2 females via the paternal linage, suggesting lower levels of caution and/or higher impulsiveness to explore unknown spaces. Further studies will be necessary to identify the epigenetic modifications in the germ line through the paternal linage.

  16. Ambient temperature and pregnancy influence cortisol levels in female guinea pigs and entail long-term effects on the stress response of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Michel, C L; Chastel, O; Bonnet, X

    2011-05-01

    Mammals generally respond to the important metabolic requirements imposed by thermoregulation and pregnancy by increasing plasma concentrations of glucocorticoid that promote the mobilization of body reserves and enhance energy use by tissues. This study examined the impact of distinct ambient temperatures and reproductive status on cortisol plasma levels in female guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus). We also examined cortisol profiles of their offspring. Forty adult females were placed in individual boxes, 20 were exposed to a neutral thermal regime (mean ambient temperature 22.1 ± 1.5 °C) and 20 were maintained under a cool thermal regime (15.1 ± 1.5 °C). Within each treatment, 12 females were pregnant and 8 were non-pregnant. Pregnancy generated a marked elevation of baseline cortisol. Ambient temperature also affected cortisol concentrations. Compared to the pregnant females from the neutral thermal regime, pregnant females maintained under cool conditions exhibited lower baseline levels of cortisol, were less active, but they displayed a greater stress response (i.e. rapid increase of plasma cortisol) following handling. Thermal treatment did not influence reproductive output, reproductive effort, or offspring characteristics. This suggests that pregnant female guinea pigs cope with cool (but not extreme) thermal conditions by reducing activity and baseline cortisol levels, possibly to save energy via an adaptive response. Interestingly, the greater amplitude of the stress response of the cool regime females was also observed in their offspring 2 months after parturition, suggesting that hormonal ambience experienced by the individuals in utero shaped their stress response long after birth.

  17. Influence of female age, sperm senescence and multiple mating on sperm viability in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Fedorka, Kenneth M

    2011-06-01

    Sperm viability has been associated with the degree of promiscuity across species, as well as the degree of reproductive success within species. Thus, sperm survival within the female reproductive tract likely plays a key role in how mating systems evolve. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, however, the extent and cause of sperm death has been the subject of recent debate. Here, we assess sperm death within the female reproductive tract of D. melanogaster following single and multiple matings in order to elucidate the extent of death and its potential mechanisms, including an acute female response to mating, female age and/or sperm senescence. We found no evidence that sperm viability was influenced by an acute female response or female age. We also found that rival ejaculates did not influence viability, supporting recent work in the system. Instead, the majority of death appears to be due to the aging of male gametes within the female, and that at least some dead resident sperm remain in the female after multiple mating. In contrast to earlier in vivo work, we found that overall sperm death was minimal (8.7%), indicating viability should have a negligible influence on female remating rates.

  18. Exposure to opiates in female adolescents alters mu opiate receptor expression and increases the rewarding effects of morphine in future offspring.

    PubMed

    Vassoler, Fair M; Wright, Siobhan J; Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2016-04-01

    Prescription opiate use and abuse has increased dramatically over the past two decades, including increased use in adolescent populations. Recently, it has been proposed that use during this critical period may affect future offspring even when use is discontinued prior to conception. Here, we utilize a rodent model to examine the effects of adolescent morphine exposure on the reward functioning of the offspring. Female Sprague Dawley rats were administered morphine for 10 days during early adolescence (post-natal day 30-39) using an escalating dosing regimen. Animals then remained drug free until adulthood at which point they were mated with naïve males. Adult offspring (F1 animals) were tested for their response to morphine-induced (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, s.c.) conditioned place preference (CPP) and context-independent morphine-induced sensitization. Naïve littermates were used to examine mu opiate receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Results indicate that F1 females whose mothers were exposed to morphine during adolescence (Mor-F1) demonstrate significantly enhanced CPP to the lowest doses of morphine compared with Sal-F1 females. There were no differences in context-independent sensitization between maternal treatment groups. Protein expression analysis showed significantly increased levels of accumbal mu opiate receptor in Mor-F1 offspring and decreased levels in the VTA. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a shift in the dose response curve with regard to the rewarding effects of morphine in Mor-F1 females which may in part be due to altered mu opiate receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens and VTA. PMID:26700246

  19. Intrauterine low-functional programming of IGF1 by prenatal nicotine exposure mediates the susceptibility to osteoarthritis in female adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Tie, Kai; Zhang, Xianrong; Tan, Yang; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Ni, Qubo; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether female adult offspring born with intrauterine growth retardation induced by prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) are susceptible to osteoarthritis (OA) and to explore the underlying programming mechanisms. Pregnant rats were treated with nicotine or saline at 2.0 mg/kg/d from gestational d 11 to 20. The female adult offspring with or without PNE were forced with a strenuous treadmill running for 6 wk to induce OA. Nicotine's effects on fetal articular chondrocytes were studied by exposing chondrocytes to nicotine for 10 d, and dihydro-β-erythroidine, a selective α4β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) inhibitor, was used to identify the change of nicotine's effect. For adult offspring, increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression were observed in the PNE group with running; the expression of α1 chain of type II collagen (Col2A1), aggrecan, SRY-type high mobility group box 9 (Sox9), and IGF1 signaling molecules in the cartilage of PNE offspring were decreased. For fetuses, elevated serum corticosteroid and nicotine levels and suppressed IGF1 levels were observed; expression of Col2A1, aggrecan, Sox9, and IGF1 were reduced. The result of chondrocytes revealed that nicotine impeded the expression of Col2A1, aggrecan, and IGF1; blocking α4β2-nAChR rescued nicotine's suppression. In conclusion, PNE increases the susceptibility of adult offspring to OA; the potential mechanism involves IGF1 low-functional programming in articular cartilage caused directly by the action of nicotine on α4β2-nAChR.

  20. DIFFERENTIAL POSTPARTUM SENSITIVITY TO THE ANXIETY-MODULATING EFFECTS OF OFFSPRING CONTACT IS ASSOCIATED WITH INNATE ANXIETY AND BRAINSTEM LEVELS OF DOPAMINE BETA-HYDROXYLASE IN FEMALE LABORATORY RATS

    PubMed Central

    RAGAN, C. M.; LONSTEIN, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    In female mammals, the postpartum period involves dramatic shifts in many socioemotional behaviors. This includes a suppression of anxiety-related behaviors that requires recent physical contact with offspring. Factors contributing to differences among females in their susceptibility to the anxiety-modulating effect of offspring contact are unknown, but could include their innate anxiety and brain monoaminergic activity. Anxiety behavior was assessed in a large group of nulliparous female rats and the least-anxious and most-anxious tertiles were mated. Anxiety was assessed again postpartum after females were permitted or prevented from contacting their offspring 4 h before testing. Levels of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH, norepinephrine synthesizing enzyme) and tryptophan hydroxylase- 2 (TPH2, serotonin synthesizing enzyme) were measured in the brainstem and dorsal raphe, respectively. It was found that anxiety-related behavior in the two groups did not differ when dams were permitted contact with offspring before testing. Removal of the offspring before testing, however, differentially affected anxiety based on dams’ innate anxiety. Specifically, dams reverted back to their pre-mating levels of anxiety such that offspring removal slightly increased anxiety in the most-anxious females but greatly lowered anxiety in the least-anxious females. This reduction in anxiety in the least-anxious females after litter removal was associated with lower brainstem DBH. There was no relationship between females’ anxiety and dorsal raphe TPH2. Thus, a primary effect of recent contact with offspring on anxiety-related behavior in postpartum rats is to shift females away from their innate anxiety to a more moderate level of responding. This effect is particularly true for females with the lowest anxiety, may be mediated by central noradrenergic systems, and has implications for their ability to attend to their offspring. PMID:24161285

  1. Prenatal LPS-exposure--a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia--differentially affects cognitive functions, myelination and parvalbumin expression in male and female offspring.

    PubMed

    Wischhof, Lena; Irrsack, Ellen; Osorio, Carmen; Koch, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for the offspring to develop schizophrenia. Gender differences can be seen in various features of the illness and sex steroid hormones (e.g. estrogen) have strongly been implicated in the disease pathology. In the present study, we evaluated sex differences in the effects of prenatal exposure to a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in rats. Pregnant dams received LPS-injections (100 μg/kg) at gestational day 15 and 16. The offspring was then tested for prepulse inhibition (PPI), locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior and object recognition memory at various developmental time points. At postnatal day (PD) 33 and 60, prenatally LPS-exposed rats showed locomotor hyperactivity which was similar in male and female offspring. Moreover, prenatal LPS-treatment caused PPI deficits in pubertal (PD45) and adult (PD90) males while PPI impairments were found only at PD45 in prenatally LPS-treated females. Following prenatal LPS-administration, recognition memory for objects was impaired in both sexes with males being more severely affected. Additionally, we assessed prenatal infection-induced alterations of parvalbumin (Parv) expression and myelin fiber density. Male offspring born to LPS-challenged mothers showed decreased myelination in cortical and limbic brain regions as well as reduced numbers of Parv-expressing cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. In contrast, LPS-exposed female rats showed only a modest decrease in myelination and Parv immunoreactivity. Collectively, our data indicate that some of the prenatal immune activation effects are sex dependent and further strengthen the importance of taking into account gender differences in animal models of schizophrenia. PMID:25455585

  2. Gestational N-hexane inhalation alters the expression of genes related to ovarian hormone production and DNA methylation states in adult female F1 rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Chenyun; Ni, Feng; Guo, Suhua; Wang, Wenxiang; Liu, Jing; Lu, Xiaoli; Huang, Huiling; Zhang, Wenchang

    2015-12-15

    Research has revealed that n-hexane can disrupt adult female endocrine functions; however, few reports have focused on endocrine changes in adult F1 females after maternal exposure during gestation. In this study, female Wistar rats inhaled 100, 500, 2500, or 12,500 ppm n-hexane for 4 h daily during their initial 20 gestational days. The F1 female offspring exhibited abnormal oestrus cycles. Compared with the controls, the in vitro-cultured ovarian granulosa cells of the 12,500 ppm group showed significantly reduced in vitro progesterone and oestradiol secretion. Elevated progesterone secretion was observed in the 500 ppm group, and decreased and significantly upregulated mRNA expression of the Star, Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1, and Hsd3b genes was observed in the 12,500 ppm and 500 ppm groups, respectively. The protein expression levels were consistent with the mRNA expression levels. Methylation screening of the promoter regions of these genes was performed using MeDIP-chip and confirmed by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM), and the observed methylation state changes of the promoter regions were correlated with the gene expression levels. The results suggest that the hormone levels in the female offspring after gestational n-hexane inhalation correspond to the expression levels and DNA methylation states of the hormone production genes. PMID:26410608

  3. Effects of number and gender of offspring on quality of life among older adults: evidence from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Cho, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined correlations between number and gender of offspring and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of life (QoL) in older adults. Setting We used data from the 2006–2012 data sets of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants There were 10 242, 8680, 7907 and 7480 participants in 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012, respectively. Interventions Number and gender of offspring. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured participants’ QoL and HRQoL using a visual analogue scale developed by the Korea Labour Institute and which is similar to the EQ-VAS, a European measure. Results We estimated the HRQoL and QoL of individuals with offspring. Estimates for the HRQoL and QoL of parents with no offspring were −7.762 and −9.384, respectively (both p<0.0001) versus parents with two offspring. For parents with five or more offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were −1.529 and 0.885, respectively (p<0.001 and p<0.017, respectively) compared with parents with two offspring. For fathers with no offspring compared with fathers with two offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were −6.143 and −7.492, respectively (both p<0.0001). Conclusions These results suggest that number of offspring is associated with both HRQoL and QoL. Those with no offspring showed the lowest HRQoL and QoL. Although having five or more children had positive associations with QoL, it had negative associations with HRQoL. Public health services for those with poor quality of life should provide effective support programmes and services based on these findings. PMID:26063566

  4. Centenarians’ offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview

    PubMed Central

    Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible. PMID:26979133

  5. Centenarians' offspring as a model of healthy aging: a reappraisal of the data on Italian subjects and a comprehensive overview.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Cevenini, Elisa; Pini, Elisa; Scurti, Maria; Vitale, Giovanni; Mari, Daniela; Caruso, Calogero; Sansoni, Paolo; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pasquali, Renato; Gueresi, Paola; Franceschi, Claudio; Monti, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Within the scenario of an increasing life expectancy worldwide it is mandatory to identify determinants of healthy aging. Centenarian offspring (CO) is one of the most informative model to identify trajectories of healthy aging and their determinants (genetic and environmental), being representative of elderly in their 70th whose lifestyle can be still modified to attain a better health. This study is the first comprehensive investigation of the health status of 267 CO (mean age: 70.2 years) and adopts the innovative approach of comparing CO with 107 age-matched offspring of non-long-lived parents (hereafter indicated as NCO controls), recruited according to strict inclusion demographic criteria of Italian population. We adopted a multidimensional approach which integrates functional and cognitive assessment together with epidemiological and clinical data, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, lipid profile, and insulin resistance. CO have a lower prevalence of stroke, cerebral thrombosis-hemorrhage, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and other minor diseases, lower BMI and waist circumference, a better functional and cognitive status and lower plasma level of FT4 compared to NCO controls. We conclude that a multidimensional approach is a reliable strategy to identify the health status of elderly at an age when interventions to modify their health trajectory are feasible. PMID:26979133

  6. Parents are a Drag: Long-Lived Birds Share the Cost of Increased Foraging Effort with Their Offspring, but Males Pass on More of the Costs than Females

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Shoshanah R.; Elliott, Kyle Hamish; Gaston, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Life history theory predicts that parents will balance benefits from investment in current offspring against benefits from future reproductive investments. Long-lived organisms are therefore less likely to increase parental effort when environmental conditions deteriorate. To investigate the effect of decreased foraging capacity on parental behaviour of long-lived monogamous seabirds, we experimentally increased energy costs for chick-rearing thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia). Handicapped birds had lighter chicks and lower provisioning rates, supporting the prediction that long-lived animals would pass some of the costs of impaired foraging ability on to their offspring. Nonetheless, handicapped birds spent less time underwater, had longer inter-dive surface intervals, had lower body mass, showed lower resighting probabilities in subsequent years and consumed fewer risky prey items. Corticosterone levels were similar between control and handicapped birds. Apparently, adults shared some of the costs of impaired foraging, but those costs were not measurable in all metrics. Handicapped males had higher plasma neutral lipid concentrations (higher energy mobilisation) and their chicks exhibited lower growth rates than handicapped females, suggesting different sex-specific investment strategies. Unlike other studies of auks, partners did not compensate for handicapping, despite good foraging conditions for unhandicapped birds. In conclusion, parental murres and their offspring shared the costs of experimentally increased foraging constraints, with females investing more than males. PMID:23382921

  7. Germ-line transmission of trisomy 21: Data from 80 families suggest an implication of grandmaternal age and a high frequency of female-specific trisomy rescue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21; Down syndrome, DS) is the most common aneuploidy in live births. Though its etiology has been intensively studied for a half of century, there are surprisingly many problems awaiting their elucidation. Some of the open questions are related directly to germ line mosaicism for T21, other problems include the prevalence of males with non-mosaic trisomy over females (skewed sex ratio, SR), the genetic predisposition to non-disjunction, etc. Studies in families of gonadal mosaicism (GM) carriers might help resolving some of these problems. Results 80 families of carriers of GM, in which the sex of the offspring had been specified, were identified in the literature and in logbooks of two local genetic units. Mothers in these families were relatively young: only 8% of mothers were 35 years old and older at the time of delivery of their first affected offspring while the proportion of grandmothers on the GM carrier's side aged 35 years old and older was significantly higher (39%). Postzygotic rescue of T21 due to error in the meiosis I had been proposed as a mechanism of parental GM formation in 78% of the families with known origin of the T21. For the other 22%, rescue of errors in the meiosis II or postzygotic mitotic non-disjunction was assumed. Mosaicism for T21 in successive generations was reported in at least 12 families. The proportion of mosaics among affected female offspring (14%) is significantly higher compared to that among affected male offspring (0%). Male preponderance (SR = 1.5) is found in non mosaic liveborn offspring with either maternally- or paternally transmitted T21. Among unaffected offspring of male carriers of GM there is a notable excess of females (SR = 0.27). Conclusion Both direct (results of cytogenetic and molecular study of the origin of trisomic line) and indirect (advanced grandmaternal age on the side of GM carrier) evidences allow to assume that significant proportion of the mosaic parents

  8. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  9. Vitamin B12 and folate during pregnancy and offspring motor, mental and social development at 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Bhate, V K; Joshi, S M; Ladkat, R S; Deshmukh, U S; Lubree, H G; Katre, P A; Bhat, D S; Rush, E C; Yajnik, C S

    2012-04-01

    Insufficiency of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate during pregnancy can result in low concentrations in the fetus and have adverse effects on brain development. We investigated the relationship between maternal B12 and folate nutrition during pregnancy and offspring motor, mental and social development at two years of age (2 y). Mothers (n = 123) and their offspring (62 girls, 61 boys) from rural and middle-class urban communities in and around Pune city were followed through pregnancy up to 2 y. Maternal B12 and folate concentrations were measured at 28 and 34 weeks of gestation. At 2 y, the Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants was used to determine motor and mental developmental quotients and the Vineland Social Maturity Scale for the social developmental quotient. Overall, 62% of the mothers had low B12 levels (<150 pmol/l) and one mother was folate deficient during pregnancy. Maternal B12 at 28 and 34 weeks of gestation was associated with offspring B12 at 2 y (r = 0.29, r = 0.32, P < 0.001), but folate was not associated with offspring folate. At 2 y, motor development was associated with maternal folate at 28 and 34 weeks of gestation. Mental and social development quotients were associated positively with head circumference and negatively with birth weight. In addition, pregnancy B12 and folate were positively associated with mental and social development quotients. Maternal B12 and folate during intrauterine life may favorably influence brain development and function. Pregnancy provides a window of opportunity to enhance fetal psychomotor (motor and mental) development.

  10. Senescence and age-specific trade-offs between reproduction and survival in female Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew R; Mar, Khyne U; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-03-01

    Although studies on laboratory species and natural populations of vertebrates have shown reproduction to impair later performance, little is known of the age-specific associations between reproduction and survival, and how such findings apply to the ageing of large, long-lived species. Herein we develop a framework to examine population-level patterns of reproduction and survival across lifespan in long-lived organisms, and decompose those changes into individual-level effects, and the effects of age-specific trade-offs between fitness components. We apply this to an extensive longitudinal dataset on female semi-captive Asian timber elephants (Elephas maximus) and report the first evidence of age-specific fitness declines that are driven by age-specific associations between fitness components in a long-lived mammal. Associations between reproduction and survival are positive in early life, but negative in later life with up to 71% of later-life survival declines associated with investing in the production of offspring within this population of this critically endangered species.

  11. Effects of maternal exposure to aflatoxin B1 during pregnancy on fertility output of dams and developmental, behavioral and reproductive consequences in female offspring using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Supriya, Ch; Akhila, B; Pratap Reddy, K; Girish, B P; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2016-01-01

    A suboptimal in utero environment can have detrimental effects on the pregnancy and long-term adverse "programing" effects on the offspring. Aflatoxin B1 is one of the potent reproductive toxicants and currently detected in both milk and tissues. This article focuses on the effects of prenatal exposure to graded doses of aflatoxin B1 on the pregnancy outcomes of dams and postnatal developments of the female offspring, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected intramuscularly with vehicle or aflatoxin B1 (10, 20, 50 or 100 μg/kg body weight/day) on days 12-19 of gestation. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs of toxicity and survival. The female offspring were examined through a battery of tests in order to evaluate their developmental, behavioral and reproductive end points. All animals were born alive. The litter size of the aflatoxin B1 treated rats was comparable to the controls. However, the birth weight of the pups in the experimental group was significantly lower when compared to controls. Significant and persistent lags in cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity and ascending wire mesh, with a delay in elapsed time for vaginal opening were detected in the female progeny exposed to aflatoxin B1 during embryonic development. The locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in experimental females were significantly decreased than that of controls. Embryonic exposure to aflatoxin B1 also resulted in prolonged stress response, irregular estrus and suppressed fertility output in the progeny at their adulthood. These results indicate that in utero exposure to aflatoxin B1 severely compromised postnatal development of neonatal rats and caused irregular estrus that was accompanied by suppressed fertility output. PMID:26956420

  12. Adult exercise effects on oxidative stress and reproductive programming in male offspring of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mery; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Ibáñez, Carlos; Vega, Claudia C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Zambrano, Elena

    2015-02-01

    Exercise improves health but few data are available regarding benefits of exercise in offspring exposed to developmental programming. There is currently a worldwide epidemic of obesity. Obesity in pregnant women predisposes offspring to obesity. Maternal obesity has well documented effects on offspring reproduction. Few studies address ability of offspring exercise to reduce adverse outcomes. We observed increased oxidative stress and impaired sperm function in rat offspring of obese mothers. We hypothesized that regular offspring exercise reverses adverse effects of maternal obesity on offspring sperm quality and fertility. Female Wistar rats ate chow (C) or high-energy, obesogenic diet (MO) from weaning through lactation, bred at postnatal day (PND) 120, and ate their pregnancy diet until weaning. All offspring ate C diet from weaning. Five male offspring (different litters) ran on a wheel for 15 min, 5 times/week from PND 330 to 450 and were euthanized at PND 450. Average distance run per session was lower in MO offspring who had higher body weight, adiposity index, and gonadal fat and showed increases in testicular oxidative stress biomarkers. Sperm from MO offspring had reduced antioxidant enzyme activity, lower sperm quality, and fertility. Exercise in MO offspring decreased testicular oxidative stress, increased sperm antioxidant activity and sperm quality, and improved fertility. Exercise intervention has beneficial effects on adiposity index, gonadal fat, oxidative stress markers, sperm quality, and fertility. Thus regular physical exercise in male MO offspring recuperates key male reproductive functions even at advanced age: it's never too late. PMID:25502750

  13. Lower levels of human milk adiponectin predict offspring weight for age: a study in a lean population of Filipinos.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Justine; McKinley, Kassielle; Onugha, Jason; Duazo, Paulita; Chernoff, Meytal; Quinn, Elizabeth A

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies have reported a significant, inverse association between adiponectin in human milk and offspring growth velocity. Less is known about this association in populations characterised by a loss of weight for age z-scores (WAZs) in early life. We investigated the association between maternal body composition and milk adiponectin in a sample of Filipino mothers. We then tested for an association between milk adiponectin and size for age in their infants. A total of 117 Filipino mothers nursing infants from 0 to 24 months were recruited from Cebu, Philippines. Anthropometrics, interviews and milk samples were collected and analysed using standard protocols. Mean milk adiponectin in this sample was 7.47 ± 5.75 ng mL(-1) . Mean infant WAZ and weight for length (WLZ) decreased with age. Maternal body composition was not associated with milk adiponectin content. Milk adiponectin had a significant, positive association with infant WAZ and WLZ. Prior reports have found an inverse association between milk adiponectin and infant WAZ. Here, we report that in lean populations with lower milk adiponectin, there is a positive association with infant WAZ, possibly reflecting pleiotropic biological functions of adiponectin for post-natal growth. This study increases the understanding of normal biological variation in milk adiponectin and the consequences of low levels of milk adiponectin for offspring growth.

  14. Effects of thalidomide on developmental, peri- and postnatal function in female New Zealand white rabbits and offspring.

    PubMed

    Teo, Steve K; Denny, Kevin H; Stirling, David I; Thomas, Steve D; Morseth, Sandy; Hoberman, Alan M

    2004-10-01

    The present study determined effects of thalidomide on three successive generations of New Zealand White rabbits after oral dosing to F0 maternal rabbits during the later third of gestation (post major organogenesis) and lactation. One hundred and twenty four time-mated F0 rabbits (31/dose) were gavaged with 0, 30, 150, or 500 mg/kg thalidomide from gestation day 18 (DG 18) to lactation day 28 (DP or day postpartum 28) for approximately 42 days. At 6 months, 12 F1 males and 12 F1 females were randomly paired within each dose group and mated. Reproductive evaluation and/or gross necropsy of the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic viscera was performed on day 29 postpartum (DP 29) for F0 rabbits, on DP 49 for F1 pups not selected for continued evaluation, after completion of mating for F1 rabbits, and on DG 29 for F1 rabbits on continued evaluation of F2 litter. There was no thalidomide-related mortality in F0 and F1 rabbits. One F0 doe at 30 and 150 mg/kg and 2 at 500 mg/kg aborted. Maternal F0 rabbits had reductions in feed consumption but not body weight gain during the gestation and lactation periods for 150 and 500 mg/kg. The numbers of does with stillborn and all pups dying from DP 1-4 was increased at 150 and 500 mg/kg. Mean number of liveborn (litter size) and percentage of live pups were decreased at 500 mg/kg. A significantly increased number of pups died at 150 and 500 mg/kg, resulting in a reduced viability index and decreased litter size. There were some F1 male and female body weight reductions at 150 and 500 mg/kg postweaning with no change in feed consumption. F1 Caesarean-sectioning and litter observations were normal. Fertility of F1 offspring was not affected by maternal doses of thalidomide, but the pregnancy index may have been reduced by the 500 mg/kg maternal thalidomide dose. There was an apparent dose-related increase in splayed limbs in F1 pups. Splaying has been reported in New Zealand White rabbits and may be a recessive trait. The splay could

  15. Long-term pyrene exposure of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, affects molting and reproduction of exposed males and offspring of exposed females.

    PubMed Central

    Oberdörster, E; Brouwer, M; Hoexum-Brouwer, T; Manning, S; McLachlan, J A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of long-term pyrene exposure on molting and reproduction in the model estuarine invertebrate, the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). Grass shrimp were exposed to measured concentrations of 5.1, 15.0, and 63. 4 ppb (microg/L) pyrene for 6 weeks, during which time we determined molting and survivorship. At the end of the exposure, we immediately sacrificed some of the shrimp for biomarker (CYP1A and vitellin) analyses. The remaining shrimp were used to analyze fecundity and embryo survivorship during an additional 6 weeks after termination of pyrene exposure. Male shrimp at the highest pyrene dose (63 ppb) experienced a significant delay in molting and in time until reproduction, and showed elevated ethoxycoumarin o-deethylase (ECOD) activity immediately after the 6-week exposure period. In contrast, 63 ppb pyrene did not affect these parameters in female shrimp. Females produced the same number of eggs per body weight, with high egg viability (98-100%) at all exposure levels, but with decreased survival for the offspring of the 63-ppb pyrene-exposed females. In addition, vitellin levels were elevated only in females at 63 ppb pyrene after the 6-week exposure. We hypothesize that the elevated vitellin binds pyrene and keeps it biologically unavailable to adult females, resulting in maternal transfer of pyrene to the embryos. This would account for the lack of effect of pyrene exposure on ECOD activity, molting, and reproduction in the adult females, and for reduced survival of their offspring. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10903618

  16. Male Presence can Increase Body Mass and Induce a Stress-Response in Female Mice Independent of Costs of Offspring Production

    PubMed Central

    Garratt, Michael; Kee, Anthony J.; Palme, Rupert; Brooks, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in animals requires close interactions with the opposite sex. These interactions may generate costs of reproduction, because mates can induce detrimental physiological or physical effects on one another, due to their interest in maximising their own fitness. To understand how a male’s presence influences aspects of female physiology implicated in reproductive costs in mice, independent of offspring production, we paired females with vasectomised, castrated or intact males, or other females. Being paired with a male, irrespective of his gonadal status, increased female weight. This effect was transient in females paired with castrated males but more persistent in those with vasectomised males. Those paired with males also showed an increase in corticosterone, suggesting an increased stress response. However, this was dependent on the gonadal status of the male housing partner, since those housed with vasectomised males had lower corticosterone than those with castrated males. Altered energy metabolism was only detectable in pregnant females, and oxidative stress was not consistently affected by a female’s housing partner. These results suggest that a male’s presence alters female weight, and stresses associated with reproduction could be induced by simply the presence of a male, but reduced by mating and/or being solicited to mate. PMID:27004919

  17. Effects of maternal and lactational exposure to 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzone on development and reproductive organs in male and female rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Noriko; Inselman, Amy L.; White, Gene A.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Trbojevich, Raul A.; Sepehr, Estatira; Voris, Kristie L.; Patton, Ralph E.; Bryant, Matthew S.; Harrouk, Wafa; McIntyre, Barry; Foster, Paul M.; Hansen, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMB) is an ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compound used in many cosmetic products as a UV-protecting agent and in plastics for preventing UV-induced photodecomposition. HMB has been detected in over 95% of randomly collected human urine samples from adults and from premature infants, and it may have estrogenic potential. METHODS To determine the effects of maternal and lactational exposure to HMB on development and reproductive organs of offspring, time-mated female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with 0, 1,000, 3,000, 10,000, 25,000, or 50,000 ppm HMB (7-8 per group) added to chow from gestation day 6 until weaning on postnatal day (PND) 23. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Exposure to HMB was associated with reduced body and organ weights in female and male offspring. No significant differences were observed in the number of implantation sites/litter, mean resorptions/litter, % litters with resorptions, number and weights of live fetuses, or sex ratios between the control and HMB dose groups. Normalized anogenital distance in male pups at PND 23 was decreased in the highest dose group. Spermatocyte development was impaired in testes of male offspring in the highest dose group. In females, follicular development was delayed in the highest dose group. However, by evaluating levels of the compound in rat serum, the doses at which adverse events occurred are much higher than usual human exposure levels. Thus, exposure to less than 10,000 ppm HMB does not appear to be associated with adverse effects on the reproductive system in rats. PMID:25707689

  18. Effects on reproduction in female offspring from Sprague-Dawley rats fed 10% snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala) throughout pregnancy and concurrent treatment with safflower oil.

    PubMed

    Staley, E C; Smith, G S; Greenberg, J A

    1995-10-01

    Previous studies determined that safflower oil administration provided protection against the embryotoxicity seen following ingestion of 10% snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala) throughout pregnancy. Sixty-two young primiparous female rats born in those studies were paired with adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 d they were removed and carried their litters to term. Observations were made of the presence and extent of reproductive effects attributable to the 10% snakeweed exposure and differences in fecundity that were attributable to dosing with safflower oil or normal saline during the snakeweed exposure. Of the 62 rats, 50 carried litters to term and approximated the reproductive efficiency of normal primiparous Sprague-Dawley rats. There was no significant difference between the fecundity of females born to rats fed the 10% snakeweed and dosed with safflower oil, those born of rats fed snakeweed dosed with normal saline, or those fed a snakeweed-free diet and dosed with normal saline. Regardless of the diet or treatment administered, dams carrying their litters to parturition gave birth to healthy, normo-reproductive offspring. While the toxic principles in Gutierrezia species plants may act as estrogenic or anti-estrogenic compounds, they did not impair fertility in the female offspring of dosed rats. PMID:8592831

  19. Parental divorce, parental depression, and gender differences in adult offspring suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Lizardi, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Keyes, Katherine; Hasin, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    Research suggests parental divorce during childhood increases risk of suicide attempt for male but not female offspring. The negative impact on offspring associated with parental divorce may be better explained by parental psychopathology, such as depression. We examined whether adult offspring of parental divorce experience elevated risk of suicide attempt, controlling for parental history of depression, and whether the risk varies by the gender of the offspring. Using the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), the sample consists of respondents who experienced parental divorce (N = 4895). Multivariable regressions controlled for age, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and parental history of depression. Females living with their fathers were significantly more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts than females living with their mothers, even after controlling for parental depression. Findings suggest that childhood/adolescent parental divorce may have a stronger impact on suicide attempt risk in female offspring than previously recognized.

  20. Male age and female mate choice in a synchronizing katydid.

    PubMed

    Hartbauer, M; Siegert, M E; Römer, H

    2015-08-01

    In acoustically communicating species, females often evaluate the frequency content, signal duration and the temporal signal pattern to gain information about the age of the signaller. This is different in the synchronizing bush cricket Mecopoda elongata where females select males on the basis of relative signal timing in duets. In a longitudinal approach, we recorded songs of M. elongata males produced 2 weeks (young male) and 9 weeks (old male) after their ultimate moult. Signal timing of both age categories was studied in acoustic interactions, and female preference was investigated in choice situations. Young male chirps were significantly shorter and contained less energy compared to "old chirps". In mixed-age duets younger males timed their chirps as leader significantly more often. Females preferred the young male chirp when broadcast as leader over the old male chirp, but choice was random when the old male chirp was leader. This choice asymmetry was abolished after reducing the duration of the "old chirp". Results were mirrored in response of a bilateral pair of auditory neurons, where the asymmetry in spike count and first-spike latency correlated with behaviour. We suggest that older males may compensate their disadvantage in a more complex chorus situation.

  1. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood.

  2. Developmental programming by high fructose decreases phosphorylation efficiency in aging offspring brain mitochondria, correlating with enhanced UCP5 expression

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Ole H; Larsen, Lea H; Ørstrup, Laura KH; Hansen, Lillian HL; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Fructose has recently been observed to affect brain metabolism and cognitive function in adults. Yet, possible late-onset effects by gestational fructose exposure have not been examined. We evaluated mitochondrial function in the brain of aging (15 months) male offspring of Fischer F344 rat dams fed a high-fructose diet (50% energy from fructose) during gestation and lactation. Maternal fructose exposure caused a significantly lower body weight of the offspring throughout life after weaning, while birth weight, litter size, and body fat percentage were unaffected. Isolated brain mitochondria displayed a significantly increased state 3 respiration of 8%, with the substrate combinations malate/pyruvate, malate/pyruvate/succinate, and malate/pyruvate/succinate/rotenone, as well as a significant decrease in the P/O2 ratio, compared with the control. Uncoupling protein 5 (UCP5) protein levels increased in the fructose group compared with the control (P=0.03) and both UCP5 mRNA and protein levels were inversely correlated with the P/O2 ratio (P=0.008 and 0.03, respectively), suggesting that UCP5 may have a role in the observed decreased phosphorylation efficiency. In conclusion, maternal high-fructose diet during gestation and lactation has long-term effects (fetal programming) on brain mitochondrial function in aging rats, which appears to be linked to an increase in UCP5 protein levels. PMID:24756078

  3. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies.

  4. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies. PMID:25936819

  5. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. )

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  6. The role of the brain in female reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Downs, Jodi L; Wise, Phyllis M

    2009-02-01

    In middle-aged women, follicular depletion is a critical factor mediating the menopausal transition; however, all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis contribute to the age-related decline in reproductive function. To help elucidate the complex interactions between the ovary and brain during middle-age that lead to the onset of the menopause, we utilize animal models which share striking similarities in reproductive physiology. Our results show that during middle-age, prior to any overt irregularities in estrous cyclicity, the ability of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) to modulate the cascade of neurochemical events required for preovulatory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and a luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is diminished. Middle-aged female rats experience a delay in and an attenuation of LH release in response to E(2). Additionally, although we do not observe a decrease in GnRH neuron number until a very advanced age, E(2)-mediated GnRH neuronal activation declines during the earliest stages of age-related reproductive decline. Numerous hypothalamic neuropeptides and neurochemical stimulatory inputs (i.e., glutamate, norepinephrine (NE), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)) that drive the E(2)-mediated GnRH/LH surge appear to dampen with age or lack the precise temporal coordination required for a specific pattern of GnRH secretion, while inhibitory signals such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and opioid peptides remain unchanged or elevated during the afternoon of proestrus. These changes, occurring at the level of the hypothalamus, lead to irregular estrous cycles and, ultimately, the cessation of reproductive function. Taken together, our studies indicate that the hypothalamus is an important contributor to age-related female reproductive decline.

  7. The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Aging Female Inmates.

    PubMed

    Leigey, Margaret E; Johnston, Mary E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a sample of older female inmates (N = 458). Results indicate that 34% of older female inmates were overweight and 36% were obese; similar percentages were noted for the general population. Race and age were found to be significantly associated with the body mass index categories of healthy weight and obese. White inmates were significantly more likely to be of a healthy weight and significantly less likely to be obese than Black inmates. Age was positively associated with healthy weight and negatively associated with obesity. These two variables remained significant even after they were introduced into logistic regression models predicting healthy weight and obesity. Findings indicate the need for programming to improve the health of this population.

  8. Adaptive male effects on female ageing in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Kremer, Natacha; Arnqvist, Göran

    2005-12-01

    Selection can favour the evolution of a high reproductive rate early in life even when this results in a subsequent increase in the rate of mortality, because selection is relatively weak late in life. However, the optimal reproductive schedule of a female may be suboptimal to any one of her mates, and males may thus be selected to modulate female reproductive rate. Owing to such sexual conflict, coevolution between males and females may contribute to the evolution of senescence. By using replicated beetle populations selected for reproduction at an early or late age, we show that males evolve to affect senescence in females in a manner consistent with the genetic interests of males. 'Late' males evolved to decelerate senescence and increase the lifespan of control females, relative to 'early' males. Our findings demonstrate that adaptive evolution in one sex may involve its effects on senescence in the other, showing that the evolution of optimal life histories in one sex may be either facilitated or constrained by genes expressed in the other.

  9. The Aging Female Voice: Acoustic and Respiratory Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend understanding of the effects of aging on the female voice by obtaining measures of both acoustic and respiratory-based performance in groups of 18-30, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79-year-old subjects. Acoustic measures of speaking fundamental frequency (SFF), pitch sigma, jitter, shimmer, and signal-to-noise…

  10. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age. In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011. Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61–0.96, compared with the non-NPC group. The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  11. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring.

    PubMed

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Kistanova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers' oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris.

  12. Tribulus terrestris Alters the Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Rabbit Ovaries of Mothers and F1 Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated the key role of the oocyte-derived factors, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 15 and growth differentiation factor (GDF) 9, in follicular development and ovulation, there is a lack of knowledge on the impact of external factors, which females are exposed to during folliculogenesis, on their expression. The present study investigated the effect of the aphrodisiac Tribulus terrestris on the GDF9 and BMP15 expression in the oocytes and cumulus cells at mRNA and protein levels during folliculogenesis in two generations of female rabbits. The experiment was conducted with 28 New Zealand rabbits. Only the diet of the experimental mothers group was supplemented with a dry extract of T. terrestris for the 45 days prior to insemination. The expression of BMP15 and GDF9 genes in the oocytes and cumulus cells of mothers and F1 female offspring was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The localization of the GDF9 and BMP15 proteins in the ovary tissues was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The BMP15 and GDF9 transcripts were detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits from all groups. T. terrestris caused a decrease in the BMP15 mRNA level in the oocytes and an increase in the cumulus cells. The GDF9 mRNA level increased significantly in both oocytes and cumulus cells. The downregulated expression of BMP15 in the treated mothers’ oocytes was inherited in the F1 female offspring born to treated mothers. BMP15 and GDF9 show a clearly expressed sensitivity to the bioactive compounds of T. terrestris. PMID:26928288

  13. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate prevents the effects of phenylalanine administration to female rats during pregnancy and lactation on enzymes activity of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Vanessa Trindade; de Franceschi, Itiane Diehl; Rieger, Elenara; Wannmacher, Clóvis Milton Duval

    2014-08-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most frequent inborn error of metabolism. It is caused by deficiency in the activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites. Untreated maternal PKU or hyperphenylalaninemia may result in nonphenylketonuric offspring with low birth weight and neonatal sequelae, especially microcephaly and intellectual disability. The mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain injury in maternal PKU syndrome are poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the possible preventive effect of the co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate on the effects elicited by phenylalanine administration to female Wistar rats during pregnancy and lactation on some enzymes involved in the phosphoryltransfer network in the brain cortex and hippocampus of the offspring at 21 days of age. Phenylalanine administration provoked diminution of body, brain cortex an hippocampus weight and decrease of adenylate kinase, mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinase activities. Co-administration of creatine plus pyruvate was effective in the prevention of those alterations provoked by phenylalanine, suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be important in the pathophysiology of maternal PKU. If these alterations also occur in maternal PKU, it is possible that pyruvate and creatine supplementation to the phenylalanine-restricted diet might be beneficial to phenylketonuric mothers.

  14. Mother-Offspring Transmission and Age-Dependent Accumulation of Simian Foamy Virus in Wild Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Blasse, Anja; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Merkel, Kevin; Goffe, Adeelia S.; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) are thought to infect virtually any adult nonhuman primate (NHP). While many data have accumulated about patterns of codivergence with their hosts and cross-species transmission events, little is known about the modalities of SFV transmission within NHP species, especially in the wild. Here we provide a detailed investigation of the dynamics of SFV circulation in a wild community of Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). We demonstrate that mother-offspring (vertical) SFV transmission is common and hypothesize that it accounts for a number of primary infections. We also show that multiple infections with several chimpanzee-specific SFV strains (i.e., superinfection) commonly happen in adult chimpanzees, which might point to adult-specific aggressive behaviors as a lifelong source of SFV infection. Our data give evidence for complex SFV dynamics in wild chimpanzees, even at a single community scale, and show that linking wild NHP social interactions and their microorganisms' dynamics is feasible. PMID:23449796

  15. Persuasion Tactics Used by College Age Females on College Age Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Erika J.; Pollard, Gloria D.; Williams, Christina M.

    This paper researched persuasive tactics used by college age females on college age males. Previous evidence indicates that nonverbal persuasion is more effective than verbal persuasion. The topics explored in previous research on persuasion consisted of physical attractiveness, indirect knowledge of influence, tactics used by children and college…

  16. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    PubMed

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle.

  17. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    PubMed

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle

  18. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: ‘sugar’, ‘essential’, or ‘yeast-sugar’. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging. PMID:26147734

  19. Abortion index and mortality of offspring among women of different age, caste and population groups of north Indian Muslims.

    PubMed

    Ara, Gulshan; Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Beg, Tanveer; Afzal, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    The Muslims of Aligarh city are predominantly Sunnis, although there are also a considerable number of Shias. Among the Sunnis, approximately a quarter belong to Syed, Sheikh, Moghal and Pathan groups, and three-quarters belong to various lower biradaris. In the present study, 304 women attending the Primary Health Centre of the J. N. Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh, were surveyed and the following recorded among Muslim women of high-rank (Ashraf) and low-rank (Ajlaf) castes: incidence of marriage, age of the mother at the time of marriage, present age of the mother, abortions, still births, pre-reproductive mortality and overall mortality. The Ashraf are comprised of the Sheikh, Syed and Pathan, whereas the Ajlafs have Qureshi, Saifi and Ansari biradaris. Maternal age was scored as above and below 45 years in each biradari. Significant effects of maternal age were seen on mortality of offspring, whereas populations did not show consistent differences, except when Ashrafs and Ajlafs were considered separately. The results show higher mortality and abortions for various groups. This may be due to various biological and socio-cultural factors, including hidden inbreeding in the remote past.

  20. Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Mankinen, C B; Sears, J W

    1976-01-01

    A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and palate; bulbar nose; coloboma iris; polydactyly; unusual dermatoglyphic patterns; large adductor thumbs; enlarged great toes; multiple capillary haemangiomas; club feet; inguinal and umbilical hernias; hyperconvexed fingernails; and seizure disorder. Images PMID:933114

  1. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-01-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving.

  2. Declarative verbal memory impairments in middle-aged women who are caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum disorders: The role of negative affect and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; González-Bono, E; Salvador, A; Moya-Albiol, L

    2016-01-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with a chronic psychological disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is used in research as a model of chronic stress. This chronic stress has been reported to have deleterious effects on caregivers' cognition, particularly in verbal declarative memory. Moreover, such cognitive decline may be mediated by testosterone (T) levels and negative affect, understood as depressive mood together with high anxiety and anger. This study aimed to compare declarative memory function in middle-aged women who were caregivers for individuals with ASD (n = 24; mean age = 45) and female controls (n = 22; mean age = 45), using a standardised memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). It also sought to examine the role of care recipient characteristics, negative mood and T levels in memory impairments. ASD caregivers were highly sensitive to proactive interference and verbal forgetting. In addition, they had higher negative affect and T levels, both of which have been associated with poorer verbal memory performance. Moreover, the number of years of caregiving affected memory performance and negative affect, especially, in terms of anger feelings. On the other hand, T levels in caregivers had a curvilinear relationship with verbal memory performance; that is, increases in T were associated with improvements in verbal memory performance up to a certain point, but subsequently, memory performance decreased with increasing T. Chronic stress may produce disturbances in mood and hormonal levels, which in turn might increase the likelihood of developing declarative memory impairments although caregivers do not show a generalised decline in memory. These findings should be taken into account for understanding the impact of cognitive impairments on the ability to provide optimal caregiving. PMID:25915711

  3. Excess maternal salt or fructose intake programmes sex-specific, stress- and fructose-sensitive hypertension in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clint; Gardiner, Sheila M; Elmes, Matthew; Gardner, David S

    2016-02-28

    The Western diet is typically high in salt and fructose, which have pressor activity. Maternal diet can affect offspring blood pressure, but the extent to which maternal intake of excess salt and fructose may influence cardiovascular function of the offspring is unknown. We sought to determine the effect of moderate maternal dietary intake of salt and/or fructose on resting and stimulated cardiovascular function of the adult male and female offspring. Pregnant rats were fed purified diets (± 4% salt) and water (± 10% fructose) before and during gestation and through lactation. Male and female offspring were weaned onto standard laboratory chow. From 9 to 14 weeks of age, cardiovascular parameters (basal, circadian and stimulated) were assessed continuously by radiotelemetry. Maternal salt intake rendered opposite-sex siblings with a 25-mmHg difference in blood pressure as adults; male offspring were hypertensive (15 mmHg mean arterial pressure (MAP)) and female offspring were hypotensive (10 mmHg MAP) above and below controls, respectively. Sex differences were unrelated to endothelial nitric oxide activity in vivo, but isolation-induced anxiety revealed a significantly steeper coupling between blood pressure and heart rate in salt-exposed male offspring but not in female offspring. MAP of all offspring was refractory to salt loading but sensitive to subsequent dietary fructose, an effect exacerbated in female offspring from fructose-fed dams. Circadian analyses of pressure in all offspring revealed higher mean set-point for heart rate and relative non-dipping of nocturnal pressure. In conclusion, increased salt and fructose in the maternal diet has lasting effects on offspring cardiovascular function that is sex-dependent and related to the offspring's stress-response axis.

  4. Excess maternal salt or fructose intake programmes sex-specific, stress- and fructose-sensitive hypertension in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clint; Gardiner, Sheila M; Elmes, Matthew; Gardner, David S

    2016-02-28

    The Western diet is typically high in salt and fructose, which have pressor activity. Maternal diet can affect offspring blood pressure, but the extent to which maternal intake of excess salt and fructose may influence cardiovascular function of the offspring is unknown. We sought to determine the effect of moderate maternal dietary intake of salt and/or fructose on resting and stimulated cardiovascular function of the adult male and female offspring. Pregnant rats were fed purified diets (± 4% salt) and water (± 10% fructose) before and during gestation and through lactation. Male and female offspring were weaned onto standard laboratory chow. From 9 to 14 weeks of age, cardiovascular parameters (basal, circadian and stimulated) were assessed continuously by radiotelemetry. Maternal salt intake rendered opposite-sex siblings with a 25-mmHg difference in blood pressure as adults; male offspring were hypertensive (15 mmHg mean arterial pressure (MAP)) and female offspring were hypotensive (10 mmHg MAP) above and below controls, respectively. Sex differences were unrelated to endothelial nitric oxide activity in vivo, but isolation-induced anxiety revealed a significantly steeper coupling between blood pressure and heart rate in salt-exposed male offspring but not in female offspring. MAP of all offspring was refractory to salt loading but sensitive to subsequent dietary fructose, an effect exacerbated in female offspring from fructose-fed dams. Circadian analyses of pressure in all offspring revealed higher mean set-point for heart rate and relative non-dipping of nocturnal pressure. In conclusion, increased salt and fructose in the maternal diet has lasting effects on offspring cardiovascular function that is sex-dependent and related to the offspring's stress-response axis. PMID:26653028

  5. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces the osteoarthritis-like phenotype in female adult offspring rats with a post-weaning high-fat diet and its intrauterine programming mechanisms of cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qubo; Wang, Linlong; Wu, Yunpeng; Shen, Lang; Qin, Jun; Liu, Yansong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-14

    Osteoarthritis (OA) development is associated with hypercholesterolemia in adults. Our previous study demonstrated that offspring with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) due to prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) had a high risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and metabolic syndrome when fed a post-weaning high-fat diet (HFD). In this study, we examined the changes in articular chondrocytes of IUGR offspring induced by PEE and explored its intrauterine programming mechanisms related to cholesterol metabolism. Using the PEE/IUGR model, serum and tibias from female fetuses and adult female offspring fed a post-weaning HFD were collected and examined for cholesterol metabolism and histology. The results showed that PEE adult offspring manifested significant catch-up growth. Their serum total cholesterol (TCH) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased; the osteoarthritis-like phenotype and an increased TCH content were observed in articular cartilage; and the expression of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF1) and cholesterol efflux pathway, including ATP-binding-cassette transporter A1 and liver X receptor, was reduced. The expression of IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway was also lower in the PEE fetuses. This study showed PEE could induce an enhanced susceptibility to HFD-induced OA in adult female IUGR offspring. The underlying mechanism related to cholesterol accumulation in cartilage mediated by intrauterine programming.

  6. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces the osteoarthritis-like phenotype in female adult offspring rats with a post-weaning high-fat diet and its intrauterine programming mechanisms of cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qubo; Wang, Linlong; Wu, Yunpeng; Shen, Lang; Qin, Jun; Liu, Yansong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-14

    Osteoarthritis (OA) development is associated with hypercholesterolemia in adults. Our previous study demonstrated that offspring with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) due to prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) had a high risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and metabolic syndrome when fed a post-weaning high-fat diet (HFD). In this study, we examined the changes in articular chondrocytes of IUGR offspring induced by PEE and explored its intrauterine programming mechanisms related to cholesterol metabolism. Using the PEE/IUGR model, serum and tibias from female fetuses and adult female offspring fed a post-weaning HFD were collected and examined for cholesterol metabolism and histology. The results showed that PEE adult offspring manifested significant catch-up growth. Their serum total cholesterol (TCH) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol decreased; the osteoarthritis-like phenotype and an increased TCH content were observed in articular cartilage; and the expression of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF1) and cholesterol efflux pathway, including ATP-binding-cassette transporter A1 and liver X receptor, was reduced. The expression of IGF1 and cholesterol efflux pathway was also lower in the PEE fetuses. This study showed PEE could induce an enhanced susceptibility to HFD-induced OA in adult female IUGR offspring. The underlying mechanism related to cholesterol accumulation in cartilage mediated by intrauterine programming. PMID:26220516

  7. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G.; Armitage, James A.; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20–25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  8. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hokke, Stacey; Puelles, Victor G; Armitage, James A; Fong, Karen; Bertram, John F; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A

    2016-01-01

    Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat) for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E)15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN)21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20-25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment. PMID:27547968

  9. Age and competition level on injuries in female ice hockey.

    PubMed

    Keightley, M; Reed, N; Green, S; Taha, T

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the number, types and locations of known injuries occurring across different age categories and levels of competition in female ice hockey within the Ontario Women's Hockey Association from 2004/05 to 2007/08. We further examined under which aforementioned factors and combination of factors an unusually high or low number of injuries was recorded. Secondary analysis of anonymized injury data was conducted. The most common known injury type was strain/sprain, followed by concussion while the most frequent injury location was head/face/mouth. Analysis of deviance indicated that a significantly higher than expected number of sprain/strain, concussion and laceration injuries were recorded compared to all other injury types. In addition, there were a higher number of injuries recorded at the AA level compared to all other levels of competition. Finally, the age categories of Peewee, Midget and Intermediate within the AA level of competition, as well as Senior/Adult within the Houseleague level of competition also recorded a significantly higher number of injuries compared to other combinations of descriptive factors. Further research with female youth is needed to better understand the high number of injuries, including concussions, reported overall. PMID:23516144

  10. Sex and age-dependent effects of a maternal junk food diet on the mu-opioid receptor in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Gugusheff, Jessica R; Bae, Sung Eun; Rao, Alexandra; Clarke, Iain J; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D; Coen, Clive W; Muhlhausler, Beverly S

    2016-03-15

    Perinatal junk food exposure increases the preference for palatable diets in juvenile and adult rat offspring. Previous studies have implicated reduced sensitivity of the opioid pathway in the programming of food preferences; however it is not known when during development these changes in opioid signalling first emerge. This study aimed to determine the impact of a maternal junk food (JF) diet on mu-opioid receptor (MuR) expression and ligand binding in two key regions of the reward pathway, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in rats during the early suckling (postnatal day (PND) 1 and 7) and late suckling/early post-weaning (PND 21 and 28) periods. Female rats were fed either a JF or a control diet for two weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. MuR expression in the VTA was significantly reduced in female JF offspring on PND 21 and 28 (by 32% and 57% respectively, P<0.05), but not at earlier time points (PND 1 and 7). MuR ligand binding was also reduced (by 22%, P<0.05) in the VTA of female JF offspring on PND 28. No effects of perinatal junk food exposure on MuR mRNA expression or binding were detected at these time points in male offspring. These findings provide evidence that the opioid signalling system is a target of developmental programming by the end of the third postnatal week in females, but not in males. PMID:26718219

  11. Expression of neurogranin in hippocampus of rat offspring exposed to restraint stress and pulsed magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghong; Cheng, Daxin; Chen, Rui; Cai, Qing; Jia, Ning; Su, Qian; Zhang, Huiping; Zhu, Zhongliang; Zeng, Junan; Li, Hui

    2014-06-27

    Stressor acting upon the organism during pregnancy can produce distinct and long lasting effects on the offspring. However, the essential mechanism remains unclear. Neurogranin (Ng) is a postsynaptic brain-specific protein involved in the regulation of calcium signaling and neuronal plasticity. Our purpose was to investigate whether Ng plays a regulating role in the effects of prenatal restraint stress (PS) and prenatal pulsed magnetic fields (PMFs) on the hippocampus of rat offspring. Sprague Dawley female rats at gestational days 14-20 were given restraint stress or pulsed magnetic fields. The male and female offspring rats were sacrificed at the age of 1 month. The expression of Ng in the offspring hippocampus was determined using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The results showed that PS induces a significantly inhibitory effect on the expression of Ng, especially in female offspring. The 0.11 T of prenatal PMFs could increase the expression of Ng in offspring hippocampus. There was no significant difference between female and male offspring in PMFs group. The prenatal restraint stress-induced decrease in Ng expression in offspring hippocampus might be associated with the deficit in spatial learning and memory reported previously. The 0.11 T of prenatal PMFs induced a significant stimulatory effect on protein expression of Ng. It was believed that PMFs stress might enhance the synaptic growth and remodeling.

  12. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Moisá, Sonia J.; Shike, Daniel W.; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring’s Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the “finishing” phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  13. Tactile stimuli perceived by the antennae cause the isolated females to produce gregarious offspring in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Koutaro; Tanaka, Seiji; Harano, Ken-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    Maternal determination of progeny body size and coloration in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, depends on the crowding conditions experienced during the short sensitive period that occurs two to six days before the deposition of the egg pod. Solitarious (isolated-reared) females produce relatively small eggs that yield solitarious green hatchlings but, females that are exposed to crowded conditions during the sensitive period, produce larger eggs that yield the dark-colored hatchlings characteristic of gregarious forms. The present study aimed to determine the stimuli influencing the maternal determination of progeny characteristics as well as the site at which such stimuli are perceived. By exposing isolated female adults to various combinations of visual, olfactory and tactile stimuli from a crowd of other adults, we found that no crowding effects could be elicited without tactile stimulation. Coating of various body surfaces with nail polish followed by exposure to crowding stimulation suggested that female adults perceive crowding stimuli with their antennae. This finding was supported by another experiment in which the antennae were either removed or covered with wax before the isolated females were exposed to crowded conditions. Neither serotonin nor an antagonist of its receptor affected the density-dependent maternal determination of progeny characteristics when injected into isolated or crowded female adults. PMID:20888831

  14. Along came a spider who sat down beside her: Perceived predation risk, but not female age, affects female mate choosiness.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Ashley; Wagner, William E

    2015-06-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral plasticity in response to changes in factors, such as predation risk, mate density, and age. Particularly, female mate choosiness (the strength of female's attraction to male traits as they deviate from preferred trait values) has repeatedly been shown to be plastic. This is due to the costs associated with searching for preferred males fluctuating with changes in such factors. Because these factors can interact naturally, it is important to understand how female mate choosiness responds to these interactions. We studied the interaction between perceived predation risk and female age on the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. Females were either exposed or not exposed to predation cues from a sympatric, cursorial, wolf spider predator, Hogna sp. We then tested the females at one of three adult ages and measured their choosiness by recording their responsiveness to a low quality male song. We found female choosiness plasticity was affected by neither age nor the interaction between age and perceived predation risk. Perceived predation risk was the only factor to significantly affect the plasticity of female mate choosiness: females were less choosy when they perceived predation risk and were more choosy when they did not. Predation may be such a strong source of selection that, regardless of differences in other factors, most individuals respond similarly. PMID:25857998

  15. Along came a spider who sat down beside her: Perceived predation risk, but not female age, affects female mate choosiness.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Ashley; Wagner, William E

    2015-06-01

    Organisms often exhibit behavioral plasticity in response to changes in factors, such as predation risk, mate density, and age. Particularly, female mate choosiness (the strength of female's attraction to male traits as they deviate from preferred trait values) has repeatedly been shown to be plastic. This is due to the costs associated with searching for preferred males fluctuating with changes in such factors. Because these factors can interact naturally, it is important to understand how female mate choosiness responds to these interactions. We studied the interaction between perceived predation risk and female age on the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps. Females were either exposed or not exposed to predation cues from a sympatric, cursorial, wolf spider predator, Hogna sp. We then tested the females at one of three adult ages and measured their choosiness by recording their responsiveness to a low quality male song. We found female choosiness plasticity was affected by neither age nor the interaction between age and perceived predation risk. Perceived predation risk was the only factor to significantly affect the plasticity of female mate choosiness: females were less choosy when they perceived predation risk and were more choosy when they did not. Predation may be such a strong source of selection that, regardless of differences in other factors, most individuals respond similarly.

  16. Maternal Age at Childbirth and Offspring Disruptive Behaviors: Testing the Causal Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that the association between maternal age at childbearing (MAC) and children's disruptive behaviors is the result of family factors that are confounded with both variables, rather than a casual effect of environmental factors specifically related to MAC. These studies, however, relied on restricted samples and…

  17. The Serum C Peptide Levels Among the Offsprings of the People with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gaurav; Kumar, Jayballabh; Khan, Farhan Ahmad; Kumar, Devesh; Malik, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Background: Insulin Resistance (IR) is a condition in which the cells of the body become resistant to the effect of insulin , that is, the normal response to a given amount of insulin is reduced. As a result, levels of insulin are needed in order for insulin to produce its effect. The incidence of diabetes in the offsprings of diabetic couples was more than the incidence of diabetes in the offsprings, of whom only a single parent was diabetic. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance in the offsprings of diabetic patients. Material and Methods: The present, cross sectional study conducted in the Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College and Research Centre, Moradabad, U.P., india. The offsprings of diabetic subjects attended the General Medicine OPD and the Diabetic Clinic and they were also admitted in the indoor wards of the Department of Medicine. The study material consisted of 53 (35 males and 18 females) live offsprings of diabetics from 28 families. Results: The mean c-peptide level in the offsprings of biparental diabetics was significantly higher than that in the offsprings of monoparental diabetics (p<0.01) and in the offsprings of non-diabetics (p<0.01). The frequency of the high c-peptide level was 38.1% in the offsprings of biparental diabetics, it was 21.1% in the offsprings of monoparental diabetics and it was 7.7% in the offsprings of non-diabetics. Conclusion: This study revealed that during the young ages of the offsprings of biparental diabetics, insulin resistance was common and that insulin resistance was more common in the obese, female offsprings of biparental diabetics. PMID:23814721

  18. Prediction of osteoporosis using dental radiographs and age in females

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Guduba; Chitroda, Parita K.; Katti, Girish; Shahbaz, Syed; Baba, Irfan; Bhuvaneshwari

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the role of dental radiograph as a screening tool for diagnosis of osteoporosis in females. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 50 women between the age group of 40-60 were recruited, and patients with systemic disorder and taking calcium supplements, and women who are not willing for investigation were excluded. Their detailed medical history was obtained and dental radiographs were made, bone mineral density was measured at left radial bone using ultrasound. The radiographs were subjected to image analysis method using manual tracing of gonial angle, antegonial angle, antegonial depth, antegonial index, mental index and mandibular cortical index. Statistical discrimination analysis was applied to predict the presence of osteoporosis. With use of these indices, the sensitivity and specificity of orthopantomograph (OPG) radiograph to assess age-related changes in bone were compared. Radiomorphometric indices (RMI) were also scrutinized to depict the sensitivity and specificity of each index in the prediction of osteoporosis. Results: Study results showed no significant differences between bone mineral density (BMD) and radiomorphometric analysis in the diagnoses of osteoporotic females. Out of 29, diagnosed as osteoporotic by radiograph 23 were confirmed by BMD and six were diagnosed as osteopenic. Among the six indices used, AGA and AGD showed more reproducible results. Conclusion: With our study results, we come to an arrival that OPG radiographs show overall sensitivity of 0.75 or 75% and specificity of 0.81 or 81% in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, and that anti gonial angle (AGA) and anti gonial depth (AGD) are the most reliable indices. Hence, we conclude that panoramic-based RMI can be used as an ancillary method in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. PMID:26167057

  19. Males and Females Contribute Unequally to Offspring Genetic Diversity in the Polygynandrous Mating System of Wild Boar

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-González, Javier; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Slate, Jon; Carranza, Juan; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Zsolnai, Attila; Monteiro, Nuno M.; Anton, István; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation. PMID:25541986

  20. Males and females contribute unequally to offspring genetic diversity in the polygynandrous mating system of wild boar.

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Javier; Costa, Vânia; Santos, Pedro; Slate, Jon; Carranza, Juan; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Zsolnai, Attila; Monteiro, Nuno M; Anton, István; Buzgó, József; Varga, Gyula; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation.

  1. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  2. Ageing and the evolution of female resistance to remating in seed beetles.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Kremer, Natacha; Arnqvist, Göran

    2006-03-22

    Female remating behaviour is a key mating system parameter that is predicted to evolve according to the net effect of remating on female fitness. In many taxa, females commonly resist male remating attempts because of the costs of mating. Here, we use replicated populations of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus selected for either early or late life reproduction and show that 'Early' and 'Late' females evolved different age-specific rates of remating. Early females were more likely to remate with control males as they aged, while Late females were more resistant to remating later in life. Thus, female remating rate decreases with age when direct selection on late-life fitness is operating and increases when such selection is relaxed. Our findings not only demonstrate that female resistance to remating can evolve rapidly, but also that such evolution is in accordance with the genetic interests of females.

  3. How age influences phonotaxis in virgin female Jamaican field crickets (Gryllus assimilis)

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Karen; Dawson, Jeff W.; Jutting, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Female mating preference can be a dominant force shaping the evolution of sexual signals. However, females rarely have consistent mating preferences throughout their lives. Preference flexibility results from complex interactions of predation risk, social and sexual experience, and age. Because residual reproductive value should theoretically decline with age, older females should not be as choosy as younger females. We explored how age influences phonotaxis towards a standard mate attraction signal using a spherical treadmill (trackball) and a no-choice experimental protocol. Female Jamaican field crickets, Gryllus assimilis, were highly variable in their phonotaxis; age explained up to 64% of this variation. Females 10 days post imaginal eclosion and older oriented toward the mate attraction signal, with 10- and 13-day females exhibiting the greatest movement in the direction of the signal. Our study suggests 10- and 13-day old females would be most responsive when quantifying the preference landscape for G. assimilis sexual signals. PMID:23940839

  4. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program.

  5. Infertility in reproductive-age female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Levine, Jennifer M; Kelvin, Joanne Frankel; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Gracia, Clarisa R

    2015-05-15

    Improved survival rates among reproductive-age females diagnosed with cancer have increased the focus on long-term quality of life, including maintenance of the ability to conceive biological children. Cancer-directed therapies such as high-dose alkylating agents and radiation to the pelvis, which deplete ovarian reserve, radiation to the brain, which affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and surgical resection of reproductive structures can decrease the likelihood of having biological children. Standard fertility preservation strategies such as embryo and oocyte cryopreservation before the onset of therapy offer the opportunity to conserve fertility, but they may not be feasible because of the urgency to start cancer therapy, financial limitations, and a lack of access to reproductive endocrinologists. Ovarian tissue freezing is considered experimental, with limited data related to pregnancies, but it minimizes treatment delay. Studies evaluating gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues have had mixed results, although a recent randomized, prospective study in women with breast cancer demonstrated a protective effect. Fertility preservation programs are increasingly being developed within cancer programs. In this article, we describe risks to infertility and options for preservation, raise psychosocial and ethical issues, and propose elements for establishing an effective fertility preservation program. PMID:25649243

  6. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female

    PubMed Central

    Margarita Frei, Karin; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Louise Nosch, Marie; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility. PMID:25994525

  7. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarita Frei, Karin; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Louise Nosch, Marie; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility.

  8. Tracing the dynamic life story of a Bronze Age Female.

    PubMed

    Frei, Karin Margarita; Mannering, Ulla; Kristiansen, Kristian; Allentoft, Morten E; Wilson, Andrew S; Skals, Irene; Tridico, Silvana; Nosch, Marie Louise; Willerslev, Eske; Clarke, Leon; Frei, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Ancient human mobility at the individual level is conventionally studied by the diverse application of suitable techniques (e.g. aDNA, radiogenic strontium isotopes, as well as oxygen and lead isotopes) to either hard and/or soft tissues. However, the limited preservation of coexisting hard and soft human tissues hampers the possibilities of investigating high-resolution diachronic mobility periods in the life of a single individual. Here, we present the results of a multidisciplinary study of an exceptionally well preserved circa 3.400-year old Danish Bronze Age female find, known as the Egtved Girl. We applied biomolecular, biochemical and geochemical analyses to reconstruct her mobility and diet. We demonstrate that she originated from a place outside present day Denmark (the island of Bornholm excluded), and that she travelled back and forth over large distances during the final months of her life, while consuming a terrestrial diet with intervals of reduced protein intake. We also provide evidence that all her garments were made of non-locally produced wool. Our study advocates the huge potential of combining biomolecular and biogeochemical provenance tracer analyses to hard and soft tissues of a single ancient individual for the reconstruction of high-resolution human mobility. PMID:25994525

  9. Age, height and weight of female Olympic finalists.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T; McBroom, V C

    1985-06-01

    Age, height and weight are intricately related to performance in a specific sporting activity. Optimum standards derived from 32 female Olympic finalists from two jumping events are listed as a sample from a much larger set of 824 finalists from 47 events. An example of variation is that high jumpers are taller by 6.3 cm and younger by 2.9 years than long jumpers. Conversely, considerable variation in body weight is shown for a group of finalists all with a height of 171 cm. The weights of these finalists range from 56 kg for a 400 m runner to 85 kg for a discus thrower. Many other events are listed between these examples and a number of events are found to share the same combination of height and weight (height 171 cm, weight 59-62 kg) swimming freestyle and medley, 200 m run, rowing, canoeing, volleyball and handball. These findings are expected to be of use for potential champions looking for optimum standards in specific events. They are also of use for trainers counselling athletes in the most appropriate selection of the event befitting her physique. Many sporting activities are found to be seriously biased in favour of the taller members of the population. This is a cause for concern as is the need for some remedial action. PMID:4027502

  10. Maternal nutrient restriction in sheep: hypertension and decreased nephron number in offspring at 9 months of age.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Lang, Alvin L; Grant, Angela R; Nijland, Mark J

    2005-05-15

    Pregnant ewes were fed either a 50% nutrient-restricted (NR; n= 8) or a control 100% (C; n= 8) diet from day 28 to day 78 of gestation (dGA; term = 150 dGA). Lambs were born naturally, and fed to appetite throughout the study period. At 245 +/- 1 days postnatal age (DPNA), offspring were instrumented for blood pressure measurements, with tissue collection at 270 DPNA. Protein expression was assessed using Western blot, glomerulus number determined via acid maceration and hormone changes by radioimmunoassay (RIA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). NR lambs had higher mean arterial pressure (MAP; 89.0 +/- 6.6 versus 73.4 +/- 1.6 mmHg; P < 0.05), fewer renal glomeruli (57.8 +/- 23.8 versus 64.6 +/- 19.3 x 10(4); P < 0.05), increased expression of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the renal cortex (942 +/- 130 versus 464 +/- 60 arbitrary pixel units (apu); P < 0.03), and increased angiotensin II receptor AT2 expression in the renal medulla (63.3 +/- 12.1 versus 19.5 +/- 44.2 x 10(4) apu; P < 0.03). All data are presented as mean +/-S.E.M. The present data indicate that global maternal nutrient restriction (50%) during early to mid-gestation impairs renal nephrogenesis, increases MAP, and alters expression of AT2 and ACE without an associated change in birth weight. These data demonstrate the existence of a critical window of fetal susceptibility during early to mid-gestation that alters kidney development and blood pressure regulation in later life.

  11. Competition, breeding success and ageing rates in female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2011-08-01

    Competition between females is particularly intense in cooperatively breeding mammals, where one female monopolises reproduction in each group. Chronic competition often affects stress and may therefore have long-term consequences for fitness, but no studies have yet investigated whether intrasexual competition has effects of this kind and, in particular, whether it affects rates of reproductive senescence. Here, we use long-term data from a wild population of meerkats to test whether reproductive success and senescence in dominant females are affected by the degree of intrasexual competition experienced prior to dominance acquisition. Females that experienced greater competition had lower breeding success and higher rates of reproductive senescence. Furthermore, females that were evicted from the group more frequently as subordinates had lower breeding success when dominant. We conclude that the intense intrasexual competition between females in cooperatively breeding groups may carry fitness costs over a longer period than is usually recognised.

  12. Competition, breeding success and ageing rates in female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, S P; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2011-08-01

    Competition between females is particularly intense in cooperatively breeding mammals, where one female monopolises reproduction in each group. Chronic competition often affects stress and may therefore have long-term consequences for fitness, but no studies have yet investigated whether intrasexual competition has effects of this kind and, in particular, whether it affects rates of reproductive senescence. Here, we use long-term data from a wild population of meerkats to test whether reproductive success and senescence in dominant females are affected by the degree of intrasexual competition experienced prior to dominance acquisition. Females that experienced greater competition had lower breeding success and higher rates of reproductive senescence. Furthermore, females that were evicted from the group more frequently as subordinates had lower breeding success when dominant. We conclude that the intense intrasexual competition between females in cooperatively breeding groups may carry fitness costs over a longer period than is usually recognised. PMID:21599775

  13. Effects of high selenomethionine (L-SeMet) intakes on female long-tailed macaques and their offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, W.C.; Craig, K.A.; Omaye, S.T.; Willhite, C.C. Letterman Army Inst. of Research, San Francisco, CA Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA )

    1991-03-11

    Pregnant females were treated daily for 30 days with 0, 25, 150 or 300 {mu}g Se as L-SeMet per kg body weight. Maternal Se toxicity was evident in the 150 and 300 {mu}g/kg-d groups. There were no effects of L-SeMet on pregnancy outcome, fetal morphology or neonatal development. Erythrocyte (RBC) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), RBC Se, plasma (PL) Se, PL GPx, hair (HR) Se, fecal Se and daily urinary Se excretion (UR Se) in dams were significantly correlated to L-SeMet intake. HR Se and UR Se showed the greatest responses to L-SeMet intake. RBC GPx increased 2.5-fold in the 150 {mu}g/kg-d group, casting doubt on use of RBC GPx saturation as a criterion of nutritional adequacy. Neonatal RBC and PL and fetal RBC, PL, liver, kidney, muscle and placental Se were significantly correlated to L-SeMet intake and maternal Se status, but GPx was not. There was no effect of L-SeMet on milk Se or milk GPx, showing the dominant effect of intrauterine exposure on neonatal Se status. PL Se was 3-fold higher in dams than in fetuses, suggesting a role of the placenta in regulating fetal Se. In control RBC and PL, fetal GPx {gt} neonatal GPx {gt} maternal GPx, suggesting an effect of development on GPx.

  14. Senescence in breeding success of female Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra): the role of female quality and age.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Federico; Grignolio, Stefano; Filli, Flurin; Apollonio, Marco; Bize, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Although numerous studies have reported reproductive senescence in wild animal populations, we still know very little on inter-individual differences in rates of ageing and on the factors accounting for these differences. To investigate age-related variation in breeding success in a natural population of Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), we used 15 years of data obtained by monitoring individual ear-tagged females. Analyses at the population level confirmed the occurrence of a decline in female breeding success, which is most noticeable from 9 years of age onward. Using an age-reverse approach, we showed that senescence in female breeding success occurs at the same age, since only very old individuals (older than 16 years) showed a decline in breeding success in the years preceding death. Interestingly, we also found evidence that 'success comes from success', as females that gave birth in a given year were more likely to procreate again in the following year. Moreover, results showed that discrepancies between successful and unsuccessful individuals tend to become more relevant in the oldest age classes. There was no evidence of a terminal allocation. These results emphasize the importance of age-dependent effects and individual quality in shaping reproductive senescence in a wild long-lived ungulate.

  15. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Fannin, J. C.; Gillette, C.; Blough, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging. PMID:25610649

  16. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-04

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age.

  17. Prenatal and early life influences on epigenetic age in children: a study of mother–offspring pairs from two cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Hemani, Gibran; Suderman, Matthew; Gaunt, Tom R.; Lyttleton, Oliver; Mcardle, Wendy L.; Ring, Susan M.; Sharp, Gemma C.; Tilling, Kate; Horvath, Steve; Kunze, Sonja; Peters, Annette; Waldenberger, Melanie; Ward-Caviness, Cavin; Nohr, Ellen A.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Relton, Caroline L.; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation-based biomarkers of aging are highly correlated with actual age. Departures of methylation-estimated age from actual age can be used to define epigenetic measures of child development or age acceleration (AA) in adults. Very little is known about genetic or environmental determinants of these epigenetic measures of aging. We obtained DNA methylation profiles using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips across five time-points in 1018 mother–child pairs from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Using the Horvath age estimation method, we calculated epigenetic age for these samples. AA was defined as the residuals from regressing epigenetic age on actual age. AA was tested for associations with cross-sectional clinical variables in children. We identified associations between AA and sex, birth weight, birth by caesarean section and several maternal characteristics in pregnancy, namely smoking, weight, BMI, selenium and cholesterol level. Offspring of non-drinkers had higher AA on average but this difference appeared to resolve during childhood. The associations between sex, birth weight and AA found in ARIES were replicated in an independent cohort (GOYA). In children, epigenetic AA measures are associated with several clinically relevant variables, and early life exposures appear to be associated with changes in AA during adolescence. Further research into epigenetic aging, including the use of causal inference methods, is required to better our understanding of aging. PMID:26546615

  18. The Relative Age Effect among Female Brazilian Youth Volleyball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okazaki, Fabio H. A.; Keller, Birgit; Fontana, Fabio E.; Gallagher, Jere D.

    2011-01-01

    In sports, the relative age effect (RAE) refers to performance disadvantages of children born late in the competition year compared to those with birthdays soon after the cutoff date. This effect is derived from age grouping, a strategy commonly used in youth sport programs. The purpose of age grouping is to decrease possible cognitive, physical,…

  19. Maternal micronutrient imbalance alters gene expression of BDNF, NGF, TrkB and CREB in the offspring brain at an adult age.

    PubMed

    Sable, Pratiksha; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-05-01

    Micronutrients like folate, vitamin B12, and fatty acids which are interlinked in the one carbon cycle play a vital role in mediating epigenetic processes leading to an increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Our earlier study demonstrates that a micronutrient imbalanced diet adversely affects docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and protein levels of neurotrophins like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain and cognition in the offspring by 3 months of age. In this study we attempt to analyze if these effects are a consequence of a change in gene expression of these molecules. Further, we also examined the effect of either a postnatal control diet or a prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on gene expression in the cortex of the offspring. Pregnant rats were divided into control and five treatment groups at two levels of folic acid (normal and excess folate) in the presence and absence of vitamin B12. Omega-3 fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid - EPA+DHA) supplementation was given to vitamin B12 deficient groups. Following delivery, 8 dams from each group were shifted to control diet and remaining continued on the same treatment diet. Our results demonstrate that the imbalanced diet caused a marked reduction in the mRNA levels of BDNF, NGF, TrkB, and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to the maternal imbalanced diet was able to normalize the mRNA levels of all the above genes. This study demonstrates that a maternal diet imbalanced in micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) influences gene expression of neurotrophins and their signalling molecules and thereby adversely affects the brain of the offspring. PMID:24462543

  20. Survival of female Lesser Scaup: Effects of body size, age, and reproductive effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotella, J.J.; Clark, R.G.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    In birds, larger females generally have greater breeding propensity, reproductive investment, and success than do smaller females. However, optimal female body size also depends on how natural selection acts during other parts of the life cycle. Larger female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) produce larger eggs than do smaller females, and ducklings from larger eggs survive better than those hatching from smaller eggs. Accordingly, we examined patterns of apparent annual survival for female scaup and tested whether natural selection on female body size primarily was stabilizing, a frequent assumption in studies of sexually dimorphic species in which males are the larger sex, or was directional, counter-acting reproductive advantages of large size. We estimated survival using mark-recapture methods for individually marked females from two study sites in Canada (Erickson, Manitoba; St. Denis, Saskatchewan). Structurally larger (adults) and heavier (ducklings) females had lower survival than did smaller individuals in Manitoba; no relationship was detected in adults from Saskatchewan. Survival of adult females declined with indices of increasing reproductive effort at both sites; consequently, the cost of reproduction could explain age-related patterns of breeding propensity in scaup. Furthermore, if larger females are more likely to breed than are smaller females, then cost of reproduction also may help explain why survival was lower for larger females. Overall, we found that advantages of large body size of female scaup during breeding or as young ducklings apparently were counteracted by natural selection favoring lightweight juveniles and structurally smaller adult females through higher annual survival.

  1. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men.

  2. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men. PMID:26022534

  3. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    PubMed Central

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  4. Offspring, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offspring, 1995

    1995-01-01

    These two 1995 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers including the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to practitioners and are frequently accompanied by classroom activities.…

  5. Offspring, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Marilynn, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    These two 1996 issues of the journal "Offspring," a publication of the Michigan Council of Cooperative Nursery Schools, cover a variety of topics familiar to nursery school and day care providers and pertinent to the mission of the publication. Articles are short pieces useful to parents, teachers, and others and aim to provide a forum for views…

  6. Association of early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring body mass index at 4 to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Grzeskowiak, L E; Hodyl, N A; Stark, M J; Morrison, J L; Clifton, V L

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the association between early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring body mass index (BMI). We undertook a retrospective cohort study using linked records from the Women's and Children's Health Network in South Australia. Among a cohort of women delivering a singleton, live-born infants between January 2000 and December 2005 (n=7658), 5961 reported not smoking during pregnancy, 297 reported quitting smoking during the first trimester of pregnancy, and 1400 reported continued smoking throughout pregnancy. Trained nurses measured the height and weight of the children at preschool visits in a state-wide surveillance programme. The main outcome measure was age- and sex-specific BMI z-score. At 4 to 5 years, mean (s.d.) BMI z-score was 0.40 (1.05), 0.60 (1.07) and 0.65 (1.18) in children of mothers who reported never smoking, quitting smoking and continued smoking during pregnancy, respectively. Compared with the group of non-smokers, both quitting smoking and continued smoking were associated with an increase in child BMI z-score of 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.29) and 0.21 (0.13-0.29), respectively. A significant dose-response relationship was also observed between the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average during the second half of pregnancy and the increase in offspring BMI z-score (P<0.001). In conclusion, any maternal smoking in pregnancy, even if mothers quit, is associated with an increase in offspring BMI at 4 to 5 years of age.

  7. Age classification using facial feature extraction on female and male images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Toygar, Önsen

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents age classification on facial images using subpattern-based Local Binary Patterns (LBP) method. Classification of age intervals are conducted separately on female and male facial images since the aging process for female and male is different for human beings in real life. The age classification performance of the holistic approaches is compared with the performance of subpattern-based LBP approach in order to demonstrate the performance differences between these two types of approaches. To be consistent with the research of others, our work has been tested on two publicly available databases namely FGNET and MORPH. The experiments are performed on these aging databases to demonstrate the age classification performance on female and male facial images of human beings using subpatternbased LBP method with several parameter settings. The results are then compared with the results of age classification of the holistic PCA and holistic subspace LDA methods.

  8. Moderate maternal food restriction in mice impairs physical growth, behavior, and neurodevelopment of offspring.

    PubMed

    Akitake, Yoshiharu; Katsuragi, Shinji; Hosokawa, Masato; Mishima, Kenichi; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Hosoda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) occurs in 3% to 7% of all pregnancies. Recent human studies have indicated that neurodevelopmental disabilities, learning disorders, memory impairment, and mood disturbance are common in IUGR offspring. However, the interactions between IUGR and neurodevelopmental disorders are unclear because of the wide range of causes of IUGR, such as maternal malnutrition, placental insufficiency, pregnancy toxemia, and fetal malformations. Meanwhile, many studies have shown that moderate food restriction enhances spatial learning and improves mood disturbance in adult humans and animals. To date, the effects of maternal moderate food restriction on fetal brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that IUGR would be caused by even moderate food restriction in pregnant females and that the offspring would have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Mid-pregnant mice received moderate food restriction through the early lactation period. The offspring were tested for aspects of physical development, behavior, and neurodevelopment. The results showed that moderate maternal food restriction induced IUGR. Offspring had low birth weight and delayed development of physical and coordinated movement. Moreover, IUGR offspring exhibited mental disabilities such as anxiety and poor cognitive function. In particular, male offspring exhibited significantly impaired cognitive function at 3 weeks of age. These results suggested that a restricted maternal diet could be a risk factor for developmental disability in IUGR offspring and that male offspring might be especially susceptible.

  9. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  10. Altered amygdala-prefrontal response to facial emotion in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Graur, Simona; Monk, Kelly; Bonar, Lisa K.; Hickey, Mary Beth; Dwojak, Amanda C.; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele A.; Hafeman, Danella M.; Gill, Mary Kay; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify neuroimaging measures associated with risk for, or protection against, bipolar disorder by comparing youth offspring of parents with bipolar disorder versus youth offspring of non-bipolar parents versus offspring of healthy parents in (i) the magnitude of activation within emotional face processing circuitry; and (ii) functional connectivity between this circuitry and frontal emotion regulation regions. The study was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre. Participants included 29 offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (mean age = 13.8 years; 14 females), 29 offspring of non-bipolar parents (mean age = 13.8 years; 12 females) and 23 healthy controls (mean age = 13.7 years; 11 females). Participants were scanned during implicit processing of emerging happy, sad, fearful and angry faces and shapes. The activation analyses revealed greater right amygdala activation to emotional faces versus shapes in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and offspring of non-bipolar parents than healthy controls. Given that abnormally increased amygdala activation during emotion processing characterized offspring of both patient groups, and that abnormally increased amygdala activation has often been reported in individuals with already developed bipolar disorder and those with major depressive disorder, these neuroimaging findings may represent markers of increased risk for affective disorders in general. The analysis of psychophysiological interaction revealed that offspring of parents with bipolar disorder showed significantly more negative right amygdala-anterior cingulate cortex functional connectivity to emotional faces versus shapes, but significantly more positive right amygdala-left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex functional connectivity to happy faces (all P-values corrected for multiple tests) than offspring of non-bipolar parents and healthy controls. Taken together with findings of increased amygdala

  11. Sex-Dependent Cognitive Performance in Baboon Offspring Following Maternal Caloric Restriction in Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jesse S.; Bartlett, Thad Q.; Keenan, Kathryn E.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Nijland, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    In humans a suboptimal diet during development has negative outcomes in offspring. We investigated the behavioral outcomes in baboons born to mothers undergoing moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Maternal nutrient restriction mothers (n = 7) were fed 70% of food eaten by controls (CTR, n = 12) fed ad libitum throughout gestation and lactation. At 3.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) years of age offspring (controls: female [FC, n = 8], male [MC, n = 4]; nutrient restricted: female [FR, n = 3] and male [MR, n = 4]) were administered progressive ratio, simple discrimination, intra-/extra-dimension set shift and delayed matching to sample tasks to assess motivation, learning, attention, and working memory, respectively. A treatment effect was observed in MNR offspring who demonstrated less motivation and impaired working memory. Nutrient-restricted female offspring showed improved learning, while MR offspring showed impaired learning and attentional set shifting and increased impulsivity. In summary, 30% restriction in maternal caloric intake has long lasting neurobehavioral outcomes in adolescent male baboon offspring. PMID:22344725

  12. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  13. Effects of maternal dietary EPA and DHA supplementation and breeder age on embryonic and post-hatch performance of broiler offspring: age and n-3 pufa affect embryonic and post-hatch performance.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Willems, E; Ampe, B; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2015-04-01

    Breeder age and nutrition are amongst the most important factors affecting progeny growth and development. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acid (FA), with special emphasis on the ratio of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3) acid, provided to the diet of ageing broiler breeder hens at different ratios, on the incubation parameters and the performance of the offspring. Four hundred and eighty Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment), with an equal fat content. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FAs (CON). Blends of fish oil were used to enrich the three other diets in n-3 FA and to obtain different EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1 (EPA=DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). Every 5 weeks, incubation parameters were assessed. Every 15 weeks, offspring was reared until slaughter age on a standard diet. Breeder age affected almost all incubation and post-hatch parameters, whereas n-3 FA treatment only lowered egg weight (p < 0.0001) and consequently hatched chick weight (p < 0.0001). Supplementation of EPA resulted in a higher proportional liver weight (p = 0.0219) at hatch, a lower body weight up to 28 days post-hatch (p = 0.0418), a lower daily weight gain (p = 0.0498) and a higher feed conversion ratio (p = 0.0395) during the starter period (p = 0.0498), resulting in a higher overall offspring feed conversion ratio (p = 0.0317) compared to the control diet. DHA supplementation, on the other hand, resulted in a lower residual yolk weight (p = 0.0220) and a higher overall offspring mortality (p = 0.0125). In conclusion, supplementation of n-3 FA could not counter the adverse effect of breeder flock age, but did not harm incubation or improve post-hatch performance, either. EPA and DHA affected offspring development differently during early post-hatch life.

  14. Abnormal aortic fatty acid composition and small artery function in offspring of rats fed a high fat diet in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, P; Bitsanis, D; Ghebremeskel, K; Crawford, M A; Poston, L

    2001-01-01

    Disturbances of the in utero environment are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In this study we have determined whether abnormal vascular function in the adult offspring of rats fed a high saturated fat diet in pregnancy is associated with altered plasma lipids or vascular fatty acid content. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a breeding diet (4 % fat) or a diet high in saturated fat (20 % fat) for 10 days prior to and throughout pregnancy, and during weaning. Female offspring were then fed a maintenance diet (3 % fat) until 160 days of age. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was blunted in isolated branches of the femoral artery from 160-day-old female offspring of dams fed the saturated fat diet when compared with female offspring of dams fed the breeding diet. These offspring exhibited elevated plasma triglyceride and reduced plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The fatty acid composition of the aortas was abnormal, with a marked reduction in the content of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids. This study demonstrates that a high fat diet in pregnant rats produces abnormal vascular function, plasma lipid disturbances and altered vascular fatty acid content in their female offspring during adulthood. PMID:11410637

  15. Maternal Obesity, Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Affect the Offspring Neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 Months of Age – A Follow Up from the PREOBE Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Espinola, Francisco J.; Berglund, Staffan K; García-Valdés, Luz Mª; Segura, Mª Teresa; Jerez, Antonio; Campos, Daniel; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Rueda, Ricardo; Catena, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel; Campoy, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain development in fetal life and early infancy is critical to determine lifelong performance in various neuropsychological domains. Metabolic pathologies such as overweight, obesity, and gestational diabetes in pregnant women are prevalent and increasing risk factors that may adversely affect long-term brain development in their offspring. Objective The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of maternal metabolic pathologies on the neurodevelopment of the offspring at 6 and 18 months of life. Design This was a prospective case-control study of 331 mother- and child pairs from Granada, Spain. The mothers were included during pregnancy into four groups according to their pre-gestational body mass index and their gestational diabetes status; overweight (n:56), obese (n:64), gestational diabetic (n:79), and healthy normal weight controls (n:132). At 6 months and 18 months we assessed the children with the Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment. Results At 6 months (n=215), we found significant group differences in cognition composite language, and expressive language. Post hoc test revealed unexpectedly higher scores in the obese group compared to the normal weight group and a similar trend in overweight and diabetic group. The effects on language remained significant after adjusting for confounders with an adjusted odds ratio for a value above median in composite language score of 3.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 10.0; p=0.035) for children of obese mothers. At 18 month (n=197), the offspring born to obese mothers had lost five points in language composite scores and the previous differences in language and cognition was replaced by a suggestive trend of lower gross motor scores in the overweight, obese, and diabetic groups. Conclusions Infants of obese mothers had a temporary accelerated development of cognition and language, followed by a rapid deceleration until 18 months of age, particularly of language scores. This novel observation prompts

  16. Contraceptive Practices Among Female Cancer Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Dominick, Sally A.; McLean, Mamie R.; Whitcomb, Brian W.; Gorman, Jessica R.; Mersereau, Jennifer E.; Bouknight, Janet M.; Su, H. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of contraception between reproductive-aged cancer survivors and women in the general U.S. population. Among survivors, the study examined factors associated with use of contraception and emergency contraception. Methods This study analyzed enrollment data from an ongoing national prospective cohort study on reproductive health after cancer entitled the Fertility Information Research Study. We compared current contraceptive use in survivors with that of the general population ascertained by the 2006–2010 National Survey for Family Growth. Log-binomial regression models estimated relative risks for characteristics associated with use of contraception, World Health Organization tiers I–II (sterilization and hormonal) contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception in survivors. Results Data from 295 survivors (mean age 31.6 ± 5.7 years, range 20–44 years) enrolled in this prospective study (85% response rate) were examined. Age-adjusted rates of using tiers I–II contraceptive methods were lower in survivors than the general population (34% [28.8–40.0] compared with 53% [51.5–54.5], P<.01). Only 56% of survivors reported receiving family planning services (counseling, prescription or procedure related to birth control) since cancer diagnosis. In adjusted analysis, receipt of family planning services was associated with both increased use of tiers I–II contraceptive methods (relative risk 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–1.5) and accessing emergency contraception (relative risk 5.0, 95% CI 1.6–16.3) in survivors. Conclusion Lower rates of using Tiers I–II contraceptive methods were found in reproductive-aged cancer survivors compared to the general population of U.S. women. Exposure to family planning services across the cancer care continuum may improve contraception utilization among these women. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01843140. PMID:26181090

  17. Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to determine whether plasma adiponectin levels were an independent predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Plasma adiponectin levels were measured in 3,188 male and female participants from cycle 6 of the Framingham Offspring Study (mean age: 57 years in both men and women; BMI:...

  18. Epigenetic Patterns Modulate the Connection between Developmental Dynamics of Parenting and Offspring Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumova, Oksana Yu.; Hein, Sascha; Suderman, Matthew; Barbot, Baptiste; Lee, Maria; Raefski, Adam; Dobrynin, Pavel V.; Brown, Pamela J.; Szyf, Moshe; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to establish and quantify the connections between parenting, offspring psychosocial adjustment, and the epigenome. The participants, 35 African American young adults (19 females and 16 males; age = 17-29.5 years), represented a subsample of a 3-wave longitudinal 15-year study on the developmental trajectories of low-income…

  19. Age at diagnosis of female breast cancer in Oman: Issues and implications

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Itrat; Monem, Essam Abdul; Al Bahrani, Bassim Jaffar; Al Kharusi, Suad; Nada, Ayman Mohammad; Al Lawati, Jawad; Al Lawati, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Female breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent malignancy diagnosed globally, about 23% of the diagnosed cancers. BC incidence varies geographically, highest in Western Europe and lowest in Africa. BC in females is strongly correlated to age, the highest incidence rate amongst older women reinforcing the importance of hormonal status. BC in young females has an aggressive phenotype. There is a shared observation amongst practicing oncologists that BC in Middle East and the developing world presents at an earlier age. Aim and Objective: The aims of this study are to evaluate the age at presentation of female BC in Oman, and to compare our data with international and regional published data. It discusses the impact of young age Breast Cancer. Materials and Methods: All diagnosed female BC cases registered from 1996-2010 all over the country, were retrieved from the National Cancer Registry, Ministry of Health. BC cases were analyzed with respect to age at presentation. The data were compared with regional and international data. Results: A total of 14,109 cancer cases were recorded during the period of study. BC was the leading malignancy as 1,294 cases (9.1%). Female BC patients were 1,230; denoting 19.2% of all female cancers. 53.5% of female BC presented below 50 years of age. Male BC constituted 5% of total, with 67% of male BC occurring over 50 years of age. Compared with data from Oman, the highest rates in UK and other Western countries are above 50 years of age. These rates are four to 10 times higher than local in different age groups. Interestingly, these rates increase with increasing age in UK from 40-45 to up to 85+, keep on increasing and go up to four times higher with higher age. This phenomenon, of increasing incidence rates with age, is not observed in our local population. Discussion: BC is significantly correlated to age as reported from Western population. BC is reported at a younger age from developing and Arab World, which need to

  20. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Stacey L.

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors.

  1. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stacey L

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors.

  2. Microsurgical varicocelectomy for infertile couples with advanced female age: natural history in the era of ART.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jeanne H; Bowles, Ben; Kamal, Khaled M; Jarvi, Keith; Zini, Armand

    2004-01-01

    Varicocele represents the most common cause of male infertility, and most reports indicate that varicocelectomy has a beneficial effect on male fertility and pregnancy outcome. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are an alternative to varicocelectomy for the management of couples with a varicocele. The age of the female partner is important in the decision-making process; however, the true influence of female age on pregnancy outcome following varicocelectomy or ART in these couples is unknown. We evaluated the outcomes of 2 cohorts of infertile men with a varicocele and a female partner 35 years of age or older; one group selected varicocelectomy and the other a nonsurgical approach. We reviewed a group of consecutive infertile men who underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 110). We also reviewed a consecutive group of men with varicoceles who elected not to have surgery and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 94). The outcome measures included changes in semen parameters, pregnancy rates (assisted and unassisted), and use of ART. The surgical and nonsurgical groups had comparable semen parameters and female ages. Mean sperm concentration and motility increased significantly after varicocelectomy (P < .05). At a mean of 30 months follow-up, 35% of couples in the surgical group achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 6% achieved a pregnancy via ART (20% of this group attempted ART). In the nonsurgical group, 25% achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 16% achieved a pregnancy with ART (40% of this group attempted ART). This study on the natural history of infertile men with varicocele and advanced female age suggests that the surgical and nonsurgical approaches offer comparable pregnancy outcome (combined assisted and unassisted pregnancy rates are about 40%). Overall, these data suggest that varicocelectomy is an acceptable option for couples with advanced female age

  3. Effect of Age on Body Wall Cuticle Morphology of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt females

    PubMed Central

    Cordero C., D. A.; Baldwin, J. G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine structure of the body wall cuticle of Heterodera schachtii is compared with respect to age and body region of the female. The cuticle is more complex than previously reported. In newly molted females only layers A, B, and C are present, but 4 weeks after the final molt a thin D layer is present between the midbody and base of the cone. This D layer is absent in the cone of H. schachtii, regardless of age. As females age, an additional layer E is produced and includes zones E₁ and E₂. Zone El apparently is unique to H. schachtii, whereas E₂ is likely to be homologous with a similar layer in Atalodera. In the cone of old females (ca. 8 weeks after the final molt) of H. schachtii, the two zones become irregular in shape and comprise bullae. The presence of a thin D layer in Heterodera strengthens the previous hypothesis of a single ancestor of cyst nematodes. PMID:19287732

  4. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding.

  5. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding. PMID:26458013

  6. Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

    2012-05-01

    a HF diet postweaning were more likely to have irregular oestrous cycles and were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus. These data indicate that maternal HF nutrition during pregnancy and lactation results in a maternal obese phenotype and has significant impact on maternal care during lactation. Maternal and postweaning nutritional signals, independent of maternal care, alter offspring body fat pre-puberty and female reproductive function in adulthood, which may be associated with advanced ovarian ageing and altered fertility.

  7. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained.

  8. Parental childhood growth and offspring birthweight: Pooled analyses from four birth cohorts in low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Addo, OY; Stein, AD; Fall, CHD; Gigante, DP; Guntupalli, AM; Horta, BL; Kuzawa, CW; Lee, N; Norris, SA; Osmond, C; Prabhakaran, P; Richter, LM; Sachdev, HPS; Martorell, R

    2015-01-01

    Objective Associations between parental and offspring size at birth are well established, but the relative importance of parental growth at different ages as predictors of offspring birthweight is less certain. Here we model parental birthweight and postnatal conditional growth in specific age periods as predictors of offspring birthweight. Methods We analyzed data from 3,392 adults participating in four prospective birth cohorts and 5,506 of their offspring. Results There was no significant heterogeneity by study site or offspring sex. 1SD increase in maternal birthweight was associated with offspring birthweight increases of 102 g, 1SD in maternal length growth 0–2 year with 46 g, and 1SD in maternal height growth Mid-childhood (MC)-adulthood with 27 g. Maternal relative weight measures were associated with 24 g offspring birth weight increases (2 year- MC) and 49 g for MC-adulthood period but not with earlier relative weight 0–2 year. For fathers, birthweight, and linear/length growth from 0–2 year were associated with increases of 57 and 56 g in offspring birthweight, respectively but not thereafter. Conclusions Maternal and paternal birthweight and growth from birth to 2 year each predict offspring birthweight. Maternal growth from MC-adulthood, relative weight from 2-MC and MC-adulthood also predict offspring birthweight. These findings suggest that shared genes and/or adequate nutrition during early life for both parents may confer benefits to the next generation, and highlight the importance of maternal height and weight prior to conception. The stronger matrilineal than patrilineal relationships with offspring birth weight are consistent with the hypothesis that improving the early growth conditions of young females can improve birth outcomes in the next generation. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 27:99–105, 2015. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25186666

  9. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  10. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies. PMID:27258193

  11. Wolf (Canis lupus) Generation Time and Proportion of Current Breeding Females by Age.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972-2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012-2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  12. Ovarian hormone replacement to aged ovariectomized female rats benefits acquisition of the morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Markham, J A; Pych, J C; Juraska, J M

    2002-11-01

    Ovarian steroids have been suggested to aid in preserving cognitive functioning during aging in both humans and other animals. Spatial memory relies heavily on the hippocampus, a structure that is sensitive to the influence of both ovarian hormones and aging. The present study investigated the outcome of ovarian hormone replacement during aging on performance in a spatial version of the Morris water maze. Female rats were ovariectomized at 14 months of age and received one of three types of replacement prior to testing at 16 months: acute estrogen replacement (2 days), chronic estrogen replacement (28 days), or chronic replacement of both estrogen and progesterone (28 days). Control animals, which did not receive replacement hormones, displayed significant overnight forgetting during acquisition of the task. Ovarian hormone replacement, both acute and chronic, prevented forgetting. Previous studies have demonstrated that high levels of ovarian hormones are detrimental to performance of young adult female rats on this task (Warren and Juraska, 1997; Chesler and Juraska, 2000). The current study found an opposite effect during aging: ovarian hormone replacement was beneficial. This suggests that animal models of menopause, aimed at exploring the protective effects of hormone replacement therapy on cognition during human female aging, require the use of aged female animals.

  13. Wolf (Canis lupus) generation time and proportion of current breeding females by age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Erb, John

    2016-01-01

    Information is sparse about aspects of female wolf (Canis lupus) breeding in the wild, including age of first reproduction, mean age of primiparity, generation time, and proportion of each age that breeds in any given year. We studied these subjects in 86 wolves (113 captures) in the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota (MN), during 1972–2013 where wolves were legally protected for most of the period, and in 159 harvested wolves from throughout MN wolf range during 2012–2014. Breeding status of SNF wolves were assessed via nipple measurements, and wolves from throughout MN wolf range, by placental scars. In the SNF, proportions of currently breeding females (those breeding in the year sampled) ranged from 19% at age 2 to 80% at age 5, and from throughout wolf range, from 33% at age 2 to 100% at age 7. Excluding pups and yearlings, only 33% to 36% of SNF females and 58% of females from throughout MN wolf range bred in any given year. Generation time for SNF wolves was 4.3 years and for MN wolf range, 4.7 years. These findings will be useful in modeling wolf population dynamics and in wolf genetic and dog-domestication studies.

  14. Maternal testosterone exposure increases anxiety-like behavior and impacts the limbic system in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Richard, Jennifer Elise; Maliqueo, Manuel; Kokosar, Milana; Fornes, Romina; Benrick, Anna; Jansson, Thomas; Ohlsson, Claes; Wu, Xiaoke; Skibicka, Karolina Patrycja; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-11-17

    During pregnancy, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) display high circulating androgen levels that may affect the fetus and increase the risk of mood disorders in offspring. This study investigated whether maternal androgen excess causes anxiety-like behavior in offspring mimicking anxiety disorders in PCOS. The PCOS phenotype was induced in rats following prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure. PNA offspring displayed anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, which was reversed by flutamide [androgen receptor (AR) blocker] and tamoxifen [selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator]. Circulating sex steroids did not differ between groups at adult age. The expression of serotonergic and GABAergic genes associated with emotional regulation in the amygdala was consistent with anxiety-like behavior in female, and partly in male PNA offspring. Furthermore, AR expression in amygdala was reduced in female PNA offspring and also in females exposed to testosterone in adult age. To determine whether AR activation in amygdala affects anxiety-like behavior, female rats were given testosterone microinjections into amygdala, which resulted in anxiety-like behavior. Together, these data describe the anxiety-like behavior in PNA offspring and adult females with androgen excess, an impact that seems to occur during fetal life, and is mediated via AR in amygdala, together with changes in ERα, serotonergic, and GABAergic genes in amygdala and hippocampus. The anxiety-like behavior following testosterone microinjections into amygdala demonstrates a key role for AR activation in this brain area. These results suggest that maternal androgen excess may underpin the risk of developing anxiety disorders in daughters and sons of PCOS mothers. PMID:26578781

  15. Maternal testosterone exposure increases anxiety-like behavior and impacts the limbic system in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Richard, Jennifer Elise; Maliqueo, Manuel; Kokosar, Milana; Fornes, Romina; Benrick, Anna; Jansson, Thomas; Ohlsson, Claes; Wu, Xiaoke; Skibicka, Karolina Patrycja; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-11-17

    During pregnancy, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) display high circulating androgen levels that may affect the fetus and increase the risk of mood disorders in offspring. This study investigated whether maternal androgen excess causes anxiety-like behavior in offspring mimicking anxiety disorders in PCOS. The PCOS phenotype was induced in rats following prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure. PNA offspring displayed anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, which was reversed by flutamide [androgen receptor (AR) blocker] and tamoxifen [selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator]. Circulating sex steroids did not differ between groups at adult age. The expression of serotonergic and GABAergic genes associated with emotional regulation in the amygdala was consistent with anxiety-like behavior in female, and partly in male PNA offspring. Furthermore, AR expression in amygdala was reduced in female PNA offspring and also in females exposed to testosterone in adult age. To determine whether AR activation in amygdala affects anxiety-like behavior, female rats were given testosterone microinjections into amygdala, which resulted in anxiety-like behavior. Together, these data describe the anxiety-like behavior in PNA offspring and adult females with androgen excess, an impact that seems to occur during fetal life, and is mediated via AR in amygdala, together with changes in ERα, serotonergic, and GABAergic genes in amygdala and hippocampus. The anxiety-like behavior following testosterone microinjections into amygdala demonstrates a key role for AR activation in this brain area. These results suggest that maternal androgen excess may underpin the risk of developing anxiety disorders in daughters and sons of PCOS mothers.

  16. Maternal testosterone exposure increases anxiety-like behavior and impacts the limbic system in the offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Min; Richard, Jennifer Elise; Maliqueo, Manuel; Kokosar, Milana; Fornes, Romina; Benrick, Anna; Jansson, Thomas; Ohlsson, Claes; Wu, Xiaoke; Skibicka, Karolina Patrycja; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) display high circulating androgen levels that may affect the fetus and increase the risk of mood disorders in offspring. This study investigated whether maternal androgen excess causes anxiety-like behavior in offspring mimicking anxiety disorders in PCOS. The PCOS phenotype was induced in rats following prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure. PNA offspring displayed anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, which was reversed by flutamide [androgen receptor (AR) blocker] and tamoxifen [selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator]. Circulating sex steroids did not differ between groups at adult age. The expression of serotonergic and GABAergic genes associated with emotional regulation in the amygdala was consistent with anxiety-like behavior in female, and partly in male PNA offspring. Furthermore, AR expression in amygdala was reduced in female PNA offspring and also in females exposed to testosterone in adult age. To determine whether AR activation in amygdala affects anxiety-like behavior, female rats were given testosterone microinjections into amygdala, which resulted in anxiety-like behavior. Together, these data describe the anxiety-like behavior in PNA offspring and adult females with androgen excess, an impact that seems to occur during fetal life, and is mediated via AR in amygdala, together with changes in ERα, serotonergic, and GABAergic genes in amygdala and hippocampus. The anxiety-like behavior following testosterone microinjections into amygdala demonstrates a key role for AR activation in this brain area. These results suggest that maternal androgen excess may underpin the risk of developing anxiety disorders in daughters and sons of PCOS mothers. PMID:26578781

  17. Suicide mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and females in Japan for the years 1953-96: time series analysis for the effects of unemployment, female labour force, young and aged population, primary industry and population density.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Araki, Shunichi; Sakai, Ryoji; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Voorhees, A Scott

    2008-12-01

    Effects of nine social life indicators on age-adjusted and age-specific annual suicide mortality of male and female Japanese population in the years 1953-96 were investigated by multiple regression analysis on time series data. Unemployment rate was significantly related to the age-adjusted mortality in both males and females. Also, female labour force participation was positively related to the male mortality; persons and 65 and above was inversely related to the male mortality. Results on the age-specific mortality indicated that: during the 44 yr, (1) unemployment significantly related with the mortality of young, middle-aged and elderly males and young females; (2) female labour force participation significantly related with the mortality of young and elderly males and young females; aged population significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males; (4) young population significantly related with the mortality of young and middle-aged males and females; (5) divorce significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged and elderly males and young males and females; (6) persons employed in primary industries significantly related with the mortality in middle-aged males and young males and females; and (7) population density significantly related with the mortality of middle-aged males and young females.

  18. The association between parental life history and offspring phenotype in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; McLennan, Darryl; McKelvey, Simon; Stewart, David C; Adams, Colin E; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    In many taxa there is considerable intraspecific variation in life history strategies from within a single population, reflecting alternative routes through which organisms can achieve successful reproduction. Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) show some of the greatest within-population variability in life history strategies amongst vertebrates, with multiple discrete male and female life histories co-existing and interbreeding on many spawning grounds, although the effect of the various combinations of life histories on offspring traits remains unknown. Using crosses of wild fish we show here that the life history strategy of both parents was significantly associated with a range of offspring traits. Mothers that had spent longer at sea (2 versus 1 year) produced offspring that were heavier, longer and in better condition at the time of first feeding. However, these relationships disappeared shortly after fry had begun feeding exogenously. At this stage, the juvenile rearing environment (i.e. time spent in fresh water as juveniles) of the mother was a better predictor of offspring traits, with mothers that were faster to develop in fresh water (migrating to sea after two rather than three years of age) producing offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, aerobic scopes, and that grew faster. Faster developing fathers (1 year old sneaker males) tended to produce offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, were in better body condition and grew faster. The results suggest that both genetic effects and those related to parental early and late life history contribute to offspring traits.

  19. Age of thelarche and menarche in contemporary US females: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Susanne M.; Bright, George M.; Frane, James W.; Blethen, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Aim A recent secular trend towards earlier thelarche has been suggested. The aim of this study is to examine normative ages of thelarche and menarche in contemporary US females. Methods Trained physicians documented Tanner breast stage by observation in a cross-sectional cohort. Age of menarche was self-reported. The subjects were healthy female children and adolescents. The mean age of thelarche was determined by probit analysis and the mean age of menarche was determined by using a normal time-to-event model. Results Mean age of thelarche was 9.7 years among 610 females aged 3.0–17.9 years (70% non-Hispanic Caucasian (NHC), 14% African-Americans, 7% Hispanic, 9% “other”). The mean age of menarche was 12.8 years for NHC, with African-Americans having menarche 0.6 years earlier. Conclusions Thelarche occurred earlier than recently reported, while age of menarche remained unchanged, this supported a persistent secular trend towards earlier thelarche but stable age of menarche. This suggests that the observed thelarche is gonadotropin-independent or the tempo of pubertal advancement has slowed. PMID:23959659

  20. Motor structures in female volleyball players aged 14-17 according to technique quality and performance.

    PubMed

    Katić, Ratko; Grgantov, Zoran; Jurko, Damir

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify motor structures in elite female volleyball players aged 14-17, and to assess the effect of these motor structures on their technical and situation efficiency. For this purpose, a battery of 12 motor tests as predictor variables, and a set of six technical elements and evaluation of performance quality as criterion variables were applied in a sample of 147 female volleyballers aged 14-15 and a sample of 50 female volleyballers aged 16-17. Analysis of variance between subgroups within the groups of volleyballers aged 14-15 and those aged 16-17 showed the results on all motor tests to improve with the increase in situation performance, which was especially pronounced in the tests assessing explosive strength and agility. The same held true for the results on all tests assessing volleyball techniques, spike and block in particular. In both samples, factor analysis of motor tests isolated two factors underlain by the generation and regulation of strength, and the mechanism of speed regulation. Canonical correlation analysis between the motor regulatory mechanisms and technical elements revealed determination of the mechanisms of strength and technical efficiency in both samples. Regression correlation analysis showed the mechanisms of strength regulation and speed to be good predictors of game performance in female volleyballers aged 14-15 and 16-17, whereby the mechanism of strength regulation had greater effect on the game performance than the mechanism of speed regulation. Regression correlation analysis also revealed the set of 6 techniques evaluated to be a good predictor of situation efficiency in both groups of female volleyballers aged 14-15 and 16-17. The block and spike techniques were found to be the best predictors of game performance quality in the former, and the techniques of spike and block in the latter. Based on the results obtained, a possible model of selection for supreme score achievement in female volleyball

  1. Reduced quality and accelerated follicle loss with female reproductive aging - does decline in theca dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) underlie the problem?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Infertility, spontaneous abortion and conception of trisomic offspring increase exponentially with age in mammals but in women there is an apparent acceleration in the rate from about age 37. The problems mostly commonly occur when the ovarian pool of follicles is depleted to a critical level with age but are also found in low follicular reserve of other etiologies. Since recent clinical studies have indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation may reverse the problem of oocyte quality, this review of the literature was undertaken in an attempt to find an explanation of why this is effective? In affected ovaries, oxygenation of follicular fluid is low, ultrastructural disturbances especially of mitochondria, occur in granulosa cells and oocytes, and considerable disturbances of meiosis occur. There is, however, no evidence to date that primordial follicles are compromised. In females with normal fertility, pre-antral ovarian theca cells respond to stimulation by inhibin B to provide androgen-based support for the developing follicle. With depletion of follicle numbers, inhibin B is reduced with consequent reduction in theca DHEA. Theca cells are the sole ovarian site of synthesis of DHEA, which is both a precursor of androstenedione and an essential ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the key promoter of genes affecting fatty acid metabolism and fat transport and genes critical to mitochondrial function. As well as inducing a plethora of deleterious changes in follicular cytoplasmic structure and function, the omega 9 palmitate/oleate ratio is increased by lowered activity of PPARα. This provides conditions for increased ceramide synthesis and follicular loss through ceramide-induced apoptosis is accelerated. In humans critical theca DHEA synthesis occurs at about 70 days prior to ovulation thus effective supplementation needs to be undertaken about four months prior to intended conception; timing which is also

  2. Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Kelley, Jennifer L; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

    2004-10-01

    According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits. PMID:15451693

  3. Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Kelley, Jennifer L; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

    2004-10-01

    According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits.

  4. Sire attractiveness influences offspring performance in guppies.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jonathan P.; Kelley, Jennifer L.; Bisazza, Angelo; Finazzo, Elisabetta; Pilastro, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    According to the good-genes hypothesis, females choose among males to ensure the inheritance of superior paternal genes by their offspring. Despite increasing support for this prediction, in some cases differential (non-genetic) maternal effects may obscure or amplify the relationship between paternal attractiveness and offspring quality. Artificial insemination controls such effects because it uncouples mate choice from copulation, therefore denying females the opportunity of assessing male attractiveness. We adopted this technique in the live-bearing fish Poecilia reticulata and examined whether paternal coloration was associated with the behavioural performance of newborn offspring. Sexually receptive virgin females were inseminated with sperm taken individually from donor males that exhibited high variation in the area of orange pigmentation, a trait known to influence female choice in the study population. Our analysis of offspring performance focused on the anti-predator behaviour of newborn fish, including schooling by sibling pairs, the response (swimming speed) of these fishes to a simulated avian predator, and the time taken for a naive investigator to capture the offspring. Although we found no significant effect of sire coloration on either schooling or swimming speed, our analysis revealed a significant positive association between sire coloration and the ability of newborn offspring to evade capture. This finding supports the view that at least one aspect of anti-predator behaviour in newborn offspring is influenced by sire genotype, which in turn is revealed by the expression of secondary sexual traits. PMID:15451693

  5. The Demographic Promise of Expanded Female Education: Trends in the Age at First Birth in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Monica J.

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of female education has been promoted as a way to postpone the age of first birth. In sub-Saharan Africa, the first cohorts to benefit from policies that expanded access to education are now reaching adulthood and beginning childbearing. I investigate whether the expansion of education in Malawi, which implemented a free primary education policy in 1994 and subsequently expanded secondary schooling, has led to a later age at first birth and whether the education gradient in fertility timing has remained stable over time. Despite increases in female grade attainment over the past twenty years, the age at first birth has not changed. Using instrumental variables analysis, I find a significant negative association between grade attainment and age at first birth, suggesting that the deterioration of school quality and shift in the age pattern of enrollment that accompanied educational expansion may have compromised the transformative potential of education. PMID:27158172

  6. Exposure to light at night accelerates aging and spontaneous uterine carcinogenesis in female 129/Sv mice

    PubMed Central

    Popovich, Irina G.; Zabezhinski, Mark A.; Panchenko, Andrei V.; Piskunova, Tatiana S.; Semenchenko, Anna V.; Tyndyk, Maragriata L.; Yurova, Maria N.; Anisimov, Vladimir N.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the constant illumination on the development of spontaneous tumors in female 129/Sv mice was investigated. Forty-six female 129/Sv mice starting from the age of 2 mo were kept under standard light/dark regimen [12 h light (70 lx):12hr dark; LD, control group], and 46 of 129/Sv mice were kept under constant illumination (24 h a day, 2,500 lx, LL) from the age of 5 mo until to natural death. The exposure to the LL regimen significantly accelerated body weight gain, increased body temperature as well as acceleration of age-related disturbances in estrous function, followed by significant acceleration of the development of the spontaneous uterine tumors in female 129/Sv mice. Total tumor incidence as well as a total number of total or malignant tumors was similar in LL and LD group (p > 0.05). The mice from the LL groups survived less than those from the LD group (χ2 = 8.5; p = 0.00351, log-rank test). According to the estimated parameters of the Cox’s regression model, constant light regimen increased the relative risk of death in female mice compared with the control (LD) group (p = 0.0041). The data demonstrate in the first time that the exposure to constant illumination was followed by the acceleration of aging and spontaneous uterine tumorigenesis in female 129/Sv mice. PMID:23656779

  7. Buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine treatment during pregnancy: behavioral effects on the offspring in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Yuan, Zung Fan; Kuo, Chung-Chih; Lai, Mei-Dan; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Ho, Ing-Kang; Chen, Shao-Tsu

    2015-01-01

    Methadone and buprenorphine are widely used for treating people with opioid dependence, including pregnant women. Prenatal exposure to opioids has devastating effects on the development of human fetuses and may induce long-term physical and neurobehavioral changes during postnatal maturation. This study aimed at comparing the behavioral outcomes of young rats prenatally exposed to buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline, morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine during embryonic days 3-20. The cognitive function, social interaction, anxiety-like behaviors, and locomotor activity of offsprings were examined by novel object recognition test, social interaction test, light-dark transition test, elevated plus-maze, and open-field test between 6 weeks and 10 weeks of age. Prenatal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine did not affect locomotor activity, but significantly impaired novel object recognition and social interaction in both male and female offsprings in the same manner as morphine. Although prenatal exposure to methadone or buprenorphine increased anxiety-like behaviors in the light-dark transition in both male and female offsprings, the effects were less pronounced as compared to that of morphine. Methadone affected elevated plus-maze in both sex, but buprenorphine only affected the female offsprings. These findings suggest that buprenorphine and methadone maintenance therapy for pregnant women, like morphine, produced detrimental effects on cognitive function and social behaviors, whereas the offsprings of such women might have a lower risk of developing anxiety disorders.

  8. Buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine treatment during pregnancy: behavioral effects on the offspring in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Yuan, Zung Fan; Kuo, Chung-Chih; Lai, Mei-Dan; Hung, Tsai-Wei; Ho, Ing-kang; Chen, Shao-Tsu

    2015-01-01

    Methadone and buprenorphine are widely used for treating people with opioid dependence, including pregnant women. Prenatal exposure to opioids has devastating effects on the development of human fetuses and may induce long-term physical and neurobehavioral changes during postnatal maturation. This study aimed at comparing the behavioral outcomes of young rats prenatally exposed to buprenorphine, methadone, and morphine. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered saline, morphine, methadone, and buprenorphine during embryonic days 3–20. The cognitive function, social interaction, anxiety-like behaviors, and locomotor activity of offsprings were examined by novel object recognition test, social interaction test, light–dark transition test, elevated plus-maze, and open-field test between 6 weeks and 10 weeks of age. Prenatal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine did not affect locomotor activity, but significantly impaired novel object recognition and social interaction in both male and female offsprings in the same manner as morphine. Although prenatal exposure to methadone or buprenorphine increased anxiety-like behaviors in the light–dark transition in both male and female offsprings, the effects were less pronounced as compared to that of morphine. Methadone affected elevated plus-maze in both sex, but buprenorphine only affected the female offsprings. These findings suggest that buprenorphine and methadone maintenance therapy for pregnant women, like morphine, produced detrimental effects on cognitive function and social behaviors, whereas the offsprings of such women might have a lower risk of developing anxiety disorders. PMID:25834439

  9. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted.

  10. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

  11. Effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract on reproductive system of aging female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Lamoochi, Zohreh; Fathi Moghaddam, Hadi; Mansouri, Seyed Mohamad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aging contains morphological and functional deterioration in biological systems. D-galactose (D-gal) generates free radicals and accelerates aging. Portulaca oleracea (Purslane) may have protective effect against oxidative stress. Objective: Purslane ethanolic extract effects were evaluated on antioxidant indices and sex hormone in D-gal aging female mice. Materials and Methods: 48 female NMRI mice (25-35 gr) were randomly divided into, 6 groups: 1- control (normal saline for 45 days), 2- Purslane (200 mg/kg for last 3 weeks), 3-D-gal (500 mg/kg for 45 days), 4-D-gal+Purslane, 5- Aging, 6-Aging+Purslane. Sex hormones, antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA) level of ovary and uterus were measured. Histological assessment was also done. Results: In D-gal treated and aging animals, LH and FSH levels were significantly increased (p<0.001) while estrogen and progesterone levels were significantly reduced (p<0.001) in comparison with control group. MDA contents were significantly increased in ovaries and uterus of D-gal and aging groups (p<0.01). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p<0.001) and catalase (p<0.01) activities were significantly decreased in both aging and D-gal treated animals. Ovarian follicles were degenerated and atrophy on uterine wall and endometrial glands was observed in D-gal and aging groups. Alteration in hormone levels, MDA contents and antioxidant activity were significantly reversed by Purslane (p<0.05). Purslane could also improve histological changes such as atrophy of endometrium. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Purslane can attenuate aging alternations induced by D-gal and aging in female reproductive system. PMID:27294220

  12. Age of menarche in Indian female basketball and volleyball players at different competitive levels.

    PubMed

    Mokha, R; Sidhu, L S

    1989-12-01

    Data for the age of menarche have been collected on 98 female volleyball players and 75 basketball players. The players belonged to four different levels of competition: international, national, intervarsity and district. Menarche is significantly delayed in players as compared with the controls. There is a continuous trend of increase in the age of menarche with the increasing levels of competition; menarche is more delayed in players playing at a higher level than those at the lower levels of competition.

  13. Fundamental frequency perturbation indicates perceived health and age in male and female speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, David R.

    2001-05-01

    There is strong support for the idea that healthy vocal chords are able to produce fundamental frequencies (F0) with minimal perturbation. Measures of F0 perturbation have been shown to discriminate pathological versus healthy populations. In addition to measuring vocal chord health, F0 perturbation is a correlate of real and perceived age. Here, the role of jitter (periodic variation in F0) and shimmer (periodic variation in amplitude of F0) in perceived health and age in a young adult (males aged 18-33, females aged 18-26), nondysphonic population was investigated. Voices were assessed for health and age by peer aged, opposite-sex raters. Jitter and shimmer were measured with Praat software (www.praat.org) using various algorithms (jitter: DDP, local, local absolute, PPQ5, and RAP; shimmer: DDA, local, local absolute, APQ3, APQ5, APQ11) to reduce measurement error, and to ascertain the robustness of the findings. Male and female voices were analyzed separately. In both sexes, ratings of health and age were significantly correlated. Measures of jitter and shimmer correlated negatively with perceived health, and positively with perceived age. Further analysis revealed that these effects were independent in male voices. Implications of this finding are that attributions of vocal health and age may reflect actual underlying condition.

  14. [Epidemiology of arbovirus diseases: use and value of physiologic age determination of female mosquito vectors].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    1996-01-01

    The physiological age of Yellow Fever Aedes females in Africa was studied during four years, from 1988 to 1992. We used a method, according to Polovodova's method, which looks for the "yellow body" under natural light. Those yellow bodies exist in the old females, the "parous" ones, and not in the young females, the "nulliparous" ones. We present some results to illustrate the interest of studying the physiological age of mosquitoes in the epidemiology of the arboviral diseases. The transmission risk, in relation with abundance and parity rate was illustrated, in particular for Aedes africanus and Aedes luteocephalus, which is useful to compare species, or with a given species, to compare periods. The parity rate of Aedes furcifer females was studied on 6 points along a transect between a forest and a village. The rate and the abundance of the females caught on human bates are inversely proportional. The parity rate is minimum in the canopy forest (about 50%) and maximum inside a house (100%). The rains have different consequences on the species, according to the period of fall. At the beginning of the dry season, they bring about hatching, but not at the end of the dry season. Massive hatching, will occur just at the beginning of the rainy season, some weeks later. Studying the physiological age of Ae. africanus females, the number of nulliparous is not related to the rain. That means a possibility of "natural" hatching for part of the eggs. Among the female of the dry season, young females are found, which is important for the transmission capacity. The method, described herein, to determine the physiological age is perfectly applicable to the Yellow Fever vector Haemagogus janthinomys in Southern America. But for the Dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and probably Aedes albopictus, the Detinova's method seems better. Actually, it seems important to study the physiological age of the vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, as well as the evolution of the physiological

  15. Trade-off between age of first reproduction and survival in a female primate.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gregory E

    2009-06-23

    Trade-offs are central to life-history theory but difficult to document. Patterns of phenotypic and genetic correlations in rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta-a long-lived, slow-reproducing primate-are used to test for a trade-off between female age of first reproduction and adult survival. A strong positive genetic correlation indicates that female macaques suffer reduced adult survival when they mature relatively early and implies primate senescence can be explained, in part, by antagonistic pleiotropy. Contrasts with a similar human study implicate the extension of parental effects to later ages as a potential mechanism for circumventing female life-history trade-offs in human evolution.

  16. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  17. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  18. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klosinski, Lauren P.; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Harrington, Michael G.; Christensen, Trace A.; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-01-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  19. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained. PMID:24828752

  20. Independent and Combined Effects of Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Growth at 0–3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to investigate the independent and combined effects of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring growth at 0–3 years old. Methods. A total of 826 pairs of nondiabetic mothers and their offspring were recruited in this study. Maternal information was abstracted from medical records and questionnaires. Offspring growth trajectories of weights and BMIs were depicted based on anthropometric measurements. Results. Offspring of mothers who were prepregnancy overweight/obese or obtained excessive GWGs continuously had greater weight and BMI Z-scores throughout the first 3 years of life. Children of prepregnancy overweight/obese mothers with excessive GWGs had a phenotype of higher weight and BMI Z-scores than those prepregnancy overweight/obese ones with nonexcessive GWGs from birth to 18 months. Maternal excessive GWGs increased offspring's risk of overweight/obesity at 12 months (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.03–2.00) and 24 months (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02–2.25). Combination of excessive prepregnancy BMIs and GWGs was significantly associated with offspring's overweight/obesity at 30 months (AOR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.36–6.53). Conclusions. Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG are both significantly associated with rapid offspring growth from birth to 3 years old. Excessive GWGs strengthen the effects of high maternal prepregnancy BMIs on excessive offspring growth during their early life.

  1. Independent and Combined Effects of Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Growth at 0-3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen-Yuan; Lv, Yao; Bao, Yu; Tang, Li; Zhu, Zhi-Wei; Shao, Jie; Zhao, Zheng-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to investigate the independent and combined effects of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring growth at 0-3 years old. Methods. A total of 826 pairs of nondiabetic mothers and their offspring were recruited in this study. Maternal information was abstracted from medical records and questionnaires. Offspring growth trajectories of weights and BMIs were depicted based on anthropometric measurements. Results. Offspring of mothers who were prepregnancy overweight/obese or obtained excessive GWGs continuously had greater weight and BMI Z-scores throughout the first 3 years of life. Children of prepregnancy overweight/obese mothers with excessive GWGs had a phenotype of higher weight and BMI Z-scores than those prepregnancy overweight/obese ones with nonexcessive GWGs from birth to 18 months. Maternal excessive GWGs increased offspring's risk of overweight/obesity at 12 months (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.03-2.00) and 24 months (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02-2.25). Combination of excessive prepregnancy BMIs and GWGs was significantly associated with offspring's overweight/obesity at 30 months (AOR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.36-6.53). Conclusions. Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG are both significantly associated with rapid offspring growth from birth to 3 years old. Excessive GWGs strengthen the effects of high maternal prepregnancy BMIs on excessive offspring growth during their early life. PMID:27652262

  2. Independent and Combined Effects of Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Growth at 0–3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to investigate the independent and combined effects of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring growth at 0–3 years old. Methods. A total of 826 pairs of nondiabetic mothers and their offspring were recruited in this study. Maternal information was abstracted from medical records and questionnaires. Offspring growth trajectories of weights and BMIs were depicted based on anthropometric measurements. Results. Offspring of mothers who were prepregnancy overweight/obese or obtained excessive GWGs continuously had greater weight and BMI Z-scores throughout the first 3 years of life. Children of prepregnancy overweight/obese mothers with excessive GWGs had a phenotype of higher weight and BMI Z-scores than those prepregnancy overweight/obese ones with nonexcessive GWGs from birth to 18 months. Maternal excessive GWGs increased offspring's risk of overweight/obesity at 12 months (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.03–2.00) and 24 months (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.02–2.25). Combination of excessive prepregnancy BMIs and GWGs was significantly associated with offspring's overweight/obesity at 30 months (AOR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.36–6.53). Conclusions. Maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity and excessive GWG are both significantly associated with rapid offspring growth from birth to 3 years old. Excessive GWGs strengthen the effects of high maternal prepregnancy BMIs on excessive offspring growth during their early life. PMID:27652262

  3. Bone mineral density and lifestyle among female students aged 16-24 years.

    PubMed

    Elgán, C; Dykes, A K; Samsioe, G

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate bone mineral density and bone turnover among female students aged 16-24 years in relation to lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits and physical activity, as well as physiological factors, such as age, body weight, and menstrual pattern. Female college and university students (n = 218) were given a validated questionnaire with 34 questions concerning diet, recreational physical activity, alcohol, smoking, menstrual pattern, weight gain and loss. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed using a heel bone scanner (DEXA). Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were measured in urine samples. The data were analyzed by linear regression and multiple regression analysis. The mean BMD was 0.568 g/cm2. Multiple regression showed that hormonal age was a better predictor of high BMD and low bone mineral turnover than chronological age. The best model predicting high BMD was composed of physical activity, regular menstruation, hormonal age and body weight. Smoking, alcohol consumption and current calcium intake did not contribute to the model. A negative association between BMD and DPD was found, indicating an enhanced bone remodeling. A correlation was found between DPD and hormonal age, chronological age, sugar intake and time with irregular menses. In multiple regression analysis, hormonal age, high sugar intake and weight loss were the factors best predicting DPD. BMD was positively influenced by a healthy lifestyle, including a physically active life and healthy dietary habits without dieting. Our study shows that hormonal age is a stronger BMD predictor than chronological age. Menstrual disturbances might be an indication of a risk for low BMD and might therefore be a reason for measuring BMD among young females.

  4. Body Composition and Physiological Responses of Masters Female Swimmers 20 to 70 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Paul; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Female masters swimmers ranging in age from 20 to 69 were chosen for a study of their body composition and physiological responses at rest and during exercise. Two training groups were formed that differed on the basis of frequency, duration, and intensity of swimming workouts. Results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  5. Body Build Stereotypes and Self-Identification in Three Age Groups of Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, David; Hinsdale, Gary

    1978-01-01

    Body build stereotypes of average-weight and heavy females, ages 6, 15, and 19, were studied through adjective checklists and drawings of endomorphs, ectomorphs, and mesomorphs. Mesomorph drawings were favored and the endomorphs least liked. But heavy subjects rejected for themselves behavioral stereotypes previously applied to the endomorph…

  6. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  7. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  8. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals novel mitochondrial targets of estrogen deficiency in the aged female rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, T. S.; Jefferson, S. J.; Hunter, J. Craig; Lopez, Veronica; Van Eyk, J. E.; Lakatta, E. G.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of myocardial infarction rises sharply at menopause, implicating a potential role for estrogen (E2) loss in age-related increases in ischemic injury. We aimed to identify quantitative changes to the cardiac mitochondrial proteome of aging females, based on the hypothesis that E2 deficiency exacerbates age-dependent disruptions in mitochondrial proteins. Mitochondria isolated from left ventricles of adult (6 mo) and aged (24 mo) F344 ovary-intact or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were labeled with 8plex isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ; n = 5–6/group). Groups studied were adult, adult OVX, aged, and aged OVX. In vivo coronary artery ligation and in vitro mitochondrial respiration studies were also performed in a subset of rats. We identified 965 proteins across groups and significant directional changes in 67 proteins of aged and/or aged OVX; 32 proteins were unique to aged OVX. Notably, only six proteins were similarly altered in adult OVX (voltage-dependent ion channel 1, adenine nucleotide translocator 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunits VIIc and VIc, catalase, and myosin binding protein C). Proteins affected by aging were primarily related to cellular metabolism, oxidative stress, and cell death. The largest change occurred in monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), a source of oxidative stress. While acute MAO-A inhibition induced mild uncoupling in aged mitochondria, reductions in infarct size were not observed. Age-dependent alterations in mitochondrial signaling indicate a highly selective myocardial response to E2 deficiency. The combined proteomic and functional approaches described here offer possibility of new protein targets for experimentation and therapeutic intervention in the aged female population. PMID:22930739

  9. Age-related lesions in the cerebrum in middle-aged female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Rinya; Yang, Xiuying; Saski, Yuji; Iwashige, Shuichiro; Tanigawa, Yohei; Yoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Nagaoka, Takaharu; Kamimura, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Horishi

    2010-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans is a progressive neurogenic disease that can be linked with such characteristic pathological findings in the cerebrum as senile plaques (SPs), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and neuronal loss. In the present study, the authors investigated the age-related morphological changes in 12 middle-aged and 12 young cynomolgus monkeys. Low numbers of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampal region in cynomolgus monkeys accompanied ageing, and there was a high number of microglial cells; however, no clearly neurotoxic abnormalities due to beta-amyloid were noted before the age of 20 years. The onset of SPs and CAA in the cerebrum in cynomolgus monkeys can occur before the age of 20 years. SPs were almost all categorized as diffuse plaques (DPs); they did not have amyloid cores and were unaccompanied by neuritic degeneration. In cynomolgus monkeys, SPs (DPs) occur before the appearance of CAA. From the above, it was concluded that cynomolgus monkeys showed pathological changes due to ageing similar to those related to Alzheimer's disease in humans, even before they were 20 years old.

  10. Understanding Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Muscle Metabolism: Differences Between Females and Males.

    PubMed

    Gheller, Brandon J F; Riddle, Emily S; Lem, Melinda R; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E

    2016-07-17

    Skeletal muscle is the largest metabolic organ system in the human body. As such, metabolic dysfunction occurring in skeletal muscle impacts whole-body nutrient homeostasis. Macronutrient metabolism changes within the skeletal muscle with aging, and these changes are associated in part with age-related skeletal muscle remodeling. Moreover, age-related changes in skeletal muscle metabolism are affected differentially between males and females and are likely driven by changes in sex hormones. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors impact observed age-related changes and sex-related differences in skeletal muscle metabolism. Despite some support for sex-specific differences in skeletal muscle metabolism with aging, more research is necessary to identify underlying differences in mechanisms. Understanding sex-specific aging skeletal muscle will assist with the development of therapies to attenuate adverse metabolic and functional outcomes.

  11. Prenatal exposure to sodium valproate alters androgen receptor expression in the developing cerebellum in a region and age specific manner in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pouchoulen, Miguel; Miquel, Marta; Saft, Paul; Brug, Brenda; Toledo, Rebeca; Hernandez, Maria Elena; Manzo, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an anti-epileptic drug with teratogenicity activity that has been related to autism. In rodents, exposure to VPA in utero leads to brain abnormalities similar than those reported in the autistic brain. Particularly, VPA reduces the number of Purkinje neurons in the rat cerebellum parallel to cerebellar abnormalities found in autism. Thus, we injected pregnant females on embryonic day 12 either with VPA (600mg/kg, i.p.) or 0.9% saline solution and obtained the cerebellum from their offspring at different postnatal time points. Testosterone has been linked to autism and plays an important role during brain development. Therefore, we identified and analyzed the androgen receptor (AR) by immunohistochemistry and densitometry, respectively. We found VPA decreases AR density in the superficial Purkinje layer only in cerebellar lobule 8 at PN7, but increased it at PN14 compared to control in males. In females, VPA decreased AR density in the superficial Purkinje layer in cerebellar lobule 6 at PN14, but increased it in lobule 9 at the same time point. No differences were found in the deep Purkinje layer of any cerebellar lobule in terms of AR density neither in males nor females. We additionally found a particular AR density decreasing in both superficial and deep regions across development in the majority of cerebellar lobules in males, but in all cerebellar lobules in females. Thus, our results indicate that VPA disrupts the AR ontogeny in the developing cerebellum in an age and region specific manner in male and female rats. Future epigenetic studies including the evaluation of histone deacetylases (HDAC's) might shed light these results as HDAC's are expressed by Purkinje neurons, interact with the AR and are VPA targets. This work contributes to the understanding of the cerebellar development and it might help to understand the role of the cerebellum in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  12. Age of crime onset and psychopathic traits in female juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Pechorro, Pedro; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Marôco, João; Nunes, Cristina; Jesus, Saul Neves

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in the age of crime onset of female juvenile delinquents. Using a sample of 132 young females from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice and from schools in the Lisbon region, a group of early crime onset (n = 44), a group of late crime onset (n = 44), and a nondelinquent school group (n = 44) were formed. Results showed that early crime onset participants score higher on psychopathy measures, self-reported delinquency, and crime seriousness than late crime onset participants and school participants. Psychopathic-traits scores were significantly associated with age of crime onset, age at first trouble with the law, and frequency and seriousness of crime.

  13. Fathers’ intelligence measured at age 18–20 years is associated with offspring smoking: linking the Swedish 1969 conscription cohort to the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Lundin, Andreas; Melin, Bo; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Background An association between lower IQ of parents, measured early in life, and smoking among their offspring has been reported. The extent to which other background factors account for this association is unknown. Methods Data on IQ, smoking, mental health, social class, parental divorce and social problems in a cohort of men born during 1949–1951 and conscripted for military service in 1969 were linked to smoking data on 682 offspring interviewed in the Swedish Surveys of Living Conditions 1984–2009. Results In an age-adjusted model, a one-step decrease on a stanine scale was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.35) for offspring smoking. Adjusting for father's socioeconomic background and smoking, mental illness and social problems in youth only marginally lowered the OR's. Conclusions Lower IQ among fathers measured at ages 18–20 years was associated with smoking in their offspring. The association was not explained by father's social class in childhood or a higher prevalence of mental illness, social problems or smoking measured among the fathers in their late adolescence. PMID:26515987

  14. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age.

  15. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1-5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6-11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12-17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18-59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1-5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6-11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12-17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  16. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  17. The complexities of female aging: Four women protagonists in Penelope Lively's novels.

    PubMed

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2016-01-01

    Penelope Lively is a well-known contemporary British author who has published a good number of novels and short stories since she started her literary career in her late thirties. In her novels, Lively looks at the lives of contemporary characters moulded by specific historical as well as cultural circumstances. Four of her novels, published from 1987 to 2004, present middle-aged and older women as their main protagonists. Through the voices and thoughts of these female characters, the reader is presented with a multiplicity of realities in which women find themselves after their mid-fifties within a contemporary context. Being a woman and entering into old age is a double-sided jeopardy which has increasingly been present in contemporary fiction. Scholars such as Simone de Beauvoir (1949) and Susan Sontag (1972) were among the first to point out a "double standard of aging" when they assured that women were punished when showing external signs of aging much sooner than men. In Lively's four novels, the aging protagonists present their own stories and, through them, as well as through the voices of those around them, the reader is invited to go beyond the aging appearance of the female protagonists while challenging the limiting conceptions attached to the old body and, by extension, to the social and cultural overtones associated with old age. PMID:26880600

  18. Effects of chronic estrogen treatment on modulating age-related bone loss in female mice.

    PubMed

    Syed, Farhan A; Mödder, Ulrike Il; Roforth, Matthew; Hensen, Ira; Fraser, Daniel G; Peterson, James M; Oursler, Merry Jo; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-11-01

    While female mice do not have the equivalent of a menopause, they do undergo reproductive senescence. Thus, to dissociate the effects of aging versus estrogen deficiency on age-related bone loss, we sham-operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and estrogen-replaced female C57/BL6 mice at 6 months of age and followed them to age 18 to 22 months. Lumbar spines and femurs were excised for analysis, and bone marrow hematopoietic lineage negative (lin-) cells (enriched for osteoprogenitor cells) were isolated for gene expression studies. Six-month-old intact control mice were euthanized to define baseline parameters. Compared with young mice, aged/sham-operated mice had a 42% reduction in lumbar spine bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), and maintaining constant estrogen levels over life in ovariectomized/estrogen-treated mice did not prevent age-related trabecular bone loss at this site. By contrast, lifelong estrogen treatment of ovariectomized mice completely prevented the age-related reduction in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and thickness at the tibial diaphysis present in the aged/sham-operated mice. As compared with cells from young mice, lin- cells from aged/sham-operated mice expressed significantly higher mRNA levels for osteoblast differentiation and proliferation marker genes. These data thus demonstrate that, in mice, age-related loss of cortical bone in the appendicular skeleton, but not loss of trabecular bone in the spine, can be prevented by maintaining constant estrogen levels over life. The observed increase in osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation marker gene expression in progenitor bone marrow cells from aged versus young mice may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to ongoing bone loss. PMID:20499336

  19. Evolution of Female Preference for Younger Males

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christopher W.; Promislow, Daniel E. L.

    2007-01-01

    Previous theoretical work has suggested that females should prefer to mate with older males, as older males should have higher fitness than the average fitness of the cohort into which they were born. However, studies in humans and model organisms have shown that as males age, they accumulate deleterious mutations in their germ-line at an ever-increasing rate, thereby reducing the quality of genes passed on to the next generation. Thus, older males may produce relatively poor-quality offspring. To better understand how male age influences female mate preference and offspring quality, we used a genetic algorithm model to study the effect of age-related increases in male genetic load on female mate preference. When we incorporate age-related increases in mutation load in males into our model, we find that females evolve a preference for younger males. Females in this model could determine a male's age, but not his inherited genotype nor his mutation load. Nevertheless, females evolved age-preferences that led them to mate with males that had low mutation loads, but showed no preference for males with respect to their somatic quality. These results suggest that germ-line quality, rather than somatic quality, should be the focus of female preference in good genes models. PMID:17895980

  20. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  1. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Chad M.; Robinson, Matthew C.; Aylor, David L.; Singh, Nadia D.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype–environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype–age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate. PMID:26994290

  2. ApoE genotypes are associated with age at natural menopause in Chinese females.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan-Tao; Wang, Yan-Li; Liu, Ji; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Rong-Yu; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2012-08-01

    Ages at natural menarche and menopause are influenced by several genetic factors. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and the age at menarche and natural menopause in Chinese females. In the current study, 398 (elderly group, aged 47-80 years) and 825 (young group, aged 15-25 years) Chinese females were enrolled under informed content. Ages at natural menarche and menopause were obtained by questionnaires. ApoE genotypes were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the elderly group, the number of pregnancies and live births and breastfeeding were associated with the age at menopause (P = 0.008, P = 0.002, and P = 0.023, respectively). One-way ANOVA analysis revealed that the ApoE genotype was significantly associated with age at natural menopause (ANM; P = 0.010). Compared with ApoE ε3/3 carriers, ApoE ε3/4 females showed a 1.8-year delay in ANM (P = 0.002). Single ApoE allele-positive/allele-negative analysis also showed that the age at menopause of ApoE ε4 carriers was delayed compared with those who were not carriers (P = 0.023). In the young group, no statistical difference was found in the age of menarche between the carriers of ApoE ε3/3 and ε3/4. Single ApoE allele-positive/allele-negative analysis showed that the age at menarche in ApoE ε4 carriers was slightly earlier than in those who were not carriers (P = 0.048). Meanwhile, univariate association analysis revealed that the ApoE genotypes were not significantly associated with the age at menarche using age as a covariate in the pooled group (young + elderly) (P = 0.143). We demonstrated that the ApoE genotype is significantly linked to the age at natural menopause.

  3. Current Parental Depression and Offspring Perceived Self-Competence: A Quasi-Experimental Examination

    PubMed Central

    Class, Quetzal A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, E. L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2013-01-01

    A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52%) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins (CoT) designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended-family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression. PMID:22692226

  4. Current parental depression and offspring perceived self-competence: a quasi-experimental examination.

    PubMed

    Class, Quetzal A; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Singh, Amber L; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, E L; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2012-09-01

    A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52 %) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression.

  5. Regional variations in the female age at marriage in India: an analysis by agro-climatic zones.

    PubMed

    Mishra, V; Singh, V

    1992-01-01

    "The effect of agro-climatic factors on female age at marriage [in India] is studied by carrying out areal analysis of the 1981 Census data. The study found a close association between agricultural and climatic conditions in an area and corresponding female age at marriage. In general, women in Himalayan regions and coastal areas have higher age at marriage than most hinterland regions. Rainfall, altitude, forest area, land availability and productivity are observed to be associated with female age at marriage. In addition, female age at marriage in rural areas is found to be more sensitive to the agro-climatic conditions. It is hypothesized that with socio-economic and technological development, the agricultural and climatic factors are losing their grip on female age at marriage in India."

  6. Age as a determinant of reproductive success among captive female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Christine; Liukkonen, John R; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine M; Harrison, Richard M; Kubisch, H Michael

    2007-04-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed on fertility outcomes among a colony of captive Indian rhesus monkeys. The analysis covered over 30 years and was based on 1443 females with a total of 11,453 pregnancies. Various determinants of fertility were assessed including birth rates, pregnancy loss, infant survival, interbirth intervals, and interval from last birth to death. Binary variables were analyzed with generalized linear models with random intercepts, while linear mixed models were used for analysis of continuous variables. Age of the dam was a significant factor in determining whether a pregnancy resulted in a birth and whether an infant survived the first 30 days with primiparous or older mothers being less likely to produce an infant surviving to that age. In contrast, sex proved to be the only significant factor in determining whether an infant lived to 1 year, with females being more likely to survive. The interval between births proved to be affected primarily by dam age, while the late death of an infant depressed the likelihood of an extended time interval between her last birth and her death. Overall, these results demonstrate that maternal age contributes significantly to a decline in fertility and older females can live relatively long periods following birth of their last infant. PMID:17504925

  7. Differential effects of Cytomegalovirus carriage on the immune phenotype of middle-aged males and females

    PubMed Central

    van der Heiden, Marieke; van Zelm, Menno C.; Bartol, Sophinus J. W.; de Rond, Lia G. H.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population is more susceptible to infections as a result of an altered immune response, commonly referred to as immunosenescence. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infection associated changes in blood lymphocytes are known to impact this process, but the interaction with gender remains unclear. Therefore, we analysed the effects and interaction of gender and CMV on the absolute numbers of a comprehensive set of naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets in people between 50 and 65 years of age. Enumeration and characterisation of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry was performed on fresh whole blood samples from 255 middle-aged persons. CMV-IgG serostatus was determined by ELISA. Gender was a major factor affecting immune cell numbers. CMV infection was mainly associated with an expansion of late-differentiated T-cell subsets. CMV+ males carried lower numbers of total CD4+, CD4+ central memory (CM) and follicular helper T-cells than females and CMV− males. Moreover, CMV+ males had significantly lower numbers of regulatory T (Treg)-cells and memory B-cells than CMV+ females. We here demonstrate an interaction between the effects of CMV infection and gender on T- and B-cells in middle-aged individuals. These differential effects on adaptive immunity between males and females may have implications for vaccination strategies at middle-age. PMID:27243552

  8. Maternal immunomodulation of the offspring's immunological system.

    PubMed

    Campos, Sylvia M N; de Oliveira, Vivian L; Lessa, Leonardo; Vita, Melissa; Conceição, Marcia; Andrade, Luiz Antonio Botelho; Teixeira, Gerlinde Agate Platais Brasil

    2014-11-01

    The mother's and the offspring's immunological system are closely related thus one can influence the other. This hypothesis drove our aim to study the impact of the mother's immunological status over the immunological response of their offspring. For this, female mice tolerant or allergic to peanuts were exposed or not to a challenge diet containing peanuts during the gestation-lactation period (TEP/AEP; TNEP/ANEP, respectively). After weaning the offspring was submitted to the peanut allergy or peanut tolerization protocol and then challenged with a peanut diet. Our results showed that when the offspring is submitted to the allergy induction protocol, they behave differently depending on their mother's immunological status. Offspring born to TEP mothers produced the lowest antibody titters while those born to AEP mothers produced the highest antibody titters compared to mice born to TNEP and ANEP. On the other hand when the offspring was submitted to the tolerization protocol all groups presented low antibody titers with no significant difference between groups, independent of the mothers immunological status and/or contact with peanuts during the gestation-lactation period. The analysis of the histological profile of the offspring correlates well to the serological response. In other words, offspring born to TEP mothers and submitted to the allergy induction protocol presented a normal histological profile, while the offspring born to AEP mothers produced the worst gut inflammation. These results indicate that mothers, exposed to the antigen (by the oral route) during gestation, actively influence the immune response of their offspring. This work sheds some light on the importance of the immunomodulation induced by dietary antigens during gestation and their influence on the immunological response of their offspring. However, more work is needed to elucidate the molecular and cellular components of this regulatory phenomenon.

  9. Differential Effects of Exposure to Maternal Obesity or Maternal Weight Loss during the Periconceptional Period in the Sheep on Insulin Signalling Molecules in Skeletal Muscle of the Offspring at 4 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Lisa M.; Morrison, Janna L.; Rattanatray, Leewen; Ozanne, Susan E.; Kleemann, Dave O.; Walker, Simon K.; MacLaughlin, Severence M.; Zhang, Song; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; McMillen, Isabella C.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to maternal obesity before and/or throughout pregnancy may increase the risk of obesity and insulin resistance in the offspring in childhood and adult life, therefore, resulting in its transmission into subsequent generations. We have previously shown that exposure to maternal obesity around the time of conception alone resulted in increased adiposity in female lambs. Changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue precede the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. It is not clear, however, whether exposure to maternal obesity results in insulin resistance in her offspring as a consequence of the impact of increased adiposity on skeletal muscle or as a consequence of the programming of specific changes in the abundance of insulin signalling molecules in this tissue. We have used an embryo transfer model in the sheep to investigate the effects of exposure to either maternal obesity or to weight loss in normal and obese mothers preceding and for one week after conception on the expression and abundance of insulin signalling molecules in muscle in the offspring. We found that exposure to maternal obesity resulted in lower muscle GLUT-4 and Ser 9 phospho-GSK3α and higher muscle GSK3α abundance in lambs when compared to lambs conceived in normally nourished ewes. Exposure to maternal weight loss in normal or obese mothers, however, resulted in lower muscle IRS1, PI3K, p110β, aPKCζ, Thr 642 phospho-AS160 and GLUT-4 abundance in the offspring. In conclusion, maternal obesity or weight loss around conception have each programmed specific changes on subsets of molecules in the insulin signalling, glucose transport and glycogen synthesis pathways in offspring. There is a need for a stronger evidence base to ensure that weight loss regimes in obese women seeking to become pregnant minimize the metabolic costs for the next generation. PMID:24386400

  10. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R

    2014-05-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging because of the difficulty in reliably recording the first breeding event. Here, using a multi-event capture-recapture model that accounts for both imperfect detection and uncertainty in the breeding status on an 18-year dataset involving 6637 individuals, we estimated age and state-specific survival of female elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the declining Macquarie Island population. We detected a clear cost of first reproduction on survival. This cost was higher for both younger first-time breeders and older first-time breeders compared with females recruiting at age four, the overall mean age at first reproduction. Neither earlier primiparity nor delaying primiparity appear to confer any evolutionary advantage, rather the optimal strategy seems to be to start breeding at a single age, 4 years.

  11. Age-at-maturity estimates for Atlantic coast female striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlinsky, David L.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; O'Brien, John F.; Specker, Jennifer L.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the percentage of mature female striped bass Morone saxatilis present in each age-class during annual coastal feeding migration. Migratory striped bass (N = 302) were sampled in coastal Rhode Island waters during spring (May-June) and fall (September-November) from 1985 to 1987. Stocks were identified by analysis of morphometric characters and isoelectric focusing of eye-lens proteins. Histological sections of ovarian tissue were used to categorize maturity state. Fish were considered mature if a class of oocytes measuring at least 150 μm and containing cytoplasmic inclusions was found in the ovarian sections. All females whose age at next potential spawning was 7 and older were mature. Our empirical observations indicated that 12% of fish in age-class 4, 34% of fish in age-class 5, and 77% of fish in age-class 6 were mature. The estimate of the proportion of mature fish in age-class 5 differs significantly from that of Merriman (1941), who also examined coastal migrants. No significant differences were found in maturity estimates of fish from stocks of different origin.

  12. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  13. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals

    PubMed Central

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A.; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging because of the difficulty in reliably recording the first breeding event. Here, using a multi-event capture–recapture model that accounts for both imperfect detection and uncertainty in the breeding status on an 18-year dataset involving 6637 individuals, we estimated age and state-specific survival of female elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the declining Macquarie Island population. We detected a clear cost of first reproduction on survival. This cost was higher for both younger first-time breeders and older first-time breeders compared with females recruiting at age four, the overall mean age at first reproduction. Neither earlier primiparity nor delaying primiparity appear to confer any evolutionary advantage, rather the optimal strategy seems to be to start breeding at a single age, 4 years. PMID:24872464

  14. Age-specific cost of first reproduction in female southern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Desprez, Marine; Harcourt, Robert; Hindell, Mark A; Cubaynes, Sarah; Gimenez, Olivier; McMahon, Clive R

    2014-05-01

    When to commence breeding is a crucial life-history decision that may be the most important determinant of an individual's lifetime reproductive output and can have major consequences on population dynamics. The age at which individuals first reproduce is an important factor influencing the intensity of potential costs (e.g. reduced survival) involved in the first breeding event. However, quantifying age-related variation in the cost of first reproduction in wild animals remains challenging because of the difficulty in reliably recording the first breeding event. Here, using a multi-event capture-recapture model that accounts for both imperfect detection and uncertainty in the breeding status on an 18-year dataset involving 6637 individuals, we estimated age and state-specific survival of female elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the declining Macquarie Island population. We detected a clear cost of first reproduction on survival. This cost was higher for both younger first-time breeders and older first-time breeders compared with females recruiting at age four, the overall mean age at first reproduction. Neither earlier primiparity nor delaying primiparity appear to confer any evolutionary advantage, rather the optimal strategy seems to be to start breeding at a single age, 4 years. PMID:24872464

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Age Specific Variation in the Abundance of Human Female Parotid Salivary Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ambatipudi, Kiran S.; Lu, Bingwen; Hagen, Fred K; Melvin, James E.; Yates, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Human saliva is a protein-rich, easily accessible source of potential local and systemic biomarkers to monitor changes that occur under pathological conditions; however little is known about the changes in abundance associated with normal aging. In this study, we performed a comprehensive proteomic profiling of pooled saliva collected from the parotid glands of healthy female subjects, divided into two age groups 1 and 2 (20–30 and 55–65 years old, respectively). Hydrophobic charge interaction chromatography was used to separate high from low abundant proteins prior to characterization of the parotid saliva using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Collectively, 532 proteins were identified in the two age groups. Of these proteins, 266 were identified exclusively in one age group, while 266 proteins were common to both groups. The majority of the proteins identified in the two age groups belonged to the defense and immune response category. Of note, several defense related proteins (e.g. lysozyme, lactoferrin and histatin-1) were significantly more abundant in group 2 as determined by G-test. Selected representative mass spectrometric findings were validated by western blot analysis. Our study reports the first quantitative analysis of differentially regulated proteins in ductal saliva collected from young and older female subjects. This study supports the use of high-throughput proteomics as a robust discovery tool. Such results provide a foundation for future studies to identify specific salivary proteins which may be linked to age-related diseases specific to women. PMID:19764810

  16. [Estimation of the biological age in taiga tick females (Ixodes persulcatus:Ixodidae) by the fat reserves in organism].

    PubMed

    Balashov, Iu S; Grigor'eva, L A

    2010-01-01

    The method of estimation of the biological age in non-feeding tick females by the level of adipose inclusions in the cells of the midgut and fat body is developed. In order to estimate the fat reserves in non-feeding females, alive ticks were dissected and fragments of their internal were vitally stained with the pregnant solution of sudan III in 70 % ethanol. Three age-specific groups were established: I, young females whose intestines and fat body were filled with fat inclusions; II, mature females whose fat reserves were partially expended; III, old females having isolated fat inclusions in their midgut and fat body.

  17. Sirtuin Functions in Female Fertility: Possible Role in Oxidative Stress and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Tatone, Carla; Vitti, Maurizio; Santini, Silvano; D'Alessandro, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    In search for strategies aimed at preventing oxidative threat to female fertility, a possible role of sirtuins has emerged. Sirtuins (silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins), NAD+ dependent enzymes with deacetylase and/or mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, are emerging as key antiaging molecules and regulators in many diseases. Recently, a crucial role for SIRT1 and SIRT3, the main components of sirtuin family, as sensors and guardians of the redox state in oocytes, granulosa cells, and early embryos has emerged. In this context, the aim of the present review is to summarize current knowledge from research papers on the role of sirtuins in female fertility with particular emphasis on the impairment of SIRT1 signalling with oocyte aging. On this basis, the authors wish to build up a framework to promote research on the possible role of sirtuins as targets for future strategies for female fertility preservation. PMID:26075037

  18. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    PubMed

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  19. Autonomic and Renal Alterations in the Offspring of Sleep-Restricted Mothers During Late Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Raimundo, Joyce R S; Bergamaschi, Cassia T; Campos, Ruy R; Palma, Beatriz D; Tufik, Sergio; Gomes, Guiomar N

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Considering that changes in the maternal environment may result in changes in progeny, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sleep restriction during the last week of pregnancy on renal function and autonomic responses in male descendants at an adult age. METHODS: After confirmation of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control or a sleep restriction group. The sleep-restricted rats were subjected to sleep restriction using the multiple platforms method for over 20 hours per day between the 14th and 20th day of pregnancy. After delivery, the litters were limited to 6 offspring that were designated as offspring from control and offspring from sleep-restricted mothers. Indirect measurements of systolic blood pressure (BPi), renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, glomerular area and number of glomeruli per field were evaluated at three months of age. Direct measurements of cardiovascular function (heart rate and mean arterial pressure), cardiac sympathetic tone, cardiac parasympathetic tone, and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated at four months of age. RESULTS: The sleep-restricted offspring presented increases in BPi, glomerular filtration rate and glomerular area compared with the control offspring. The sleep-restricted offspring also showed higher basal heart rate, increased mean arterial pressure, increased sympathetic cardiac tone, decreased parasympathetic cardiac tone and reduced baroreflex sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that reductions in sleep during the last week of pregnancy lead to alterations in cardiovascular autonomic regulation and renal morpho-functional changes in offspring, triggering increases in blood pressure. PMID:27652834

  20. Autonomic and Renal Alterations in the Offspring of Sleep-Restricted Mothers During Late Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Raimundo, Joyce R S; Bergamaschi, Cassia T; Campos, Ruy R; Palma, Beatriz D; Tufik, Sergio; Gomes, Guiomar N

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Considering that changes in the maternal environment may result in changes in progeny, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sleep restriction during the last week of pregnancy on renal function and autonomic responses in male descendants at an adult age. METHODS: After confirmation of pregnancy, female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control or a sleep restriction group. The sleep-restricted rats were subjected to sleep restriction using the multiple platforms method for over 20 hours per day between the 14th and 20th day of pregnancy. After delivery, the litters were limited to 6 offspring that were designated as offspring from control and offspring from sleep-restricted mothers. Indirect measurements of systolic blood pressure (BPi), renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, glomerular area and number of glomeruli per field were evaluated at three months of age. Direct measurements of cardiovascular function (heart rate and mean arterial pressure), cardiac sympathetic tone, cardiac parasympathetic tone, and baroreflex sensitivity were evaluated at four months of age. RESULTS: The sleep-restricted offspring presented increases in BPi, glomerular filtration rate and glomerular area compared with the control offspring. The sleep-restricted offspring also showed higher basal heart rate, increased mean arterial pressure, increased sympathetic cardiac tone, decreased parasympathetic cardiac tone and reduced baroreflex sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that reductions in sleep during the last week of pregnancy lead to alterations in cardiovascular autonomic regulation and renal morpho-functional changes in offspring, triggering increases in blood pressure.

  1. Blood coagulation and metabolic profiles in middle-aged male and female ob/ob mice.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Naoki; Oishi, Katsutaka; Atsumi, Gen-ichi

    2015-07-01

    Obese and diabetic states in humans are associated with an increased incidence of thrombotic diseases caused by various coagulation abnormalities. Genetically obese ob/ob mice produce metabolic abnormalities similar to those associated with type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about their coagulation features or sex differences. The present study aimed to determine the effects of obese and diabetic complications on blood coagulation and vascular diseases by exploring correlations between blood coagulation and metabolic profiles in middle-aged male and female ob/ob mice. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) were significantly increased, whereas those that of platelet factor-4 (PF-4) was slightly, but significantly increased in male and female ob/ob mice compared with lean counterparts. Prothrombin time (PT) was significantly shortened in female ob/ob mice and activated partial thrombin time (APTT) significantly differed between male and female ob/ob mice. Plasma levels of antithrombin (AT) were significantly increased in male and female ob/ob mice. None of the other coagulation and fibrinolytic factors examined significantly differed between ob/ob mice and lean counterparts. On the contrary, factors such as body weight and cholesterol levels significantly differed between ob/ob and lean mice, whereas glucose, fructosamine and insulin levels significantly differed only in one sex of each strain. These results provided fundamental information about blood coagulation and metabolic features for exploring the function of altered blood coagulation states in ob/ob mice.

  2. Aging of the female reproductive system: a window into brain aging.

    PubMed

    Wise, P M; Kashon, M L; Krajnak, K M; Rosewell, K L; Cai, A; Scarbrough, K; Harney, J P; McShane, T; Lloyd, J M; Weiland, N G

    1997-01-01

    The menopause marks the permanent end of fertility in women. It was once thought that the exhaustion of ovarian follicles was the single, most important explanation for the transition to the menopause. Over the past decade, this perception has gradually changed with the realization that there are multiple pacemakers of reproductive senescence. We will present evidence that lends credence to the hypothesis that the central nervous system is a critical pacemaker of reproductive aging and that changes at this level contribute to the timing of the menopause. Studies demonstrate that an increasing de-synchronization of the temporal order of neuroendocrine signals may contribute to the accelerated rate of follicular loss that occurs during middle age. We suggest that the dampening and destabilization of the precisely orchestrated ultradian, circadian, and infradian neural signals lead to miscommunication between the brain and the pituitary-ovarian axis. This constellation of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian events leads to the inexorable decline of regular cyclicity and heralds menopausal transition.

  3. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences rat maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories: behavioral performances and neuroplasticity correlates.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Caporali, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Angelucci, Francesco; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Bisicchia, Elisa; Molinari, Marco; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a widely used paradigm for investigating the influence of complex stimulations on brain and behavior. Here we examined whether pre-reproductive exposure to EE of female rats may influence their maternal care and offspring cognitive performances. To this aim, from weaning to breeding age enriched females (EF) were reared in enriched environments. Females reared in standard conditions were used as controls. At 2.5 months of age all females were mated and reared in standard conditions with their offspring. Maternal care behaviors and nesting activity were assessed in lactating dams. Their male pups were also behaviorally evaluated at different post-natal days (pnd). Brain BDNF, reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were measured as biochemical correlates of neuroplasticity. EF showed more complex maternal care than controls due to their higher levels of licking, crouching and nest building activities. Moreover, their offspring showed higher discriminative (maternal odor preference T-maze, pnd 10) and spatial (Morris Water Maze, pnd 45; Open Field with objects, pnd 55) performances, with no differences in social abilities (Sociability test, pnd 35), in comparison to controls. BDNF levels were increased in EF frontal cortex at pups' weaning and in their offspring hippocampus at pnd 21 and 55. No differences in offspring reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were found. In conclusion, our study indicates that pre-reproductive maternal enrichment positively influences female rats' maternal care and cognitive development of their offspring, demonstrating thus a transgenerational transmission of EE benefits linked to enhanced BDNF-induced neuroplasticity. PMID:25814946

  4. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences rat maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories: behavioral performances and neuroplasticity correlates

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, Debora; Caporali, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Angelucci, Francesco; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Bisicchia, Elisa; Molinari, Marco; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a widely used paradigm for investigating the influence of complex stimulations on brain and behavior. Here we examined whether pre-reproductive exposure to EE of female rats may influence their maternal care and offspring cognitive performances. To this aim, from weaning to breeding age enriched females (EF) were reared in enriched environments. Females reared in standard conditions were used as controls. At 2.5 months of age all females were mated and reared in standard conditions with their offspring. Maternal care behaviors and nesting activity were assessed in lactating dams. Their male pups were also behaviorally evaluated at different post-natal days (pnd). Brain BDNF, reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were measured as biochemical correlates of neuroplasticity. EF showed more complex maternal care than controls due to their higher levels of licking, crouching and nest building activities. Moreover, their offspring showed higher discriminative (maternal odor preference T-maze, pnd 10) and spatial (Morris Water Maze, pnd 45; Open Field with objects, pnd 55) performances, with no differences in social abilities (Sociability test, pnd 35), in comparison to controls. BDNF levels were increased in EF frontal cortex at pups' weaning and in their offspring hippocampus at pnd 21 and 55. No differences in offspring reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were found. In conclusion, our study indicates that pre-reproductive maternal enrichment positively influences female rats' maternal care and cognitive development of their offspring, demonstrating thus a transgenerational transmission of EE benefits linked to enhanced BDNF-induced neuroplasticity. PMID:25814946

  5. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences rat maternal care and offspring developmental trajectories: behavioral performances and neuroplasticity correlates.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Caporali, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Angelucci, Francesco; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Bisicchia, Elisa; Molinari, Marco; Farioli Vecchioli, Stefano; Petrosini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a widely used paradigm for investigating the influence of complex stimulations on brain and behavior. Here we examined whether pre-reproductive exposure to EE of female rats may influence their maternal care and offspring cognitive performances. To this aim, from weaning to breeding age enriched females (EF) were reared in enriched environments. Females reared in standard conditions were used as controls. At 2.5 months of age all females were mated and reared in standard conditions with their offspring. Maternal care behaviors and nesting activity were assessed in lactating dams. Their male pups were also behaviorally evaluated at different post-natal days (pnd). Brain BDNF, reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were measured as biochemical correlates of neuroplasticity. EF showed more complex maternal care than controls due to their higher levels of licking, crouching and nest building activities. Moreover, their offspring showed higher discriminative (maternal odor preference T-maze, pnd 10) and spatial (Morris Water Maze, pnd 45; Open Field with objects, pnd 55) performances, with no differences in social abilities (Sociability test, pnd 35), in comparison to controls. BDNF levels were increased in EF frontal cortex at pups' weaning and in their offspring hippocampus at pnd 21 and 55. No differences in offspring reelin and adult hippocampal neurogenesis levels were found. In conclusion, our study indicates that pre-reproductive maternal enrichment positively influences female rats' maternal care and cognitive development of their offspring, demonstrating thus a transgenerational transmission of EE benefits linked to enhanced BDNF-induced neuroplasticity.

  6. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  7. Effects of soy phytoestrogens on pituitary-ovarian function in middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Medigović, Ivana M; Živanović, Jasmina B; Ajdžanović, Vladimir Z; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra L; Stanković, Sanja D; Trifunović, Svetlana L; Milošević, Verica Lj; Nestorović, Nataša M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of genistein (G) and daidzein (D) on the histological, hormonal, and functional parameters of the pituitary-ovarian axis in middle-aged female rats, and to compare these effects with the effects of estradiol (E), commonly used in the prevention and treatment of menopausal symptoms. Middle-aged (12 month old) Wistar female rats subcutaneously received 35 mg/kg of G, or 35 mg/kg of D, or 0.625 mg/kg of E every day for 4 weeks. Each of the treated groups had a corresponding control group. An intact control group was also established. G and D did not change the intracellular protein content within gonadotropic and lactotropic cells, but vacuolization was observed in all the cell types. In contrast, E caused an inhibition of gonadotropic and stimulation of lactotropic cells. Also, ovaries of middle-aged female rats exposed to G or D have more healthy primordial and primary follicles and less atretic follicles. E treatment in the ovaries had a mostly negative effect, which is reflected by the increased number of atretic follicles in all tested classes. G and D provoked decrease in CuZnSOD and CAT activity, while E treatment increased MnSOD and decreased CuZnSOD and GSHPx activity. All the treatments increased serum estradiol and decreased testosterone levels, while D and E increased the serum progesterone level. In conclusion, soy phytoestrogens exhibited beneficial effects on pituitary-ovarian function in middle-aged female rats, as compared to estradiol.

  8. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    PubMed

    Mair, Jacqueline L; Nevill, Alan M; De Vito, Giuseppe; Boreham, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  9. Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged 10-19 years - United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Stephanie J; Hamilton, Brady E; Mathews, T J

    2013-11-22

    Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged <20 years have been the subject of long-standing concern among the public, the public health community, and policy makers. Teenagers who give birth are much more likely than older women to deliver a low birthweight or preterm infant, and their babies are at higher risk for dying in infancy. The annual public costs associated with births among teenage girls are an estimated $10.9 billion. According to the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), an estimated 77% of births to teenagers aged 15-19 years were unintended.

  10. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy--repercussion on cardiovascular and renal functioning of male offspring.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ingrid L B; Rodrigues, Aline F A C; Bergamaschi, Cássia T; Campos, Ruy R; Hirata, Aparecida E; Tufik, Sergio; Xylaras, Beatriz D P; Visniauskas, Bruna; Chagas, Jair R; Gomes, Guiomar N

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the maternal environment can induce fetal adaptations that result in the progression of chronic diseases in the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maternal chronic sleep restriction on blood pressure, renal function and cardiac baroreflex response on male offspring at adult age. Female 3-month-old Wistar rats were divided in two experimental groups: control (C) and chronic sleep restricted (CSR). Pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal smear. Chronic sleep restricted females were subjected to sleep restriction by the multiple platform technique for 20 h daily, between the 1st and 20th day of pregnancy. After birth, the litters were reduced to 6 rats per mother, and were designated as offspring from control (OC) and offspring from chronic sleep restricted (OCSR). Indirect blood pressure (BPi - tail cuff) was measured by plethysmography in male offspring at 3 months old. Following, the renal function and cardiac baroreflex response were analyzed. Values of BPi in OCSR were significantly higher compared to OC [OC: 127 ± 2.6 (19); OCSR: 144 ± 2.5 (17) mmHg]. The baroreflex sensitivity to the increase of blood pressure was reduced in OCSR [Slope: OC: -2.6 ± 0.15 (9); OCRS: -1.6 ± 0.13 (9)]. Hypothalamic activity of ACE2 was significantly reduced in OCSR compared to OC [OC: 97.4 ± 15 (18); OSR: 60.2 ± 3.6 (16) UAF/min/protein mg]. Renal function alteration was noticed by the increase in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) observed in OCSR [OC: 6.4 ± 0.2 (10); OCSR: 7.4 ± 0.3 (7)]. Chronic sleep restriction during pregnancy caused in the offspring hypertension, altered cardiac baroreflex response, reduced ACE-2 activity in the hypothalamus and renal alterations. Our data suggest that the reduction of sleeping time along the pregnancy is able to modify maternal homeostasis leading to functional alterations in offspring.

  11. MTHFR deficiency or reduced intake of folate or choline in pregnant mice results in impaired short-term memory and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of wild-type offspring.

    PubMed

    Jadavji, N M; Deng, L; Malysheva, O; Caudill, M A; Rozen, R

    2015-08-01

    Genetic or nutritional disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, with associated hyperhomocysteinemia, can result in complex disorders including pregnancy complications and neuropsychiatric diseases. In earlier work, we showed that mice with a complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, had cognitive impairment with disturbances in choline metabolism. Maternal demands for folate and choline are increased during pregnancy and deficiencies of these nutrients result in several negative outcomes including increased resorption and delayed development. The goal of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological impact of a maternal genetic deficiency in MTHFR or maternal nutritional deficiency of folate or choline during pregnancy on 3-week-old Mthfr(+/+) offspring. Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) females were placed on control diets (CD); and Mthfr(+/+) females were placed on folate-deficient diets (FD) or choline-deficient diets (ChDD) throughout pregnancy and lactation until their offspring were 3weeks of age. Short-term memory was assessed in offspring, and hippocampal tissue was evaluated for morphological changes, apoptosis, proliferation and choline metabolism. Maternal MTHFR deficiency resulted in short-term memory impairment in offspring. These dams had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine when compared with wild-type dams. There were no differences in plasma homocysteine in offspring. Increased apoptosis and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus of offspring from Mthfr(+/-) mothers. In the maternal FD and ChDD study, offspring also showed short-term memory impairment with increased apoptosis in the hippocampus; increased neurogenesis was observed in ChDD offspring. Choline acetyltransferase protein was increased in the offspring hippocampus of both dietary groups and betaine was decreased in the hippocampus of FD offspring. Our results reveal short-term memory

  12. MTHFR deficiency or reduced intake of folate or choline in pregnant mice results in impaired short-term memory and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of wild-type offspring.

    PubMed

    Jadavji, N M; Deng, L; Malysheva, O; Caudill, M A; Rozen, R

    2015-08-01

    Genetic or nutritional disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, with associated hyperhomocysteinemia, can result in complex disorders including pregnancy complications and neuropsychiatric diseases. In earlier work, we showed that mice with a complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, had cognitive impairment with disturbances in choline metabolism. Maternal demands for folate and choline are increased during pregnancy and deficiencies of these nutrients result in several negative outcomes including increased resorption and delayed development. The goal of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological impact of a maternal genetic deficiency in MTHFR or maternal nutritional deficiency of folate or choline during pregnancy on 3-week-old Mthfr(+/+) offspring. Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) females were placed on control diets (CD); and Mthfr(+/+) females were placed on folate-deficient diets (FD) or choline-deficient diets (ChDD) throughout pregnancy and lactation until their offspring were 3weeks of age. Short-term memory was assessed in offspring, and hippocampal tissue was evaluated for morphological changes, apoptosis, proliferation and choline metabolism. Maternal MTHFR deficiency resulted in short-term memory impairment in offspring. These dams had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine when compared with wild-type dams. There were no differences in plasma homocysteine in offspring. Increased apoptosis and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus of offspring from Mthfr(+/-) mothers. In the maternal FD and ChDD study, offspring also showed short-term memory impairment with increased apoptosis in the hippocampus; increased neurogenesis was observed in ChDD offspring. Choline acetyltransferase protein was increased in the offspring hippocampus of both dietary groups and betaine was decreased in the hippocampus of FD offspring. Our results reveal short-term memory

  13. IMMMUNOPHENOTYPE OF SPONTANEOUS HEMATOLYMPHOID TUMORS OCCURRING IN YOUNG AND AGING FEMALE CD-1 MICE

    PubMed Central

    Rehg, Jerold E.; Rahija, Richard; Bush, Dorothy; Bradley, Alys; Ward, Jerrold M.

    2015-01-01

    A few reports indicated the incidence of hematolymphoid neoplasms in old CD-1 mice, but the cellular lineage of CD-1 mouse neoplasms has not be published. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to characterize the cellular lineage of spontaneous hematolymphoid neoplasms arising in young female CD-1 mice used as health monitoring sentinels and aging female CD-1 mice used as controls in 80 wk carcinogenesis studies. Lymphoblastic lymphomas of T-cell and B-cell lineage were common in mice 12 mo or less of age, whereas a wide range of non-lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic T-cell lymphomas were common in mice > 12 mo old. Renal hyaline droplets positive for lysozyme were observed in aged mice with a histiocytic-associated large B-cell lymphoma (HA-BCL) and a myeloid leukemia. Endogenous ecotropic MuLV genes have been recovered from CD-1 mice, but MuLV protein expression has not been previously demonstrated. We reported for the first time the expression of MuLV protein by IHC in lymphomas and some normal tissues of both young and aging CD-1 mice. This report should help to differentiate spontaneous lymphomas and leukemias in CD-1 mice from those induced by chemicals and other methods. PMID:26224701

  14. Immunophenotype of Spontaneous Hematolymphoid Tumors Occurring in Young and Aging Female CD-1 Mice. [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Rehg, Jerold E; Rahija, Richard; Bush, Dorothy; Bradley, Alys; Ward, Jerrold M

    2015-10-01

    A few reports indicated the incidence of hematolymphoid neoplasms in old CD-1 mice, but the cellular lineage of CD-1 mouse neoplasms has not been published. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to characterize the cellular lineage of spontaneous hematolymphoid neoplasms arising in 24 young female CD-1 mice used as health-monitoring sentinels and 32 aging female CD-1 mice used as controls in 80-week carcinogenesis studies. Lymphoblastic lymphomas of T-cell and B-cell lineage were common in mice aged 12 months or less, whereas a wide range of non-lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas were common in mice >12-mo-old. Renal hyaline droplets positive for lysozyme were observed in aged mice with a histiocytic-associated large B-cell lymphoma (HA-BCL) and a myeloid leukemia. Endogenous ecotropic mouse leukemia virus (MuLV) genes have been recovered from CD-1 mice, but MuLV protein expression has not been previously demonstrated. We reported for the first time the expression of a MuLV protein p30 by IHC in lymphomas and some normal tissues of both young and aging CD-1 mice. This report should help to differentiate spontaneous lymphomas and leukemias in CD-1 mice from those induced by chemicals and other methods.

  15. Resveratrol attenuates peripheral and brain inflammation and reduces ischemic brain injury in aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sae Im; Shin, Jin A; Cho, Sunghee; Kim, Hye Won; Lee, Ji Yoon; Kang, Jihee Lee; Park, Eun-Mi

    2016-08-01

    Resveratrol is known to improve metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. Visceral obesity is a sign of aging and is considered a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and the brain and its effects on ischemic brain injury in aged female mice. Mice treated with resveratrol (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) for 10 days showed reduced levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as a reduction in the size of adipocytes in visceral adipose tissue. Resveratrol also reduced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α protein levels and immunoglobulin G extravasation in the brain. Mice treated with resveratrol demonstrated smaller infarct size, improved neurological function, and blunted peripheral inflammation at 3 days postischemic stroke. These results showed that resveratrol counteracted inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and in the brain and reduced stroke-induced brain injury and peripheral inflammation in aged female mice. Therefore, resveratrol administration can be a valuable strategy for the prevention of age-associated and disease-provoked inflammation in postmenopausal women.

  16. An update on female sexual function and dysfunction in old age and its relevance to old age psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Wood, Alison; Runciman, Ross; Wylie, Kevan R; McManus, Ross

    2012-10-01

    Numerous studies have now demonstrated that many older women retain an interest in their sexual lives. Yet, how many old age psychiatrists commonly check with older women about whether the depression they are treating, or the SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors) they have prescribed, have adversely affected their patient's sexual lives? We consider the latest evidence regarding cultural, social and medical influences on older women's sexual lives and some specific issues which affect lesbian and transsexual people. We examine how mental illness and psychotropic medication in particular can adversely affect older women's sexual functioning and at how difficult it often proves to be for women to seek help. We also focus on why doctors and in particular psychiatrists may not take a sexual history, look for sexual side effects or refer for appropriate treatment, especially when interviewing older women patients. Most published information about psychiatric training and sexual issues focuses on the younger male patient. We therefore aimed to provide a broad-ranging review of the literature regarding female sexual functioning in old age, the difficulties that can arise and the role that old age psychiatrists have an opportunity to fulfil, in this often neglected aspect of their patients' treatment. From our review it was clear that, in the light of the increasing cultural acceptability of discussions regarding sexuality and older women, the training of student doctors and trainee psychiatrists needs to reflect this change so that old age psychiatrists can enhance the quality of their patient care.

  17. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and "Forest Therapy" has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more "comfortable," "relaxed," and "natural" according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for "tension-anxiety" was significantly lower, while that for "vigor" was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  18. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Widdig, A; Nürnberg, P; Krawczak, M; Streich, W J; Bercovitch, F B

    2001-11-20

    Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.

  19. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and “Forest Therapy” has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for “tension–anxiety” was significantly lower, while that for “vigor” was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females. PMID:26633447

  20. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive Age in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ikeako, LC; Ekwueme, OC; Ezegwui, HU; Okeke, TOC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female traders of reproductive age in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on female traders aged 15-49 years at Ogbete Main Market, Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. Data was analyzed using Epi-Info 2000 version 3.3.1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta USA) was used to analyze the data and results were presented in tabular form. Results: A total of 200 female traders of reproductive age participated in the study. The mean (standard deviation) age was 26 (7.4) years. 16% (32/200) were adolescents. Knowledge of specific STIs was highest for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome 90% (130/200). Parents were poor sources of information as only 28.5% (57/200) respondents heard about STIs from their parents compared with 46% (92/200) from friends and peers. Risk factors identified were multiple sexual partners 75.5% (151/200), non-use of condoms 62% (124/200) and early debut 58% (116/200). Majority 67.5% (135/200) were aware that STIs could be treated by a visit to the doctor while 21.5% (43/200) preferred traditional/herbal healers. Conclusion: The inclusion of health education in schools’ curricula to ensure that adolescents are adequately aware of STIs, their modes of transmission, prevention and treatment before embarking on any vocation out-of-school is advocated. PMID:24669343

  1. Age at first intercourse is inversely related to female cortisol stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart

    2002-11-01

    The relationship between age at first sexual intercourse and salivary cortisol stress reactivity (to the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST; consisting of public speaking and mental arithmetic) was examined in healthy subjects (43 females and 36 males; ages 19-38). Women reporting earlier first intercourse had less intense cortisol increases in response to the stressor (a non-significant trend was observed for males), and faster recovery from the stressor. Results were not confounded by age, oral contraceptive use, depression scores, smoking status, or body mass index. It is concluded that earlier first intercourse is associated with less reactivity to and faster recovery from stress as indexed by this endocrine measure. Results are discussed in terms of genetic and psychological influences on first intercourse and implications for coping with interpersonal stress. PMID:12383454

  2. Female feticide in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  3. Increased low back pain prevalence in females than in males after menopause age: evidences based on synthetic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wáng, Jùn-Qīng; Káplár, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Female sex hormones play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Postmenopausal women show accelerated disc degeneration due to relative estrogen deficiency. This literature review aims to validate or falsify this hypothesis, i.e., while overall females have higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) across all age groups, this male vs. female difference in LBP prevalence further increases after female menopause age. The literature search was performed on PubMed on January 2, 2016. The search word combination was (low back pain) AND prevalence AND [(males OR men) AND (females OR women)]. The following criteria were taken to include the papers for synthetic analysis: (I) only English primary literatures on nonspecific pain; (II) only prospective studies on general population, but not population with occupational LBP causes, of both males and female subjects studied using the same LBP criterion, ages-specific information available, and males and female subjects were age-matched; (III) studies without major quality flaws. In total 98 studies with 772,927 subjects were analyzed. According to the information in the literature, participant subjects were divided into four age groups: (I) school age children group: 6–19 years; (II) young and middle aged group: 20–50 years; (III) mixed age group: data from studies did not differentiate age groups; (IV) elderly group: ≥50 years old. When individual studies were not weighted by participant number and each individual study is represented as one entry regardless of their sample size, the median LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.310, 1.140, 1.220, and 1.270 respectively for the four age groups. When individual studies were weighted by participant number, the LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.360, 1.127, 1.185, and 1.280 respectively for the four groups. The higher LBP prevalence in school age girls than in school age boys is likely

  4. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  5. Maternal characteristics and environment affect the costs of reproduction in female mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2010-07-01

    Reproduction should reduce resources available for somatic investment and result in fundamental trade-offs among life-history traits. Using 18 years of longitudinal data from marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we assessed whether reproductive status affected female survival and future reproduction when accounting for parity, age, individual quality, population density, and environmental conditions. Reproduction reduced the probability of parturition and offspring survival in the following year. Female survival, however, was independent of previous reproduction, suggesting that females favored their own survival over that of their offspring. The lower probability of parturition in females that had a kid the previous year was only detected at high population density and among young and prime-aged females, suggesting that fitness costs of reproduction can be masked by variations in resource availability and individual characteristics. Primiparous females were less likely than multiparous females to reproduce in the subsequent year. Offspring survival was reduced at high density and after severe winters. Environmental conditions mainly influenced offspring survival, whereas female survival and fecundity were principally modulated by female characteristics. Our study highlights how different intrinsic and environmental factors can affect the probability of future reproduction and also underlines the value of long-term monitoring of known individuals. PMID:20715626

  6. Maternal characteristics and environment affect the costs of reproduction in female mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2010-07-01

    Reproduction should reduce resources available for somatic investment and result in fundamental trade-offs among life-history traits. Using 18 years of longitudinal data from marked mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), we assessed whether reproductive status affected female survival and future reproduction when accounting for parity, age, individual quality, population density, and environmental conditions. Reproduction reduced the probability of parturition and offspring survival in the following year. Female survival, however, was independent of previous reproduction, suggesting that females favored their own survival over that of their offspring. The lower probability of parturition in females that had a kid the previous year was only detected at high population density and among young and prime-aged females, suggesting that fitness costs of reproduction can be masked by variations in resource availability and individual characteristics. Primiparous females were less likely than multiparous females to reproduce in the subsequent year. Offspring survival was reduced at high density and after severe winters. Environmental conditions mainly influenced offspring survival, whereas female survival and fecundity were principally modulated by female characteristics. Our study highlights how different intrinsic and environmental factors can affect the probability of future reproduction and also underlines the value of long-term monitoring of known individuals.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness of males and females of northern Finland birth cohort of 1966 at age 31.

    PubMed

    Tammelin, T; Näyhä, S; Rintamäki, H

    2004-10-01

    This study aimed to measure cardiorespiratory fitness of about 9000 males and females at age 31, to produce the reference values and relate them to the level of physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Study population was the Northern Finland birth cohort of 1966. At age 31, 8786 persons responded to a postal inquiry including questions about physical activity and 5497 of them also performed a step test. A sample of 123 persons performed a maximal exercise test with direct measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)). This was done to develop VO(2peak) prediction models on the basis of heart rate after a step test, BMI and frequency of brisk physical activity. These models were used to calculate VO(2peak) for the whole study population. Mean VO(2peak) +/- standard deviation was 43.0 +/- 4.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4071 males and 34.3 +/- 4.3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4367 females. A graded dose-response relationship was observed in males and females between the frequency of participation in brisk exercise and VO(2peak). Similar dose-response relationship was also observed in overweight and obese persons, although the level of VO(2peak) was lower in persons with increased BMI. At age 31, very low levels of VO(2peak) seemed to be associated with a combination of infrequent participation in brisk exercise and increased BMI. These reference values can be used in the interpretation of fitness test results and in physical activity counselling.

  8. Selection and constraints on offspring size-number trade-offs in sand lizards (Lacerta agilis).

    PubMed

    Ljungström, G; Stjernstedt, M; Wapstra, E; Olsson, M

    2016-05-01

    The trade-off between offspring size and number is a central component of life-history theory, postulating that larger investment into offspring size inevitably decreases offspring number. This trade-off is generally discussed in terms of genetic, physiological or morphological constraints; however, as among-individual differences can mask individual trade-offs, the underlying mechanisms may be difficult to reveal. In this study, we use multivariate analyses to investigate whether there is a trade-off between offspring size and number in a population of sand lizards by separating among- and within-individual patterns using a 15-year data set collected in the wild. We also explore the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of this trade-off by investigating how a female's resource (condition)- vs. age-related size (snout-vent length) influences her investment into offspring size vs. number (OSN), whether these traits are heritable and under selection and whether the OSN trade-off has a genetic component. We found a negative correlation between offspring size and number within individual females and physical constraints (size of body cavity) appear to limit the number of eggs that a female can produce. This suggests that the OSN trade-off occurs due to resource constraints as a female continues to grow throughout life and, thus, produces larger clutches. In contrast to the assumptions of classic OSN theory, we did not detect selection on offspring size; however, there was directional selection for larger clutch sizes. The repeatabilities of both offspring size and number were low and we did not detect any additive genetic variance in either trait. This could be due to strong selection (past or current) on these life-history traits, or to insufficient statistical power to detect significant additive genetic effects. Overall, the findings of this study are an important illustration of how analyses of within-individual patterns can reveal trade-offs and

  9. Selection and constraints on offspring size-number trade-offs in sand lizards (Lacerta agilis).

    PubMed

    Ljungström, G; Stjernstedt, M; Wapstra, E; Olsson, M

    2016-05-01

    The trade-off between offspring size and number is a central component of life-history theory, postulating that larger investment into offspring size inevitably decreases offspring number. This trade-off is generally discussed in terms of genetic, physiological or morphological constraints; however, as among-individual differences can mask individual trade-offs, the underlying mechanisms may be difficult to reveal. In this study, we use multivariate analyses to investigate whether there is a trade-off between offspring size and number in a population of sand lizards by separating among- and within-individual patterns using a 15-year data set collected in the wild. We also explore the ecological and evolutionary causes and consequences of this trade-off by investigating how a female's resource (condition)- vs. age-related size (snout-vent length) influences her investment into offspring size vs. number (OSN), whether these traits are heritable and under selection and whether the OSN trade-off has a genetic component. We found a negative correlation between offspring size and number within individual females and physical constraints (size of body cavity) appear to limit the number of eggs that a female can produce. This suggests that the OSN trade-off occurs due to resource constraints as a female continues to grow throughout life and, thus, produces larger clutches. In contrast to the assumptions of classic OSN theory, we did not detect selection on offspring size; however, there was directional selection for larger clutch sizes. The repeatabilities of both offspring size and number were low and we did not detect any additive genetic variance in either trait. This could be due to strong selection (past or current) on these life-history traits, or to insufficient statistical power to detect significant additive genetic effects. Overall, the findings of this study are an important illustration of how analyses of within-individual patterns can reveal trade-offs and

  10. Cluster Headache: Special Considerations for Treatment of Female Patients of Reproductive Age and Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    VanderPluym, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Cluster headache is a rare disorder that is more common in adult male patients. It has a unique phenotype of unilateral, severe, to very severe headaches lasting 15 to 180 min with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Time to correct diagnosis can be protracted. A number of treatment options exist for the standard cluster headache patient, but special considerations must be made for female patients of reproductive age and pediatric patients. The objective of this article is to explore the current literature pertaining to special considerations in cluster headache management, including treatment of pregnant or breastfeeding patients and pediatric patients. PMID:26711274

  11. Mercury Exposure and Antinuclear Antibodies among Females of Reproductive Age in the United States: NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Ganser, Martha A.; Warren, Jeffrey S.; Basu, Niladri; Wang, Lu; Zick, Suzanna M.; Park, Sung Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Immune dysregulation associated with mercury has been suggested, although data in the general population are lacking. Chronic exposure to low levels of methylmercury (organic) and inorganic mercury is common, such as through fish consumption and dental amalgams. Objective We examined associations between mercury biomarkers and antinuclear antibody (ANA) positivity and titer strength. Methods Among females 16–49 years of age (n = 1,352) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004, we examined cross-sectional associations between mercury and ANAs (indirect immunofluorescence; cutoff ≥ 1:80). Three biomarkers of mercury exposure were used: hair (available 1999–2000) and total blood (1999–2004) predominantly represented methylmercury, and urine (1999–2002) represented inorganic mercury. Survey statistics were used. Multivariable modeling adjusted for several covariates, including age and omega-3 fatty acids. Results Sixteen percent of females were ANA positive; 96% of ANA positives had a nuclear speckled staining pattern. Geometric mean (geometric SD) mercury concentrations were 0.22 (0.03) ppm in hair, 0.92 (0.05) μg/L blood, and 0.62 (0.04) μg/L urine. Hair and blood, but not urinary, mercury were associated with ANA positivity (sample sizes 452, 1,352, and 804, respectively), after adjusting for confounders: for hair, odds ratio (OR) = 4.10 (95% CI: 1.66, 10.13); for blood, OR = 2.32 (95% CI: 1.07, 5.03) comparing highest versus lowest quantiles. Magnitudes of association were strongest for high-titer (≥ 1:1,280) ANA: hair, OR = 11.41 (95% CI: 1.60, 81.23); blood, OR = 5.93 (95% CI: 1.57, 22.47). Conclusions Methylmercury, at low levels generally considered safe, was associated with subclinical autoimmunity among reproductive-age females. Autoantibodies may predate clinical disease by years; thus, methylmercury exposure may be relevant to future autoimmune disease risk. Citation Somers EC, Ganser MA, Warren

  12. Preconception Alcohol Increases Offspring Vulnerability to Stress.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Shaima; Chastain, Lucy G; Gangisetty, Omkaram; Cabrera, Miguel A; Sochacki, Kamil; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2016-10-01

    The effect of preconception drinking by the mother on the life-long health outcomes of her children is not known, and therefore, in this study using an animal model, we determined the impact of preconception alcohol drinking of the mother on offspring stress response during adulthood. In our preconception alcohol exposure model, adult female rats were fed with 6.7% alcohol in their diet for 4 weeks, went without alcohol for 3 weeks and were bred to generate male and female offspring. Preconception alcohol-exposed offsprings' birth weight, body growth, stress response, anxiety-like behaviors, and changes in stress regulatory gene and protein hormone levels were evaluated. In addition, roles of epigenetic mechanisms in preconception alcohol effects were determined. Alcohol feeding three weeks prior to conception significantly affected pregnancy outcomes of female rats, with respect to delivery period and birth weight of offspring, without affecting maternal care behaviors. Preconception alcohol negatively affected offspring adult health, producing an increased stress hormone response to an immune challenge. In addition, preconception alcohol was associated with changes in expression and methylation profiles of stress regulatory genes in various brain areas. These changes in stress regulatory genes were normalized following treatment with a DNA methylation blocker during the postnatal period. These data highlight the novel possibility that preconception alcohol affects the inheritance of stress-related diseases possibly by epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27296153

  13. Female sexual dysfunction in young adult women - Impact of age and lifestyle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; PAter, Liana; Pater, Flavius; Craciunescu, Mihaela

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is a difficult entity to be assessed. Subjective factors and interview biases can change the perception of it. Using validated questionnaires can improve the scientific approach to this matter. There is a huge difference of severity and incidence among young, apparent healthy women, which are in a harmonious relationship. We evaluated 320 healthy women, with stable sexual active relationship, with no know depressive disease, endocrinological and metabolic pathology, no premature menopause, no malignancy. We compose a mathematic model to study the impact of age, and body weight on the sexual function, with FSFI total score as surrogate marker. We observed that even in healthy women, increase in age and/or weight/body mass significantly impair general sexual function.

  14. Age at Trauma Exposure and PTSD Risk in a Young Adult Female Sample

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the independent and joint contributions of 8 different types of trauma to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk using data from a young adult female cohort. Associations of traumatic events with PTSD onset were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in risk as a function of age at trauma were tested. Childhood sexual assault, physical abuse, and neglect were stronger predictors of PTSD onset than adolescent/early adult occurrence of these events in individual models. In a model including all traumatic events, differential risk by age remained for sexual assault and physical abuse. Early sexual assault was the strongest predictor of risk but additional traumatic events increased risk even in its presence. PMID:20963847

  15. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at increasing female students' interest in science and science-related careers. This study examined the effectiveness of InSTEP on 123 female students' pre-assessment and post-assessment changes in attitudes toward science and content knowledge of selected science concepts. An attitude survey, a science content test with multiple-choice questions, written assignments, and interviews to collect data were all used to measure students' attitudes and content knowledge. A within-group, repeated measure design was conducted, and the results indicated that at the post-intervention level, InSTEP increased the participants' positive attitudes toward science, science-related careers, and content knowledge of selected science concepts.

  16. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  17. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janine W Y; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  18. The effect of aging on the hepatic metabolism of sulfo-bromophthalein in BN/Bi female and WAG/Rij male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Kitani, K; Zurcher, C; Van Bezooijen, K

    1981-12-01

    The effect of aging on sulfobromophthalein (BSP) metabolism was studied in three groups of rats-BN/Bi female and WAG/Rij male and female rats-of different ages ranging from 3 to 30 months. Under Nembutal anesthesia, BSP biliary transport maximum (Tm) and relative storage capacity (S) were determined by a single infusion rate method by directly determining Tm from bile samples collected through a common bile duct cannula. Tm values expressed as micrograms of BSP per min per g of liver were highest in the youngest rate (3-month-old) as compared with the older rats (12-, 24-, 30-month-old) for all three rat groups. Tm gradually decreased as age increased and at the age of 24 or 30 months reached a value of 66 - 70% of the highest values for 3-month-old rats. The percentage of conjugated BSP in the bile measured during the Tm period remained essentially unchanged with age in all three rat groups. S values, expressed as mg of BSP stored per mg or BSP per ml of plasma per g of liver, remained unchanged (BN/Bi female) or even increased (WAG/Rij male and female) with age. As a consequence, S values expressed per rat were higher in older age groups than in the youngest one for all three rat groups. In contrast with previous reports by other authors on man and rats, the BSP Tm appears to decrease with age regardless of rat and sex, while S does not show such a decrease. PMID:7329103

  19. Live vs. digital video disk exercise in college--aged females.

    PubMed

    Killen, Lauren G; Barry, Vaughn W; Cooper, Cathy; Coons, John M

    2014-12-01

    Although exercise digital video disk (DVD) sales have substantially increased over the past decade, little is known on the effectiveness of personal training vs. DVD exercises. The purpose of this study was to compare energy expenditures and heart rates of live and DVD vigorously intense exercise sessions. Twenty active and low-to-moderate fit, college-aged females completed 2 identical exercise sessions. Each exercise session consisted of 6 exercises; 1 session was completed with a personal trainer and the other with a DVD. A portable metabolic analyzer was used to measure oxygen consumption and record heart rate. Both energy expenditure (p < 0.001) and heart rate (p = 0.001) were significantly higher during the live exercise session as compared with the DVD exercise session. Rate of perceived exertion was significantly higher for the live exercise session compared with the DVD exercise session (p = 0.045). Finally, the majority (89%) of the participants reported that they preferred the live exercise session over the DVD exercise session. The results suggest that low-to-moderately fit college-aged females not only prefer exercise sessions with a personal trainer but will also demonstrate higher energy expenditures and heart rates. PMID:24918301

  20. Effects of estrogen and progesterone on spatial memory consolidation in aged females.

    PubMed

    Harburger, Lauren L; Bennett, Jennifer C; Frick, Karyn M

    2007-04-01

    Interpretation of data illustrating that estrogen, with or without progestin, is detrimental to memory in post-menopausal women is complicated by the fact that little is known about the effects of progestins on memory. The present study examined if estrogen, alone or with progesterone, affects spatial memory consolidation in ovariectomized aged female mice. Mice received eight training trials in a spatial Morris water maze followed immediately by injection of water-soluble 17beta-estradiol (E(2); 0.2 mg/kg) or vehicle. Mice were re-tested 24 h later. All mice learned to find the platform on Day 1. On Day 2, the performance of control, but not E(2) mice, deteriorated, suggesting that E(2) enhanced memory for the platform location. In a second experiment, mice were injected with E(2) and 10 or 20 mg/kg water-soluble progesterone. The 10 mg/kg dose of progesterone did not affect estrogen's ability to enhance spatial memory consolidation, but 20 mg/kg blocked this effect. These data indicate that estrogen can improve spatial memory consolidation in aged females and that this effect can be attenuated by progesterone.

  1. Lead-induced modifications of immune responses in aging male and female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Genova, T.F.

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the effects of lead intoxication on the immunological responses of aging male and female Balb/c mice. Both males and females on the lead diet exhibited a loss of weight after one week of treatment. The animals began to gain weight again after eight or fifteen weeks for males and females respectively. Although both groups continued to gain weight at a rate consistent with control animals, they never reached the same weights as their same-sex control counterparts. Immunofluorescent staining indicated the presence of greater renal pathology in lead-fed animals as compared to controls. Lead-fed males demonstrated the greatest pathology of any group. Both T and B cell mitogenic responses declined during the early phases of the experiment. This was followed, at age 25-27 weeks, by an increase in activity to levels greater than those of control animals. The depression and subsequent increase in mitogenic responses was mirrored in the ability of T cells to regulate B cell plaque formation when stimulated with sheep red blood cells. T cell function returned to control levels in coincidence with the increase in T and B cell mitogenicity. The return of T cell functionality to control levels coincides with the increased mitogenesis noted in T and B cell populations and the onset of weight gains by lead-fed animals. This coincidence suggests the occurrence of a physiological or immunological change which is compensating for the continued lead intoxication. One such change may be a lead induced reduction in the number or function of a T cell subset, eg. T suppressors.

  2. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from south-central Alaska: analysis of reproductive tracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.; Mulcahy, D.; Lensink, C.

    1993-01-01

    We estimated age at sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from south-central Alaska, Primarily from western Prince William Sound, as a result of the T/V Exxon Valdez oit spill in 1989. We found 65% of our sample to be sexually mature. Sexual maturity was first attained at age 2. The proportion of sexually mature animals increased from 30% at age 2 to 100% at age 5. Annual reproductive rates increased from 22% at age 2 to 78% at age 5 and remained relatively stable (75-88%) through to age 15. the sex ratio (female:male) of 49 fetal sea otters was 18:37 and differed significantly from parity. Females younger than 8 tended to produce more female fetuses, while older mothers did not. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts wre similiar to those reported in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  3. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    PubMed Central

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  4. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs. PMID:26758076

  5. Association between maternal age at childbirth and child and adult outcomes in the offspring: a prospective study in five low-income and middle-income countries (COHORTS collaboration)

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Caroline H D; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Restrepo-Mendez, Maria Clara; Victora, Cesar; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D; Sinha, Shikha; Tandon, Nikhil; Adair, Linda; Bas, Isabelita; Norris, Shane; Richter, Linda M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Both young and advanced maternal age is associated with adverse birth and child outcomes. Few studies have examined these associations in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) and none have studied adult outcomes in the offspring. We aimed to examine both child and adult outcomes in five LMICs. Methods In this prospective study, we pooled data from COHORTS (Consortium for Health Orientated Research in Transitioning Societies)—a collaboration of five birth cohorts from LMICs (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa), in which mothers were recruited before or during pregnancy, and the children followed up to adulthood. We examined associations between maternal age and offspring birthweight, gestational age at birth, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z scores in childhood, attained schooling, and adult height, body composition (body-mass index, waist circumference, fat, and lean mass), and cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose concentration), along with binary variables derived from these. Analyses were unadjusted and adjusted for maternal socioeconomic status, height and parity, and breastfeeding duration. Findings We obtained data for 22 188 mothers from the five cohorts, enrolment into which took place at various times between 1969 and 1989. Data for maternal age and at least one outcome were available for 19 403 offspring (87%). In unadjusted analyses, younger (≤19 years) and older (≥35 years) maternal age were associated with lower birthweight, gestational age, child nutritional status, and schooling. After adjustment, associations with younger maternal age remained for low birthweight (odds ratio [OR] 1·18 (95% CI 1·02–1·36)], preterm birth (1·26 [1·03–1·53]), 2-year stunting (1·46 [1·25–1·70]), and failure to complete secondary schooling (1·38 [1·18–1·62]) compared with mothers aged 20–24 years. After adjustment, older maternal age remained

  6. The association between parental life history and offspring phenotype in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; McLennan, Darryl; McKelvey, Simon; Stewart, David C; Adams, Colin E; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    In many taxa there is considerable intraspecific variation in life history strategies from within a single population, reflecting alternative routes through which organisms can achieve successful reproduction. Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) show some of the greatest within-population variability in life history strategies amongst vertebrates, with multiple discrete male and female life histories co-existing and interbreeding on many spawning grounds, although the effect of the various combinations of life histories on offspring traits remains unknown. Using crosses of wild fish we show here that the life history strategy of both parents was significantly associated with a range of offspring traits. Mothers that had spent longer at sea (2 versus 1 year) produced offspring that were heavier, longer and in better condition at the time of first feeding. However, these relationships disappeared shortly after fry had begun feeding exogenously. At this stage, the juvenile rearing environment (i.e. time spent in fresh water as juveniles) of the mother was a better predictor of offspring traits, with mothers that were faster to develop in fresh water (migrating to sea after two rather than three years of age) producing offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, aerobic scopes, and that grew faster. Faster developing fathers (1 year old sneaker males) tended to produce offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, were in better body condition and grew faster. The results suggest that both genetic effects and those related to parental early and late life history contribute to offspring traits. PMID:26596536

  7. Intermittent prenatal MDMA exposure alters physiological but not mood related parameters in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Adori, Csaba; Zelena, Dóra; Tímár, Júlia; Gyarmati, Zsuzsa; Domokos, Agnes; Sobor, Melinda; Fürst, Zsuzsanna; Makara, Gábor; Bagdy, György

    2010-01-20

    The recreational party drug "ecstasy" (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA) is particularly popular among young adults who are in the childbearing age and thus there is a substantial risk of prenatal MDMA exposure. We applied an intermittent treatment protocol with an early first injection on pregnant Wistar rats (15 mg/kg MDMA s.c. on the E4, E11 and E18 days of gestation) to examine the potential physiological, endocrine and behavioral effects on adult male and female offspring. Prenatal MDMA-treatment provoked reduced body weight of offspring from the birth as far as the adulthood. Adult MDMA-offspring had a reduced blood-glucose concentration and hematocrit, altered relative spleen and thymus weight, had lower performance on wire suspension test and on the first trial of rotarod test. In contrast, no alteration in the locomotor activity was found. Anxiety and depression related behavioral parameters in elevated plus maze, sucrose preference or forced swimming tests were normal. MDMA-offspring had elevated concentration of the ACTH-precursor proopiomelanocortin and male MDMA-offspring exhibited elevated blood corticosterone concentration. No significant alteration was detected in the serotonergic marker tryptophan-hydroxylase and the catcholaminergic marker tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive fiber densities in MDMA-offspring. The mothers exhibited reduced densities of serotonergic but not catecholaminergic fibers after the MDMA treatment. Our findings suggest that an intermittent prenatal MDMA exposure with an early first injection and a relatively low cumulative dose provokes mild but significant alterations in physical-physiological parameters and reduces motor skill learning in adulthood. In contrast, these adult offspring do not produce anxiety or depression like behavior. PMID:19782105

  8. Reduced vasorelaxation to estradiol and G-1 in aged female and adult male rats is associated with GPR30 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Sarah H; da Silva, Ariel S; Silva, Mauro S; Chappell, Mark C

    2013-07-01

    Previously, we reported that chronic activation of the estrogen receptor GPR30 by its selective agonist G-1 decreases blood pressure in ovariectomized hypertensive mRen2.Lewis (mRen2) rats but not intact male littermates. Furthermore, G-1 relaxes female mesenteric resistance arteries via both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Because of the lack of a blood pressure-lowering effect by G-1 in males and the potential influence of aging on estrogen receptor expression, we hypothesized that GPR30-dependent vasodilation and receptor expression are altered in males and aged females. Thus, we assessed the response to 17β-estradiol or G-1 in mesenteric arteries obtained from 15-wk-old normotensive Lewis and hypertensive mRen2 females and males as well as 52-wk-old Lewis females. Vasodilation to 17β-estradiol (E₂) and G-1 was significantly attenuated in 15-wk-old Lewis and mRen2 males compared with age-matched females. Pretreatment of male vessels with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME had no significant effect on the estradiol or G-1 response. In aged females, E₂ and G-1 vasorelaxation was also significantly blunted; however, L-NAME essentially abolished the response. Associated with the reduced vascular responses, GPR30 expression in mesenteric arteries was approximately 50% lower in males and aged females compared with young females. We conclude that alterations in GPR30 expression and signaling may contribute to vascular dysfunction in aging females and a greater blood pressure in hypertensive males.

  9. Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Ronco, Ana Maria; Montenegro, Marcela; Castillo, Paula; Urrutia, Manuel; Saez, Daniel; Hirsch, Sandra; Zepeda, Ramiro; Llanos, Miguel N.

    2011-03-01

    Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-{kappa}B expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

  10. Age-related differences in the toxicity of ochratoxin A in female rats.

    PubMed

    Dortant, P M; Peters-Volleberg, G W; Van Loveren, H; Marquardt, R R; Speijers, G J

    2001-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin found in food and feedstuffs of plant and animal origin. OTA exposure is related to nephropathy in humans. Age-related differences, especially in nephro- and immunotoxicity of OTA, were investigated in young adult (aged 12 weeks) and old (aged 27-30 months) female SPF Wag rats, treated by gavage with 0, 0.07, 0.34 or 1.68 mg OTA/kg body weight for 4 weeks. In both age groups, survival was significantly decreased in the highest dose group. Clinical condition, body weight, clinical chemistry parameters (ALAT, ASAT, creatinin and urea) and target organs (as identified by weight and pathology - kidney, liver, adrenals, forestomach and brain) were affected by age and dose, but often more severely in old than in young rats. OTA induced primarily nephropathy. Old rats were more sensitive to induction of tubular karyomegaly and vacuolation/necrosis. In young rats, OTA induced a dose-related thickening of the basement membrane and reduction in splenic T-cell fraction. Decreased IgG levels were seen at 0.34 mg/kg OTA (young and old rats) and 1.68 mg/kg OTA (young rats). Vacuolation of the white brain matter (cerebellar medulla and ventral parts of the brain stem) was significantly increased in young rats at 0.34 and 1.68 mg/kg OTA and in old rats at 0.07 and 0.34 mg/kg OTA. It was concluded that: (1) the profiles of OTA toxicity for both age groups are similar, with the kidney and possibly the brain being primary target organs; (2) based on clinical and pathological data old rats are more sensitive to OTA than young rats; and (3) the immune system is probably not the primary target of OTA toxicity.

  11. Age at Menarche and Factors that Influence It: A Study among Female University Students in Tamale, Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame; Garti, Helene Akpene

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Age at menarche reflects the health status of a population. This marks the beginning of sexual maturation and is affected by nutritional status and prevailing environmental conditions. This study measured the menarcheal age of female undergraduate students in northern Ghana and explored factors that could impact on the onset of menarche. Method GraphPad 5.01 was used to analyze data collected from 293 randomly selected female university students in a cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire. Association between different variables was tested using appropriate statistical tests. Results The mean recall age at menarche of participants in this study was 13.66 ±1.87 years for a female population of mean age, 23.04±5.07 years. Compared to female students who lived in rural settings, urban and suburban areas dwellers significantly recorded earlier menarche (p = 0.0006). Again, females from high income earning families experienced menarche earlier than those who were born to or lived with lower income earners (p = 0.003). Lower menarcheal age increased risk of experiencing menstrual pain prior to menses rather than during menstrual flow for dysmenorrhic females. (13.52±2.052 vrs 13.63±1.582 year; χ2 = 7.181, df = 2, p = 0.028). Conclusion Mean menarcheal age of female university students in northern Ghana was 13.66 years. Females from urban areas and high income families had earlier menarche. Compared to the very first Ghanaian study reported in 1989, the menarcheal age decline was 0.11 year per decade. PMID:27171234

  12. Sexual dysfunction among female patients of reproductive age in a hospital setting in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fajewonyomi, Benjamin A; Orji, Ernest O; Adeyemo, Adenike O

    2007-03-01

    Although sexual dysfunction is an important public-health problem in Nigeria, little research has been conducted on this topic in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and their correlates among female patients of reproductive age using a questionnaire. Respondents were recruited from the out-patients clinics of a teaching hospital setting in Ile-Ife/ Ijesa administrative health zone, Osun State, Nigeria. Of 384 female patients interviewed, 242 (63%) were sexually dysfunctional. Types of sexual dysfunction included disorder of desire (n=20; 8.3%), disorder of arousal (n=l 3; 5.4%), disorder of orgasm (n=154; 63.6%), and painful coitus (dyspareunia) (n=55; 22.7%). The peak age of sexual dysfunction was observed among the age-group of 26-30 years. Women with higher educational status were mostly affected. The reasons for unsatisfactory sexual life mainly included psychosexual factors and medical illnesses, among which included uncaring partners, present illness, excessive domestic duties, lack of adequate foreplay, present medication, competition among wives in a polygamous family setting, previous sexual abuse, and guilt-feeling of previous pregnancy termination among infertile women. The culture of male dominance in the local environment which makes women afraid of rejection and threats of divorce if they ever complain about sexually-related matters might perpetrate sexual dysfunction among the affected individuals. Sexual dysfunction is a real social and psychological problem in the local environment demanding urgent attention. It is imperative to carry out further research in society at large so that the health and lifestyles of affected women and their partners could be improved.

  13. Relationship of serum TCDD concentrations and age at exposure of female residents of Seveso, Italy.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Mocarelli, Paolo; Warner, Marcella; Needham, Larry; Patterson, Donald G; Samuels, Steven; Turner, Wayman; Gerthoux, Pier Mario; Brambilla, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    In 1976, a chemical plant explosion near Seveso, Italy, resulted in the highest known exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in residential populations. In 1996, we initiated the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS), a historical cohort study of females who were 40 years old at the time of explosion and residents of the most heavily contaminated areas, zones A and B. Serum samples collected near the time of the explosion were analyzed for TCDD. We also analyzed pooled serum samples collected in 1976 from females who resided in zone non-ABR, the "unexposed" zone, to assess concurrent background exposures to other dioxins, furans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The median lipid-adjusted TCDD level for residents of zones A and B combined was 56 ppt (range = 2.5-56,000 ppt). Zone A residents had 5-fold higher TCDD levels (n = 67, median = 272 ppt) than did zone B residents (n = 814, median = 47 ppt). The youngest children had the highest TCDD levels, which decreased with age at explosion until approximately 13 years of age and were constant thereafter. Therefore, children living in zones A and B received a disproportionately higher exposure to TCDD as a result of the explosion. Zone of residence and age were the strongest predictors of TCDD level. Chloracne, nearby animal mortality, location (outdoors vs. indoors) at the time of explosion, and consumption of homegrown food were also related to serum TCDD levels. The serum pools from zone non-ABR residents had an average TCDD concentration of 20.2 ppt, and average total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration of 100.4 ppt. Therefore, background exposure to dioxins, furans, and PCBs unrelated to the explosion may have been substantial. As a consequence, previous SWHS studies that considered only TCDD exposure may have underestimated health effects due to total TEQ concentrations.

  14. Estradiol reduces anxiety- and depression-like behavior of aged female mice

    PubMed Central

    Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial effects of the ovarian steroid, 17β-estradiol (E2), for affective behavior have been reported in young individuals, but less is known about the effects of E2 among older individuals, and the capacity of older individuals to respond to E2 following its decline. In the present study, the effects of acute E2 administration to aged mice for anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors were investigated. Intact female C57BL/6 mice (N=18) that were approximately 24 months old were administered vehicle (sesame oil, n=9) or E2 (10 μg, n=9) subcutaneously 1h prior to behavioral testing. Mice were tested for anxiety-like behavior (open field, elevated plus maze, mirror chamber, light–dark transition task, Vogel conflict task) and depression-like behavior (forced swim task). To assess the role of general motor behavior and coordination in these aged mice, performance in an activity monitor and rotarod task, and total entries made in tasks (open field, elevated plus maze, light–dark transition task) were determined. Mice administered E2, compared to vehicle, demonstrated anti-anxiety behavior in the open field, mirror chamber, and light–dark transition task, and anti-depressive-like behavior in the forced swim task. E2 also tended to have anti-anxiety effects in the elevated plus maze and Vogel task compared to vehicle administration, but these effects did not reach statistical significance. E2 did not alter motor behavior and/or coordination in the activity monitor, open field, or rotarod tasks. Thus, an acute E2 regimen produced specific anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects, independent of effects on motor behavior, when administered to aged female C57BL/6 mice. PMID:19804793

  15. Absence of the proapoptotic Bax protein extends fertility and alleviates age-related health complications in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Gloria I.; Jurisicova, Andrea; Wise, Lisa; Lipina, Tatiana; Kanisek, Marijana; Bechard, Allison; Takai, Yasushi; Hunt, Patricia; Roder, John; Grynpas, Marc; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2007-01-01

    The menopausal transition in human females, which is driven by a loss of cyclic ovarian function, occurs around age 50 and is thought to underlie the emergence of an array of health problems in aging women. Although mice do not undergo a true menopause, female mice exhibit ovarian failure long before death because of chronological age and subsequently develop many of the same age-associated health complications observed in postmenopausal women. Here we show in mice that inactivation of the proapoptotic Bax gene, which sustains ovarian lifespan into advanced age, extends fertile potential and minimizes many age-related health problems, including bone and muscle loss, excess fat deposition, alopecia, cataracts, deafness, increased anxiety, and selective attention deficit. Further, ovariectomy studies show that the health benefits gained by aged females from Bax deficiency reflect a complex interplay between ovary-dependent and -independent pathways. Importantly, and contrary to popular belief, prolongation of ovarian function into advanced age by Bax deficiency did not lead to an increase in tumor incidence. Thus, the development of methods for postponing ovarian failure at menopause may represent an attractive option for improving the quality of life in aging females. PMID:17360389

  16. Sex difference in pathology of the ageing gut mediates the greater response of female lifespan to dietary restriction

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jennifer C; Khericha, Mobina; Dobson, Adam J; Bolukbasi, Ekin; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Women live on average longer than men but have greater levels of late-life morbidity. We have uncovered a substantial sex difference in the pathology of the aging gut in Drosophila. The intestinal epithelium of the aging female undergoes major deterioration, driven by intestinal stem cell (ISC) division, while lower ISC activity in males associates with delay or absence of pathology, and better barrier function, even at old ages. Males succumb to intestinal challenges to which females are resistant, associated with fewer proliferating ISCs, suggesting a trade-off between highly active repair mechanisms and late-life pathology in females. Dietary restriction reduces gut pathology in aging females, and extends female lifespan more than male. By genetic sex reversal of a specific gut region, we induced female-like aging pathologies in males, associated with decreased lifespan, but also with a greater increase in longevity in response to dietary restriction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10956.001 PMID:26878754

  17. Aging reduces the efficacy of estrogen substitution to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy in female spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Jazbutyte, Virginija; Hu, Kai; Kruchten, Patricia; Bey, Emmanuel; Maier, Sebastian K G; Fritzemeier, Karl-Heinrich; Prelle, Katja; Hegele-Hartung, Christa; Hartmann, Rolf W; Neyses, Ludwig; Ertl, Georg; Pelzer, Theo

    2006-10-01

    Clinical trials failed to show a beneficial effect of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, whereas experimental studies in young animals reported a protective function of estrogen replacement in cardiovascular disease. Because these diverging results could in part be explained by aging effects, we compared the efficacy of estrogen substitution to modulate cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac gene expression among young (age 3 months) and senescent (age 24 months) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), which were sham operated or ovariectomized and injected with placebo or identical doses of 17beta-estradiol (E2; 2 microg/kg body weight per day) for 6 weeks (n=10/group). Blood pressure was comparable among sham-operated senescent and young SHRs and not altered by ovariectomy or E2 treatment among young or among senescent rats. Estrogen substitution inhibited uterus atrophy and gain of body weight in young and senescent ovariectomized SHRs, but cardiac hypertrophy was attenuated only in young rats. Cardiac estrogen receptor-alpha expression was lower in intact and in ovariectomized senescent compared with young SHRs and increased with estradiol substitution in aged rats. Plasma estradiol and estrone levels were lower not only in sham-operated but surprisingly also in E2-substituted senescent SHRs and associated with a reduction of hepatic 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme activity, which converts weak (ie, estrone) into potent estrogens, such as E2. Aging attenuates the antihypertrophic effect of estradiol in female SHRs and is associated with profound alterations in cardiac estrogen receptor-alpha expression and estradiol metabolism. These observations contribute to explain the lower efficiency of estrogen substitution in senescent SHRs.

  18. The Perimenopausal Aging Transition in the Female Rat Brain: Decline in Bioenergetic Systems and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Fei; Yao, Jia; Sancheti, Harsh; Feng, Tao; Melcangi, Roberto C.; Morgan, Todd E.; Finch, Caleb E.; Pike, Christian J.; Mack, Wendy J.; Cadenas, Enrique; Brinton, Roberta D.

    2015-01-01

    The perimenopause is an aging transition unique to the female that leads to reproductive senescence which can be characterized by multiple neurological symptoms. To better understand potential underlying mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause, the current study determined genomic, biochemical, brain metabolic and electrophysiological transformations that occur during this transition using a rat model recapitulating fundamental characteristics of the human perimenopause. Gene expression analyses indicated two distinct aging programs: chronological and endocrine. A critical period emerged during the endocrine transition from regular to irregular cycling characterized by decline in bioenergetic gene expression, confirmed by deficits in FDG-PET brain metabolism, mitochondrial function, and long-term potentiation. Bioinformatic analysis predicted insulin/IGF1 and AMPK/PGC1α signaling pathways as upstream regulators. Onset of acyclicity was accompanied by a rise in genes required for fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Subsequent chronological aging resulted in decline of genes required for mitochondrial function and β-amyloid degradation. Emergence of glucose hypometabolism and impaired synaptic function in brain provide plausible mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause and may be predictive of later life vulnerability to hypometabolic conditions such as Alzheimer’s. PMID:25921624

  19. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  20. Morphological, motor and technical determinants of fighting efficiency of Croatian female cadet age karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Josefina; Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the significance of morphological factors, factors of basic motor and specific motor abilities, and the factors of technical efficiency, on the karate fight success in Croatian female cadet karate athletes. With this purpose, the group of 18 anthropometric measures, 10 basic motor tests, 5 situational karate motor tests, the group of 8 evaluations of 6 basic karate techniques, and 2 karate kata performances was applied on the sample of 101 Croatian karateka aged 14 to 16. Inside the morphological area, the factor analysis isolated: Body mass and volume factor, Subcutaneous fat tissue factor, Longitudinal skeleton dimensionality factor, and Transversal fist dimensionality factor; in the basic motor area: General motor efficiency factor; in the situational motor area: General specific motor efficiency factor; in the area of karate technique performance evaluation: General technical efficiency factor. After that, the application of canonical discriminative analysis determined the differences between high and lower quality karate athletes in the overall area of the isolated factors. The discriminative function showed that high quality female karate athletes compared to those of lower quality differ the most in higher technical efficiency, higher basic and specific motor efficiency, while having somewhat less fat tissue and somewhat wider wrist and fist diameter. PMID:24611342

  1. Morphological, motor and technical determinants of fighting efficiency of Croatian female cadet age karate athletes.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Josefina; Katić, Ratko; Bala, Gustav

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the significance of morphological factors, factors of basic motor and specific motor abilities, and the factors of technical efficiency, on the karate fight success in Croatian female cadet karate athletes. With this purpose, the group of 18 anthropometric measures, 10 basic motor tests, 5 situational karate motor tests, the group of 8 evaluations of 6 basic karate techniques, and 2 karate kata performances was applied on the sample of 101 Croatian karateka aged 14 to 16. Inside the morphological area, the factor analysis isolated: Body mass and volume factor, Subcutaneous fat tissue factor, Longitudinal skeleton dimensionality factor, and Transversal fist dimensionality factor; in the basic motor area: General motor efficiency factor; in the situational motor area: General specific motor efficiency factor; in the area of karate technique performance evaluation: General technical efficiency factor. After that, the application of canonical discriminative analysis determined the differences between high and lower quality karate athletes in the overall area of the isolated factors. The discriminative function showed that high quality female karate athletes compared to those of lower quality differ the most in higher technical efficiency, higher basic and specific motor efficiency, while having somewhat less fat tissue and somewhat wider wrist and fist diameter.

  2. Maternal exposure to environmental enrichment before and during gestation influences behaviour of rat offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Zuena, Anna Rita; Zinni, Manuela; Giuli, Chiara; Cinque, Carlo; Alemà, Giovanni Sebastiano; Giuliani, Alessandro; Catalani, Assia; Casolini, Paola; Cozzolino, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The beneficial effects of Environmental Enrichment (EE) applied immediately after weaning or even in adulthood have been widely demonstrated. Less is known about the possible changes in behaviour and brain development of the progeny following the exposure of dams to EE. In order to further investigate this matter, female rats were reared in EE for 12weeks, from weaning until delivery. After having confirmed the presence of relevant behavioural effects of EE, both control and EE females underwent mating. Maternal behaviour was observed and male and female offspring were then administered a battery of behavioural test at different ages. EE mothers showed a decreased frequency of total nursing and, during the first 2days of lactation, an increase in licking/grooming behaviour. Maternal exposure to EE affected offspring behaviour in a sex-specific manner: social play behaviour and anxiety-like behaviour were increased in males but not in females and learning ability was improved only in females. As a general trend, maternal EE had a marked influence on motility in male and female offspring in both locomotor activity and swimming speed. Overall, this study highlights the importance of environmental stimulation, not only in the animals directly experiencing EE, but for their progeny too, opening the way to new hypothesis on the heritability mechanisms of behavioural traits.

  3. Sporotrichosis of Maxillary Sinuses in a Middle Aged Female Patient from Rural Area of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saumik; Sinha, Ramanuj; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Chakravorty, Sriparna

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is commonly a chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, a saprophytic fungus and is usually limited to cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Disseminated systemic, osteoarticular or pulmonary sporotrichosis have been reported but nasal sinusitis by this fungus is extremely infrequent. Earlier report from southern India documented a case of maxillary sinusitis by Sporothrix schenckii. Here we report a similar case of bilateral maxillary sinusitis in a middle aged female from a village of Bihar, a state in eastern India. She underwent endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery for nasal symptoms and diagnosed to have sporotrichotic infection of maxillary sinuses. The diagnosis was done by mycological and histopathological examination and patient improved under antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:27134873

  4. Costs of Reproduction and Terminal Investment by Females in a Semelparous Marsupial

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Diana O.; Blomberg, Simon P.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary explanations for life history diversity are based on the idea of costs of reproduction, particularly on the concept of a trade-off between age-specific reproduction and parental survival, and between expenditure on current and future offspring. Such trade-offs are often difficult to detect in population studies of wild mammals. Terminal investment theory predicts that reproductive effort by older parents should increase, because individual offspring become more valuable to parents as the conflict between current versus potential future offspring declines with age. In order to demonstrate this phenomenon in females, there must be an increase in maternal expenditure on offspring with age, imposing a fitness cost on the mother. Clear evidence of both the expenditure and fitness cost components has rarely been found. In this study, we quantify costs of reproduction throughout the lifespan of female antechinuses. Antechinuses are nocturnal, insectivorous, forest-dwelling small (20–40 g) marsupials, which nest in tree hollows. They have a single synchronized mating season of around three weeks, which occurs on predictable dates each year in a population. Females produce only one litter per year. Unlike almost all other mammals, all males, and in the smaller species, most females are semelparous. We show that increased allocation to current reproduction reduces maternal survival, and that offspring growth and survival in the first breeding season is traded-off with performance of the second litter in iteroparous females. In iteroparous females, increased allocation to second litters is associated with severe weight loss in late lactation and post-lactation death of mothers, but increased offspring growth in late lactation and survival to weaning. These findings are consistent with terminal investment. Iteroparity did not increase lifetime reproductive success, indicating that terminal investment in the first breeding season at the expense of maternal

  5. How do animals optimize the size-number trade-off when aging? Insights from reproductive senescence patterns in marmots.

    PubMed

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-françois; Gaillard, Jean-michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the influence of female age on five reproductive traits and on the offspring size-number trade-off from an extensive data set spanning 20 years of study on free-ranging Alpine marmots. Offspring mass increased with female age, whereas litter size and reproductive allocation remained constant in females up to 10 years of age and declined thereafter. Although reproductive allocation declined, post-weaning juvenile survival and the size-number trade-off did not change markedly throughout a female's lifetime. Senescence of annual reproductive success (i.e., the number of offspring surviving their first hibernation within a given litter) only resulted from senescence of litter size. The data were insufficient to determine whether the decrease in litter size with age was caused by declining litter size at birth, offspring pre-weaning survival, or both. Regardless, our findings demonstrate that marmot females display a size-number trade-off invariant with age, and that their reproductive tactic involves increasing offspring size at the cost of decreasing litter size with increasing age. As a result, reproductive performance remains constant throughout a female's lifetime, despite the deleterious effects of senescence in litter size. PMID:26236889

  6. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, E. Keith; Thompson, Charles F.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard Model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age-differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability over-produced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also over-produced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that

  7. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Bowers, E Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed, and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability overproduced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also overproduced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that parents are

  8. Adaptive variation in offspring size in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brody, M.S.; Lawlor, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in the birth size of offspring of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was observed in laboratory experiments and in field populations. In the laboratory, larger offspring were produced when the mother's food supply was reduced. In field populations, larger offspring were produced during the summer, a period of reduced food availability. Smaller offspring are produced in the spring, when food is readily available. Females may be making larger young to increase survival during the more severe conditions of the summer breeding period.

  9. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  10. Life-long environmental enrichment differentially affects the mnemonic response to estrogen in young, middle-aged, and aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Gresack, Jodi E; Kerr, Kristin M; Frick, Karyn M

    2007-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether life-long exposure to standard or enriched housing affects the ability of estrogen to improve spatial and object memory throughout the lifespan. Three-week-old female mice were maintained in standard or enriched housing up to and through ovariectomy and behavioral testing at 5, 17, or 22 months of age. Spatial memory was tested in the Morris water maze and object memory was tested using an object recognition task. Immediately after training each day, mice were injected intraperitoneally with vehicle or 0.2 mg/kg 17beta-estradiol. Among young females, object recognition was enhanced by estradiol alone, an effect that was reduced by enrichment. In contrast, spatial water maze performance was impaired by estradiol alone, but improved by the combination of both estradiol and enrichment. At middle-age, object recognition was enhanced by estradiol or enrichment alone, and the combination of both treatments. Spatial memory in the water maze was also improved by both treatments at middle-age, but the beneficial effects of estradiol were limited to standard-housed females. Finally, whereas enrichment in aged females significantly enhanced performance in both tasks, estradiol had no effect at this age in either task. In total, the data indicate that life-long enrichment can significantly alter the extent to which estradiol affects memory in mice throughout the lifespan. Importantly, the interaction between these treatments is highly dependent on age and type of memory tested.

  11. Age-specific responses to spring temperature in a migratory songbird: older females attempt more broods in warmer springs

    PubMed Central

    Bulluck, L; Huber, S; Viverette, C; Blem, C

    2013-01-01

    Increasing global temperature has led to an interest in plasticity in the timing of annual events; however, little is known about the demographic consequences of changing phenology. Annual reproductive success varies significantly among individuals within a population, and some of that variation has to do with the number of broods attempted by reproducing adults. In birds, female age and the timing of reproduction are often predictors of multiple breeding. We hypothesize that double brooding rates may be affected by spring temperature and that the response may vary with female age. We used a long-term reproductive data set for a migratory songbird, the prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) to assess which factors influence (a) an individual female's probability of double brooding and (b) the annual variation in population-level double brooding rates. We found that older and earlier nesting birds are more likely to double brood, and that there is no evidence for senescence with regard to this trait such that the oldest females were most likely to double brood. Previous experience with double brooding (i.e., whether the female double brooded in the previous year) significantly increased the probability of doing so again. When assessing annual variation in the double brooding rate, we found an interaction between spring temperature and the proportion of older females in the population. Specifically, older females are more likely to double brood in years with warmer springs, but this relationship was not seen for younger females. Previous studies have shown that warmer temperatures lead to earlier and narrower peaks in resources and we hypothesize that these peaks are more available to older and earlier arriving females, enabling them to successfully raise more than one brood in a season. Understanding how different age classes respond to changing environmental conditions will be imperative to managing declining species. PMID:24223269

  12. The association of maternal socialization in childhood and adolescence with adult offsprings' sympathy/caring.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Hofer, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine associations between mothers' socialization practices in childhood and adolescence and offsprings' (N = 32, 16 female) sympathy/concern in early adulthood. Mothers reported on their socialization practices and beliefs a total of 6 times using a Q-sort during their offsprings' childhood (between 7-8 and 11-12 years of age) and adolescence (between 13-14 and 17-18 years of age). Adult offsprings' sympathy/caring was assessed 3 times in early adulthood (at ages 19-20 to 23-24 years) and in their mid-20s to 30s (ages 25-26 to 31-32 years). In general, friends' reports of participants' sympathy/concern at ages 25-32 years related positively to mother-reported rational discipline (including inductions) and warmth and support during childhood and adolescence and negatively to mother-reported negative affect during adolescence. Self-reported sympathy/concern during early adulthood was positively related to maternal warmth and support during childhood and almost significantly negatively related to mother-reported negative affect during childhood and adolescence. Most of the relations held when the prior level of self-reported childhood empathy or adolescent sympathy was controlled.

  13. The association of maternal socialization in childhood and adolescence with adult offsprings' sympathy/caring.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Hofer, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine associations between mothers' socialization practices in childhood and adolescence and offsprings' (N = 32, 16 female) sympathy/concern in early adulthood. Mothers reported on their socialization practices and beliefs a total of 6 times using a Q-sort during their offsprings' childhood (between 7-8 and 11-12 years of age) and adolescence (between 13-14 and 17-18 years of age). Adult offsprings' sympathy/caring was assessed 3 times in early adulthood (at ages 19-20 to 23-24 years) and in their mid-20s to 30s (ages 25-26 to 31-32 years). In general, friends' reports of participants' sympathy/concern at ages 25-32 years related positively to mother-reported rational discipline (including inductions) and warmth and support during childhood and adolescence and negatively to mother-reported negative affect during adolescence. Self-reported sympathy/concern during early adulthood was positively related to maternal warmth and support during childhood and almost significantly negatively related to mother-reported negative affect during childhood and adolescence. Most of the relations held when the prior level of self-reported childhood empathy or adolescent sympathy was controlled. PMID:25383690

  14. Maitake Mushroom Extracts Ameliorate Progressive Hypertension and Other Chronic Metabolic Perturbations in Aging Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Harry G.; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Perricone, Nicholas V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the ability of two commercially-available fractions labeled SX and D derived from the edible maitake mushroom to overcome many age-associated metabolic perturbations such as progressive, age-related elevation of blood pressure, over activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), decreased insulin sensitivity, and inflammation in an in vivo laboratory model. Design and Method: We divided forty mature, female Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) into five groups of eight. SD ingested regular rat chow containing added sucrose (20% w/w). The groups received baseline diet alone (control) or baseline diet containing captopril, niacin-bound chromium, maitake fraction SX, or maitake fraction D. In addition to blood pressure readings, the following procedures were implemented: losartan and insulin challenges, evaluation of serum ACE activity, glucose tolerance testing, blood chemistries, LNAME challenge, and measurement of various circulating cytokines. Results: We found that implementation of all test conditions stopped the gradual elevation of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the SD over the four months of study, even reversing some of the previous elevation that occurred over time. In general, the treatment groups showed decreased activity of the RAS estimated by less lowering of SBP after losartan challenge and decreased serum ACE activity and were more sensitive to exogenous insulin challenge. TNFa levels decreased in all four test groups suggesting a lessening of the inflammatory state. Conclusions: We believe our data suggest that maitake mushroom fractions lessen age-related hypertension, at least in part, via effects on the RAS; enhance insulin sensitivity; and reduce some aspects of inflammation -- actions that should lead to a longer, healthier life span. PMID:20567593

  15. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B in the Reproductive-Age Female Farmworkers of Southeastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Simsek, Zeynep; Keklik, Zehra; Gurses, Gulcan; Zeyrek, Fadile Yildiz

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on the prevalence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the agricultural population worldwide. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in the reproductive-age female farmworker. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013 in southeastern region (SAR) of Turkey. A community-based representative agricultural sample (n = 705) from the agricultural areas of nine provinces of SAR was randomly determined by clustering method using Epi Info software. Questionnaires including demographic information and risk factors of HBV were administered to participants. The presence of HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HBe antibodies in blood samples were measured by ELISA. Results: The prevalence of the HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, anti-HBe antibodies, and seropositivity were 5.7%, 25.9%, 28.9%, 16.4%, and 36.7%, respectively. There was no association between the HBsAg and the size of the household, age, education level, parity, and place of birth while the prevalence of HBsAg was higher in seasonal migratory farmworkers and people living in urban areas and the prevalence of anti-HBs antibody was significantly higher in women ≥ 35 years of age, those with a high parity, and those who gave birth without the assistance of health professionals (P < 0.05). The risk for HBV infection in the seasonal migratory group was 4.3 times higher in comparison to local workers (P = 0.00; OR = 4.3; 95% CI, 2.2-8.4), with a prevalence rate of 11%. Conclusions: The monitoring of at-risk groups like seasonal migratory farmworkers is necessary to strengthen the healthcare service provided to this population. PMID:25598790

  16. Senescence of maternal effects: aging influences egg quality and rearing capacities of a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Beamonte-Barrientos, René; Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

    2010-04-01

    Senescence could depress prenatal and postnatal capacities of mothers to invest in offspring. Longitudinal observations on the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) revealed a quadratic effect of female age on fledgling production and cohort differences in rate of reproductive decline. By swapping clutches between females of different ages, we tested whether reproductive senescence is due to decline in egg quality or capacity to care. As laying mothers aged, egg size, ulna length of 5-day-old chicks, and ulna growth of second chicks up to age 30 days declined, and as rearing mothers aged, ulna growth and cellular mediated immune response of second chicks diminished. Oddly, senescent females (>11 years) produced more fledglings when rearing offspring of middle-aged females (8-11 years) than when rearing offspring of senescent or young females. Thus, senescence reduced egg quality and rearing capacities, and reproductive success of senescent mothers depended on prenatal effects associated with the age of the laying mother. Reproductive senescence of boobies may involve constraints on resources allocated to reproduction as well as adaptive adjustment of provision and care according to offspring value, implying that negative effects of senescence on offspring survival can be ameliorated by plasticity in postlaying or postnatal care.

  17. Senescence of maternal effects: aging influences egg quality and rearing capacities of a long-lived bird.

    PubMed

    Beamonte-Barrientos, René; Velando, Alberto; Drummond, Hugh; Torres, Roxana

    2010-04-01

    Senescence could depress prenatal and postnatal capacities of mothers to invest in offspring. Longitudinal observations on the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) revealed a quadratic effect of female age on fledgling production and cohort differences in rate of reproductive decline. By swapping clutches between females of different ages, we tested whether reproductive senescence is due to decline in egg quality or capacity to care. As laying mothers aged, egg size, ulna length of 5-day-old chicks, and ulna growth of second chicks up to age 30 days declined, and as rearing mothers aged, ulna growth and cellular mediated immune response of second chicks diminished. Oddly, senescent females (>11 years) produced more fledglings when rearing offspring of middle-aged females (8-11 years) than when rearing offspring of senescent or young females. Thus, senescence reduced egg quality and rearing capacities, and reproductive success of senescent mothers depended on prenatal effects associated with the age of the laying mother. Reproductive senescence of boobies may involve constraints on resources allocated to reproduction as well as adaptive adjustment of provision and care according to offspring value, implying that negative effects of senescence on offspring survival can be ameliorated by plasticity in postlaying or postnatal care. PMID:20175680

  18. Shoulder disorders in female working-age population: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are among the most common pathologies in the general population. However, research into the prevalence of upper arm MSDs is hampered by a lack of uniformity in case definition, and by the absence of a gold standard for measurement. Furthermore, some sectors of the population have benefited from extensive research whilst others have largely been ignored. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Objectives: to investigate the prevalence of shoulder MSDs in a working age female population not exposed to specific occupational risk factors such as heavy and/or repetitive work, assessing the differences in prevalence recorded by using three different standard measurement tools. Methods 302 working aged women were enrolled in this study (age 20–55 years). Each subject underwent three different assessments: standardized questionnaires for symptoms and disability and the SF36 health survey, a clinical assessment performed by a blinded orthopaedic specialist, and an imaging assessment by means of ultrasound (US) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) if indicated. Results According to the questionnaire 77 subjects (25.5%) complained of shoulder pain whilst 225 (74.5%) were asymptomatic. According to the clinical examination, 31 subjects (10.3%) resulted positive, whereas 271 subjects (89.7%) had normal shoulders. According to the imaging findings, 26 subjects (8.6%) had alterations to the anatomical structures of the shoulder, whilst 276 subjects (91.4%) had no detectable abnormalities in either shoulder. In all assessments, the prevalence increased with age (p = 0.001). Conclusion Depending on the outcome measure used, the prevalence of reported MSDs of the shoulder varies considerably. There is a striking difference between the prevalence of subjective reported symptoms and the standardized clinical/imaging examinations. However, the results of all the assessments did concur in one aspect; there was a significant trend of increased

  19. Hormonal monitoring of age at sexual maturation in female Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in their family groups.

    PubMed

    Dettling, A; Pryce, C R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not sexual maturation is attained in the family group in captive-born Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) and if so, at what age and body weight. To monitor ovarian activity in 14 female Goeldi's monkeys, urinary content of pregnanediol-3alpha-glucuronide (PdG) was determined using radioimmunoassay. Urinary samples were collected between the ages of 6 and 70 weeks. Subjects became sexually mature while still housed in their family groups, at a median age of 57 weeks (48-< 70 weeks). Median body weight at the age of sexual maturity was 473 g (N=10; 420-543 g). This corresponded to 90% of the median non-pregnant body weight of breeding females in our colony (526 g, N=8). Therefore, Goeldi's monkey is similar to Leontopithecus but different from Cebuella, Callithrix, and Saguinus, in terms of daughters ovulating in the family group and at a relatively young age.

  20. Generalized Joint Laxity and Ligament Injuries in High School–Aged Female Volleyball Players in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sueyoshi, Ted; Emoto, Gen; Yuasa, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generalized joint laxity has been linked to ligamentous injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament tear and ankle sprain. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate generalized joint laxity and incidence of ligament injuries in high school–aged female volleyball players. It was hypothesized that volleyball players with a past history of sprains would have increased generalized joint laxity compared with those without any history and that athletes with multiple sprains would demonstrate with a higher generalized joint laxity score than those who had only 1 sprain. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Forty-seven subjects were tested for generalized joint laxity using the Beighton and Horan Joint Mobility Index (BHJMI). They were categorized into 2 groups based on the presence of past ligament injury: injury group (IG) and noninjury group (NG). The IG group was further divided into 2 groups based on whether they had a single ligamentous injury (IGS) or multiple injuries (IGM) in the past to study whether there was any difference in scores between the subgroups. The collected data were analyzed statistically with 1-way analysis of variance. Results: Subjects in the IG group scored significantly higher on the BHJMI than those in the NG group. The mean score for the IG group was 2.40 ± 1.42, as opposed to 1.24 ± 1.09 for the NG group (P = .006). Eleven subjects in the IG group had suffered multiple injuries or recurrent injuries (IGM) and scored significantly higher than the remaining 19 individuals in the IG group, who had only sustained a single injury (IGS). The mean BHJMI scores were 3.18 ± 1.47 and 1.95 ± 1.22 for IGM and IGS, respectively (P = .02). Conclusion: Female athletes with a high generalized joint laxity score may be more prone to ligament injury and potentially to recurrent ligament injuries. PMID:27761474

  1. Maternal consumption of Lake Ontario salmon in rats produces behavioral changes in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Daly, H B; Stewart, P W; Lunkenheimer, L; Sargent, D

    1998-01-01

    The current study assessed the effects of maternal, paternal, or combined parental consumption of Lake Ontario salmon in rats on the behavior of their offspring. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were put on a 30 day diet of either ground rat chow containing 30% Lake Ontario salmon (LAKE) or 30% Pacific Ocean salmon (OCEAN). These females were then mated with adult male rats similarly exposed (LAKE or OCEAN). An additional control group of males and females who were fed ground rat chow (MASH) only were also mated. These pairing combinations resulted in five offspring groups: LAKE-LAKE, LAKE-OCEAN, OCEAN-LAKE, OCEAN-OCEAN, MASH-MASH. When the offspring reached 80 days of age, they were tested for reactivity to frustrative nonreward using runway successive negative contrast, which has been repeatedly shown to be increased in adult rats fed Ontario salmon. Consistent with previous work, results showed that the behavior of the OCEAN-OCEAN rats did not differ from the MASH-MASH group, indicating that a salmon diet per se does not cause behavioral change. However, the offspring of dams who consumed Lake Ontario salmon (LAKE-LAKE and OCEAN-LAKE) showed an increased depression effect relative to controls. There was little evidence of a paternal effect. A follow-up experiment employed cross-fostering to determine the relative contribution of pre- and/or postnatal exposure to Lake Ontario salmon consumption on offspring behavior. Rat pups were cross-fostered to or from dams who consumed Lake Ontario salmon during gestation and parturition. Results from two separate replications indicated that prenatal (LAKE to OCEAN) exposure alone or postnatal (OCEAN to LAKE) exposure alone produced a large increase in successive negative contrast relative to controls (OCEAN to OCEAN). These data are strong evidence of behavioral changes produced by maternal consumption of Lake Ontario salmon in the offspring rat. Further, they indicate that either prenatal or postnatal exposure alone is

  2. Differential allocation in a lekking bird: females lay larger eggs and are more likely to have male chicks when they mate with less related males

    PubMed Central

    Sardell, Rebecca J.; DuVal, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts increased investment in offspring when females mate with high-quality males. Few studies have tested whether investment varies with mate relatedness, despite evidence that non-additive gene action influences mate and offspring genetic quality. We tested whether female lekking lance-tailed manakins (Chiroxiphia lanceolata) adjust offspring sex and egg volume in response to mate attractiveness (annual reproductive success, ARS), heterozygosity and relatedness. Across 968 offspring, the probability of being male decreased with increasing parental relatedness but not father ARS or heterozygosity. This correlation tended to diminish with increasing lay-date. Across 162 offspring, egg volume correlated negatively with parental relatedness and varied with lay-date, but was unrelated to father ARS or heterozygosity. Offspring sex and egg size were unrelated to maternal age. Comparisons of maternal half-siblings in broods with no mortality produced similar results, indicating differential allocation rather than covariation between female quality and relatedness or sex-specific inbreeding depression in survival. As males suffer greater inbreeding depression, overproducing females after mating with related males may reduce fitness costs of inbreeding in a system with no inbreeding avoidance, while biasing the sex of outbred offspring towards males may maximize fitness via increased mating success of outbred sons. PMID:24225457

  3. Effect of Age, Duration of Exposure, and Dose of Atrazine on Sexual Maturation and the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in the Female Sprague–Dawley Rat

    PubMed Central

    Breckenridge, Charles B.; Coder, Pragati Sawhney; Tisdel, Merrill O.; Simpkins, James W.; Yi, Kun Don; Foradori, Chad D.; Handa, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) was administered daily by gavage to pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0, 6.25, 25 or 50 mg/kg/day, either during gestation, lactation and post-weaning (G/L/PW cohort) to F1 generation female offspring or only from postnatal day (PND 21) until five days after sexual maturation (vaginal opening) when the estrogen-primed, luteinizing hormone (LH) surge was evaluated (PW cohort). Additional subgroups of F1 females received the vehicle or ATZ from PND 21–133 or from PND 120–133. Slight reductions in fertility and the percentage of F1 generation pups surviving to PND 21 in the gestationally exposed 50 mg/kg dose group were accompanied by decreased food intake and body weight of dams and F1 generation offspring. The onset of puberty was delayed in of the F1 generation G/L/PW females at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg/day. F1 generation females in the PW high-dose ATZ group also experienced a delay in the onset of puberty. ATZ had no effect on peak LH or LH AUC in ovariectomized rats 5 days after sexual maturation, irrespective of whether the F1 generation females were treated from gestation onward or only peripubertally. There was no effect of ATZ treatment on the estrous cycle, peak LH or LH AUC of F1 generation females exposed from gestation through to PND 133 or only for two weeks from PND 120–133. These results indicate that developing females exposed to ATZ are not more sensitive compared to animals exposed to ATZ as young adults. PMID:26439775

  4. Effect of Age, Duration of Exposure, and Dose of Atrazine on Sexual Maturation and the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in the Female Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, Charles B; Sawhney Coder, Pragati; Tisdel, Merrill O; Simpkins, James W; Yi, Kun Don; Foradori, Chad D; Handa, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) was administered daily by gavage to pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats at doses of 0, 6.25, 25 or 50 mg/kg/day, either during gestation, lactation and post-weaning (G/L/PW cohort) to F1 generation female offspring or only from postnatal day (PND 21) until five days after sexual maturation (vaginal opening) when the estrogen-primed, luteinizing hormone (LH) surge was evaluated (PW cohort). Additional subgroups of F1 females received the vehicle or ATZ from PND 21-133 or from PND 120-133. Slight reductions in fertility and the percentage of F1 generation pups surviving to PND 21 in the gestationally exposed 50 mg/kg dose group were accompanied by decreased food intake and body weight of dams and F1 generation offspring. The onset of puberty was delayed in of the F1 generation G/L/PW females at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg/day. F1 generation females in the PW high-dose ATZ group also experienced a delay in the onset of puberty. ATZ had no effect on peak LH or LH AUC in ovariectomized rats 5 days after sexual maturation, irrespective of whether the F1 generation females were treated from gestation onward or only peripubertally. There was no effect of ATZ treatment on the estrous cycle, peak LH or LH AUC of F1 generation females exposed from gestation through to PND 133 or only for two weeks from PND 120-133. These results indicate that developing females exposed to ATZ are not more sensitive compared to animals exposed to ATZ as young adults.

  5. Adaptive size modification by dominant female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew F; Carlson, Anne A; McIlrath, Grant M; Jordan, Neil R; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2004-07-01

    In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition of alpha status is associated with a significant increase in body size through an elongation of the lumbar vertebrae. Here we provide evidence of morphological modification among breeding females of a cooperative carnivore, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), and demonstrate that this modification is likely to be adaptive. The same female meerkats were significantly larger when they were dominant than when they were subordinate. This increased body size was not explained by differences in age, foraging efficiency, or investment in offspring care, but may have arisen, in part, through increased levels of hormone that govern bone growth. Increases in body size are likely to result in fitness benefits, for large females delivered larger litters and had heavier offspring, both of which are known to correlate positively with measures of breeding success in meerkats. Our results suggest that the acquisition of alpha status in female meerkats is associated with an adaptive increase in body size and hence that morphological modification of female vertebrates may be more widespread than has been previously supposed.

  6. Adaptive size modification by dominant female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew F; Carlson, Anne A; McIlrath, Grant M; Jordan, Neil R; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2004-07-01

    In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition of alpha status is associated with a significant increase in body size through an elongation of the lumbar vertebrae. Here we provide evidence of morphological modification among breeding females of a cooperative carnivore, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), and demonstrate that this modification is likely to be adaptive. The same female meerkats were significantly larger when they were dominant than when they were subordinate. This increased body size was not explained by differences in age, foraging efficiency, or investment in offspring care, but may have arisen, in part, through increased levels of hormone that govern bone growth. Increases in body size are likely to result in fitness benefits, for large females delivered larger litters and had heavier offspring, both of which are known to correlate positively with measures of breeding success in meerkats. Our results suggest that the acquisition of alpha status in female meerkats is associated with an adaptive increase in body size and hence that morphological modification of female vertebrates may be more widespread than has been previously supposed. PMID:15341161

  7. Prediction of Female Breast Cancer Incidence among the Aging Society in Kanagawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kayoko

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing number of elderly “baby boomers” in Japan, the number of cancer patients is also expected to increase. Approximately 2 million baby boomers from nearby local areas are residing in metropolitan areas; hence, the geographical distribution of cancer patients will probably markedly change. We assessed the expected number of breast cancer (BC) patients in different regions (urban, outer city, town, rural) using estimates of the nation’s population and Kanagawa Cancer Registry data. To estimate future BC incidence for each region, we multiplied the 2010 rate by the predicted female population for each region according to age group. The incidence cases of BC in those aged ≥65 years is expected to increase in all areas; in particular, compared to rates in 2010, the BC incidence in urban areas was predicted to increase by 82.6% in 2035 and 102.2% in 2040. Although the incidence in all BC cases in urban areas showed an increasing trend, until peaking in 2040 (increasing 31.2% from 2010), the number of BC patients would continue to decrease in other areas. The number of BC patients per capita BC specialist was 64.3 patients in 2010; this value would increase from 59.3 in 2010 to 77.7 in 2040 in urban areas, but would decrease in other areas. Our findings suggest that the number of elderly BC patients is expected to increase rapidly in urban areas and that the demand for BC treatment would increase in the elderly population in urban areas. PMID:27532126

  8. Female Reproductive Aging Is Master-Planned at the Level of Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Banerjee, Sutapa; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Kabir, Syed N.

    2014-01-01

    The ovary receives a finite pool of follicles during fetal life. Atresia remains the major form of follicular expenditure at all stages since development of ovary. The follicular reserve, however, declines at an exponential rate leading to accelerated rate of decay during the years preceding menopause. We examined if diminished follicle reserve that characterizes ovarian aging impacts the attrition rate. Premature ovarian aging was induced in rats by intra-embryonic injection of galactosyltransferase-antibody on embryonic day 10. On post-natal day 35 of the female litters, either a wedge of fat (sham control) or a wild type ovary collected from 25-day old control rats, was transplanted under the ovarian bursa in both sides. Follicular growth and atresia, and ovarian microenvironment were evaluated in the follicle-deficient host ovary and transplanted ovary by real time RT-PCR analysis of growth differentiation factor-9, bone morphogenetic protein 15, and kit ligand, biochemical evaluation of ovarian lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity, and western blot analysis of ovarian pro- and anti-apoptotic factors including p53, bax, bcl2, and caspase 3. Results demonstrated that the rate of follicular atresia, which was highly preponderant in the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, was significantly prevented in the presence of the transplanted ovary. As against the follicle-deficient ovary of the sham-operated group, the follicle-deficient host ovary as well as the transplanted ovary in the ovary-transplanted group exhibited stimulated follicle growth with increased expression of anti-apoptotic factors and down regulation of pro-apoptotic factors. Both the host and transplanted ovaries also had significantly lower rate of lipid peroxidation with increased SOD and catalase activity. We conclude that the declining follicular reserve is perhaps the immediate thrust that increases the rate of follicle depletion during the final

  9. [A study on observation of bone metabolism in middle-aged and senile female Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Liu, Y H; Zhou, Y B

    1996-08-01

    Sixty-nine cases of middle aged and senile female Graves' desease (GD) patients suffered from abnormal bone metabolism have been studied. They were divided randomly into group A and B, treated separately with antithyroid drugs (Tapazol and inderal, etc.) in group A, and added with Chinese herbal medicine for tonifying Kidney and promoting blood circulation in group B. Before treatment, patients of both groups showed obvious higher blood calcium (Ca) 24-hour urinary Ca, phosphorus (P) and serum clcitonin (CT) levels than that in normal subjects. These patients' serum Ca, moreover, had a parallel relationship with serum T3 levels (r = 0.6142, P < 0.01) and the serum Ca also a paralleled with serum CT levels (r = 0.5714, P < 0.05). After six months of treatment, the serum Ca, 24-hour urinary Ca, P and blood CT values were all reduced in various degree. The decrease of these bone metabolic parameters were more significant in group B than that in group A. PMID:9387746

  10. Adolescent female volleyballers' (aged 13-15 years) body build classification and proficiency in competitions.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Raini; Stamm, Meelis; Koskel, Säde

    2006-12-01

    The present paper studies the body build and proficiency in the game of 74 female volleyballers aged 13-15 years from eight teams, who participated in Estonian championships. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were taken from the players, and these data were systematized into a 5 SD height-weight classification (small, medium, large, pyknomorphous and leptomorphous). The players participated in 28 matches, which were recorded in parallel with two computers equipped with the program Game. The girls' proficiency in the game was assessed in the same body build classes. For each class, the total number of serves, receptions, attacks and blocks, their mean values per player and percentage from elements performed during the whole tournament were calculated. In the same way, for each class the total number of points scored and separately the number of points scored in serve, attack and block were calculated. For each class the mean index of proficiency was calculated for serve, reception, attack and block. The results showed, that the most successful were the girls of class 3 with big height and weight. The small girls of class 1 were the least successful. The players belonging to the other classes formed an intermediate group. The authors recommend the use of the body build classification as it enables simultaneous assessment of body build and proficiency in competitions.

  11. Ovarian failure-resistant effects of catalpol in aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min; Lu, Ye; Liu, Daniel; Ru, Wenwen

    2014-01-01

    Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside obtained from various natural sources, has many biological functions. However, its ovarian failure-resistant effect has scarcely been studied. The present study used senile 14-month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats to examine the in vivo ovarian failure-resistant activity of catalpol. Daily oral graded doses of catalpol (1, 3, or 5 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks significantly increased the levels of serum 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) but reduced follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels. Electron microscopic analysis and flow cytometry showed that catalpol significantly retarded apoptosis of the ovarian granulocytes of the rats. These findings suggest that catalpol works on the sex organs by nourishing ovarian tissues and improvin